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Teks -- Isaiah 9:1-21 (NET)

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Konteks
9:1 The gloom will be dispelled for those who were anxious. In earlier times he humiliated the land of Zebulun, and the land of Naphtali; but now he brings honor to the way of the sea, the region beyond the Jordan, and Galilee of the nations. 9:2 The people walking in darkness see a bright light; light shines on those who live in a land of deep darkness. 9:3 You have enlarged the nation; you give them great joy. They rejoice in your presence as harvesters rejoice; as warriors celebrate when they divide up the plunder. 9:4 For their oppressive yoke and the club that strikes their shoulders, the cudgel the oppressor uses on them, you have shattered, as in the day of Midian’s defeat. 9:5 Indeed every boot that marches and shakes the earth and every garment dragged through blood is used as fuel for the fire. 9:6 For a child has been born to us, a son has been given to us. He shoulders responsibility and is called: Extraordinary Strategist, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. 9:7 His dominion will be vast and he will bring immeasurable prosperity. He will rule on David’s throne and over David’s kingdom, establishing it and strengthening it by promoting justice and fairness, from this time forward and forevermore. The Lord’s intense devotion to his people will accomplish this.
God’s Judgment Intensifies
9:8 The sovereign master decreed judgment on Jacob, and it fell on Israel. 9:9 All the people were aware of it, the people of Ephraim and those living in Samaria. Yet with pride and an arrogant attitude, they said, 9:10 “The bricks have fallen, but we will rebuild with chiseled stone; the sycamore fig trees have been cut down, but we will replace them with cedars.” 9:11 Then the Lord provoked their adversaries to attack them, he stirred up their enemies9:12 Syria from the east, and the Philistines from the west, they gobbled up Israelite territory. Despite all this, his anger does not subside, and his hand is ready to strike again. 9:13 The people did not return to the one who struck them, they did not seek reconciliation with the Lord who commands armies. 9:14 So the Lord cut off Israel’s head and tail, both the shoots and stalk in one day. 9:15 The leaders and the highly respected people are the head, the prophets who teach lies are the tail. 9:16 The leaders of this nation were misleading people, and the people being led were destroyed. 9:17 So the sovereign master was not pleased with their young men, he took no pity on their orphans and widows; for the whole nation was godless and did wicked things, every mouth was speaking disgraceful words. Despite all this, his anger does not subside, and his hand is ready to strike again. 9:18 For evil burned like a fire, it consumed thorns and briers; it burned up the thickets of the forest, and they went up in smoke. 9:19 Because of the anger of the Lord who commands armies, the land was scorched, and the people became fuel for the fire. People had no compassion on one another. 9:20 They devoured on the right, but were still hungry, they ate on the left, but were not satisfied. People even ate the flesh of their own arm! 9:21 Manasseh fought against Ephraim, and Ephraim against Manasseh; together they fought against Judah. Despite all this, his anger does not subside, and his hand is ready to strike again.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel
 · Ephraim the tribe of Ephraim as a whole,the northern kingdom of Israel
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · Jordan the river that flows from Lake Galilee to the Dead Sea,a river that begins at Mt. Hermon, flows south through Lake Galilee and on to its end at the Dead Sea 175 km away (by air)
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Manasseh the tribe of Manasseh.
 · Midian resident(s) of the region of Midian
 · Naphtali region/territority and the tribe of Israel,the son of Jacob and Bilhah,the tribe of people descended from Naphtali,the territory of the people of Naphtali
 · Philistines a sea people coming from Crete in 1200BC to the coast of Canaan
 · Samaria residents of the district of Samaria
 · Syrian members of the nation of Syria
 · Zebulun the tribe of Israel that came from Zebulun whose territory was in Galilee,the man; son of Jacob and Leah,the tribe of Zebulun,the territory of the tribe of Zebulun


Topik/Tema Kamus: Isaiah | Israel | Poetry | War | Backsliders | JESUS CHRIST, 2 | Jesus, The Christ | EZEKIEL, 2 | Church | Gentiles | Prophecy | Ephraim | Famine | Philistines | Galilee | Anger | Afflictions and Adversities | Harvest | Minister | SANCTIFICATION | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Isa 9:1 - Nevertheless The calamity of this land and its inhabitants shall be great, yet not such as that which was brought upon it by the king of Assyria, who at first inde...

The calamity of this land and its inhabitants shall be great, yet not such as that which was brought upon it by the king of Assyria, who at first indeed dealt more gently with them, but afterwards rooted them out.

Wesley: Isa 9:1 - He God.

God.

Wesley: Isa 9:1 - Zebulun These parts are particularly mentioned, because this storm fell most heavily upon them; but under them the other parts of the land are understood.

These parts are particularly mentioned, because this storm fell most heavily upon them; but under them the other parts of the land are understood.

Wesley: Isa 9:1 - Afterward By Shalmaneser, who took Samaria, and carried Israel into captivity, 2Ki 17:5-6. Of which calamity, though yet to come, he speaks as if it were past, ...

By Shalmaneser, who took Samaria, and carried Israel into captivity, 2Ki 17:5-6. Of which calamity, though yet to come, he speaks as if it were past, as the manner of the prophet is.

Wesley: Isa 9:1 - The sea In that part of the land which borders upon the sea, the lake Genesareth, upon which the portions of Zebulun and Naphtali bordered.

In that part of the land which borders upon the sea, the lake Genesareth, upon which the portions of Zebulun and Naphtali bordered.

Wesley: Isa 9:1 - Galilee Or, Galilee of the Gentiles, namely, the upper Galilee, so called because it bordered upon the Gentiles.

Or, Galilee of the Gentiles, namely, the upper Galilee, so called because it bordered upon the Gentiles.

Wesley: Isa 9:2 - The people Israel and Judah.

Israel and Judah.

Wesley: Isa 9:2 - Darkness The expression is general and so may well comprehend both calamity and ignorance, idolatry and profaneness, in which those parts were eminently involv...

The expression is general and so may well comprehend both calamity and ignorance, idolatry and profaneness, in which those parts were eminently involved.

Wesley: Isa 9:2 - Have seen Shall see at the coming of the Messiah.

Shall see at the coming of the Messiah.

Wesley: Isa 9:3 - Thou hast Thou hast made good thy promise to Abraham concerning the multiplication of his seed, by gathering in the Gentiles to the Jews.

Thou hast made good thy promise to Abraham concerning the multiplication of his seed, by gathering in the Gentiles to the Jews.

Wesley: Isa 9:3 - Before thee In thy presence, and in the place of thy worship.

In thy presence, and in the place of thy worship.

Wesley: Isa 9:4 - The yoke His burdensome yoke.

His burdensome yoke.

Wesley: Isa 9:4 - The staff The staff or staves by which he was forced to carry burdens upon his shoulders.

The staff or staves by which he was forced to carry burdens upon his shoulders.

Wesley: Isa 9:4 - The rod Wherewith he beat him.

Wherewith he beat him.

Wesley: Isa 9:4 - Oppressor Of all his oppressors, but especially of sin and the devil.

Of all his oppressors, but especially of sin and the devil.

Wesley: Isa 9:4 - As When God destroyed the Midianites in so admirable a manner by three hundred men.

When God destroyed the Midianites in so admirable a manner by three hundred men.

Wesley: Isa 9:5 - Noise With the triumphant exclamations of the conqueror, and the bitter lamentations of the conquered, and the different cries of the same persons, sometime...

With the triumphant exclamations of the conqueror, and the bitter lamentations of the conquered, and the different cries of the same persons, sometimes conquering, and sometimes conquered.

Wesley: Isa 9:5 - Blood With great difficulty and slaughter.

With great difficulty and slaughter.

Wesley: Isa 9:5 - But But this victory which God's people shall have over all their enemies, shall be more terrible to their adversaries, whom God will utterly consume, as ...

But this victory which God's people shall have over all their enemies, shall be more terrible to their adversaries, whom God will utterly consume, as it were by fire.

Wesley: Isa 9:6 - For Having spoken of the glorious light, and joy, and victory of God's people, he now proceeds to shew the ground of it.

Having spoken of the glorious light, and joy, and victory of God's people, he now proceeds to shew the ground of it.

Wesley: Isa 9:6 - Us Unto us Jews, of whom Christ was born, and to whom he was primarily sent.

Unto us Jews, of whom Christ was born, and to whom he was primarily sent.

Wesley: Isa 9:6 - A child The Messiah by the consent of interpreters, not only Christian, but Jewish: for so the ancient Hebrew doctors understood the place, and particularly t...

The Messiah by the consent of interpreters, not only Christian, but Jewish: for so the ancient Hebrew doctors understood the place, and particularly the Chaldee paraphrast; although the latter Jews, out of opposition to Christ, wrest it to Hezekiah. Which extravagant conceit, as it hath no foundation in this or any other text of scripture, so it is fully confuted by the following titles, which are such as cannot without blasphemy and nonsense be ascribed to Hezekiah, nor indeed to any mere mortal man, as we shall see.

Wesley: Isa 9:6 - Is born Or, shall be born, as the prophets generally speak.

Or, shall be born, as the prophets generally speak.

Wesley: Isa 9:6 - The government Of God's people, to whom he is given.

Of God's people, to whom he is given.

Wesley: Isa 9:6 - Shoulders Upon him, or in his hands. He mentions shoulders, because great burdens are commonly laid upon men's shoulders.

Upon him, or in his hands. He mentions shoulders, because great burdens are commonly laid upon men's shoulders.

Wesley: Isa 9:6 - His name This is not to be taken for a description of his name, but of his glorious nature and qualities.

This is not to be taken for a description of his name, but of his glorious nature and qualities.

Wesley: Isa 9:6 - Wonderful counsellor And so Christ is, because he hath been the counsellor of his church in all ages, and the author and giver of all those excellent counsels delivered no...

And so Christ is, because he hath been the counsellor of his church in all ages, and the author and giver of all those excellent counsels delivered not only by the apostles, but also by the prophets, and hath gathered and enlarged, and preserved his church, by admirable counsels and methods of his providence, and, in a word, hath in him all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, Col 2:3.

Wesley: Isa 9:6 - Mighty God This title can agree to no man but Christ, who was God as well as man, to whom the title of God or Jehovah is given, both in the Old and New Testament...

This title can agree to no man but Christ, who was God as well as man, to whom the title of God or Jehovah is given, both in the Old and New Testament. And it is a true observation, that this Hebrew word El is never used in the singular number, of any creature, but only of the almighty God.

Wesley: Isa 9:6 - The father The father of eternity. Who, though as man he was then unborn, yet was and is from everlasting to everlasting.

The father of eternity. Who, though as man he was then unborn, yet was and is from everlasting to everlasting.

Wesley: Isa 9:7 - No end His peaceable and happy government shall be extended to all the ends of the earth.

His peaceable and happy government shall be extended to all the ends of the earth.

Wesley: Isa 9:7 - The throne Which was promised to David, and to his seed for ever.

Which was promised to David, and to his seed for ever.

Wesley: Isa 9:7 - For ever From the beginning of it to all eternity.

From the beginning of it to all eternity.

Wesley: Isa 9:7 - The zeal This great work shall be brought to pass by almighty God, out of that fervent affection which he hath to his own glory, to the honour of his son, and ...

This great work shall be brought to pass by almighty God, out of that fervent affection which he hath to his own glory, to the honour of his son, and to his people.

Wesley: Isa 9:8 - The Lord The prophet, having inserted some consolatory passages for God's faithful people, returns to his former comminution against the rebellious Israelites.

The prophet, having inserted some consolatory passages for God's faithful people, returns to his former comminution against the rebellious Israelites.

Wesley: Isa 9:8 - And Heb. it fell, that is, it shall fall, in the prophetical style. It shall certainly be accomplished.

Heb. it fell, that is, it shall fall, in the prophetical style. It shall certainly be accomplished.

Wesley: Isa 9:9 - Know They shall know whether my word be true or false.

They shall know whether my word be true or false.

Wesley: Isa 9:9 - Even The people of the ten tribes, and particularly Ephraim, the proudest of them all.

The people of the ten tribes, and particularly Ephraim, the proudest of them all.

Wesley: Isa 9:9 - Samaria The strongest place, and the seat of the king and court.

The strongest place, and the seat of the king and court.

Wesley: Isa 9:10 - Stones We have received some damage; but, we doubt not we shall quickly repair it with advantage.

We have received some damage; but, we doubt not we shall quickly repair it with advantage.

Wesley: Isa 9:11 - Therefore To chastise your pride, and defeat your hopes.

To chastise your pride, and defeat your hopes.

Wesley: Isa 9:11 - Set up The Assyrians, who, presently after this prophecy, prevailed against him, 2Ki 16:7. He mentions Rezin, because he was confederate with Ephraim.

The Assyrians, who, presently after this prophecy, prevailed against him, 2Ki 16:7. He mentions Rezin, because he was confederate with Ephraim.

Wesley: Isa 9:11 - Join So that they shall invade him from several quarters.

So that they shall invade him from several quarters.

Wesley: Isa 9:11 - His Not Rezin's, but Ephraim.

Not Rezin's, but Ephraim.

Wesley: Isa 9:12 - Syrians For though Rezin, king of Syria was destroyed, yet the body of the nation survived, and submitted themselves to the king of Assyria, and upon his comm...

For though Rezin, king of Syria was destroyed, yet the body of the nation survived, and submitted themselves to the king of Assyria, and upon his command invaded Israel afterwards.

Wesley: Isa 9:12 - Before Heb. on the east: for Syria stood eastward from Israel.

Heb. on the east: for Syria stood eastward from Israel.

Wesley: Isa 9:12 - Behind On the western side of the land of Israel.

On the western side of the land of Israel.

Wesley: Isa 9:12 - Devour Like wild beasts.

Like wild beasts.

Wesley: Isa 9:13 - Him To God.

To God.

Wesley: Isa 9:14 - Head High and low.

High and low.

Wesley: Isa 9:14 - Branch The goodly branches of tall trees, the mighty and noble.

The goodly branches of tall trees, the mighty and noble.

Wesley: Isa 9:14 - Rush The bulrush, the weakest and meanest persons.

The bulrush, the weakest and meanest persons.

Wesley: Isa 9:14 - One day All together, one as well as another.

All together, one as well as another.

Wesley: Isa 9:15 - The prophet Whose destruction he mentions, not as if it were a punishment to them to be deprived of such persons, but partly to shew the extent of the calamity, t...

Whose destruction he mentions, not as if it were a punishment to them to be deprived of such persons, but partly to shew the extent of the calamity, that it should reach all sorts of persons; and partly to beat down their vain presumptions of peace and prosperity, by shewing that those false prophets, which had fed their vain hopes, should perish, and their false prophecies with them.

Wesley: Isa 9:15 - Tail The basest part of the whole people.

The basest part of the whole people.

Wesley: Isa 9:16 - The leaders Their false prophets.

Their false prophets.

Wesley: Isa 9:16 - Cause By false doctrines and evil counsels and persuasions.

By false doctrines and evil counsels and persuasions.

Wesley: Isa 9:16 - Destroyed Shall certainly perish.

Shall certainly perish.

Wesley: Isa 9:17 - No joy Shall not rejoice over them to do them good.

Shall not rejoice over them to do them good.

Wesley: Isa 9:17 - Fatherless Who are the special objects of his care and pity, and much less upon others.

Who are the special objects of his care and pity, and much less upon others.

Wesley: Isa 9:17 - Every one Not precisely; for there were seven thousand elect persons among them, when they seemed to Elijah to be universally corrupt, but the body of the peopl...

Not precisely; for there were seven thousand elect persons among them, when they seemed to Elijah to be universally corrupt, but the body of the people.

Wesley: Isa 9:17 - Hypocrite For though they professed to worship God, yet indeed they had forsaken him.

For though they professed to worship God, yet indeed they had forsaken him.

Wesley: Isa 9:17 - Folly Wickedness.

Wickedness.

Wesley: Isa 9:18 - Burneth Shall burn you, as it follows, shall devour.

Shall burn you, as it follows, shall devour.

Wesley: Isa 9:18 - Thorns The low and mean persons; for these are opposed to the thickets of the forest, in the next clause.

The low and mean persons; for these are opposed to the thickets of the forest, in the next clause.

Wesley: Isa 9:18 - Forest In the wood, where the trees are tall, and stand thick, having their bows entangled together, which makes them more ready both to catch and to spread ...

In the wood, where the trees are tall, and stand thick, having their bows entangled together, which makes them more ready both to catch and to spread the fire.

Wesley: Isa 9:18 - Smoak Sending up smoak like a vast furnace.

Sending up smoak like a vast furnace.

Wesley: Isa 9:21 - Manasseh Though more near and dear to one another than any other tribe, being both sons of Joseph.

Though more near and dear to one another than any other tribe, being both sons of Joseph.

JFB: Isa 9:1 - Nevertheless, &c. Rather, "For darkness shall not (continually) be on it (that is, the land) on which there is (now) distress" [HENGSTENBERG and MAURER]. The "for" refe...

Rather, "For darkness shall not (continually) be on it (that is, the land) on which there is (now) distress" [HENGSTENBERG and MAURER]. The "for" refers, not to the words immediately preceding, but to the consolations in Isa 8:9-10, Isa 8:17-18. Do not despair, for, &c.

JFB: Isa 9:1 - when at the first, &c. Rather, "as the former time has brought contempt on the land of Zebulun and Naphtali (namely, the deportation of their inhabitants under Tiglath-piles...

Rather, "as the former time has brought contempt on the land of Zebulun and Naphtali (namely, the deportation of their inhabitants under Tiglath-pileser, 2Ki 15:29, a little before the giving of this prophecy); so shall the after-coming time bring honor to the way of the sea (the district around the lake of Galilee), the land beyond (but HENGSTENBERG, "by the side of") Jordan (Perea, east of Jordan, belonging to Reuben, Gad, and half-Manasseh), the circle (but HENGSTENBERG, "Galilee") (that is, region) of the "Gentiles" [MAURER, HENGSTENBERG, &c.]. Galil in Hebrew is a "circle," "circuit," and from it came the name Galilee. North of Naphtali, inhabited by a mixed race of Jews and Gentiles of the bordering Phœnician race (Jdg 1:30; 1Ki 9:11). Besides the recent deportation by Tiglath-pileser, it had been sorely smitten by Ben-hadad of Syria, two hundred years before (1Ki 15:20). It was after the Assyrian deportation colonized with heathens, by Esar-haddon (2Ki 17:24). Hence arose the contempt for it on the part of the southern Jews of purer blood (Joh 1:46; Joh 7:52). The same region which was so darkened once, shall be among the first to receive Messiah's light (Mat 4:13, Mat 4:15-16). It was in despised Galilee that He first and most publicly exercised His ministry; from it were most of His apostles. Foretold in Deu 33:18-19; Act 2:7; Psa 68:27-28, Jerusalem, the theocratic capital, might readily have known Messiah; to compensate less favored Galilee, He ministered mostly there; Galilee's very debasement made it feel its need of a Saviour, a feeling not known to the self-righteous Jews (Mat 9:13). It was appropriate, too, that He who was both "the Light to lighten the Gentiles, and the Glory of His people Israel," should minister chiefly on the border land of Israel, near the Gentiles.

JFB: Isa 9:2 - the people The whole nation, Judah and Israel.

The whole nation, Judah and Israel.

JFB: Isa 9:2 - shadow of death The darkest misery of captivity.

The darkest misery of captivity.

JFB: Isa 9:3 - multiplied . . . nation Primarily, the rapid increase of Israelites after the return from Babylon; more fully and exhaustively the rapid spread of Christianity at first.

Primarily, the rapid increase of Israelites after the return from Babylon; more fully and exhaustively the rapid spread of Christianity at first.

JFB: Isa 9:3 - not increased the joy By a slight change in the Hebrew, its (joy) is substituted by some for not, because "not increased the joy" seems opposite to what immediately follows...

By a slight change in the Hebrew, its (joy) is substituted by some for not, because "not increased the joy" seems opposite to what immediately follows, "the joy," &c. HENGSTENBERG, retains not thus: "Whose joy thou hadst not increased," (that is, hadst diminished). Others, "Hast thou not increased the joy?" The very difficulty of the reading, not, makes it less likely to be an interpolation. HORSLEY best explains it: The prophet sees in vision a shifting scene, comprehending at one glance the history of the Christian Church to remotest times--a land dark and thinly peopled--lit up by a sudden light--filled with new inhabitants--then struggling with difficulties, and again delivered by the utter and final overthrow of their enemies. The influx of Gentile converts (represented here by "Galilee of the Gentiles") soon was to be followed by the growth of corruption, and the final rise of Antichrist, who is to be destroyed, while God's people is delivered, as in the case of Gideon's victory over Midian, not by man's prowess, but by the special interposition of God.

JFB: Isa 9:3 - before thee A phrase taken from sacrificial feasts; the tithe of harvest was eaten before God (Deu 12:7; Deu 14:26).

A phrase taken from sacrificial feasts; the tithe of harvest was eaten before God (Deu 12:7; Deu 14:26).

JFB: Isa 9:3 - as men rejoice . . . divide . . . spoil Referring to the judgments on the enemies of the Lord and His people, which usually accompany revelations of His grace.

Referring to the judgments on the enemies of the Lord and His people, which usually accompany revelations of His grace.

JFB: Isa 9:4 - -- The occasion of the "joy," the deliverance not only of Ahaz and Judah from the Assyrian tribute (2Ki 16:8), and of Israel's ten tribes from the oppres...

The occasion of the "joy," the deliverance not only of Ahaz and Judah from the Assyrian tribute (2Ki 16:8), and of Israel's ten tribes from the oppressor (2Ki 15:19), but of the Jewish Christian Church from its last great enemy.

JFB: Isa 9:4 - hast The past time for the future, in prophetic vision; it expresses the certainty of the event.

The past time for the future, in prophetic vision; it expresses the certainty of the event.

JFB: Isa 9:4 - yoke of his burden The yoke with which he was burdened.

The yoke with which he was burdened.

JFB: Isa 9:4 - staff of . . . shoulder The staff which strikes his shoulder [MAURER]; or the wood, like a yoke, on the neck of slaves, the badge of servitude [ROSENMULLER].

The staff which strikes his shoulder [MAURER]; or the wood, like a yoke, on the neck of slaves, the badge of servitude [ROSENMULLER].

JFB: Isa 9:4 - day of Midian (Jdg 7:8-22). As Gideon with a handful of men conquered the hosts of Midian, so Messiah the "child" (Isa 9:6) shall prove to be the "Prince of peace,...

(Jdg 7:8-22). As Gideon with a handful of men conquered the hosts of Midian, so Messiah the "child" (Isa 9:6) shall prove to be the "Prince of peace," and the small Israel under Him shall overcome the mighty hosts of Antichrist (compare Mic 5:2-5), containing the same contrast, and alluding also to "the Assyrian," the then enemy of the Church, as here in Isaiah, the type of the last great enemy. For further analogies between Gideon's victory and the Gospel, compare 2Co 4:7, with Jdg 7:22. As the "dividing of the spoil" (Isa 9:3) was followed by that which was "not joy," the making of the idolatrous ephod (Jdg 8:24-27), so the gospel victory was soon followed by apostasy at the first, and shall be so again after the millennial overthrow of Antichrist (Rev 20:3, Rev 20:7-9), previous to Satan's last doom (Rev 20:10).

JFB: Isa 9:5 - every battle, &c. Rather, "every greave of (the warrior who is) armed with greaves in the din of battle, and the martial garment (or cloak, called by the Latins sagum) ...

Rather, "every greave of (the warrior who is) armed with greaves in the din of battle, and the martial garment (or cloak, called by the Latins sagum) rolled in blood, shall be for burning, (and) fuel for fire" [MAURER]. All warlike accoutrements shall be destroyed, as no longer required in the new era of peace (Isa 2:4; Isa 11:6-7; Psa 46:9; Eze 39:9; Mic 5:5, Mic 5:10; Zec 9:9-10). Compare Mal 4:1, as to the previous burning up of the wicked.

JFB: Isa 9:6 - For The ground of these great expectations,

The ground of these great expectations,

JFB: Isa 9:6 - unto us For the benefit of the Jews first, and then the Gentiles (compare "unto you," Luk 2:11).

For the benefit of the Jews first, and then the Gentiles (compare "unto you," Luk 2:11).

JFB: Isa 9:6 - son . . . given (Psa 2:7). God's gratuitous gift, on which man had no claim (Joh 3:16; Rom 6:23).

(Psa 2:7). God's gratuitous gift, on which man had no claim (Joh 3:16; Rom 6:23).

JFB: Isa 9:6 - government . . . upon . . . shoulder The ensign of office used to be worn on the shoulder, in token of sustaining the government (Isa 22:22). Here the government on Messiah's shoulder is ...

The ensign of office used to be worn on the shoulder, in token of sustaining the government (Isa 22:22). Here the government on Messiah's shoulder is in marked antithesis to the "yoke and staff" of the oppressor on Israel's "shoulder" (Isa 9:4). He shall receive the kingdom of the earth from the Father, to vindicate it from the misrule of those to whom it was entrusted to hold it for and under the Most High, but who sought to hold it in defiance of His right; the Father asserts His right by the Son, the "Heir of all things," who will hold it for Him (Dan 7:13-14).

JFB: Isa 9:6 - name . . . called His essential characteristics shall be.

His essential characteristics shall be.

JFB: Isa 9:6 - Wonderful (See on Isa 8:18; Jdg 13:18, Margin; 1Ti 3:16).

(See on Isa 8:18; Jdg 13:18, Margin; 1Ti 3:16).

JFB: Isa 9:6 - Counsellor (Psa 16:7; Rom 11:33-34; 1Co 1:24; Col 2:3).

JFB: Isa 9:6 - mighty God (Isa 10:21; Psa 24:8; Tit 2:13) HORSLEY translates: "God the mighty man." "Unto us . . . God" is equivalent to "Immanuel" (Isa 7:14).

(Isa 10:21; Psa 24:8; Tit 2:13) HORSLEY translates: "God the mighty man." "Unto us . . . God" is equivalent to "Immanuel" (Isa 7:14).

JFB: Isa 9:6 - everlasting Father This marks Him as "Wonderful," that He is "a child," yet the "everlasting Father" (Joh 10:30; Joh 14:9). Earthly kings leave their people after a shor...

This marks Him as "Wonderful," that He is "a child," yet the "everlasting Father" (Joh 10:30; Joh 14:9). Earthly kings leave their people after a short reign; He will reign over and bless them for ever [HENGSTENBERG].

JFB: Isa 9:6 - Prince of Peace (See on Isa 9:5; Gen 49:10; Shiloh, "The Tranquillizer"). Finally (Hos 2:18). Even already He is "our peace" (Luk 2:14; Eph 2:14).

(See on Isa 9:5; Gen 49:10; Shiloh, "The Tranquillizer"). Finally (Hos 2:18). Even already He is "our peace" (Luk 2:14; Eph 2:14).

JFB: Isa 9:7 - Of . . . increase . . . no end His princely rule shall perpetually increase and be unlimited (Dan 2:44).

His princely rule shall perpetually increase and be unlimited (Dan 2:44).

JFB: Isa 9:7 - throne of David (1Ki 8:25; Psa 2:6; Psa 132:11; Jer 3:17-18 Eze 34:23-26; Eze 37:16, Eze 37:22; Luk 1:32-33; Act 2:30).

JFB: Isa 9:7 - judgment . . . justice It is not a kingdom of mere might, and triumph of force over enemies, but of righteousness (Isa 42:21; Psa 45:6-7), attainable only in and by Messiah.

It is not a kingdom of mere might, and triumph of force over enemies, but of righteousness (Isa 42:21; Psa 45:6-7), attainable only in and by Messiah.

JFB: Isa 9:7 - zeal, &c. Including not only Christ's hidden spiritual victory over Satan at the first coming, but the open one accompanied with "judgments" on Antichrist and e...

Including not only Christ's hidden spiritual victory over Satan at the first coming, but the open one accompanied with "judgments" on Antichrist and every enemy at the second coming (Isa 59:17; Psa 9:6-8).

Delivered a little later than the previous one. The ninth and tenth chapters ought to have been so divided. The present division into chapters was made by Cardinal Hugo, in A.D. 1250; and into verses, by Robert Stephens, the famous printer of Paris, in 1551. After the Assyrian invasion of Syria, that of Ephraim shall follow (2Ki 16:9); Isa 9:8-11, Isa 9:17-20, foretell the intestine discords in Israel after Hoshea had slain Pekah (A.D. 739), that is, just after the Assyrian invasions, when for seven years it was stripped of magistrates and torn into factions. There are four strophes, each setting forth Ephraim's crime and consequent punishment, and ending with the formula, "For all this His anger is not turned away," &c. (Isa 9:12, Isa 9:17, Isa 9:21, and Isa 10:4).

JFB: Isa 9:8 - unto Jacob Against the ten tribes [LOWTH].

Against the ten tribes [LOWTH].

JFB: Isa 9:8 - lighted upon Fallen from heaven by divine revelation (Dan 4:31).

Fallen from heaven by divine revelation (Dan 4:31).

JFB: Isa 9:9 - know To their cost: experimentally (Hos 9:7).

To their cost: experimentally (Hos 9:7).

JFB: Isa 9:9 - Samaria The capital of Ephraim (compare as to phrase, Isa 1:1).

The capital of Ephraim (compare as to phrase, Isa 1:1).

JFB: Isa 9:10 - bricks In the East generally sun-dried, and therefore soon dissolved by rain. Granting, say the Ephraimites to the prophet's threat, that our affairs are in ...

In the East generally sun-dried, and therefore soon dissolved by rain. Granting, say the Ephraimites to the prophet's threat, that our affairs are in a ruinous state, we will restore them to more than their former magnificence. Self-confident unwillingness to see the judgments of God (Isa 26:11).

JFB: Isa 9:10 - hewn stones (1Ki 5:17).

JFB: Isa 9:10 - sycamores Growing abundantly on the low lands of Judea, and though useful for building on account of their antiseptic property (which induced the Egyptians to u...

Growing abundantly on the low lands of Judea, and though useful for building on account of their antiseptic property (which induced the Egyptians to use them for the cases of their mummies), not very valuable. The cedar, on the other hand, was odorous, free from knots, durable, and precious (1Ki 10:27). "We will replace cottages with palaces."

JFB: Isa 9:11 - adversaries of Rezin The Assyrians, who shall first attack Damascus, shall next advance "against him" (Ephraim). This is the punishment of Ephraim's pride in making light ...

The Assyrians, who shall first attack Damascus, shall next advance "against him" (Ephraim). This is the punishment of Ephraim's pride in making light (Isa 9:10) of the judgment already inflicted by God through Tiglath-pileser (2Ki 15:29). A second Assyrian invasion (see on Isa 7:1) shall follow. The reading "princes" for "adversaries" in uncalled for.

JFB: Isa 9:11 - join Rather, "arm"; cover with armor [MAURER].

Rather, "arm"; cover with armor [MAURER].

JFB: Isa 9:11 - his Rezin's.

Rezin's.

JFB: Isa 9:12 - Syrians Though now allies of Ephraim, after Rezin's death they shall join the Assyrians against Ephraim. "Together," in Isa 9:11, refers to this. Conquering n...

Though now allies of Ephraim, after Rezin's death they shall join the Assyrians against Ephraim. "Together," in Isa 9:11, refers to this. Conquering nations often enlist in their armies the subject races (Isa 22:6; compare 2Ki 16:9; Jer 35:11), [ABEN EZRA, GESENIUS]. HORSLEY less probably takes "Syrians before," as the Syrians to the east, that is, not Rezin's subjects, but the Assyrians: "Aram" being the common name of Syrians and Assyrians.

JFB: Isa 9:12 - Philistines Of Palestine.

Of Palestine.

JFB: Isa 9:12 - behind From the west: in marking the points of the compass, Orientalists face the east, which is before them: the west is behind. The right hand is the south...

From the west: in marking the points of the compass, Orientalists face the east, which is before them: the west is behind. The right hand is the south: the left, the north.

JFB: Isa 9:12 - devour As a ravenous beast (Isa 1:20; Jer 10:25; Jer 30:16; Num 14:9).

As a ravenous beast (Isa 1:20; Jer 10:25; Jer 30:16; Num 14:9).

JFB: Isa 9:12 - For all this, &c. The burden of each strophe.

The burden of each strophe.

JFB: Isa 9:13-17 - -- Second strophe.

Second strophe.

JFB: Isa 9:13-17 - turneth not The design of God's chastisements; not fulfilled in their case; a new cause for punishment (Jer 2:20; Jer 5:3).

The design of God's chastisements; not fulfilled in their case; a new cause for punishment (Jer 2:20; Jer 5:3).

JFB: Isa 9:14 - head and tail Proverbial for the highest and lowest (Deu 28:13, Deu 28:44).

Proverbial for the highest and lowest (Deu 28:13, Deu 28:44).

JFB: Isa 9:14 - branch and rush Another image for the same thought (Isa 19:15). The branch is elevated on the top of the tree: the rush is coarse and low.

Another image for the same thought (Isa 19:15). The branch is elevated on the top of the tree: the rush is coarse and low.

JFB: Isa 9:15 - ancient The older.

The older.

JFB: Isa 9:15 - honourable The man of rank.

The man of rank.

JFB: Isa 9:15 - prophet . . . lies, . . . tail There were many such in Samaria (1Ki 22:6, 1Ki 22:22-23; compare as to "tail," Rev 9:19).

There were many such in Samaria (1Ki 22:6, 1Ki 22:22-23; compare as to "tail," Rev 9:19).

JFB: Isa 9:16 - leaders, &c. (See Isa 3:12, Margin, and see on Isa 3:12.)

(See Isa 3:12, Margin, and see on Isa 3:12.)

JFB: Isa 9:17 - no joy The parallelism, "neither . . . mercy," shows that this means, He shall have no such delight in their youthful warriors, however much they be the nati...

The parallelism, "neither . . . mercy," shows that this means, He shall have no such delight in their youthful warriors, however much they be the nation's delight and reliance, as to save them from the enemy's sword (Isa 31:8; compare Jer 18:21).

JFB: Isa 9:17 - fatherless, &c. Not even the usual objects of His pity (Psa 10:14, Psa 10:18; Psa 68:5; Jer 49:11; Hos 14:3) shall be spared.

Not even the usual objects of His pity (Psa 10:14, Psa 10:18; Psa 68:5; Jer 49:11; Hos 14:3) shall be spared.

JFB: Isa 9:17 - hypocrite Rather, a libertine, polluted [HORSLEY].

Rather, a libertine, polluted [HORSLEY].

JFB: Isa 9:17 - folly Wickedness (Psa 14:1).

Wickedness (Psa 14:1).

JFB: Isa 9:17 - still Notwithstanding all these judgments, more remain.

Notwithstanding all these judgments, more remain.

JFB: Isa 9:18-21 - -- Third strophe.

Third strophe.

JFB: Isa 9:18-21 - burneth Maketh consumption, not only spreading rapidly, but also consuming like fire: sin is its own punishment.

Maketh consumption, not only spreading rapidly, but also consuming like fire: sin is its own punishment.

JFB: Isa 9:18-21 - briers . . . thorns Emblem of the wicked; especially those of low rank (Isa 27:4; 2Sa 23:6).

Emblem of the wicked; especially those of low rank (Isa 27:4; 2Sa 23:6).

JFB: Isa 9:18-21 - forest From the humble shrubbery the flame spreads to the vast forest; it reaches the high, as well as the low.

From the humble shrubbery the flame spreads to the vast forest; it reaches the high, as well as the low.

JFB: Isa 9:18-21 - mount up like . . . smoke Rather. "They (the thickets of the forest) shall lift themselves proudly aloft [the Hebrew is from a Syriac root, a cock, expressing stateliness of mo...

Rather. "They (the thickets of the forest) shall lift themselves proudly aloft [the Hebrew is from a Syriac root, a cock, expressing stateliness of motion, from his strutting gait, HORSLEY], in (in passing into) volumes of ascending smoke" [MAURER].

JFB: Isa 9:19 - darkened Namely, with smoke (Isa 9:18). The Septuagint and Chaldee render it, "is burnt up," so MAURER, from an Arabic root meaning "suffocating heat."

Namely, with smoke (Isa 9:18). The Septuagint and Chaldee render it, "is burnt up," so MAURER, from an Arabic root meaning "suffocating heat."

JFB: Isa 9:19 - no man . . . spare . . . brother Intestine discord snapping asunder the dearest ties of nature.

Intestine discord snapping asunder the dearest ties of nature.

JFB: Isa 9:20 - hungry Not literally. Image from unappeasable hunger, to picture internal factions, reckless of the most tender ties (Isa 9:19), and insatiably spreading mis...

Not literally. Image from unappeasable hunger, to picture internal factions, reckless of the most tender ties (Isa 9:19), and insatiably spreading misery and death on every side (Jer 19:9).

JFB: Isa 9:20 - eat Not literally, but destroy (Psa 27:2; Job 19:22).

Not literally, but destroy (Psa 27:2; Job 19:22).

JFB: Isa 9:20 - flesh of . . . arm Those nearest akin: their former support (helper) (Isa 32:2) [MAURER].

Those nearest akin: their former support (helper) (Isa 32:2) [MAURER].

JFB: Isa 9:21 - Manasseh, Ephraim The two sons of Joseph. So closely united as to form between them but one tribe; but now about to be rent into factions, thirsting for each other's bl...

The two sons of Joseph. So closely united as to form between them but one tribe; but now about to be rent into factions, thirsting for each other's blood. Disunited in all things else, but united "together against their brother Judah" (2Ki 15:10, 2Ki 15:30).

Clarke: Isa 9:1 - Dimness "Accumulated darkness"- Either מנדחה menuddechah , fem. to agree with אפלה aphelah ; or אפל המנדח aphel hammenuddach , alluding perhaps to the palpable Egyptian darkness, Exo 10:21

The land of Zebulun Dimness "Accumulated darkness"- Either מנדחה menuddechah , fem. to agree with אפלה aphelah ; or אפל המנדח aphel hammenuddach , ...

Dimness "Accumulated darkness"- Either מנדחה menuddechah , fem. to agree with אפלה aphelah ; or אפל המנדח aphel hammenuddach , alluding perhaps to the palpable Egyptian darkness, Exo 10:21

The land of Zebulun - Zebulun, Naphtali, Manasseh, that is, the country of Galilee all round the sea of Gennesareth, were the parts that principally suffered in the first Assyrian invasion under Tiglath-pileser; see 2Ki 15:29; 1Ch 5:26. And they were the first that enjoyed the blessings of Christ’ s preaching the Gospel, and exhibiting his miraculous works among them. See Mede’ s Works, p. 101, and 457. This, which makes the twenty-third verse of chap. 8 in the Hebrew, is the first verse in chap. 9 in our authorized version. Bishop Lowth follows the division in the Hebrew.

Clarke: Isa 9:3 - And not increased the joy "Thou hast increased their joy"- Eleven MSS. of Kennicott’ s and six of De Ross’ s, two ancient, read לו lo , it, according to the Masoretical correction, instead of לא lo , not. To the same purpose the Targum and Syriac

The joy in harvest And not increased the joy "Thou hast increased their joy"- Eleven MSS. of Kennicott’ s and six of De Ross’ s, two ancient, read לו lo ,...

And not increased the joy "Thou hast increased their joy"- Eleven MSS. of Kennicott’ s and six of De Ross’ s, two ancient, read לו lo , it, according to the Masoretical correction, instead of לא lo , not. To the same purpose the Targum and Syriac

The joy in harvest - כשמחת בקציר kesimchath bakkatsir . For בקציר bakkatsir one MS. of Kennicott’ s and one of De Rossi’ s have קציר katsir , and another הקציר hakkatsir , "the harvest;"one of which seems to be the true, reading, as the noun preceding is in regimine .

Clarke: Isa 9:5 - -- Every battle of the warrior "The greaves of the armed warrior"- שאון שאון seon soen . This word, occurring only in this place, is oaf very...

Every battle of the warrior "The greaves of the armed warrior"- שאון שאון seon soen . This word, occurring only in this place, is oaf very doubtful signification. Schindler fairly tells us that we may guess at it by the context. The Jews have explained it, by guess I believe, as signifying battle, conflict: the Vulgate renders it violenta praedatio . But it seems as if something was rather meant which was capable of becoming fuel for the fire, together with the garments mentioned in the same sentence. In Syriac the word, as a noun, signifies a shoe, or a sandal, as a learned friend suggested to me some years ago. See Luk 15:22; Act 12:8. I take it, therefore, to mean that part of the armor which covered the legs and feet, and I would render the two words in Latin by caliga caligati . The burning of heaps of armor, gathered from the field of battle, as an offering made to the god supposed to be the giver of victory, was a custom that prevailed among some heathen nations; and the Romans used it as an emblem of peace, which perfectly well suits with the design of the prophet in this place. A medal struck by Vespasian on finishing his wars both at home and abroad represents the goddess Peace holding an olive branch in one hand, and, with a lighted torch in the other, setting fire to a heap of armor. Virgil mentions the custom: -

"- Cum primam aciem Praeneste sub ips

Stravi, scutorumque incendi victor acervos .

Aen. lib. viii., ver. 561

"Would heaven, (said he), my strength and youth recall

Such as I was beneath Praeneste’ s wall -

Then when I made the foremost foes retir

And set whole heaps of conquered shields on fire.

Dryden

See Addison on Medals, Series 2:18. And there are notices of some such practice among the Israelites, and other nations of the most early times. God promises to Joshua victory over the kings of Canaan. "To-morrow I will deliver them up all slain before Israel: thou shalt hough their horses, and burn their chariots with fire,"Jos 11:6. See also Nah 2:13. And the psalmist employs this image to express complete victory, and the perfect establishment of peace: -

"He maketh wars to cease, even to the end of the land

He breaketh the bow, and cutteth the spear in sunder

And burneth the chariots in the fire

- Psa 46:9

עגלות agaloth , properly plausira, impedimenta , the baggage-wagons: which however the Septuagint and Vulgate render scuta , "shields;"and the Chaldee, "round shields,"to show the propriety of that sense of the word from the etymology; which, if admitted, makes the image the same with that used by the Romans

Ezekiel, Eze 39:8-10, in his bold manner has carried this image to a degree of amplification which I think hardly any other of the Hebrew poets would have attempted. He describes the burning of the arms of the enemy, in consequence of the complete victory to be obtained by the Israelites over Gog and Magog: -

"Behold, it is come to pass, and it is done

Saith the Lord Jehovah

This is the day of which I spoke

And the inhabitants of the cities of Israel shall go forth

And shall set on fire the armor, and the shield

And the buckler, and the bow, and the arrows

And the clubs and the lances

And they shall set them on fire for seven years

And they shall not bear wood from the field

Neither shall they hew from the forest

For of the armor shall they make their fires

And they shall spoil their spoilers

And they shall plunder their plunderers.

R. D. Kimchi, on this verse says this refers simply to the destruction of the Assyrians. Other battles are fought man against man, and spear against spear; and the garments are rolled in blood through the wounds given and received: but this was with burning, for the angel of the Lord smote them by night, and there was neither sword nor violent commotion, nor blood; they were food for the fire, for the angel of the Lord consumed them.

Clarke: Isa 9:6 - The government shall be upon his shoulder The government shall be upon his shoulder - That is, the ensign of government; the scepter, the sword, the key, or the like, which was borne upon or...

The government shall be upon his shoulder - That is, the ensign of government; the scepter, the sword, the key, or the like, which was borne upon or hung from the shoulder. See note on Isa 22:22

Clarke: Isa 9:6 - And his name shall be called And his name shall be called - אל גבור El gibbor , the prevailing or conquering God

And his name shall be called - אל גבור El gibbor , the prevailing or conquering God

Clarke: Isa 9:6 - The everlasting Father "The Father of the everlasting age"- Or אבי עד Abi ad , the Father of eternity. The Septuagint have μεγαλης βουλης Αγγελος, "the Messenger of the Great Counsel."But instead of אבי אד Abi ad , a MS. of De Rossi has אבעזר Abezer , the helping Father; evidently the corruption of some Jew, who did not like such an evidence in favor of the Christian Messiah

Prince of Peace The everlasting Father "The Father of the everlasting age"- Or אבי עד Abi ad , the Father of eternity. The Septuagint have μεγαλης β...

The everlasting Father "The Father of the everlasting age"- Or אבי עד Abi ad , the Father of eternity. The Septuagint have μεγαλης βουλης Αγγελος, "the Messenger of the Great Counsel."But instead of אבי אד Abi ad , a MS. of De Rossi has אבעזר Abezer , the helping Father; evidently the corruption of some Jew, who did not like such an evidence in favor of the Christian Messiah

Prince of Peace - שר שלום sar shalom , the Prince of prosperity, the Giver of all blessings

A MS. of the thirteenth century in Kennicott’ s collection has a remarkable addition here. "He shall be a stumbling-block, המכשלה ; the government is on his shoulder."This reading is nowhere else acknowledged, as far as I know.

Clarke: Isa 9:7 - Of the increase Of the increase - In the common Hebrew Bibles, and in many MSS., this word is written with the close or final למרבה ם . But in twelve of Kenn...

Of the increase - In the common Hebrew Bibles, and in many MSS., this word is written with the close or final למרבה ם . But in twelve of Kennicott’ s MSS., and twelve of De Rossi’ s, it is written with the open מ mem ; but here it is supposed to contain mysteries, viz., that Jerusalem shall be shut up, closed, and confined, till the days of the Messiah

This is an illustrious prophecy of the incarnation of Christ, with an enumeration of those characters in which he stands most nearly related to mankind as their Savior; and of others by which his infinite majesty and Godhead are shown. He shall appear as a child, born of a woman, born as a Jew, under the law, but not in the way of ordinary generation. He is a Son given - the human nature, in which the fullness of the Godhead was to dwell, being produced by the creative energy of the Holy Ghost in the womb of the Virgin. See Mat 1:20, Mat 1:21, Mat 1:23, Mat 1:25, and Luk 1:35, and Isa 7:14, and the notes on those passages. As being God manifested in the flesh, he was wonderful in his conception, birth, preaching, miracles, sufferings, death, resurrection, and ascension; wonderful in his person, and wonderful in his working. He is the Counsellor that expounds the law; shows its origin, nature, and claims; instructs, pleads for the guilty; and ever appears in the presence of God for men. He is the mighty God; God essentially and efficiently prevailing against his enemies, and destroying ours. He is the Father of eternity; the Origin of all being, and the Cause of the existence, and particularly the Father, of the spirits of all flesh. The Prince of peace - not only the Author of peace, and the Dispenser of peace, but also he that rules by peace, whose rule tends always to perfection, and produces prosperity. Of the increase of his government - this Prince has a government, for he has all power both in heaven and in earth: and his government increases, and is daily more and more extended, and will continue till all things are put under his feet. His kingdom is ordered - every act of government regulated according to wisdom and goodness; is established so securely as not to be overthrown; and administered in judgment and justice, so as to manifest his wisdom, righteousness, goodness, and truth. Reader, such is that Jesus who came into the world to save sinners! Trust in Him

Isaiah 9:8-10:

This whole passage reduced to its proper and entire form, and healed of the dislocation which it suffers by the absurd division of the chapters, makes a distinct prophecy, and a just poem, remarkable for the regularity of its disposition and the elegance of its plan. It has no relation to the preceding or following prophecy; though the parts, violently torn asunder, have been, on the one side and the other, patched on to them. Those relate principally to the kingdom of Judah, this is addressed exclusively to the kingdom of Israel. The subject of it is a denunciation of vengeance awaiting their crimes. It is divided into four parts, each threatening the particular punishment of some grievous offense - of their pride, of their perseverance in their vices, of their impiety, and of their injustice. To which is added a general denunciation of a farther reserve of Divine wrath, contained in a distich, before used by the prophet on a like occasion, Isa 5:25, and here repeated after each part. This makes the intercalary verse of the poem; or, as we call it, the burden of the song

" Post hoc comma (cap. Isa 9:4) interponitur spatium unius lineae, in Cod. 2 et 3: idemque observatur in 245. in quo nullum est spatium ad finem capitis 9."Kennicott, Var. Lect

"After this clause (Isa 9:4) is interposed the space of one line in Cod. 2 and 3. The same is likewise observed in Cod. 245, in which no space exists at the end of chap. 9."

Clarke: Isa 9:8 - -- Lord "Jehovah"- For אדני Adonai , thirty MSS. of Kennicott’ s, and many of De Rossi’ s, and three editions, read יהוה Yehovah .

Lord "Jehovah"- For אדני Adonai , thirty MSS. of Kennicott’ s, and many of De Rossi’ s, and three editions, read יהוה Yehovah .

Clarke: Isa 9:9 - -- Pride and stoutness of heart "Carry themselves haughtily"- וידעו veyadeu , "and they shall know;"so ours and the Versions in general. But what...

Pride and stoutness of heart "Carry themselves haughtily"- וידעו veyadeu , "and they shall know;"so ours and the Versions in general. But what is it that they shall know? The verb stands destitute of its object; and the sense is imperfect. The Chaldee is the only one, as far as I can find, that expresses it otherwise. He renders the verb in this place by ואתרברבו veithrabrabu , "they exalt themselves, or carry themselves haughtily; the same word by which he renders גבהו gabehu , Isa 3:16. He seems, therefore, in this place to have read ויגבהו vaiyigbehu , which agrees perfectly well with what follows, and clears up the difficulty. Archbishop Secker conjectured וידברו vayedabberu , referring it to לאמר lemor , in the next verse, which shows that he was not satisfied with the present reading. Houbigant reads וירעו vaiyereu , et pravi facti sunt , they are become wicked, which is found in a MS.; but I prefer the reading of the Chaldee, which suits much better with the context

Houbigant approves of this reading; but it is utterly unsupported by any evidence from antiquity: it is a mere mistake of ר resh for ד daleth ; and I am surprised that it should be favored by Houbigant.

Clarke: Isa 9:10 - The bricks The bricks - "The eastern bricks,"says Sir John Chardin, (see Harmer’ s Observ. I., p. 176), "are only clay well moistened with water, and mixe...

The bricks - "The eastern bricks,"says Sir John Chardin, (see Harmer’ s Observ. I., p. 176), "are only clay well moistened with water, and mixed with straw, and dried in the sun."So that their walls are commonly no better than our mud walls; see Maundrell, p. 124. That straw was a necessary part in the composition of this sort of bricks, to make the parts of the clay adhere together, appears from Exodus 5. These bricks are properly opposed to hewn stone, so greatly superior in beauty and durableness. The sycamores, which, as Jerome on the place says, are timber of little worth, with equal propriety are opposed to the cedars. "As the grain and texture of the sycamore is remarkably coarse and spongy, it could therefore stand in no competition at all (as it is observed, Isa 9:10) with the cedar, for beauty and ornament."- Shaw, Supplement to Travels, p. 96. We meet with the same opposition of cedars to sycamores, 1Ki 10:27, where Solomon is said to have made silver as the stones, and cedars as the sycamores in the vale for abundance. By this mashal, or figurative and sententious speech, they boast that they shall easily be able to repair their present losses, suffered perhaps by the first Assyrian invasion under Tiglath-pileser; and to bring their affairs to a more flourishing condition than ever

Some of the bricks mentioned above lie before me. They were brought from the site of ancient Babylon. The straw is visible, kneaded with the clay; they are very hard, and evidently were dried in the sun; for they are very easily dissolved in water.

Clarke: Isa 9:11 - -- The adversaries of Rezin against him "The princes of Retsin against him"- For צרי tsarey , enemies, Houbigant, by conjecture, reads שרי sare...

The adversaries of Rezin against him "The princes of Retsin against him"- For צרי tsarey , enemies, Houbigant, by conjecture, reads שרי sarey , princes; which is confirmed by thirty of Kennicott’ s and De Rossi’ s MSS., (two ancient), one of my own, ancient; and nine more have צ tsaddi , upon a rasure, and therefore had probably at first שרי sarey . The princes of Retsin, the late ally of Israel, that is, the Syrians, expressly named in the next verse, shall now be excited against Israel

The Septuagint in this place give us another variation; for רצין Retsin , they read הר ציון har tsiyon , ορος Σιων, Mount Sion, of which this may be the sense; but Jehovah shall set up the adversaries of Mount Sion against him, (i.e., against Israel), and will strengthen his enemies together; the Syrians, the Philistines, who are called the adversaries of Mount Sion. See Simonis Lex. in voce סכך sachach .

Clarke: Isa 9:12 - -- With open mouth "On every side"- בכל פה bechol peh , in every corner, in every part of their country, pursuing them to the remotest extremitie...

With open mouth "On every side"- בכל פה bechol peh , in every corner, in every part of their country, pursuing them to the remotest extremities, and the most retired parts. So the Chaldee בכל אתר bechol athar , in every place.

Clarke: Isa 9:14 - In one day In one day - Thirteen MSS. of Kennicott and De Rossi read ביום beyond in a day; and another has a rasure in the place of the letter ב beth ...

In one day - Thirteen MSS. of Kennicott and De Rossi read ביום beyond in a day; and another has a rasure in the place of the letter ב beth .

Clarke: Isa 9:17 - -- The Lord "Jehovah"- For אדני Adonai , a great number of MSS. read יהוה Yehovah .

The Lord "Jehovah"- For אדני Adonai , a great number of MSS. read יהוה Yehovah .

Clarke: Isa 9:18 - For wickedness For wickedness - Wickedness rageth like a fire, destroying and laying waste the nation: but it shall be its own destruction, by bringing down the fi...

For wickedness - Wickedness rageth like a fire, destroying and laying waste the nation: but it shall be its own destruction, by bringing down the fire of God’ s wrath, which shall burn up the briers and the thorns; that is, the wicked themselves. Briers and thorns are an image frequently applied in Scripture, when set on fire, to the rage of the wicked; violent, yet impotent, and of no long continuance. "They are extinct as the fire of thorns,"Psa 118:12. To the wicked themselves, as useless and unprofitable, proper objects of God’ s wrath, to be burned up, or driven away by the wind. "As thorns cut up they shall be consumed in the fire,"Isa 33:12. Both these ideas seem to be joined in Psa 58:9 : -

"Before your pots shall feel the thorn

As well the green as the dry, the tempest shall bear them away.

The green and the dry is a proverbial expression, meaning all sorts of them, good and bad, great and small, etc. So Ezekiel: "Behold, I will kindle a fire, and it shall devour every green tree, and every dry tree,"Eze 20:47. D’ Herbelot quotes a Persian poet describing a pestilence under the image of a conflagration: "This was a lightning that, falling upon a forest, consumed there the green wood with the dry."See Harmer’ s Observations, Vol. II., p. 187.

Clarke: Isa 9:20 - The flesh of his own arm "The flesh of his neighbor" The flesh of his own arm "The flesh of his neighbor" - " Του βραχιονος του αδελφου αυτου, the Septuagint Alexand. Duplex ...

The flesh of his own arm "The flesh of his neighbor" - " Του βραχιονος του αδελφου αυτου, the Septuagint Alexand. Duplex versio, quarum altera legit רעו reo , quae vox extat , Jer 6:21. Nam רע rea , αδελφος, Gen 43:33. Recte ni fallor ."- Secker. I add to this excellent remark, that the Chaldee manifestly reads רעו reo , his neighbor, not זרעו zeroo , his arm; for he renders it by קריביה karibeyh , his neighbor. And Jeremiah has the very same expression: ואיש בשר רעהו יאכלו veish besar reehu yochelu , "and every one shall eat the flesh of his neighbor,"Jer 19:9. This observation, I think, gives the true reading and sense of this place: and the context strongly confirms it by explaining the general idea by particular instances, in the following verse: "Every man shall devour the flesh of his neighbor;"that is, they shall harass and destroy one another. "Manasseh shall destroy Ephraim, and Ephraim, Manasseh;"which two tribes were most closely connected both in blood and situation as brothers and neighbors; "and both of them in the midst of their own dissensions shall agree in preying upon Judah."The common reading, "shall devour the flesh of his own arm,"in connection with what follows, seems to make either an inconsistency, or an anticlimax; whereas by this correction the following verse becomes an elegant illustration of the foregoing. - L.

Calvin: Isa 9:1 - Yet the darkness shall not be // By the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, in Galilee of the Gentiles 1.Yet the darkness shall not be He begins to comfort the wretched by the hope of alleviation, that they may not be swallowed up by the huge mass of d...

1.Yet the darkness shall not be He begins to comfort the wretched by the hope of alleviation, that they may not be swallowed up by the huge mass of distresses. Many take these words in quite an opposite meaning, that is, as a threatening which denounces against the Jews a heavier affliction than that with which Tiglath-pileser (2Kg 15:29) and Shalmanezer (2Kg 17:6) afflicted them. The former inflicted a heavy calamity, the latter inflicted one still heavier, for he carried the twelve tribes into captivity, and blotted out the name of the nation. Some think that he now foretells the heaviest calamity of all, for if it be compared with the former two, it exceeds both of them. Though I am not prepared to reject this view, for it does not want plausibility, yet I rather favor a different opinion. The other interpretation is indeed more plausible, that the Prophet intended to deprive hypocrites of every enjoyment, that they might not imagine that this calamity would quickly pass away like a storm as the others had done, for it would be utterly destructive; and so we shall take the particle כי ( ki) in its literal meaning. 138

But in my opinion it is most appropriate to view it as a consolation, in which he begins to mitigate what he had said about that frightful darkness and driving, (Isa 8:22,) and, by allaying the bitterness of those punishments, encourages them to expect the favor of God. As if he had said, “ and yet, amidst that shocking calamity which the Jews shall endure, the darkness will not be such as when the land of Israel was afflicted, first, by Tiglath-pileser, (2Kg 15:29,) and afterwards more grievously by Shalmanezer,” (2Kg 17:6.) Amidst so great extremities believers might otherwise have fainted, if their hearts had not been cheered by some consolation. Isaiah therefore directs his discourse to them lest they should think that they were ruined, for he intimates that the chastisements which are now to be inflicted will be lighter than those which came before. That this is the natural interpretation will quickly appear from what immediately follows.

But why does the Prophet say that this calamity, which was far more dreadful, would be more mild and gentle? For Jerusalem was to be razed, the temple thrown down, and the sacrifices abolished, which had remained untouched during the former calamities. It might be thought that these were the severest of all, and that the former, in comparison of them, were light. But it ought to be observed, that while in the former instances there was no promise, an explicit promise was added to this threatening. By this alone can temptations be overcome and chastisements be rendered light. By this seasoning alone, I say, are our afflictions alleviated; and all who are destitute of it must despair. But if, by means of it, the Lord strengthen us by holding out the hope of assistance, there is no affliction so heavy that we shall not reckon it to be light.

This may be made plain by a comparison. A man may happen to be drowned in a small stream, and yet, though he had fallen into the open sea, if he had got hold of a plank he might have been rescued and brought on shore. In like manner the slightest calamities will overwhelm us if we are deprived of God’s favor; but if we relied on the word of God, we might come out of the heaviest calamity safe and uninjured.

As to the words, some take מועף ( mugnaph) for an adjective, as if the Prophet said, It shall not be darkened; but the feminine pronoun which immediately follows, בה ( bahh), in her, does not allow us to refer this to men. It is more accurately described by others to be a substantive noun; and, therefore, I have resolved to render it literally, there shall not be darkness in Judea according to the affliction of the time when, etc. Some explain הקל ( hekal) to mean that the land was relieved of a burden, in consequence of the people having been carried into captivity; but this is altogether at variance with the Prophet’s meaning, and does not agree with what follows; for it is immediately added that the seacoast has been more grievously afflicted by a second calamity. There can be no doubt, therefore, that this verb corresponds to the other verb הכביד , ( hikbid.) 139 Not more than a small part of the kingdom having been afflicted by Tiglath-pileser, the calamity which he brought upon it is said to be light as compared with the second which was inflicted by Shalmanezer.

By the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, in Galilee of the Gentiles He calls it the way of the sea, because Galilee was adjoining to the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, and on one side it was bounded by the course of the Jordan. It is called Galilee of the Gentiles, not only because it was contiguous to Tyre and Sidon, but because it contained a great multitude of Gentiles, who were mingled with the Jews; for from the time that Solomon granted this country to King Hiram, (1Kg 9:11,) it could never be subdued in such a manner as not to have some part of it possessed by the Gentiles

Calvin: Isa 9:2 - The people walking in darkness hath seen a great light // In the land of the shadow of death 2.The people walking in darkness hath seen a great light He speaks of future events in the past tense, and thus brings them before the immediate view...

2.The people walking in darkness hath seen a great light He speaks of future events in the past tense, and thus brings them before the immediate view of the people, that in the destruction of the city, in their captivity, and in what appeared to be their utter destruction, they may behold the light of God. It may therefore be summed up in this manner: “Even in darkness, nay, in death itself, there is nevertheless good ground of hope; for the power of God is sufficient to restore life to his people, when they appear to be already dead.” Matthew, who quotes this passage, appears to torture it to a different meaning; for he says that this prediction was fulfilled when Christ preached along the sea-coast. (Mat 4:16.) But if we take a just view of the comparison, it will be found that Matthew has applied this passage to Christ correctly, and in its true meaning. Yet it does not appear that the view generally given by our commentators is a successful elucidation of the passage; for they merely assert that it belongs to the kingdom of Christ, but do not assign a reason, or show how it accords with this passage. If, therefore, we wish to ascertain the true meaning of this passage, we must bring to our recollection what has been already stated, that the Prophet, when he speaks of bringing back the people from Babylon, does not look to a single age, but includes all the rest, till Christ came and brought the most complete deliverance to his people. The deliverance from Babylon was but a prelude to the restoration of the Church, and was intended to last, not for a few years only, but till Christ should come and bring true salvation, not only to their bodies, but likewise to their souls. When we shall have made a little progress in reading Isaiah, we shall find that this was his ordinary custom.

Having spoken of the captivity in Babylon, which held out the prospect of a very heavy calamity, he shows that this calamity will be lighter than that which Israel formerly endured; because the Lord had fixed a term and limit to that calamity, namely, seventy years, (Jer 25:11,) after the expiration of which the light of the Lord would shine on them. By this confident hope of deliverance, therefore, he encourages their hearts when overpowered by fear, that they might not be distressed beyond measure; and thus he made a distinction between the Jews and the Israelites, to whom the expectation of a deliverance so near was not promised. Though the Prophets had given to the elect remnant some taste of the mercy of God, yet, in consequence of the redemption of Israel being, as it were, an addition to the redemption of Judah, and dependent on it, justly does the Prophet now declare that a new light has been exhibited; because God hath determined to redeem his people. Appropriately and skilfully, too, does Matthew extend the rays of light to Galilee and the land of Zebulun. (Mat 4:15.)

In the land of the shadow of death He now compares the captivity in Babylon to darkness and death; for those who were kept there, were wretched and miserable, and altogether like dead men; as Ezekiel also relates their speech,

Dead men shall arise out of the graves. (Eze 37:11.)

Their condition, therefore, was such as if no brightness, no ray of light, had shone on them. Yet he shows that this will not prevent them from enjoying light, and recovering their former liberty; and that liberty he extends, not to a short period, but, as we have already said, to the time of Christ.

Thus it is customary with the Apostles to borrow arguments from the Prophets, and to show their real use and design. In this manner Paul quotes (Rom 9:25) that passage from Hosea,

I will call them my people which were not my people,
(Hos 2:23,) 140

and applies it to the calling of the Gentiles, though strictly it was spoken of the Jews; and he shows that it was fulfilled when the Lord brought the Gentiles into the Church. Thus, when the people might be said to be buried in that captivity, they differed in no respect from the Gentiles; and since both were in the same condition, it is reasonable to believe that this passage relates, not only to the Jews, but to the Gentiles also. Nor must it be viewed as referring to outward misery only, but to the darkness of eternal death, in which souls are plunged, till they come forth to spiritual light; for unquestionably we lie buried in darkness, till Christ shine on us by the doctrine of his word. Hence also Paul exhorts,

Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead,
and Christ shall give thee light. (Eph 5:14.)

If therefore we extend the commencement of the deliverance from the return from Babylon down to the coming of Christ, on whom all liberty and all bestowal of blessings depends, we shall understand the true meaning of this passage, which otherwise has not been satisfactorily explained by commentators.

Calvin: Isa 9:3 - Thou hast multiplied // Before thee // According to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice when they divide the spoils // For thou hast broken his burdensome yoke 3.Thou hast multiplied This passage is somewhat obscure, both in itself, and on account of the diversity of interpretations; for it appears to be abs...

3.Thou hast multiplied This passage is somewhat obscure, both in itself, and on account of the diversity of interpretations; for it appears to be absurd to say that the joy was not increased, seeing that he immediately afterwards adds, they rejoiced. On this account the Jews interpret לא ( lo) not negatively, but as if ו ( vau) had been substituted for א ( aleph); for sometimes, though rarely, it has this meaning in the Scriptures. 141 (Exo 21:8.) The Jews do this, because they cannot reconcile the words of the Prophet with their opinion. Again, some view these words as referring to Sennacherib, because his army, though it was large, brought him no ground of joy, but rather of grief. (2Kg 19:35.) Others explain it as relating to the Church, and justly, but mistake the method of applying it; for they think that the Prophet said this because believers, as long as they live, are subject to numerous and diversified afflictions. Others go still farther from the point, by saying that the conversion of the Gentiles, which will enlarge the Church, will not bring joy to the Jews and the ancient synagogue.

But I cannot approve of any of those interpretations, and therefore I interpret it in this manner. As the Prophet, in the beginning of the chapter, had made a preliminary statement, that this blessing of redemption was greater than all other blessings, though it might appear to be unworthy of being so highly extolled, on account of the small number of those who were redeemed; so now he repeats the same comparison, or one not very different from it, namely, that this favor of God would be more remarkable than when he had formerly multiplied his people. This might at first sight be thought to be highly inappropriate; for if we compare the condition of the Jewish kingdom, before the Babylonish captivity, with its condition after the return from it, we may be led to think that the period during which its ancient possession remained unimpaired was a season of greater prosperity. It was but a small remnant that returned in comparison of that multitude which had been carried away. Besides, they had not the free possession of their land, but might be said to be tenants at will; and they had to pay tribute to the Persians, and retained hardly any semblance of their former rank. Who, therefore, would not have preferred that prosperous reign which had been enjoyed by the family of David to that condition?

But the Prophet declares that this latter condition, though it may appear to be greatly inferior, and even more wretched, ought to be preferred to that which was prosperous and splendid, and shows that it will yield greater joy than when they had an abundant share of wealth and of all kinds of possessions. This was also testified by Haggai,

that the glory of the latter temple would be greater
than the glory of the former, (Hag 2:9,)

though at first sight it might appear to be far otherwise. It is as if Isaiah had said, “There never was greater joy, though the multitude of the people was greater. Though we are few and contemptible in number, yet by the light with which thou shinest on us thou hast cheered us to such a degree that no joy of our former condition can be compared with the present.” For that redemption might be regarded as a prelude to the full and perfect salvation which was at length obtained through Christ.

Before thee He means that the joy was true and complete, not slight or temporary. Men often rejoice, but with a deceitful and transitory joy, which is followed by mourning and tears. He affirms that this joy has its roots so deeply laid, that it can never perish or be destroyed. Such is also the import of the phrase before thee; for nothing cheers the godly so much as when the face of God shines sweetly on them. They are not like irreligious men, who are carried hither and thither by a blind and uncertain joy, but they have that which alone gives ground for full joy, their reliance on God’s fatherly kindness. Perhaps also the Prophet intended to allude to those words which frequently occur in the writings of Moses: Thou shalt rejoice before the Lord thy God. (Lev 23:40; Deu 12:12.) For though the subject there spoken of is the Tabernacle, still the mode of expression is fitly applied to the present occasion, that the joy of a believing people will not be irreligious, but will arise from acknowledging God, and beholding him by the eyes of faith to be the author of salvation. (Heb 5:9.)

Others explain it more ingeniously, that inwardly believers rejoice before God in their consciences, because in the world grief and sighing continually awaits them. Though this is true, yet a more natural meaning is drawn from the connection of the passage, namely, that believers whom God shall redeem will possess true joy; because they will have been instructed by undoubted proof that he is their Father, so that they may freely boast that they will always be safe under his guidance; and, therefore, as I lately mentioned, it denotes continuance.

According to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice when they divide the spoils The comparisons of Harvest and Victory, by which he heightens the amount of the joy, are sufficiently plain. Now, hence it is evident what Christ brings to us, namely, a full and perfect joy, of which we cannot in any way be robbed or deprived, though various storms and tempests should arise, and though we should be weighed down by every kind of afflictions. However weak and feeble we may be, still we ought to be glad and joyful; for the ground of our joy does not lie in numbers, or wealth, or outward splendor, but in spiritual happiness, which we obtain through the word of Christ.

For thou hast broken his burdensome yoke He explains the cause of the joy, that believers, when they have been delivered from a frightful and cruel tyranny, will feel as if they had been rescued from death. In order to illustrate the grace of God, he reminds them how shameful and burdensome was the slavery with which the Jews had been oppressed and afflicted; and this is his object in heaping up the expressions, the yoke of the shoulder, the staff of the shoulder, the rod of the oppressor or overseer. Whatever may be our excessive effeminacy or cowardice, while we actually feel afflictions, yet as soon as they are gone, we easily come to forget them. That the redeemed people may not think lightly of the favor of God, the Prophet bids them consider how bitter and mournful was the slavery, when they groaned under a heavy yoke or triumphal car, when the staff was laid on their shoulders, and they were oppressed by tyrannical rule; and therefore their deliverance ought justly to make them more glad and joyful.

Next, he extolls the excellence of this favor on another ground, that God has openly displayed his hand from heaven. For this purpose he adduces an ancient and memorable instance. As God had formerly overthrown the Midianites, without the help of men, by a wonderful and amazing method, (Jud 7:21,) so now there will be a similar and illustrious display of power; for God will deliver his people from a cruel tyranny, when not one of the wretched Jews will venture to lift a finger. Now, it ought to be observed that God sometimes assists his people in such a manner as to make use of ordinary methods; but when he sees that this hinders men from beholding his hand, which may be said to be concealed, he sometimes works alone, and by evident miracles, that nothing may prevent or obscure the manifestation of his power. Thus in this victory of Gideon, when the enemies were routed without any agency of men, the arm of God openly appeared. For what had Gideon but the noise of pitchers, which could scarcely have driven away mice, and a small band of men, against a vast army, and, instead of weapons, a useless scarecrow? To this deliverance, therefore, he compares the future deliverance of the people, in which the hand of God will be not less openly and illustriously displayed.

Some explain this passage as relating merely to the law, which might not inappropriately have been called a burdensome yoke, and a rod lying on the shoulders. But that interpretation is unsuitable; for it would give to the Prophet the appearance of having suddenly broken off from his subject, and would be a violent torture of this passage. We must therefore attend to that arrangement which I formerly noticed, namely, that when God brought his people out of Babylon, he continued that blessing of deliverance till Christ. The meaning therefore is, “Thou hast broken those burdens by which thy people were unjustly and cruelly oppressed.”

Others apply it to the destruction of Jerusalem during the reign of Vespasian, but they have no argument on their side. Almost all the Jews refer it to Hezekiah, when in this manner the Lord delivered the city from the siege of Sennacherib, and cut off his army. (2Kg 19:35; Isa 37:36.) But that interpretation could not be admitted, for Hezekiah did not reign tyrannically over the Jews. Besides, at that time the Lord rescued the people from fear and danger, and not from slavery. Hence it is evident that this prediction had a more distant object, and that the interpretation which I have given to this passage is just and reasonable.

Calvin: Isa 9:5 - For every battle 5.For every battle Here commentators are nearly agreed that Isaiah intended to contrast the victory which God was about to give to his people with ot...

5.For every battle Here commentators are nearly agreed that Isaiah intended to contrast the victory which God was about to give to his people with other victories. Others conquer by making a great slaughter of the enemies, but here the Lord will conquer by his own hand alone. He expresses more fully what he had said, As in the day of Midian. (Verse 4.) The Lord therefore, he says, will not employ the agency of a great multitude, but will achieve a victory for himself from heaven. When the Lord acts by himself, every covering is removed, and we perceive more clearly that he is the Author of our life and salvation.

Now, since there is a contrast which expresses the difference between the ordinary mode of warfare and the miracle of redemption, the copulative ו , ( vau,) in the middle of the verse, ought to be rendered but; as if he had said, that it is usually amidst the confusion of the battle that enemies are hewn down: but God will act in a very different manner; for he will destroy the enemies of the Church, as if he sent down lightning from heaven, or suddenly struck them by thunderbolts. It may perhaps be thought better to adopt the opinion of those who explain the second clause as a continuation of the first, that all warriors will be with trembling and with burning fire. But the former meaning is more appropriate, and is likewise supported by the words of the Prophet. Hence it is evident that the present subject is not merely the deliverance which the people obtained from Cyrus, permitting them to return to their native country, but that these words must be viewed as extending to the kingdom of Christ.

Calvin: Isa 9:6 - For unto us a child is born // A child is born // A Son hath been given to us // And the government hath been laid upon his shoulder // And his name shall be called // Wonderful // Counselor // The mighty God // The father of the age // The Prince of Peace 6.For unto us a child is born Isaiah now argues from the design, to show why this deliverance ought to be preferred to the rest of God’s benefits, ...

6.For unto us a child is born Isaiah now argues from the design, to show why this deliverance ought to be preferred to the rest of God’s benefits, namely, because not only will God bring back the people from captivity, but he will place Christ on his royal throne, that under him supreme and everlasting happiness may be enjoyed. Thus he affirms that the kindness of God will not be temporary, for it includes the whole of that intermediate period during which the Church was preserved till the coming of Christ. Nor is it wonderful if the Prophet makes a sudden transition from the return of the ancient people to the full restoration of the Church, which took place many centuries afterwards; for in our observations on Isa 7:14, 142 we have remarked, that there being no other way that God is reconciled to us than through the Mediator, all the promises are founded on him; and that on this account it is customary with the Prophets, whenever they wish to encourage the hearts of believers by good hope, to bring this forward as a pledge or earnest. To this must be added, that the return from the captivity in Babylon was the commencement of the renovation of the Church, which was completed when Christ appeared; and consequently there is no absurdity in an uninterrupted succession. Justly, therefore, does Isaiah teach that they ought not to confine their attention to the present benefit, but should consider the end, and refer everything to it. “This is your highest happiness, that you have been rescued from death, not only that you may live in the land of Canaan, but that you may arrive at the kingdom of God.”

Hence we learn that we ought not to swallow up the benefits which we receive from God, so as instantly to forget them, but should raise our minds to Christ, otherwise the advantage will be small, and the joy will be transitory; because they will not lead us to taste the sweetness of a Father’s love, unless we keep in remembrance the free election of God, which is ratified in Christ. In short, the Prophet does not wish that this people should be wholly occupied with the joy occasioned by the outward and short-lived freedom which they had obtained, but that they should look at the end, that is, at the preservation of the Church, till Christ, the only Redeemer, should appear; for he ought to be the ground and perfection of all our joy.

A child is born The Jews impudently torture this passage, for they interpret it as relating to Hezekiah, though he had been born before this prediction was uttered. But he speaks of it as something new and unexpected; and it is even a promise, intended to arouse believers to the expectation of a future event; and therefore there can be no hesitation in concluding that he describes a child that was afterwards to be born

He is called the Son of God. Although in the Hebrew language the word son, I admit, has a wide acceptation, yet that is when something is added to it. Every man is the son of his father: those who are a hundred years old are called (Isa 65:20) the sons of a hundred years; wicked men are called the sons of wickedness; those who are blessed are called the sons of blessing; and Isaiah called a fruitful hill the son of fatness. (Isa 5:1.) But son, without any addition, can mean none else than the Son of God; and it is now ascribed to Christ, by way of eminence, (κατ ᾿ ἐξοχὴν,) in order to inform us, that by this striking mark he is distinguished from the rest of mankind. Nor can it be doubted that Isaiah referred to that well-known prediction, which was in the mouth of every person,

I will be his Father, and he shall be my Son,
(2Sa 7:14,)

as it is afterwards repeated,

Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee.
(Psa 2:7.)

Had it not been commonly and generally known that the Messiah would be the Son of God, it would have been foolish and unmeaning for Isaiah simply to call him the Son. Accordingly, this title is derived from the former prediction, from which the Apostle reasons, that the excellence of Christ exalts him above all the angels. (Heb 1:5.)

Now, though in the person of a child Christ might have a mean appearance, still the designation of Son points out his high rank. Yet I do not deny that he might have been called the Son of David, but it is more natural to apply it to him as God. The titles which follow are still less applicable to Hezekiah. I shall soon give an ample refutation of the sophistry by which the Jews attempt to evade this passage. Let them slander as they may, the matter is sufficient plain to all who will calmly and soberly examine it.

A Son hath been given to us. There is weight in what he now adds, that this Son was given to the people, in order to inform the Jews that their salvation and that of the whole Church is contained in the person of Christ. And this giving is one of the chief articles of our faith; for it would have been of little avail to us, that Christ was born, if he had not likewise been our own. What this child will be, and what is his rank, he declares in the following statements.

And the government hath been laid upon his shoulder To suppose, as some do, that this is an allusion to the cross of Christ is manifestly childish. Christ carried the cross on his shoulders, (Joh 19:17,) and by the cross he gained a splendid triumph over the prince of this world. (Joh 14:30.) But as the government is here said to have been laid on his shoulders in the same sense in which we shall see that the key of the house of David was laid on the shoulders of Eliakim, (Isa 22:22,) we need not go far to seek ingenious expositions. Yet I agree with those who think that there is an indirect contrast between the government which the Redeemer bore on his shoulders and the staff of the shoulder which was just now mentioned; for it agrees well, and is not liable to any objections. He therefore shows that the Messiah will be different from indolent kings, who leave off business and cares, and live at their ease; for he will be able to bear the burden Thus he asserts the superiority and grandeur of his government, because by his own power Christ will obtain homage to himself, and he will discharge his office, not only with the tips of his fingers, but with his full strength.

And his name shall be called Though יקרא , ( yikra,) he shall call, be an active verb, I have not hesitated to translate it in a passive sense; for the meaning is the same as if he had made use of the plural number, they shall call. We have a French idiom that resembles it, on appellera , literally, one shall call, that is, he shall be called. The Jews apply it to God, and read it continuously, he shall call his name Wonderful, Counsellor, the mighty God, the everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace. But it is very evident that this proceeds from a desire, or rather from a licentious eagerness, to obscure the glory of Christ; for if they had not labored with excessive keenness to rob him of his Godhead, the passage would run on very smoothly as interpreted by our divines. Besides, what necessity was there for ascribing to God those attributes, if the Prophet meant nothing more than that God gave a name to Messiah? For the attributes which are usually ascribed to God are either perpetual or accommodated to the case in hand, neither of which suppositions can here be admitted. Again, it would have been an interruption of the regular order to insert the name of God in the midst of various titles, but it ought to have run thus, the mighty God, Wonderful, Counsellor, shall call. Now, I do not see how the name יועץ ( yognetz) can be applied absolutely to God, for it belongs to counsellors who attend kings or other persons. If any obstinate wrangler shall contend for the notion of the Rabbins, he will show nothing but his own impudence. Let us follow the plain and natural meaning.

Wonderful It ought to be observed that those titles are not foreign to the subject, but are adapted to the case in hand, for the Prophet describes what Christ will show himself to be towards believers. He does not speak of Christ’s mysterious essence, but applauds his excellencies, which we perceive and experience by faith. This ought to be the more carefully considered, because the greater part of men are satisfied with his mere name, and do not observe his power and energy, though that ought to be chiefly regarded.

By the first title he arouses the minds of the godly to earnest attention, that they may expect from Christ something more excellent than what we see in the ordinary course of God’s works, as if he had said, that in Christ are hidden the invaluable treasures of wonderful things. (Col 2:3.) And, indeed, the redemption which he has brought surpasses even the creation of the world. It amounts to this, that the grace of God, which will be exhibited in Christ, exceeds all miracles.

Counselor The reason of this second title is, that the Redeemer will come endowed with absolute wisdom. Now, let us remember what I have just noticed, that the Prophet does not here reason about the hidden essence of Christ, but about the power which he displays towards us. It is not, therefore, because he knows all his Father’s secrets that the Prophet calls him Counsellor, but rather because, proceeding from the bosom of the Father, (Joh 1:18,) he is in every respect the highest and most perfect teacher. In like manner we are not permitted to get wisdom but from his Gospel, and this contributes also to the praise of the Gospel, for it contains the perfect wisdom of God, as Paul frequently shows. (1Co 1:24; Eph 1:17; Col 1:9.) All that is necessary for salvation is opened up by Christ in such a manner, and explained with such familiarity, that he addresses the disciples no longer as servants but as friends. (Joh 15:14.)

The mighty God אל ( El) is one of the names of God, though derived from strength, so that it is sometimes added as an attribute. But here it is evidently a proper name, because Isaiah is not satisfied with it, and in addition to it employs the adjective גבור , ( gibbor,) which means strong. And indeed if Christ had not been God, it would have been unlawful to glory in him; for it is written,

Cursed be he that trusteth in man. (Jer 17:5.)

We must, therefore, meet with the majesty of God in him, so that there truly dwells in him that which cannot without sacrilege be attributed to a creature.

He is, therefore, called the mighty God, for the same reason that he was formerly called Immanuel. (Isa 7:14.) For if we find in Christ nothing but the flesh and nature of man, our glorying will be foolish and vain, and our hope will rest on au uncertain and insecure foundation; but if he shows himself to be to us God and the mighty God, we may now rely on him with safety. With good reason does he call him strong or mighty, because our contest is with the devil, death, and sin, (Eph 6:12,) enemies too powerful and strong, by whom we would be immediately vanquished, if the strength of Christ had not rendered us invincible. Thus we learn from this title that there is in Christ abundance of protection for defending our salvation, so that we desire nothing beyond him; for he is God, who is pleased to show himself strong on our behalf. This application may be regarded as the key to this and similar passages, leading us to distinguish between Christ’s mysterious essence and the power by which he hath revealed himself to us.

The father of the age The Greek translator has added μέλλοντος future; 143 and, in my opinion, the translation is correct, for it denotes eternity, unless it be thought better to view it as denoting “perpetual duration,” or “an endless succession of ages,” lest any one should improperly limit it to the heavenly life, which is still hidden from us. (Col 3:3.) True, the Prophet includes it, and even declares that Christ will come, in order to bestow immortality on his people; but as believers, even in this world, pass from death to life, (Joh 5:24; 1Jo 3:14,) this world is embraced by the eternal condition of the Church.

The name Father is put for Author, because Christ preserves the existence of his Church through all ages, and bestows immortality on the body and on the individual members. Hence we conclude how transitory our condition is, apart from him; for, granting that we were to live for a very long period after the ordinary manner of men, what after all will be the value of our long life? We ought, therefore, to elevate our minds to that blessed and everlasting life, which as yet we see not, but which we possess by hope and faith. (Rom 8:25.)

The Prince of Peace This is the last title, and the Prophet declares by it that the coming of Christ will be the cause of full and perfect happiness, or, at least, of calm and blessed safety. In the Hebrew language peace often signifies prosperity, for of all blessings not one is better or more desirable than peace. The general meaning is, that all who submit to the dominion of Christ will lead a quiet and blessed life in obedience to him. Hence it follows that life, without this King, is restless and miserable.

But we must also take into consideration the nature of this peace. It is the same with that of the kingdom, for it resides chiefly in the consciences; otherwise we must be engaged in incessant conflicts and liable to daily attacks. Not only, therefore, does he promise outward peace, but that peace by which we return to a state of favor with God, who were formerly at enmity with him. Justified by faith, says Paul, we have peace with God. (Rom 5:1.) Now, when Christ shall have brought composure to our minds, the same spiritual peace will hold the highest place in our hearts, (Phi 4:7; Col 3:15,) so that we will patiently endure every kind of adversity, and from the same fountain will likewise flow outward prosperity, which is nothing else than the effect of the blessing of God.

Now, to apply this for our own instruction, whenever any distrust arises, and all means of escape are taken away from us, whenever, in short, it appears to us that everything is in a ruinous condition, let us recall to our remembrance that Christ is called Wonderful, because he has inconceivable methods of assisting us, and because his power is far beyond what we are able to conceive. When we need counsel, let us remember that he is the Counsellor. When we need strength, let us remember that he is Mighty and Strong. When new terrors spring up suddenly every instant, and when many deaths threaten us from various quarters, let us rely on that eternity of which he is with good reason called the Father, and by the same comfort let us learn to soothe all temporal distresses. When we are inwardly tossed by various tempests, and when Satan attempts to disturb our consciences, let us remember that Christ is The Prince of Peace, and that it is easy for him quickly to allay all our uneasy feelings. Thus will these titles confirm us more and more in the faith of Christ, and fortify us against Satan and against hell itself.

Calvin: Isa 9:7 - To the increase of the government there will be no end // And to the peace // Upon the throne of David // Judgment // Henceforth even for ever // The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this 7.To the increase of the government there will be no end He begins to explain and confirm what he had formerly said, that Christ is The Prince of Pe...

7.To the increase of the government there will be no end He begins to explain and confirm what he had formerly said, that Christ is The Prince of Peace, by saying that his government is extended to every age, and is perpetual; that there will be no end to the government or to peace. This was also repeated by Daniel, who predicts that his kingdom is an everlasting kingdom. (Dan 7:27.) Gabriel also alluded to it when he carried the message to the virgin; and he gave the true exposition of this passage, for it cannot be understood to refer to any other than to Christ.

He shall reign, says he, over the house of Jacob for ever, and of his kingdom there shall be no end. (Luk 1:33.)

We see that the mightiest governments of this world, as if they had been built on a slippery foundation, (Psa 73:18,) are unexpectedly overturned and suddenly fall. How fickle and changeable all the kingdoms under heaven are, we learn from history and from daily examples. This government alone is unchangeable and eternal.

Now, this continuance, of which Isaiah now speaks, consists of two parts. It belongs both to time and to quality. Though the kingdom of Christ is in such a condition that it appears as if it were about to perish at every moment, yet God not only protects and defends it, but also extends its boundaries far and wide, and then preserves and carries it forward in uninterrupted progression to eternity. We ought firmly to believe this, that the frequency of those shocks by which the Church is shaken may not weaken our faith, when we learn that, amidst the mad outcry and violent attacks of enemies, the kingdom of Christ stands firm through the invincible power of God, so that, though the whole world should oppose and resist, it will remain through all ages. We must not judge of its stability from the present appearances of things, but from the promise, which assures us of its continuance and of its constant increase.

And to the peace To the government he adds the eternity of the peace, for the one cannot be separated from the other. It is impossible that Christ should be King without also keeping his people in calm and blessed peace, and enriching them with every blessing. But as they are daily exposed to innumerable vexations, endure fierce attacks, and are tossed and perplexed by fears and anxieties, they ought to cultivate that peace of Christ, which holds the highest place in their hearts, (Phi 4:7; Col 3:15,) that they may remain unhurt, and may even retain their composure amidst the destruction of the whole world.

In the word לםרבה , ( lemarbeh,) contrary to the usual manner of writing, there is the close form of ם ( mem). 144 Some think that it denotes the slavery by which the Jewish people should be oppressed till the coming of Christ. Others think that that nation, on account of its treachery, was excluded by this mark from having any share in this kingdom. I do not find fault with these views. Indeed, we can hardly assert that the Prophet wrote it in this manner; but yet, since this is the form in which it has come into our hands, and since the Rabbins were so close observers of the minutest portion of a letter, we cannot avoid thinking that this was not rashly done. And if we admit that the Prophet intentionally wrote it in this manner, I think that it conveyed this useful instruction, that believers should not imagine that the splendor of Christ’s kingdom would consist in outward pomp, or cherish vain hopes of worldly triumphs, but should only expect, amidst various calamities, an unseen extension of the kingdom, because it had been promised.

Upon the throne of David A promise having been made to David that the Redeemer would spring from his seed, (2Sa 7:12,) and his kingdom having been nothing else than an image or faint shadow of that more perfect and truly blessed state which God had determined to establish by the hand of his Son, the Prophets, in order to remind the people of that remarkable miracle, usually call Christ the Son of David. (Jer 23:5.) Though the name of such a holy and upright king was justly beloved and revered, yet believers esteemed more highly the promised restoration to full salvation, and even among the most ignorant persons that prediction was universally remembered, and its truth and authenticity were considered to be clear and undoubted. I shall collect but a few of the passages in which the Prophets promise to an afflicted people restoration in the person of David or of his Son. (Jer 30:9; Eze 34:23; Hos 3:5.) Sometimes they foretell that David, who was already dead, would be king. In like manner Isaiah, in this passage, intimates that he brings forward nothing that is new, but only reminds them of that which God had formerly promised about the perpetuity of the kingdom. Indirectly also he insinuates what Amoz more plainly states, that Christ will

again raise up the throne which for some time had been fallen. (Amo 9:11.)

To order it, and to establish it with judgment and with righteousness. He describes the quality of the kingdom, but by a comparison drawn from earthly governments; for he says that Christ will be a King, to order and establish his kingdom with judgment and with righteousness. These are the means by which earthly governments prosper and take deep roots; but those which are only administered by fear and violence cannot be lasting. Since, therefore, justice is the best guardian of kingdoms and governments, and since the happiness of the whole of the people depends on it, by this clause Isaiah shows that the kingdom of Christ will be the model of the best kind of government.

Judgment and righteousness do not here relate to outward affairs of state. We must observe the analogy between the kingdom of Christ and its qualities; for, being spiritual, it is established by the power of the Holy Spirit. In a word, all these things must be viewed as referring to the inner man, that is, when we are regenerated by God to true righteousness. Outward righteousness indeed follows afterwards, but it must be preceded by that renovation of the mind and heart. We are not Christ’s, therefore, unless we follow what is good and just, and bear on our hearts the impress of that righteousness which hath been sealed by the Holy Spirit.

Henceforth even for ever This must be understood, I think, to refer to the perpetuity of righteousness and doctrine rather than of the kingdom, lest we should imagine that his laws resemble the statutes of kings and princes, which are in force for three days, or for a short period, and are continually renewed, and soon become old again, but that we may know that their obligation is everlasting; for they have been established, as Zecharias says,

that we may serve him in holiness and righteousness all the days of our life. (Luk 1:74.)

As Christ’s kingdom is everlasting, because he dieth no more, (Rom 6:9,) so it follows that righteousness and judgment will be everlasting, for they cannot be changed by any length of time.

The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this By zeal I understand that ardent desire which God will display in preserving his Church, by removing all difficulties and obstructions which might otherwise have hindered its redemption. When we engage in any difficult undertaking, our earnestness, and the warmth of our feelings, overcome the difficulties which present themselves to baffle or retard our attempts. In like manner Isaiah shows that God is inflamed with an uncommon and extraordinary desire to promote the salvation of the Church, so that if believers cannot measure by their own capacity what he has just now promised, still they ought not to cease to entertain confident hope, for the manner of it is wonderful and inconceivable. In short, he intimates that God will come with no light or slow arm to redeem his Church, for he will be all on flame with amazing love of believers, and anxiety about their salvation.

Calvin: Isa 9:8 - The Lord hath sent a word 8.The Lord hath sent a word Here he relates a new prediction, for I think that this discourse is separated from the former, because the Prophet now r...

8.The Lord hath sent a word Here he relates a new prediction, for I think that this discourse is separated from the former, because the Prophet now returns to speak of the future condition of the kingdom of Israel, which was at that time hostile to the Jews. Now, we know that the Jews had good reason for being alarmed at the forces and power of that kingdom, especially when it had made a league with the Syrians, because they saw that they had not sufficient strength to oppose them. In order, therefore, to yield comfort to the godly, he shows what will be the future condition of the kingdom of Israel

By Jacob and Israel he means the same thing; but the diversity of expression is elegant, and is intended to show that the wicked gain nothing by their opposition, when they endeavor either to turn away from them, or to alter the judgment of God. He alludes to the speech of those who think that they can escape by means of their witticisms, and who turn into jest and sport all that is threatened by the Prophets; just as if one were to attempt to drive away a storm by the breath of his mouth. It is, therefore, an ironical admission, as if he had said, “In your opinion, what God pronounces against you will fall on others; but all the threatenings which he utters against Jacob will light upon Israel. ”

To send means to appoint. The preposition ב ( beth) means in Jacob himself. The word of God must dwell and rest in him, for it cannot vanish away without producing any effect. This is what he afterwards lays down in other words, “ My word shall not return to me void; that is, because it is an effectual publication of that which I have once decreed.” (Isa 55:11.) By the word, it hath fallen, 145 he points out the certainty of the effect and result; as if he had said, “I do not conjecture these things, nor do I contrive them out of my own head; but God hath spoken, who cannot be deceived, and cannot change.”

Calvin: Isa 9:9 - And the people shall know // Who say 9.And the people shall know By the word people I understand, not the Jews, but rather the Israelites; and, indeed, the Prophet removes doubt by exp...

9.And the people shall know By the word people I understand, not the Jews, but rather the Israelites; and, indeed, the Prophet removes doubt by expressly naming Ephraim. He likewise adds Samaria, which was the metropolis of that people, or of the ten tribes; for fortified cities, conceiving themselves to be placed beyond the reach of danger, are much more insolent in their pretensions. They think that they will always have the remedy in their hands by capitulating with the enemy, though the whole country were laid waste. On this account Isaiah threatens that they will not be exempted from the general calamity. He says that all will feel that the predictions which were uttered by the mouth of God will not be without effect. By the word know, which relates to actual experience, he indirectly reproves their unbelief; as if he had said, “Since I speak to the deaf, and you set no value on the warnings which I now address to you, the actual event will teach you, but too late.”

Who say Here the Prophet attacks the obstinacy and rebellion of that people, because, though they had once and again been chastised by God’s scourges, and that sharply, they were so far from repentance that they reckoned their losses to be gain, and became more hardened. Assuredly they who thus insolently mock at God are not brought to obedience without being reduced to utter weakness. Now, such an insult openly and avowedly provokes God’s anger, and therefore the Prophet says that it proceeds from the haughtiness and pride of the heart. Hence it follows that it is right to apply to knotty timber chisels that are harder still.

Calvin: Isa 9:10 - The bricks are fallen down 10.The bricks are fallen down These are the words of men who were obstinate, and who despised the calamity which they had sustained, as if it had bee...

10.The bricks are fallen down These are the words of men who were obstinate, and who despised the calamity which they had sustained, as if it had been of advantage to them, because it afforded them an opportunity of adorning with greater splendor both their houses and their fields. “ We shall build, ” they say, “ more magnificently. The brick houses have been thrown down that we may dwell in splendid palaces; and since the trees have been cut down, we shall plant more fruitful ones.” This was not the fault of a single age, for at this day we see the same obstinacy in the world. How many are the distresses with which Europe has been afflicted for thirty or forty years? How many are the chastisements by which she has been called to repentance? And yet it does not appear that those numerous chastisements have done any good. On the contrary, luxury increases every day, lawless passions are inflamed, and men go on in crimes and profligacy more shamelessly than ever. In short, those very calamities appear to have been so many excitements to luxury and splendor. What then should we expect but to be bruised with heavier blows?

Calvin: Isa 9:11 - But the Lord will set up the adversaries of Rezin against him 11.But the Lord will set up the adversaries of Rezin against him The Israelites having been proud of their alliance with the king of Syria, and hopin...

11.But the Lord will set up the adversaries of Rezin against him The Israelites having been proud of their alliance with the king of Syria, and hoping that everything would succeed to their wish, Isaiah threatens a new change which will take away all their hope and utterly frustrate their designs, for the Assyrians afterwards took arms and waged war with the Syrians. Accordingly, when Rezin had been slain, (2Kg 16:9,) that country was entirely ruined. Still more does he heighten this, by adding, he shall mingle; 146 for he means that the Lord will gather together and mingle various enemies whom he will commission to destroy the king of Syria, as the soldiers who composed the army of that vast monarchy were collected out of various nations.

Calvin: Isa 9:12 - Syria in front // And will devour Israel with the whole mouth // His anger is not turned away // But his hand is stretched out still 12.Syria in front 147 The Prophet shows what will be the nature of this change, and what will happen after the death of Rezin, (2Kg 16:9,) who had a...

12.Syria in front 147 The Prophet shows what will be the nature of this change, and what will happen after the death of Rezin, (2Kg 16:9,) who had allied himself with Israel against Judah; namely, that the Syrians, after the death of their king, from being allies will suddenly become enemies, and will make war against Israel, which took place. (2Kg 17:3.) This is what he means when he says that Syria will be in front; for I do not agree with those expositors who make Syria to mean “those on the East,” and the Philistines “those on the West.” A more natural meaning is, that the enemies will invade them on every side; because on all sides they who had been regarded as faithful friends will rise up to destroy them. The phrases in front and behind agree with the ordinary modes of speaking, so that we ought not to seek an interpretation that is new and foreign to the purpose.

From this example we ought to learn what it is to rely on human power and the alliances of kings, and especially when, in consequence of being entangled by unlawful covenants, we become careless and fall asleep; for as soon as the Lord pleases, they who were formerly on our side will, in the smallest portion of time, be turned against us to our ruin; and remedies, which we thought would be useful to us will prove to be our destruction, and will assist us both before and behind. We ought also to observe that God does not all at once expend all his scourges, but when we proceed obstinately, and provoke him more and more, he increases and multiplies the chastisements, and still inflicts a new kind of punishment, till at length he subdues our obstinacy and rebellion.

And will devour Israel with the whole mouth 148 The phrase with the whole mouth, 149 is equivalent to an ordinary idiom of our own, ( a pleine bouche ,) with full mouth. As if he had said, “Israel will be exposed as a prey to her enemies, so that on every hand she will be devoured with open mouth, both by the Syrians and by the Philistines.”

His anger is not turned away This is the severest of all, and beyond everything else ought to have terrified the ungodly, that if they had suffered much, they have more to endure; that new punishments continually await them, because by going on in their obstinacy they inflame still more the wrath of God. Men take this as an incentive to more obstinate and determined wickedness, that, having suffered some punishment, they think that they have nothing more to suffer, and become more hardened. They do not even believe that they are any longer exposed to the judgment of God, who has already spent his rods; and as if they were altogether out of his power, they give themselves greater indulgence, and shake off every yoke.

But his hand is stretched out still What we have now stated is the reason why Isaiah threatens that the hand of the Lord is still stretched out, that they may not think that they have escaped that hand. Now, this is said not for the purpose of instructing, but of accusing, though the threatenings have also a tendency to make doctrine better understood; but as he had to do with obstinate men, on whom no chastisement produced any good effect, he therefore announces that the chastisements are not yet at an end; and that, although God has for a time discontinued those chastisements, still he has not dispensed with them, but has his hand lifted up to inflict a new wound.

Calvin: Isa 9:13 - But the people hath not turned // Nor have they sought the Lord of hosts 13.But the people hath not turned 150 The copulative ו ( vau) is rendered by some interpreters for, as if the Prophet were assigning a reason why...

13.But the people hath not turned 150 The copulative ו ( vau) is rendered by some interpreters for, as if the Prophet were assigning a reason why the Lord does not cease to employ his scourges in the continual infliction of chastisements; that is, because the people are so hardened and obstinate that they will not repent. When there is no repentance, it is unreasonable to expect that God will yield to obstinate men, as if he were vanquished; and the consequence is, that he prepares himself for inflicting severer punishment. Since, therefore, no chastisements had produced any amendment in Israel, he must perish; for when they had been so frequently struck and punished, and did not at all repent, this was a proof of the most desperate wickedness.

This is a very severe rebuke, that although the Lord not only admonishes us by words, but actually pushes us forward, and constrains us by various chastisements, still we grow hardened, and do not suffer ourselves to be drawn away from our crimes and our lusts. Desperate wickedness is thus evinced, and nothing more heinous could be spoken or conceived. It is a heinous offense, when men do not receive instruction as soon as it is delivered to them; it is more heinous, when they are not affected by rebukes; it is the most heinous of all, when, in spite even of chastisements, they grow hardened, and even kick, or by their headstrong behavior inflame still more the indignation of the Judge, and do not consider why they were punished, or what it is to which the Lord calls them. Accordingly, when no remedies produce any good effect, what must we think but that the disease is incurable and utterly desperate?

This rebuke applies not to the Israelites only but to us also. Already hath the Lord chastised the whole world by various afflictions, so that hardly any part could be exempted from distresses and calamities. And yet all appear to have obstinately conspired against God, so that, whatever He does, they cease not to retain their former character, and to carry on their wicked courses. Justly, therefore, might the Lord address to us the same expostulation, and assuredly he addresses us by the mouth of Isaiah; and we ought not to look for another Prophet to threaten new chastisements, seeing that our case is not different from that of the Israelites, and we are involved in the same blame with them.

Nor have they sought the Lord of hosts This is immediately added as an explanation, for the reason why God inflicts punishment is, to bring back the wanderers to himself. By this method, indeed, he appears to drive men to a greater distance from him; but as it belongs to him to bring out of the grave those whom he appeared to have wounded and slain, by terrifying sinners he only humbles them, in order that they may return to him. And indeed the beginning of conversion is to seek God, or rather it is the only rule of living well; if we turn aside from it we have no rest for the sole of our foot. But we must now inquire what it is to seek God, or in what manner we ought to seek him; for hypocrites will always be ready to plead, that by prayers and fastings, and tears, and a sorrowful countenance, they earnestly entreat God and implore forgiveness. But God chooses to be sought in another manner; that is, when the sinner truly subdued, willingly takes the yoke which he had shaken off, and yields obedience to him whom he had despised.

Calvin: Isa 9:14 - Therefore the Lord will cut off from Israel // Head and tail, branch and reed 14.Therefore the Lord will cut off from Israel He intimates that God’s vengeance will be universal, and will involve all ranks; for the whole natio...

14.Therefore the Lord will cut off from Israel He intimates that God’s vengeance will be universal, and will involve all ranks; for the whole nation was corrupted, and the contagion had spread over the whole country, to such an extent that no part was left whole or sound. Now, when iniquity thus abounds, every one flatters himself, and they think that they have concealed themselves by an admirable veil, because they have many who are like them; and when they compare themselves with others, they think that they have pleaded their excuse. This is the reason why he threatens that vengeance generally against all; for not one was free from the general disease.

Head and tail, branch and reed 151 By branch he means the stronger and more powerful; by reed or rush he means the feebler, that is, men of the lowest rank, and who had scarcely any wealth. He therefore means that the vengeance of God hangs over them, and spares neither the strong nor the weak, neither the highest nor the lowest, because no part is sound or uninfected by the general disease.

Calvin: Isa 9:15 - The ancient and honorable, he is the head 15.The ancient and honorable, he is the head What he had spoken allegorically about the head and the tail he explains more plainly and without a ...

15.The ancient and honorable, he is the head What he had spoken allegorically about the head and the tail he explains more plainly and without a figure. He says that the heads are the princes and nobles who had the charge of public affairs, and sat at the helm of the commonwealth. To these he adds the false prophets, and says that they are meant by the tail. But he explains only the first part of the verse, and says nothing about the branch and reed. The reason why he omitted them is easily explained. It is, because he intended to press hardest on those who were more heinous transgressors, and who led others to commit sin, in consequence of the influence which they obtained from their high rank. He gives to the prophets the name of the tail, not because they were mean and contemptible, as some think; but he intended to denote the lowest parts of the whole body. By the head he means magistrates and judges, and by the tail he means false prophets, because they deceive and impose upon men by falsehoods and hypocrisy, as if he had compared the one to lions or bears, and the other to foxes.

This passage warns us that we ought not to slumber in our sins, because wickedness and profligacy abound in all ranks, and no class of men is sound or uninfected; for the more that vices abound, so much the more will the wrath of God be kindled against the highest and the lowest. We ought, especially in the present day, amidst that pestilence of every kind of evils, to fear lest, when the wrath of God hath begun to burn, it may consume everything, high and low.

Calvin: Isa 9:16 - For the rulers of this people are seducers // And they who are governed are destroyed 16.For the rulers of this people are seducers 152 Some render it, they who make thee blessed, or, they who call thee blessed; as if he had said tha...

16.For the rulers of this people are seducers 152 Some render it, they who make thee blessed, or, they who call thee blessed; as if he had said that nothing was more hurtful or destructive to a nation than flatteries, which gave encouragement to unbounded licentiousness. But I shall follow the reading which I approved on a former occasion, when the same word occurred. 153 (Isa 3:12.) He means that the rulers and magistrates, whose duty it was to restrain the people within the limits of decent behavior, allowed all to indulge freely in crimes and wickedness. On this account they ought justly to be reckoned seducers and corrupters, for corruption flows from them to the whole body of the people, as from the head to the members. Magistrates and pastors are appointed in order to restrain the waywardness of the people, to enjoin what is good and right, and especially to defend the honor of God. If they neglect these duties they ought to be reckoned impostors and not rulers, for they give rise to miserable confusion. Now, when every one does what he pleases, and the reins of government are nowhere to be found, can there be anything but the most terrible result? When the common people are thus punished on account of their faults, no lighter vengeance awaits the rulers, because they have neglected the duty entrusted to them, and have occasioned so many evils.

And they who are governed are destroyed By this clause he means that wicked princes, and those who rule according to their own caprice, are destructive; and in like manner teachers who rather deceive and impose on men than point out the way of salvation, because through their fault the people are ruined. But at the same time he shows that this affords no excuse to any one for seeking to make bad rulers a cloak for their own transgressions, as is commonly done, for if the blind lead the blind, as Christ says, both will fall into the ditch. It is certain that none are ruined by wicked and treacherous leaders, but those who of their own accord wish to be led astray.

Calvin: Isa 9:17 - Therefore the LORD will not delight in their young men // For all are hypocrites and evil-doers // And every mouth speaketh villany // His anger will not be turned away // But his hand is stretched out still 17.Therefore the LORD will not delight in their young men Isaiah describes more clearly how dreadful will be that vengeance of God against all ranks;...

17.Therefore the LORD will not delight in their young men Isaiah describes more clearly how dreadful will be that vengeance of God against all ranks; for so far will more flagrant transgressors be from escaping, that neither boys nor youths, nor widows, will be exempted, who are usually spared even amidst dreadful slaughter; which was usually done even among heathens at the sacking of towns, as we learn from history. But here the Lord threatens that he will pay no regard either to sex or to age. Yet the following view will not be unsuitable. “Although the carnage will rob many women of their husbands, and will deprive many children of their parents, still God will not shrink from punishing women by making them widows, and children by making them orphans.” But as it does not greatly affect the general meaning, I do not dwell upon it. Again, that they may not accuse God of cruelty, he at the same time shows that there are good reasons why he is so severe, because they are all wicked, and therefore that they deserve to be cast headlong to ruin without any distinction.

For all are hypocrites and evil-doers As to this word, I was unwilling to depart from the opinion commonly entertained, though חנף ( chaneph) means an ungodly, deceitful, or treacherous and wicked man. He appears to point out the source of all the evils, that there was no true fear of God among them. By this he does not mean any slight dissimulation, but inward contempt seated in the heart, by which consciences are stupified, so that no instructions produce any effect on them; as if he had said that they were deeply sunk in their depravity. But as wickedness, when it has taken possession of the mind, drags the hands and feet, and the rest of the members of the body along with it, so the Prophet adds, that they are all evil-doers

And every mouth speaketh villany 154 Thirdly, he adds that they have proceeded to such a pitch of open wickedness, that they boast of their crimes without shame. The Hebrew word נבלה ( niblah), which is translated folly, has frequently a more extensive meaning; for it denotes baseness, villany, and madness. (Gen 34:7; Jos 7:15; Jud 19:24.) Here, in my opinion, the Prophet means that they are so entirely abandoned to wicked courses, that we need not seek any other proof of it than from their tongues.

His anger will not be turned away He again repeats this statement, which ought to be frequently repeated; for it is not enough to have been once informed how dreadful are the judgments of the Lord against the wicked; so easily and quickly will there steal upon us that forgetfulness of them which banishes uneasiness, as well as fear, about the future. Besides, we are led astray and blinded by that deception, for we think that the infliction of a single punishment has exhausted the power of God. There can be nothing better, therefore, than to hold by this principle, that whenever God chastises us he threatens something more dreadful, if we do not quickly repent. (Lev 26:18.)

But his hand is stretched out still since the Prophet repeats this warning, let us unceasingly call to our remembrance, that the indignation of God is not yet appeased, though we may think that he has already punished us severely for our sins. What then ought we to conclude, when he has given us but a light chastisement? At the present day, for instance, we have endured some punishment; but what is it as compared with those dreadfully severe calamities which that nation had suffered, when Isaiah foretold that new chastisements were still awaiting them? What then will become of us? The Lord will undoubtedly continue to perform what belongs to him, and will always be like himself. If this dread do not arouse us, our insensibility is evidently beyond endurance. I have translated the verb שב ( shab) in the future sense, will not be turned away, to make the meaning more clear; for though he speaks as if it had been a past transaction, still he threatens a continuance of punishments against the rebellious.

Calvin: Isa 9:18 - For wickedness burneth as the fire // It shall devour the briers and thorns 18.For wickedness burneth as the fire The Prophet attacks the wicked, who are accustomed to defend themselves by laying the blame on God. Either they...

18.For wickedness burneth as the fire The Prophet attacks the wicked, who are accustomed to defend themselves by laying the blame on God. Either they practice evasions, in order to convince themselves that they are innocent, or, when they have been convicted, they still extenuate their guilt, as if the severity of God were beyond proper bounds. Never, certainly, do they acknowledge that God is just in punishing them, till they are compelled to acknowledge it; and even though they do not venture to excuse themselves publicly, still they fret and murmur. With the view of repressing such insolence, the Prophet compares the calamities to burning, but shows that the wickedness of men is the wood and fuel, by which the anger of God is kindled: as if he had said, “All exclaim and make loud complaints that the wrath of God burns violently, and yet they do not consider that their own sins are the fans by which it is inflamed, and that those sins supply the fuel, and that even themselves are consumed by the inward fire of their crimes.”

It shall devour the briers and thorns The meaning is, that this flame will seize every part of Judea. Two things are here expressed, that the punishment of sin proceeds from the judgment of God, and yet that the blame lies with the sinners themselves, that they may not remonstrate with God as if he had dealt cruelly with them. There is a beautiful gradation; for we perceive that it usually happens that a fire, kindled in the lowest part of any place, gathers strength by degrees, spreads wider and wider, and ascends to the higher parts. Such will the wrath of God be; for Isaiah shows that it does not all at once seize the wicked, but is gradually kindled, till it utterly destroy them. At first the Lord proceeds gently, but if a light chastisement produce no good effect, he increases and doubles the punishment. If he see that we are obstinate, his wrath burns to the uttermost, so as to destroy us altogether, and consume us like a thick forest. Lastly, as the Prophets elsewhere declare, we must be like chaff and straw as soon as the wrath of God is kindled. (Psa 83:14)

Calvin: Isa 9:19 - Through the anger of the // No man shall spare his brother 19.Through the anger of the Lord of hosts is the land darkened. After having shown that the cause of all our evils proceeds from ourselves, and that...

19.Through the anger of the Lord of hosts is the land darkened. After having shown that the cause of all our evils proceeds from ourselves, and that therefore the blame of it should be laid upon us, he at the same time shows that God is a most righteous avenger. When men draw down upon themselves calamities and distresses, God does not suffer them to escape his hand; not that he is inclined to cruelty, for he is gracious and merciful, (Exo 34:6,) but because he is just, and cannot endure the wicked. The dreadful nature of God’s vengeance is described by the metaphor of darkness, than which nothing can be more dismal; for without figures of speech a judgment so revolting cannot be expressed. And yet he appears to allude to smoke, of which he spoke in the former verse; for when a conflagration extends, and rages with such violence, the light must be overpowered by the thick smoke

No man shall spare his brother In this last clause and in the following verse, the Prophet describes the methods and means, as they are called, by which the Lord will execute his vengeance, when his wrath has been thus kindled. When no enemies shall be seen whom we have cause to dread, he will arm ourselves for our destruction. As if he had said, “The Lord will find no difficulty in executing the vengeance which he threatens; for though there be none to give us any annoyance from without, he will ruin us by intestine broils and civil wars.” It is shocking and monstrous to relate, No man shall spare his brother, “every man shall devour his own flesh;” for no man ever hated his own flesh. (Eph 5:29.) But when the Lord hath blinded us, what remains but that we mutually destroy each other? And though it is monstrous, yet it happens almost every day.

We are not restrained by any relationship either of blood, or of religion, or of the image of God, which we all bear; though even the heathen, on the contrary, were prevented, by sharing in this common nature, from injuring each other, because they perceived that the beasts themselves are restrained by similarity of nature from cruelty against their own kind; for a wolf does not devour a wolf, and a bear does not devour a bear. That human beings, from whom the name of humanity is derived, should fight with such cruelty and fierceness against one another as to exceed the rage of wild beasts, is monstrous; and this evil can arise from no other source than that God hath blinded them, and given them up to a reprobate sense. (Rom 1:28.) Justly hath Isaiah described this kind of revenge; for when men enjoy peace, they think that they are placed beyond the reach of danger, and dread nothing. But the Lord laughs at this indifference, and shows that he will execute his vengeance by their own hand, which he will arm and direct against them.

Calvin: Isa 9:20 - Every one shall snatch on the right hand 20.Every one shall snatch on the right hand It is equivalent to a phrase in common use, prendre et ravir a toutes mains , to take and seize at all...

20.Every one shall snatch on the right hand It is equivalent to a phrase in common use, prendre et ravir a toutes mains , to take and seize at all hands. This mode of expression denotes either insatiable covetousness or insatiable cruelty; for the eagerness to snatch excites to savage cruelty. That they will be insatiable he expresses more emphatically, by saying that, in consequence of being impelled by blind fierceness and inconceivable rage, they will suck their brother’s blood as freely as they would devour the flesh which was their own property. The bitterness of the vengeance is greatly heightened by this circumstance, that the children of Abraham, and the holy posterity of the chosen race, break out into such beastly fury. Let us therefore remember that it is a dreadful proof of heavenly punishment, when brothers are hurried on, with irreconcilable eagerness, to inflict mutual wounds.

Calvin: Isa 9:21 - Manasseh, Ephraim // And for all this his anger shall not be turned away // But his hand is stretched out still 21.Manasseh, Ephraim These tribes were closely related to each other; for besides their being descended from the same ancestor, Abraham, a close rela...

21.Manasseh, Ephraim These tribes were closely related to each other; for besides their being descended from the same ancestor, Abraham, a close relationship arose out of their being descended from one patriarch, his grandson, Joseph. (Gen 41:50.) But though they were closely allied, still God threatens that he will cause them to destroy themselves by mutual conflict, as if they were devouring the flesh of their own arm, and, consequently, that there will be no need of foreign enemies. He likewise adds that, after having wearied themselves out by mutual wounds, both will unite against Judah, in order to destroy it.

And for all this his anger shall not be turned away If any one take into consideration those calamities which Isaiah threatened, he will be amazed and greatly astonished that still more severe chastisements are foretold. But in this manner God acts towards the wicked, and does not cease to afflict till he utterly overwhelm and destroy them, when, after having been frequently invited, they refuse to be reconciled to him. We need not wonder, therefore, that he inflicts stroke after stroke, as he also foretold by Moses that he would punish seven times more (Lev 26:18), and bring seven times more plagues upon (Lev 26:21) those who would not repent; lest they should think that, when they had been punished once or twice, they would not be punished again.

But his hand is stretched out still By this he means that rods are prepared, that he may immediately strike with them; for it is not with a woman’s passion that the Lord is angry, but his wrath is immediately followed by revenge.

Defender: Isa 9:2 - great light This prophecy was fulfilled, at least in part, when Jesus - the Light of the world - ministered in Galilee. Isa 9:1, Isa 9:2 is quoted with this appli...

This prophecy was fulfilled, at least in part, when Jesus - the Light of the world - ministered in Galilee. Isa 9:1, Isa 9:2 is quoted with this application in Mat 4:14-16."

Defender: Isa 9:6 - child is born This is truly one of the most amazing prophecies ever given, no doubt referring back to the promised virgin-born Immanuel (Isa 7:14). The child born i...

This is truly one of the most amazing prophecies ever given, no doubt referring back to the promised virgin-born Immanuel (Isa 7:14). The child born is the human Jesus, born as a babe, while the Son given is the eternally begotten Second Person of the Godhead united in the glorious hypostatic union - God with us!

Defender: Isa 9:6 - Wonderful, Counsellor It is probable that the first name of His fourfold Name, paralleling the adjective/noun structure of the other three, is "Wonderful Counsellor." The t...

It is probable that the first name of His fourfold Name, paralleling the adjective/noun structure of the other three, is "Wonderful Counsellor." The testimony, even of His enemies, was that "never man spake like this man" (Joh 7:46).

Defender: Isa 9:6 - mighty God This is a marvelous paradox. The helpless infant in the manger is God Almighty. He has "all power ... in heaven and earth" (Mat 28:18).

This is a marvelous paradox. The helpless infant in the manger is God Almighty. He has "all power ... in heaven and earth" (Mat 28:18).

Defender: Isa 9:6 - everlasting father How can the "everlasting Father" also be the "Son given?" Only by the unfathomable, yet glorious mystery of the Trinity. "I and my Father are one," sa...

How can the "everlasting Father" also be the "Son given?" Only by the unfathomable, yet glorious mystery of the Trinity. "I and my Father are one," said Jesus (Joh 10:30).

Defender: Isa 9:6 - Prince of peace "Prince of peace" indicates He is the very first leader who will bring true peace to the world. Melchizedek (who was either the preincarnate Christ or...

"Prince of peace" indicates He is the very first leader who will bring true peace to the world. Melchizedek (who was either the preincarnate Christ or a type of Christ) is called "King of Salem," which means "King of Peace" (Gen 14:18; Heb 7:2). He is the great Peacemaker (Mat 5:9), who "made peace through the blood of His cross" (Col 1:20)."

Defender: Isa 9:7 - increase Reigning eternally, Christ and His glorified saints will forever continue to extend His domain by exploration, development and utilization throughout ...

Reigning eternally, Christ and His glorified saints will forever continue to extend His domain by exploration, development and utilization throughout His infinite creation (see note on Rev 22:3).

Defender: Isa 9:7 - throne of David Although His kingdom will be of unlimited extent, its center will be in the New Jerusalem, on the throne of David, as promised to Mary before He was b...

Although His kingdom will be of unlimited extent, its center will be in the New Jerusalem, on the throne of David, as promised to Mary before He was born (Luk 1:32, Luk 1:33; Eze 37:25).

Defender: Isa 9:7 - zeal of the Lord This magnificent kingdom can never be achieved by human effort, but only by the "zeal of the Lord of hosts.""

This magnificent kingdom can never be achieved by human effort, but only by the "zeal of the Lord of hosts.""

TSK: Isa 9:1 - the dimness // when // afterward // by the way // Galilee of the nations am 3264, bc 740 the dimness : Isa 8:22 when : 1Ki 15:19, 1Ki 15:20; 2Ki 15:29; 2Ch 16:4 afterward : Lev 26:24, Lev 26:28; 2Ki 17:5, 2Ki 17:6; 1Ch 5:26...

am 3264, bc 740

the dimness : Isa 8:22

when : 1Ki 15:19, 1Ki 15:20; 2Ki 15:29; 2Ch 16:4

afterward : Lev 26:24, Lev 26:28; 2Ki 17:5, 2Ki 17:6; 1Ch 5:26

by the way : Mat 4:15

Galilee of the nations : or, Galilee the populous

TSK: Isa 9:2 - walked // in the land walked : Isa 50:10, Isa 60:1-3, Isa 60:19; Mic 7:8, Mic 7:9; Mat 4:16; Luk 1:78, Luk 1:79, Luk 2:32; Joh 8:12; Joh 12:35, Joh 12:46; Eph 5:8, Eph 5:13...

TSK: Isa 9:3 - hast multiplied // not increased the joy // they joy // according // and as men hast multiplied : Isa 26:15, Isa 49:20-22; Neh 9:23; Psa 107:38; Hos 4:7; Zec 2:11, Zec 8:23, Zec 10:8 not increased the joy : or, to him increased th...

TSK: Isa 9:4 - For thou hast broken // the staff // as in the day For thou hast broken : or, When thou brakest, Isa 14:25, Isa 47:6; Gen 27:40; Lev 26:13; Jer 30:8; Nah 1:13 the staff : Isa 10:5, Isa 10:27, Isa 14:3-...

For thou hast broken : or, When thou brakest, Isa 14:25, Isa 47:6; Gen 27:40; Lev 26:13; Jer 30:8; Nah 1:13

the staff : Isa 10:5, Isa 10:27, Isa 14:3-5, Isa 30:31, Isa 30:32; Psa 125:3

as in the day : Isa 10:26; Jdg 6:1-6, Jdg 7:22-25, Jdg 8:10-12; Psa 83:9-11

TSK: Isa 9:5 - For every battle // confused noise // but this shall be // burning // fuel For every battle : etc. or, When the whole battle of the warrior was, etc confused noise : Isa 13:4; 1Sa 14:19; Jer 47:3; Joe 2:5; Nah 3:2 but this sh...

For every battle : etc. or, When the whole battle of the warrior was, etc

confused noise : Isa 13:4; 1Sa 14:19; Jer 47:3; Joe 2:5; Nah 3:2

but this shall be : or, and it was, etc

burning : Isa 4:4, Isa 10:16, Isa 10:17, Isa 30:33, Isa 37:36, Isa 66:15, Isa 66:16; Psa 46:9; Eze 39:8-10; Mal 3:2, Mal 3:3; Mat 3:11; Act 2:3, Act 2:19; 2Th 1:8

fuel : Heb. meat, Lev 3:11, Lev 3:16

TSK: Isa 9:6 - For unto // unto us a son // the government // his name // Counsellor // The mighty God // The everlasting Father // The Prince of Peace For unto : Isa 7:14; Luk 1:35, Luk 2:11 unto us a son : Joh 1:14, Joh 3:16, Joh 3:17; Rom 8:32; 1Jo 4:10-14 the government : Isa 22:21, Isa 22:22; Psa...

TSK: Isa 9:7 - the increase // to establish it // The zeal the increase : 2Sa 7:16; Psa 2:8, Psa 72:8-11, Psa 89:35-37; Jer 33:15-21; Dan 2:35, Dan 2:44; Dan 7:14, Dan 7:27; Luk 1:32, Luk 1:33; 1Co 15:24-28 to...

TSK: Isa 9:8 - sent a word sent a word : Isa 7:7, Isa 7:8, Isa 8:4-8; Mic 1:1-9; Zec 1:6, Zec 5:1-4; Mat 24:35

TSK: Isa 9:9 - And all // even Ephraim // in the pride And all : Isa 26:11; 1Ki 22:25; Job 21:19, Job 21:20; Jer 32:24, Jer 44:28, Jer 44:29; Eze 7:9, Eze 7:27; Eze 30:19, Eze 33:33 even Ephraim : Isa 7:9,...

TSK: Isa 9:10 - bricks bricks : 1Ki 7:9-12, 1Ki 10:27; Mal 1:4

TSK: Isa 9:11 - set up // join set up : Isa 8:4-7, Isa 10:9-11, Isa 17:1-5; 2Ki 15:29, 2Ki 16:9 join : Heb. mingle

set up : Isa 8:4-7, Isa 10:9-11, Isa 17:1-5; 2Ki 15:29, 2Ki 16:9

join : Heb. mingle

TSK: Isa 9:12 - Syrians // devour Israel // open mouth // For all Syrians : 2Ki 16:6; 2Ch 28:18; Jer 35:11 devour Israel : Deu 31:17; Psa 79:7, Psa 129:3-6; Jer 10:25 open mouth : Heb. whole mouth For all : Isa 9:17,...

Syrians : 2Ki 16:6; 2Ch 28:18; Jer 35:11

devour Israel : Deu 31:17; Psa 79:7, Psa 129:3-6; Jer 10:25

open mouth : Heb. whole mouth

For all : Isa 9:17, Isa 9:21, Isa 5:25, Isa 10:4; Jer 4:8

TSK: Isa 9:13 - the people // neither the people : Isa 1:5, Isa 26:11, Isa 57:17; 2Ch 28:22; Job 36:13; Jer 5:3, Jer 31:18-20; Eze 24:13; Hos 5:15, Hos 7:10,Hos 7:16 neither : Isa 31:1; De...

TSK: Isa 9:14 - will cut // in one day will cut : Isa 3:2, Isa 3:3, Isa 19:15; 2Ki 17:6-20; Hos 1:4, Hos 1:6, Hos 1:9, Hos 4:5, Hos 5:12-14, Hos 8:8, Hos 9:11-17; Hos 13:3; Amo 2:14-16, Amo...

TSK: Isa 9:15 - ancient // the prophet ancient : Isa 3:5, Isa 5:13; 1Sa 9:6 the prophet : Isa 28:17, Isa 29:10; 1Ki 13:18, 1Ki 22:22-24; Jer 5:31, Jer 14:14, Jer 14:15; Jer 23:9, Jer 23:14,...

TSK: Isa 9:16 - the leaders // led of them // destroyed the leaders : etc. or, they that call them blessed, Isa 3:12; Mat 15:14, 23:16-36 led of them : or, called blessed of them, Num 6:23-26; 1Ki 8:55, 1Ki...

the leaders : etc. or, they that call them blessed, Isa 3:12; Mat 15:14, 23:16-36

led of them : or, called blessed of them, Num 6:23-26; 1Ki 8:55, 1Ki 8:56; 2Ch 30:27; Heb 7:7

destroyed : Heb. swallowed up

TSK: Isa 9:17 - have no joy // for every // every mouth // folly // For all have no joy : Isa 10:2, Isa 13:18, Isa 27:11, Isa 62:5, Isa 65:19; Psa 147:10; Jer 18:21; Zec 9:17 for every : Isa 10:6; Job 15:34; Jer 5:1; Mic 7:2; ...

TSK: Isa 9:18 - wickedness // it shall // shall kindle // mount wickedness : Isa 1:31, Isa 30:30,Isa 30:33, Isa 33:12, Isa 34:8-10, Isa 66:16, Isa 66:17; Num 11:1-3; Deu 32:22; Job 31:11, Job 31:12; Amo 7:4; Nah 1:...

TSK: Isa 9:19 - is the land // fuel // no man is the land : Isa 5:30, Isa 8:22, Isa 24:11, Isa 24:12, Isa 60:2; Jer 13:16; Joe 2:2; Amo 5:18; Mat 27:45; Act 2:20 fuel : Heb. meat, Isa 9:5 no man :...

TSK: Isa 9:20 - And he // snatch And he : Isa 49:26; Lev 26:26-29; Jer 19:9; Lam 4:10 snatch : Heb. cut

And he : Isa 49:26; Lev 26:26-29; Jer 19:9; Lam 4:10

snatch : Heb. cut

TSK: Isa 9:21 - Ephraim // For all this Ephraim : Jdg 7:2; 1Sa 14:20; 2Ki 15:30; 2Ch 28:6-8; Mat 24:10; Gal 5:15 For all this : Isa 9:12, Isa 9:17, Isa 5:25, Isa 10:4; Jer 4:8

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Poole: Isa 9:1 - The dimness shall not be such as was in her vexation The dimness shall not be such as was in her vexation: the words thus rendered contain a mitigation of the foregoing threatening; and so the sense of...

The dimness shall not be such as was in her vexation: the words thus rendered contain a mitigation of the foregoing threatening; and so the sense of the verse may be this, The calamity of this land and its inhabitants shall be great, yet not such as that which was brought upon the kingdom of the ten tribes by the king of Assyria, who at first indeed dealt more gently with them, but afterwards quite rooted them out, and carried them away into a dreadful captivity, from whence they were not to return, no, not when the Messiah came into the world; for after this darkness of which I have now spoken, there shall come a glorious light, as it follows in the next verse. The Dutch interpreters take it in the same sense, and render the words thus, But the land that was distressed shall not be utterly darkened . To the same purpose they may be thus rendered, according to the Hebrew, But darkness shall not be (i.e. shall not abide or continue; for to be is sometimes put for to abide or continue to be , as 1Sa 12:14 Pro 23:5 Mat 17:4 Heb 8:4 ) unto her , (to wit, the land, which by the consent of interpreters is understood here, as it was Isa 8:21 ) to whom this distress is or shall be. She shall be distressed and darkened, as I said before, Isa 8:22 , but not irrecoverably, nor for ever. Some understand the words to be an aggravation of the darkness or misery threatened Isa 8:22 , rendering the words thus, for the dimness shall not be , &c. And so the sense is, This shall not be so slight an affliction as that which befell them by Pul, 2Ki 15:19 , nor as that which succeeded it by Tiglathpileser, who, at the desire of Ahaz, did about this time make another invasion into the land of Israel, 2Ki 15:29 , and was a heavier stroke than the former; but this shall be far heavier than either of them. But the former sense seems better to agree, both with the following verses, and with Mat 4:14-16 , where these words are expounded as a promise, and said to be fulfilled by Christ’ s preaching the gospel in these parts. At the first ; in the first invasion which the king of Assyria made upon Israel. He , to wit, God, who is oft understood in such cases, and who is here supposed to be the author or inflicter of this judgment. Or it is an impersonal speech, he afflicted for was afflicted , than which nothing is more common in the Hebrew language. Lightly afflicted ; either,

1. By Pul; or rather,

2. By Tiglath-pileser, who at this time invaded and subdued these parts, as it is expressed, 2Ki 15:29 ; the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali : these parts are particularly mentioned, because this storm fell most heavily upon them; but under them the other parts of the land are understood by a common figure called synecdoche. Did more grievously afflict her ; either,

1. By Tiglath-pileser; or rather,

2. By Shalmaneser, who took Samaria, and carried Israel into captivity, 2Ki 17:5,6 ; of which calamity, though yet to come, the prophet speaks as if it were past, as the manner of the prophet is. By the way of the sea ; in that part of the land which bordereth upon the sea, to wit, the lake of Gennesaret, which is very commonly called a sea, as Mat 4:18 Joh 21:1 , &c., and upon which the portions of Zebulun and Naphtali bordered. Beyond Jordan ; or, on this side Jordan; for this preposition is used both ways, and this land might be said to be either beyond or on this side Jordan , in divers respects. Galilee of the nations , or Galilee of the Gentiles , to wit, the Upper Galilee , so called because it bordered upon the Gentiles. But this last clause, and the two foregoing clauses, are otherwise rendered and interpreted by divers learned men, as a prophecy concerning the light of the gospel that should shine in those parts: As at the first time (to wit, in the former ages of the Israelitish church and commonwealth) he made the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali vile or contemptible ; (as he might be said to have done, partly, by putting those people at so great a distance from his sanctuary; partly, by exposing them to some calamities which other tribes escaped; and partly, by denying them those honours and privileges which he afforded to other tribes, of which see Joh 7:52 , Out of Galilee ariseth no prophet ; and Joh 1:46 , Can any good thing come out of Nazareth ? which was an eminent city of Galilee;) so in the latter or last time (to wit, in the days of the Messiah, or of the gospel, which are frequently so called in the Scriptures both of the Old and New Testament) he made it (i.e. he will make it, for the prophet speaks of things to come as past, as he doth most commonly in this prophecy) glorious (to wit, by Christ’ s first preaching the gospel in those parts) in or towards the way of the sea , (to wit, of Galilee or Gennesaret,) beyond or on this side Jordan, in Galilee of the Gentiles : which interpretation I thought fit to propose, as deserving further consideration.

Poole: Isa 9:2 - The people // Walked // Have seen // The land of the shadow of death The people the people of God, Israel and Judah, and especially those of them mentioned in the foregoing verse. Walked in Mat 4:16 , it is sat . It...

The people the people of God, Israel and Judah, and especially those of them mentioned in the foregoing verse.

Walked in Mat 4:16 , it is sat . It notes not their gesture, but their state or condition, they lived or abode. Only walking in darkness is more perilous than sitting. Darkness : the expression is general, and so may well comprehend both the darkness of calamity, and the darkness of ignorance, and idolatry, and profaneness, in which those parts were eminently involved, by reason of their great distance from God’ s sanctuary, and by their frequent converse with the Gentiles, who bordered upon them, and of which this place is expounded, Mt 4 .

Have seen i.e. shall see, at the coming of the Messiah.

The land of the shadow of death which notes both extreme, and dangerous, or deadly darkness.

Poole: Isa 9:3 - Thou hast multiplied the nation // thou hast magnified the nation // And not increased the joy // wilt thou not increase their joy? // They joy before thee // According to the joy in harvest // When they divide the spoil Thou hast multiplied the nation thou hast made good thy promise to Abraham concerning the multiplication of his seed, Gen 15:5 22:17 , by adding his ...

Thou hast multiplied the nation thou hast made good thy promise to Abraham concerning the multiplication of his seed, Gen 15:5 22:17 , by adding his spiritual seed unto the carnal, by gathering in the Gentiles to the Jews, and making them both one people in Christ, Joh 10:16 Eph 2:14 , &c. For in Scripture account the believing Gentiles are the seed of Abraham as well as the Jews; of which see Gal 3:7-9 . Or,

thou hast magnified the nation honoured them with peculiar privileges above all other nations, and especially with this transcendent privilege, that the Messiah and Saviour of the world should be born of them, and live among them; of which he speaks more fully Isa 9:6,7 .

And not increased the joy or, yet not increased their joy ; which might very truly and fitly be said of the Jewish nation upon this occasion, partly because they did not rejoice in the conversion of the Gentiles, as they should have done, but murmured, and grieved, and stumbled at it; and partly because, through their perverseness and unbelief, that would be unto them an occasion of their utter ruin, the conversion of the Gentiles being attended with the rejection of the Jews. But because this translation seems not to agree with the following words, which ascribe great joy to them, some render the words otherwise; either thus, and

wilt thou not increase their joy? to which question the next words give an affirmative answer. So the Hebrew particle lo is put interrogatively for halo , as it is in many other places, which I have formerly observed. Or thus, and hast increased to it , or him , or them (to that nation) their joy . For though the Hebrew lo be written like an adverb, yet it may be read like a pronoun, as it is both by Jewish and Christian interpreters acknowledged to be in many places; of which see more in my Latin Synopsis.

They joy before thee in thy presence, and in the place of thy worship; not with a carnal and worldly, but with a spiritual and religious joy, giving thee the praise and glory of all thy favours afforded to them.

According to the joy in harvest when men receive with great joy that for which they have laboured much and long waited. See Psa 126:5,6 .

When they divide the spoil when, after a bloody fight, and a glorious victory, they come to take the spoil.

Poole: Isa 9:4 - Thou hast broken // The yoke of his burden // The staff of his shoulder // The rod // Of his oppressor // As in the day of Midian Thou hast broken: this notes the matter and occasion of the foregoing joy. The yoke of his burden his burdensome and heavy yoke, as the throne of ...

Thou hast broken: this notes the matter and occasion of the foregoing joy.

The yoke of his burden his burdensome and heavy yoke, as the throne of holiness is put for the holy throne , Psa 47:8 .

The staff of his shoulder either the staff wherewith his shoulders were smitten, or the staff or staves by which he was forced to carry burdens upon his shoulders.

The rod wherewith he beat him. Or, the sceptre ; the power and tyranny which he exercised over him.

Of his oppressor of all his oppressors, but especially of sin and of the devil.

As in the day of Midian when God destroyed the Midianites in so admirable a manner, and by such unlikely and contemptible means, by three hundred men, and they not fighting, but only holding lamps in their hands, and sounding their trumpets; which was an eminent type of Christ’ s conquering the devil, and all his enemies, by dying upon the cross, and by the preaching of a few unlearned and despicable persons, &c.

Poole: Isa 9:5 - With confused noise // And garments rolled in blood // But this shall be with burning and fuel of fire With confused noise with the triumphant exclamations of the conqueror, and the bitter lamentations of the conquered, and the differing cries of the s...

With confused noise with the triumphant exclamations of the conqueror, and the bitter lamentations of the conquered, and the differing cries of the same persons, sometimes conquering, and sometimes conquered.

And garments rolled in blood with great difficulty and slaughter.

But this shall be with burning and fuel of fire but this victory which God’ s people shall have over all their enemies, shall be more easy to them, and more terrible to their adversaries, whom God will suddenly and utterly consume, as it were by fire.

Poole: Isa 9:6 - Unto us // A Child // Is born // A Son // Is given // The government // His name shall be called // Wonderful, Counsellor // wonderful Counsellor // The mighty God // The everlasting Father // The Prince of peace Having spoken of the glorious light, and joy, and victory of God’ s people, he now proceeds to show the ground of it, and by what person these ...

Having spoken of the glorious light, and joy, and victory of God’ s people, he now proceeds to show the ground of it, and by what person these things are procured.

Unto us unto us Jews, of whom Christ was born, and to whom he was primarily sent, Mat 15:24 , for our use and benefit.

A Child the Messiah, by the consent of interpreters, not only Christian, but Jewish; for so the ancient Hebrew doctors understood the place, and particularly the Chaldee paraphrast; although the later Jews, out of opposition to Christ, wrest it to Hezekiah; which extravagant conceit, as it hath no foundation at all in that or any other text of Scripture, and therefore may be rejected without any further reason, so it is fully confuted by the following titles, which are such as cannot without blasphemy and nonsense be ascribed to Hezekiah, nor indeed to any mere mortal man, as we shall see. But all the following particulars do so truly and exactly agree to Christ, that they cannot without great violence be alienated from him, or ascribed to any other.

Is born for shall be born , as the prophets generally speak.

A Son so he determines the sex of the child. Or, the Son , to wit, of the virgin, of whom I spake before, Isa 7:14 .

Is given is freely and graciously given to us by God. Other children also are said to be given by God, Ge 30 6 48:9 , but this in a peculiar manner, and therefore he is called the gift of God , Joh 4:10 .

The government to wit, of Israel, or of God’ s people, to whom he is given,

shall be upon his shoulder i.e. upon him, or in his hands. He mentions shoulders , because great burdens are commonly laid upon men’ s shoulders; and as all government, if it be rightly managed, so this especially, is a very heavy burden, requiring extraordinary care, and diligence, and self-denial. Possibly here may be also an allusion to the ancient custom of carrying the ensigns of government before the magistrate upon the shoulders of their officers; or to the cross of Christ, which was laid upon his shoulders, Joh 19:17 , which also was the way to his kingdom or government, Luk 24:26 .

His name shall be called either,

1. He shall be called; for names are oft put for persons, as Act 1:15 Rev 3:4 11:13 . Or,

2. His name shall be; for to be called in Scripture is off put for to be , as I have noted before on Isa 1:26 , and oft elsewhere. But this is not to be taken for a description of his proper name, by which he should be commonly called, but of his glorious nature and qualities. See my notes on Isa 7:14 .

Wonderful, Counsellor: these words may be taken either,

1. Severally, as they are in our translation, and by many others. This the Jews apply to Hezekiah, who, as they say, is called wonderful , because of the miracle which God wrought for him, 2Ki 20:2 , &c.; and counsellor , because he took counsel with his princes about God’ s worship, and the defence of the city, 2Ch 29:4 , &c., and gave good counsel to others; which ridiculous account is sufficient to overthrow that exposition. But they agree most eminently to the Lord Christ, who is truly wonderful, in his person, and natures, and words, and works, being made up of wonders, in whom there was nothing which was not wonderful; who also may well be called Counsellor , because he knew the whole counsel of God, and (so far as it was necessary) revealed it to us, and is the great Counsellor of his church and people in all their doubts and difficulties. Or,

2. Jointly,

wonderful Counsellor which may seem best to agree both with the following titles, each of which is made up of two words, and with Isa 28:29 , where God is called wonderful in counsel , and makes the title more full and emphatical. To call Christ simply a Counsellor , may seem too mean a character, being common to many others with him; but to say he is a wonderful Counsellor , is a singular commendation. And so Christ is, because he hath been the Counsellor of his church in all ages, and the author and giver of all those excellent counsels delivered not only by the apostles, but also by the prophets, as is evident from 1Pe 1:10,11 , and hath gathered, and enlarged, and preserved his church by admirable counsels and methods of his providence, and, in a word, hath in him all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge , Col 2 3 .

The mighty God: this title can agree to no man but Christ, who was God as well as man, to whom the title of God or Jehovah is given, both in the Old and New Testament, as Jer 23:6 Joh 1:1 Rom 9:5 , and in many other places. And it is a most true observation, that this Hebrew word El is never used in the singular number, of any creature, but only of the Almighty God, as is evident by perusing all the texts where this word is used. And although the title of Elohim , which is of the plural number, be twice or thrice given to some men, yet there is constantly added some diminishing expression to it, as when they are said to be afraid , Job 41:25 , and to die , Psa 49:10 ; whereas here he adds the epithet of mighty, which is ascribed to the great God, Deu 10:17 , and elsewhere.

The everlasting Father Heb. the Father of eternity , Having called him a Child , and a Son in respect of his human nature, lest this should be misinterpreted to his disparagement, he adds that he is a Father also , even the God and Father of all things ; the work of creation being common and commonly ascribed to each of the persons of the blessed Trinity, the Maker and Upholder of all creatures, as he is said to be, Joh 1:3 Heb 1:3 , and the Father of all believers, who are called his children , Heb 2:13 , and the Father of eternity ; either,

1. The first author (such persons being called fathers, as Gen 4:20 , and elsewhere) of eternal salvation , as he is called, Heb 5:9 . Or,

2. As we render it, the everlasting Father , who, though as man he was then unborn, yet was and is from everlasting to everlasting. They who apply this to Hezekiah render it, the father of an age , and expound this of his long life and numerous posterity; which I the rather mention, to show what absurd shifts they are forced to use who interpret this text of any other but Christ. For he did not live very long, nor had he, that we read of, more than one son, Manasseh. And if both these things had been true of him, they were more eminently true of many other men. Besides, this Hebrew word being used of God, as here it is of him who was now called the mighty God , constantly signifies eternity, as Isa 26:4 57:15 , &c.

The Prince of peace: this title doth not fully agree to Hezekiah, whose reign was not free from wars, as we see, 2Ki 18 ; but it agrees exactly to Christ, who is called our peace , Mic 5:5 Eph 2:14 , and is the only purchaser and procurer of peace between God and men, Isa 53:5 , and of peace between men and men, Jews and Gentiles, Eph 2:15 , and of the peace of our own consciences, and leaves peace as his legacy to his disciples, Joh 14:27 16:33 .

Poole: Isa 9:7 - Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end // The throne of David // With judgment and with justice // From henceforth even for ever // The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end his peaceable and happy government shall be enlarged without end; either without en...

Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end his peaceable and happy government shall be enlarged without end; either without end of duration, for ever; but that is expressed in a following clause of this verse: or without end of limitation, or without bounds. It shall not be confined to a narrow spot of ground, the land of Canaan, but shall be extended far and wide to all the ends of the earth.

The throne of David which was promised to David, and to his seed for ever.

With judgment and with justice not with oppression and tyranny, by which other kingdoms are commonly managed, but by the administration of justice.

From henceforth even for ever from the beginning of it unto all eternity.

The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this this great work, which surpasseth all the power and skill of men, shall be brought to pass by Almighty God, out of that fervent affection which he hath to his own name and glory, and to the honour of his dearly beloved Son, and unto his church and people.

Poole: Isa 9:8 - Sent a word // It lighted // Israel Sent a word a prophetical and threatening message by me; for now the prophet, having inserted some consolatory passages for the support of God’ ...

Sent a word a prophetical and threatening message by me; for now the prophet, having inserted some consolatory passages for the support of God’ s faithful people, returns to his former work of commination against the rebellious Israelites.

It lighted Heb. it fell , i.e. it shall fall, in the prophetical style. It shall certainly be accomplished.

Israel the same with Jacob in the former clause, the posterity of Jacob or Israel.

Poole: Isa 9:9 - Shall know // Even Ephraim // The inhabitant of Samaria // That say Shall know to wit, by experience; they shall know whether my word be true or false; they shall feel the effects of it. Even Ephraim the people of t...

Shall know to wit, by experience; they shall know whether my word be true or false; they shall feel the effects of it.

Even Ephraim the people of the ten tribes, and particularly Ephraim, the strongest and proudest of them all.

The inhabitant of Samaria the strongest place, and the seat of the king and court, who were most secure and presumptuous.

That say within themselves, and one to another. They purpose and boast of it.

Poole: Isa 9:10 - The bricks are fallen down, but we will build with hewn stones // Sycomores // We will change them into cedars The bricks are fallen down, but we will build with hewn stones It is true, we have received some damages from our enemies; but Rezin and the Syrians ...

The bricks are fallen down, but we will build with hewn stones It is true, we have received some damages from our enemies; but Rezin and the Syrians being now our friends and confederates, we doubt not we shall quickly repair them with great glory and advantage.

Sycomores wild fig trees, a contemptible sort of trees, if compared with cedars, 1Ki 10:27 .

We will change them into cedars putting cedars into our buildings instead of sycomores. See Jer 22:13,15 .

Poole: Isa 9:11 - Therefore // Set up // The adversaries of Rezin // Against him // Join // His Therefore to chastise your pride, and defeat your hopes and resolutions. Set up Heb. exalt ; advance their power, and give them success against hi...

Therefore to chastise your pride, and defeat your hopes and resolutions.

Set up Heb. exalt ; advance their power, and give them success against him.

The adversaries of Rezin the Assyrians, who, presently after this prophecy, fought and prevailed against him, 2Ki 16:7 . He mentions Rezin, partly because he was confederate with Ephraim, and so his enemies were their enemies also, and partly because the Israelites trusted to his powerful assistance.

Against him either,

1. Against Rezin last mentioned; or rather,

2. Against Ephraim or Israel, who may easily be understood either from the foregoing or following verse; for against them this prophecy is directed, and of them he speaks both in the next clause of this verse, and in the next verse; and it seems reasonable that him in this clause, and his in the next clause, should be understood of the same persons.

Join Heb. mingle , i.e. unite them so that they shall agree together to fight against Israel, and shall invade him from several quarters.

His not Rezin’ s, but Ephraim’ s, as appears from the next verse, which is added to explain this clause.

Poole: Isa 9:12 - The Syrians // Before // The Philistines behind // With open mouth // His hand is stretched out still The Syrians for although Rezin king of Syria was destroyed, yet the body of the nation survived, and submitted themselves to the king of Assyria, and...

The Syrians for although Rezin king of Syria was destroyed, yet the body of the nation survived, and submitted themselves to the king of Assyria, and served under him in his wars, and upon his command invaded Israel afterwards.

Before Heb. on the east ; for Syria stood eastward from Israel.

The Philistines behind on the western side of the land of Israel.

With open mouth like wild and furious beasts, with great greediness and cruelty.

His hand is stretched out still his justice is not fully satisfied, but he will yet take further vengeance upon them.

Poole: Isa 9:13 - Turneth not // Neither do they seek the Lord of hosts Turneth not from their wicked courses unto God by true repentance. Neither do they seek the Lord of hosts they do not study and endeavour to procur...

Turneth not from their wicked courses unto God by true repentance.

Neither do they seek the Lord of hosts they do not study and endeavour to procure his favour by sincere and fervent supplication, and by removing the causes of his just displeasure.

Poole: Isa 9:14 - Head and tail // Branch // Rush // In one day Head and tail high and low, honourable and contemptible, as the next verse explains it. Branch the goodly branches of tall and strong trees, the mi...

Head and tail high and low, honourable and contemptible, as the next verse explains it.

Branch the goodly branches of tall and strong trees, the mighty and noble.

Rush the bulrush, the weakest and meanest persons.

In one day all together, one as well as another, without any distinction.

Poole: Isa 9:15 - He is // The prophet that teacheth lies // He is the tail He is i.e. signifies, as that word is commonly used in the Hebrew tongue, as Gen 41:26,27 , and every where. The prophet that teacheth lies whose d...

He is i.e. signifies, as that word is commonly used in the Hebrew tongue, as Gen 41:26,27 , and every where.

The prophet that teacheth lies whose destruction he mentions, not as if it were a punishment to them to be deprived of such persons, but partly to show the extent of the calamity, that it should reach all sorts of persons; and partly to beat down their vain presumptions of peace and prosperity, by showing that those false prophets, which had fed their vain hopes, should perish, and all their false prophecies of peace with them.

He is the tail these I mean by the tail, as being in’ truth the basest part of the whole body of the people.

Poole: Isa 9:16 - The leaders // Cause them to err // Are destroyed The leaders their governors, both civil and ecclesiastical, and especially the latter, their teachers, even the false prophets last mentioned. Or, t...

The leaders their governors, both civil and ecclesiastical, and especially the latter, their teachers, even the false prophets last mentioned. Or, they that bless or praise them , to wit, the false prophets, that flatter them in their wicked ways, with hopes and promises of peace, as their manner was, Jer 6 14 28:9 . Both ways the sense is the same.

Cause them to err either compelling them by power, or deceiving them by false doctrines and evil counsels and persuasions.

Are destroyed shall certainly perish; nor will it excuse them that they followed the counsel and conduct of their leaders.

Poole: Isa 9:17 - Shall have no joy in their young men // Neither shall have mercy on their fatherless and widows // Every one // Is an hypocrite // An evil-doer // Speaketh folly Shall have no joy in their young men shall not rejoice over them to do them good, as he doth to his people, Isa 62:5 Zep 3:17 ; will not have mercy o...

Shall have no joy in their young men shall not rejoice over them to do them good, as he doth to his people, Isa 62:5 Zep 3:17 ; will not have mercy or pity on them, as the next clause explains it. but will abhor and utterly destroy them; for more is here intended than is expressed, as Pro 17:21 .

Neither shall have mercy on their fatherless and widows who are the special objects of his care and pity, Deu 16:11,14 24:19,20 , and much less upon others.

Every one not precisely, for there were seven thousand elect persons among them, when they seemed to Elijah to be universally corrupt, 1Ki 19:18 ; but the body or generality of the people.

Is an hypocrite for though they professed to worship and serve the true God, yet indeed they had forsaken him. Or, a profane person , as this word is rendered, Jer 23:15 , as also Isa 32:6 .

An evil-doer elsewhere called a worker of iniquity, as Job 31:3 Psa 5:5 Mat 7:23 ; one that gives up himself to a constant course and custom of sinning.

Speaketh folly i.e. wickedness, which is commonly called folly. They are not ashamed to proclaim their own wickedness, and the corruption of their hearts breaketh forth into ungodly speeches.

Poole: Isa 9:18 - Wickedness burneth // iniquity shall be your ruin // The briers and thorns // the thickets of the forest // Like the lifting up of smoke Wickedness burneth i.e. shall burn you, as it follows, shall devour. Your iniquity shall be your ruin as God threatens, Eze 18:30 . The briers and...

Wickedness burneth i.e. shall burn you, as it follows, shall devour. Your

iniquity shall be your ruin as God threatens, Eze 18:30 .

The briers and thorns either,

1. The wicked, who are oft compared to briers and thorns , as 2Sa 23:6 Isa 27:4 ; or rather,

2. The low and mean persons; for these are opposed to

the thickets of the forest in the next clause. In the thickets of the forest ; in the wood, where the trees are tall, and stand thick, having their boughs entangled together, which makes them more ready both to catch and to spread the fire.

Like the lifting up of smoke sending up smoke like a vast furnace. Heb. with height or pride of smoke , i.e. with aspiring smoke, which in that case riseth high, and spreadeth far, and filleth all the neighbouring air.

Poole: Isa 9:19 - Darkened // No man shall spare his brother Darkened either with the smoke last mentioned, or with misery. Or, burnt up , as the LXX., Chaldee, and Arabic interpreters render it. No man shall...

Darkened either with the smoke last mentioned, or with misery. Or, burnt up , as the LXX., Chaldee, and Arabic interpreters render it.

No man shall spare his brother they shall destroy one another, as they did in their civil wars, which were frequent among them. The name brother is oft largely used among the Hebrews, even of the remoter kindred, yea, of the fellow members of one city, or tribe, or nation.

Poole: Isa 9:20 - Shall snatch // Shall eat every man the flesh of his own arm Shall snatch every one shall greedily and violently seize upon any provisions that come in his way; which implies, either great scarcity, or insatiab...

Shall snatch every one shall greedily and violently seize upon any provisions that come in his way; which implies, either great scarcity, or insatiable covetousness, as is manifest from the next clause.

Shall eat every man the flesh of his own arm either,

1. Properly; so it notes extreme famine; in which case men are apt to eat their own flesh. Compare Jer 19:9 . Or,

2. Metaphorically, which seems best to suit with the following verse, the flesh of his brethren by nation and religion, which are as it were our own flesh, and are so called, Isa 58:7 Zec 11:9 ; and, consequently, the flesh of their arm is in a manner the flesh of our own arm. And one tribe was to another as an arm, i.e. a support or strength, which is called an arm , 2Ch 32:8 Jer 17:5 , and elsewhere.

Poole: Isa 9:21 - Manasseh, Ephraim // They together shall be against Judah Manasseh, Ephraim though more near and dear to one another than any other tribe, being both sons of Joseph. They together shall be against Judah wh...

Manasseh, Ephraim though more near and dear to one another than any other tribe, being both sons of Joseph.

They together shall be against Judah which might be accomplished either before Shalmaneser took Samaria, or afterwards. For though the Israelites were miserably destroyed at that time, yet they were not utterly rooted out; of which See Poole "Isa 7:8" .

PBC: Isa 9:6 - -- This child, this son, Son of God, God manifest in the flesh, Immanuel, God with us, is man, the son of man, the Word made flesh, and dwelt among us. T...

This child, this son, Son of God, God manifest in the flesh, Immanuel, God with us, is man, the son of man, the Word made flesh, and dwelt among us. Thus being God made flesh, and invested with our nature, (sin excepted,) he is fitted and fully qualified to do us great good, and save his people from their sins. His dignity and name are above every name. He shall be called Wonderful, because he is both God and man, and was born of a virgin, mysteries that human reason or wisdom can not comprehend; but his redeemed and regenerated people shall know him, for he shall give them eternal life, and they shall worship him as the wonderful author and finisher of their faith. As Counselor, he is justly called Wonderful, for he is both God and man. As God, he can speak and it stands fast; can declare the end from the beginning; and works all things after the counsel of his own will. As man, he is our kinsman and Redeemer. His love is wonderful. It is eternal and unchangeable, and the objects of his love are his chosen people, who were predestinated unto the adoption of children, and ordained unto eternal life. As Counselor, he is the wisdom of God, and by and through him, God gives us counsel; Ps 16:7; Re 3:18. He is The mighty God, or The mighty One. All power in heaven or in earth is in him, and having wisdom to declare the end from the beginning, he has power to do all his will, and can save to the uttermost. Such is the work of the Mediator, that no less power than that of the mighty God could accomplish it. He must be God in all his divine, omnipotent power, and man, without the stain of sin, to accomplish the great work for which he came into the world.

When the man, the son that was born of the virgin, was baptized, a voice from heaven testified, saying, " This is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased;" Mt 3:17, Paul, when preaching this Jesus, calls him holy; Heb 7:26; 4:15; 2Co 5:21; and without sin. He is The everlasting Father, The Father of eternity, the author and giver of eternal life. He can speak, and the dead live. His fatherly care and tenderness towards his people is eternal, and so he is the Father of a blessed eternity to them. He is the Father of the great and blessed work of redemption, and, as Counselor, arranged it, and perfected it in the virgin-son, the Immanuel, God with us. It was the product of his wisdom as Counselor, and his love as the everlasting Father, and that love will be manifest in his blessed reign over his subjects, for he is the Prince of Peace. He creates, preserves, and commands peace. He is our peace, and his peace keeps the hearts of his people. As a king, he reigns in righteousness, and His reign is one of peace. He is the author and giver of all good. All the peace that is the present, or will be the future bliss or happiness of his chosen people comes from him, for the government is upon his shoulder, and his only.

Eld. Gregg Thompson

Haydock: Isa 9:1 - Loaded Loaded. Theglathphalassar took away whole tribes, (2 Paralipomenon v. 26.) the year after this. Yet these people were the first enlightened with th...

Loaded. Theglathphalassar took away whole tribes, (2 Paralipomenon v. 26.) the year after this. Yet these people were the first enlightened with the rays of the gospel, (Matthew iv. 13.) though so much despised, John vii. 52. (Calmet) ---

Here Christ preached first. But after his passion, few Jews believed in him. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 9:2 - Risen Risen. the kingdom of Juda hoped for redress, when they saw the people of Israel humbled, (Haydock) or rather after the defeat of Sennacherib. (Cal...

Risen. the kingdom of Juda hoped for redress, when they saw the people of Israel humbled, (Haydock) or rather after the defeat of Sennacherib. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 9:3 - And hast // Spoils And hast. Parkhurst says it should be, "(whom) thou hast not brought up (the Gentiles) with joy they," &c. (Symmachus) (Haydock) --- The numerous...

And hast. Parkhurst says it should be, "(whom) thou hast not brought up (the Gentiles) with joy they," &c. (Symmachus) (Haydock) ---

The numerous forces of the Assyrians could not save them from the angel. Under Ezechias the people increased. Was not his reign a figure of the Church persecuted and increasing: but on that account, in danger from a relaxation of discipline? (Luke v. 5.) ---

Spoils. They shall return thanks to God for the unexpected liberation.

Haydock: Isa 9:4 - Oppressor Oppressor. Who levied taxes for Assyria, 4 Kings xviii. 7. Sennacherib made war, because Ezechias refused to pay them any longer, and his troops fe...

Oppressor. Who levied taxes for Assyria, 4 Kings xviii. 7. Sennacherib made war, because Ezechias refused to pay them any longer, and his troops fell upon each other, (Calmet) as the Madianites had done, Judges vii. (Haydock)

Haydock: Isa 9:5 - Fire Fire. Being cut and useless. See Diss. on the defeat of Sennacherib. (Calmet)

Fire. Being cut and useless. See Diss. on the defeat of Sennacherib. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 9:6 - Child // Shoulder // Wonderful // Counsellor // God Child. The Messias, whom the son of Isaias prefigured. --- Shoulder. Where the badges of royalty were worn. (Calmet) --- Christ bore his cross....

Child. The Messias, whom the son of Isaias prefigured. ---

Shoulder. Where the badges of royalty were worn. (Calmet) ---

Christ bore his cross. (Tertullian, &c.) ---

Wonderful. In his birth, &c. ---

Counsellor. From whom all good advice proceeds. Grotius falsely translates, "the consulter of the strong God," meaning Ezechias. Though he deemed the Socinians unworthy of the Christian name, (Ep. ad Valleum.) he too often sides with them. Johets always means one who "gives counsel," chap. xl. 13. Ezechias was at this time ten years old, and he did not always take advice, nor was his reign peaceful, &c. ---

God. The three Greek versions maliciously render El "the strong," though it be uncertain that it ever has that meaning, as it certainly has not when joined with gibbon, "mighty." Why should two terms of the same import be used? The Septuagint copies vary much. Some read only, "he shall be called the angel of the great council, for I will bring peace upon the princes and his health." St. Jerome thinks they were afraid to style the child God. But this reason falls to the ground, as other copies have, (Calmet) after council, "Wonderful, Counsellor, God, the Mighty, the Potent, Greek: exousiaszes, the Prince of Peace, the Father of the world to come, for, &c., ( 7. ) His." Grabe (de Vitiis lxx. p. 29.) asserts that the former is the genuine version, and that the inserted titles are a secondary one; so that there must have been two version before the days of Aquila, as the text is thus quoted at large by Clement and St. Irזneus, the year of the Lord 180; Kennicott adds also by St. Ignatius, the year of the Lord 110. (Haydock) ---

The omnipotent God became a little child, and without violence subdued the world, which he still governs. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 9:7 - Peace Peace. Christ gives it, and propagates his Church, Hebrews xii. 2.

Peace. Christ gives it, and propagates his Church, Hebrews xii. 2.

Haydock: Isa 9:8 - Word Word. Septuagint, "death." This also agrees with the Hebrew term, and with the context.

Word. Septuagint, "death." This also agrees with the Hebrew term, and with the context.

Haydock: Isa 9:9 - Cedars Cedars. They speak in a proverbial way, that they will shortly repair the injuries done by the Assyrians depending on king Osee.

Cedars. They speak in a proverbial way, that they will shortly repair the injuries done by the Assyrians depending on king Osee.

Haydock: Isa 9:11 - Him Him. Israel. Salmanasar came to ruin the kingdom. (Calmet)

Him. Israel. Salmanasar came to ruin the kingdom. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 9:12 - Still Still. God punishes the impenitent throughout eternity, ver. 12., and chap. x. 4. (Worthington)

Still. God punishes the impenitent throughout eternity, ver. 12., and chap. x. 4. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 9:14 - Him Him. Hebrew, "the branch and the rush." (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "the great and the small."

Him. Hebrew, "the branch and the rush." (Calmet) ---

Septuagint, "the great and the small."

Haydock: Isa 9:16 - Headlong Headlong. If the blind lead the blind, both fall into the ditch, Matthew xv. 14. (Haydock)

Headlong. If the blind lead the blind, both fall into the ditch, Matthew xv. 14. (Haydock)

Haydock: Isa 9:17 - Folly Folly. Sin. They are all guilty. He will shew no compassion.

Folly. Sin. They are all guilty. He will shew no compassion.

Haydock: Isa 9:18 - High High. All shall witness the fall of Israel, (Calmet) like a forest on fire. (Haydock)

High. All shall witness the fall of Israel, (Calmet) like a forest on fire. (Haydock)

Haydock: Isa 9:19 - Brother Brother. Civil wars shall rage, 4 Kings xv. Josephus (Jewish Wars vii.) perhaps alluded to this passage, when he said, that an ancient prophecy ann...

Brother. Civil wars shall rage, 4 Kings xv. Josephus (Jewish Wars vii.) perhaps alluded to this passage, when he said, that an ancient prophecy announced ruin to the Jews, when they should turn their arms against each other. (Calmet)

Gill: Isa 9:1 - Nevertheless, the dimness shall not be such as was in her vexation // when at first he lightly afflicted the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali // and afterwards did more grievously afflict her // by the way of the sea // beyond Jordan // in Galilee of the nations Nevertheless, the dimness shall not be such as was in her vexation,.... The words may be rendered, "for there shall be no weariness to him that str...

Nevertheless, the dimness shall not be such as was in her vexation,.... The words may be rendered, "for there shall be no weariness to him that straitens" or "afflicts" them f; so Jarchi, who interprets it of the king of Assyria; but it is better to understand it of Titus Vespasian, who would not be weary of, but indefatigable in carrying on the siege of Jerusalem, and in distressing the Jews in all parts: or thus, "for there shall be no fleeing from him that is oppressed in it" g; either that is besieged in Jerusalem, or distressed in Judea; and so the words are a reason of the former distress, and a continuation and amplification of it; though many interpreters think they are to be understood by way of comfort, and as a mitigation of it, which is the sense of our version:

when at first he lightly afflicted the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali; either by Pul king of Assyria, in the reign of Menahem king of Israel, 2Ki 15:19 or rather by Tilgathpilneser king of Assyria, in the reign of Pekah king of Israel, since by him Galilee, and all the land of Naphtali, were carried captive, 2Ki 15:29 which at the time of this prophecy was past, and was but a light affliction in comparison of what followed:

and afterwards did more grievously afflict her: by Shalmaneser king of Assyria, in the reign of Hoshea king of Israel, who took Samaria, and carried Israel or the ten tribes into captivity, from whence they returned not; and yet it is suggested, that the tribulation and distress that should come upon the Jews by the Romans should be greater than the heaviest of these; there should be no fleeing, no escape, no, not of any, as at those times mentioned, but wrath should come upon them to the uttermost, and particularly in the places following:

by the way of the sea; which some understand of the Mediterranean sea, and of that part of the land of Israel which lay next it; but it seems rather to design the sea of Tiberias or Galilee, as Jarchi rightly interprets it:

beyond Jordan; a part of the land of Israel so called, known by the name of Peraea; See Gill on Mat 4:25,

in Galilee of the nations; which was inhabited not only by Jews, but by persons of other nations, and therefore so called; now these places suffered much in the wars between the Jews and the Romans, by skirmishes, sieges, robberies, plunders, &c. as appears from the history of Josephus. Some interpreters understand all this, as before observed, as an alleviation of those times of trouble, as if it would be less than in former times; but it is certain that it was to be, and was, greater than ever was known, Mat 24:21 it is true, indeed, it may be considered as an alleviation of it, and as affording some comfort in a view of it, that in those very parts where there should be so much distress and misery, the Messiah, previous to it, would appear, and honour it with his presence, who is afterwards spoken of, and so, in connection with the following words, these may be rendered thus; as by De Dieu, "but obscurity shall not be brought to it" (the land) "to which distress is brought; as at the first time he caused reproach towards the land of Zebulun, and towards the land of Naphtali, so in the last" (time) "he will give glory by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, on the border of the nations": and if it be asked what that glory should be, the answer is, "the people that walked in darkness", &c. and so the sense may be, that whereas the inhabitants of Zebulun and Naphtali, and all Galilee, were lightly esteemed of, being mean and illiterate, not famous for any arts or sciences, and having no prophet among them, should, in the days of the Messiah, be highly honoured, and made glorious by his presence, ministry, and miracles among them h. See Mat 14:13, where it is quoted, and applied to Christ's being in those parts.

Gill: Isa 9:2 - The people that walked in darkness // have seen a great light // They that dwell in the land of the shadow of death // upon them hath the light shined The people that walked in darkness,.... Meaning not the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem, in the times of Hezekiah, when Sennacherib besieged them, ...

The people that walked in darkness,.... Meaning not the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem, in the times of Hezekiah, when Sennacherib besieged them, as Jarchi and Kimchi interpret it; and much less the people of Israel in Egypt, as the Targum paraphrases it; but the inhabitants of Galilee in the times of Christ; see Mat 4:16, Joh 1:48 and is a true character of all the people of God before conversion, who are in a state of darkness, under the power of sin, shut up in unbelief; are in gross ignorance of themselves, and their condition; of sin, and the danger they are exposed to by it; of divine and spiritual things; of the grace of God; of the way of peace, life, and salvation by Christ; and of the work of the blessed Spirit; and of the truths of the Gospel; they are in the dark, and can see no objects in a spiritual sense; not to read the word, so as to understand it; or to work that which is good; and they "walk" on in darkness, not knowing where they are, and whither they are going; and yet of these it is said, they

have seen a great light; Christ himself, who conversed among the Galilaeans, preached unto them, and caused the light of his glorious Gospel to shine into many of their hearts; by which their darkness was removed, so that they not only saw Christ, this great light, with their bodily eyes, but with the eyes of their understanding; who may be called the "light", because he is the author and giver of all light, even of nature, grace, and glory; and a "great" one, because he is the sun, the greatest light, the sun of righteousness, the light of the world, both of Jews and Gentiles; he is the true light, in distinction from all typical ones, and in opposition to all false ones, and who in his person is God over all.

They that dwell in the land of the shadow of death; as Galilee might be called, because it was a poor, miserable, and uncomfortable place, from whence no good came; and this character fitly describes God's people in a state of nature and unregeneracy, who are dead in Adam, dead in law, and dead in trespasses and sins, dead as to the spiritual use of the powers and faculties of their souls; they have no spiritual life in them, nor any spiritual sense, feeling, or motion; and they "dwell", continue, and abide in this state, till grace brings them out of it; see Joh 12:46,

upon them hath the light shined: Christ in human nature, through the ministration of his Gospel, by his spirit, so as to enlighten them who walk in darkness, and to quicken them who dwelt in the land of the shadow of death, and to comfort them in their desolate estate; and this light not only shone upon them in the external ministration of the word, as it did "upon" the inhabitants in general, but it shone "into" the hearts of many of them in particular, so that in this light they saw light.

Gill: Isa 9:3 - Thou hast multiplied the nation // and not increased the joy // they joy before thee // according to the joy in harvest // and as men rejoice when they divide the spoil Thou hast multiplied the nation,.... With light, knowledge, honour, and glory, even Galilee of the nations before mentioned, the land of darkness, and...

Thou hast multiplied the nation,.... With light, knowledge, honour, and glory, even Galilee of the nations before mentioned, the land of darkness, and of the shadow of death, where the people dwelt; on whom Christ, the light, shone in the ministration of his Gospel to them; whereby the number of believers in Christ were multiplied; and indeed, as he conversed, preached, and wrought his miracles most here, he had here the greatest number of disciples and followers; here were the five hundred brethren by whom he was seen at once, after his resurrection, 1Co 15:6 for this is not to be understood of the Assyrian nation, whose army under Sennacherib was very large; nor of the Jewish nation enlarged by the destruction of that army, or of their increase after their return from the Babylonish captivity; nor of the church of God by the accession of Gentiles to it; but of the land or nation before spoken of:

and not increased the joy; or rather, as it should be rendered, "and hast increased joy unto it"; following the Keri; or marginal reading, which directs that it should be read, not as a negative, לא "not", but לו, "to it"; and which is followed by the Targum and Syriac version, and by Jarchi, Aben Ezra, and Kimchi, and others; and the sense of the words requires this reading, since it follows,

they joy before thee; or otherwise there would be a manifest contradiction in the text; though some, to avoid it, read the words interrogatively, "hast thou not increased the joy?" thou hast; and in this way both the Keri and the Cetib, the reading and the writing, may be taken in, "hast thou not increased joy unto it?" and so as Gussetius i renders it,

"thou hast multiplied the nation to whom thou hadst not given great joy:''

that is, temporal joy; though now much of that which is of a spiritual kind: Christ the light appearing, his Gospel being preached by him, and his apostles, and many believing in him, occasioned an increase of spiritual joy in those parts; and so it is, that wherever the Gospel comes, and Christ is preached, and souls are converted, there is great joy, Act 8:6 where there is any grace of the Spirit, as faith, hope, and love, there is joy; and particularly when a soul is enlightened and quickened, as in the preceding verse Isa 9:2, it rejoices, reflecting on the state of darkness and death it is brought out of, and on the marvellous light, life, and liberty it is brought into; and at a sight of Christ, his person, offices, relations, and grace, as the sun of righteousness, with healing in his wings, and beaming light, salvation, and happiness; which joy is spiritual, internal, passes knowledge, is imperfect, but capable of being increased:

they joy before thee; the words, both in this and in the preceding clauses, are addressed to God, and show, that as the work of conversion, and an increase of spiritual joy, are from him; so that joy that is given by hint is expressed "before" him, in his house and ordinances, and it is in his sight, before whom all things are manifest; and so it denotes the truth and sincerity of it, which is illustrated by the following metaphors:

according to the joy in harvest; such as is expressed by men in harvest time, both by the rich owners and proprietors, when they have a good harvest, and well got in, and by the poor, who have a prospect of a comfortable supply in a cheap manner; and this simile is used with great propriety and pertinence. Christ and his ministers are sowers of seed, of the word; and hearers of the word are compared to seed sown in different places; and when any number of these are converted, it is a harvest which occasions joy. The Targum is,

"as the joy of conquerors in war;''

which agrees with what follows:

and as men rejoice when they divide the spoil; taken in war: in redemption, Christ has taken the prey from the mighty, and delivered the lawful captive, and has divided the spoil with the strong; and in effectual calling binds the strong man armed, and spoils his goods, and delivers souls out of his hands, and this is matter of great joy, Isa 53:12 see Psa 119:162.

Gill: Isa 9:4 - For thou hast broken the yoke of his burden // And the staff of his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor // as in the day of Midian For thou hast broken the yoke of his burden,.... Of Galilee, of the nation multiplied, of the spiritual inhabitants of it, whose joy was increased; an...

For thou hast broken the yoke of his burden,.... Of Galilee, of the nation multiplied, of the spiritual inhabitants of it, whose joy was increased; and this is one reason of it, because they were delivered by the Lord from the burdensome yoke of the ceremonial law, which was broken off and abolished by Christ; and from the tyranny of Satan, the god of this world, out of whose hands they were ransomed and delivered; and from the dominion of sin, under the power of which they had been in bondage.

And the staff of his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor; different phrases, expressive of the same thing; the bondage and slavery of the law, sin, and Satan:

as in the day of Midian; when Gideon got an entire victory over the Midianites, with a few unarmed men, by the sound of trumpets, and breaking of pitchers, Jdg 7:16 and may denote the easy manner in which Christ obtained a conquest over all his and our enemies; and the means by which it is made known unto us, and we are freed from bondage to spiritual enemies; namely, by the ministration of the Gospel, compared to the blowing of trumpets; and which is a treasure put into earthen vessels, frail and weak men.

Gill: Isa 9:5 - For every battle of the warrior is with confused noise // and garments rolled in blood // but this shall be with burning and fuel of fire For every battle of the warrior is with confused noise,.... With the sound of the trumpet and as now with beating of drums, and the huzzas and shouti...

For every battle of the warrior is with confused noise,.... With the sound of the trumpet and as now with beating of drums, and the huzzas and shoutings of the soldiers, the stamping and neighing of horses, the rushing of chariots, and rumbling of wheels, and the clashing of swords, spears, and shields, and these sometimes striking one against another k:

and garments rolled in blood; of them that were slain in battle:

but this shall be with burning and fuel of fire; which refers either to the sudden destruction of the Midianites, or rather to the quick and easy conquest that Christ obtained over sin, Satan, the world, and death; which was as soon over as any combustible matter is burnt with fire. Some interpret this of the destruction of the devil, his angels, of antichrist, and all wicked men by fire, at the last day; and others think that this last clause is to be read in connection with the preceding: "and garments rolled in blood, which shall be for burning, the fuel of fire" l; that is, which garments rolled in blood shall be burnt with fire, and utterly consumed; and so there be no more war, but perpetual peace. It was usual after victory to burn the armour and spoils of the enemy m; or rather it may intend the burning love and flaming zeal and affection of Christ the Saviour, next described Isa 9:5.

Gill: Isa 9:6 - For unto us a child is born // unto us a son is given // And the government shall be upon his shoulder // and his name shall be called Wonderful // Counsellor // the mighty God // The everlasting Father // The Prince of peace For unto us a child is born,.... This is a reason of all that is said in the context; of the great light that shone upon and was seen by those that sa...

For unto us a child is born,.... This is a reason of all that is said in the context; of the great light that shone upon and was seen by those that sat in darkness, and in the land of the shadow of death; of the great joy among the people; of the breaking off of the yoke, rod, and staff of the oppressor; and of the burning of garments rolled in blood, so putting an end to war, and establishing peace; all which is owing to the child here said to be born, by whom we are to understand the Messiah; as the Targum interprets it; and not Hezekiah, as many of the Jewish writers n apply it; who could never be represented as a child just born, when he was, at least, ten or eleven years of age when this prophecy was given out, and twenty nine when Sennacherib came up with his army against him, as Aben Ezra observes; to which time he and others refer the context; nor can any reason be assigned why he should be called a "son", in such a peculiar and unusual manner; nor can it be said of him, that he was the great light which shined upon the inhabitants of Galilee; nor was his birth the occasion of so great joy as the birth of this child is said to be; nor can it, with any justness, be said of him, that of the increase of his government and peace there was no end; seeing his government only extended to the two tribes of Benjamin and Judah, and his reign was but twenty nine years, and for the most part attended with affliction, oppression, and war; besides, the many august titles here used cannot be ascribed unto him, nor to any mere creature whatever o; but everything agrees with Christ; and to him it is applied, even by some ancient and modern writers among the Jews p themselves. This clause respects his humanity, his incarnation and birth, which is spoken of in the present tense, though future, because of the certainty of it; that he should really become man, assume a true body, and a reasonable soul, partake of the same flesh and blood with the children, be made flesh, and dwell among us: and this was to us, לנו, "for us": for our good, for our profit and advantage; not for angels, but for men; for the saints under the Old Testament, and under the New; for all his people, his brethren, and children; that they might have a sanctified nature; that law and justice might be satisfied in that nature which had sinned, and Satan be ruined by it, which he himself had ruined; and that Christ might be a fit Mediator and Redeemer of his people, and be capable of executing his several offices to our advantage; his priestly office, by satisfying and interceding for us; his prophetic office, by teaching us; and his kingly office, by ruling over us; and that he might answer the relations he stands in of a father, husband, brother, and friend:

unto us a son is given: even he who is the Son of God, his own Son, his only begotten Son, his beloved Son, the dear Son of his love; all which aggravate his love in the gift of him, to be the covenant and head unto us, to be the Saviour of us, and a sacrifice for us; and in delivering him up into the hands of men, justice, and death; this is a free gift of God's love, a very large and comprehensive one, is unparalleled and unspeakable, unchangeable and irreversible.

And the government shall be upon his shoulder: not only of the world in general, but of the church in particular; this child is born to royal dignity; he is King of saints; his government consists in ruling in the hearts of his people, in enacting laws for them, and causing them to submit unto them, in subduing their enemies, in protecting them, their persons and properties, rights and liberties, and in supplying them with everything necessary; and this government is delegated to him from his Father, is devolved upon him by him, is not of this world, but is spiritual; it is righteously administered, is peaceable, and will continue for ever: and its being said to be "upon his shoulder" is an allusion to magistrates having a key or rod laid on their shoulders, as ensigns of their office, or carried by their officers for them, see Isa 9:4 and it shows that it was laid upon him, or enjoined him by his father, though not against his will; and it denotes a weight of honour and care bore by him, whose shoulders are fit for the same, and equal to it; and that he is the prop and support of his church and people, who are safe under his government and protection:

and his name shall be called Wonderful: not that he should be commonly called among men by this name, nor by any of the following; but that he should appear to be, or to have that in him, or to do what would sufficiently answer to this name, and to the rest: he is wonderful in his person, and in the glory and beauty of it; that he should be God and man in one person, and have two natures, so different from each other, united in him; that he, being truly God, should become man; and that he should be born of a virgin; wonderful in the disposition of his mind, and in the qualities he is possessed of; in his love to his people, and his sympathy with them; in his humility, meekness, and patience; in his wisdom, conduct, courage, and greatness of soul: wonderful in his life; in his private life many wonderful things are recorded of him; as the direction of the wise men to him by a star, and their worshipping of him; the preservation of him from Herod's cruelty; his disputation with the doctors in the temple at twelve years of age; and his living such a mean and obscure life for thirty years together: and his public life was nothing but a continued series of wonders; his baptism in Jordan; his temptations in the wilderness; his doctrines and miracles, and his transfiguration on the mount: wonderful in his death; that he should die at all, who is the Prince of life, the Lord of life and glory; that he should die with his own and his Father's consent, and that for sinners, even the chief of sinners; and by dying procure life for us; abolish death; destroy him that had the power of it, the devil; and obtain eternal salvation and redemption: the circumstances attending his death were marvellous: such as the darkness that was upon the earth; the rending of the vail, and cleaving of the rocks: wonderful in his resurrection from the dead, which was by his own power, before he saw corruption, at the time signified by types and prophecy, and with the same body exceedingly glorious; and which has an influence on our justification, regeneration, and resurrection: wonderful in his ascension to heaven, both in the manner of it, in a cloud, and in the effects of it, receiving gifts for men, and giving them to them; in his entrance into heaven; session at the right hand of God; and intercession for transgressors: wonderful he will be in his second coming to judgment; the signs of it are many and marvellous; the manner of it wonderfully glorious; the different effects of it on men, filling some with joy, and others with terror; and the things that will then be done; as the raising of the dead; placing all nations before him; separating the righteous from the wicked; pronouncing their distinct sentences, and executing them; in a word, Christ is wonderful, in all he is, has, or belong unto him; in his person, offices, and relations; in his people, who are for signs and wonders; in his doctrines and ordinances; and in the manifestations of himself and of his grace to his people, now and hereafter; nay, the word signifies not only "wonderful", but a "miracle" itself, as Christ is in his person q, see Jdg 13:17,

Counsellor; this some read in conjunction with the former title, thus, "Wonderful Counsellor"; so the Arabic version; and the Septuagint, which calls him, "the Angel of the great council"; and the Targum is,

"who does wonderfully in council;''

and which agrees with Isa 28:29. This title belongs to Christ, as concerned with his Father, and the blessed Spirit, in the works of nature, providence, and grace. God stands in no need of counsel, nor does it properly fall on him, though it is sometimes ascribed to him, speaking after the manner of men. Creatures are not of his council, but Christ is; he was privy to all his thoughts, purposes, and decrees; he was consulted in creation, and in the works of providence, Gen 1:26, Gen 11:7 and in the great affair of redemption and salvation; the council held concerning that is the great council the Septuagint version here makes mention of; and may be called the council of peace, Zec 6:13 in which the scheme of salvation was fixed; the author of it was found, and pitched upon; the way of it agreed on, to be through the assumption of human nature, and by obedience, sufferings, and death; and the time of Christ's incarnation and death settled, as well as all blessings of grace and glory, for the persons who were to share in this salvation. This title also agrees with Christ in respect to his people, to whom he is council, and for whom he is council; he is council to them; he gives them council; so he did in person, when on earth; he advised sinners to repentance; encouraged souls to believe in him; directed the weary to come to him for rest; the hungry and thirsty for food; such as were healed and pardoned, he counselled them to sin no more; and he advised his followers to do to all men as they would men should do to them; to behave in an humble and modest manner; to bear reproaches and persecutions cheerfully; to love one another; and to pray to his Father, in his name, for all things they wanted: and now he gives his people counsel by the ministry of the word, which is the counsel of God, the produce of his wisdom, a transcript of his eternal council and covenant, a declaration of the will of God, and of Christ; and in which Christ counsels the poor in spirit to come to him for riches, the naked for clothing, the ignorant for spiritual light and knowledge, such as are ready to perish for salvation; and he counsels those that believe to abide in him, and by his truths and ordinances; which counsel is wholesome and suitable, hearty, sincere, and faithful; is wise and prudent, and freely given; and which being taken, infallibly succeeds: he is council for them in heaven; he appears there in the presence of God for them; represents their persons, and presents their petitions; answers to all charges exhibited against them; and, as their advocate, pleads their cause; and calls for blessings agreed to be bestowed upon them, which they want; for all which he is abundantly qualified, being the only wise God, the Ancient of days, the Father of his people; and, as Mediator, the Wisdom of God, in whom all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge are, and on whom the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, and of counsel and might, rests:

the mighty God; or "God the mighty One" r; as some read the words with a comma; but if read together, the sense is the same; Christ is God, truly and properly so; as appears from his name Jehovah, which is peculiar to the most High; from his nature and perfections, being the same with his Father's: from the works performed by him, as those of creation, providence, miracles, redemption, resurrection from the dead, &c.; and from the worship given him, which only belongs to God; also he is called our God, your God, their God, my God, by which epithets those that are not truly God are never called; he is said to be God manifest in the flesh; God over all, blessed for ever; the great God, the living God, the true God, and eternal life; and he is "the mighty One" as appears by the works he did, previous to his incarnation; as the creation of all things out of nothing; the upholding of all things by the word or his power; the management of all the affairs of providence, there being nothing done but what he was concerned in; as the confusion of languages; the burning of Sodom and Gomorrah; bringing the children of Israel out of Egypt; leading and going before them through the Red Sea and wilderness; and bearing and carrying them all the days of old: and also by the works he did when here on earth; as his miracles, called his mighty works; such as healing all manner of diseases by a word speaking, or by touching the person, or by the person touching him, even his garment, or without seeing the person at all, and always without the use of medicines; dispossessing devils out of the bodies of men; power over the elements, as to change water into wine, rebuke the wind and seas, &c.; raising the dead, and even his own body when dead; and, above all, the great work of redemption, by which he appears to be the mighty One indeed; his Father's call of him to it shows it; his undertaking it confirms it; and his actual performance of it puts it out of all doubt; as well as what was then done by him; such as bearing all the sins of his people; engaging with all their enemies; conquering them, and delivering them out of their hands: likewise by what he does now, partly in the conversion of his people; quickening men dead in trespasses and sins; causing dry bones to live; giving spiritual sight to such as were born blind; plucking out of the hands of Satan, and turning from his power to God; which shows him to be stronger than the strong man armed; beginning, carrying on, and finishing the work of faith with power on them; as well as at first making them willing to submit to his righteousness and to be saved by him; and partly in his care of them afterwards; he having the government of them on his shoulders; supplying all their wants; bearing all their burdens; and supporting them under all their afflictions, temptations, and desertions; protecting them from all their enemies; strengthening them to do his will and work; and keeping them from falling totally and finally, and preserving them safe to his everlasting kingdom and glory: moreover, by what he will do hereafter; binding Satan, and confining him for the space of a thousand years; clearing the world of all his and his people's enemies; raising the dead; and judging the world; and destroying wicked men and devils with an everlasting destruction.

The everlasting Father; which does not design any relation of Christ in the Godhead; and there is but one Father in the Godhead, and that is the first Person; indeed Christ and the Father are one, and the Father is in him, and he is in the Father, and he that has seen the one has seen the other, and yet they are distinct, Christ is not the Father; the Son and Spirit may be considered with the first Person as Father, in creation and regeneration, they being jointly concerned therein, but not in the Trinity: it is easy to make it appear Christ is not the Father, but is distinct from him, since he is said to be with the Father from eternity, to be the Son of the Father in truth and love, his own Son, his only begotten and beloved Son; Christ frequently calls the first Person his Father, prayed to him as such, and is our advocate with him, as well as the way unto him; he is said to be sent by the Father, to come from him, and to go to him; and many things are said of Christ that cannot be said of the Father, as his being made flesh, suffering and dying in the room of his people; and the Father is said to do many things unto him, as to anoint him, to seal him, to show him all he did, to commit all judgment to him, and give him to have life in himself as he had: but Christ is a Father with respect to chosen men, who were given him as his children and offspring in covenant; who are adopted into that family that is named of him, and who are regenerated by his Spirit and grace: and to these he is an "everlasting Father"; he was so from everlasting; for regeneration and faith do not make men children, but make them appear to be so; God's elect are children previous to the Spirit's work upon them, and even to the incarnation and death of Christ; adoption is an act of the will of God in covenant from eternity: and Christ is a Father to these unto everlasting; he will never die, and they shall never be left fatherless; he and they will ever continue in this relation; he as such supplies them with everlasting provisions, he clothes them with everlasting raiment, he gives them an everlasting portion, promotes them to everlasting honour, saves them with an everlasting salvation, bearing an everlasting love to them. Some render the words, "the Father of eternity" s; the author of eternal life, who has procured it for his people, and gives it to them; or to whom eternity belongs, who inhabits it, and is possessed of it, is the everlasting I AM, was before all persons and things, was set up in an office capacity from everlasting, and had a glory with the Father before the world was, in whom eternal election, and with whom the everlasting covenant, were made. The Septuagint version is, "the Father of the world to come" t; of the Gospel dispensation; so called, Heb 2:5 the legal dispensation, when in being, was the then present world, at the end of which Christ came; this is now at an end, and a new state of things has taken place, which with respect to the Old Testament saints was the world to come, and of this Christ is the Father or author; as the law came by Moses, and he was the father of the legal dispensation, grace and truth are come by Christ, the Father and author of the Gospel dispensation; the doctrines of it are from him, and the ordinances of it by him; and he is the father of that state or world to come after the resurrection, the New Jerusalem church state, and also of the ultimate glory.

The Prince of peace; Christ is a Prince, often so called, Eze 34:24 he is so by birth, being the King's Son, the Son of God, and by office, power, and authority; he is so a Prince as that he is a King; he is exalted to be a Prince and a Saviour; and he is a Prince superior to kings, being the Prince of the kings of the earth, Act 5:31 and he is called the "Prince of peace", because he is the author of peace; just as he is said to be the "Prince of life", Act 3:15 for the same reason: he is the author of peace between Jew and Gentile, by abrogating the ceremonial law, the enmity between them, and by sending the Gospel to both, and making it the power of God to salvation to some of each of them, and by bringing them into the same Gospel church state, and making them partakers of the same privileges and blessings, internal and external, Eph 2:14 and he is the author of peace between God and sinners; he has made it by the blood of the cross, having the chastisement of their peace laid upon him, in consequence of a covenant of peace he made with his Father, who was in him reconciling the world to himself, and he is so called likewise, because he is the giver of peace; of all outward peace and prosperity to his churches, as rest from their enemies, concord among themselves, and additions to them of such as shall be saved; of internal peace through the discoveries of his love, and the application of his righteousness, blood, and sacrifice in a way of believing in him, and in a course of obedience to him; and likewise of eternal peace and rest in the world to come. Moreover, all that concern him as a King or Prince show him to be the Prince of peace: his kingdom lies, among other things, in peace and joy in the Holy Ghost; the sceptre of his kingdom is the golden sceptre of grace and mercy; his royal proclamation is the Gospel of peace; the fruit of his Spirit is peace; and his subjects are peaceable ones, both in church and state. With this compare Heb 7:2. It is observable that at his birth there was a general peace, not only in the Roman empire, Luk 2:1 but in all the world; and it is remarkable, that whereas at this time the Chinese empire enjoyed a profound peace, the emperor of it changed his name, and would not be called by his name Ngayus, but Pingus, which signifies "peaceable" u.

Gill: Isa 9:7 - Of the increase of his government // And peace there shall be no end // upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom // to order it // and to establish it with justice and judgment // from henceforth, even for ever // from henceforth, even for ever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this Of the increase of his government,.... That is, of the Prince of peace, on whose shoulders it is; which, from small beginnings, will rise to a very g...

Of the increase of his government,.... That is, of the Prince of peace, on whose shoulders it is; which, from small beginnings, will rise to a very great pitch and height of glory; this is signified by the stone cut out of the mountain without hands; that smote the image, became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth, Dan 2:34 and by the parable of the mustard seed, the least of all seeds, and yet, when grown up, becomes a great tree, in which the birds of the air build their nests, Mat 13:31. Christ's kingdom and interest, his dominion and government, may be said to be increased, when his Gospel is spread far and near, which is called the Gospel of the kingdom, and the doctrines of it, the mysteries of the kingdom; by means of which men become subjects of it, and so his kingdom is enlarged. At first it was only preached in Judea; and then it was carried into the Gentile world, where it met with great success, and was spread to the overthrow of Paganism in the Roman empire; a stop was put to its progress by the appearance and power of antichrist, the man of sin; but at the Reformation it broke out again, and spread itself over many nations; and though of late years there has been a decline, in the latter day the knowledge of it will cover the earth, as the waters do the sea, and multitudes shall be converted by it; which is meant by the increase of Christ's government. In the days of his flesh on earth, few believed in him; after his ascension to heaven, there was a large increase of his followers in Jerusalem, and in the Gentile world; the Gospel being preached there, more were the children of the desolate than of the married wife; large numbers were converted, and churches raised and formed everywhere; and in the latter day the church shall fill the earth, and the kingdoms of this world will become the church of Christ; all nations will flow unto it; the people of the Jews, in a body, will be converted, and the fulness of the Gentiles will be brought in; the interest of Christ, which made so contemptible a figure at first, consisting chiefly of the poor of this world, harassed with persecution, and disturbed by heretics, will now make a very great one; the kings of the earth coming into it, the wealth and riches of the world falling into the hands of the saints, the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven being given to them; Christianity will be the universal religion of men, and which will be attended with the greatest spirituality, holiness of life, purity of doctrine, worship, and discipline, and freedom from persecution, as follows. In the word לםרבה, rendered, "of the increase", the letter ם, in the middle of it, is shut, which in other places is open. The Jews seek for mysteries in this. Aben Ezra says, it respects the miracle of the sun, whose shadow returned back in Hezekiah's time; this is said, to serve an hypothesis; Kimchi observes, on the contrary, that in, Ezra (it is in Neh 2:13) the same letter at the end of a word is open, which used to be shut, where mention is made of the walls of Jerusalem being broken down; and thinks is has this mystery in it, that at the time of the salvation, the walls of Jerusalem, that were broken down during the captivity, should be stopped up, and then the government should be opened, which was shut, until the King Messiah came. If there is any mystery in this, it may denote that the government of Christ, which would be for a time straitened, and kept in narrow bounds and limits, should hereafter be extended throughout the world, to the four corners of it, to be firm and stable, perfect and complete; which the figure of this letter, being, shut, and foursquare, may be an emblem of. See Rev 21:16.

And peace there shall be no end; this respects both the increase and perpetuity of the peace of Christ's kingdom. The peace of believers, under the Gospel dispensation, is greater than that of the saints under the legal dispensation, whose sacrifices could not remove a consciousness of sin and its guilt; and who, through various laws threatening with death, were all their lifetime subject to bondage; but great is the peace of New Testament saints, through the blood, righteousness, and sacrifice of Christ, and which may be increased more and more; and in the latter day there will be more peace among themselves; Ephraim shall not envy Judah, nor Judah vex Ephraim; the sticks of Joseph and Judah shall be one nor will there ever be any more discord between Jew and Gentile, the lion and the lamb shall lie down together; there will be no more war among the nations, after the battle of Armageddon; and no more persecution, after the slaughter of the witnesses; and this abundance of peace, spiritual and temporal, will be as long as the moon endures, Psa 72:7 and all this will issue in eternal peace in the world to come:

upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom; that is, on it the Prince of peace shall sit, who is David's son, according to the flesh, and so his heir; see Luk 1:32 and which must be understood spiritually of the church and people of Christ, who are his throne and kingdom; in whose hearts he reigns by his grace and Spirit:

to order it; dispose, rectify, put into form and order, and adorn and beautify, by enacting laws for them, writing them on their hearts, and putting his Spirit within them, to enable them to keep them; and by setting persons over them, under him, as deputies and sub-governors, guides and rulers, to explain his laws, and enforce them; to teach them to observe all things commanded by him; to whom he gives gifts for usefulness and service; and whose ministry he blesses, for the conversion and gathering in of others, and so repairs and glorifies the house of his kingdom; and also by granting his presence in his word and ordinances:

and to establish it with justice and judgment; by convincing men by his Spirit of righteousness and judgment; by revealing in his Gospel his own righteousness to them; by forming in their hearts the new man, which is created in righteousness and true holiness; by teaching them to live soberly, righteously, and godly; and by protecting them from all their enemies: and so he establishes particular believers in the faith of himself, and with the doctrine of faith, that they persevere to the end; and his whole church upon himself, the Rock of ages, that the gates of hell shall not prevail against it; and in the latter day he will establish it upon the top of the mountains, Isa 2:2,

from henceforth, even for ever; Christ's throne is for ever and ever, his kingdom is an everlasting one; he will have no successor in it, nor any rival that shall ever dispossess him of it; all other kingdoms will cease, but his will remain for ever: though this clause, according to the accents, is to be connected with what follows w, thus,

from henceforth, even for ever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this; all that is said in this verse, and in the context, respecting the incarnation of Christ and his kingdom; the veracity, faithfulness, and power of God, are engaged to perform whatever he has purposed and promised; and his zeal, which is no other than his fervent flaming love, will move him to it, and is effectual to accomplish it; his fervent love for his own glory, which is his ultimate end in all his works of nature, providence, and grace, will engage him to fulfil whatever is foretold concerning the birth of Christ, and redemption by him, and his offices and kingdom; since this is greatly concerned in all these things, his zeal or fervent love to his Son, shown in giving all things into his hands, in committing all judgment to him, that men may honour him as they do the Father, will move him to increase his government and peace, and make him his firstborn higher than the kings of the earth; and his zeal or fervent love to his people will put him upon all this, since it is for their good, as well as for his own glory, and the honour of his Son; what the queen of Sheba said of Solomon may be said of Christ and his people, 1Ki 10:9.

Gill: Isa 9:8 - The Lord sent a word unto Jacob // and it hath lighted upon Israel The Lord sent a word unto Jacob,.... The prophet, having comforted Judah with the promise of the Messiah, returns to denounce the judgments of God upo...

The Lord sent a word unto Jacob,.... The prophet, having comforted Judah with the promise of the Messiah, returns to denounce the judgments of God upon the ten tribes, under the names of Jacob and Israel, which signify the same; for the "word" here is not the word of promise, the comfortable word concerning the Messiah before mentioned; but a word of threatening, ruin, and destruction, to the kingdom of Israel, after enlarged upon, which the Lord sent unto them by his prophets before hand, to warn them of it, and bring them to repentance; by which they would know, when it came to pass, that their destruction was of the Lord, and not a matter of chance: the Septuagint version is, "the Lord sent death upon Jacob"; and so the Arabic version, following it; the same word, differently pointed, being used for the pestilence, but is not the sense here; the Targum, Syriac, and Vulgate Latin versions, render it, "a word", as we do:

and it hath lighted upon Israel, or "hath fallen" x; as an arrow shot out of a bow, as some think; or as seed cast upon the earth; or rather like a thunderbolt: it denotes the sure and full accomplishment of the word of God upon the persons to whom it was sent; for as his word of promise, so of threatening, does not return to him void and empty, Isa 55:10. The Targum is,

"the Lord sent a word into the house of Jacob, and it was heard in Israel.''

Gill: Isa 9:9 - And all the people shall know // even Ephraim, and the inhabitants of Samaria // that say in the pride and stoutness of heart And all the people shall know,.... The word of the Lord, and that it is his; and by sad experience shall feel the weight of it; or, "the people shall ...

And all the people shall know,.... The word of the Lord, and that it is his; and by sad experience shall feel the weight of it; or, "the people shall know the whole of it" y; shall find that the whole of it will be accomplished, every punctilio in it; whatever is said is done, everything predicted by it, the substance of it, and every circumstance relating to it: or they shall be punished, they shall bear, know, and feel the punishment of their sins; in which sense the word "know", in the Arabic language, is frequently used, of which Schultens z has given many instances:

even Ephraim, and the inhabitants of Samaria: the ten tribes are meant by Ephraim; and the inhabitants of Samaria are particularly mentioned, because Samaria was the metropolis of Ephraim, Isa 7:9 and because it was to suffer, and did suffer much in the threatened calamity, being besieged three years, then taken, and its inhabitants carried captive; and so experimentally knew the word of the Lord, and the truth of it, 2Ki 17:5,

that say in the pride and stoutness of heart; being proud and haughty, stout hearted, and far from righteousness, and the fear of God; hardening themselves against him, despising his word, and defying, as it were, his power and providence; saying, as follows:

Gill: Isa 9:10 - The bricks are fallen down // but we will build with hewn stone // the sycamores are cut down // but we will change them into cedars The bricks are fallen down,.... Houses made of bricks, which were without the cities besieged and destroyed by the Assyrians; of which the haughty Isr...

The bricks are fallen down,.... Houses made of bricks, which were without the cities besieged and destroyed by the Assyrians; of which the haughty Israelites made no account, looking upon such a desolation as little, or no loss at all:

but we will build with hewn stone, so that the houses will be better and stronger, more beautiful, and more durable:

the sycamores are cut down; which grew in the fields, and outer parts of the cities, and were but a mean sort of wood, and which the Assyrians cut down to serve several purposes in their siege; of this sort of trees; see Gill on Luk 19:4,

but we will change them into cedars; that is, will plant cedars in place of them; trees tall and large, very delightful to look at, of great worth and usefulness, and very durable; though this may regard not so much the planting of them as the use of them in building, and the sense be agreeable to the former clause; that as, instead of brick, they would build houses with hewn stone; so, instead of sycamore wood, which was not so substantial and durable, and fit for building, they would make use of cedar, which was both beautiful and lasting; so the Septuagint,

"the bricks are fallen, let us hew stones, and cut down sycamores and cedars, and build for ourselves a tower;''

and so the Arabic version; so that, upon the whole, they flattered themselves they should be gainers, and not losers, by the Assyrian invasion; thus deriding it, and despising the prophecy concerning it. Jarchi interprets the bricks and sycamores of the kings that went before, as Jehoahaz, the son of Jehu, in whose days they were lessened, and were like a building of brick, broken and falling; but their present king, Pekah, the son of Remaliah, was strong, like a building of hewn stone, and so cedars were better for building than sycamores; and to this sense agrees the Targum,

"the heads (or princes) are carried captive, but we will appoint better in their room; goods are spoiled, but what are more beautiful than them we will purchase.''

Gill: Isa 9:11 - Therefore the Lord shall set up the adversaries of Rezin against him // and join his enemies together Therefore the Lord shall set up the adversaries of Rezin against him,.... Set them up on high, as the word a signifies; exalt them above him, and make...

Therefore the Lord shall set up the adversaries of Rezin against him,.... Set them up on high, as the word a signifies; exalt them above him, and make them superior to him, and conquerors of him, meaning the Assyrians; who, being sent for by Ahab, went up against Damascus, took it, and carried the people captive, and slew Rezin the king of Syria, the head of which was Damascus, 2Ki 16:7 this is mentioned, because the Israelites put great trust and confidence in this prince, with whom they were in alliance; and this is said to abate their pride, arrogance, and haughtiness, before expressed:

and join his enemies together; or mix them; the Assyrian army, consisting of a mixture of various nations; or "stir" them "up", as the Targum; instigate them against him. Some understand the whole of Israel, against whom the adversaries of Rezin, namely, the Assyrians, would come, as they did, and invade their land, and carry them captive; with whom were various other people, as follows.

Gill: Isa 9:12 - The Syrians before, and the Philistines behind // and they shall devour Israel with open mouth // for all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still The Syrians before, and the Philistines behind,.... Rezin, king of Syria, the confederate of the Israelites, being slain, his people joined the Assyri...

The Syrians before, and the Philistines behind,.... Rezin, king of Syria, the confederate of the Israelites, being slain, his people joined the Assyrians against Israel; and they, with others mentioned, beset them on all sides, before and behind, east and west; and so the Targum, Septuagint, and other versions, render it, the Syrians on the east, or from the rising of the sun; and the Philistines on the west, or from the setting of the sun; for, as Kimchi observes, Syria lay east of the land of Israel, and Palestine on the West b:

and they shall devour Israel with open mouth: greedily and presently; make, as it were, but one morsel of him:

for all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still; that is, the anger of God, that was not turned away; he had not yet stirred up all his wrath, he had not done with them, he had still other judgments to bring upon them; and his hand continued to be stretched out to inflict them, seeing they were not brought to repentance by what was already done unto them; so the Targum,

"for all this they do not return from their sins, that he may turn away his anger from them, but still retain their sins; and yet his stroke will be to take vengeance on them.''

Gill: Isa 9:13 - For the people turneth not to him that smiteth them // neither do they seek the Lord of hosts For the people turneth not to him that smiteth them,.... Who was the Lord of hosts, as it is explained in the next clause; it was he that had smote th...

For the people turneth not to him that smiteth them,.... Who was the Lord of hosts, as it is explained in the next clause; it was he that had smote the people with the rod of correction and chastisement, by various afflictions and distresses which he had brought upon them; in order to bring them to a sense of their sin and duty, to reclaim and recover them from their backslidings; but they had not such an effect upon them; they returned not to him by repentance and reformation, from whom they had turned themselves by their evil ways; nor to his worship, as the Targum interprets it, to his word and ordinances; for afflictions; unless sanctified, are of no use to restore backsliders. This is to be understood of the people of Israel, the ten tribes, whom the prophet calls "the people", not my people, nor the people of the Lord, because unworthy of that character. The Septuagint render the words, "the people returned not until they were smitten", and so the Syriac version intimating, as if they did return when smitten; but the following words, and the whole context, show the contrary:

neither do they seek the Lord of hosts; by prayer and supplication, for pardoning grace and mercy through Christ the Mediator; nor in his word and ordinances, for his presence and communion with him, or instruction or doctrine from him, as the Targum; to be taught true doctrine, and their duty to God and man; this is one part of the character of an unregenerate man, Rom 3:11.

Gill: Isa 9:14 - Therefore the Lord will cut off from Israel head and tail // branch and rush, in one day Therefore the Lord will cut off from Israel head and tail,.... The former of these is afterwards interpreted of "the ancient and honourable", men in h...

Therefore the Lord will cut off from Israel head and tail,.... The former of these is afterwards interpreted of "the ancient and honourable", men in high places, civil magistrates, judges, governors, and elders of the people, the king as supreme, and all subordinate officers; and so the Targum,

"the Lord will destroy from Israel the prince and the ruler;''

and the latter is interpreted of the false prophet. The people of Israel are compared to a beast with a tail, being so sadly degenerated and corrupted; as the Romish antichrist, in both his capacities, civil and ecclesiastical, is compared to a beast; the one being the head, and the other the tail, Rev 13:1 and Rome Pagan to a dragon with a tail, Rev 12:3 and the Saracens and Turks to locusts with tails like the tails of scorpions, Rev 9:10,

branch and rush, in one day. The Septuagint render it, "great and small"; and so the Arabic version; the first word intending the great men of the nation, in flourishing circumstances, like branches of trees; the latter the common, people, like reeds and rushes, weak and feeble; so Kimchi explains them,

"the strong and the weak;''

though the Targum interprets both of the governor and lord; and so Jarchi says they signify kings and governors; but Aben Ezra renders the word root and branch; and so they may denote the utter destruction of the people of Israel, fathers and children, high and low, rich and poor. See Mal 4:1.

Gill: Isa 9:15 - The ancient and honourable, he is the head // and the prophet that teacheth lies, he is the tail The ancient and honourable, he is the head,.... The elder in office, not in age; and who, on account of his office, dignity, and riches, is honoured ...

The ancient and honourable, he is the head,.... The elder in office, not in age; and who, on account of his office, dignity, and riches, is honoured by men, is of a venerable countenance himself, and is reverenced when seen and looked upon by others, and received by persons with pleasure and cheerfulness; as the phrase used signifies. The Septuagint and Arabic versions render it, "who admire", or "have" men's "persons in admiration"; which is the character Jude gives of false teachers, Jud 1:16 who are next described:

and the prophet that teacheth lies, he is the tail; so called from their low extract, being often of a mean original and descent; or rather from the meanness of their spirits, their flattery of princes and great men, to whom they tell lies, and prophesy smooth and false things, for the sake of a little sordid gain, in allusion to dogs that wag their tails at their masters; or from the poison of their doctrines, some creatures having poison in their tails, and do much mischief with them. See Rev 9:19.

Gill: Isa 9:16 - For the leaders of this people cause them to err // and they that are led of them are destroyed For the leaders of this people cause them to err,.... Or, "who bless this people", as the Septuagint and Arabic versions; and so the Targum, "who ...

For the leaders of this people cause them to err,.... Or, "who bless this people", as the Septuagint and Arabic versions; and so the Targum,

"who praise this people;''

that call them blessed, pronounce them happy, see Mal 3:15 and promise them happiness, both in this world and that to come, though guilty of notorious sins, and live a vicious course of life; and so harden them in their iniquities, and cause them to wander more and more from the way of truth and righteousness; and lead them unto, and leave them in, fatal mistakes about their state and condition. These seem to design the ecclesiastical leaders of the people, the blind leaders of the blind, see Isa 3:12,

and they that are led of them are destroyed; or, "they" that "are blessed of them are swallowed up" c; and so irrecoverably lost; the deceivers and the deceived perish together; as it is sinful in teachers and leaders of the people to teach them false things, and lead them out of the way, it is criminal in the people to be led and taught by them, who ought to take care what they hear and receive; and therefore both are righteously punished; for the words are a reason why the Lord would cut off both the one and the other.

Gill: Isa 9:17 - Therefore the Lord shall have no joy in their young men // neither shall have mercy on their fatherless and widows // for everyone is a hypocrite and an evildoer // and every mouth speaketh folly // for all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still Therefore the Lord shall have no joy in their young men,.... Take no delight and pleasure in them; but, on the contrary, detest and abhor them, and so...

Therefore the Lord shall have no joy in their young men,.... Take no delight and pleasure in them; but, on the contrary, detest and abhor them, and so destroy them, being depraved and corrupted by the bad instructions and examples of their parents:

neither shall have mercy on their fatherless and widows; who are objects of pity and compassion; yet these being wicked, as well as the fathers of the one, and the husbands of the other, shall be no more spared than they have been; so that this expresses both the general corruption and destruction of this people:

for everyone is a hypocrite and an evildoer; a hypocrite, as Aben Ezra on the place observes, is one that is outwardly good, and inwardly wicked; which was the general character of the people of Israel in Isaiah's time, as it was of the Jews in the times of Christ, see Mat 23:25 they pretended to do good, but were doers of evil, workers of iniquity, continually committing sin; and yet would be thought to be very upright and sincere, both in their religion towards God, and in their dealings with men; but deceitful in both:

and every mouth speaketh folly; or falsehood; a lie, as the Targum, as all lies are foolish; as also all vain words, all impious ones; or the savour of irreligion or superstition, and indeed every idle word, and all unsavoury and corrupt speech, and there is particularly foolish talking, which is not convenient, Eph 5:4,

for all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still; which is repeated from Isa 9:12. See Gill on Isa 9:12.

Gill: Isa 9:18 - For wickedness burneth as the fire // it shall devour the briers and thorns // and shall kindle in the thickets of the forest // and they shall mount up like the lifting up of smoke For wickedness burneth as the fire,.... That is, the punishment of their sins, as the Targum interprets it; the wrath of God for sin, which is poured ...

For wickedness burneth as the fire,.... That is, the punishment of their sins, as the Targum interprets it; the wrath of God for sin, which is poured out like fire, and consumes as that does; unless wicked men are meant, who are consumed with the fire of divine vengeance; the sense is the same:

it shall devour the briers and thorns; sinners and ungodly, so the Targum paraphrases it; and Aben Ezra observes, they are the wicked; who are compared to briers and thorns, for their unfruitfulness in themselves, harmfulness to others, and for their weakness to stand against the fury of incensed Deity, see 2Sa 23:6,

and shall kindle in the thickets of the forest. Kimchi thinks there is a gradation in these words, that as fire first begins to burn the thorns, and smaller wood, and then the greater; so wickedness consumes first the little ones, who are the thorns, and after that it kindles in the thickets of the forest, who are the great ones; so the commonwealth of Israel is compared to a forest; and the thorns, briers, and thickets, may denote the common people and their governors, who all being guilty of wickedness, should not escape the vengeance of God:

and they shall mount up like the lifting up of smoke: or lift up themselves, or be lifted up; so Aben Ezra and Kimchi interpret the word; but Jarchi thinks it has the signification of בוך, "to be perplexed": and gives the sense of it thus; they are perplexed, and shut up with the strength of smoke that burns: others take it to be a word of the same meaning with אבק; and render it, "they shall pulverize", or "go into dust in the lifting up of smoke" d; and denotes the dissolution of the commonwealth; but perhaps it may be better rendered, "though they shall walk proudly" (or behave haughtily), their "pride" shall be as "smoke", which soon vanishes away; since the word, which is only here used, in the Syriac language signifies to walk proudly, as a cock with two crests e.

Gill: Isa 9:19 - Through the wrath of the Lord of hosts is the land darkened // and the people shall be as the fuel of the fire // no man shall spare his brother Through the wrath of the Lord of hosts is the land darkened,.... Brought into great distress and affliction; sore judgments and calamities being upon ...

Through the wrath of the Lord of hosts is the land darkened,.... Brought into great distress and affliction; sore judgments and calamities being upon it; for not darkness in a natural, but in a figurative sense, is intended, see Isa 8:22 the allusion is to the ascending of the smoke before mentioned, through fire being kindled in the thickets of the forest, which filled the air with darkness; as smoke arising in great quantity does. This sense of the word, which is only to be met with in this place, is given by Aben Ezra, Kimchi, and Ben Melech, from the use of it in the Arabic language, in which it signifies f darkness; but the Septuagint and Arabic versions render it, "the whole land is burned"; and which is confirmed by the Targum, which so interprets it; and this sense well agrees with the context:

and the people shall be as the fuel of the fire; this explains who are meant by the briers and thorns, and thickets of the forest, the inhabitants of the land of Israel; who, as they are the fuel of fire, were the objects of divine wrath and fury:

no man shall spare his brother; which may be ascribed either to the darkness and confusion in which they should be, and so not be able to discern a friend from a foe, as persons surrounded with smoke; or to their malignant spirit, cruelty and inhumanity, not only doing ill to their enemies, but to their own friends and relations, to their own flesh and blood.

Gill: Isa 9:20 - And he shall snatch on the right hand, and be hungry // and he shall eat on the left hand, and they shall not be satisfied // they shall eat every man the flesh of his own arm And he shall snatch on the right hand, and be hungry,.... Either with his hand, and rob and plunder all within his reach; or, with his teeth, as canni...

And he shall snatch on the right hand, and be hungry,.... Either with his hand, and rob and plunder all within his reach; or, with his teeth, as cannibals, or beasts of prey, catch at, tear, and rend in pieces, whatever comes in their way; and yet hungry after more, and unsatisfied, as follows:

and he shall eat on the left hand, and they shall not be satisfied; ravage and spoil on every side, and yet not content. The Targum is,

"he shall spoil on the south, and be hungry; and he shall destroy on the north, and not be satisfied:''

they shall eat every man the flesh of his own arm; destroy their near relations, who are their own flesh and blood, or take away their substance from them; so the Targum,

"they shall spoil every man the substance of his neighbour:''

which will give some light to Rev 17:16.

Gill: Isa 9:21 - Manasseh, Ephraim; and Ephraim, Manasseh // and they together shall be against Judah // for all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still Manasseh, Ephraim; and Ephraim, Manasseh,.... That is, "Manasseh" shall eat or devour "Ephraim"; and "Ephraim" shall eat or devour "Manasseh"; as the ...

Manasseh, Ephraim; and Ephraim, Manasseh,.... That is, "Manasseh" shall eat or devour "Ephraim"; and "Ephraim" shall eat or devour "Manasseh"; as the Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic versions render it; which is to be understood of their quarrels, contentions, and wars among themselves, whereby they bit, devoured, and consumed each other, though they were brethren; which explains and confirms what is before said, of no man sparing his brother, and everyone eating the flesh of his own arm. The Targum paraphrases the words thus,

"they of the house of "Manasseh", with those of the house of "Ephraim", and they of the house of "Ephraim", with those of the house of "Manasseh", shall be joined together as one, to come against them of the house of Judah;''

and so Jarchi interprets them,

""Manasseh" shall be joined with "Ephraim", and "Ephraim" shall be joined with "Manasseh", and they together shall be joined against Judah;''

so it follows,

and they together shall be against Judah; as the ten tribes did sometimes make war against the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin, see 2Ch 28:6,

for all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still; more and sorer judgments were to come upon this people for their sins. See Gill on Isa 9:12.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Isa 9:1 These three geographical designations may refer to provinces established by the Assyrians in 734-733 b.c. The “way of the sea” is the prov...

NET Notes: Isa 9:2 Traditionally צַלְמָוֶת (tsalmavet) has been interpreted as a compound noun, meaning “shad...

NET Notes: Isa 9:3 Heb “as they are happy.” The word “warriors” is supplied in the translation to clarify the word picture. This last simile come...

NET Notes: Isa 9:4 This alludes to Gideon’s victory over Midian (Judg 7-8), when the Lord delivered Israel from an oppressive foreign invader.

NET Notes: Isa 9:5 Heb “Indeed every boot marching with shaking.” On the meaning of סְאוֹן (sÿ’on, “boot...

NET Notes: Isa 9:6 This title pictures the king as one who establishes a safe socio-economic environment for his people. It hardly depicts him as a meek individual, for ...

NET Notes: Isa 9:7 Heb “the zeal of the Lord.” In this context the Lord’s “zeal” refers to his intense devotion to and love for his people ...

NET Notes: Isa 9:8 The present translation assumes that this verse refers to judgment that had already fallen. Both verbs (perfects) are taken as indicating simple past;...

NET Notes: Isa 9:9 Heb “with pride and arrogance of heart, saying.”

NET Notes: Isa 9:10 Though judgment (see v. 8) had taken away the prosperity they did have (symbolized by the bricks and sycamore fig trees), they arrogantly expected the...

NET Notes: Isa 9:11 The prefixed verbal form is understood as a preterite, used, as is often the case in poetry, without vav consecutive. Note that prefixed forms with va...

NET Notes: Isa 9:12 Heb “in all this his anger is not turned, and still his hand is outstretched.” One could translate in the past tense here (and in 9:17b an...

NET Notes: Isa 9:13 This verse describes the people’s response to the judgment described in vv. 11-12. The perfects are understood as indicating simple past.

NET Notes: Isa 9:14 The metaphor in this line is that of a reed being cut down.

NET Notes: Isa 9:15 Heb “the elder and the one lifted up with respect to the face.” For another example of the Hebrew idiom, see 2 Kgs 5:1.

NET Notes: Isa 9:16 Heb “and the ones being led were swallowed up.” Instead of taking מְבֻלָּעִי&#...

NET Notes: Isa 9:17 See the note at 9:12.

NET Notes: Isa 9:18 Heb “and they swirled [with] the rising of the smoke” (cf. NRSV).

NET Notes: Isa 9:19 Heb “men were not showing compassion to their brothers.” The idiom “men to their brothers” is idiomatic for reciprocity. The p...

NET Notes: Isa 9:20 Some suggest that זְרֹעוֹ (zÿro’o, “his arm”) be repointed זַר‘...

NET Notes: Isa 9:21 See the note at 9:12.

Geneva Bible: Isa 9:1 Nevertheless ( a ) the dimness [shall] not [be] such as [was] in her distress, ( b ) when at the first he lightly afflicted the land of Zebulun and th...

Geneva Bible: Isa 9:2 The people that ( d ) walked in darkness have seen a great ( e ) light: they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the ( f ) l...

Geneva Bible: Isa 9:3 Thou hast ( g ) multiplied the nation, [and] increased the joy: they rejoice before thee according to the joy in harvest, [and] as [men] rejoice when ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 9:4 For thou hast broken the ( h ) yoke of his burden, and the staff of his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, as in the day of Midian. ( h ) You gave t...

Geneva Bible: Isa 9:5 For every battle of the warrior [is] with confused noise, and garments rolled in blood; but [this] shall be ( i ) with burning [and] fuel of fire. ( ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 9:6 For to us a child is born, to us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, Th...

Geneva Bible: Isa 9:7 Of the increase of [his] government and peace [there shall be] no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish i...

Geneva Bible: Isa 9:8 The Lord sent a word into Jacob, and it hath lighted upon ( m ) Israel. ( m ) This is another prophecy against them of Samaria who were mockers and c...

Geneva Bible: Isa 9:10 The ( n ) bricks have fallen down, but we will build with hewn stones: the sycamores are cut down, but we will change [them into] cedars. ( n ) We we...

Geneva Bible: Isa 9:11 Therefore the LORD shall set up the adversaries of ( o ) Rezin against him, and join his enemies together; ( o ) Rezin king of Syria, who was in leag...

Geneva Bible: Isa 9:18 For wickedness ( p ) burneth as the fire: it shall devour the briers and thorns, and shall kindle in the thickets of the forest, and they shall mount ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 9:19 Through the wrath of the LORD of hosts is the land darkened, and the people shall be as the fuel of the fire: no man shall ( q ) spare his brother. (...

Geneva Bible: Isa 9:20 And he shall snatch on the right hand, and be hungry; and he shall eat on the left hand, and they shall not be satisfied: they shall eat every man the...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Isa 9:3-8 - A Libation To Jehovah The Kingdom And The King The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light: they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them ha...

MHCC: Isa 9:1-7 - --The Syrians and Assyrians first ravaged the countries here mentioned, and that region was first favoured by the preaching of Christ. Those that want t...

MHCC: Isa 9:8-21 - --Those are ripening apace for ruin, whose hearts are unhumbled under humbling providences. For that which God designs, in smiting us, is, to turn us to...

Matthew Henry: Isa 9:1-7 - -- The first words of this chapter plainly refer to the close of the foregoing chapter, where every thing looked black and melancholy: Behold, trouble...

Matthew Henry: Isa 9:8-21 - -- Here are terrible threatenings, which are directed primarily against Israel, the kingdom of the ten tribes, Ephraim and Samaria, the ruin of which i...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 9:1 - -- After the prophet has thus depicted the people as without morning dawn, he gives the reason for the assumption that a restoration of light is to be ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 9:2 - -- The range of vision is first widened in Isa 9:2.: "The people that walk about in darkness see a great light; they who dwell in the land of the shad...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 9:3 - -- In Isa 9:3 he says, in words of thanksgiving and praise: "Thou multipliest the nation, preparest it great joy; they rejoice before Thee like the jo...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 9:4 - -- "For the yoke of its burden and the stick of its neck, the stick of its oppressor, Thou hast broken to splinters, as in the day of Midian." The suf...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 9:5 - -- "For every boot of those who tramp with boots in the tumult of battle, and cloak rolled in blood, shall be for burning, a food of fire." That which...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 9:6 - -- Upon the two sentences with ci the prophet now builds a third. The reason for the triumph is the deliverance effected; and the reason for the deliv...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 9:7 - -- "To the increase of government and to peace without end, upon the throne of David, and over his Kingdom, to strengthen it, and to support it throug...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 9:8-12 - -- The great light would not arise till the darkness had reached its deepest point. The gradual increase of this darkness is predicted in this second s...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 9:13-17 - -- Strophe 2. "But the people turneth not unto Him that smiteth it, and they seek not Jehovah of hosts. Therefore Jehovah rooteth out of Israel head a...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 9:18-21 - -- Strophe 3. "For the wickedness burneth up like fire: it devours thorns and thistles, and burns in the thickets of the wood; and they smoke upwards ...

Constable: Isa 7:1--39:8 - --III. Israel's crisis of faith chs. 7--39 This long section of the book deals with Israel's major decision in Isa...

Constable: Isa 7:1--12:6 - --A. The choice between trusting God or Assyria chs. 7-12 This section of Isaiah provides a historical int...

Constable: Isa 7:1--9:8 - --1. Signs of God's presence 7:1-9:7 A unifying theme in this subsection is children. The children...

Constable: Isa 8:11--9:8 - --Clarification of the issue 8:11-9:7 Having received two signs of God's dealing with them...

Constable: Isa 8:11--9:2 - --The importance of listening to God 8:11-9:1 8:11 Isaiah now passed along instruction that Yahweh had powerfully given him warning him against followin...

Constable: Isa 9:3-8 - --The faithful king to come 9:2-7 In contrast to Ahaz, who refused to listen to and obey God, the Lord would raise up a faithful king who would be born ...

Constable: Isa 9:8--10:5 - --2. Measurement by God's standard 9:8-10:4 This section of the book focuses on the Northern Kingd...

Constable: Isa 9:9-13 - --The pride of Ephraim 9:8-12 Isaiah explained that because the Northern Kingdom had not turned to Him for safety but to an alliance with Syria, He woul...

Constable: Isa 9:14-18 - --The corruption of Ephraim's leaders 9:13-17 9:13-14 Since the Lord's discipline of the nation would not cause her to repent, He would cut off her lead...

Constable: Isa 9:19-21 - --The selfishness of everyone 9:18-21 9:18 Wickedness is not a little misguided playfulness but rebellion against God's order for life.126 It proceeds f...

Guzik: Isa 9:1-21 - Unto Us A Child Is Born Isaiah 9 - Unto Us A Child Is Born A. Hope for Israel. 1. (1-2) A day of light for the northern tribes. Nevertheless the gloom will not be upon he...