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Teks -- John 1:1-51 (NET)

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Konteks
The Prologue to the Gospel
1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was fully God. 1:2 The Word was with God in the beginning. 1:3 All things were created by him, and apart from him not one thing was created that has been created. 1:4 In him was life, and the life was the light of mankind. 1:5 And the light shines on in the darkness, but the darkness has not mastered it. 1:6 A man came, sent from God, whose name was John. 1:7 He came as a witness to testify about the light, so that everyone might believe through him. 1:8 He himself was not the light, but he came to testify about the light. 1:9 The true light, who gives light to everyone, everyone, was coming into the world. 1:10 He was in the world, and the world was created by him, but the world did not recognize him. 1:11 He came to what was his own, but his own people did not receive him. 1:12 But to all who have received him– those who believe in his name– he has given the right to become God’s children 1:13 –children not born by human parents or by human desire or a husband’s decision, but by God. 1:14 Now the Word became flesh and took up residence among us. We saw his glory– the glory of the one and only, full of grace and truth, who came from the Father. 1:15 John testified about him and shouted out, “This one was the one about whom I said, ‘He who comes after me is greater than I am, because he existed before me.’” 1:16 For we have all received from his fullness one gracious gift after another. 1:17 For the law was given through Moses, but grace and truth came about through Jesus Christ. 1:18 No one has ever seen God. The only one, himself God, who is in closest fellowship with the Father, has made God known.
The Testimony of John the Baptist
1:19 Now this was John’s testimony when the Jewish leaders sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, “Who are you?” 1:20 He confessed– he did not deny but confessed– “I am not the Christ!” 1:21 So they asked him, “Then who are you? Are you Elijah?” He said, “I am not!” “Are you the Prophet?” He answered, “No!” 1:22 Then they said to him, “Who are you? Tell us so that we can give an answer to those who sent us. What do you say about yourself?” 1:23 John said, “I am the voice of one shouting in the wilderness, ‘Make straight the way for the Lord,’ as Isaiah the prophet said.” 1:24 (Now they had been sent from the Pharisees.) 1:25 So they asked John, “Why then are you baptizing if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?” 1:26 John answered them, “I baptize with water. Among you stands one whom you do not recognize, 1:27 who is coming after me. I am not worthy to untie the strap of his sandal!” 1:28 These things happened in Bethany across the Jordan River where John was baptizing. 1:29 On the next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, “Look, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world! 1:30 This is the one about whom I said, ‘After me comes a man who is greater than I am, because he existed before me.’ 1:31 I did not recognize him, but I came baptizing with water so that he could be revealed to Israel.” 1:32 Then John testified, “I saw the Spirit descending like a dove from heaven, and it remained on him. 1:33 And I did not recognize him, but the one who sent me to baptize with water said to me, ‘The one on whom you see the Spirit descending and remaining– this is the one who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.’ 1:34 I have both seen and testified that this man is the Chosen One of God.” 1:35 Again the next day John was standing there with two of his disciples. 1:36 Gazing at Jesus as he walked by, he said, “Look, the Lamb of God!” 1:37 When John’s two disciples heard him say this, they followed Jesus. 1:38 Jesus turned around and saw them following and said to them, “What do you want?” So they said to him, “Rabbi” (which is translated Teacher), “where are you staying?” 1:39 Jesus answered, “Come and you will see.” So they came and saw where he was staying, and they stayed with him that day. Now it was about four o’clock in the afternoon.
Andrew’s Declaration
1:40 Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, was one of the two disciples who heard what John said and followed Jesus. 1:41 He first found his own brother Simon and told him, “We have found the Messiah!” (which is translated Christ). 1:42 Andrew brought Simon to Jesus. Jesus looked at him and said, “You are Simon, the son of John. You will be called Cephas” (which is translated Peter).
The Calling of More Disciples
1:43 On the next day Jesus wanted to set out for Galilee. He found Philip and said to him, “Follow me.” 1:44 (Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the town of Andrew and Peter.) 1:45 Philip found Nathanael and told him, “We have found the one Moses wrote about in the law, and the prophets also wrote about– Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.” 1:46 Nathanael replied, “Can anything good come out of Nazareth?” Philip replied, “Come and see.” 1:47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward him and exclaimed, “Look, a true Israelite in whom there is no deceit!” 1:48 Nathanael asked him, “How do you know me?” Jesus replied, “Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you.” 1:49 Nathanael answered him, “Rabbi, you are the Son of God; you are the king of Israel!” 1:50 Jesus said to him, “Because I told you that I saw you under the fig tree, do you believe? You will see greater things than these.” 1:51 He continued, “I tell all of you the solemn truth– you will see heaven opened and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man.”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Andrew the brother of Simon Peter
 · Bethany a small town on the east slope of the Mount of Olives,a town located east of the Jordan river
 · Bethsaida a town located on the northeast side of the Sea of Galilee
 · Cephas a nickname for Simon, son of John
 · Elijah a prophet from the 9th century B.C.,a prophet from Tishbe in Gilead to Israel in King Ahab's time,son of Jeroham of Benjamin,a priest of the Harim clan who put away his heathen wife,a layman of the Bani Elam clan who put away his heathen wife
 · Galilee the region of Palestine north of Sameria and west of the upper Jordan River,a region west of Lake Galilee and north of the Jezreel Valley
 · Isaiah a son of Amoz; a prophet active in Judah from about 740 to 701 B.C.,son of Amoz; a major prophet in the time of Hezekiah
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Israelite a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Jews the people descended from Israel
 · John a son of Zebedee; younger brother of James; the beloved disciple of Christ,a relative of Annas the high priest,a son of Mary the sister of Barnabas, and surnamed Mark,the father of Simon Peter
 · Jordan the river that flows from Lake Galilee to the Dead Sea,a river that begins at Mt. Hermon, flows south through Lake Galilee and on to its end at the Dead Sea 175 km away (by air)
 · Joseph the husband of Mary and foster-father of Jesus,a Jewish man from Arimathea in whose grave the body of Jesus was laid,two different men listed as ancestors of Jesus,a man nominated with Matthias to take the place of Judas Iscariot as apostle,a son of Jacob and Rachel; the father of Ephraim and Manasseh and ruler of Egypt,a brother of Jesus; a son of Mary,a man who was a companion of Paul,son of Jacob and Rachel; patriarch of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh,a tribe, actually two tribes named after Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasseh,father of Igal, of Issachar, who helped spy out Canaan,son of Asaph the Levite; worship leader under Asaph and King David,a man who put away his heathen wife; an Israelite descended from Binnui,priest and head of the house of Shebaniah under High Priest Joiakim in the time of Nehemiah
 · Levites(s) men of the lowest of the three orders in Israel's priesthood
 · Messiah a title of divine appointment given to Jesus, the son of God
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Nathanael a man who was one of the disciples of Christ
 · Nazareth a town in lower Galilee about halfway between the Sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean Sea
 · Peter a man who was a leader among the twelve apostles and wrote the two epistles of Peter
 · Pharisee a religious group or sect of the Jews
 · Philip a man who was one of the twelve apostles,a son of Herod the Great; husband of Herodias; ruler of Iturea and Traconitis north and west of Galilee,a man who was one of the seven chosen to serve tables at the church at Jerusalem
 · Rabbi a title given to teachers and others of an exalted position
 · Simon a son of Jonas and brother of Andrew; an apostle of Jesus Christ,a man who was one of the apostles of Christ and also called 'the Zealot',a brother of Jesus,a man who was a well-know victim of leprosy who had been healed by Jesus (NIV note),a man from Cyrene who was forced to carry the cross of Jesus,a Pharisee man in whose house Jesus' feet were washed with tears and anointed,the father of Judas Iscariot,a man who was a sorcerer in Samaria and who wanted to buy the gifts of the Spirit,a man who was a tanner at Joppa and with whom Peter was staying when Cornelius sent for him


Topik/Tema Kamus: Jesus, The Christ | JOHN, GOSPEL OF | John | Peter | SACRIFICE, IN THE NEW TESTAMENT, 1 | PROLOGUE | Andrew | PHILOSOPHY | PAPYRUS | TEXT AND MANUSCRIPTS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT | JAMES | JOHN THE BAPTIST | Word, The | JESUS CHRIST, 4B | Son of God | OSTRACA | Logos | CHRIST, OFFICES OF | Light | Messiah | selebihnya
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Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

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Robertson: Joh 1:1 - In the beginning In the beginning ( en archēi ). Archē is definite, though anarthrous like our at home, in town, and the similar Hebrew be reshith in Gen 1:1....

In the beginning ( en archēi ).

Archē is definite, though anarthrous like our at home, in town, and the similar Hebrew be reshith in Gen 1:1. But Westcott notes that here John carries our thoughts beyond the beginning of creation in time to eternity. There is no argument here to prove the existence of God any more than in Genesis. It is simply assumed. Either God exists and is the Creator of the universe as scientists like Eddington and Jeans assume or matter is eternal or it has come out of nothing.

Robertson: Joh 1:1 - Was Was ( ēn ). Three times in this sentence John uses this imperfect of eimi to be which conveys no idea of origin for God or for the Logos, simply ...

Was ( ēn ).

Three times in this sentence John uses this imperfect of eimi to be which conveys no idea of origin for God or for the Logos, simply continuous existence. Quite a different verb (egeneto , became) appears in Joh 1:14 for the beginning of the Incarnation of the Logos. See the distinction sharply drawn in Joh 8:58 "before Abraham came (genesthai ) I am"(eimi , timeless existence).

Robertson: Joh 1:1 - The Word The Word ( ho logos ). Logos is from legō , old word in Homer to lay by, to collect, to put words side by side, to speak, to express an opinion. ...

The Word ( ho logos ).

Logos is from legō , old word in Homer to lay by, to collect, to put words side by side, to speak, to express an opinion. Logos is common for reason as well as speech. Heraclitus used it for the principle which controls the universe. The Stoics employed it for the soul of the world (anima mundi ) and Marcus Aurelius used spermatikos logos for the generative principle in nature. The Hebrew memra was used in the Targums for the manifestation of God like the Angel of Jehovah and the Wisdom of God in Pro 8:23. Dr. J. Rendel Harris thinks that there was a lost wisdom book that combined phrases in Proverbs and in the Wisdom of Solomon which John used for his Prologue ( The Origin of the Prologue to St. John , p. 43) which he has undertaken to reproduce. At any rate John’ s standpoint is that of the Old Testament and not that of the Stoics nor even of Philo who uses the term Logos , but not John’ s conception of personal pre-existence. The term Logos is applied to Christ only in Joh 1:1, Joh 1:14; Rev 19:13; 1Jo 1:1 "concerning the Word of life"(an incidental argument for identity of authorship). There is a possible personification of "the Word of God"in Heb 4:12. But the personal pre-existence of Christ is taught by Paul (2Co 8:9; Phi 2:6.; Col 1:17) and in Heb 1:2. and in Joh 17:5. This term suits John’ s purpose better than sophia (wisdom) and is his answer to the Gnostics who either denied the actual humanity of Christ (Docetic Gnostics) or who separated the aeon Christ from the man Jesus (Cerinthian Gnostics). The pre-existent Logos "became flesh"(sarx egeneto , Joh 1:14) and by this phrase John answered both heresies at once.

Robertson: Joh 1:1 - With God With God ( pros ton theon ). Though existing eternally with God the Logos was in perfect fellowship with God. Pros with the accusative presents a p...

With God ( pros ton theon ).

Though existing eternally with God the Logos was in perfect fellowship with God. Pros with the accusative presents a plane of equality and intimacy, face to face with each other. In 1Jo 2:1 we have a like use of pros : "We have a Paraclete with the Father"(paraklēton echomen pros ton patera ). See prosōpon pros prosōpon (face to face, 1Co 13:12), a triple use of pros . There is a papyrus example of pros in this sense to gnōston tēs pros allēlous sunētheias , "the knowledge of our intimacy with one another"(M.&M., Vocabulary ) which answers the claim of Rendel Harris, Origin of Prologue , p. 8) that the use of pros here and in Mar 6:3 is a mere Aramaism. It is not a classic idiom, but this is Koiné, not old Attic. In Joh 17:5 John has para soi the more common idiom.

Robertson: Joh 1:1 - And the Word was God And the Word was God ( kai theos ēn ho logos ). By exact and careful language John denied Sabellianism by not saying ho theos ēn ho logos . That ...

And the Word was God ( kai theos ēn ho logos ).

By exact and careful language John denied Sabellianism by not saying ho theos ēn ho logos . That would mean that all of God was expressed in ho logos and the terms would be interchangeable, each having the article. The subject is made plain by the article (ho logos ) and the predicate without it (theos ) just as in Joh 4:24 pneuma ho theos can only mean "God is spirit,"not "spirit is God."So in 1Jo 4:16 ho theos agapē estin can only mean "God is love,"not "love is God"as a so-called Christian scientist would confusedly say. For the article with the predicate see Robertson, Grammar , pp. 767f. So in Joh 1:14 ho Logos sarx egeneto , "the Word became flesh,"not "the flesh became Word."Luther argues that here John disposes of Arianism also because the Logos was eternally God, fellowship of Father and Son, what Origen called the Eternal Generation of the Son (each necessary to the other). Thus in the Trinity we see personal fellowship on an equality.

Robertson: Joh 1:2 - The same The same ( houtos ). "This one,"the Logos of Joh 1:1, repeated for clarity, characteristic of John’ s style. He links together into one phrase t...

The same ( houtos ).

"This one,"the Logos of Joh 1:1, repeated for clarity, characteristic of John’ s style. He links together into one phrase two of the ideas already stated separately, "in the beginning he was with God,""afterwards in time he came to be with man"(Marcus Dods). Thus John clearly states of the Logos Pre-existence before Incarnation, Personality, Deity.

Robertson: Joh 1:3 - All things All things ( panta ). The philosophical phrase was ta panta (the all things) as we have it in 1Co 8:6; Rom 11:36; Col 1:16. In Joh 1:10 John uses h...

All things ( panta ).

The philosophical phrase was ta panta (the all things) as we have it in 1Co 8:6; Rom 11:36; Col 1:16. In Joh 1:10 John uses ho kosmos (the orderly universe) for the whole.

Robertson: Joh 1:3 - Were made Were made ( egeneto). Second aorist middle indicative of ginomai , the constative aorist covering the creative activity looked at as one event in cont...

Were made ( egeneto).

Second aorist middle indicative of ginomai , the constative aorist covering the creative activity looked at as one event in contrast with the continuous existence of ēn in Joh 1:1 and Joh 1:2. All things "came into being."Creation is thus presented as a becoming (ginomai ) in contrast with being (eimi ).

Robertson: Joh 1:3 - By him By him ( di' autou ). By means of him as the intermediate agent in the work of creation. The Logos is John’ s explanation of the creation of the...

By him ( di' autou ).

By means of him as the intermediate agent in the work of creation. The Logos is John’ s explanation of the creation of the universe. The author of Hebrews (Heb 1:2) names God’ s Son as the one "through whom he made the ages."Paul pointedly asserts that "the all things were created in him"(Christ) and "the all things stand created through him and unto him"(Col 1:16). Hence it is not a peculiar doctrine that John here enunciates. In 1Co 8:6, Paul distinguishes between the Father as the primary source (ex hou ) of the all things and the Son as the intermediate agent as here (di' hou ).

Robertson: Joh 1:3 - Without him Without him ( chōris autou ). Old adverbial preposition with the ablative as in Phi 2:14, "apart from."John adds the negative statement for complet...

Without him ( chōris autou ).

Old adverbial preposition with the ablative as in Phi 2:14, "apart from."John adds the negative statement for completion, another note of his style as in Joh 1:20; 1Jo 1:5. Thus John excludes two heresies (Bernard) that matter is eternal and that angels or aeons had a share in creation.

Robertson: Joh 1:3 - Not anything Not anything ( oude hen ). "Not even one thing."Bernard thinks the entire Prologue is a hymn and divides it into strophes. That is by no means certai...

Not anything ( oude hen ).

"Not even one thing."Bernard thinks the entire Prologue is a hymn and divides it into strophes. That is by no means certain. It is doubtful also whether the relative clause "that hath been made"(ho gegonen ) is a part of this sentence or begins a new one as Westcott and Hort print it. The verb is second perfect active indicative of ginomai . Westcott observes that the ancient scholars before Chrysostom all began a new sentence with ho gegonen . The early uncials had no punctuation.

Robertson: Joh 1:4 - In him was life In him was life ( en autōi zōē ēn ). That which has come into being (Joh 1:3) in the Logos was life. The power that creates and sustains life...

In him was life ( en autōi zōē ēn ).

That which has come into being (Joh 1:3) in the Logos was life. The power that creates and sustains life in the universe is the Logos. This is what Paul means by the perfect passive verb ektistai (stands created) in Col 1:16. This is also the claim of Jesus to Martha (Joh 11:25). This is the idea in Heb 1:3 "bearing (upholding) the all things by the word of his power."Once this language might have been termed unscientific, but not so now after the spiritual interpretation of the physical world by Eddington and Jeans. Usually in John zōē means spiritual life, but here the term is unlimited and includes all life; only it is not bios (manner of life), but the very principle or essence of life. That is spiritual behind the physical and to this great scientists today agree. It is also personal intelligence and power. Some of the western documents have estin here instead of ēn to bring out clearly the timelessness of this phrase of the work of the Logos .

Robertson: Joh 1:4 - And the life was the light of men And the life was the light of men ( kai hē zōē ēn to phōs tōn anthrōpōn ). Here the article with both zōē and phōs makes th...

And the life was the light of men ( kai hē zōē ēn to phōs tōn anthrōpōn ).

Here the article with both zōē and phōs makes them interchangeable. "The light was the life of men"is also true. That statement is curiously like the view of some physicists who find in electricity (both light and power) the nearest equivalent to life in its ultimate physical form. Later Jesus will call himself the light of the world (Joh 8:12). John is fond of these words life and light in Gospel, Epistles, Revelation. He here combines them to picture his conception of the Pre-incarnate Logos in his relation to the race. He was and is the Life of men (tōn anthrōpon , generic use of the article) and the Light of men. John asserts this relation of the Logos to the race of men in particular before the Incarnation.

Robertson: Joh 1:5 - Shineth Shineth ( phainei ). Linear present active indicative of phainō , old verb from phaō , to shine (phaos ,phōs ). "The light keeps on giving li...

Shineth ( phainei ).

Linear present active indicative of phainō , old verb from phaō , to shine (phaos ,phōs ). "The light keeps on giving light."

Robertson: Joh 1:5 - In the darkness In the darkness ( en tēi skotiāi ). Late word for the common skotos (kin to skia , shadow). An evident allusion to the darkness brought on by s...

In the darkness ( en tēi skotiāi ).

Late word for the common skotos (kin to skia , shadow). An evident allusion to the darkness brought on by sin. In 2Pe 2:17 we have ho zophos tou skotou (the blackness of darkness). The Logos, the only real moral light, keeps on shining both in the Pre-incarnate state and after the Incarnation. John is fond of skotia (skotos ) for moral darkness from sin and phōs (phōtizō ,phainō ) for the light that is in Christ alone. In 1Jo 2:8 he proclaims that "the darkness is passing by and the true light is already shining."The Gnostics often employed these words and John takes them and puts them in the proper place.

Robertson: Joh 1:5 - Apprehended it not Apprehended it not ( auto ou katelaben ). Second aorist active indicative of katalambanō , old verb to lay hold of, to seize. This very phrase occu...

Apprehended it not ( auto ou katelaben ).

Second aorist active indicative of katalambanō , old verb to lay hold of, to seize. This very phrase occurs in Joh 12:35 (hina mē skotia humas katalabēi ) "that darkness overtake you not,"the metaphor of night following day and in 1Th 5:4 the same idiom (hina katalabēi ) is used of day overtaking one as a thief. This is the view of Origen and appears also in 2Macc 8:18. The same word appears in Aleph D in Joh 6:17 katelabe de autous hē skotia ("but darkness overtook them,"came down on them). Hence, in spite of the Vulgate comprehenderunt , "overtook"or "overcame"seems to be the idea here. The light kept on shining in spite of the darkness that was worse than a London fog as the Old Testament and archaeological discoveries in Egypt, Assyria, Babylonia, Persia, Crete, Asia Minor show.||

Robertson: Joh 1:6 - There came a man There came a man ( egeneto anthrōpos ). Definite event in the long darkness, same verb in Joh 1:3.

There came a man ( egeneto anthrōpos ).

Definite event in the long darkness, same verb in Joh 1:3.

Robertson: Joh 1:6 - Sent Sent ( apestalmenos ). Perfect passive participle of apostellō , to send.

Sent ( apestalmenos ).

Perfect passive participle of apostellō , to send.

Robertson: Joh 1:6 - From God From God ( para theou ). From the side of (para ) God (ablative case theou ).

From God ( para theou ).

From the side of (para ) God (ablative case theou ).

Robertson: Joh 1:6 - Whose name Whose name ( onoma autōi ). "Name to him,"nominative parenthetic and dative (Robertson, Grammar , p. 460).

Whose name ( onoma autōi ).

"Name to him,"nominative parenthetic and dative (Robertson, Grammar , p. 460).

Robertson: Joh 1:6 - John John ( Iōanēs ). One n in Westcott and Hort. In the giving of the name see Luk 1:59-63, Hellenized form of Jonathan, Joanan (Gift of God), used...

John ( Iōanēs ).

One n in Westcott and Hort. In the giving of the name see Luk 1:59-63, Hellenized form of Jonathan, Joanan (Gift of God), used always of the Baptist in this Gospel which never mentions the name of John son of Zebedee (the sons of Zebedee once, Joh 21:2).

Robertson: Joh 1:7 - For witness For witness ( eis marturian ). Old word from martureō (from martus ), both more common in John’ s writings than the rest of the N.T. This t...

For witness ( eis marturian ).

Old word from martureō (from martus ), both more common in John’ s writings than the rest of the N.T. This the purpose of the Baptist’ s ministry.

Robertson: Joh 1:7 - That he might bear witness That he might bear witness ( hina marturēsēi ). Final clause with hina and aorist active subjunctive of martureō to make clearer eis martur...

That he might bear witness ( hina marturēsēi ).

Final clause with hina and aorist active subjunctive of martureō to make clearer eis marturian .

Robertson: Joh 1:7 - Of the light Of the light ( peri tou phōtos ). "Concerning the light."The light was shining and men with blinded eyes were not seeing the light (Joh 1:26), blin...

Of the light ( peri tou phōtos ).

"Concerning the light."The light was shining and men with blinded eyes were not seeing the light (Joh 1:26), blinded by the god of this world still (2Co 4:4). John had his own eyes opened so that he saw and told what he saw. That is the mission of every preacher of Christ. But he must first have his own eyes opened.

Robertson: Joh 1:7 - That all might believe That all might believe ( hina pisteusōsin ). Final clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of pisteuō , ingressive aorist "come to...

That all might believe ( hina pisteusōsin ).

Final clause with hina and first aorist active subjunctive of pisteuō , ingressive aorist "come to believe."This is one of John’ s great words (about 100 times), "with nine times the frequency with which it is used by the Synoptists"(Bernard). And yet pistis , so common in Paul, John uses only in 1Jo 5:4 and four times in the Apocalypse where pisteuō does not occur at all. Here it is used absolutely as in Joh 1:50, etc.

Robertson: Joh 1:7 - Through him Through him ( di' autou ). As the intermediate agent in winning men to believe in Christ (the Logos) as the Light and the Life of men. This is likewi...

Through him ( di' autou ).

As the intermediate agent in winning men to believe in Christ (the Logos) as the Light and the Life of men. This is likewise the purpose of the author of this book (Joh 1:31). The preacher is merely the herald to point men to Christ.

Robertson: Joh 1:8 - He He ( ekeinos ). "That one,"i.e. John. He was a light (Joh 5:35) as all believers are (Mat 5:14), but not "the light"(to phōs ).

He ( ekeinos ).

"That one,"i.e. John. He was a light (Joh 5:35) as all believers are (Mat 5:14), but not "the light"(to phōs ).

Robertson: Joh 1:8 - But came But came ( all' ). No verb in the Greek, to be supplied by repeating ēlthen of Joh 1:7. See similar ellipses in Joh 9:3; Joh 13:18; Joh 15:25. In...

But came ( all' ).

No verb in the Greek, to be supplied by repeating ēlthen of Joh 1:7. See similar ellipses in Joh 9:3; Joh 13:18; Joh 15:25. In Johannine fashion we have the final hina clause of Joh 1:7 repeated.

Robertson: Joh 1:9 - There was There was ( ēn ). Imperfect indicative. Emphatic position at the beginning of the sentence and so probably not periphrastic conjugation with erchom...

There was ( ēn ).

Imperfect indicative. Emphatic position at the beginning of the sentence and so probably not periphrastic conjugation with erchomenon (coming) near the end, though that is possible.

Robertson: Joh 1:9 - The true light The true light ( to phōs to alēthinon ). "The light the genuine,"not a false light of wreckers of ships, but the dependable light that guides to ...

The true light ( to phōs to alēthinon ).

"The light the genuine,"not a false light of wreckers of ships, but the dependable light that guides to the harbor of safety. This true light had been on hand all the time in the darkness (ēn imperfect, linear action) before John came.

Robertson: Joh 1:9 - Even the light Even the light ( not in the Greek). Added in the English to make plain this interpretation.

Even the light ( not in the Greek).

Added in the English to make plain this interpretation.

Robertson: Joh 1:9 - Lighteth every man Lighteth every man ( phōtizei panta anthrōpon ). Old verb (from phōs ) to give light as in Rev 22:5; Luk 11:35. The Quakers appeal to this phr...

Lighteth every man ( phōtizei panta anthrōpon ).

Old verb (from phōs ) to give light as in Rev 22:5; Luk 11:35. The Quakers appeal to this phrase for their belief that to every man there is given an inner light that is a sufficient guide, the Quaker’ s text it is called. But it may only mean that all the real light that men receive comes from Christ, not necessarily that each one receives a special revelation.

Robertson: Joh 1:9 - Coming Coming ( erchomenon ). This present middle participle of erchomai can be taken with anthrōpon just before (accusative masculine singular), "eve...

Coming ( erchomenon ).

This present middle participle of erchomai can be taken with anthrōpon just before (accusative masculine singular), "every man as he comes into the world."It can also be construed with phōs (nominative neuter singular). This idea occurs in Joh 3:19; Joh 11:27; Joh 12:46. In the two last passages the phrase is used of the Messiah which makes it probable here. But even so the light presented in Joh 11:27; Joh 12:46 is that of the Incarnate Messiah, not the Pre-incarnate Logos. Here kosmos rather than panta occurs in the sense of the orderly universe as often in this Gospel. See Eph 1:4.

Robertson: Joh 1:10 - He was in the world He was in the world ( en tōi kosmōi ēn ). Imperfect tense of continuous existence in the universe before the Incarnation as in Joh 1:1 and Joh ...

He was in the world ( en tōi kosmōi ēn ).

Imperfect tense of continuous existence in the universe before the Incarnation as in Joh 1:1 and Joh 1:2.

Robertson: Joh 1:10 - Was made by him Was made by him ( di' autou egeneto ). "Through him."Same statement here of "the world"(ho kosmos ) as that made in Joh 1:3 of panta .

Was made by him ( di' autou egeneto ).

"Through him."Same statement here of "the world"(ho kosmos ) as that made in Joh 1:3 of panta .

Robertson: Joh 1:10 - Knew him not Knew him not ( auton ouk egnō ). Second aorist active indicative of common verb ginoskō , what Gildersleeve called a negative aorist, refused or ...

Knew him not ( auton ouk egnō ).

Second aorist active indicative of common verb ginoskō , what Gildersleeve called a negative aorist, refused or failed to recognize him, his world that he had created and that was held together by him (Col 1:16). Not only did the world fail to know the Pre-incarnate Logos, but it failed to recognize him when he became Incarnate (Joh 1:26). Two examples in this sentence of John’ s fondness for kai as in Joh 1:1, Joh 1:4, Joh 1:5, and Joh 1:14, the paratactic rather than the hypotactic construction, like the common Hebrew use of wav .

Robertson: Joh 1:11 - Unto his own Unto his own ( eis ta idia ). Neuter plural, "unto his own things,"the very idiom used in Joh 19:27 when the Beloved Disciple took the mother of Jesu...

Unto his own ( eis ta idia ).

Neuter plural, "unto his own things,"the very idiom used in Joh 19:27 when the Beloved Disciple took the mother of Jesus "to his own home."The world was "the own home"of the Logos who had made it. See also Joh 16:32; Act 21:6.

Robertson: Joh 1:11 - They that were his own They that were his own ( hoi idioi ). In the narrower sense, "his intimates,""his own family,""his own friends"as in Joh 13:1. Jesus later said that ...

They that were his own ( hoi idioi ).

In the narrower sense, "his intimates,""his own family,""his own friends"as in Joh 13:1. Jesus later said that a prophet is not without honour save in his own country (Mar 6:4; Joh 4:44), and the town of Nazareth where he lived rejected him (Luk 4:28.; Mat 13:58). Probably here hoi idioi means the Jewish people, the chosen people to whom Christ was sent first (Mat 15:24), but in a wider sense the whole world is included in hoi idioi . Conder’ s The Hebrew Tragedy emphasizes the pathos of the situation that the house of Israel refused to welcome the Messiah when he did come, like a larger and sadder Enoch Arden experience.

Robertson: Joh 1:11 - Received him not Received him not ( auton ou parelabon ). Second aorist active indicative of paralambanō , old verb to take to one’ s side, common verb to welc...

Received him not ( auton ou parelabon ).

Second aorist active indicative of paralambanō , old verb to take to one’ s side, common verb to welcome, the very verb used by Jesus in Joh 14:3 of the welcome to his Father’ s house. Cf. katelaben in Joh 1:5. Israel slew the Heir (Heb 1:2) when he came, like the wicked husbandmen (Luk 20:14).

Robertson: Joh 1:12 - As many as received him As many as received him ( hosoi elabon auton ). Effective aorist active indicative of lambanō "as many as did receive him,"in contrast with hoi i...

As many as received him ( hosoi elabon auton ).

Effective aorist active indicative of lambanō "as many as did receive him,"in contrast with hoi idioi just before, exceptional action on the part of the disciples and other believers.

Robertson: Joh 1:12 - To them To them ( autois ). Dative case explanatory of the relative clause preceding, an anacoluthon common in John 27 times as against 21 in the Synoptists....

To them ( autois ).

Dative case explanatory of the relative clause preceding, an anacoluthon common in John 27 times as against 21 in the Synoptists. This is a common Aramaic idiom and is urged by Burney ( Aramaic Origin , etc., p. 64) for his theory of an Aramaic original of the Fourth Gospel.

Robertson: Joh 1:12 - The right The right ( exousian ). In Joh 5:27 edōken (first aorist active indicative of didōmi ) exousian means authority but includes power (dunamis ...

The right ( exousian ).

In Joh 5:27 edōken (first aorist active indicative of didōmi ) exousian means authority but includes power (dunamis ). Here it is more the notion of privilege or right.

Robertson: Joh 1:12 - To become To become ( genesthai ). Second aorist middle of ginomai , to become what they were not before.

To become ( genesthai ).

Second aorist middle of ginomai , to become what they were not before.

Robertson: Joh 1:12 - Children of God Children of God ( tekna theou ). In the full spiritual sense, not as mere offspring of God true of all men (Act 17:28). Paul’ s phrase huioi the...

Children of God ( tekna theou ).

In the full spiritual sense, not as mere offspring of God true of all men (Act 17:28). Paul’ s phrase huioi theou (Gal 3:26) for believers, used also by Jesus of the pure in heart (Mat 5:9), does not occur in John’ s Gospel (but in Rev 21:7). It is possible that John prefers ta tekna tou theou for the spiritual children of God whether Jew or Gentile (Joh 11:52) because of the community of nature (teknon from root tek -, to beget). But one cannot follow Westcott in insisting on "adoption"as Paul’ s reason for the use of huioi since Jesus uses huioi theou in Mat 5:9. Clearly the idea of regeneration is involved here as in Joh 3:3.

Robertson: Joh 1:12 - Even to them that believe Even to them that believe ( tois pisteuousin ). No "even"in the Greek, merely explanatory apposition with autois , dative case of the articular prese...

Even to them that believe ( tois pisteuousin ).

No "even"in the Greek, merely explanatory apposition with autois , dative case of the articular present active participle of pisteuō .

Robertson: Joh 1:12 - On his name On his name ( eis to onoma ). Bernard notes pisteuō eis 35 times in John, to put trust in or on. See also Joh 2:23 and Joh 3:36 for pisteuō eis...

On his name ( eis to onoma ).

Bernard notes pisteuō eis 35 times in John, to put trust in or on. See also Joh 2:23 and Joh 3:36 for pisteuō eis to onoma autou . This common use of onoma for the person is an Aramaism, but it occurs also in the vernacular papyri and eis to onoma is particularly common in the payment of debts (Moulton and Milligan’ s Vocabulary ). See Act 1:15 for onomata for persons.

Robertson: Joh 1:13 - Which were born Which were born ( hoi egennēthēsan ). First aorist passive indicative of gennaō , to beget, "who were begotten."By spiritual generation (of God...

Which were born ( hoi egennēthēsan ).

First aorist passive indicative of gennaō , to beget, "who were begotten."By spiritual generation (of God, ek theou ), not by physical (ex haimatōn , plural as common in classics and O.T., though why it is not clear unless blood of both father and mother; ek thelēmatos sarkos , from sexual desire; ek thelēmatos andros , from the will of the male). But b of the old Latin reads qui natus est and makes it refer to Christ and so expressly teach the Virgin Birth of Jesus. Likewise Irenaeus reads qui natus est as does Tertullian who argues that qui nati sunt (hoi egennēthēsan ) is an invention of the Valentinian Gnostics. Blass ( Philology of the Gospels , p. 234) opposes this reading, but all the old Greek uncials read hoi egennēthēsan and it must be accepted. The Virgin Birth is doubtless implied in Joh 1:14, but it is not stated in Joh 1:13.

Robertson: Joh 1:14 - And the Word became flesh And the Word became flesh ( kai ho logos sarx egeneto ). See Joh 1:3 for this verb and note its use for the historic event of the Incarnation rather ...

And the Word became flesh ( kai ho logos sarx egeneto ).

See Joh 1:3 for this verb and note its use for the historic event of the Incarnation rather than ēn of Joh 1:1. Note also the absence of the article with the predicate substantive sarx , so that it cannot mean "the flesh became the Word."The Pre-existence of the Logos has already been plainly stated and argued. John does not here say that the Logos entered into a man or dwelt in a man or filled a man. One is at liberty to see an allusion to the birth narratives in Mat 1:16-25; Luk 1:28-38, if he wishes, since John clearly had the Synoptics before him and chiefly supplemented them in his narrative. In fact, one is also at liberty to ask what intelligent meaning can one give to John’ s language here apart from the Virgin Birth? What ordinary mother or father ever speaks of a child "becoming flesh"? For the Incarnation see also 2Co 8:9; Gal 4:4; Rom 1:3; Rom 8:3; Phi 2:7.; 1Ti 3:16; Heb 2:14. "To explain the exact significance of egeneto in this sentence is beyond the powers of any interpreter"(Bernard). Unless, indeed, as seems plain, John is referring to the Virgin Birth as recorded in Matthew and Luke. "The Logos of philosophy is, John declares, the Jesus of history"(Bernard). Thus John asserts the deity and the real humanity of Christ. He answers the Docetic Gnostics who denied his humanity.

Robertson: Joh 1:14 - Dwelt among us Dwelt among us ( eskēnōsen en hēmin ). First aorist ingressive aorist active indicative of skēnoō , old verb, to pitch one’ s tent or ...

Dwelt among us ( eskēnōsen en hēmin ).

First aorist ingressive aorist active indicative of skēnoō , old verb, to pitch one’ s tent or tabernacle (skēnos or skēnē ), in N.T. only here and Rev 7-15; Rev 12:12; Rev 13:6; Rev 21:3. In Revelation it is used of God tabernacling with men and here of the Logos tabernacling, God’ s Shekinah glory here among us in the person of his Son.

Robertson: Joh 1:14 - We beheld his glory We beheld his glory ( etheasametha tēn doxan autou ). First aorist middle indicative of theaomai (from thea , spectacle). The personal experience...

We beheld his glory ( etheasametha tēn doxan autou ).

First aorist middle indicative of theaomai (from thea , spectacle). The personal experience of John and of others who did recognize Jesus as the Shekinah glory (doxa ) of God as James, the brother of Jesus, so describes him (Jam 2:1). John employs theaomai again in Joh 1:32 (the Baptist beholding the Spirit coming down as a dove) and Joh 1:38 of the Baptist gazing in rapture at Jesus. So also Joh 4:35; Joh 11:45; 1Jo 1:1.; 1Jo 4:12, 1Jo 4:14. By this word John insists that in the human Jesus he beheld the Shekinah glory of God who was and is the Logos who existed before with God. By this plural John speaks for himself and all those who saw in Jesus what he did.

Robertson: Joh 1:14 - As of the only begotten from the Father As of the only begotten from the Father ( hōs monogenous para patros ). Strictly, "as of an only born from a father,"since there is no article with...

As of the only begotten from the Father ( hōs monogenous para patros ).

Strictly, "as of an only born from a father,"since there is no article with monogenous or with patros . In Joh 3:16; 1Jo 4:9 we have ton monogenē referring to Christ. This is the first use in the Gospel of patēr of God in relation to the Logos. Monogenēs (only born rather than only begotten) here refers to the eternal relationship of the Logos (as in Joh 1:18) rather than to the Incarnation. It distinguishes thus between the Logos and the believers as children (tekna ) of God. The word is used of human relationships as in Luk 7:12; Luk 8:42; Luk 9:38. It occurs also in the lxx and Heb 11:17, but elsewhere in N.T. only in John’ s writings. It is an old word in Greek literature. It is not clear whether the words para patros (from the Father) are to be connected with monogenous (cf. Joh 6:46; Joh 7:29, etc.) or with doxan (cf. Joh 5:41, Joh 5:44). John clearly means to say that "the manifested glory of the Word was as it were the glory of the Eternal Father shared with His only Son"(Bernard). Cf. Joh 8:54; Joh 14:9; Joh 17:5.

Robertson: Joh 1:14 - Full Full ( plērēs ). Probably indeclinable accusative adjective agreeing with doxan (or genitive with monogenous ) of which we have papyri example...

Full ( plērēs ).

Probably indeclinable accusative adjective agreeing with doxan (or genitive with monogenous ) of which we have papyri examples (Robertson, Grammar , p. 275). As nominative plērēs can agree with the subject of eskēnōsen .

Robertson: Joh 1:14 - Of grace and truth Of grace and truth ( charitos kai alētheias ). Curiously this great word charis (grace), so common with Paul, does not occur in John’ s Gosp...

Of grace and truth ( charitos kai alētheias ).

Curiously this great word charis (grace), so common with Paul, does not occur in John’ s Gospel save in Joh 1:14, Joh 1:16, Joh 1:17, though alētheia (truth) is one of the keywords in the Fourth Gospel and in 1John, occurring 25 times in the Gospel and 20 in the Johannine Epistles, 7 times in the Synoptics and not at all in Revelation (Bernard). In Joh 1:17 these two words picture the Gospel in Christ in contrast with the law of Moses. See Epistles of Paul for origin and use of both words.

Robertson: Joh 1:15 - Beareth witness Beareth witness ( marturei ). Historical (dramatic) present indicative of this characteristic word in John (cf. Joh 1:17.). See Joh 1:32, Joh 1:34 fo...

Beareth witness ( marturei ).

Historical (dramatic) present indicative of this characteristic word in John (cf. Joh 1:17.). See Joh 1:32, Joh 1:34 for historical examples of John’ s witness to Christ. This sentence is a parenthesis in Westcott and Hort’ s text, though the Revised Version makes a parenthesis of most of Joh 1:14. The witness of John is adduced in proof of the glory full of grace and truth already claimed for the Incarnate Logos.

Robertson: Joh 1:15 - Crieth Crieth ( kekragen ). Second perfect active indicative of krazō , old verb for loud crying, repeated in dramatic form again for emphasis recalling t...

Crieth ( kekragen ).

Second perfect active indicative of krazō , old verb for loud crying, repeated in dramatic form again for emphasis recalling the wonderful Voice in the wilderness which the Beloved Disciple can still hear echoing through the years.

Robertson: Joh 1:15 - This was This was ( houtos ēn ). Imperfect indicative where John throws the tense back in past time when he looked forward to the coming of the Messiah as i...

This was ( houtos ēn ).

Imperfect indicative where John throws the tense back in past time when he looked forward to the coming of the Messiah as in Act 3:10 where we should prefer "is"(estin ). Gildersleeve ( Syntax , p. 96) calls this the "imperfect of sudden appreciation of the real state of things."

Robertson: Joh 1:15 - Of whom I said Of whom I said ( hon eipon ). But B C and a corrector of Aleph (Westcott and Hort) have ho eipōn "the one who said,"a parenthetical explanation a...

Of whom I said ( hon eipon ).

But B C and a corrector of Aleph (Westcott and Hort) have ho eipōn "the one who said,"a parenthetical explanation about the Baptist, not the words of the Baptist about Christ.

Robertson: Joh 1:15 - After me After me ( opisō mou ). See also Joh 1:27. Later in time John means. He described "the Coming One"(ho erchomenos ) before he saw Jesus. The langua...

After me ( opisō mou ).

See also Joh 1:27. Later in time John means. He described "the Coming One"(ho erchomenos ) before he saw Jesus. The language of John here is precisely that in Mat 3:11 ho opisō mou erchomenos (cf. Mar 1:7). The Beloved Disciple had heard the Baptist say these very words, but he also had the Synoptic Gospels.

Robertson: Joh 1:15 - Is become Is become ( gegonen ). Second perfect active indicative of ginomai . It is already an actual fact when the Baptist is speaking.

Is become ( gegonen ).

Second perfect active indicative of ginomai . It is already an actual fact when the Baptist is speaking.

Robertson: Joh 1:15 - Before me Before me ( emprosthen mou ). In rank and dignity, the Baptist means, ho ischuroteros mou "the one mightier than I"(Mar 1:7) and ischuroteros mou ...

Before me ( emprosthen mou ).

In rank and dignity, the Baptist means, ho ischuroteros mou "the one mightier than I"(Mar 1:7) and ischuroteros mou "mightier than I"(Mat 3:11). In Joh 3:28 emprosthen ekeinou (before him, the Christ) does mean priority in time, but not here. This superior dignity of the Messiah John proudly recognizes always (Joh 3:25-30).

Robertson: Joh 1:15 - For he was before me For he was before me ( hoti prōtos mou ēn ). Paradox, but clear. He had always been (ēn imperfect ) before John in his Pre-incarnate state, bu...

For he was before me ( hoti prōtos mou ēn ).

Paradox, but clear. He had always been (ēn imperfect ) before John in his Pre-incarnate state, but "after"John in time of the Incarnation, but always ahead of John in rank immediately on his Incarnation. Prōtos mou (superlative with ablative) occurs here when only two are compared as is common in the vernacular Koiné. So the Beloved Disciple came first (prōtos ) to the tomb, ahead of Peter (Joh 20:4). So also prōton humōn in Joh 15:18 means "before you"as if it were proteron humōn . Joh 1:30 repeats these words almost exactly.

Robertson: Joh 1:16 - For For ( hoti ). Correct text (Aleph B C D L) and not kai (and) of the Textus Receptus. Explanatory reason for Joh 1:14.

For ( hoti ).

Correct text (Aleph B C D L) and not kai (and) of the Textus Receptus. Explanatory reason for Joh 1:14.

Robertson: Joh 1:16 - Of his fulness Of his fulness ( ek tou plērōmatos ). The only instance of plērōma in John’ s writings, though five times of Christ in Paul’ s Ep...

Of his fulness ( ek tou plērōmatos ).

The only instance of plērōma in John’ s writings, though five times of Christ in Paul’ s Epistles (Col 1:19; Col 2:9; Eph 1:23; Eph 3:19; Eph 4:13). See Col 1:19 for discussion of these terms of the Gnostics that Paul employs for all the attributes of God summed up in Christ (Col 2:9) and so used here by John of the Incarnate Logos.

Robertson: Joh 1:16 - We all We all ( hēmeis pantes ). John is facing the same Gnostic depreciation of Christ of which Paul writes in Colossians. So here John appeals to all hi...

We all ( hēmeis pantes ).

John is facing the same Gnostic depreciation of Christ of which Paul writes in Colossians. So here John appeals to all his own contemporaries as participants with him in the fulness of the Logos.

Robertson: Joh 1:16 - Received Received ( elabomen ). Second aorist active indicative of lambanō , a wider experience than beholding (etheasametha , Joh 1:14) and one that all be...

Received ( elabomen ).

Second aorist active indicative of lambanō , a wider experience than beholding (etheasametha , Joh 1:14) and one that all believers may have.

Robertson: Joh 1:16 - Grace for grace Grace for grace ( charin anti charitos ). The point is in anti , a preposition disappearing in the Koiné and here only in John. It is in the locat...

Grace for grace ( charin anti charitos ).

The point is in anti , a preposition disappearing in the Koiné and here only in John. It is in the locative case of anta (end), "at the end,"and was used of exchange in sale. See Luk 11:11, anti ichthuos ophin , "a serpent for a fish,"Heb 12:2 where "joy"and "cross"are balanced against each other. Here the picture is "grace"taking the place of "grace"like the manna fresh each morning, new grace for the new day and the new service.

Robertson: Joh 1:17 - Was given Was given ( edothē ). First aorist passive indicative of didōmi .

Was given ( edothē ).

First aorist passive indicative of didōmi .

Robertson: Joh 1:17 - By Moses By Moses ( dia Mōuseōs ). "Through Moses"as the intermediate agent of God.

By Moses ( dia Mōuseōs ).

"Through Moses"as the intermediate agent of God.

Robertson: Joh 1:17 - Came Came ( egeneto ). The historical event, the beginning of Christianity.

Came ( egeneto ).

The historical event, the beginning of Christianity.

Robertson: Joh 1:17 - By Jesus Christ By Jesus Christ ( dia Iēsou Christou ). "Through Jesus Christ,"the intermediate agent of God the Father. Here in plain terms John identifies the Pr...

By Jesus Christ ( dia Iēsou Christou ).

"Through Jesus Christ,"the intermediate agent of God the Father. Here in plain terms John identifies the Pre-incarnate Logos with Jesus of Nazareth, the Messiah. The full historical name "Jesus Christ"is here for the first time in John. See also Joh 17:3 and four times in 1John and five times in Revelation. Without Christ there would have been no Christianity. John’ s theology is here pictured by the words "grace and truth"(hē charis kai hē alētheia ), each with the article and each supplementary to the other. It is grace in contrast with law as Paul sets forth in Galatians and Romans. Paul had made grace "a Christian commonplace"(Bernard) before John wrote. It is truth as opposed to Gnostic and all other heresy as Paul shows in Colossians and Ephesians. The two words aptly describe two aspects of the Logos and John drops the use of Logos and charis , but clings to alētheia (see Joh 8:32 for the freedom brought by truth), though the ideas in these three words run all through his Gospel.

Robertson: Joh 1:18 - No man hath seen God at any time No man hath seen God at any time ( theon oudeis heōraken pōpote ). "God no one has ever seen."Perfect active indicative of horaō . Seen with th...

No man hath seen God at any time ( theon oudeis heōraken pōpote ).

"God no one has ever seen."Perfect active indicative of horaō . Seen with the human physical eye, John means. God is invisible (Exo 33:20; Deu 4:12). Paul calls God aoratos (Col 1:15; 1Ti 1:17). John repeats the idea in Joh 5:37; Joh 6:46. And yet in Joh 14:7 Jesus claims that the one who sees him has seen the Father as here.

Robertson: Joh 1:18 - The only begotten Son The only begotten Son ( ho monogenēs huios ). This is the reading of the Textus Receptus and is intelligible after hōs monogenous para patros i...

The only begotten Son ( ho monogenēs huios ).

This is the reading of the Textus Receptus and is intelligible after hōs monogenous para patros in Joh 1:14. But the best old Greek manuscripts (Aleph B C L) read monogenēs theos (God only begotten) which is undoubtedly the true text. Probably some scribe changed it to ho monogenēs huios to obviate the blunt statement of the deity of Christ and to make it like Joh 3:16. But there is an inner harmony in the reading of the old uncials. The Logos is plainly called theos in Joh 1:1. The Incarnation is stated in Joh 1:14, where he is also termed monogenēs . He was that before the Incarnation. So he is "God only begotten,""the Eternal Generation of the Son"of Origen’ s phrase.

Robertson: Joh 1:18 - Which is in the bosom of the Father Which is in the bosom of the Father ( ho ōn eis ton kolpon tou patros ). The eternal relation of the Son with the Father like pros ton theon in J...

Which is in the bosom of the Father ( ho ōn eis ton kolpon tou patros ).

The eternal relation of the Son with the Father like pros ton theon in Joh 1:1. In Joh 3:13 there is some evidence for ho ōn en tōi ouranōi used by Christ of himself while still on earth. The mystic sense here is that the Son is qualified to reveal the Father as Logos (both the Father in Idea and Expression) by reason of the continual fellowship with the Father.

Robertson: Joh 1:18 - He He ( ekinos ). Emphatic pronoun referring to the Son.

He ( ekinos ).

Emphatic pronoun referring to the Son.

Robertson: Joh 1:18 - Hath declared him Hath declared him ( exēgēsato ). First aorist (effective) middle indicative of exēgeomai , old verb to lead out, to draw out in narrative, to r...

Hath declared him ( exēgēsato ).

First aorist (effective) middle indicative of exēgeomai , old verb to lead out, to draw out in narrative, to recount. Here only in John, though once in Luke’ s Gospel (Luk 24:35) and four times in Acts (Act 10:8; Act 15:12, Act 15:14; Act 21:19). This word fitly closes the Prologue in which the Logos is pictured in marvellous fashion as the Word of God in human flesh, the Son of God with the Glory of God in him, showing men who God is and what he is.

Robertson: Joh 1:19 - And this is the witness of John And this is the witness of John ( kai hautē estin hē marturia tou Iōanou ). He had twice already alluded to it (Joh 1:7. and Joh 1:15) and now ...

And this is the witness of John ( kai hautē estin hē marturia tou Iōanou ).

He had twice already alluded to it (Joh 1:7. and Joh 1:15) and now he proceeds to give it as the most important item to add after the Prologue. Just as the author assumes the birth narratives of Matthew and Luke, so he assumes the Synoptic accounts of the baptism of Jesus by John, but adds various details of great interest and value between the baptism and the Galilean ministry, filling out thus our knowledge of this first year of the Lord’ s ministry in various parts of Palestine. The story in John proceeds along the same lines as in the Synoptics. There is increasing unfolding of Christ to the disciples with increasing hostility on the part of the Jews till the final consummation in Jerusalem.

Robertson: Joh 1:19 - When the Jews sent unto him When the Jews sent unto him ( hote apesteilan pros auton hoi Ioudaioi ). John, writing in Ephesus near the close of the first century long after the ...

When the Jews sent unto him ( hote apesteilan pros auton hoi Ioudaioi ).

John, writing in Ephesus near the close of the first century long after the destruction of Jerusalem, constantly uses the phrase "the Jews"as descriptive of the people as distinct from the Gentile world and from the followers of Christ (at first Jews also). Often he uses it of the Jewish leaders and rulers in particular who soon took a hostile attitude toward both John and Jesus. Here it is the Jews from Jerusalem who sent (apesteilan , first aorist active indicative of apostellō ).

Robertson: Joh 1:19 - Priests and Levites Priests and Levites ( hiereis kai Leueitas ). Sadducees these were. Down below in Joh 1:24 the author explains that it was the Pharisees who sent the...

Priests and Levites ( hiereis kai Leueitas ).

Sadducees these were. Down below in Joh 1:24 the author explains that it was the Pharisees who sent the Sadducees. The Synoptics throw a flood of light on this circumstance, for in Mat 3:7 we are told that the Baptist called the Pharisees and Sadducees "offspring of vipers"(Luk 3:7). Popular interest in John grew till people were wondering "in their hearts concerning John whether haply he were the Christ"(Luk 3:15). So the Sanhedrin finally sent a committee to John to get his own view of himself, but the Pharisees saw to it that Sadducees were sent.

Robertson: Joh 1:19 - To ask him To ask him ( hina erōtēsōsin auton ). Final hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of erōtaō , old verb to ask a question as here a...

To ask him ( hina erōtēsōsin auton ).

Final hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of erōtaō , old verb to ask a question as here and often in the Koiné to ask for something (Joh 14:16) like aiteō .

Robertson: Joh 1:19 - Who art thou? Who art thou? ( su tis ei ). Direct question preserved and note proleptic position of su , "Thou, who art thou?"The committee from the Sanhedrin put ...

Who art thou? ( su tis ei ).

Direct question preserved and note proleptic position of su , "Thou, who art thou?"The committee from the Sanhedrin put the question sharply up to John to define his claims concerning the Messiah.

Robertson: Joh 1:20 - And he confessed And he confessed ( kai hōmologēsen ). The continued paratactic use of kai (and) and the first aorist active indicative of homologeō , old ver...

And he confessed ( kai hōmologēsen ).

The continued paratactic use of kai (and) and the first aorist active indicative of homologeō , old verb from homologos (homon ,legō , to say the same thing), to confess, in the Synoptics (Mat 10:32) as here.

Robertson: Joh 1:20 - And denied not And denied not ( kai ouk ērnēsato ). Negative statement of same thing in Johannine fashion, first aorist middle indicative of arneomai , another ...

And denied not ( kai ouk ērnēsato ).

Negative statement of same thing in Johannine fashion, first aorist middle indicative of arneomai , another Synoptic and Pauline word (Mat 10:33; 2Ti 2:12). He did not contradict or refuse to say who he was.

Robertson: Joh 1:20 - And he confessed And he confessed ( kai hōmologēsen ). Thoroughly Johannine again in the paratactic repetition.

And he confessed ( kai hōmologēsen ).

Thoroughly Johannine again in the paratactic repetition.

Robertson: Joh 1:20 - I am not the Christ I am not the Christ ( Egō ouk eimi ho Christos ). Direct quotation again with recitative hoti before it like our modern quotation marks. "I am no...

I am not the Christ ( Egō ouk eimi ho Christos ).

Direct quotation again with recitative hoti before it like our modern quotation marks. "I am not the Messiah,"he means by ho Christos (the Anointed One). Evidently it was not a new question as Luke had already shown (Luk 3:15).

Robertson: Joh 1:21 - And they asked him And they asked him ( kai ērōtēsan auton ). Here the paratactic kai is like the transitional oun (then).

And they asked him ( kai ērōtēsan auton ).

Here the paratactic kai is like the transitional oun (then).

Robertson: Joh 1:21 - What then? What then? ( Ti oun ). Argumentative oun like Paul’ s ti oun in Rom 6:15. Quid ergo?

What then? ( Ti oun ).

Argumentative oun like Paul’ s ti oun in Rom 6:15. Quid ergo?

Robertson: Joh 1:21 - Art thou Elijah? Art thou Elijah? ( Su Elias ei ). The next inevitable question since Elijah had been understood to be the forerunner of the Messiah from Mal 4:5. In ...

Art thou Elijah? ( Su Elias ei ).

The next inevitable question since Elijah had been understood to be the forerunner of the Messiah from Mal 4:5. In Mar 9:11. Jesus will identify John with the Elijah of Malachi’ s prophecy. Why then does John here flatly deny it? Because the expectation was that Elijah would return in person. This John denies. Jesus only asserts that John was Elijah in spirit. Elijah in person they had just seen on the Mount of Transfiguration.

Robertson: Joh 1:21 - He saith He saith ( legei ). Vivid dramatic present.

He saith ( legei ).

Vivid dramatic present.

Robertson: Joh 1:21 - I am not I am not ( ouk eimi ). Short and blunt denial.

I am not ( ouk eimi ).

Short and blunt denial.

Robertson: Joh 1:21 - Art thou the prophet? Art thou the prophet? ( ho prophētēs ei su ). "The prophet art thou?"This question followed naturally the previous denials. Moses (Deu 18:15) had...

Art thou the prophet? ( ho prophētēs ei su ).

"The prophet art thou?"This question followed naturally the previous denials. Moses (Deu 18:15) had spoken of a prophet like unto himself. Christians interpreted this prophet to be the Messiah (Act 3:22; Act 7:37), but the Jews thought him another forerunner of the Messiah (Joh 7:40). It is not clear in Joh 6:15 whether the people identified the expected prophet with the Messiah, though apparently so. Even the Baptist later became puzzled in prison whether Jesus himself was the true Messiah or just one of the forerunners (Luk 7:19). People wondered about Jesus himself whether he was the Messiah or just one of the looked for prophets (Mar 8:28; Mat 16:14).

Robertson: Joh 1:21 - And he answered And he answered ( kai apekrithē ). First aorist passive (deponent passive, sense of voice gone) indicative of apokrinomai , to give a decision from...

And he answered ( kai apekrithē ).

First aorist passive (deponent passive, sense of voice gone) indicative of apokrinomai , to give a decision from myself, to reply.

Robertson: Joh 1:21 - No No ( Ou ). Shortest possible denial.

No ( Ou ).

Shortest possible denial.

Robertson: Joh 1:22 - They said therefore They said therefore ( eipan oun ). Second aorist active indicative of defective verb eipon with a instead of usual o . Note oun , inferential her...

They said therefore ( eipan oun ).

Second aorist active indicative of defective verb eipon with a instead of usual o . Note oun , inferential here as in Joh 1:21 though often merely transitional in John.

Robertson: Joh 1:22 - Who art thou? Who art thou? ( Tis ei ). Same question as at first (Joh 1:19), but briefer.

Who art thou? ( Tis ei ).

Same question as at first (Joh 1:19), but briefer.

Robertson: Joh 1:22 - That we give answer That we give answer ( hina apokrisin dōmen ). Final use of hina with second aorist active subjunctive of didōmi with apokrisin from apokrin...

That we give answer ( hina apokrisin dōmen ).

Final use of hina with second aorist active subjunctive of didōmi with apokrisin from apokrinomai , above, old substantive as in Luk 2:47.

Robertson: Joh 1:22 - To those that sent To those that sent ( tois pempsasin ). Dative case plural of the articular participle first aorist active of pempō .

To those that sent ( tois pempsasin ).

Dative case plural of the articular participle first aorist active of pempō .

Robertson: Joh 1:22 - What sayest thou of thyself? What sayest thou of thyself? ( Ti legeis peri seautou ). This time they opened wide the door without giving any hint at all.

What sayest thou of thyself? ( Ti legeis peri seautou ).

This time they opened wide the door without giving any hint at all.

Robertson: Joh 1:23 - He said He said ( ephē ). Common imperfect active (or second aorist active) of phēmi , to say, old defective verb.

He said ( ephē ).

Common imperfect active (or second aorist active) of phēmi , to say, old defective verb.

Robertson: Joh 1:23 - I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness ( Egō phōnē boōntos en tēi erēmōi ). For his answer John quotes Isa 40:3. The Synoptics ...

I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness ( Egō phōnē boōntos en tēi erēmōi ).

For his answer John quotes Isa 40:3. The Synoptics (Mar 1:3; Mat 3:3; Luk 3:4) quote this language from Isaiah as descriptive of John, but do not say that he also applied it to himself. There is no reason to think that he did not do so. John also refers to Isaiah as the author of the words and also of the message,

Robertson: Joh 1:23 - -- " Make straight the way of the Lord "(Euthunate tēn hodon tou kuriou ). By this language (euthunō in N.T. only here and Jam 3:4, first aorist...

" Make straight the way of the Lord "(Euthunate tēn hodon tou kuriou ). By this language (euthunō in N.T. only here and Jam 3:4, first aorist active imperative here) John identifies himself to the committee as the forerunner of the Messiah. The early writers note the differences between the use of Logos (Word) for the Messiah and phōnē (Voice) for John.

Robertson: Joh 1:24 - They had been sent They had been sent ( apestalmenoi ēsan ). Periphrastic past perfect passive of apostellō .

They had been sent ( apestalmenoi ēsan ).

Periphrastic past perfect passive of apostellō .

Robertson: Joh 1:24 - From the Pharisees From the Pharisees ( ek tōn Pharisaiōn ). As the source (ek ) of the committee of Sadducees (Joh 1:19).

From the Pharisees ( ek tōn Pharisaiōn ).

As the source (ek ) of the committee of Sadducees (Joh 1:19).

Robertson: Joh 1:25 - Why then baptizest thou? Why then baptizest thou? ( Ti oun baptizeis ). In view of his repeated denials (three here mentioned).

Why then baptizest thou? ( Ti oun baptizeis ).

In view of his repeated denials (three here mentioned).

Robertson: Joh 1:25 - If thou art not If thou art not ( ei su ouk ei ). Condition of first class. They did not interpret his claim to be "the voice"to be important enough to justify the o...

If thou art not ( ei su ouk ei ).

Condition of first class. They did not interpret his claim to be "the voice"to be important enough to justify the ordinance of baptism. Abrahams ( Studies in Pharisaism and the Gospels ) shows that proselyte baptism was probably practised before John’ s time, but its use by John was treating the Jews as if they were themselves Gentiles.

Robertson: Joh 1:26 - In the midst of you standeth In the midst of you standeth ( mesos humōn stēkei ). Adjective as in Joh 19:18, not en mesōi humōn . Present active indicative of late verb s...

In the midst of you standeth ( mesos humōn stēkei ).

Adjective as in Joh 19:18, not en mesōi humōn . Present active indicative of late verb stēkō from perfect stem hestēka . John had already baptized Jesus and recognized him as the Messiah.

Robertson: Joh 1:26 - Whom ye know not Whom ye know not ( hon humeis ouk oidate ). This was the tragedy of the situation (Joh 1:11). Apparently this startling declaration excited no furthe...

Whom ye know not ( hon humeis ouk oidate ).

This was the tragedy of the situation (Joh 1:11). Apparently this startling declaration excited no further inquiry from the committee.

Robertson: Joh 1:27 - Coming after me Coming after me ( opisō mou erchomenos ). No article (ho ) in Aleph B. John as the forerunner of the Messiah has preceded him in time, but not in ...

Coming after me ( opisō mou erchomenos ).

No article (ho ) in Aleph B. John as the forerunner of the Messiah has preceded him in time, but not in rank as he instantly adds.

Robertson: Joh 1:27 - The latchet of whose shoe I am not worthy to unloose The latchet of whose shoe I am not worthy to unloose ( hou ouk eimi axios hina lusō autou ton himanta tou hupodēmatos ). Literally, "of whom I am...

The latchet of whose shoe I am not worthy to unloose ( hou ouk eimi axios hina lusō autou ton himanta tou hupodēmatos ).

Literally, "of whom I am not worthy that I unloose the latchet (see Mar 1:7 for himas ) of his sandal (see Mat 3:11 for hupodēma , bound under the foot)."Only use of axios with hina in John, though used by Paul in this saying of the Baptist (Act 13:25), hikanos hina in Mat 3:8, but hikanos lusai (aorist active infinitive instead of lusō , aorist active subjunctive) in Mar 1:7 (Luk 3:16) and bastasai in Mat 3:11.

Robertson: Joh 1:28 - In Bethany beyond Jordan In Bethany beyond Jordan ( en Bēthaniāi peran tou Iordanou ). Undoubtedly the correct text, not "in Bethabara"as Origen suggested instead of "in ...

In Bethany beyond Jordan ( en Bēthaniāi peran tou Iordanou ).

Undoubtedly the correct text, not "in Bethabara"as Origen suggested instead of "in Bethany"of all the known Greek manuscripts under the mistaken notion that the only Bethany was that near Jerusalem.

Robertson: Joh 1:28 - Was baptizing Was baptizing ( ēn baptizōn ). Periphrastic imperfect, common idiom in John.

Was baptizing ( ēn baptizōn ).

Periphrastic imperfect, common idiom in John.

Robertson: Joh 1:29 - On the morrow On the morrow ( tēi epaurion ). Locative case with hēmērāi (day) understood after the adverb epaurion . "Second day of this spiritual diary...

On the morrow ( tēi epaurion ).

Locative case with hēmērāi (day) understood after the adverb epaurion . "Second day of this spiritual diary"(Bernard) from Joh 1:19.

Robertson: Joh 1:29 - Seeth Jesus coming Seeth Jesus coming ( blepei ton Iēsoun erchomenon ). Dramatic historical present indicative (blepei ) with vivid present middle participle (erchom...

Seeth Jesus coming ( blepei ton Iēsoun erchomenon ).

Dramatic historical present indicative (blepei ) with vivid present middle participle (erchomenon ). Graphic picture.

Robertson: Joh 1:29 - Behold the Lamb of God Behold the Lamb of God ( ide ho amnos tou theou ). Exclamation ide like idou , not verb, and so nominative amnos . Common idiom in John (Joh 1:36; ...

Behold the Lamb of God ( ide ho amnos tou theou ).

Exclamation ide like idou , not verb, and so nominative amnos . Common idiom in John (Joh 1:36; Joh 3:26, etc.). For "the Lamb of God"see 1Co 5:7 (cf. Joh 19:36) and 1Pe 1:19. The passage in Isa 53:6. is directly applied to Christ by Philip in Act 8:32. See also Mat 8:17; 1Pe 2:22.; Heb 9:28. But the Jews did not look for a suffering Messiah (Joh 12:34) nor did the disciples at first (Mar 9:32; Luk 24:21). But was it not possible for John, the Forerunner of the Messiah, to have a prophetic insight concerning the Messiah as the Paschal Lamb, already in Isa 53:1-12, even if the rabbis did not see it there? Symeon had it dimly (Luk 2:35), but John more clearly. So Westcott rightly. Bernard is unwilling to believe that John the Baptist had more insight on this point than current Judaism. Then why and how did he recognize Jesus as Messiah at all? Certainly the Baptist did not have to be as ignorant as the rabbis.

Robertson: Joh 1:29 - Which taketh away the sin of the world Which taketh away the sin of the world ( ho airōn tēn hamartian tou kosmou ). Note singular hamartian not plural hamartias (1Jo 3:5) where sa...

Which taketh away the sin of the world ( ho airōn tēn hamartian tou kosmou ).

Note singular hamartian not plural hamartias (1Jo 3:5) where same verb airō , to bear away, is used. The future work of the Lamb of God here described in present tense as in 1Jo 1:7 about the blood of Christ. He is the Lamb of God for the world, not just for Jews.

Robertson: Joh 1:30 - Of whom Of whom ( huper hou ). Not peri , but huper . "On behalf of whom."John points to Jesus as he speaks: "This is he."There he is. See Joh 1:15 for discu...

Of whom ( huper hou ).

Not peri , but huper . "On behalf of whom."John points to Jesus as he speaks: "This is he."There he is. See Joh 1:15 for discussion of these words of John.

Robertson: Joh 1:31 - And I knew him not And I knew him not ( kagō ouk ēidein auton ). Repeated in Joh 1:33. Second past perfect of oida as imperfect. He had predicted the Messiah and ...

And I knew him not ( kagō ouk ēidein auton ).

Repeated in Joh 1:33. Second past perfect of oida as imperfect. He had predicted the Messiah and described him before he met him and baptized him. See the Synoptics for that story. Whether John knew Jesus personally before the baptism we do not know.

Robertson: Joh 1:31 - But that he should be made manifest to Israel But that he should be made manifest to Israel ( all' hina phanerōthēi tōi Israēl ). Final clause with hina and first aorist passive subjunc...

But that he should be made manifest to Israel ( all' hina phanerōthēi tōi Israēl ).

Final clause with hina and first aorist passive subjunctive of phaneroō . The purpose of John’ s ministry was to manifest to Israel with their spiritual privileges (Joh 1:49) the presence of the Messiah. Hence he was baptizing in water those who confessed their sins, he means, as in Mar 1:5. The Synoptic account is presupposed all along here.

Robertson: Joh 1:32 - Bare witness Bare witness ( emarturēsen ). First aorist active indicative of martureō . Another specimen of John’ s witness to the Messiah (Joh 1:7, Joh ...

Bare witness ( emarturēsen ).

First aorist active indicative of martureō . Another specimen of John’ s witness to the Messiah (Joh 1:7, Joh 1:15, Joh 1:19, Joh 1:29, Joh 1:35, Joh 1:36).

Robertson: Joh 1:32 - I have beheld I have beheld ( tetheamai ). Perfect middle indicative of theaomai , the realization of the promise of the sign (Joh 1:33) by which he should recogni...

I have beheld ( tetheamai ).

Perfect middle indicative of theaomai , the realization of the promise of the sign (Joh 1:33) by which he should recognize the Messiah. As a matter of fact, we know that he so recognized Jesus as Messiah when he came for baptism before the Holy Spirit came (Mat 3:14.). But this sight of the Spirit descending as a dove upon Jesus at his baptism (Mar 1:10; Mat 3:16; Luk 3:22) became permanent proof to him. John’ s allusion assumes the Synoptic record. The Semites regarded the dove as a symbol of the Spirit.

Robertson: Joh 1:33 - He said He said ( ekeinos eipen ). Explicit and emphatic pronoun as in Joh 1:8, referring to God as the one who sent John (Joh 1:6).

He said ( ekeinos eipen ).

Explicit and emphatic pronoun as in Joh 1:8, referring to God as the one who sent John (Joh 1:6).

Robertson: Joh 1:33 - With the Holy Spirit With the Holy Spirit ( en pneumati hagiōi ). "In the Holy Spirit."Here again one needs the background of the Synoptics for the contrast between Joh...

With the Holy Spirit ( en pneumati hagiōi ).

"In the Holy Spirit."Here again one needs the background of the Synoptics for the contrast between John’ s baptism in water (Joh 1:26) and that of the Messiah in the Holy Spirit (Mar 1:8; Mat 3:11; Luk 3:16).

Robertson: Joh 1:34 - I have seen I have seen ( heōraka ). Present perfect active of horaō . John repeats the statement of Joh 1:32 (tetheamai ).

I have seen ( heōraka ).

Present perfect active of horaō . John repeats the statement of Joh 1:32 (tetheamai ).

Robertson: Joh 1:34 - Have borne witness Have borne witness ( memarturēka ). Perfect active indicative of martureō for which verb see Joh 1:32.

Have borne witness ( memarturēka ).

Perfect active indicative of martureō for which verb see Joh 1:32.

Robertson: Joh 1:34 - This is the Son of God This is the Son of God ( ho huios tou theou ). The Baptist saw the Spirit come on Jesus at his baptism and undoubtedly heard the Father’ s voice...

This is the Son of God ( ho huios tou theou ).

The Baptist saw the Spirit come on Jesus at his baptism and undoubtedly heard the Father’ s voice hail him as "My Beloved Son"(Mar 1:11; Mat 3:17; Luk 3:22). Nathanael uses it as a Messianic title (Joh 1:49) as does Martha (Joh 11:27). The Synoptics use it also of Christ (Mar 3:11; Mat 14:33; Luk 22:70). Caiaphas employs it to Christ as a Messianic title (Mat 26:63) and Jesus confessed under oath that he was (verse Mat 26:64), thus applying the term to himself as he does in John’ s Gospel (Joh 5:25; Joh 10:36; Joh 11:4) and by implication (the Father, the Son) in Mat 11:27 (Luk 10:22). Hence in the Synoptics also Jesus calls himself the Son of God. The phrase means more than just Messiah and expresses the peculiar relation of the Son to the Father (Joh 3:18; Joh 5:25; Joh 17:5; Joh 19:7; Joh 20:31) like that of the Logos with God in Joh 1:1.

Robertson: Joh 1:35 - Again on the morrow Again on the morrow ( tēi epaurion palin ). Third day since Joh 1:19.

Again on the morrow ( tēi epaurion palin ).

Third day since Joh 1:19.

Robertson: Joh 1:35 - Was standing Was standing ( histēkei ). Past perfect of histēmi , intransitive, and used as imperfect in sense. See same form in Joh 7:37.

Was standing ( histēkei ).

Past perfect of histēmi , intransitive, and used as imperfect in sense. See same form in Joh 7:37.

Robertson: Joh 1:35 - Two Two ( duo ). One was Andrew (Joh 1:40), the other the Beloved Disciple (the Apostle John), who records this incident with happy memories.

Two ( duo ).

One was Andrew (Joh 1:40), the other the Beloved Disciple (the Apostle John), who records this incident with happy memories.

Robertson: Joh 1:36 - He looked He looked ( emblepsas ). First aorist active participle of emblepō , antecedent action before legei (says).

He looked ( emblepsas ).

First aorist active participle of emblepō , antecedent action before legei (says).

Robertson: Joh 1:36 - As he walked As he walked ( peripatounti ). Present active participle in dative case after emblepsas and like erchomenon in Joh 1:29 vividly pictures the rapt...

As he walked ( peripatounti ).

Present active participle in dative case after emblepsas and like erchomenon in Joh 1:29 vividly pictures the rapture of John in this vision of Jesus, so far as we know the third and last glimpse of Jesus by John (the baptism, Joh 1:29, and here).

Robertson: Joh 1:36 - Saith Saith ( legei ). Historical present, change from histēkei before. He repeats part of the tribute in Joh 1:29.

Saith ( legei ).

Historical present, change from histēkei before. He repeats part of the tribute in Joh 1:29.

Robertson: Joh 1:37 - Heard him speak Heard him speak ( ēkousan autou lalountos ). First active indicative of akouō and present active participle of laleō in genitive case agree...

Heard him speak ( ēkousan autou lalountos ).

First active indicative of akouō and present active participle of laleō in genitive case agreeing with autou , object of akouō . "Heard him speaking"(kind of indirect discourse). John had disciples (mathētai , learners, from manthanō , to learn).

Robertson: Joh 1:37 - They followed Jesus They followed Jesus ( ēkolouthēsan tōi Iēsou ). Associative instrumental case after verb (first aorist active indicative, ingressive aorist, ...

They followed Jesus ( ēkolouthēsan tōi Iēsou ).

Associative instrumental case after verb (first aorist active indicative, ingressive aorist, of akoloutheō ). These two disciples of the Baptist (Andrew and John) took him at his word and acted on it. John the Baptist had predicted and portrayed the Messiah, had baptized him, had interpreted him, and now for the second time had identified him.

Robertson: Joh 1:38 - Turned Turned ( strapheis ). Second aorist passive participle of strephō , vividly picturing the sudden act of Jesus on hearing their steps behind him.

Turned ( strapheis ).

Second aorist passive participle of strephō , vividly picturing the sudden act of Jesus on hearing their steps behind him.

Robertson: Joh 1:38 - Beheld Beheld ( theasamenos ). First aorist middle participle of theaomai (Joh 1:32). Both participles here express antecedent action to legei (saith).

Beheld ( theasamenos ).

First aorist middle participle of theaomai (Joh 1:32). Both participles here express antecedent action to legei (saith).

Robertson: Joh 1:38 - Following Following ( akolothountas ). Present active participle of akoloutheō (Joh 1:37). It was Christ’ s first experience of this kind and the two ...

Following ( akolothountas ).

Present active participle of akoloutheō (Joh 1:37). It was Christ’ s first experience of this kind and the two came from the Baptist to Jesus.

Robertson: Joh 1:38 - What seek ye? What seek ye? ( Ti zēteite ). Not "whom"(tina Joh 18:4; Joh 20:15), but "what purpose have you."The first words of Jesus preserved in this Gospel...

What seek ye? ( Ti zēteite ).

Not "whom"(tina Joh 18:4; Joh 20:15), but "what purpose have you."The first words of Jesus preserved in this Gospel. See Luk 2:49; Mat 3:15 for words spoken before this and Mar 1:15 for Mark’ s first report in the Galilean ministry.

Robertson: Joh 1:38 - Rabbi Rabbi ( Rabbei ). Aramaic title for "Teacher"which John here translates by Didaskale as he is writing late and for general readers. Luke, a Greek C...

Rabbi ( Rabbei ).

Aramaic title for "Teacher"which John here translates by Didaskale as he is writing late and for general readers. Luke, a Greek Christian, does not use it, but John recalls his first use of this term to Jesus and explains it. Matthew has it only in the greeting of Judas to the Master (Mat 26:25, Mat 26:49) and Mark once by Judas (Mar 14:45) and twice by Peter (Mar 9:5; Mar 11:21). John’ s Gospel has the disciples at first addressing Jesus by Rabbi while others address him by Kurie (Lord or Sir) as in Joh 4:11, Joh 4:49; Joh 5:7. Peter uses Kurie in Joh 6:68. In the end the disciples usually say Kurie (Joh 13:6, Joh 13:25, etc.), but Mary Magdalene says Rabbounei (Joh 20:16).

Robertson: Joh 1:38 - Being interpreted Being interpreted ( methermēmeuomenon ). Present passive participle of methermēneuō , late compound of meta and hermēneuō , to explain (J...

Being interpreted ( methermēmeuomenon ).

Present passive participle of methermēneuō , late compound of meta and hermēneuō , to explain (Joh 1:42), old word from Hermes , the god of speech (hermeneutics). John often explains Aramaic words (Joh 1:38, Joh 1:41, Joh 1:42; Joh 4:25; Joh 9:7, etc.).

Robertson: Joh 1:38 - Where abidest thou? Where abidest thou? ( Pou meneis ). They wished a place for quiet converse with Jesus.

Where abidest thou? ( Pou meneis ).

They wished a place for quiet converse with Jesus.

Robertson: Joh 1:39 - Come and ye shall see Come and ye shall see ( erchesthe kai opsesthe ). Polite invitation and definite promise (future middle indicative opsesthe from horaō , correct ...

Come and ye shall see ( erchesthe kai opsesthe ).

Polite invitation and definite promise (future middle indicative opsesthe from horaō , correct text, not imperative idete ).

Robertson: Joh 1:39 - Where he abode Where he abode ( pou menei ). Indirect question preserving the present active indicative after secondary tense (eidan , saw) according to regular Gre...

Where he abode ( pou menei ).

Indirect question preserving the present active indicative after secondary tense (eidan , saw) according to regular Greek idiom. Same verb menō as in Joh 1:38.

Robertson: Joh 1:39 - With him With him ( par' autōi ). "By his side,""beside him."

With him ( par' autōi ).

"By his side,""beside him."

Robertson: Joh 1:39 - That day That day ( tēn hēmeran ekeinēn ). Accusative of extent of time, all during that day.

That day ( tēn hēmeran ekeinēn ).

Accusative of extent of time, all during that day.

Robertson: Joh 1:39 - About the tenth hour About the tenth hour ( hōra hōs dekatē ). Roman time and so ten o’ clock in the morning. John in Ephesus at the close of the century natur...

About the tenth hour ( hōra hōs dekatē ).

Roman time and so ten o’ clock in the morning. John in Ephesus at the close of the century naturally uses Roman time. See Joh 20:19 "evening on that day,"clearly Roman time. Thus also Joh 19:14 (sixth hour, morning) and Mar 15:25 (third hour, nine a.m.) suit. To his latest day John never forgot the hour when first he met Jesus.

Robertson: Joh 1:40 - Andrew Andrew ( Andreas ). Explained by John as one of the two disciples of the Baptist and identified as the brother of the famous Simon Peter (cf. also Jo...

Andrew ( Andreas ).

Explained by John as one of the two disciples of the Baptist and identified as the brother of the famous Simon Peter (cf. also Joh 6:8; Joh 12:22). The more formal call of Andrew and Simon, James and John, comes later (Mar 1:16.; Mat 4:18.; Luk 3:1-11).

Robertson: Joh 1:40 - That heard John speak That heard John speak ( tōn akousantōn para Iōanou ). "That heard from John,"a classical idiom (para with ablative after akouō ) seen also...

That heard John speak ( tōn akousantōn para Iōanou ).

"That heard from John,"a classical idiom (para with ablative after akouō ) seen also in Joh 6:45; Joh 7:51; Joh 8:26, Joh 8:40; Joh 15:15.

Robertson: Joh 1:41 - He findeth first He findeth first ( heuriskei houtos prōton ). "This one finds (vivid dramatic present) first"(protōn ). Protōn (adverb supported by Aleph A ...

He findeth first ( heuriskei houtos prōton ).

"This one finds (vivid dramatic present) first"(protōn ). Protōn (adverb supported by Aleph A B fam. 13) means that Andrew sought "his own brother Simon"(ton adelphon ton idion Simōna ) before he did anything else. But Aleph L W read prōtos (nominative adjective) which means that Andrew was the first who went after his brother implying that John also went after his brother James. Some old Latin manuscripts (b, e, r apparently), have mane for Greek prōi (early in the morning). Bernard thinks that this is the true reading as it allows more time for Andrew to bring Simon to Jesus. Probably prōton is correct, but even so John likely brought also his brother James after Andrew’ s example.

Robertson: Joh 1:41 - We have found the Messiah We have found the Messiah ( Heurēkamen ton Messian ). First aorist active indicative of heuriskō . Andrew and John had made the greatest discover...

We have found the Messiah ( Heurēkamen ton Messian ).

First aorist active indicative of heuriskō . Andrew and John had made the greatest discovery of the ages, far beyond gold or diamond mines. The Baptist had told about him. "We have seen him."

Robertson: Joh 1:41 - Which is Which is ( ho estin ). Same explanatory neuter relative as in Joh 1:38, "which word is."This Aramaic title Messiah is preserved in the N.T. only here...

Which is ( ho estin ).

Same explanatory neuter relative as in Joh 1:38, "which word is."This Aramaic title Messiah is preserved in the N.T. only here and Joh 4:25, elsewhere translated into Christos , Anointed One, from chriō , to anoint. See note on Mat 1:1 for discussion.

Robertson: Joh 1:42 - Looked upon him Looked upon him ( emblepsas autōi ). See Joh 1:36 for same word and form of John’ s eager gaze at Jesus. Luke uses this word of Jesus when Pet...

Looked upon him ( emblepsas autōi ).

See Joh 1:36 for same word and form of John’ s eager gaze at Jesus. Luke uses this word of Jesus when Peter denied him (Luk 22:61).

Robertson: Joh 1:42 - He brought him He brought him ( ēgagen auton ). Effective second aorist active indicative of ago as if Andrew had to overcome some resistance on Simon’ s p...

He brought him ( ēgagen auton ).

Effective second aorist active indicative of ago as if Andrew had to overcome some resistance on Simon’ s part.

Robertson: Joh 1:42 - Thou shalt be called Cephas Thou shalt be called Cephas ( su klēthēsēi Kēphās ). Apparently before Simon spoke. We do not know whether Jesus had seen Simon before or n...

Thou shalt be called Cephas ( su klēthēsēi Kēphās ).

Apparently before Simon spoke. We do not know whether Jesus had seen Simon before or not, but he at once gives him a nickname that will characterize him some day, though not yet, when he makes the noble confession (Mat 16:17.), and Jesus will say, "Thou art Peter."Here the future passive indicative of kaleō is only prophecy. The Aramaic Cēphās (rock) is only applied to Simon in John except by Paul (1Co 1:12; Gal 1:18, etc.). But the Greek Petros is used by all. In the ancient Greek petra was used for the massive ledge of rock like Stone Mountain while petros was a detached fragment of the ledge, though itself large. This distinction may exist in Mat 16:17., except that Jesus probably used Aramaic which would not have such a distinction.

Robertson: Joh 1:43 - On the morrow On the morrow ( tēi epaurion ). The fourth of the days from Joh 1:19.

On the morrow ( tēi epaurion ).

The fourth of the days from Joh 1:19.

Robertson: Joh 1:43 - He findeth Philip He findeth Philip ( heuriskei Philippon ). Vivid dramatic present as in Joh 1:41, though ēthelēsen (was minded, wished) is aorist active indica...

He findeth Philip ( heuriskei Philippon ).

Vivid dramatic present as in Joh 1:41, though ēthelēsen (was minded, wished) is aorist active indicative. Apparently not an accidental finding, possibly due to the efforts of Andrew and Peter. Both Andrew and Philip have Greek names.

Robertson: Joh 1:43 - Follow me Follow me ( akolouthei moi ). Present active imperative, a direct challenge to Philip. Often Jesus uses this verb to win disciples (Mar 2:14; Mat 8:2...

Follow me ( akolouthei moi ).

Present active imperative, a direct challenge to Philip. Often Jesus uses this verb to win disciples (Mar 2:14; Mat 8:22; Mat 9:21; Mat 19:21 ; Luk 9:59; Joh 21:19). Already Jesus had four personal followers (Andrew and Simon, John and James). He has begun his work.

Robertson: Joh 1:44 - From Bethsaida From Bethsaida ( apo Bēthsaida ). Same expression in Joh 12:21 with the added words "of Galilee,"which locates it in Galilee, not in Iturea. There ...

From Bethsaida ( apo Bēthsaida ).

Same expression in Joh 12:21 with the added words "of Galilee,"which locates it in Galilee, not in Iturea. There were two Bethsaidas, one called Bethsaida Julias in Iturea (that in Luk 9:10) or the Eastern Bethsaida, the other the Western Bethsaida in Galilee (Mar 6:45), perhaps somewhere near Capernaum. This is the town of Andrew and Peter and Philip. Hence Philip would be inclined to follow the example of his townsmen.

Robertson: Joh 1:45 - Philip findeth Philip findeth ( heuriskei Philippos ). Dramatic present again. Philip carries on the work. One wins one. If that glorious beginning had only kept on...

Philip findeth ( heuriskei Philippos ).

Dramatic present again. Philip carries on the work. One wins one. If that glorious beginning had only kept on! Now it takes a hundred to win one.

Robertson: Joh 1:45 - Nathaniel Nathaniel ( ton Nathanaēl ). It is a Hebrew name meaning "God has given"like the Greek Theodore (Gift of God). He was from Cana of Galilee (Joh 2...

Nathaniel ( ton Nathanaēl ).

It is a Hebrew name meaning "God has given"like the Greek Theodore (Gift of God). He was from Cana of Galilee (Joh 21:2), not far from Bethsaida and so known to Philip. His name does not occur in the Synoptics while Bartholomew (a patronymic, Bar Tholmai ) does not appear in John. They are almost certainly two names of the same man. Philip uses heurēkamen (Joh 1:41) also to Nathanael and so unites himself with the circle of believers, but instead of Messian describes him "of whom (hon accusative with egrapsen ) Moses in the law (Deu 18:15) and the prophets (so the whole O.T. as in Luk 24:27, Luk 24:44) did write."

Robertson: Joh 1:45 - Jesus of Nazareth the son of Joseph Jesus of Nazareth the son of Joseph ( Iēsoun huion tou Iōsēph ton apo Nazaret ). More exactly, "Jesus, son of Joseph, the one from Nazareth."Je...

Jesus of Nazareth the son of Joseph ( Iēsoun huion tou Iōsēph ton apo Nazaret ).

More exactly, "Jesus, son of Joseph, the one from Nazareth."Jesus passed as son (no article in the Greek) of Joseph, though John has just described him as "God-only Begotten"in Joh 1:18, but certainly Philip could not know this. Bernard terms this part "the irony of St. John"for he is sure that his readers will agree with him as to the real deity of Jesus Christ. These details were probably meant to interest Nathanael.

Robertson: Joh 1:46 - Can any good thing come out of Nazareth? Can any good thing come out of Nazareth? ( Ek Nazaret dunatai ti agathon einai ). Literally, "Out of Nazareth can anything good be."There is a tinge ...

Can any good thing come out of Nazareth? ( Ek Nazaret dunatai ti agathon einai ).

Literally, "Out of Nazareth can anything good be."There is a tinge of scorn in the question as if Nazareth (note position at beginning of sentence) had a bad name. Town rivalry may account to some extent for it since Cana (home of Nathanael) was near Nazareth. Clearly he had never heard of Jesus. The best thing in all the world came out of Nazareth, but Philip does not argue the point. A saying had arisen that no prophet comes out of Galilee (Joh 7:52), untrue like many such sayings.

Robertson: Joh 1:46 - Come and see Come and see ( erchou kai ide ). Present middle imperative (come on) and second active imperative (and see at once). Philip followed the method of Je...

Come and see ( erchou kai ide ).

Present middle imperative (come on) and second active imperative (and see at once). Philip followed the method of Jesus with Andrew and John (Joh 1:39), probably without knowing it. Wise is the one who knows how to deal with the sceptic.

Robertson: Joh 1:47 - Behold Behold ( ide ). Here an exclamation (see Joh 1:29) as often like idou .

Behold ( ide ).

Here an exclamation (see Joh 1:29) as often like idou .

Robertson: Joh 1:47 - An Israelite indeed An Israelite indeed ( alēthōs Israēleitēs ). "Truly an Israelite,"one living up to the covenant name, Israel at its best (Rom 2:29), without ...

An Israelite indeed ( alēthōs Israēleitēs ).

"Truly an Israelite,"one living up to the covenant name, Israel at its best (Rom 2:29), without the guile (dolos , deceit, bait for fish, from deleazō , to catch with bait) that Jacob once had of which Isaac complained (Gen 27:35, dolos , here in lxx). The servant of Jehovah was to be without guile (Isa 53:9).

Robertson: Joh 1:48 - Whence knowest thou me? Whence knowest thou me? ( Pothen me ginōskeis ). Nathanael is astonished at this tribute, at any knowledge about himself by Jesus. He had overheard...

Whence knowest thou me? ( Pothen me ginōskeis ).

Nathanael is astonished at this tribute, at any knowledge about himself by Jesus. He had overheard Christ’ s comment and longed to know its source.

Robertson: Joh 1:48 - Before Philip called thee Before Philip called thee ( Pro tou se Philippon phōnēsai ). Idiomatic Greek, pro and the ablative case of the articular aorist active infiniti...

Before Philip called thee ( Pro tou se Philippon phōnēsai ).

Idiomatic Greek, pro and the ablative case of the articular aorist active infinitive (tou phōnēsai , from phōneō , to call) with se as the object and Philippon , the accusative of general reference, "before the calling thee as to Philip."

Robertson: Joh 1:48 - When thou wast under the fig tree When thou wast under the fig tree ( onta hupo tēn sukēn ). "Being under the fig tree,"accusative present participle agreeing with se . The fig tr...

When thou wast under the fig tree ( onta hupo tēn sukēn ).

"Being under the fig tree,"accusative present participle agreeing with se . The fig tree was a familiar object in Palestine, probably in leaf at this time, the accusative with hupo may suggest that Nathanael had withdrawn there for prayer. Note genitive with hupokatō in Joh 1:50. Jesus saw Nathanael’ s heart as well as his mere presence there. He saw him in his worship and so knew him.

Robertson: Joh 1:49 - Thou art the Son of God Thou art the Son of God ( su ei ho huios tou theou ). Whether Nathanael had heard the Baptist say this of Jesus (Joh 1:34) we do not know, apparently...

Thou art the Son of God ( su ei ho huios tou theou ).

Whether Nathanael had heard the Baptist say this of Jesus (Joh 1:34) we do not know, apparently not, but Nathanael was a student of the Old Testament as Philip implied (Joh 1:45) and was quick to put together his knowledge, the statement of Philip, and the manifest supernatural knowledge of Jesus as just shown. There is no reason for toning down the noble confession of Nathanael in the light of Christ’ s claim in Joh 1:51. Cf. the confession of Peter in Joh 6:69; Mat 16:16 and Martha’ s in Joh 11:27. Nathanael goes further.

Robertson: Joh 1:49 - Thou art King of Israel Thou art King of Israel ( Basileus ei tou Israēl ). To us this seems an anti-climax, but not so to Nathanael for both are Messianic titles in Psa 2...

Thou art King of Israel ( Basileus ei tou Israēl ).

To us this seems an anti-climax, but not so to Nathanael for both are Messianic titles in Psa 2:1-12 and Jesus is greeted in the Triumphal Entry as the King of Israel (Joh 12:13).

Robertson: Joh 1:50 - Answered and said Answered and said ( apekrithē kai eipen ). This redundant use of both verbs (cf. Joh 1:26) occurs in the Synoptics also and in the lxx also. It is ...

Answered and said ( apekrithē kai eipen ).

This redundant use of both verbs (cf. Joh 1:26) occurs in the Synoptics also and in the lxx also. It is Aramaic also and vernacular. It is not proof of an Aramaic original as Burney argues ( Aramaic Origin , etc., p. 53).

Robertson: Joh 1:50 - Because Because ( hoti ). Causal use of hoti at beginning of the sentence as in Joh 14:19; Joh 15:19; Joh 16:6. The second hoti before eidon (I saw) is...

Because ( hoti ).

Causal use of hoti at beginning of the sentence as in Joh 14:19; Joh 15:19; Joh 16:6. The second hoti before eidon (I saw) is either declarative (that) or merely recitative (either makes sense here).

Robertson: Joh 1:50 - Thou shalt see greater things than these Thou shalt see greater things than these ( meizō toutōn opsēi ). Perhaps volitive future middle indicative of horaō (though merely futurist...

Thou shalt see greater things than these ( meizō toutōn opsēi ).

Perhaps volitive future middle indicative of horaō (though merely futuristic is possible as with opsesthe in Joh 1:51) ablative case of toutōn after the comparative adjective meizō . The wonder of Nathanael no doubt grew as Jesus went on.

Robertson: Joh 1:51 - Verily, Verily Verily, Verily ( Amēn ,amēn ). Hebrew word transliterated into Greek and then into English, our "amen."John always repeats it, not singly as in ...

Verily, Verily ( Amēn ,amēn ).

Hebrew word transliterated into Greek and then into English, our "amen."John always repeats it, not singly as in the Synoptics, and only in the words of Jesus, an illustration of Christ’ s authoritative manner of speaking as shown also by legō humin (I say unto you). Note plural humin though autōi just before is singular (to him). Jesus addresses thus others besides Nathanael.

Robertson: Joh 1:51 - The heaven opened The heaven opened ( ton ouranon aneōigota ). Second perfect active participle of anoigō with double reduplication, standing open. The words rem...

The heaven opened ( ton ouranon aneōigota ).

Second perfect active participle of anoigō with double reduplication, standing open. The words remind one of what took place at the baptism of Jesus (Mat 3:16; Luk 3:21), but the immediate reference is to the opened heaven as the symbol of free intercourse between God and man (Isa 64:1) and as it was later illustrated in the death of Stephen (Act 7:56). There is a quotation from Gen 28:12., Jacob’ s vision at Bethel. That was a dream to Jacob, but Christ is himself the bond of fellowship between heaven and earth, between God and man, for Jesus is both "the Son of God"as Nathanael said and "the Son of Man"(epi ton huion tou anthrōpou ) as Jesus here calls himself. God and man meet in Christ. He is the true Jacob’ s Ladder. "I am the Way,"Jesus will say. He is more than King of Israel, he is the Son of Man (the race). So quickly has this Gospel brought out in the witness of the Baptist, the faith of the first disciples, the claims of Jesus Christ, the fully developed picture of the Logos who is both God and man, moving among men and winning them to his service. At the close of the ministry Christ will tell Caiaphas that he will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of power and coming with the clouds of heaven (Mar 14:62). Here at the start Jesus is conscious of the final culmination and in apocalyptic eschatological language that we do not fully understand he sets forth the dignity and majesty of his Person.

Vincent: Joh 1:1 - In the beginning was In the beginning was ( ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ) With evident allusion to the first word of Genesis. But John elevates the phrase from its...

In the beginning was ( ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν )

With evident allusion to the first word of Genesis. But John elevates the phrase from its reference to a point of time, the beginning of creation, to the time of absolute pre-existence before any creation, which is not mentioned until Joh 1:3. This beginning had no beginning (compare Joh 1:3; Joh 17:5; 1Jo 1:1; Eph 1:4; Pro 8:23; Psa 90:2). This heightening of the conception, however, appears not so much in ἀρχή , beginning , which simply leaves room for it, as in the use of ἦν , was , denoting absolute existence (compare εἰμί , I am , Joh 8:58) instead of ἐγένετο , came into being , or began to be , which is used in Joh 1:3, Joh 1:14, of the coming into being of creation and of the Word becoming flesh. Note also the contrast between ἀρχή , in the beginning, and the expression ἀπ ' ἀρχῆς , from the beginning, which is common in John's writings (Joh 8:44; 1Jo 2:7, 1Jo 2:24; 1Jo 3:8) and which leaves no room for the idea of eternal pre-existence. " In Gen 1:1, the sacred historian starts from the beginning and comes downward, thus keeping us in the course of time. Here he starts from the same point, but goes upward, thus taking us into the eternity preceding time" (Milligan and Moulton). See on Col 1:15. This notion of " beginning" is still further heightened by the subsequent statement of the relation of the Logos to the eternal God. The ἀρχή must refer to the creation - the primal beginning of things; but if, in this beginning, the Logos already was , then he belonged to the order of eternity. " The Logos was not merely existent, however, in the beginning, but was also the efficient principle , the beginning of the beginning. The ἀρχή ( beginning ), in itself and in its operation dark, chaotic, was, in its idea and its principle, comprised in one single luminous word, which was the Logos. And when it is said the Logos was in this beginning, His eternal existence is already expressed, and His eternal position in the Godhead already indicated thereby" (Lange). " Eight times in the narrative of creation (in Genesis) there occur, like the refrain of a hymn, the words, And God said . John gathers up all those sayings of God into a single saying , living and endowed with activity and intelligence, from which all divine orders emanate: he finds as the basis of all spoken words, the speaking Word " (Godet).

Vincent: Joh 1:1 - The Word The Word ( ὁ λόγος ) Logos. This expression is the keynote and theme of the entire gospel. Λόγος is from the root λεγ , appe...

The Word ( ὁ λόγος )

Logos. This expression is the keynote and theme of the entire gospel. Λόγος is from the root λεγ , appearing in λέγω , the primitive meaning of which is to lay: then, to pick out , gather , pick up: hence to gather or put words together, and so, to speak . Hence λόγος is, first of all, a collecting or collection both of things in the mind, and of words by which they are expressed. It therefore signifies both the outward form by which the inward thought is expressed, and the inward thought itself, the Latin oratio and ratio : compare the Italian ragionare , " to think" and " to speak."

As signifying the outward form it is never used in the merely grammatical sense, as simply the name of a thing or act (ἔπος, ὄνομα, ῥῆμα ), but means a word as the thing referred to: the material , not the formal part: a word as embodying a conception or idea. See, for instance, Mat 22:46; 1Co 14:9, 1Co 14:19. Hence it signifies a saying , of God, or of man (Mat 19:21, Mat 19:22; Mar 5:35, Mar 5:36): a decree , a precept (Rom 9:28; Mar 7:13). The ten commandments are called in the Septuagint, οἱ δέκα λόγοι , " the ten words " (Exo 34:28), and hence the familiar term decalogue . It is further used of discourse: either of the act of speaking (Act 14:12), of skill and practice in speaking (Act 18:15; 2Ti 4:15), specifically the doctrine of salvation through Christ (Mat 13:20-23; Phi 1:14); of narrative , both the relation and the thing related (Act 1:1; Joh 21:23; Mar 1:45); of matter under discussion , an affair, a case in law (Act 15:6; Act 19:38).

As signifying the inward thought , it denotes the faculty of thinking and reasoning (Heb 4:12); regard or consideration (Act 20:24); reckoning , account (Phi 4:15, Phi 4:17; Heb 4:13); cause or reason (Act 10:29).

John uses the word in a peculiar sense, here, and in Joh 1:14; and, in this sense, in these two passages only. The nearest approach to it is in Rev 19:13, where the conqueror is called the Word of God; and it is recalled in the phrases Word of Life , and the Life was manifested (1Jo 1:1, 1Jo 1:2). Compare Heb 4:12. It was a familiar and current theological term when John wrote, and therefore he uses it without explanation.

Old Testament Usage of the Term

The word here points directly to Genesis 1, where the act of creation is effected by God speaking (compare Psa 33:6). The idea of God, who is in his own nature hidden, revealing himself in creation, is the root of the Logos-idea, in contrast with all materialistic or pantheistic conceptions of creation. This idea develops itself in the Old Testament on three lines. (1) The Word , as embodying the divine will , is personified in Hebrew poetry . Consequently divine attributes are predicated of it as being the continuous revelation of God in law and prophecy (Psa 3:4; Isa 40:8; Psa 119:105). The Word is a healer in Psa 107:20; a messenger in Psa 147:15; the agent of the divine decrees in Isa 55:11.

(2) The personified wisdom (Job 28:12 sq.; Proverbs 8, 9). Here also is the idea of the revelation of that which is hidden. For wisdom is concealed from man: " he knoweth not the price thereof, neither is it found in the land of the living. The depth saith, It is not in me; and the sea saith, It is not with me. It cannot be gotten for gold, neither shall silver be weighed for the price thereof. It is hid from the eyes of all living, and kept close from the fowls of the air" (Job 28). Even Death, which unlocks so many secrets, and the underworld, know it only as a rumor (Job 28:22). It is only God who knows its way and its place (Job 28:23). He made the world, made the winds and the waters, made a decree for the rain and a way for the lightning of the thunder (Job 28:25, Job 28:26). He who possessed wisdom in the beginning of his way, before His works of old, before the earth with its depths and springs and mountains, with whom was wisdom as one brought up with Him (Pro 8:26-31), declared it. " It became, as it were, objective, so that He beheld it" (Job 28:27) and embodied it in His creative work. This personification, therefore, is based on the thought that wisdom is not shut up at rest in God, but is active and manifest in the world. " She standeth in the top of high places, by the way in the places of the paths. She crieth at the gates, at the entry of the city, at the coming in at the doors" (Pro 8:2, Pro 8:3). She builds a palace and prepares a banquet, and issues a general invitation to the simple and to him that wanteth understanding (Pro 9:1-6). It is viewed as the one guide to salvation, comprehending all revelations of God, and as an attribute embracing and combining all His other attributes.

(3) The Angel of Jehovah . The messenger of God who serves as His agent in the world of sense, and is sometimes distinguished from Jehovah and sometimes identical with him (Gen 16:7-13; Gen 32:24-28; Hos 12:4, Hos 12:5; Exo 23:20, Exo 23:21; Mal 3:1).

Apocryphal Usage

In the Apocryphal writings this mediative element is more distinctly apprehended, but with a tendency to pantheism. In the Wisdom of Solomon (at least 100 b.c.), where wisdom seems to be viewed as another name for the whole divine nature, while nowhere connected with the Messiah, it is described as a being of light, proceeding essentially from God; a true image of God, co-occupant of the divine throne; a real and independent principle, revealing God in the world and mediating between it and Him, after having created it as his organ - in association with a spirit which is called μονογενές , only begotten (7:22). " She is the breath of the power of God, and a pure influence flowing from the glory of the Almighty; therefore can no defiled thing fall into her. For she is the brightness of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror of the power of God, and the image of his goodness" (see chapter 7, throughout). Again: " Wisdom reacheth from one end to another mightily, and sweetly doth she order all things. In that she is conversant with God, she magnifieth her nobility: yea, the Lord of all things Himself loved her. For she is privy to the mysteries of the knowledge of God, and a lover of His works. Moreover, by the means of her I shall obtain immortality, and leave behind me an everlasting memorial to them that come after me" (chapter 9). In 16:12, it is said, " Thy word, O Lord, healeth all things" (compare Psa 107:20); and in 18:15, 16, " Thine almighty word leaped from heaven out of thy royal throne, as a fierce man of war into the midst of a land of destruction, and brought thine unfeigned commandment as a sharp sword, and, standing up, filled all things with death; and it touched the heaven, but it stood upon the earth." See also Wisdom of Sirach, chapters 1, 24, and Baruch 3, 4:1-4.

Later Jewish Usage

After the Babylonish captivity the Jewish doctors combined into one view the theophanies, prophetic revelations and manifestations of Jehovah generally, and united them in one single conception, that of a permanent agent of Jehovah in the sensible world, whom they designated by the name Memra ( word , λόγος ) of Jehovah . The learned Jews introduced the idea into the Targurns, or Aramaean paraphrases of the Old Testament, which were publicly read in the synagogues, substituting the name the word of Jehovah for that of Jehovah, each time that God manifested himself. Thus in Gen 39:21, they paraphrase, " The Memra was with Joseph in prison." In Psa 110:1-7 Jehovah addresses the first verse to the Memra. The Memra is the angel that destroyed the first-born of Egypt, and it was the Memra that led the Israelites in the cloudy pillar.

Usage in the Judaeo-Alexandrine Philosophy

From the time of Ptolemy I: (323-285 b.c.), there were Jews in great numbers in Egypt. Philo (a.d. 50) estimates them at a million in his time. Alexandria was their headquarters. They had their own senate and magistrates, and possessed the same privileges as the Greeks. The Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek (b.c. 280-150) was the beginning of a literary movement among them, the key-note of which was the reconciliation of Western culture and Judaism, the establishment of a connection between the Old Testament faith and the Greek philosophy. Hence they interpreted the facts of sacred history allegorically, and made them symbols of certain speculative principles, alleging that the Greek philosophers had borrowed their wisdom from Moses. Aristobulus (about 150 b.c.) asserted the existence of a previous and much older translation of the law, and dedicated to Ptolemy VI an allegorical exposition of the Pentateuch, in which he tried to show that the doctrines of the Peripatetic or Aristotelian school were derived from the Old Testament. Most of the schools of Greek philosophy were represented among the Alexandrian Jews, but the favorite one was the Platonic. The effort at reconciliation culminated in Philo, a contemporary of Christ. Philo was intimately acquainted with the Platonic philosophy, and made it the fundamental feature of his own doctrines, while availing himself likewise of ideas belonging to the Peripatetic and Stoic schools. Unable to discern the difference in the points of view from which these different doctrines severally proceeded, he jumbled together not merely discordant doctrines of the Greek schools, but also those of the East, regarding the wisdom of the Greeks as having originated in the legislation and writings of Moses. He gathered together from East and West every element that could help to shape his conception of a vicegerent of God, " a mediator between the eternal and the ephemeral. His Logos reflects light from countless facets."

According to Philo, God is the absolute Being. He calls God " that which is:" " the One and the All." God alone exists for himself, without multiplicity and without mixture. No name can properly be ascribed to Him: He simply is . Hence, in His nature, He is unknowable.

Outside of God there exists eternal matter, without form and void, and essentially evil; but the perfect Being could not come into direct contact with the senseless and corruptible; so that the world could not have been created by His direct agency. Hence the doctrine of a mediating principle between God and matter - the divine Reason , the Logos , in whom are comprised all the ideas of finite things, and who created the sensible world by causing these ideas to penetrate into matter.

The absolute God is surrounded by his powers (δυνάμεις ) as a king by his servants. These powers are, in Platonic language, ideas; in Jewish, angels; but all are essentially one, and their unity, as they exist in God, as they emanate from him, as they are disseminated in the world, is expressed by Logos . Hence the Logos appears under a twofold aspect: (1) As the immanent reason of God, containing within itself the world-ideal, which, while not outwardly existing, is like the immanent reason in man. This is styled Λόγος ἐνδιάθετος , i.e., the Logos conceived and residing in the mind . This was the aspect emphasized by the Alexandrians, and which tended to the recognition of a twofold personality in the divine essence. (2) As the outspoken word , proceeding from God and manifest in the world. This, when it has issued from God in creating the world, is the Λόγος προφορικός , i.e., the Logos uttered , even as in man the spoken word is the manifestation of thought. This aspect prevailed in Palestine, where the Word appears like the angel of the Pentateuch, as the medium of the outward communication of God with men, and tends toward the recognition of a divine person subordinate to God. Under the former aspect, the Logos is, really, one with God's hidden being: the latter comprehends all the workings and revelations of God in the world; affords from itself the ideas and energies by which the world was framed and is upheld; and, filling all things with divine light and life, rules them in wisdom, love, and righteousness. It is the beginning of creation, not inaugurated, like God, nor made, like the world; but the eldest son of the eternal Father (the world being the younger); God's image; the mediator between God and the world; the highest angel; the second God.

Philo's conception of the Logos, therefore, is: the sum-total and free exercise of the divine energies; so that God, so far as he reveals himself, is called Logos; while the Logos, so far as he reveals God, is called God.

John's doctrine and terms are colored by these preceding influences. During his residence at Ephesus he must have become familiar with the forms and terms of the Alexandrian theology. Nor is it improbable that he used the term Logos with an intent to facilitate the passage from the current theories of his time to the pure gospel which he proclaimed. " To those Hellenists and Hellenistic Jews, on the one hand, who were vainly philosophizing on the relations of the finite and infinite; to those investigators of the letter of the Scriptures, on the other, who speculated about the theocratic revelations, John said, by giving this name Logos to Jesus: 'The unknown Mediator between God and the world, the knowledge of whom you are striving after, we have seen, heard, and touched. Your philosophical speculations and your scriptural subtleties will never raise you to Him. Believe as we do in Jesus, and you will possess in Him that divine Revealer who engages your thoughts'" (Godet).

But John's doctrine is not Philo's, and does not depend upon it. The differences between the two are pronounced. Though both use the term Logos, they use it with utterly different meanings. In John it signifies word , as in Holy Scripture generally; in Philo, reason; and that so distinctly that when Philo wishes to give it the meaning of word , he adds to it by way of explanation, the term ῥῆμα , word .

The nature of the being described by Logos is conceived by each in an entirely different spirit. John's Logos is a person , with a consciousness of personal distinction; Philo's is impersonal. His notion is indeterminate and fluctuating, shaped by the influence which happens to be operating at the time. Under the influence of Jewish documents he styles the Logos an " archangel;" under the influence of Plato, " the Idea of Ideas;" of the Stoics, " the impersonal Reason." It is doubtful whether Philo ever meant to represent the Logos formally as a person. All the titles he gives it may be explained by supposing it to mean the ideal world on which the actual is modeled.

In Philo, moreover, the function of the Logos is confined to the creation and preservation of the universe. He does not identify or connect him with the Messiah. His doctrine was, to a great degree, a philosophical substitute for Messianic hopes. He may have conceived of the Word as acting through the Messiah, but not as one with him. He is a universal principle. In John the Messiah is the Logos himself, uniting himself with humanity, and clothing himself with a body in order to save the world.

The two notions differ as to origin. The impersonal God of Philo cannot pass to the finite creation without contamination of his divine essence. Hence an inferior agent must be interposed. John's God, on the other hand, is personal, and a loving personality. He is a Father (Joh 1:18); His essence is love (Joh 3:16; 1Jo 4:8, 1Jo 4:16). He is in direct relation with the world which He desires to save, and the Logos is He Himself, manifest in the flesh. According to Philo, the Logos is not coexistent with the eternal God. Eternal matter is before him in time. According to John, the Logos is essentially with the Father from all eternity (Joh 1:2), and it is He who creates all things, matter included (Joh 1:3).

Philo misses the moral energy of the Hebrew religion as expressed in its emphasis upon the holiness of Jehovah, and therefore fails to perceive the necessity of a divine teacher and Savior. He forgets the wide distinction between God and the world, and declares that, were the universe to end, God would die of loneliness and inactivity.

The Meaning of Logos in John

As Logos has the double meaning of thought and s peech , so Christ is related to God as the word to the idea, the word being not merely a name for the idea, but the idea itself expressed. The thought is the inward word (Dr. Schaff compares the Hebrew expression " I speak in my heart" for " I think" ).

The Logos of John is the real, personal God (Joh 1:1), the Word, who was originally before the creation with God. and was God, one in essence and nature, yet personally distinct (Joh 1:1, Joh 1:18); the revealer and interpreter of the hidden being of God; the reflection and visible image of God, and the organ of all His manifestations to the world. Compare Heb 1:3. He made all things, proceeding personally from God for the accomplishment of the act of creation (Heb 1:3), and became man in the person of Jesus Christ, accomplishing the redemption of the world. Compare Phi 2:6.

The following is from William Austin, " Meditation for Christmas Day," cited by Ford on John:

" The name Word is most excellently given to our Savior; for it expresses His nature in one, more than in any others. Therefore St. John, when he names the Person in the Trinity (1Jo 5:7), chooses rather to call Him Word than Son; for word is a phrase more communicable than son . Son hath only reference to the Father that begot Him; but word may refer to him that conceives it; to him that speaks it; to that which is spoken by it; to the voice that it is clad in; and to the effects it raises in him that hears it. So Christ, as He is the Word , not only refers to His Father that begot Him, and from whom He comes forth, but to all the creatures that were made by Him; to the flesh that He took to clothe Him; and to the doctrine He brought and taught, and, which lives yet in the hearts of all them that obediently do hear it. He it is that is this Word; and any other, prophet or preacher, he is but a voice (Luk 3:4). Word is an inward conception of the mind; and voice is but a sign of intention . St. John was but a sign, a voice; not worthy to untie the shoe-latchet of this Word. Christ is the inner conception 'in the bosom of His Father;' and that is properly the Word . And yet the Word is the intention uttered forth, as well as conceived within; for Christ was no less the Word in the womb of the Virgin, or in the cradle of the manger, or on the altar of the cross, than he was in the beginning, 'in the bosom of his Father.' For as the intention departs not from the mind when the word is uttered, so Christ, proceeding from the Father by eternal generation, and after here by birth and incarnation, remains still in Him and with Him in essence; as the intention, which is conceived and born in the mind, remains still with it and in it, though the word be spoken. He is therefore rightly called the Word , both by His coming from, and yet remaining still in, the Father."

Vincent: Joh 1:1 - And the Word And the Word A repetition of the great subject, with solemn emphasis.

And the Word

A repetition of the great subject, with solemn emphasis.

Vincent: Joh 1:1 - Was with God Was with God ( ἦν πὸς τὸν Θεὸν ) Anglo-Saxon vers., mid Gode . Wyc., at God . With (πρός ) does not convey th...

Was with God ( ἦν πὸς τὸν Θεὸν )

Anglo-Saxon vers., mid Gode . Wyc., at God . With (πρός ) does not convey the full meaning, that there is no single English word which will give it better. The preposition πρός , which, with the accusative case, denotes motion towards, or direction, is also often used in the New Testament in the sense of with; and that not merely as being near or beside , but as a living union and communion; implying the active notion of intercourse. Thus: " Are not his sisters here with us " (πρὸς ἡμᾶς ), i.e., in social relations with us (Mar 6:3; Mat 13:56). " How long shall I be with you " (πρὸς ὑμᾶς , Mar 9:16). " I sat daily with you " (Mat 26:55). " To be present with the Lord " (πρὸς τὸν Κύριον , 2Co 5:8). " Abide and winter with you " (1Co 16:6). " The eternal life which was with the Father " (πρὸς τὸν πατέρα , 1Jo 1:2). Thus John's statement is that the divine Word not only abode with the Father from all eternity, but was in the living, active relation of communion with Him.

Vincent: Joh 1:2 - The same The same ( οὗτος ) Literally, this one; the one first named; the Word.

The same ( οὗτος )

Literally, this one; the one first named; the Word.

Vincent: Joh 1:2 - Was in the beginning with God Was in the beginning with God In Joh 1:1 the elements of this statement have been given separately: the Word, the eternal being of the Word, and ...

Was in the beginning with God

In Joh 1:1 the elements of this statement have been given separately: the Word, the eternal being of the Word, and his active communion with God. Here they are combined, and with new force. This same Word not only was coeternal with God in respect of being (ἦν , was ), but was eternally in active communion with Him ( in the beginning with God: προ,ς τὸν Θεὸν ): " not simply the Word with God, but God with God" (Moulton). Notice that here Θεὸν has the article, as in the second proposition, where God is spoken of absolutely. In the third proposition, the Word was God , the article was omitted because Θεὸς described the nature of the Word and did not identify his person. Here, as in the second proposition, the Word is placed in personal relation to God.

This verse forms the transition point from the discussion of the personal being of the Word to His manifestation in creation. If it was this same Word, and no other, who was Himself God, and who, from all eternity, was in active communion with God, then the statement follows naturally that all things were created through Him, thus bringing the essential nature of the Word and His manifestation in creation into connection. As the idea of the Word involves knowledge and will, wisdom and force, the creative function is properly His. Hence His close relation to created things, especially to man, prepares the way for His incarnation and redeeming work. The connection between creation and redemption is closer than is commonly apprehended. It is intimated in the words of Isaiah (Isa 46:4), " I have made, and I will bear." Redemption, in a certain sense, grows out of creation. Because God created man in His own image, He would restore him to that image. Because God made man, He loves him, educates him, bears with him carries on the race on the line of His infinite patience, is burdened with its perverseness and blindness, and expresses and effectuates all this in the incarnation and redemptive work of Jesus Christ. God is under the stress of the parental instinct (humanly speaking) to redeem man.

Vincent: Joh 1:3 - All things All things ( πάντα ) Regarded severally . The reference is to the infinite detail of creation, rather than to creation as a whole, whic...

All things ( πάντα )

Regarded severally . The reference is to the infinite detail of creation, rather than to creation as a whole, which is expressed by τὰ πάντα , the all (Col 1:16). For this reason John avoids the word κόσμος , the world , which denotes the world as a great system. Hence Bengel, quoted by Meyer, is wrong in referring to κόσμῳ ( the world ) of Joh 1:10 as a parallel.

Vincent: Joh 1:3 - Were made Were made ( ἐγένετο ) Literally, came into being , or became . Expressing the passage from nothingness into being, and the unfol...

Were made ( ἐγένετο )

Literally, came into being , or became . Expressing the passage from nothingness into being, and the unfolding of a divine order. Compare Joh 1:14, Joh 1:17. Three words are used in the New Testament to express the act of creation: κτίζειν , to create (Rev 4:11; Rev 10:6; Col 1:16); ποιεῖν , to make (Rev 14:7; Mar 10:6), both of which refer to the Creator; and γίγνεσθαι , to become , which refers to that which is created. In Mar 10:6, both words occur. " From the beginning of the creation (κτίσεως ) God made " (ἐποίησεν ). So in Eph 2:10 : " We are His workmanship (ποίημα ), created (κτισθέντες ) in Christ Jesus." Here the distinction is between the absolute being expressed by ἦν (see on Joh 1:1), and the coming into being of creation (ἐγένετο ). The same contrast occurs in Joh 1:6, Joh 1:9. " A man sent from God came into being " (ἐγένετο ); " the true Light was " (ἦν ).

" The main conception of creation which is present in the writings of St. John is expressed by the first notice which he makes of it: All things came into being through the Word . This statement sets aside the notions of eternal matter and of inherent evil in matter. 'There was when' the world 'was not' (Joh 17:5, Joh 17:24); and, by implication, all things as made were good. The agency of the Word, 'who was God,' again excludes both the idea of a Creator essentially inferior to God, and the idea of an abstract Monotheism in which there is no living relation between the creature and the Creator; for as all things come into being 'through' the Word, so they are supported 'in' Him (Joh 1:3; compare Col 1:16 sq.; Heb 1:3). And yet more, the use of the term ἐγένετο , came into being , as distinguished from ἐκτίσθη , were created , suggests the thought that creation is to be regarded (according to our apprehension) as a manifestation of a divine law of love. Thus creation ( all things came into being through Him ) answers to the Incarnation ( the Word became flesh ). All the unfolding and infolding of finite being to the last issue lies in the fulfillment of His will who is love" (Westcott, on 1Jo 2:17).

Vincent: Joh 1:3 - By Him By Him ( δἰ αὐτοῦ ) Literally, through him. The preposition διά is generally used to denote the working of God through some ...

By Him ( δἰ αὐτοῦ )

Literally, through him. The preposition διά is generally used to denote the working of God through some secondary agency, as διὰ τοῦ προφήτου , through the prophet (Mat 1:22, on which see note). It is the preposition by which the relation of Christ to creation is usually expressed (see 1Co 8:6; Col 1:16; Heb 1:2), though it is occasionally used of the Father (Heb 2:10; Rom 11:36, and Gal 1:1, where it is used of both). Hence, as Godet remarks, it " does not lower the Word to the rank of a simple instrument," but merely implies a different relation to creation on the part of the Father and the Son.

Vincent: Joh 1:3 - Without Without ( χωρὶς ) Literally, apart from . Compare Joh 15:5.

Without ( χωρὶς )

Literally, apart from . Compare Joh 15:5.

Vincent: Joh 1:3 - Was not anything made that was made Was not anything made that was made ( ἐγένετο οὐδὲ ἕν ὁ γέγονεν ). Many authorities place the period after ...

Was not anything made that was made ( ἐγένετο οὐδὲ ἕν ὁ γέγονεν ).

Many authorities place the period after ἕν , and join ὁ γένονεν with what follows, rendering, " without Him was not anything made. That which hath been made was life in Him."

Vincent: Joh 1:3 - Made Made ( ἐγένετο ) As before, came into being .

Made ( ἐγένετο )

As before, came into being .

Vincent: Joh 1:3 - Not anything Not anything ( οὐδὲ ἓν ) Literally, not even one thing . Compare on πάντα ( all things ) at the beginning of this ...

Not anything ( οὐδὲ ἓν )

Literally, not even one thing . Compare on πάντα ( all things ) at the beginning of this verse.

Vincent: Joh 1:3 - That was made That was made ( ὁ γέγονεν ) Rev., more correctly, that hath been made , observing the force of the perfect tense as distinguis...

That was made ( ὁ γέγονεν )

Rev., more correctly, that hath been made , observing the force of the perfect tense as distinguished from the aorist (ἐγένετο ) The latter tense points back to the work of creation considered as a definite act or series of acts in the beginning of time. The perfect tense indicates the continuance of things created; so that the full idea is, that which hath been made and exists . The combination of a positive and negative clause (compare Joh 1:20) is characteristic of John's style, as also of James'. See note on " wanting nothing," Jam 1:4.

Vincent: Joh 1:4 - In Him was life In Him was life ( ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἦν ) He was the fountain of life - physical, moral, and eternal - its principle and source...

In Him was life ( ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἦν )

He was the fountain of life - physical, moral, and eternal - its principle and source. Two words for life are employed in the New Testament: βίος and ζωὴ . The primary distinction is that ζωὴ means existence as contrasted with death, and βίος , the period, means, or manner of existence. Hence βίος is originally the higher word, being used of men, while ζωὴ is used of animals (ζῶα ). We speak therefore of the discussion of the life and habits of animals as zoo logy; and of accounts of men's lives as bio graphy. Animals have the vital principle in common with men, but men lead lives controlled by intellect and will, and directed to moral and intellectual ends. In the New Testament, βίος means either living , i.e., means of subsistence (Mar 12:44; Luk 8:43), or course of life , life regarded as an economy (Luk 8:14; 1Ti 2:2; 2Ti 2:4). Ζωὴ occurs in the lower sense of life, considered principally or wholly as existence (1Pe 3:10; Act 8:33; Act 17:25; Heb 7:3). There seems to be a significance in the use of the word in Luk 16:25 : " Thou in thy lifetime (ἐν τῇ ζωῇ σου ) receivedst thy good things;" the intimation being that the rich man's life had been little better than mere existence, and not life at all in the true sense. But throughout the New Testament ζωὴ is the nobler word, seeming to have changed places with βίος . It expresses the sum of mortal and eternal blessedness (Mat 25:46; Luk 18:30; Joh 11:25; Act 2:28; Rom 5:17; Rom 6:4), and that not only in respect of men, but also of God and Christ. So here. Compare Joh 5:26; Joh 14:6; 1Jo 1:2. This change is due to the gospel revelation of the essential connection of sin with death, and consequently, of life with holiness. " Whatever truly lives, does so because sin has never found place in it, or, having found place for a time, has since been overcome and expelled" (Trench).

Ζωὴ is a favorite word with John. See Joh 11:25; Joh 14:6; Joh 8:12; 1Jo 1:2; 1Jo 5:20; Joh 6:35, Joh 6:48; Joh 6:63; Rev 21:6; Rev 22:1, Rev 22:17; Rev 7:17; Joh 4:14; Rev 2:7; Rev 22:2, Rev 22:14, Rev 22:19; Joh 12:50; Joh 17:3; Joh 20:31; Joh 5:26; Joh 6:53, Joh 6:54; Joh 5:40; Joh 3:15, Joh 3:16, Joh 3:36; Joh 10:10; Joh 5:24; Joh 12:25; Joh 6:27; Joh 4:36; 1Jo 5:12, 1Jo 5:16; Joh 6:51.

Vincent: Joh 1:4 - Was the Light of men Was the Light of men ( ἦν τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων ) Passing from the thought of creation in general to that of mankin...

Was the Light of men ( ἦν τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων )

Passing from the thought of creation in general to that of mankind, who, in the whole range of created things, had a special capacity for receiving the divine. The Light - the peculiar mode of the divine operation upon men, conformably to their rational and moral nature which alone was fitted to receive the light of divine truth. It is not said that the Word was light, but that the life was the light. The Word becomes light through the medium of life, of spiritual life, just as sight is a function of physical life. Compare Joh 14:6, where Christ becomes the life through being the truth; and Mat 5:8, where the pure heart is the medium through which God is beheld. In whatever mode of manifestation the Word is in the world, He is the light of the world; in His works, in the dawn of creation; in the happy conditions of Eden; in the Patriarchs, in the Law and the Prophets, in His incarnation, and in the subsequent history of the Church. Compare Joh 9:5. Of men , as a class, and not of individuals only.

Vincent: Joh 1:5 - Shineth Shineth ( φαίσει ) Note the present tense, indicating not merely the present point of time, but that the light has gone forth continuousl...

Shineth ( φαίσει )

Note the present tense, indicating not merely the present point of time, but that the light has gone forth continuously and without interruption from the beginning until now, and is still shining. Hence φαίνει , shineth , denoting the peculiar property of light under all circumstances, and not φωτίζει , lighteneth or illuminateth , as in Joh 1:9. The shining does not always illuminate. Compare 1Jo 2:8.

Vincent: Joh 1:5 - In the darkness In the darkness ( ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ ) Σκοτία , darkness , is a word peculiar to later Greek, and used in the New Testamen...

In the darkness ( ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ )

Σκοτία , darkness , is a word peculiar to later Greek, and used in the New Testament almost exclusively by John. It occurs once in Mat 10:27, and once in Luk 12:3. The more common New Testament word is σκότος , from the same root, which appears in σκιά , shadow , and σκηνή , tent . Another word for darkness, ζόφος , occurs only in Peter and Jude (2Pe 2:4, 2Pe 2:17; Jud 1:6, Jud 1:13). See on 2Pe 2:4. The two words are combined in the phrase blackness of darkness (2Pe 2:17; Jud 1:13). In classical Greek σκότος , as distinguished from ζόφος , is the stronger term, denoting the condition of darkness as opposed to light in nature. Hence of death , of the condition before birth ; of night . Ζόφος , which is mainly a poetical term, signifies gloom , half-darkness , nebulousness . Here the stronger word is used. The darkness of sin is deep . The moral condition which opposes itself to divine light is utterly dark. The very light that is in it is darkness. Its condition is the opposite of that happy state of humanity indicated in Joh 1:4, when the life was the light of men; it is a condition in which mankind has become the prey of falsehood, folly and sin. Compare 1Jo 1:9-10. Rom 1:21, Rom 1:22.

Vincent: Joh 1:5 - Comprehended Comprehended ( κατέλαβεν ) Rev., apprehended . Wyc., took not it . See on Mar 9:18; see on Act 4:13. Comprehended , in the sens...

Comprehended ( κατέλαβεν )

Rev., apprehended . Wyc., took not it . See on Mar 9:18; see on Act 4:13. Comprehended , in the sense of the A.V., understood , is inadmissible. This meaning would require the middle voice of the verb (see Act 4:13; Act 10:34; Act 25:25). The Rev., apprehended , i.e., grasped or seized , gives the correct idea, which appears in Joh 12:35, " lest darkness come upon you," i.e., overtake and seize . The word is used in the sense of laying hold of so as to make one's own; hence, to take possession of . Used of obtaining the prize in the games (1Co 9:24); of attaining righteousness (Rom 9:30); of a demon taking possession of a man (Mar 9:18); of the day of the Lord overtaking one as a thief (1Th 5:4). Applied to darkness, this idea includes that of eclipsing or overwhelming . Hence some render overcame (Westcott, Moulton). John's thought is, that in the struggle between light and darkness, light was victorious. The darkness did not appropriate the light and eclipse it. " The whole phrase is indeed a startling paradox. The light does not banish the darkness; the darkness does not overpower the light. Light and darkness coexist in the world side by side" (Westcott).

Vincent: Joh 1:6 - There was a man There was a man ( ἐγένετο ἄνθρωπος ) Better, Rev., " there came a man," ἐγένετο denoting the historical man...

There was a man ( ἐγένετο ἄνθρωπος )

Better, Rev., " there came a man," ἐγένετο denoting the historical manifestation, the emergence of the Baptist into the economy of the revelation of the light. Compare Joh 3:1, there was a man (ἦν ἄνθρωπος ), where the mere fact that there was such a man as Nicodemus is stated. See remarks on ἦν , Joh 1:1. A distinction is also intimated between the eternal being (ἦν ) of the Word and the coming into being of his messenger.

Vincent: Joh 1:6 - Sent Sent ( ἀπεσταλμένος ) See on Mat 10:2, Mat 10:16; see on Mar 4:29; see on Luk 4:18. The verb carries the sense of sending an envo...

Sent ( ἀπεσταλμένος )

See on Mat 10:2, Mat 10:16; see on Mar 4:29; see on Luk 4:18. The verb carries the sense of sending an envoy with a special commission. Hence it is used of the mission of the Son of God, and of His apostles; the word apostle being directly derived from it. It is thus distinguished from πέμπω , to send , which denotes simply the relation of the sender to the sent. See on Joh 20:21, and see on 1Jo 3:5. The statement is not merely equivalent to was sent . The finite verb and the participle are to be taken separately, as stating two distinct facts, the appearance and the mission of John. There came a man, and that man was sent from God.

Vincent: Joh 1:6 - From God From God ( παρὰ Θεοῦ ) The preposition means from beside . It invests the messenger with more dignity and significance than if the...

From God ( παρὰ Θεοῦ )

The preposition means from beside . It invests the messenger with more dignity and significance than if the writer had said, " sent by God." It is used of the Holy Spirit, sent from the Father (Joh 15:26).

Vincent: Joh 1:6 - Whose name was John Whose name was John ( ὄνομα αὐτῷ Ἱωάνης ) Literally, the name unto him John . The first mention of John the...

Whose name was John ( ὄνομα αὐτῷ Ἱωάνης )

Literally, the name unto him John . The first mention of John the Baptist. The last occurs, Act 19:3. On the name, see on Mat 3:1; see on Luk 3:2. John never speaks of the Baptist as John the Baptist, like the other Evangelists, but simply as John. This is perfectly natural on the supposition that John himself is the author of the gospel, and is the other John of the narrative.

Vincent: Joh 1:7 - The same The same ( οὗτος ) Compare Joh 1:2, and the pronoun ἐκεῖνος , he , in Joh 1:8.

The same ( οὗτος )

Compare Joh 1:2, and the pronoun ἐκεῖνος , he , in Joh 1:8.

Vincent: Joh 1:7 - For a witness For a witness ( εἰς μαρτυρίαν ) Revised version of the New Testament, more correctly, for witness : a witness would be, μα...

For a witness ( εἰς μαρτυρίαν )

Revised version of the New Testament, more correctly, for witness : a witness would be, μάρτυρα as Act 1:8. The sense is for witness-bearing or to bear witness . On the word, see Act 1:22; 1Pe 5:1. It is one of John's characteristic words, occurring nearly fifty times in various forms in his Gospel, and thirty or forty times in the Epistles and Revelation. The emphatic development of the idea of witness is peculiar to this Gospel. " It evidently belongs to a time when men had begun to reason about the faith, and to analyze the grounds on which it rested" (Westcott). He develops the idea under the following forms: The witness of the Father (Joh 5:31, Joh 5:34, Joh 5:37); the witness of Christ himself (Joh 8:14; Joh 18:37); the witness of works (Joh 5:17, Joh 5:36; Joh 10:25; Joh 14:11; Joh 15:24); the witness of Scripture (Joh 5:39, Joh 5:40, Joh 5:46; Joh 1:46); the witness of the forerunner (Joh 1:7; Joh 5:33, Joh 5:35); the witness of the disciples (Joh 15:27; Joh 19:35; Joh 21:24; 1Jo 1:2; 1Jo 4:14); the witness of the Spirit (Joh 15:26; Joh 16:13, Joh 16:14; 1Jo 5:6). Note the emphasis attached to the idea here, by the twofold form in which it is put: first, generally, for witness , and then by giving the subject of the testimony.

Vincent: Joh 1:7 - All All The Baptist took up the work of the prophets, as respects their preparation for the universal extension of the divine call (Isa 49:6). His me...

All

The Baptist took up the work of the prophets, as respects their preparation for the universal extension of the divine call (Isa 49:6). His message was to men , without regard to nation, sect, descent, or other considerations.

Vincent: Joh 1:7 - Through him Through him John the Baptist.

Through him

John the Baptist.

Vincent: Joh 1:8 - He He ( ἐκεῖνος ) Emphatic, " It was not he who was the light." Compare Joh 2:21, " He (ἐκεῖνος ) spake," bringing out t...

He ( ἐκεῖνος )

Emphatic, " It was not he who was the light." Compare Joh 2:21, " He (ἐκεῖνος ) spake," bringing out the difference between Jesus' conception of destroying and rebuilding the temple, and that of his hearers.

Vincent: Joh 1:8 - That light That light ( τὸ φῶς ) Rev., the light. The emphatic that of the A.V. is unnecessary.

That light ( τὸ φῶς )

Rev., the light. The emphatic that of the A.V. is unnecessary.

Vincent: Joh 1:8 - Was sent Was sent Rev., came . Neither in the original text. Literally, " He was not the light, but in order that (ἵνα ) he might bear witne...

Was sent

Rev., came . Neither in the original text. Literally, " He was not the light, but in order that (ἵνα ) he might bear witness." So in Joh 9:3. " Neither hath this man sinned, nor his parents, but (he was born blind) that the works," etc. Compare Joh 15:25.

Vincent: Joh 1:9 - That was the true light, etc That was the true light, etc. This passage is differently interpreted. Some join coming (ἐρχόμενον ) with man (ἄνθρωπο...

That was the true light, etc.

This passage is differently interpreted. Some join coming (ἐρχόμενον ) with man (ἄνθρωπον ), and render every man that cometh , as A.V. Others join coming with light , and render, as Rev., the true light - coming into the world . The latter is the preferable rendering, and is justified by John's frequent use of the phrase coming into the world , with reference to our Lord. See Joh 3:19; Joh 6:14; Joh 9:39; Joh 11:27; Joh 12:46; Joh 16:28; Joh 18:37. In Joh 3:19 and Joh 12:46, it is used as here, in connection with light . Note especially the latter, where Jesus himself says, " I am come a light into the world ." Was (ἦν ) is to be taken independently, there was , and not united in a single conception with coming (ἐρχόμενον ), so as to mean was coming. The light was , existed, when the Baptist appeared as a witness. Up to the time of his appearance it was all along coming: its permanent being conjoined with a slow, progressive coming , a revelation " at sundry times and in diverse manners" (Heb 1:1). " From the first He was on His way to the world, advancing toward the incarnation by preparatory revelations" (Westcott). Render therefore as Rev., " There was the true light, even the light which lighteth every man, coming into the world."

Vincent: Joh 1:9 - True True ( ἀληθινὸν ) Wyc., very light (compare the Nicene creed, " very God of very God" ). This epithet is applied to light only ...

True ( ἀληθινὸν )

Wyc., very light (compare the Nicene creed, " very God of very God" ). This epithet is applied to light only here and 1Jo 2:8, and is almost confined to the writings of John. A different word, ἀληθής , also rendered true , occurs at Joh 3:33; Joh 5:31; Joh 8:13, and elsewhere. The difference is that ἀληθινόζ signifies true , as contrasted with false ; while ἀληθινός signifies what is real , perfect , and substantial , as contrasted with what is fanciful , shadowy , counterfeit , or merely symbolic . Thus God is ἀληθής (Joh 3:33) in that He cannot lie. He is ἀληθινός (1Th 1:9), as distinguished from idols. In Heb 8:2, the heavenly tabernacle is called ἀληθινή , as distinguished from the Mosaic tabernacle, which was a figure of the heavenly reality (Heb 9:24). Thus the expression true light denotes the realization of the original divine idea of the Light - the archetypal Light, as contrasted with all imperfect manifestations: " the Light which fulfilled all that had been promised by the preparatory, partial, even fictitious lights which had existed in the world before."

" Our little systems have their day;

They have their day and cease to be:

They are but broken lights of Thee,

And Thou, O Lord, art more than they."

Tennyson, In Memoriam .

Vincent: Joh 1:9 - Lighteth Lighteth ( φωτίζει ) See on shineth , Joh 1:5, and compare Luk 11:35, Luk 11:36.

Lighteth ( φωτίζει )

See on shineth , Joh 1:5, and compare Luk 11:35, Luk 11:36.

Vincent: Joh 1:9 - Every man Every man ( πάντα ἄνθρωπον ) Not collectively , as in Joh 1:7, but individually and personally .

Every man ( πάντα ἄνθρωπον )

Not collectively , as in Joh 1:7, but individually and personally .

Vincent: Joh 1:9 - The world The world ( τὸν κόσμον ) As in Joh 1:3, the creation was designated in its several details by πάντα , all things ,...

The world ( τὸν κόσμον )

As in Joh 1:3, the creation was designated in its several details by πάντα , all things , so here, creation is regarded in its totality , as an ordered whole. See on Act 17:24; see on Jam 3:6. Four words are used in the New Testament for world :

(1) γῇ , land , ground , territory , the earth , as distinguished from the heavens. The sense is purely physical.

(2) οἰκουμένη , which is a participle, meaning inhabited , with γῆ , earth , understood, and signifies the earth as the abode of men; the whole inhabited world. See on Mat 24:14; see on Luk 2:1. Also in a physical sense, though used once of " the world to come" (Heb 2:5).

(3) αἰών , essentially time , as the condition under which all created things exist, and the measure of their existence: a period of existence; a lifetime; a generation; hence, a long space of time; an age , era , epoch , period of a dispensation . On this primary, physical sense there arises a secondary sense, viz., all that exists in the world under the conditions of time . From this again develops a more distinctly ethical sense, the course and current of this world's affairs (compare the expression, the times ), and this course as corrupted by sin; hence the evil world . So Gal 1:4; 2Co 4:4.

(4) κόσμος , which follows a similar line of development from the physical to the ethical sense; meaning (a) ornament , arrangement , order (1Pe 3:3); (b) the sum-total of the material universe considered as a system (Mat 13:35; Joh 17:5; Act 17:24; Phi 2:15). Compare Plato. " He who is incapable of communion is also incapable of friendship. And philosophers tell us, Callicles, that communion and friendship and orderliness and temperance and justice bind together heaven and earth and gods and men, and that this universe is therefore called Cosmos, or order, not disorder or misrule" (" Gorgias," 508). (c) That universe as the abode of man (Joh 16:21; 1Jo 3:17). (d) The sum-total of humanity in the world; the human race (Joh 1:29; Joh 4:42). (e) In the ethical sense, the sum-total of human life in the ordered world , considered apart from , alienated from , and hostile to God , and of the earthly things which seduce from God (Joh 7:7; Joh 15:18; Joh 17:9, Joh 17:14; 1Co 1:20, 1Co 1:21; 2Co 7:10; Jam 4:4).

This word is characteristic of John, and pre-eminently in this last, ethical sense, in which it is rarely used by the Synoptists; while John nowhere uses αἰών of the moral order. In this latter sense the word is wholly strange to heathen literature, since the heathen world had no perception of the opposition between God and sinful man; between the divine order and the moral disorder introduced and maintained by sin.

Vincent: Joh 1:10 - He was in the world He was in the world Not merely at His advent, but before His incarnation no less than after it. See on Joh 1:4, Joh 1:5.

He was in the world

Not merely at His advent, but before His incarnation no less than after it. See on Joh 1:4, Joh 1:5.

Vincent: Joh 1:10 - Was made Was made ( ἐγένετο ) Came into being. See on Joh 1:3.

Was made ( ἐγένετο )

Came into being. See on Joh 1:3.

Vincent: Joh 1:10 - By Him. Or through Him By Him. Or through Him (διά ) See on Joh 1:3.

By Him. Or through Him (διά )

See on Joh 1:3.

Vincent: Joh 1:10 - Knew Knew ( ἔγνω ) Recognized. Though He was in the world and was its Creator, yet the world did not recognize him. This is the relation of id...

Knew ( ἔγνω )

Recognized. Though He was in the world and was its Creator, yet the world did not recognize him. This is the relation of ideas in these three clauses, but John expresses this relation after the Hebrew manner, by simply putting the three side by side, and connecting them by καὶ , and . This construction is characteristic of John. Compare Joh 8:20, where the point of the passage is, that though Jesus was teaching publicly, where He might easily have been seized, yet no man attempted his seizure. This is expressed by two parallel clauses with the simple copulative. " These words spake Jesus," etc., " and no man laid hands on Him."

Vincent: Joh 1:10 - Him Him ( αὐτὸν ) The preceding him (αὐτοῦ ) is, in itself, ambiguous as to gender. So far as its form is concerned, it might be ...

Him ( αὐτὸν )

The preceding him (αὐτοῦ ) is, in itself, ambiguous as to gender. So far as its form is concerned, it might be neuter, in which case it would refer to the light , " the Word regarded as a luminous principle ," as it , in Joh 1:5. But αὐτὸν is masculine, Him , so that the Word now appears as a person . This determines the gender of the preceding αὐτοῦ .

On the enlightened and unenlightened nature, compare the allegory in Plato's " Republic," at the beginning of Book 7, where he pictures men confined from childhood in an underground den, chained so that they can only see before them, and with no light save from a fire behind them. They mistake shadows for substance, and echoes for voices. When they are liberated and compelled to look at the light, either of the fire or of the sun, their unaccustomed eyes are pained, and they imagine that the shadows which they formerly saw are truer than the real objects which are now shown them. Finally, they will be able to see the sun, and will recognize him as the giver of the seasons and years, and the guardian of all that is in the visible world. " When the eye of the soul is turned round, the whole soul must be turned round from the world of becoming into that of being, and of the brightest and best of being, or, in other words, of the good."

Notice also the appropriateness of the two verbs joined with the neuter and the masculine pronouns. In Joh 1:5, with it , the Word, as a principle of light , κατέλαβεν , apprehended . Here, with Him , the Word, as a person , ἔγνω , recognized .

Vincent: Joh 1:11 - He came He came ( ἦλθεν ) The narrative now passes from the general to the special action of the Word as the Light. The verb came , in the aori...

He came ( ἦλθεν )

The narrative now passes from the general to the special action of the Word as the Light. The verb came , in the aorist tense, denotes a definite act - the Incarnation. In Joh 1:10 the Word is described as in the world invisibly . Now He appears .

Vincent: Joh 1:11 - Unto His own Unto His own ( εἰς τὰ ἴδια ) Literally, his own things : see on Act 1:7. The Rev. follows the A.V. Wyc., into his own ...

Unto His own ( εἰς τὰ ἴδια )

Literally, his own things : see on Act 1:7. The Rev. follows the A.V. Wyc., into his own things . Render his own home , and compare Joh 16:32; Joh 19:27; Act 21:6. The reference is to the land of Israel, which is recognized as God's own in a peculiar sense. See Jer 2:7; Hos 9:3; Zec 2:12; Deu 7:6. Not a repetition of Joh 1:10. There is a progress in the narrative. He was in the world at large: then he came unto His own home.

Vincent: Joh 1:11 - His own His own ( οἱ ἴδια ) The masculine gender, as the preceding was neuter. That signified His own home or possessions , this His own ...

His own ( οἱ ἴδια )

The masculine gender, as the preceding was neuter. That signified His own home or possessions , this His own people . Rev., they that were His own .

Vincent: Joh 1:11 - Received Received ( παρέλαβον ) Most commonly in the New Testament of taking one along with another. See on Mat 4:5; see on Mat 17:1; see on Ac...

Received ( παρέλαβον )

Most commonly in the New Testament of taking one along with another. See on Mat 4:5; see on Mat 17:1; see on Act 16:33. But also of accepting or acknowledging one to be what he professes to be, and of receiving something transmitted, as 1Co 11:23; Gal 1:12, etc. Westcott thinks this latter sense is implied here; Christ having been offered by the teachers of Israel through John. Alford adopts the former sense; " expressing the personal assumption to one's self as a friend or companion." De Wette explains to receive into the house . Godet strains a point by explaining as welcomed . De Wette's explanation seems to agree best with his own home . Here again compare the nice choice of verbs: apprehended (κατέλαβεν ) the Light as a principle , and received (παρέλαβον ) the Light as a person and the Master of the house.

Vincent: Joh 1:12 - As many as As many as ( ὅσοι ) Denoting individuals , as οἱ ἴδιοι (Joh 1:11) signified the nation at large .

As many as ( ὅσοι )

Denoting individuals , as οἱ ἴδιοι (Joh 1:11) signified the nation at large .

Vincent: Joh 1:12 - Received Received ( ἔλαβον ) The simple verb of the compound παρέλαβον in Joh 1:11. The meaning of the two verbs is substantially th...

Received ( ἔλαβον )

The simple verb of the compound παρέλαβον in Joh 1:11. The meaning of the two verbs is substantially the same (so Alford, De Wette, and apparently Meyer), though some recognize a difference, as Milligan and Moulton, who render παρέλαβον accepted , and ἔλαβον received , and say that " the former lays emphasis upon the will that consented (or refused) to receive, while the latter brings before us the possession gained : so that the full meaning is, As many as by accepting Him, received Him." For the use of the simple verb, see Joh 5:43; Joh 13:20; Joh 19:6.

Vincent: Joh 1:12 - Power Power ( ἐξουσίαν ) Rev., the right . Six words are used for power in the:New Testament: βία , force , often oppressive, ex...

Power ( ἐξουσίαν )

Rev., the right . Six words are used for power in the:New Testament: βία , force , often oppressive, exhibiting itself in violence (Act 5:26; Act 27:41. Compare the kindred verb βιάζεται , Mat 11:12; " the kingdom of heaven is taken by violence ): δύναμις , natural ability (see on 2Pe 2:11): ἐνέργεια , energy , power in exercise ; only of superhuman power, good or evil. Used by Paul only, and chiefly in the Epistles of the Imprisonment (Eph 1:19; Eph 3:7; Col 2:12. Compare the kindred verb ἐνεργέω , to put forth power , and see on Mar 6:14; see on Jam 5:16): ἰσχύς , strength (see on 2Pe 2:11. Compare the kindred verb ἰσχύω , to be strong , and see on Luk 14:30; see on Luk 16:3): κράτος , might , only of God, relative and manifested power, dominion (Eph 1:19; Eph 6:10; 1Ti 6:16; 1Pe 4:11. Compare the kindred verb κρατέω , to have power , to be master of , and see on Mar 7:3; see on Act 3:11): ἐξουσία , liberty of action (ἔξεστι , it is lawful ), authority , delegated or arbitrary (Joh 5:27; Joh 10:18; Joh 17:2; Joh 19:10, Joh 19:11. See on Mar 2:10; see on Luk 20:20). Here, therefore, ἐξουσία is not merely possibility or ability , but legitimate right derived from a competent source - the Word.

Vincent: Joh 1:12 - To become To become ( γενέσθαι ) As those who are born (Joh 1:13. Compare Joh 3:3, and Mat 5:45).

To become ( γενέσθαι )

As those who are born (Joh 1:13. Compare Joh 3:3, and Mat 5:45).

Vincent: Joh 1:12 - Sons Sons ( τέκνα ) Rev., more correctly, children . Son is υἱός . Τέκνον , child (τίκτω , to bring forth ), d...

Sons ( τέκνα )

Rev., more correctly, children . Son is υἱός . Τέκνον , child (τίκτω , to bring forth ), denotes a relation based on community of nature , while υἱός , Son , may indicate only adoption and heirship . See Gal 4:7. Except in Rev 21:7, which is a quotation, John never uses υἱός to describe the relation of Christians to God, since he regards their position not as a result of adoption , but of a new life . Paul, on the other hand, regards the relation from the legal standpoint, as adoption, imparting a new dignity and relation (Rom 8:15; Gal 4:5, Gal 4:6). See also Jam 1:18; 1Pe 1:3, 1Pe 1:23, where the point of view is John's rather than Paul's. Τέκνον , indicating the relationship of man to God, occurs in Joh 1:12; Joh 11:52; 1Jo 3:1, 1Jo 3:2, 1Jo 3:10; 1Jo 5:2, and always in the plural.

Vincent: Joh 1:12 - Believe on Believe on ( πιστευούσιν εἰς ) The present participle, believing , indicates the present and continuous activity of faith. The...

Believe on ( πιστευούσιν εἰς )

The present participle, believing , indicates the present and continuous activity of faith. The word is used by John, sometimes with the dative case simply meaning to believe a person or thing; i . e ., to believe that they are true or speak the truth. Thus, to believe the Scripture (Joh 2:22); believe me (Joh 4:21); believe Moses , his writings , my words (Joh 4:46). At other times with a preposition, εἰς , into , which is rendered believe in , or believe on . So here, Joh 6:29; Joh 8:30; 1Jo 5:10. See the two contrasted in Joh 6:29, Joh 6:30; Joh 8:30, Joh 8:31; 1Jo 5:10. To believe in , or on , is more than mere acceptance of a statement. It is so to accept a statement or a person as to rest upon them, to trust them practically; to draw upon and avail one's self of all that is offered to him in them. Hence to believe on the Lord Jesus Christ is not merely to believe the facts of His historic life or of His saving energy as facts, but to accept Him as Savior, Teacher, Sympathizer, Judge; to rest the soul upon Him for present and future salvation, and to accept and adopt His precepts and example as binding upon the life.

Vincent: Joh 1:12 - Name Name ( ὄνομα ) See on Mat 28:19. Expressing the sum of the qualities which mark the nature or character of a person. To believe in the n...

Name ( ὄνομα )

See on Mat 28:19. Expressing the sum of the qualities which mark the nature or character of a person. To believe in the name of Jesus Christ the Son of God, is to accept as true the revelation contained in that title. Compare Joh 20:31.

Vincent: Joh 1:13 - Which Which ( ὃι ) Referring to children of God .

Which ( ὃι )

Referring to children of God .

Vincent: Joh 1:13 - Were born Were born ( ἐγεννήθνσαν ) Literally, were begotten . The phrase γεννηθήναι ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ , to be ...

Were born ( ἐγεννήθνσαν )

Literally, were begotten . The phrase γεννηθήναι ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ , to be born or begotten of God , occurs only here in the Gospel, and several times in the First Epistle. It is peculiar to John.

There is a progress of thought in the three following clauses, describing the proper origin of a believer's new life. Children of God are begotten, not of blood , nor of the will of the flesh , nor of the will of man . " The new birth is not brought about by descent , by desire , or by human power " (Westcott).

Vincent: Joh 1:13 - Of blood Of blood ( ἐξ αἱμάτων ) Literally, of bloods . The plural is variously explained: by some as indicating the duality of the sexe...

Of blood ( ἐξ αἱμάτων )

Literally, of bloods . The plural is variously explained: by some as indicating the duality of the sexes, by others of the multiplicity of ancestors. The best explanation seems to be afforded by a similar use of the plural in Plato, ἔτι ἐν γάλαξι τρεφόμενοι , " while still nourished by milks " (" Laws," 887). The fluids, blood or milk being represented as the sum-total of all their parts. Compare τὰ ὕδατα , the waters .

Vincent: Joh 1:14 - And the Word And the Word ( καὶ ) The simple copula as before; not yea , or namely , or therefore , but passing to a new statement concerning the Word...

And the Word ( καὶ )

The simple copula as before; not yea , or namely , or therefore , but passing to a new statement concerning the Word.

Vincent: Joh 1:14 - Was made flesh Was made flesh ( σὰρξ ἐγένετο ) Rev., " became flesh ." The same verb as in Joh 1:3. All things became through Him; He in ...

Was made flesh ( σὰρξ ἐγένετο )

Rev., " became flesh ." The same verb as in Joh 1:3. All things became through Him; He in turn became flesh. " He became that which first became through Him." In becoming, He did not cease to be the Eternal Word. His divine nature was not laid aside. In becoming flesh He did not part with the rational soul of man. Retaining all the essential properties of the Word, He entered into a new mode of being, not a new being .

The word σὰρξ , flesh , describes this new mode of being. It signifies human nature in and according to its corporal manifestation . Here, as opposed to the purely divine, and to the purely immaterial nature of the Word. He did not first become a personality on becoming flesh. The prologue throughout conceives Him as a personality from the very beginning - from eternal ages. The phrase became flesh , means more than that He assumed a human body . He assumed human nature entire , identifying Himself with the race of man, having a human body, a human soul, and a human spirit. See Joh 12:27; Joh 11:33; Joh 13:21; Joh 19:30. He did not assume, for a time merely, humanity as something foreign to Himself The incarnation was not a mere accident of His substantial being. " He became flesh, and did not clothe Himself in flesh." Compare, on the whole passage, 1Jo 4:2; 2Jo 1:7.

Vincent: Joh 1:14 - Dwelt Dwelt ( ἐσκήνωσεν ) Literally, tabernacled , fixed , or had His tabernacle : from σκηνή , a tent or tabernacle . ...

Dwelt ( ἐσκήνωσεν )

Literally, tabernacled , fixed , or had His tabernacle : from σκηνή , a tent or tabernacle . The verb is used only by John: in the Gospel only here, and in Rev 7:15; Rev 12:12; Rev 13:6; Rev 21:3. It occurs in classical writings, as in Xenophon, ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ ἐσκήνου , he pitched his tent in the plain (" Anabasis," vii., 4, 11). So Plato, arguing against the proposition that the unjust die by the inherent destructive power of evil, says that " injustice which murders others keeps the murderer alive - aye, and unsleeping too; οὕτω πόῤῥω του ὡς ἔοικεν ἐσκήνωται τοῦ θανάσιμος εἶναι , i.e., literally, so far has her tent been spread from being a house of death" (" Republic," 610). The figure here is from the Old Testament (Lev 27:11; 2Sa 7:6; Psa 78:67 sqq.; Eze 37:27). The tabernacle was the dwelling-place of Jehovah; the meeting-place of God and Israel. So the Word came to men in the person of Jesus. As Jehovah adopted for His habitation a dwelling like that of the people in the wilderness, so the Word assumed a community of nature with mankind, an embodiment like that of humanity at large, and became flesh. " That which was from the beginning, we heard, we saw, we beheld, we handled. Our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ" (1Jo 1:1-3. Compare Phi 2:7, Phi 2:8).

Some find in the word tabernacle , a temporary structure (see the contrast between σκῆνος , tabernacle , and οἰκοδομή , building , in 2Co 5:1), a suggestion of the transitoriness of our Lord's stay upon earth; which may well be, although the word does not necessarily imply this; for in Rev 21:3, it is said of the heavenly Jerusalem " the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will set up His tabernacle (σκηνώσει ) with them."

Dante alludes to the incarnation in the seventh canto of the " Paradiso:"

- " the human species down below

Lay sick for many centuries in great error,

Till to descend it pleased the Word of God

To where the nature, which from its own Maker

Estranged itself, He joined to Him in person

By the sole act of His eternal love."

Vincent: Joh 1:14 - Among us Among us ( ἐν ἡμῖν ) In the midst of us. Compare Gen 24:3, Sept., " the Canaanites, with whom I dwell (μεθ ' ὧν ἐ...

Among us ( ἐν ἡμῖν )

In the midst of us. Compare Gen 24:3, Sept., " the Canaanites, with whom I dwell (μεθ ' ὧν ἐγὼ οἰκῶ ἐν αὐτοῖς )." The reference is to the eyewitnesses of our Lord's life. " According as the spectacle presents itself to the mind of the Evangelist, and in the words among us takes the character of the most personal recollection, it becomes in him the object of a delightful contemplation" (Godet).

The following words, as far as and including Father , are parenthetical. The unbroken sentence is: " The Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth."

Vincent: Joh 1:14 - We beheld We beheld ( ἐθεασάμεθα ) Compare Luk 9:32; 2Pe 2:16; 1Jo 1:1; 1Jo 4:14. See on Mat 11:7; see on Mat 23:5. The word denotes calm, co...

We beheld ( ἐθεασάμεθα )

Compare Luk 9:32; 2Pe 2:16; 1Jo 1:1; 1Jo 4:14. See on Mat 11:7; see on Mat 23:5. The word denotes calm, continuous contemplation of an object which remains before the spectator.

Vincent: Joh 1:14 - Glory Glory ( δόξαν ) Not the absolute glory of the Eternal Word, which could belong only to His pre-existent state, and to the conditions sub...

Glory ( δόξαν )

Not the absolute glory of the Eternal Word, which could belong only to His pre-existent state, and to the conditions subsequent to his exaltation; but His glory revealed under human limitations both in Himself and in those who beheld Him. The reference is again to the Old Testament manifestations of the divine glory, in the wilderness (Exo 16:10; Exo 24:16, etc.); in the temple (1Ki 8:11); to the prophets (Isa 6:3; Eze 1:28). The divine glory flashed out in Christ from time to time, in His transfiguration (Luk 9:31; compare 2Pe 1:16, 2Pe 1:17) and His miracles (Joh 2:11; Joh 11:4, Joh 11:40), but appeared also in His perfect life and character, in His fulfillment of the absolute idea of manhood.

Vincent: Joh 1:14 - Glory Glory Without the article. This repetition of the word is explanatory. The nature of the glory is defined by what follows.

Glory

Without the article. This repetition of the word is explanatory. The nature of the glory is defined by what follows.

Vincent: Joh 1:14 - As As ( ὡς ) A particle of comparison. Compare Rev 5:6, " a lamb as though it had been slain;" also Rev 13:3.

As ( ὡς )

A particle of comparison. Compare Rev 5:6, " a lamb as though it had been slain;" also Rev 13:3.

Vincent: Joh 1:14 - Of the only begotten of the Father Of the only begotten of the Father ( μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρὸς ) Rev., " from the Father." The glory was like , corres...

Of the only begotten of the Father ( μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρὸς )

Rev., " from the Father." The glory was like , corresponds in nature to, the glory of an only Son sent from a Father. It was the glory of one who partook of His divine Father's essence; on whom the Father's love was visibly lavished, and who represented the Father as His ambassador. The word μονογενής , only begotten (De Wette and Westcott, " only born " ) is used in the New Testament of a human relationship (Luk 7:12; Luk 8:42; Luk 9:38). In the Septuagint it answers to darling , Hebrew, only one , in Psalms 21:20, A.V. Psa 22:20; and to desolate in Psalms 24:16, A.V. Psa 25:16. With the exception of the passages cited above, and Heb 11:17, it occurs in the New Testament only in the writings of John, and is used only of Christ. With this word should be compared Paul's πρωτότοκος , first born (Rom 8:29; Col 1:15, Col 1:18), which occurs but once in John (Rev 1:5), and in Heb 1:6; Heb 11:28; Heb 12:23. John's word marks the relation to the Father as unique, stating the fact in itself. Paul's word places the eternal Son in relation to the universe. Paul's word emphasizes His existence before created things; John's His distinctness from created things. Μονογενής distinguishes between Christ as the only Son, and the many children (τέκνα ) of God; and further, in that the only Son did not become (γενέσθαι ) such by receiving power, by adoption, or by moral generation, but was (ἦν ) such in the beginning with God. The fact set forth does not belong to the sphere of His incarnation, but of His eternal being. The statement is anthropomorphic, and therefore cannot fully express the metaphysical relation.

Of the Father is properly rendered by Rev., " from the Father," thus giving the force of παρά (see on from God , Joh 1:6). The preposition does not express the idea of generation , which would be given by ἐκ or by the simple genitive, but of mission - sent from the Father, as John from God (see Joh 6:46; Joh 7:29; Joh 16:27; Joh 17:8). The correlative of this is Joh 1:18, " who is in the bosom (εἰς τὸν κόλπον ) of the Father;" literally, " into the bosom," the preposition εἰς signifying who has gone into and is there ; thus viewing the Son as having returned to the Father (but see on Joh 1:18).

Vincent: Joh 1:14 - Full of grace and truth Full of grace and truth ( πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας ) This is connected with the main subject of the sentence...

Full of grace and truth ( πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας )

This is connected with the main subject of the sentence: " The Word - full of grace and truth." A common combination in the Old Testament (see Gen 24:27, Gen 24:49; Gen 32:10; Exo 34:6; Psa 40:10, Psa 40:11; Psa 61:7). In these two words the character of the divine revelation is summed up. " Grace corresponds with the idea of the revelation of God as Love (1Jo 4:8, 1Jo 4:16) by Him who is Life; and Truth with that of the revelation of God as Light (1Jo 1:5) by Him who is Himself Light" (Westcott). Compare Joh 1:17. On Grace , see on Luk 1:30.

Vincent: Joh 1:15 - Bare witness As Joh 1:14 is parallel to Joh 1:1-5, so this verse is parallel to Joh 1:6-8, but with an advance of thought. Joh 1:6-8 set forth the Baptist's witne...

As Joh 1:14 is parallel to Joh 1:1-5, so this verse is parallel to Joh 1:6-8, but with an advance of thought. Joh 1:6-8 set forth the Baptist's witness to the Word as the general light of men. This verse gives the Baptist's witness to the personal Word become flesh.

Bare witness ( μαρτυρεῖ )

Present tense. Rev., correctly, beareth witness . The present tense describes the witness of the Baptist as abiding. The fact of the Word's becoming flesh is permanently by his testimony.

Vincent: Joh 1:15 - Cried Cried ( κέκραγεν ) See on Mar 5:5; see on Mar 9:24; see on Luk 18:39. The verb denotes an inarticulate utterance as distinguished from ...

Cried ( κέκραγεν )

See on Mar 5:5; see on Mar 9:24; see on Luk 18:39. The verb denotes an inarticulate utterance as distinguished from words. When used is connection with articulate speech, it is joined with λέγειν or εἰπεῖν , to say , as Luk 7:28, cried , saying . Compare Luk 7:37; Luk 12:44. The crying corresponds with the Baptist's description of himself as a voice (φωνή , sound or tone ), Mar 1:3; Luk 3:4; Joh 1:23. The verb is in the perfect tense, but with the usual classical sense of the present.

Vincent: Joh 1:15 - Was He Was He ( ἦν ) The imperfect tense, pointing back to a testimony historically past.

Was He ( ἦν )

The imperfect tense, pointing back to a testimony historically past.

Vincent: Joh 1:15 - After me After me ( ὀπίσω μου ) Literally, behind me: in His human manifestation.

After me ( ὀπίσω μου )

Literally, behind me: in His human manifestation.

Vincent: Joh 1:15 - Is preferred before me Is preferred before me ( ἔμπροσθέν μου γέγονεν ) Literally, " is become ," so Rev., " or is here (compare Joh ...

Is preferred before me ( ἔμπροσθέν μου γέγονεν )

Literally, " is become ," so Rev., " or is here (compare Joh 6:25) before me." Before is used of time , not of dignity or rank . The expression is enigmatical in form: " my successor is my predecessor." The idea of the superior dignity of Christ is not a necessary inference from His coming after John, as, on that interpretation, the words would imply. On the contrary, the herald who precedes is inferior in dignity to the Prince whom he announces.

Vincent: Joh 1:15 - For For ( ὅτι ) Or because . The reason for the preceding statement: the key to the enigma.

For ( ὅτι )

Or because . The reason for the preceding statement: the key to the enigma.

Vincent: Joh 1:15 - He was before me He was before me ( πρῶτός μου ἦν ) Literally, first in regard of me (Rev., in margin). The reference to dignity woul...

He was before me ( πρῶτός μου ἦν )

Literally, first in regard of me (Rev., in margin). The reference to dignity would require ἐστίν , is (see Mat 3:11, " is mightier" ). A similar expression occurs in Joh 15:18 : the world hated me before (it hated) you (πρῶτον ὑμῶν ). The reference is to the pre-existence of Christ. When speaking of Christ's historic manifestation, is become before me , the Baptist says γέγονεν . When speaking of Christ's eternal being, He was before me , he uses ἦν . The meaning is, then, that Christ, in His human manifestation, appeared after John, but, as the Eternal Word, preceded him, because He existed before him. Compare Joh 8:58.

Vincent: Joh 1:16 - And And ( καὶ ) But the correct reading is ὅτι , because , thus connecting the following sentence with " full of grace and truth" in ...

And ( καὶ )

But the correct reading is ὅτι , because , thus connecting the following sentence with " full of grace and truth" in Joh 1:14. We know Him as full of grace and truth, because we have received of His fullness .

Vincent: Joh 1:16 - Of His fulness Of His fulness ( ἐκ τοῦ πληρώματος αὐτοῦ ) These and the succeeding words are the Evangelist's, not the Baptist's. ...

Of His fulness ( ἐκ τοῦ πληρώματος αὐτοῦ )

These and the succeeding words are the Evangelist's, not the Baptist's. The word fullness (πλήρωμα ) is found here only in John, but frequently occurs in the writings of Paul, whose use of it in Ephesians and Colossians illustrates the sense in John; these being Asiatic churches which fell, later, within the sphere of John's influence. The word is akin to πλήρης , full (Joh 1:14), and to πληροῦν , to fill or complete ; and means that which is complete in itself , plenitude , entire number or quantity . Thus the crew of a ship is called πλήρωμα , its complement . Aristophanes (" Wasps," 660), " τούτων πλήρωμα , the sum-total of these, is nearly two thousand talents." Herodotus (iii., 22) says that the full term of man's life among the Persians is eighty years; and Aristotle (" Polities," iv., 4) refers to Socrates as saying that the eight classes, representing different industries in the state, constitute the pleroma of the state (see Plato, " Republic," 371). In Eph 1:23, Paul says that the church is the pleroma of Christ: i . e ., the plenitude of the divine graces in Christ is communicated to the Church as His body, making all the body, supplied and knit together through the joints and bands, to increase with the increase of God (Col 2:19; compare Eph 4:16). Similarly he prays (Eph 3:19) that the brethren may be filled unto all the pleroma of God: i . e ., that they may be filled with the fullness which God imparts. More closely related to John's use of the term here are Col 1:19, " It pleased the Father that in Him (Christ) should all the fullness (τὸ πλήρωμα , note the article) dwell;" and Col 2:9, Col 2:10, " In Him dwelleth all the pleroma of the Godhead bodily (i.e., corporally , becoming incarnate ), and in Him ye are fulfilled (πεπληρωμένοι )." This declares that the whole aggregate of the divine powers and graces appeared in the incarnate Word, and corresponds with John's statement that " the Word became flesh and tabernacled among men, full of grace and truth;" while " ye are fulfilled " answers to John's " of His fullness we all received." Hence John's meaning here is that Christians receive from the divine completeness whatever each requires for the perfection of his character and for the accomplishment of his work (compare Joh 15:15; Joh 17:22).

Vincent: Joh 1:16 - Have - received Have - received ( ἐλάβομεν ) Rev., we received : rendering the aorist tense more literally.

Have - received ( ἐλάβομεν )

Rev., we received : rendering the aorist tense more literally.

Vincent: Joh 1:16 - Grace for grace Grace for grace ( χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος ) The preposition ἀντί originally means over against ; opposite; befo...

Grace for grace ( χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος )

The preposition ἀντί originally means over against ; opposite; before (in a local sense). Through the idea of placing one thing over against another is developed that of exchange . Thus Herodotus (iii., 59), " They bought the island, ἀντὶ χρημάτων , for money." So Mat 5:38, " An eye for (ἀντὶ ) an eye," etc. This idea is at the root of the peculiar sense in which the preposition is used here. We received, not New Testament grace instead of Old Testament grace; nor simply, grace added to grace; but new grace imparted as the former measure of grace has been received and improved. " To have realized and used one measure of grace, was to have gained a larger measure (as it were) in exchange for it." Consequently, continuous , unintermitted grace. The idea of the development of one grace from another is elaborated by Peter (2Pe 1:5), on which see notes. Winer cites a most interesting parallel from Philo. " Wherefore, having provided and dispensed the first graces (χάριτας ), before their recipients have waxed wanton through satiety, he subsequently bestows different graces in exchange for (ἀντὶ ) those, and a third supply for the second, and ever new ones in exchange for the older."

Vincent: Joh 1:17 - For For ( ὅτι ) Because. Giving the ground of the statement that Christians received new and richer gifts of grace: the ground being that the ...

For ( ὅτι )

Because. Giving the ground of the statement that Christians received new and richer gifts of grace: the ground being that the law of Moses was a limited and narrow enactment, while Jesus Christ imparted the fullness of grace and truth which was in Him (Joh 1:14). Compare Rom 4:15; Rom 10:4; Gal 3:10.

Vincent: Joh 1:17 - Was given Was given ( ἐδόθη ) A special gift serving a special and preparatory purpose with reference to the Gospel: the word being appropriate to...

Was given ( ἐδόθη )

A special gift serving a special and preparatory purpose with reference to the Gospel: the word being appropriate to " an external and positive institution."

Vincent: Joh 1:17 - By Moses By Moses ( διά ) Literally, through . See on by Him , Joh 1:3.

By Moses ( διά )

Literally, through . See on by Him , Joh 1:3.

Vincent: Joh 1:17 - Grace and truth came Grace and truth came ( ἐγένετο ) Came into being as the development of the divine plan inaugurated in the law, and unfolding the signi...

Grace and truth came ( ἐγένετο )

Came into being as the development of the divine plan inaugurated in the law, and unfolding the significance of the gift of the law. They came into being not absolutely , but in relation to mankind. Compare 1Co 1:30, where it is said of Christ, He was made (properly, became , εγενήθη ) unto us wisdom and righteousness, etc. Note the article with grace and truth ; the grace and the truth; that which in the full sense is grace and truth. Grace occurs nowhere else in John, except in salutations (2Jo 1:3; Rev 1:4; Rev 22:21).

Vincent: Joh 1:17 - Jesus Christ Jesus Christ The Being who has been present in the Evangelist's mind from the opening of the Gospel is now first named. The two clauses, " the la...

Jesus Christ

The Being who has been present in the Evangelist's mind from the opening of the Gospel is now first named. The two clauses, " the law was given," " grace and truth came," without the copula or qualifying particles, illustrate the parallelism which is characteristic of John's style (see on Joh 1:10).

Vincent: Joh 1:18 - No man hath seen God at any time No man hath seen God at any time ( Θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε ) God is first in the Greek order, as emphatic...

No man hath seen God at any time ( Θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε )

God is first in the Greek order, as emphatic: " God hath no man ever seen." As to the substance of the statement, compare Joh 3:11; Exo 33:20; 1Jo 4:12. Manifestations of God to Old Testament saints were only partial and approximate (Exo 33:23). The seeing intended here is seeing of the divine essence rather than of the divine person, which also is indicated by the absence of the article from Θεὸν , God . In this sense even Christ was not seen as God. The verb ὁράω , to see , denotes a physical act, but emphasizes the mental discernment accompanying it, and points to the result rather than to the act of vision. In 1Jo 1:1; 1Jo 4:12, 1Jo 4:14, θεάομαι is used, denoting calm and deliberate contemplation (see on Joh 1:14). In Joh 12:45, we have θεωρέω , to behold (see on Mar 5:15; see on Luk 10:18). Both θεάομαι and θεωρέω imply deliberate contemplation, but the former is gazing with a view to satisfy the eye, while the latter is beholding more critically, with an inward spiritual or mental interest in the thing beheld, and with a view to acquire knowledge about it. " Θεωρεῖν would be used of a general officially reviewing or inspecting an army; θεᾶσθαι of a lay spectator looking at the parade" (Thayer).

Vincent: Joh 1:18 - The only begotten son The only begotten son ( ὁ μονογενὴς υἱὸς ) Several of the principal manuscripts and a great mass of ancient evidence suppor...

The only begotten son ( ὁ μονογενὴς υἱὸς )

Several of the principal manuscripts and a great mass of ancient evidence support the reading μονογενὴς Θεὸς , " God only begotten."

Another and minor difference in reading relates to the article, which is omitted from μονογενὴς by most of the authorities which favor Θεὸς . Whether we read the only begotten Son , or God only begotten , the sense of the passage is not affected. The latter reading merely combines in one phrase the two attributes of the word already indicated - God (Joh 1:1), only begotten (Joh 1:14); the sense being one who was both God and only begotten .

Vincent: Joh 1:18 - Who is in the bosom Who is in the bosom ( ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον ) The expression ὁ ὢν , who is , or the one being , is expl...

Who is in the bosom ( ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον )

The expression ὁ ὢν , who is , or the one being , is explained in two ways: 1. As a timeless present, expressing the inherent and eternal relation of the Son to the Father. 2. As interpreted by the preposition. εἰς , in , literally, into , and expressing the fact of Christ's return to the Father's glory after His incarnation: " The Son who has entered into the Father's bosom and is there." In the former case it is an absolute description of the nature of the Son: in the latter, the emphasis is on the historic fact of the ascension, though with a reference to his eternal abiding with the Father from thenceforth.

While the fact of Christ's return to the Father's glory may have been present to the writer's mind, and have helped to determine the form of the statement, to emphasize that fact in this connection would seem less consistent with the course of thought in the Prologue than the other interpretation: since John is declaring in this sentence the competency of the incarnate Son to manifest God to mankind. The ascension of Christ is indeed bound up with that truth, but is not, in the light of the previous course of thought, its primary factor. That is rather the eternal oneness of the Word with God ; which, though passing through the phase of incarnation, nevertheless remains unbroken (Joh 3:13). Thus Godet, aptly: " The quality attributed to Jesus, of being the perfect revealer of the divine Being, is founded on His intimate and perfect relation to God Himself."

The phrase, in the bosom of the Father , depicts this eternal relation as essentially a relation of love ; the figure being used of the relation of husband and wife (Deu 13:6); of a father to an infant child (Num 11:12), and of the affectionate protection and rest afforded to Lazarus in Paradise (Luk 16:23). The force of the preposition εἰς , into , according to the first interpretation of who is , is akin to that of " with God" (see on Joh 1:1); denoting an ever active relation, an eternal going forth and returning to the Father's bosom by the Son in His eternal work of love. He ever goes forth from that element of grace and love and returns to it. That element is His life. He is there " because He plunges into it by His unceasing action" (Godet).

Vincent: Joh 1:18 - He He ( ἐκεῖνος ) Strongly emphatic, and pointing to the eternal Son. This pronoun is used by John more frequently than by any other writ...

He ( ἐκεῖνος )

Strongly emphatic, and pointing to the eternal Son. This pronoun is used by John more frequently than by any other writer. It occurs seventy-two times, and not only as denoting the more distant subject, but as denoting and laying special stress on the person or thing immediately at hand, or possessing pre-eminently the quality which is immediately in question. Thus Jesus applies it to Himself as the person for whom the healed blind man is inquiring: " It is He (ἐκεῖνος ) that talketh with thee" (Joh 9:37). So here, " the only-begotten Son who is in the bosom of the Father - He hath declared Him."

Vincent: Joh 1:18 - Hath declared Hath declared ( ἐξηγήσατο ) Or, rendering the aorist strictly, He declared . From ἐκ , forth , and ἡγέομαι , to ...

Hath declared ( ἐξηγήσατο )

Or, rendering the aorist strictly, He declared . From ἐκ , forth , and ἡγέομαι , to lead the way . Originally, to lead or govern . Hence, like the Latin praeire verbis , to go before with words , to prescribe or dictate a form of words . To draw out in narrative , to recount or rehearse (see Act 15:14, and on Luk 24:35). To relate in full ; to interpret , or translate . Therefore ἐξήγησις , exegesis , is interpretation or explanation . The word ἐξηγητής was used by the Greeks of an expounder of oracles, dreams, omens, or sacred rites. Thus Croesus, finding the suburbs of Sardis alive with serpents, sent to the soothsayers (ἐξηγητὰς ) of Telmessus (Herodotus, i. 78). The word thus comes to mean a spiritual director . Plato calls Apollo the tutelary director (πατρῷος ἐξηγητής ) of religion (" Republic," 427), and says, " Let the priests be interpreters for life" (" Laws," 759). In the Septuagint the word is used of the magicians of Pharaoh's court (Gen 41:8, Gen 41:24), and the kindred verb of teaching or interpreting concerning leprosy (Lev 14:57). John's meaning is that the Word revealed or manifested and interpreted the Father to men. The word occurs only here in John's writings. Wyc. renders, He hath told out . These words conclude the Prologue.

The Historical Narrative now begins, and falls into two general divisions:

I. The Self-Revelation of Christ to the World (1:19-12:50)

II. The Self-Revelation of Christ to the Disciples (13:1-21:23)

Vincent: Joh 1:19 - This This ( αὕτη ) The following. This use of the pronoun, calling the reader's attention to what follows, and preparing him for it, is freque...

This ( αὕτη )

The following. This use of the pronoun, calling the reader's attention to what follows, and preparing him for it, is frequent in John. Sometimes the pronoun carries the sense of quality : of this character . See Joh 3:19; Joh 15:12; 1Jo 5:4, 1Jo 5:9, 1Jo 5:11, 1Jo 5:14.

Vincent: Joh 1:19 - Witness Witness ( μαρτυρία ) Testimony. See on Joh 1:7, and 1Pe 5:1.

Witness ( μαρτυρία )

Testimony. See on Joh 1:7, and 1Pe 5:1.

Vincent: Joh 1:19 - John John See on Joh 1:6. Note the article: the John previously mentioned.

John

See on Joh 1:6. Note the article: the John previously mentioned.

Vincent: Joh 1:19 - The Jews The Jews ( οἱ Ἱοὐδαῖοι ) This is a characteristic word in John. It occurs more than fifty times in his Gospel as his own expres...

The Jews ( οἱ Ἱοὐδαῖοι )

This is a characteristic word in John. It occurs more than fifty times in his Gospel as his own expression, while there are six instances of the formula King of the Jews used by Gentiles. In the Synoptic Gospels, on the other hand, to twelve instances of King of the Jews , there are but four passages in which the word Jews occurs. In Paul's writings it is comparatively rare, mostly in contrast with Greek , and both in contrast with Christianity. In Revelation it is found twice (Rev 2:9; Rev 3:9), of those who say they are Jews and are not, but are " of the synagogue of Satan" and " do lie."

John, in the Gospel, distinguishes between the multitude (ὁ ὄχλος ) and the Jews (Ἱουδαῖοι ). By the former he means the aggregate of the Jewish inhabitants of Palestine, the mass of the people, chiefly Galilaeans; by the latter, more particularly Judaeans, the leaders of Judaism in opposition to Jesus. The multitude are unsettled in conviction, inquisitive, despised by the Pharisees, inclined to listen to Jesus and to believe; moved by an impulse to make Him a king, escorting Him triumphantly into Jerusalem, and not appearing in the narrative of the trial and crucifixion. The Jews are tenacious of the expectation of a national Messiah. They represent the narrow, sectarian aspect of Judaism; they are the instigators and leaders of the opposition to Jesus, and to them His crucifixion is attributed. John uses the word where the other Evangelists speak of the opposers of Christ as Pharisees, Sadducees, elders, chief-priests, scribes, or lawyers. He recognizes the distinction between Pharisee and Sadducee, and though he does not mention the latter by name, he characterizes them by their position. Jesus is the key to the sense in which John employs the term Jews . He regards them in their relation to Him. The idea underlying the word is habitually that of separation from the character and privileges of a true Israelite through their rejection of Jesus.

Vincent: Joh 1:19 - Sent Sent ( ἀπέστειλαν ) As a deputation. See on Joh 1:6.

Sent ( ἀπέστειλαν )

As a deputation. See on Joh 1:6.

Vincent: Joh 1:19 - Priests and Levites Priests and Levites Representing the ecclesiastical element of the nation; the two classes employed in the temple service. See Jos 3:3; 2Ch 30:27...

Priests and Levites

Representing the ecclesiastical element of the nation; the two classes employed in the temple service. See Jos 3:3; 2Ch 30:27; Eze 44:15. The combination occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. These deputies probably came from the Sanhedrim.

Vincent: Joh 1:19 - To ask To ask ( ἵνα ἐρωτήσωσιν ) Literally, in order that they should ask . See on Mat 15:23.

To ask ( ἵνα ἐρωτήσωσιν )

Literally, in order that they should ask . See on Mat 15:23.

Vincent: Joh 1:19 - Who art thou Who art thou ( σὺ τίς εἶ ) Literally, thou , who art thou?

Who art thou ( σὺ τίς εἶ )

Literally, thou , who art thou?

Vincent: Joh 1:20 - He confessed and denied not He confessed and denied not John's characteristic combination of a positive and negative clause. See on Joh 1:3. Both verbs are used absolutely.

He confessed and denied not

John's characteristic combination of a positive and negative clause. See on Joh 1:3. Both verbs are used absolutely.

Vincent: Joh 1:20 - I am not the Christ I am not the Christ According to the proper reading, ἐγὼ , I , stands first in the Baptist's statement, the ὅτι having the force ...

I am not the Christ

According to the proper reading, ἐγὼ , I , stands first in the Baptist's statement, the ὅτι having the force merely of quotation marks. It is emphatic: " I am not the Christ, though the Christ is here." Some were questioning whether John was the Christ (Luk 3:15; Act 13:25). Note the frequent occurrence of the emphatic I : Joh 1:23, Joh 1:26, Joh 1:27, Joh 1:30, Joh 1:31, Joh 1:33, Joh 1:34. On the Christ , see on Mat 1:1.

Vincent: Joh 1:21 - What then? Art thou Elias? What then? Art thou Elias? Better, as Rev., Elijah . Some authorities read, What then art thou? Elijah? Elijah, predicted in Mal 4:5, ...

What then? Art thou Elias?

Better, as Rev., Elijah . Some authorities read, What then art thou? Elijah? Elijah, predicted in Mal 4:5, as the forerunner of the day of the Lord.

Vincent: Joh 1:21 - Art thou that prophet? Art thou that prophet? Rev., " the prophet." According to the Greek order, the prophet art thou . See Deu 18:15, and compare Act 3:22; ...

Art thou that prophet?

Rev., " the prophet." According to the Greek order, the prophet art thou . See Deu 18:15, and compare Act 3:22; Act 7:37; Joh 1:46; Joh 6:14.

Vincent: Joh 1:21 - No No Observe how the successive denials become shorter.

No

Observe how the successive denials become shorter.

Vincent: Joh 1:23 - The voice The voice ( φωνὴ ) Or, a voice. There is no article. See on Mat 3:5.

The voice ( φωνὴ )

Or, a voice. There is no article. See on Mat 3:5.

Vincent: Joh 1:23 - Crying in the wilderness Crying in the wilderness Some join in the wilderness with make straight , as in the Hebrew. The quotation is from Isa 40:3. In the other...

Crying in the wilderness

Some join in the wilderness with make straight , as in the Hebrew. The quotation is from Isa 40:3. In the other three Gospels it is applied to the Baptist (Mat 3:3; Mar 1:3; Luk 3:4). Here he uses it of himself. On wilderness , see on Mat 3:1.

Vincent: Joh 1:23 - Make straight the way Make straight the way ( εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν ) For ὁδὸν , way , all the Synoptists have τϼίβους , beat...

Make straight the way ( εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν )

For ὁδὸν , way , all the Synoptists have τϼίβους , beaten tracks; and for the verb εὐθύνατε , make straight , the adjective and verb εὐθύνατε ποιεῖτε . On the figure of preparing the roads, see on Luk 3:5.

Vincent: Joh 1:24 - They which were sent were They which were sent were ( εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδον ) Literally, those having been sent were . But the best texts omit ...

They which were sent were ( εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδον )

Literally, those having been sent were . But the best texts omit the article, so that the remaining words form the pluperfect passive: " they had been sent from the Pharisees." This addition of an explanatory circumstance is characteristic of John. Compare Joh 1:41, Joh 1:45; Joh 9:14; Joh 11:5, Joh 11:18; Joh 13:23.

Vincent: Joh 1:26 - I baptize with water: but there standeth I baptize with water: but there standeth The best texts omit but; so that the two clauses illustrate John's characteristic parallelism, and bri...

I baptize with water: but there standeth

The best texts omit but; so that the two clauses illustrate John's characteristic parallelism, and bring out the sharp contrast between the Baptist and his successor.

Vincent: Joh 1:26 - Among you Among you ( μέσος ὑμῶν ) The Greek idiom is a mid one in respect of you . Ἑγὼ , I , and μέσος , a m...

Among you ( μέσος ὑμῶν )

The Greek idiom is a mid one in respect of you . Ἑγὼ , I , and μέσος , a mid one , stand respectively at the head of the parallel clauses, thus emphasizing the two contrasted parties.

Vincent: Joh 1:26 - Standeth Standeth ( ἕστηκεν ) The best texts read στήκει , a verb which is kindred to ἕστηκεν , but with the added sense of ...

Standeth ( ἕστηκεν )

The best texts read στήκει , a verb which is kindred to ἕστηκεν , but with the added sense of firm , persistent standing. Thus, stand fast (1Co 16:13; Gal 5:1 : Phi 1:27). The verb emphasizes the firm, dignified attitude of Christ.

Vincent: Joh 1:26 - Ye know not Ye know not ( ὑμεῖς ) Emphatic.

Ye know not ( ὑμεῖς )

Emphatic.

Vincent: Joh 1:27 - He it is who, coming after me He it is who, coming after me ( αὐτός ἐστιν ὁ ὀπίσω μοῦ ἐρχούμενος ) The best texts omit the first...

He it is who, coming after me ( αὐτός ἐστιν ὁ ὀπίσω μοῦ ἐρχούμενος )

The best texts omit the first two words. Westcott and Hort also omit ὁ so that the rendering is, whom ye know not , coming after me .

Vincent: Joh 1:27 - Was preferred before me Was preferred before me The best texts omit.

Was preferred before me

The best texts omit.

Vincent: Joh 1:27 - To unloose To unloose ( ἵνα λύσω ) Literally, that I should unloose . Mark (Mar 1:7) and Luke (Luk 3:16) have unloose . Matthew (Mat 3:...

To unloose ( ἵνα λύσω )

Literally, that I should unloose . Mark (Mar 1:7) and Luke (Luk 3:16) have unloose . Matthew (Mat 3:11) bear . See on Mat 3:11.

Vincent: Joh 1:28 - Bethabara Bethabara ( βηθαναρᾷ ) The correct reading is βηθανία , Bethany . Not the Bethany of Joh 11:18, but an unknown village. It ...

Bethabara ( βηθαναρᾷ )

The correct reading is βηθανία , Bethany . Not the Bethany of Joh 11:18, but an unknown village. It was not uncommon for two places to have the same name, as the two Bethsaidas , the one on the eastern shore of the Lake of Gennesaret (Mar 6:32, Mar 6:45), and the other on the western shore (Joh 1:44); the two Caesareas, on the Mediterranean (Act 8:40), and in Gaulonitis, at the foot of Lebanon, Caesarea Philippi (Mat 16:13).

Vincent: Joh 1:28 - Was baptizing Was baptizing ( ἦν βαπτίζων ) The participle with the substantive verb indicating continued action; was engaged in baptizi...

Was baptizing ( ἦν βαπτίζων )

The participle with the substantive verb indicating continued action; was engaged in baptizing .

Vincent: Joh 1:29 - John John The best texts omit.

John

The best texts omit.

Vincent: Joh 1:29 - Seeth Seeth ( βλέπει ) Both ὁράω and βλέπω denote the physical act of seeing, the former seeing in general , the latter ...

Seeth ( βλέπει )

Both ὁράω and βλέπω denote the physical act of seeing, the former seeing in general , the latter the single look. The perception indicated by βλέπω is more outward; the perception of sense as distinguished from mental discernment, which is prominent in ὁράω . A look told the Baptist that the Mightier One had come. See on Joh 1:18, and see on Mat 7:3.

Vincent: Joh 1:29 - Unto Unto ( πρὸς ) Strictly, towards .

Unto ( πρὸς )

Strictly, towards .

Vincent: Joh 1:29 - Behold Behold ( ἴδε ) The imperative in the singular number, though the company of his followers is addressed. This construction, however, is n...

Behold ( ἴδε )

The imperative in the singular number, though the company of his followers is addressed. This construction, however, is not uncommon. See Mat 26:65; Act 13:46.

Vincent: Joh 1:29 - The Lamb The Lamb ( ὁ ἀμνὸς ) The word occurs in John only here and in Joh 1:36. Also in Act 8:32; 1Pe 1:19. The diminutive ἀρνίον ,...

The Lamb ( ὁ ἀμνὸς )

The word occurs in John only here and in Joh 1:36. Also in Act 8:32; 1Pe 1:19. The diminutive ἀρνίον , a little lamb , is found once in the Gospel (Joh 21:15), often in Revelation, but only of the glorified Redeemer, and nowhere else in the New Testament. In some instances the word may emphasize the gentle and innocent character of Jesus suffering to expiate the sins of men (Rev 5:6, Rev 5:12; Rev 13:8); but it is also employed in describing Him as indignant (Rev 6:16); as victorious (Rev 17:4); as the object of adoration (Rev 5:8); and as enthroned (Rev 5:13; Rev 7:17).

The term, the Lamb of God (note the article), is evidently used here by the Baptist in some sense understood by his hearers, and points to Isa 53:7; compare Act 8:32. The reference is probably to the Paschal lamb, though commentators differ.

Vincent: Joh 1:29 - Of God Of God Provided by God for sacrifice.

Of God

Provided by God for sacrifice.

Vincent: Joh 1:29 - That taketh away That taketh away ( ὁ αἴρων ) Either takes away or takes upon himself , in order to bear: either removal or expiation of ...

That taketh away ( ὁ αἴρων )

Either takes away or takes upon himself , in order to bear: either removal or expiation of sin. The one idea, however, is included in the other. The taking away of the sin is through His bearing it. In Isa 53:1-12 (Sept.), φέρω , to bear , and its compound ἀναφέρω (see on 1Pe 2:5) are used, and αἴρω , to take up and carry away , occurs only in the phrase his life is taken from the earth , A.V., he was cut off out of the land of the living , in accordance with the universal usage of the Septuagint, which never employs αἴρειν to express the bearing of sin. If the Baptist had meant bearing , he would probably have used φέρω . Compare 1Jo 3:5 : " He was manifested to take away (ἵνα ἄρῃ ) our sins," and 1Jo 1:7, " cleanseth us from all sin." In the use of the present tense, taketh , the Baptist views the future consummation of Christ's atoning work as potentially present.

Vincent: Joh 1:29 - The sin The sin ( τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ) Collectively regarded.

The sin ( τὴν ἁμαρτίαν )

Collectively regarded.

Vincent: Joh 1:29 - World World See on Joh 1:9.

World

See on Joh 1:9.

Vincent: Joh 1:30 - Of whom Of whom ( περὶ οὗ ) i.e., " concerning whom;" but the proper reading is ὑπὲρ οὗ, " on behalf of whom;" in vin...

Of whom ( περὶ οὗ )

i.e., " concerning whom;" but the proper reading is ὑπὲρ οὗ, " on behalf of whom;" in vindication of .

Vincent: Joh 1:30 - A man A man ( ἀνὴρ ) Three words are used in the New Testament for man : ἄῤῥην , or ἄρσην , ἀνήρ , and ἄν...

A man ( ἀνὴρ )

Three words are used in the New Testament for man : ἄῤῥην , or ἄρσην , ἀνήρ , and ἄνθρωπος . Ἄρσην marks merely the sexual distinction , male (Rom 1:27; Rev 12:5, Rev 12:13). Ἁνήρ denotes the man as distinguished from the woman , as male or as a husband (Act 8:12; Mat 1:16), or from a boy (Mat 14:21). Also man as endowed with courage, intelligence, strength, and other noble attributes (1Co 13:11; Eph 4:13; Jam 3:2).

Ἄνθρωπος is generic, without distinction of sex, a human being (Joh 16:21), though often used in connections which indicate or imply sex, as Mat 19:10; Mat 10:35. Used of mankind (Mat 4:4), or of the people (Mat 5:13, Mat 5:16; Mat 6:5, Mat 6:18; Joh 6:10). Of man as distinguished from animals or plants (Mat 4:19; 2Pe 2:16), and from God, Christ as divine and angels (Mat 10:32; Joh 10:33; Luk 2:15). With the notion of weakness leading to sin, and with a contemptuous sense (1Co 2:5; 1Pe 4:2; Joh 5:12; Rom 9:20). The more honorable and noble sense thus attaches to ἀνήρ rather than to ἄνθρωπος . Thus Herodotus says that when the Medes charged the Greeks, they fell in vast numbers, so that it was manifest to Xerxes that he had many men combatants (ἄνθρωποι ) but few warriors (ἄνθρωποι ) vii., 210. So Homer: " O friends, be men (ἀνέρες ), and take on a stout heart" (" Iliad," v., 529). Ἁνήρ is therefore used here of Jesus by the Baptist with a sense of dignity. Compare ἄνθρωπος , in Joh 1:6, where the word implies no disparagement, but is simply indefinite. In John ἀνήρ has mostly the sense of husband (Joh 4:16-18). See Joh 6:10.

Vincent: Joh 1:31 - And I And I ( κἀγὼ ) Emphatic. " And I , though I predicted His coming (Joh 1:30), knew Him not."

And I ( κἀγὼ )

Emphatic. " And I , though I predicted His coming (Joh 1:30), knew Him not."

Vincent: Joh 1:31 - Knew Him not Knew Him not Officially, as the Messiah. There is no reference to personal acquaintance. It is inconceivable that, with the intimate relations be...

Knew Him not

Officially, as the Messiah. There is no reference to personal acquaintance. It is inconceivable that, with the intimate relations between the two families, the Baptist should have been personally unacquainted with Jesus.

Vincent: Joh 1:31 - Israel Israel Always with the idea of the spiritual privilege of the race.

Israel

Always with the idea of the spiritual privilege of the race.

Vincent: Joh 1:32 - Bare record Bare record ( ἐμαρτύρησεν ) Better, bear witness , as Rev. See on Joh 1:7.

Bare record ( ἐμαρτύρησεν )

Better, bear witness , as Rev. See on Joh 1:7.

Vincent: Joh 1:32 - I saw I saw ( τεθέαμαι ) Rev., more correctly, gives the force of the perfect tense, I have beheld . Calmly and thoughtfully; see on Joh...

I saw ( τεθέαμαι )

Rev., more correctly, gives the force of the perfect tense, I have beheld . Calmly and thoughtfully; see on Joh 1:14. The perfect indicates the abiding effect of the vision. Compare ἑώρακα , I have seen (Joh 1:34).

Vincent: Joh 1:32 - As a dove As a dove ( ὡσεὶ περιστερὰν ) In the shape of a dove. See on Mat 3:16.

As a dove ( ὡσεὶ περιστερὰν )

In the shape of a dove. See on Mat 3:16.

Vincent: Joh 1:33 - The same The same ( ἐκεῖνος ) Rev., He . See on Joh 1:18. Emphasizing the personal communication of Christ to the Baptist.

The same ( ἐκεῖνος )

Rev., He . See on Joh 1:18. Emphasizing the personal communication of Christ to the Baptist.

Vincent: Joh 1:33 - With the Holy Ghost With the Holy Ghost ( ἐν Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ ) Better, as Rev., Holy Spirit . The preposition ἐν , in (Rev., in margin...

With the Holy Ghost ( ἐν Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ )

Better, as Rev., Holy Spirit . The preposition ἐν , in (Rev., in margin), often has the instrumental force, with . Here, however, it would seem to signify the element of the new life, as ἐν ὕδατι , in water , signifies the element of the symbolic baptism, and might better be rendered in . The absence of the article from Holy Spirit falls in with this, as indicating the spiritual influence of the divine Agent rather than His personality.

Vincent: Joh 1:34 - I saw I saw ( ἑώρακα ) Rev., more strictly, according to the perfect tense, I have seen . See on Joh 1:32, and note the different verb f...

I saw ( ἑώρακα )

Rev., more strictly, according to the perfect tense, I have seen . See on Joh 1:32, and note the different verb for seeing, on which see on Joh 1:18.

Vincent: Joh 1:34 - Bare record Bare record ( μεμαρτύρηκα ) Rev., have born witness . Also the perfect tense.

Bare record ( μεμαρτύρηκα )

Rev., have born witness . Also the perfect tense.

Vincent: Joh 1:34 - The Son of God The Son of God This is the proper reading, but one very important manuscript reads ὁ ἐκλεκτὸς , the chosen . By the phrase John...

The Son of God

This is the proper reading, but one very important manuscript reads ὁ ἐκλεκτὸς , the chosen . By the phrase John means the Messiah. It has the same sense as in the Synoptic Gospels. Compare Mat 11:27; Mat 28:19. For the sense in which it was understood by the Jews of Christ's day, see Joh 5:18, Joh 5:19; Joh 10:29, Joh 10:30-36. The phrase occurs in the Old Testament only in Dan 3:25. Compare Psa 2:12. On υἱὸς , son , as distinguished from τέκνον , child , see on Joh 1:12.

Vincent: Joh 1:35 - Stood Stood ( εἱστήκει ) Rev., more correctly, was standing , since the imperfect tense denotes something in progress. Here, therefore, ...

Stood ( εἱστήκει )

Rev., more correctly, was standing , since the imperfect tense denotes something in progress. Here, therefore, with the idea of waiting ; was standing in expectation. Compare Joh 7:37; Joh 18:5, Joh 18:6, Joh 18:18.

Vincent: Joh 1:35 - Two of his disciples Two of his disciples The one was Andrew (Joh 1:41), the other the Evangelist himself, who studiously refrains from mentioning his own name throug...

Two of his disciples

The one was Andrew (Joh 1:41), the other the Evangelist himself, who studiously refrains from mentioning his own name throughout the narrative. The name of James the elder also does not appear, nor that of Salome, the Evangelist's mother, who is mentioned by name in Mark's Gospel (Mar 15:40; Mar 16:1). The omission of his own name is the more significant from the fact that he is habitually exact in defining the names in his narrative. Compare the simple designation Simon (Joh 1:42) with subsequent occurrences of his name after his call, as Joh 1:42; Joh 13:6; Joh 21:15, etc. Also Thomas (Joh 11:16; Joh 20:24; Joh 21:2); Judas Iscariot (Joh 6:71; Joh 12:4; Joh 13:2, Joh 13:26); the other Judas (Joh 14:22). Note also that he never speaks of the Baptist as John the Baptist , like the other three Evangelists, but always as John .

Vincent: Joh 1:36 - Looking Looking ( ἐμβλέψας ) Rev., giving the force of the aorist, and he looked . See on Joh 1:29. The verb is used by John only here a...

Looking ( ἐμβλέψας )

Rev., giving the force of the aorist, and he looked . See on Joh 1:29. The verb is used by John only here and Joh 1:42.

Vincent: Joh 1:36 - As He walked As He walked ( περιπατοῦντι ) The verb literally means to walk about (περί ). Here, possibly, walking along . Westcott, " ...

As He walked ( περιπατοῦντι )

The verb literally means to walk about (περί ). Here, possibly, walking along . Westcott, " walking away ." See on 1Pe 5:8; see on Luk 11:44.

Vincent: Joh 1:37 - Speak Speak ( λαλοῦντος ) Literally, speaking .

Speak ( λαλοῦντος )

Literally, speaking .

Vincent: Joh 1:37 - They followed They followed Bengel says, " The origin of the Christian Church."

They followed

Bengel says, " The origin of the Christian Church."

Vincent: Joh 1:38 - Saw Saw ( θεασάμενος ) Better, as Rev., beheld : looked steadfastly upon them as if studying them.

Saw ( θεασάμενος )

Better, as Rev., beheld : looked steadfastly upon them as if studying them.

Vincent: Joh 1:38 - What seek ye? What seek ye? The first words of Christ as recorded by John. Compare Mat 3:15; Mar 1:15; Luk 2:49.

What seek ye?

The first words of Christ as recorded by John. Compare Mat 3:15; Mar 1:15; Luk 2:49.

Vincent: Joh 1:38 - Rabbi Rabbi My great one; my honorable sir . Explained by Jesus himself as διδάσκαλος , teacher (Mat 23:8, where the proper re...

Rabbi

My great one; my honorable sir . Explained by Jesus himself as διδάσκαλος , teacher (Mat 23:8, where the proper reading is διδάσκαλος , instead of καθηγητὴς , guide , master , found in Mat 23:10). Used by the Jews in addressing their teachers, and formed from a Hebrew root meaning great . It occurs commonly in John, and is found in Matthew and Mark, but not in Luke, who uses ἐπιστατής . See on Luk 5:5.

Vincent: Joh 1:38 - Being interpreted Being interpreted John frequently adds explanatory remarks. See Joh 1:42, Joh 1:43; Joh 9:7.

Being interpreted

John frequently adds explanatory remarks. See Joh 1:42, Joh 1:43; Joh 9:7.

Vincent: Joh 1:38 - Dwellest thou Dwellest thou ( μένεις ) Rev., abidest . Jesus had asked " What seek ye?" not whom . They reply, " Where dost thou abide?"

Dwellest thou ( μένεις )

Rev., abidest . Jesus had asked " What seek ye?" not whom . They reply, " Where dost thou abide?"

Vincent: Joh 1:39 - See See ( ἴδετε ) But the correct reading is ὄψεσθε , ye shall see .

See ( ἴδετε )

But the correct reading is ὄψεσθε , ye shall see .

Vincent: Joh 1:39 - They came They came The best texts add οὖν , therefore . So Rev. This connecting particle is found in John's Gospel as often as in the other three ...

They came

The best texts add οὖν , therefore . So Rev. This connecting particle is found in John's Gospel as often as in the other three combined, and most commonly in narrative, marking the transition from one thing to another, and serving to connect the several parts of the narrative. See Joh 1:22; Joh 2:18; Joh 3:25; Joh 4:28, Joh 4:30, etc. Much more frequently thus than in the discourses, where it would be used to mark a sequence of thought. Still such instances occur, as Joh 4:21, Joh 4:25; Joh 3:29; Joh 8:5; Joh 4:11.

Vincent: Joh 1:39 - He dwelt He dwelt ( μένει ) The present tense. Literally, they saw where he dwelleth . For a similar construction see Joh 2:9; Joh 4:1; Act 10:18,...

He dwelt ( μένει )

The present tense. Literally, they saw where he dwelleth . For a similar construction see Joh 2:9; Joh 4:1; Act 10:18, etc.

Vincent: Joh 1:39 - Tenth hour Tenth hour The question is whether this is to be reckoned according to the Jewish or the Roman method of computation. The Jewish method, employed...

Tenth hour

The question is whether this is to be reckoned according to the Jewish or the Roman method of computation. The Jewish method, employed by the other Evangelists, begins the day at sunrise; so that, according to this, the tenth hour would be four o'clock in the afternoon. The Roman method, like our own, reckons from midnight; according to which the tenth hour would be ten o'clock in the morning. The weight of the argument seems, on the whole, to be in favor of the Jewish method, which is undoubtedly assumed by John in Joh 11:9. The Greeks of Asia Minor, for whom John wrote, had the Jewish method, received from the Babylonians. Godet cites an incident from the " Sacred Discourses" of Aelius Aristides, a Greek sophist of the second century, and a contemporary of Polycarp. God having commanded him to take a bath, he chose the sixth hour as the most favorable to health. It being winter, and the bath a cold one, the hour was midday; for he said to his friend who kept him waiting, " Seest thou the shadow is already turning?" Even Canon Westcott, who advocates the Roman method, admits that " this mode of reckoning was unusual in ancient times," and that " the Romans and Greeks, no less than the Jews, reckoned their hours from sunrise," though the Romans reckoned their civil days from midnight, and the tenth hour is named as a late hour, when soldiers took their repast or were allowed to rest. Thus Livy, in his account of the Roman attack on Sutrium says, " About the tenth hour the consul ordered his men a repast, and gave directions that they should be ready in arms at whatever time of the day or night he should give the signal.... After refreshing themselves, they consigned themselves to rest" (9, 37).

Aristophanes says, " When the shadow on the dial is ten feet long, then go to dinner" (" Ecclesiazusae," 648), and Horace, " You will dine with me today. Come after the ninth hour" (" Epistle," Bk. 1., vii., 69). It is objected that the time from four o'clock to the close of the day would not have been described as that day; but beyond the marking of the specific hour of accompanying Jesus as the first hour of his Christian life, John would not have been unlikely to use a looser and more popular form of speech in indicating the length of the stay with Jesus, meaning simply that they remained with him during the remainder of the day, and, no doubt, prolonged their conversation into the night.

Vincent: Joh 1:40 - One of the two One of the two The other being John.

One of the two

The other being John.

Vincent: Joh 1:40 - Andrew Andrew See on Mar 3:18. Compare Mar 13:3; Joh 6:8; Joh 12:22.

Andrew

See on Mar 3:18. Compare Mar 13:3; Joh 6:8; Joh 12:22.

Vincent: Joh 1:40 - Simon Peter's brother Simon Peter's brother The mention of Simon Peter before he has appeared in the narrative indicates the importance which the Evangelist attaches t...

Simon Peter's brother

The mention of Simon Peter before he has appeared in the narrative indicates the importance which the Evangelist attaches to him. It seems to assume a knowledge of the evangelic narrative on the part of the readers. See a similar instance of anticipating what is subsequently explained, in the mention of Mary, Joh 11:2.

Vincent: Joh 1:41 - He first findeth He first findeth ( εὑρίσκαι οὗτος πρῶτος ) Rev., findeth first . He is the demonstrative pronoun, this one ,...

He first findeth ( εὑρίσκαι οὗτος πρῶτος )

Rev., findeth first . He is the demonstrative pronoun, this one , which, with first , seems to point to the later finding of his brother by the other disciple, i . e ., of James by John. Bengel says: " With the festival freshness of those days beautifully corresponds the word findeth , which is frequently used here."

Vincent: Joh 1:41 - His own His own ( τὸν ἴδιον ) See on Mat 22:5; see on Mat 25:15; see on Act 1:7; see on 1Pe 1:3.

His own ( τὸν ἴδιον )

See on Mat 22:5; see on Mat 25:15; see on Act 1:7; see on 1Pe 1:3.

Vincent: Joh 1:41 - We have found We have found ( εὑρήκαμεν ) This has been called the chapter of the Eurekas.

We have found ( εὑρήκαμεν )

This has been called the chapter of the Eurekas.

Vincent: Joh 1:41 - The Messias The Messias Peculiar to this Gospel, and only here and Joh 4:25.

The Messias

Peculiar to this Gospel, and only here and Joh 4:25.

Vincent: Joh 1:41 - Christ Christ See on Mat 1:1.

Christ

See on Mat 1:1.

Vincent: Joh 1:42 - Beheld Beheld The same word as in Joh 1:36, on which see Rev., looked upon .

Beheld

The same word as in Joh 1:36, on which see Rev., looked upon .

Vincent: Joh 1:42 - Thou art Thou art Some read interrogatively: art thou .

Thou art

Some read interrogatively: art thou .

Vincent: Joh 1:42 - Jona Jona ( Ιωνᾶ ) The correct reading is Ἱωάνου , of John .

Jona ( Ιωνᾶ )

The correct reading is Ἱωάνου , of John .

Vincent: Joh 1:42 - A stone A stone ( Πέτρος ) See on Mat 16:18. A detached mass of rock. Cephas is the Aramaic name, occurring 1Co 1:12; 1Co 3:22; 1Co 9:5; 1Co 15...

A stone ( Πέτρος )

See on Mat 16:18. A detached mass of rock. Cephas is the Aramaic name, occurring 1Co 1:12; 1Co 3:22; 1Co 9:5; 1Co 15:5; Gal 2:9.

Vincent: Joh 1:43 - Jesus Jesus The best texts omit.

Jesus

The best texts omit.

Vincent: Joh 1:43 - Would go forth Would go forth ( ἠθέλησεν ἐξελθεῖν ) Rev., better, was minded to go . On the construction see on Mat 20:14. On the...

Would go forth ( ἠθέλησεν ἐξελθεῖν )

Rev., better, was minded to go . On the construction see on Mat 20:14. On the verb to be minded , see on Mat 1:19.

Vincent: Joh 1:43 - And findeth And findeth Note the graphic interchange of tenses: was minded , findeth . The coordination of the two clauses, which by other writers would ...

And findeth

Note the graphic interchange of tenses: was minded , findeth . The coordination of the two clauses, which by other writers would be placed in logical dependence, is characteristic of John. Even where there is a real inner dependence he uses only the simple connective particles. Compare Joh 2:13 sqq.

Vincent: Joh 1:43 - Philip Philip See on Mar 3:18. For hints of his character see Joh 6:5, Joh 6:7; Joh 12:21 sqq.; Joh 14:8, Joh 14:9.

Philip

See on Mar 3:18. For hints of his character see Joh 6:5, Joh 6:7; Joh 12:21 sqq.; Joh 14:8, Joh 14:9.

Vincent: Joh 1:43 - Saith Saith The best texts insert Jesus: " And Jesus said unto him."

Saith

The best texts insert Jesus: " And Jesus said unto him."

Vincent: Joh 1:43 - Follow Follow ( ἀκολούθει ) Often used in the New Testament with the special sense of following as a disciple or partisan. See Mat 4:20, Ma...

Follow ( ἀκολούθει )

Often used in the New Testament with the special sense of following as a disciple or partisan. See Mat 4:20, Mat 4:22; Mat 9:9; Mar 1:18; Joh 8:12. Also with the meaning of cleaving steadfastly to one and conforming to his example. See Mat 10:38; Mat 16:24; Joh 12:26. The verb occurs but once outside of the writings of the Evangelists, 1Co 10:4. It appears in the noun acolyte , or acolyth , or acolothist , a church-servant ranking next below a subdeacon, whose duty it was to trim the lamps, light the church, prepare the sacramental elements, etc. Under the Byzantine emperors the captain of the emperor's bodyguard was called Acolouthos, or the Follower . See Scott's " Count Robert of Paris."

Vincent: Joh 1:44 - Of Bethsaida Of Bethsaida Rev., more literally, from (ἀπό ). Bethsaida of Galilee. See Joh 12:21, and on Joh 1:28. Philip, being of the same city as ...

Of Bethsaida

Rev., more literally, from (ἀπό ). Bethsaida of Galilee. See Joh 12:21, and on Joh 1:28. Philip, being of the same city as Andrew and Peter, was the more ready to welcome Christ, because of the testimony and example of his fellow-citizens. Notice the change of preposition: from Bethsaida (ἀπό ) and out of (ἐκ ) the city. See on from the dead , Luk 16:31.

Vincent: Joh 1:45 - Nathanael Nathanael Probably the same as Bartholomew. See on Bartholomew, Mar 3:18.

Nathanael

Probably the same as Bartholomew. See on Bartholomew, Mar 3:18.

Vincent: Joh 1:45 - Moses in the law, etc Moses in the law, etc. Note the circumstantial detail of this confession as compared with Andrew's (Joh 1:42).

Moses in the law, etc.

Note the circumstantial detail of this confession as compared with Andrew's (Joh 1:42).

Vincent: Joh 1:46 - Come out of Nazareth Come out of Nazareth ( ἐκ Ναζαρὲτ εἶναι ) Literally, " be out of;" a characteristic expression of John. See Joh 3:31; Jo...

Come out of Nazareth ( ἐκ Ναζαρὲτ εἶναι )

Literally, " be out of;" a characteristic expression of John. See Joh 3:31; Joh 4:22; Joh 7:17, Joh 7:22; Joh 8:23; Joh 15:19; Joh 18:36, Joh 18:38, etc. It means more than to come out of: rather to come out of as that which is of; to be identified with something so as to come forth bearing its impress, moral or otherwise. See especially Joh 3:31 : " He that is of the earth is of the earth;" i . e ., partakes of its quality. Compare Christ's words to Nicodemus (Joh 3:6), and 1Co 15:47.

In the Greek order, out of Nazareth stands first in the sentence as expressing the prominent thought in Nathanael's mind, surprise that Jesus should have come from Nazareth, a poor village, even the name of which does not occur in the Old Testament. Contrary to the popular explanation, there is no evidence that Nazareth was worse than other places, beyond the fact of the violence offered to Jesus by its people (Luk 4:28, Luk 4:29), and their obstinate unbelief in Him (Mat 13:58; Mar 6:6). It was a proverb, however, that no prophet was to come from Galilee (Joh 7:52).

Vincent: Joh 1:47 - An Israelite indeed An Israelite indeed ( ἀληθῶς Ἱσραηλίτης ) Literally, truly an Israelite . An Israelite not merely in descent, but in...

An Israelite indeed ( ἀληθῶς Ἱσραηλίτης )

Literally, truly an Israelite . An Israelite not merely in descent, but in character, according to the ideal laid down in God's law. The word Israelite itself was an honorable designation. See on men of Israel , Act 3:12, and compare remarks on Jews , Joh 1:19.

Vincent: Joh 1:47 - Guile Guile ( δόλος ) Properly, a bait for fish , and related at the root to δελεάζω , to catch with a bait , or beguile...

Guile ( δόλος )

Properly, a bait for fish , and related at the root to δελεάζω , to catch with a bait , or beguile . See on beguiling , 2Pe 2:14. The true Israelite would be the true child of Israel after he had ceased to be the Supplanter. It is an interesting fact that in Gen 25:27, Jacob is called a plain man, i . e ., as some explain the Hebrew, a perfect or upright man, and others, a man of quiet and simple habits , and that the Septuagint renders this adjective by ἄπλαστος , unfeigned , without disguise , simple , guileless . The Greek here reads literally, in whom guile is not .

Vincent: Joh 1:48 - Knowest Knowest ( γινώσκεις ) See on Act 19:15.

Knowest ( γινώσκεις )

See on Act 19:15.

Vincent: Joh 1:48 - Under the fig tree Under the fig tree ( ὑπὸ τὴν συκῆν ) To be construed with εἶδον σε , I saw thee; i.e., I saw thee unde...

Under the fig tree ( ὑπὸ τὴν συκῆν )

To be construed with εἶδον σε , I saw thee; i.e., I saw thee under the fig tree . The preposition with the accusative case, which implies motion toward, indicates his withdrawal to the shade of the tree for meditation or prayer. See on Joh 1:50. The Jewish writings tell of distinguished rabbis who were accustomed to rise early and pursue their studies under the shade of a fig tree. Compare Mic 4:4; Zec 3:10. Augustine, in his " Confessions," relates of himself: " I cast myself down, I know not how, under a certain fig tree, giving full vent to my tears; and the floods of mine eyes gushed out, an acceptable sacrifice to Thee" (viii. 28). Nathanael asks, " Whence knowest thou me? " Jesus answers, " I saw thee (εἶδον )."

Vincent: Joh 1:49 - Rabbi Rabbi Nathanael here gives the title, which he had withheld in his first address.

Rabbi

Nathanael here gives the title, which he had withheld in his first address.

Vincent: Joh 1:50 - Under the fig tree Under the fig tree ( ὑπὸ τῆς συκῆς ) Compare Joh 1:48. Here the same preposition is used with the genitive case, indicating re...

Under the fig tree ( ὑπὸ τῆς συκῆς )

Compare Joh 1:48. Here the same preposition is used with the genitive case, indicating rest, without the suggestion of withdrawal to .

Vincent: Joh 1:50 - Believest thou? Believest thou? Rightly so, though some render affirmatively, thou believest .

Believest thou?

Rightly so, though some render affirmatively, thou believest .

Vincent: Joh 1:51 - Verily, verily Verily, verily ( ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν ) The word is transcribed into our Amen . John never, like the other Evangelists, uses the single v...

Verily, verily ( ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν )

The word is transcribed into our Amen . John never, like the other Evangelists, uses the single verily , and, like the single word in the Synoptists, it is used only by Christ.

Vincent: Joh 1:51 - Hereafter Hereafter ( ἀπ ' ἄρτι ) The best texts omit. The words literally mean, from henceforth; and therefore, as Canon Westcott aptly re...

Hereafter ( ἀπ ' ἄρτι )

The best texts omit. The words literally mean, from henceforth; and therefore, as Canon Westcott aptly remarks, " if genuine, would describe the communion between earth and heaven as established from the time when the Lord entered upon His public ministry."

Vincent: Joh 1:51 - Heaven Heaven ( τὸν οὐρανὸν ) Rev., giving the article, the heaven .

Heaven ( τὸν οὐρανὸν )

Rev., giving the article, the heaven .

Vincent: Joh 1:51 - Open Open ( ἀνεῳγότα ) The perfect participle. Hence Rev., rightly, opened . The participle signifies standing open, and is used in t...

Open ( ἀνεῳγότα )

The perfect participle. Hence Rev., rightly, opened . The participle signifies standing open, and is used in the story of Stephen's martyrdom, Act 7:56. Compare Isa 64:1. The image presented to the true Israelite is drawn from the history of his ancestor Jacob (Gen 28:12).

Vincent: Joh 1:51 - Angels Angels With the exception of Joh 12:29 and Joh 20:12, John does not use the word " angel" elsewhere in the Gospel or in the Epistles, and does n...

Angels

With the exception of Joh 12:29 and Joh 20:12, John does not use the word " angel" elsewhere in the Gospel or in the Epistles, and does not refer to their being or ministry. Trench (" Studies in the Gospels" ) cites a beautiful passage of Plato as suggestive of our Lord's words. Plato is speaking of Love. " He is a great spirit, and like all spirits he is intermediate between the divine and the mortal. He interprets between gods and men, conveying to the gods the prayers and sacrifices of men, and to men the commands and replies of the gods; he is the mediator who spans the chasm which divides them, and in him all is bound together, and through him the acts of the prophet and the priest, their sacrifices and mysteries and charms, and all prophecy and incantation find their way. For God mingles not with man, but through Love all the intercourse and speech of God with man, whether awake or asleep, is carried on" (" Symposium," 203).

Vincent: Joh 1:51 - Son of man Son of man See on Luk 6:22. Notice the titles successively applied to our Lord in this chapter: the greater Successor of the Baptist, the Lamb of...

Son of man

See on Luk 6:22. Notice the titles successively applied to our Lord in this chapter: the greater Successor of the Baptist, the Lamb of God, the Son of God, the Messiah, the King of Israel. These were all given by others. The title Son of man He applies to Himself.

In John's Gospel, as in the Synoptists, this phrase is used only by Christ in speaking of Himself; and elsewhere only in Act 7:56, where the name is applied to Him by Stephen. It occurs less frequently in John than in the Synoptists, being found in Matthew thirty times, in Mark thirteen, and in John twelve.

Jesus' use of the term here is explained in two ways.

I. That He borrows the title from the Old Testament to designate Himself either: ( a ) as a prophet , as in Eze 2:1-3; Eze 3:1, etc.; or ( b ) as the Messiah , as prefigured in Dan 7:13. This prophecy of Daniel had obtained such wide currency that the Messiah was called Anani , or the man of the clouds .

( a .) This is untenable, because in Ezekiel, as everywhere in the Old Testament, the phrase Son of man , or Sons of men , is used to describe man under his human limitations, as weak, fallible, and incompetent by himself to be a divine agent.

( b .) The allusion to Daniel's prophecy is admitted; but Jesus does not mean to say, " I am the Messiah who is prefigured by Daniel." A political meaning attached in popular conception to the term Messiah; and it is noticeable throughout John's Gospel that Jesus carefully avoids using that term before the people, but expresses the thing itself by circumlocution, in order to avoid the complication which the popular understanding would have introduced into his work. See Joh 8:24, Joh 8:25; Joh 10:24, Joh 10:25.

Moreover, the phrase Son of man was not generally applied to the Messiah. On the contrary, Joh 5:27 and Joh 12:34 show that it was set off against that term. Compare Mat 16:13, Mat 16:15. Son of God is the Messianic title, which, with one exception, appears in confessions (Joh 1:34, Joh 1:49; Joh 11:27; Joh 20:31).

In Daniel the reference is exclusively to the final stage of human affairs. The point is the final establishment of the divine kingdom. Moreover, Daniel does not say " the Son of man," but " one like a Son of man." Compare Rev 1:13; Rev 14:14, where also the article is omitted.

II. The second, and correct explanation is that the phrase Son of man is the expression of Christ's self-consciousness as being related to humanity as a whole: denoting His real participation in human nature, and designating Himself as the representative man. It thus corresponds with the passage in Daniel, where the earthly kingdoms are represented by beasts, but the divine kingdom by a Son of man. Hence, too, the word ἄνθρωπος is purposely used (see on a man , Joh 1:30, and compare Joh 8:40).

While the human element was thus emphasized in the phrase, the consciousness of Jesus, as thus expressed, did not exclude His divine nature and claims, but rather regarded these through the medium of His humanity. He showed Himself divine in being thus profoundly human. Hence two aspects of the phrase appear in John, as in the Synoptists. The one regards His earthly life and work, and involves His being despised; His accommodation to the conditions of human life; the partial veiling of His divine nature; the loving character of His mission; His liability to misinterpretation; and His outlook upon a consummation of agony. On the other hand, He is possessed of supreme authority; He is about His Father's work; He reveals glimpses of His divine nature through His humanity; His presence and mission entail serious responsibility upon those to whom He appeals; and He foresees a consummation of glory no less than of agony. See Mat 8:20; Mat 11:19; Mat 12:8, Mat 12:32; Mat 13:37; Mat 16:13; Mat 20:18; Mat 26:64; Mar 8:31, Mar 8:38; Mar 14:21; Luk 9:26, Luk 9:58; Luk 12:8; Luk 17:22; Luk 19:10; Luk 22:69.

The other aspect is related to the future. He has visions of another life of glory and dominion; though present in the flesh, His coming is still future, and will be followed by a judgment which is committed to Him, and by the final glory of His redeemed in His heavenly kingdom. See Mat 10:23; Mat 13:40 sqq.; Mat 16:27 sqq.; Mat 19:28; Mat 24:27, Mat 24:37, Mat 24:44; Mat 25:31 sqq.; Mar 13:26; Luk 6:22; Luk 17:24, Luk 17:30; Luk 18:8; Luk 21:27.

Wesley: Joh 1:1 - In the beginning (Referring to Gen 1:1, and Pro 8:23.) When all things began to be made by the Word: in the beginning of heaven and earth, and this whole frame of crea...

(Referring to Gen 1:1, and Pro 8:23.) When all things began to be made by the Word: in the beginning of heaven and earth, and this whole frame of created beings, the Word existed, without any beginning. He was when all things began to be, whatsoever had a beginning.

Wesley: Joh 1:1 - The Word So termed Psa 33:6, and frequently by the seventy, and in the Chaldee paraphrase. So that St. John did not borrow this expression from Philo, or any h...

So termed Psa 33:6, and frequently by the seventy, and in the Chaldee paraphrase. So that St. John did not borrow this expression from Philo, or any heathen writer. He was not yet named Jesus, or Christ. He is the Word whom the Father begat or spoke from eternity; by whom the Father speaking, maketh all things; who speaketh the Father to us. We have, in Joh 1:18, both a real description of the Word, and the reason why he is so called. He is the only begotten Son of the Father, who is in the bosom of the Father, and hath declared him.

Wesley: Joh 1:1 - And the Word was with God Therefore distinct from God the Father. The word rendered with, denotes a perpetual tendency as it were of the Son to the Father, in unity of essence....

Therefore distinct from God the Father. The word rendered with, denotes a perpetual tendency as it were of the Son to the Father, in unity of essence. He was with God alone; because nothing beside God had then any being.

Wesley: Joh 1:1 - And the Word was God Supreme, eternal, independent. There was no creature, in respect of which he could be styled God in a relative sense. Therefore he is styled so in the...

Supreme, eternal, independent. There was no creature, in respect of which he could be styled God in a relative sense. Therefore he is styled so in the absolute sense. The Godhead of the Messiah being clearly revealed in the Old Testament, (Jer 23:7; Hos 1:6; Psa 23:1,) the other evangelists aim at this, to prove that Jesus, a true man, was the Messiah. But when, at length, some from hence began to doubt of his Godhead, then St. John expressly asserted it, and wrote in this book as it were a supplement to the Gospels, as in the Revelation to the prophets.

Wesley: Joh 1:2 - The same was in the beginning with God This verse repeats and contracts into one the three points mentioned before. As if he had said, This Word, who was God, was in the beginning, and was ...

This verse repeats and contracts into one the three points mentioned before. As if he had said, This Word, who was God, was in the beginning, and was with God.

Wesley: Joh 1:3 - -- All things beside God were made, and all things which were made, were made by the Word. In Joh 1:1-2 is described the state of things before the creat...

All things beside God were made, and all things which were made, were made by the Word. In Joh 1:1-2 is described the state of things before the creation: Joh 1:3, In the creation: Joh 1:4, In the time of man's innocency: Joh 1:5, In the time of man's corruption.

Wesley: Joh 1:4 - In him was life He was the foundation of life to every living thing, as well as of being to all that is.

He was the foundation of life to every living thing, as well as of being to all that is.

Wesley: Joh 1:4 - And the life was the light of men He who is essential life, and the giver of life to all that liveth, was also the light of men; the fountain of wisdom, holiness, and happiness, to man...

He who is essential life, and the giver of life to all that liveth, was also the light of men; the fountain of wisdom, holiness, and happiness, to man in his original state.

Wesley: Joh 1:5 - And the light shineth in darkness Shines even on fallen man; but the darkness - Dark, sinful man, perceiveth it not.

Shines even on fallen man; but the darkness - Dark, sinful man, perceiveth it not.

Wesley: Joh 1:6 - There was a man The evangelist now proceeds to him who testified of the light, which he had spoken of in Joh 1:1-5.

The evangelist now proceeds to him who testified of the light, which he had spoken of in Joh 1:1-5.

Wesley: Joh 1:7 - The same came for (that is, in order to give) a testimony The evangelist, with the most strong and tender affection, interweaves his own testimony with that of John, by noble digressions, wherein he explains ...

The evangelist, with the most strong and tender affection, interweaves his own testimony with that of John, by noble digressions, wherein he explains the office of the Baptist; partly premises and partly subjoins a farther explication to his short sentences. What St. Matthew, Mark, and Luke term the Gospel, in respect of the promise going before, St. John usually terms the testimony, intimating the certain knowledge of the relator; to testify of the light - Of Christ.

Wesley: Joh 1:9 - Who lighteth every man By what is vulgarly termed natural conscience, pointing out at least the general lines of good and evil. And this light, if man did not hinder, would ...

By what is vulgarly termed natural conscience, pointing out at least the general lines of good and evil. And this light, if man did not hinder, would shine more and more to the perfect day.

Wesley: Joh 1:10 - He was in the world Even from the creation.

Even from the creation.

Wesley: Joh 1:11 - He came In the fulness of time, to his own - Country, city, temple: And his own - People, received him not.

In the fulness of time, to his own - Country, city, temple: And his own - People, received him not.

Wesley: Joh 1:12 - But as many as received him Jews or Gentiles; that believe on his name - That is, on him. The moment they believe, they are sons; and because they are sons, God sendeth forth the...

Jews or Gentiles; that believe on his name - That is, on him. The moment they believe, they are sons; and because they are sons, God sendeth forth the Spirit of his Son into their hearts, crying, Abba, Father.

Wesley: Joh 1:13 - Who were born Who became the sons of God, not of blood - Not by descent from Abraham, nor by the will of the flesh - By natural generation, nor by the will of man -...

Who became the sons of God, not of blood - Not by descent from Abraham, nor by the will of the flesh - By natural generation, nor by the will of man - Adopting them, but of God - By his Spirit.

Wesley: Joh 1:14 - -- Flesh sometimes signifies corrupt nature; sometimes the body; sometimes, as here, the whole man.

Flesh sometimes signifies corrupt nature; sometimes the body; sometimes, as here, the whole man.

Wesley: Joh 1:14 - We beheld his glory We his apostles, particularly Peter, James, and John, Luk 9:32.

We his apostles, particularly Peter, James, and John, Luk 9:32.

Wesley: Joh 1:14 - Grace and truth We are all by nature liars and children of wrath, to whom both grace and truth are unknown. But we are made partakers of them, when we are accepted th...

We are all by nature liars and children of wrath, to whom both grace and truth are unknown. But we are made partakers of them, when we are accepted through the Beloved. The whole verse might be paraphrased thus: And in order to raise us to this dignity and happiness, the eternal Word, by a most amazing condescension, was made flesh, united himself to our miserable nature, with all its innocent infirmities. And he did not make us a transient visit, but tabernacled among us on earth, displaying his glory in a more eminent manner, than even of old in the tabernacle of Moses. And we who are now recording these things beheld his glory with so strict an attention, that we can testify, it was in every respect such a glory as became the only begotten of the Father. For it shone forth not only in his transfiguration, and in his continual miracles, but in all his tempers, ministrations, and conduct through the whole series of his life. In all he appeared full of grace and truth: he was himself most benevolent and upright; made those ample discoveries of pardon to sinners, which the Mosaic dispensation could not do: and really exhibited the most substantial blessings, whereas that was but a shadow of good things to come.

Wesley: Joh 1:15 - John cried With joy and confidence;

With joy and confidence;

Wesley: Joh 1:15 - This is he of whom I said John had said this before our Lord's baptism, although he then knew him not in person: he knew him first at his baptism, and afterward cried, This is ...

John had said this before our Lord's baptism, although he then knew him not in person: he knew him first at his baptism, and afterward cried, This is he of whom I said. &c.

Wesley: Joh 1:15 - He is preferred before me in his office:

in his office:

Wesley: Joh 1:15 - for he was before me in his nature.

in his nature.

Wesley: Joh 1:16 - And Here the apostle confirms the Baptist's words: as if he had said, He is indeed preferred before thee: so we have experienced:

Here the apostle confirms the Baptist's words: as if he had said, He is indeed preferred before thee: so we have experienced:

Wesley: Joh 1:16 - We all That believe:

That believe:

Wesley: Joh 1:16 - have received All that we enjoy out of his fulness:

All that we enjoy out of his fulness:

Wesley: Joh 1:16 - and in the particular, grace upon grace One blessing upon another, immeasurable grace and love.

One blessing upon another, immeasurable grace and love.

Wesley: Joh 1:17 - The law Working wrath and containing shadows:

Working wrath and containing shadows:

Wesley: Joh 1:17 - was given No philosopher, poet, or orator, ever chose his words so accurately as St. John. The law, saith he, was given by Moses: grace was by Jesus Christ. Obs...

No philosopher, poet, or orator, ever chose his words so accurately as St. John. The law, saith he, was given by Moses: grace was by Jesus Christ. Observe the reason for placing each word thus: The law of Moses was not his own. The grace of Christ was. His grace was opposite to the wrath, his truth to the shadowy ceremonies of the law.

Wesley: Joh 1:17 - Jesus St. John having once mentioned the incarnation (Joh 1:14,) no more uses that name, the Word, in all his book.

St. John having once mentioned the incarnation (Joh 1:14,) no more uses that name, the Word, in all his book.

Wesley: Joh 1:18 - No man hath seen God With bodily eyes: yet believers see him with the eye of faith.

With bodily eyes: yet believers see him with the eye of faith.

Wesley: Joh 1:18 - Who is in the bosom of the Father The expression denotes the highest unity, and the most intimate knowledge.

The expression denotes the highest unity, and the most intimate knowledge.

Wesley: Joh 1:19 - The Jews Probably the great council sent.

Probably the great council sent.

Wesley: Joh 1:20 - I am not the Christ For many supposed he was.

For many supposed he was.

Wesley: Joh 1:21 - Art thou Elijah? He was not that Elijah (the Tishbite) of whom they spoke.

He was not that Elijah (the Tishbite) of whom they spoke.

Wesley: Joh 1:21 - Art thou the prophet Of whom Moses speaks, Deu 18:15.

Of whom Moses speaks, Deu 18:15.

Wesley: Joh 1:23 - He said I am that forerunner of Christ of whom Isaiah speaks.

I am that forerunner of Christ of whom Isaiah speaks.

Wesley: Joh 1:23 - I am the voice As if he had said, Far from being Christ, or even Elijah, I am nothing but a voice: a sound that so soon as it has expressed the thought of which it i...

As if he had said, Far from being Christ, or even Elijah, I am nothing but a voice: a sound that so soon as it has expressed the thought of which it is the sign, dies into air, and is known no more. Isa 40:3.

Wesley: Joh 1:24 - They who were sent were of the Pharisees Who were peculiarly tenacious of old customs, and jealous of any innovation (except those brought in by their own scribes) unless the innovator had un...

Who were peculiarly tenacious of old customs, and jealous of any innovation (except those brought in by their own scribes) unless the innovator had unquestionable proofs of Divine authority.

Wesley: Joh 1:25 - They asked him, Why baptizest thou then? Without any commission from the sanhedrim? And not only heathens (who were always baptized before they were admitted to circumcision) but Jews also?

Without any commission from the sanhedrim? And not only heathens (who were always baptized before they were admitted to circumcision) but Jews also?

Wesley: Joh 1:26 - John answered, I baptize To prepare for the Messiah; and indeed to show that Jews, as well as Gentiles, must be proselytes to Christ, and that these as well as those stand in ...

To prepare for the Messiah; and indeed to show that Jews, as well as Gentiles, must be proselytes to Christ, and that these as well as those stand in need of being washed from their sins.

Wesley: Joh 1:28 - Where John was baptizing That is, used to baptize.

That is, used to baptize.

Wesley: Joh 1:29 - He seeth Jesus coming and saith, Behold the Lamb Innocent; to be offered up; prophesied of by Isaiah, Isa 53:7, typified by the paschal lamb, and by the daily sacrifice: The Lamb of God - Whom God ga...

Innocent; to be offered up; prophesied of by Isaiah, Isa 53:7, typified by the paschal lamb, and by the daily sacrifice: The Lamb of God - Whom God gave, approves, accepts of; who taketh away - Atoneth for; the sin - That is, all the sins: of the world - Of all mankind. Sin and the world are of equal extent.

Wesley: Joh 1:31 - I knew him not Till he came to be baptized. How surprising is this; considering how nearly they were related, and how remarkable the conception and birth of both had...

Till he came to be baptized. How surprising is this; considering how nearly they were related, and how remarkable the conception and birth of both had been. But there was a peculiar providence visible in our Saviour's living, from his infancy to his baptism, at Nazareth: John all the time living the life of a hermit in the deserts of Judea, Luk 1:80, ninety or more miles from Nazareth: hereby that acquaintance was prevented which might have made John's testimony of Christ suspected.

Wesley: Joh 1:34 - I saw it That is, the Spirit so descending and abiding on him.

That is, the Spirit so descending and abiding on him.

Wesley: Joh 1:34 - And testified From that time.

From that time.

Wesley: Joh 1:37 - They followed Jesus They walked after him, but had not the courage to speak to him.

They walked after him, but had not the courage to speak to him.

Wesley: Joh 1:41 - He first findeth his own brother Simon Probably both of them sought him: Which is, being interpreted, the Christ - This the evangelist adds, as likewise those words in Joh 1:38, that is, be...

Probably both of them sought him: Which is, being interpreted, the Christ - This the evangelist adds, as likewise those words in Joh 1:38, that is, being interpreted, Master.