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Teks -- Isaiah 7:1-25 (NET)

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Konteks
Ahaz Receives a Sign
7:1 During the reign of Ahaz son of Jotham, son of Uzziah, king of Judah, King Rezin of Syria and King Pekah son of Remaliah of Israel marched up to Jerusalem to do battle, but they were unable to prevail against it. 7:2 It was reported to the family of David, “Syria has allied with Ephraim.” They and their people were emotionally shaken, just as the trees of the forest shake before the wind. 7:3 So the Lord told Isaiah, “Go out with your son Shear-jashub and meet Ahaz at the end of the conduit of the upper pool which is located on the road to the field where they wash and dry cloth. 7:4 Tell him, ‘Make sure you stay calm! Don’t be afraid! Don’t be intimidated by these two stubs of smoking logs, or by the raging anger of Rezin, Syria, and the son of Remaliah. 7:5 Syria has plotted with Ephraim and the son of Remaliah to bring about your demise. 7:6 They say, “Let’s attack Judah, terrorize it, and conquer it. Then we’ll set up the son of Tabeel as its king.” 7:7 For this reason the sovereign master, the Lord, says: “It will not take place; it will not happen. 7:8 For Syria’s leader is Damascus, and the leader of Damascus is Rezin. Within sixty-five years Ephraim will no longer exist as a nation. 7:9 Ephraim’s leader is Samaria, and Samaria’s leader is the son of Remaliah. If your faith does not remain firm, then you will not remain secure.” 7:10 The Lord again spoke to Ahaz: 7:11 “Ask for a confirming sign from the Lord your God. You can even ask for something miraculous.” 7:12 But Ahaz responded, “I don’t want to ask; I don’t want to put the Lord to a test.” 7:13 So Isaiah replied, “Pay attention, family of David. Do you consider it too insignificant to try the patience of men? Is that why you are also trying the patience of my God? 7:14 For this reason the sovereign master himself will give you a confirming sign. Look, this young woman is about to conceive and will give birth to a son. You, young woman, will name him Immanuel. 7:15 He will eat sour milk and honey, which will help him know how to reject evil and choose what is right. 7:16 Here is why this will be so: Before the child knows how to reject evil and choose what is right, the land whose two kings you fear will be desolate. 7:17 The Lord will bring on you, your people, and your father’s family a time unlike any since Ephraim departed from Judah– the king of Assyria!” 7:18 At that time the Lord will whistle for flies from the distant streams of Egypt and for bees from the land of Assyria. 7:19 All of them will come and make their home in the ravines between the cliffs, and in the crevices of the cliffs, in all the thorn bushes, and in all the watering holes. 7:20 At that time the sovereign master will use a razor hired from the banks of the Euphrates River, the king of Assyria, to shave the head and the pubic hair; it will also shave off the beard. 7:21 At that time a man will keep alive a young cow from the herd and a couple of goats. 7:22 From the abundance of milk they produce, he will have sour milk for his meals. Indeed, everyone left in the heart of the land will eat sour milk and honey. 7:23 At that time every place where there had been a thousand vines worth a thousand shekels will be overrun with thorns and briers. 7:24 With bow and arrow men will hunt there, for the whole land will be covered with thorns and briers. 7:25 They will stay away from all the hills that were cultivated, for fear of the thorns and briers. Cattle will graze there and sheep will trample on them.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Ahaz a son of Jotham; listed as an ancestor of Jesus,son and successor of King Jotham of Judah,son of Micah of Benjamin
 · Assyria a member of the nation of Assyria
 · Damascus a city-state in Syria, located near Mt. Hermon at the edge of the Syrian desert (OS),a town near Mt. Hermon at the edge of the Syrian desert (OS)
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Ephraim the tribe of Ephraim as a whole,the northern kingdom of Israel
 · Euphrates a large river which joins the Tigris river before flowing into the Persian Gulf,a river flowing from eastern Turkey to the Persian Gulf
 · Immanuel a title of one who was to be born as a sign that the enemies of Israel would come to nothing
 · Isaiah a son of Amoz; a prophet active in Judah from about 740 to 701 B.C.,son of Amoz; a major prophet in the time of Hezekiah
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Jotham the son who succeeded King Uzziah of Judah; the father of Ahaz; an ancestor of Jesus,the youngest son of Jerubbaal (Gideon),son and successor of King Azariah of Judah,son of Jahdai of Judah
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Pekah son of Remaliah; king of Israel
 · Remaliah father of King Pekah, from Gilead
 · Rezin a king of Aram/Syria in the time of Jotham and Ahaz of Judah,a Levite; head of a group of temple servants in Ezra's time
 · Samaria residents of the district of Samaria
 · Shear-Jashub the first son of the prophet Isaiah
 · Shear-jashub the first son of the prophet Isaiah
 · Sheol the place of the dead
 · Syria the country to the north of Palestine,a country of north western Mesopotamia
 · Syrian members of the nation of Syria
 · Tabeel a man who was an opponent to Zerubbabel's rebuilding the temple,an official from Damascus in the time of King Ahaz of Judah
 · Uzziah a son of Jehoram; the father of Jotham; an ancestor of Jesus.,son and successor of king Amaziah of Judah,son of Uriel of Kohath son of Levi,father of Jonathan, the head of country treasuries under David,a priest of the Harim Clan who put away his heathen wife,son of Zechariah; father of Athaiah of Judah, a returned exile


Topik/Tema Kamus: Ahaz | Isaiah | Ephraim | Rezin | Pekah | ODED | JESUS CHRIST, 2 | Remaliah | Assyria | Immanuel | Hypocrisy | Israel | Syria | Armies | SIGN | Cow | Milk | Bee | Mattock | ISAIAH, 1-7 | selebihnya
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Wesley: Isa 7:1 - Ahaz A most wicked king: yet no prophecies are more comfortable than those which were delivered in his time; God so ordering it for the encouragement of th...

A most wicked king: yet no prophecies are more comfortable than those which were delivered in his time; God so ordering it for the encouragement of the faithful that lived under his impious reign.

Wesley: Isa 7:2 - David Ahaz, and his relations. He calls them the house of David, to intimate that the following comfortable message was sent to Ahaz, not for his own sake, ...

Ahaz, and his relations. He calls them the house of David, to intimate that the following comfortable message was sent to Ahaz, not for his own sake, but for the sake of his worthy progenitor David.

Wesley: Isa 7:2 - Ephraim The kingdom of the ten tribes, commonly called Ephraim, because that was the most numerous of all.

The kingdom of the ten tribes, commonly called Ephraim, because that was the most numerous of all.

Wesley: Isa 7:2 - Moved With fear, arising from a consciousness of their own guilt, and their enemies strength.

With fear, arising from a consciousness of their own guilt, and their enemies strength.

Wesley: Isa 7:3 - Thy son Whose very name carried in it a sign and pledge of the promised deliverance, signifying, The remnant shall return.

Whose very name carried in it a sign and pledge of the promised deliverance, signifying, The remnant shall return.

Wesley: Isa 7:3 - Fuller's field Whither he probably went to take care about the waters which thence were brought into the city, to secure them to himself, or keep them from the enemy...

Whither he probably went to take care about the waters which thence were brought into the city, to secure them to himself, or keep them from the enemy, as Hezekiah afterward did, 2Ch 32:3-4.

Wesley: Isa 7:4 - Be quiet Settle thy mind by the belief of that joyful message which I am now to deliver thee from the Lord.

Settle thy mind by the belief of that joyful message which I am now to deliver thee from the Lord.

Wesley: Isa 7:4 - Fire brands - They are not whole fire - brands, but small pieces or ends of them, taken out of the fire, in which there is more smoak than fire. They have ...

brands - They are not whole fire - brands, but small pieces or ends of them, taken out of the fire, in which there is more smoak than fire. They have more of shew and terror, than of strength. Pekah, king of Israel, he calls only the son of Remaliah, to intimate, that he was unworthy the name of king, as having got that title by usurpation, and the murder of his master, 2Ki 15:25.

Wesley: Isa 7:6 - Let us Break their power and kingdom and subdue it to ourselves.

Break their power and kingdom and subdue it to ourselves.

Wesley: Isa 7:7 - It Their evil counsel.

Their evil counsel.

Wesley: Isa 7:8 - Damascus Damascus shall still continue the capital of the kingdom of Syria; and therefore Jerusalem shall not become a part of Rezin's dominion: but he shall k...

Damascus shall still continue the capital of the kingdom of Syria; and therefore Jerusalem shall not become a part of Rezin's dominion: but he shall keep within his own bounds, and be king of Damascus only.

Wesley: Isa 7:9 - Samaria Samaria shall continue to be the chief city if the kingdom of Israel, and Pekah shall not conquer Jerusalem.

Samaria shall continue to be the chief city if the kingdom of Israel, and Pekah shall not conquer Jerusalem.

Wesley: Isa 7:9 - If If you do not believe this, but seek to the Assyrians for succour, ye shall be consumed thereby.

If you do not believe this, but seek to the Assyrians for succour, ye shall be consumed thereby.

Wesley: Isa 7:12 - I will not By asking a sign, as if I questioned the truth of his word: but this was deep hypocrisy.

By asking a sign, as if I questioned the truth of his word: but this was deep hypocrisy.

Wesley: Isa 7:13 - David He reproves them all, because they were the king's counsellors.

He reproves them all, because they were the king's counsellors.

Wesley: Isa 7:13 - Is it a small thing Is it not wickedness enough.

Is it not wickedness enough.

Wesley: Isa 7:13 - My God To vex God's prophets and people, with your oppressions and horrid impieties. And by your ingratitude and unbelief, and disobedience of his commands.

To vex God's prophets and people, with your oppressions and horrid impieties. And by your ingratitude and unbelief, and disobedience of his commands.

Wesley: Isa 7:14 - Therefore Because you despise me, and the sign which I now offer to you, God of his own free grace will send you a more honourable messenger, and give you a nob...

Because you despise me, and the sign which I now offer to you, God of his own free grace will send you a more honourable messenger, and give you a nobler sign.

Wesley: Isa 7:14 - A sign Of your deliverance. But how was this birth, which was not to happen 'till many ages after, a sign of their deliverance from present danger? This prom...

Of your deliverance. But how was this birth, which was not to happen 'till many ages after, a sign of their deliverance from present danger? This promised birth supposed the preservation of that city, and nation and tribe, in and of which the Messiah was to be born; and therefore there was no cause to fear that ruin which their enemies now threatened.

Wesley: Isa 7:14 - Immanuel God with us; God dwelling among us, in our nature, Joh 1:14. God and man meeting in one person, and being a mediator between God and men. For the desi...

God with us; God dwelling among us, in our nature, Joh 1:14. God and man meeting in one person, and being a mediator between God and men. For the design of these words is not so much to relate the name by which Christ should commonly he called, as to describe his nature and office.

Wesley: Isa 7:15 - Butter The common food of children in that country.

The common food of children in that country.

Wesley: Isa 7:15 - He The virgin's son.

The virgin's son.

Wesley: Isa 7:15 - Know To discern between things good and evil.

To discern between things good and evil.

Wesley: Isa 7:16 - Yea Not only this land shall be preserved until the virgin's son shall be born, but thine enemies land shall be sorely scourged, and these two kings destr...

Not only this land shall be preserved until the virgin's son shall be born, but thine enemies land shall be sorely scourged, and these two kings destroyed within a very little time.

Wesley: Isa 7:16 - This child Shear - Jashub, whom in all probability the prophet pointed at, and who was brought hither by God's special command, Isa 7:3. for this very use.

Shear - Jashub, whom in all probability the prophet pointed at, and who was brought hither by God's special command, Isa 7:3. for this very use.

Wesley: Isa 7:16 - The land The lands of Syria and Israel.

The lands of Syria and Israel.

Wesley: Isa 7:16 - Forsaken So far shall Pekah and Rezin be from conquering thy land, that they shall lose their own lands, and their lives too; which they did within two years a...

So far shall Pekah and Rezin be from conquering thy land, that they shall lose their own lands, and their lives too; which they did within two years after this time, being both slain by the king of Assyria.

Wesley: Isa 7:17 - Shall bring But altho' God will deliver you at this time, yet he will requite all your wickedness.

But altho' God will deliver you at this time, yet he will requite all your wickedness.

Wesley: Isa 7:17 - Thee For part of this Assyrian storm fell in Ahaz's reign.

For part of this Assyrian storm fell in Ahaz's reign.

Wesley: Isa 7:17 - And Upon thy sons and successors, the kings of Judah.

Upon thy sons and successors, the kings of Judah.

Wesley: Isa 7:17 - Days Calamities.

Calamities.

Wesley: Isa 7:17 - Departed When ten tribes revolted from thy father's house.

When ten tribes revolted from thy father's house.

Wesley: Isa 7:17 - The king Who may well be called their plague or calamity, as he is called the rod of God's anger, Isa 10:5.

Who may well be called their plague or calamity, as he is called the rod of God's anger, Isa 10:5.

Wesley: Isa 7:18 - The fly The flies. So he calls these enemies, to imply their great numbers.

The flies. So he calls these enemies, to imply their great numbers.

Wesley: Isa 7:18 - In In their extremity, where they go out into the sea.

In their extremity, where they go out into the sea.

Wesley: Isa 7:18 - Rivers Of the river Nile, which may be called rivers, either for its greatness, or because towards the end of it, it is divided into seven streams. When the ...

Of the river Nile, which may be called rivers, either for its greatness, or because towards the end of it, it is divided into seven streams. When the Chaldeans had in good measure subdued the Egyptians, it is probable great numbers of the Egyptian soldiers listed themselves in the Chaldean army, and with them invaded the land of Judah.

Wesley: Isa 7:18 - The bee The Assyrian army, compared to bees, as for their numerous forces and orderly march, so for their fierce attempts and mischievous effects.

The Assyrian army, compared to bees, as for their numerous forces and orderly march, so for their fierce attempts and mischievous effects.

Wesley: Isa 7:18 - Assyria In the empire of Assyria, or Babylon; for these two were united into one empire, and therefore in scripture are promiscuously called sometimes by one ...

In the empire of Assyria, or Babylon; for these two were united into one empire, and therefore in scripture are promiscuously called sometimes by one title, and sometimes by the other.

Wesley: Isa 7:19 - Valleys Such as they found fruitful, but made desolate.

Such as they found fruitful, but made desolate.

Wesley: Isa 7:19 - Rocks To which possibly the Israelites fled for refuge.

To which possibly the Israelites fled for refuge.

Wesley: Isa 7:19 - Bushes Which he mentions because flies and bees use frequently to rest there; and to intimate, that no place should escape their fury.

Which he mentions because flies and bees use frequently to rest there; and to intimate, that no place should escape their fury.

Wesley: Isa 7:20 - Shave Utterly spoil, as shaving takes away the hair.

Utterly spoil, as shaving takes away the hair.

Wesley: Isa 7:20 - Hired By Ahaz, who did hire them, 2Ki 16:7-8. And so the prophet notes the just judgment of God, in scourging them with a rod of their own making.

By Ahaz, who did hire them, 2Ki 16:7-8. And so the prophet notes the just judgment of God, in scourging them with a rod of their own making.

Wesley: Isa 7:20 - By By the successive kings of the Assyrian empire, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and especially by Nebuchadnezzar.

By the successive kings of the Assyrian empire, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and especially by Nebuchadnezzar.

Wesley: Isa 7:20 - The head By these metaphorical expressions he signifies the total destruction of their state, from head to foot, from the highest to the lowest.

By these metaphorical expressions he signifies the total destruction of their state, from head to foot, from the highest to the lowest.

Wesley: Isa 7:21 - Sheep They who formerly used to keep great herds of cattle, and many flocks of sheep, shall esteem it a happiness if they can keep but one cow and two sheep...

They who formerly used to keep great herds of cattle, and many flocks of sheep, shall esteem it a happiness if they can keep but one cow and two sheep.

Wesley: Isa 7:22 - Abundance Because they shall have large pastures, by reason of the great scarcity of cattle.

Because they shall have large pastures, by reason of the great scarcity of cattle.

Wesley: Isa 7:22 - Butter Which the poorer sort had formerly used to sell, to procure them cheaper food for themselves: but now the land should be so destitute of people, that ...

Which the poorer sort had formerly used to sell, to procure them cheaper food for themselves: but now the land should be so destitute of people, that there were none to whom they could sell them.

Wesley: Isa 7:23 - Of silver Each of the thousand vineyards might have been sold or let for a thousand shekels, which was the yearly rent of some excellent vineyards.

Each of the thousand vineyards might have been sold or let for a thousand shekels, which was the yearly rent of some excellent vineyards.

Wesley: Isa 7:24 - With arrows Either to hunt, or to defend themselves from wild beasts, which commonly abide in desolate grounds.

Either to hunt, or to defend themselves from wild beasts, which commonly abide in desolate grounds.

Wesley: Isa 7:25 - Digged That used to be digged and dressed for the planting of vines, or other choice fruit - trees.

That used to be digged and dressed for the planting of vines, or other choice fruit - trees.

Wesley: Isa 7:25 - The fear That they might be freed from briars and thorns.

That they might be freed from briars and thorns.

Wesley: Isa 7:25 - Cattle All sorts of cattle may enter, and feed there, the fences being broken down, and the owners slain, or carried into captivity.

All sorts of cattle may enter, and feed there, the fences being broken down, and the owners slain, or carried into captivity.

JFB: Isa 7:1 - Ahaz In the first years of his reign the design of the two kings against Judah was carried out, which was formed in Jotham's reign (2Ki 15:37).

In the first years of his reign the design of the two kings against Judah was carried out, which was formed in Jotham's reign (2Ki 15:37).

JFB: Isa 7:1 - Syria Hebrew, Aram (Gen 10:22-23), originally the whole region between the Euphrates and Mediterranean, including Assyria, of which Syria is an abbreviation...

Hebrew, Aram (Gen 10:22-23), originally the whole region between the Euphrates and Mediterranean, including Assyria, of which Syria is an abbreviation; here the region round Damascus, and along Mount Libanus.

JFB: Isa 7:1 - Jerusalem An actual siege of it took place, but was foiled (2Ki 16:5).

An actual siege of it took place, but was foiled (2Ki 16:5).

JFB: Isa 7:2 - is confederate with Rather, is encamped upon the territory of Ephraim [MAURER], or better, as Rezin was encamped against Jerusalem, "is supported by" [LOWTH] Ephraim, who...

Rather, is encamped upon the territory of Ephraim [MAURER], or better, as Rezin was encamped against Jerusalem, "is supported by" [LOWTH] Ephraim, whose land lay between Syria and Judah. The mention of "David" alludes, in sad contrast with the present, to the time when David made Syria subject to him (2Sa 8:6).

JFB: Isa 7:2 - Ephraim The ten tribes.

The ten tribes.

JFB: Isa 7:2 - as . . . trees of . . . wood A simultaneous agitation.

A simultaneous agitation.

JFB: Isa 7:3 - Go forth Out of the city, to the place where Ahaz was superintending the works for defense and the cutting off of the water supply from the enemy, and securing...

Out of the city, to the place where Ahaz was superintending the works for defense and the cutting off of the water supply from the enemy, and securing it to the city. So Isa 22:9; 2Ch 32:4.

JFB: Isa 7:3 - Shearjashub That is, A remnant shall return (Isa 6:13). His very name Isa 7:14; Isa 8:3 was a standing memorial to Ahaz and the Jews that the nation should not, n...

That is, A remnant shall return (Isa 6:13). His very name Isa 7:14; Isa 8:3 was a standing memorial to Ahaz and the Jews that the nation should not, notwithstanding the general calamity (Isa 7:17-25; Isa 8:6-8), be utterly destroyed (Isa 10:21-22).

JFB: Isa 7:3 - conduit An aqueduct from the pool or reservoir for the supply of the city. At the foot of Zion was Fount Siloah (Isa 8:6; Neh 3:15; Joh 9:7), called also Giho...

An aqueduct from the pool or reservoir for the supply of the city. At the foot of Zion was Fount Siloah (Isa 8:6; Neh 3:15; Joh 9:7), called also Gihon, on the west of Jerusalem (2Ch 32:30). Two pools were supplied from it, the Upper, or Old (Isa 22:11), or King's (Neh 2:14), and the Lower (Isa 22:9), which received the superfluous waters of the upper. The upper pool is still to be seen, about seven hundred yards from the Jaffa gate. The highway leading to the fullers' field, which was in a position near water for the purposes of washing, previous to drying and bleaching, the cloth, was probably alongside the aqueduct.

JFB: Isa 7:4 - Take heed, &c. That is, See that thou be quiet (not seeking Assyrian aid in a fit of panic).

That is, See that thou be quiet (not seeking Assyrian aid in a fit of panic).

JFB: Isa 7:4 - tails Mere ends of firebrands, almost consumed themselves (about soon to fall before the Assyrians, Isa 7:8), therefore harmless.

Mere ends of firebrands, almost consumed themselves (about soon to fall before the Assyrians, Isa 7:8), therefore harmless.

JFB: Isa 7:4 - smoking As about to go out; not blazing.

As about to go out; not blazing.

JFB: Isa 7:4 - son of Remaliah Pekah, a usurper (2Ki 15:25). The Easterners express contempt by designating one, not by his own name, but by his father's, especially when the father...

Pekah, a usurper (2Ki 15:25). The Easterners express contempt by designating one, not by his own name, but by his father's, especially when the father is but little known (1Sa 20:27, 1Sa 20:31).

JFB: Isa 7:6 - vex Rather, "throw into consternation" [GESENIUS].

Rather, "throw into consternation" [GESENIUS].

JFB: Isa 7:6 - make a breach Rather, "cleave it asunder." Their scheme was to divide a large portion of the territory between themselves, and set up a vassal king of their own ove...

Rather, "cleave it asunder." Their scheme was to divide a large portion of the territory between themselves, and set up a vassal king of their own over the rest.

JFB: Isa 7:6 - son of Tabeal Unknown; a Syrian-sounding name, perhaps favored by a party in Jerusalem (Isa 3:6, Isa 3:9, Isa 3:12).

Unknown; a Syrian-sounding name, perhaps favored by a party in Jerusalem (Isa 3:6, Isa 3:9, Isa 3:12).

JFB: Isa 7:7 - -- (Isa 8:10; Pro 21:30).

JFB: Isa 7:8 - head That is, in both Syria and Israel the capital shall remain as it is; they shall not conquer Judah, but each shall possess only his own dominions.

That is, in both Syria and Israel the capital shall remain as it is; they shall not conquer Judah, but each shall possess only his own dominions.

JFB: Isa 7:8 - threescore and five . . . not a people As these words break the symmetry of the parallelism in this verse, either they ought to be placed after "Remaliah's son," in Isa 7:9, or else they re...

As these words break the symmetry of the parallelism in this verse, either they ought to be placed after "Remaliah's son," in Isa 7:9, or else they refer to some older prophecy of Isaiah, or of Amos (as the Jewish writers represent), parenthetically; to which, in Isa 7:8, the words, "If ye will not believe . . . not be established," correspond in parallelism. One deportation of Israel happened within one or two years from this time, under Tiglath-pileser (2Ki 15:29). Another in the reign of Hoshea, under Shalmaneser (2Ki 17:1-6), was about twenty years after. But the final one which utterly "broke" up Israel so as to be "not a people," accompanied by a colonization of Samaria with foreigners, was under Esar-haddon, who carried away Manasseh, king of Judah, also, in the twenty-second year of his reign, sixty-five years from the utterance of this prophecy (compare Ezr 4:2-3, Ezr 4:10, with 2Ki 17:24; 2Ch 33:11) [USHER]. The event, though so far off, was enough to assure the people of Judah that as God, the Head of the theocracy, would ultimately interpose to destroy the enemies of His people, so they might rely on Him now.

JFB: Isa 7:9 - believe, . . . be established There is a paronomasia, or play on the words, in the Hebrew: "if ye will not confide, ye shall not abide." Ahaz brought distress on himself by distrus...

There is a paronomasia, or play on the words, in the Hebrew: "if ye will not confide, ye shall not abide." Ahaz brought distress on himself by distrust in the Lord, and trust in Assyria.

JFB: Isa 7:11 - Ask thee Since thou dost not credit the prophet's words.

Since thou dost not credit the prophet's words.

JFB: Isa 7:11 - sign A miraculous token to assure thee that God will fulfil His promise of saving Jerusalem (Isa 37:30; Isa 38:7-8). "Signs," facts then present or near at...

A miraculous token to assure thee that God will fulfil His promise of saving Jerusalem (Isa 37:30; Isa 38:7-8). "Signs," facts then present or near at hand as pledges for the more distant future, are frequent in Isaiah.

JFB: Isa 7:11 - ask . . . in . . . depth Literally, "Make deep . . . ask it," that is, Go to the depth of the earth or of Hades [Vulgate and LOWTH], or, Mount high for it (literally, "Make hi...

Literally, "Make deep . . . ask it," that is, Go to the depth of the earth or of Hades [Vulgate and LOWTH], or, Mount high for it (literally, "Make high"). So in Mat 16:1. Signs in heaven are contrasted with the signs on earth and below it (raising the dead) which Jesus Christ had wrought (compare Rom 10:6-7). He offers Ahaz the widest limits within which to make his choice.

JFB: Isa 7:12 - neither . . . tempt Hypocritical pretext of keeping the law (Deu 6:16); "tempt," that is, put God to the proof, as in Mat 4:7, by seeking His miraculous interposition wit...

Hypocritical pretext of keeping the law (Deu 6:16); "tempt," that is, put God to the proof, as in Mat 4:7, by seeking His miraculous interposition without warrant. But here there was the warrant of the prophet of God; to have asked a sign, when thus offered, would not have been a tempting of God. Ahaz' true reason for declining was his resolve not to do God's will, but to negotiate with Assyria, and persevere in his idolatry (2Ki 16:7-8, 2Ki 16:3-4, 2Ki 16:10). Men often excuse their distrust in God, and trust in their own devices, by professed reverence for God. Ahaz may have fancied that though Jehovah was the God of Judea and could work a sign there, that was no proof that the local god of Syria might not be more powerful. Such was the common heathen notion (Isa 10:10-11; Isa 36:18-20).

JFB: Isa 7:13 - Is it a small thing? Is it not enough for you (Num 16:9)? The allusion to "David" is in order to contrast his trust in God with his degenerate descendant Ahaz' distrust.

Is it not enough for you (Num 16:9)? The allusion to "David" is in order to contrast his trust in God with his degenerate descendant Ahaz' distrust.

JFB: Isa 7:13 - weary Try the patience of.

Try the patience of.

JFB: Isa 7:13 - men Prophets. Isaiah as yet had given no outward proof that he was from God; but now God has offered a sign, which Ahaz publicly rejects. The sin is there...

Prophets. Isaiah as yet had given no outward proof that he was from God; but now God has offered a sign, which Ahaz publicly rejects. The sin is therefore now not merely against "men," but openly against "God." Isaiah's manner therefore changes from mildness to bold reproof.

JFB: Isa 7:14 - himself Since thou wilt not ask a sign, nay, rejectest the offer of one.

Since thou wilt not ask a sign, nay, rejectest the offer of one.

JFB: Isa 7:14 - you For the sake of the house of believing "David" (God remembering His everlasting covenant with David), not for unbelieving Ahaz' sake.

For the sake of the house of believing "David" (God remembering His everlasting covenant with David), not for unbelieving Ahaz' sake.

JFB: Isa 7:14 - Behold Arresting attention to the extraordinary prophecy.

Arresting attention to the extraordinary prophecy.

JFB: Isa 7:14 - virgin From a root, "to lie hid," virgins being closely kept from men's gaze in their parents' custody in the East. The Hebrew, and the Septuagint here, and ...

From a root, "to lie hid," virgins being closely kept from men's gaze in their parents' custody in the East. The Hebrew, and the Septuagint here, and Greek (Mat 1:23), have the article, the virgin, some definite one known to the speaker and his hearers; primarily, the woman, then a virgin, about immediately to become the second wife, and bear a child, whose attainment of the age of discrimination (about three years) should be preceded by the deliverance of Judah from its two invaders; its fullest significancy is realized in "the woman" (Gen 3:15), whose seed should bruise the serpent's head and deliver captive man (Jer 31:22; Mic 5:3). Language is selected such as, while partially applicable to the immediate event, receives its fullest, most appropriate, and exhaustive accomplishment in Messianic events. The New Testament application of such prophecies is not a strained "accommodation"; rather the temporary fulfilment of an adaptation of the far-reaching prophecy to the present passing event, which foreshadows typically the great central end of prophecy, Jesus Christ (Rev 19:10). Evidently the wording is such as to apply more fully to Jesus Christ than to the prophet's son; "virgin" applies, in its simplest sense, to the Virgin Mary, rather than to the prophetess who ceased to be a virgin when she "conceived"; "Immanuel," God with us (Joh 1:14; Rev 21:3), cannot in a strict sense apply to Isaiah's son, but only to Him who is presently called expressly (Isa 9:6), "the Child, the Son, Wonderful (compare Isa 8:18), the mighty God." Local and temporary features (as in Isa 7:15-16) are added in every type; otherwise it would be no type, but the thing itself. There are resemblances to the great Antitype sufficient to be recognized by those who seek them; dissimilarities enough to confound those who do not desire to discover them.

JFB: Isa 7:14 - call That is, "she shall," or as Margin, "thou, O Virgin, shalt call;" mothers often named their children (Gen 4:1, Gen 4:25; Gen 19:37; Gen 29:32). In Mat...

That is, "she shall," or as Margin, "thou, O Virgin, shalt call;" mothers often named their children (Gen 4:1, Gen 4:25; Gen 19:37; Gen 29:32). In Mat 1:23 the expression is strikingly changed into, "They shall call"; when the prophecy received its full accomplishment, no longer is the name Immanuel restricted to the prophetess' view of His character, as in its partial fulfilment in her son; all shall then call (that is, not literally), or regard Him as peculiarly and most fitly characterized by the descriptive name, "Immanuel" (1Ti 3:16; Col 2:9).

JFB: Isa 7:14 - name Not mere appellation, which neither Isaiah's son nor Jesus Christ bore literally; but what describes His manifested attributes; His character (so Isa ...

Not mere appellation, which neither Isaiah's son nor Jesus Christ bore literally; but what describes His manifested attributes; His character (so Isa 9:6). The name in its proper destination was not arbitrary, but characteristic of the individual; sin destroyed the faculty of perceiving the internal being; hence the severance now between the name and the character; in the case of Jesus Christ and many in Scripture, the Holy Ghost has supplied this want [OLSHAUSEN].

JFB: Isa 7:15 - Butter Rather, curdled milk, the acid of which is grateful in the heat of the East (Job 20:17).

Rather, curdled milk, the acid of which is grateful in the heat of the East (Job 20:17).

JFB: Isa 7:15 - honey Abundant in Palestine (Jdg 14:8; 1Sa 14:25; Mat 3:4). Physicians directed that the first food given to a child should be honey, the next milk [BARNABA...

Abundant in Palestine (Jdg 14:8; 1Sa 14:25; Mat 3:4). Physicians directed that the first food given to a child should be honey, the next milk [BARNABAS, Epistle]. HORSLEY takes this as implying the real humanity of the Immanuel Jesus Christ, about to be fed as other infants (Luk 2:52). Isa 7:22 shows that besides the fitness of milk and honey for children, a state of distress of the inhabitants is also implied, when, by reason of the invaders, milk and honey, things produced spontaneously, shall be the only abundant articles of food [MAURER].

JFB: Isa 7:15 - that he may know Rather, until He shall know.

Rather, until He shall know.

JFB: Isa 7:15 - evil . . . choose . . . good At about three years of age moral consciousness begins (compare Isa 8:4; Deu 1:39; Jon 4:11).

At about three years of age moral consciousness begins (compare Isa 8:4; Deu 1:39; Jon 4:11).

JFB: Isa 7:16 - For The deliverance implied in the name "Immanuel," and the cessation of distress as to food (Isa 7:14-15), shall last only till the child grows to know g...

The deliverance implied in the name "Immanuel," and the cessation of distress as to food (Isa 7:14-15), shall last only till the child grows to know good and evil;

JFB: Isa 7:16 - for . . . the land that . . . abhorrest . . . forsaken of . . . kings Rather, desolate shall be the land, before whose two kings thou art alarmed [HENGSTENBERG and GESENIUS].

Rather, desolate shall be the land, before whose two kings thou art alarmed [HENGSTENBERG and GESENIUS].

JFB: Isa 7:16 - the land Namely, Syria and Samaria regarded as one (2Ki 16:9; 2Ki 15:30), just two years after this prophecy, as it foretells. HORSLEY takes it, "The land (Jud...

Namely, Syria and Samaria regarded as one (2Ki 16:9; 2Ki 15:30), just two years after this prophecy, as it foretells. HORSLEY takes it, "The land (Judah and Samaria) of (the former of) which thou art the plague (literally, 'thorn') shall be forsaken," &c.; a prediction thus, that Judah and Israel (appropriately regarded as one "land") should cease to be kingdoms (Luk 2:1; Gen 49:10) before Immanuel came.

Though temporary deliverance (Isa 7:16; Isa 8:4) was to be given then, and final deliverance through Messiah, sore punishment shall follow the former. After subduing Syria and Israel, the Assyrians shall encounter Egypt (2Ki 23:29), and Judah shall be the battlefield of both (Isa 7:18), and be made tributary to that very Assyria (2Ch 28:20; 2Ki 16:7-8) now about to be called in as an ally (Isa 39:1-6). Egypt, too, should prove a fatal ally (Isa 36:6; Isa 31:1, &c.).

JFB: Isa 7:18 - hiss Whistle, to bring bees to settle (see on Isa 5:26).

Whistle, to bring bees to settle (see on Isa 5:26).

JFB: Isa 7:18 - fly Found in numbers about the arms of the Nile and the canals from it (Isa 19:5-7; Isa 23:3), here called "rivers." Hence arose the plague of flies (Exo ...

Found in numbers about the arms of the Nile and the canals from it (Isa 19:5-7; Isa 23:3), here called "rivers." Hence arose the plague of flies (Exo 8:21). Figurative, for numerous and troublesome foes from the remotest parts of Egypt, for example, Pharaoh-nechoh.

JFB: Isa 7:18 - bee (Deu 1:44; Psa 118:12). As numerous in Assyria as the fly in marshy Egypt. Sennacherib, Esar-haddon, and Nebuchadnezzar fulfilled this prediction.

(Deu 1:44; Psa 118:12). As numerous in Assyria as the fly in marshy Egypt. Sennacherib, Esar-haddon, and Nebuchadnezzar fulfilled this prediction.

JFB: Isa 7:19 - rest Image of flies and bees kept up. The enemy shall overspread the land everywhere, even in "desolate valleys."

Image of flies and bees kept up. The enemy shall overspread the land everywhere, even in "desolate valleys."

JFB: Isa 7:19 - thorns Wild, contrasted with "bushes," which were valued and objects of care (see Margin).

Wild, contrasted with "bushes," which were valued and objects of care (see Margin).

JFB: Isa 7:20 - razor The Assyrians are to be God's instrument of devastating Judea, just as a razor sweeps away all hair before it (Isa 10:5; Eze 29:19-20).

The Assyrians are to be God's instrument of devastating Judea, just as a razor sweeps away all hair before it (Isa 10:5; Eze 29:19-20).

JFB: Isa 7:20 - hired Alluding to Ahaz' hiring (2Ki 16:7-8) Tiglath-pileser against Syria and Israel; namely,

Alluding to Ahaz' hiring (2Ki 16:7-8) Tiglath-pileser against Syria and Israel; namely,

JFB: Isa 7:20 - by them beyond the river Namely, the Euphrates; the eastern boundary of Jewish geographical knowledge (Psa 72:8); the river which Abram crossed; the Nile also may be included ...

Namely, the Euphrates; the eastern boundary of Jewish geographical knowledge (Psa 72:8); the river which Abram crossed; the Nile also may be included (Isa 7:18) [G. V. SMITH]. GESENIUS translates, "With a razor hired in the parts beyond the river."

JFB: Isa 7:20 - head . . . feet The whole body, including the most honored parts. To cut the "beard" is the greatest indignity to an Easterner (Isa 50:6; 2Sa 10:4-5; Eze 5:1).

The whole body, including the most honored parts. To cut the "beard" is the greatest indignity to an Easterner (Isa 50:6; 2Sa 10:4-5; Eze 5:1).

JFB: Isa 7:21 - nourish That is, own.

That is, own.

JFB: Isa 7:21 - young cow A heifer giving milk. Agriculture shall cease, and the land become one great pasturage.

A heifer giving milk. Agriculture shall cease, and the land become one great pasturage.

JFB: Isa 7:22 - abundance By reason of the wide range of land lying desolate over which the cows and sheep (including goats) may range.

By reason of the wide range of land lying desolate over which the cows and sheep (including goats) may range.

JFB: Isa 7:22 - butter Thick milk, or cream.

Thick milk, or cream.

JFB: Isa 7:22 - honey (See on Isa 7:15). Food of spontaneous growth will be the resource of the few inhabitants left. Honey shall be abundant as the bees will find the wild...

(See on Isa 7:15). Food of spontaneous growth will be the resource of the few inhabitants left. Honey shall be abundant as the bees will find the wild flowers abounding everywhere.

JFB: Isa 7:23 - where there were, &c. Where up to that time there was so valuable a vineyard as to have in it a 1000 vines, worth a silverling (shekel, about 2s. 3d.; a large price) each, ...

Where up to that time there was so valuable a vineyard as to have in it a 1000 vines, worth a silverling (shekel, about 2s. 3d.; a large price) each, there shall be only briers (Son 8:11). Vineyards are estimated by the number of the vines, and the goodness of the kind of vine. Judea admits of a high state of cultivation, and requires it, in order to be productive; its present barrenness is due to neglect.

JFB: Isa 7:24 - -- It shall become a vast hunting ground, abounding in wild beasts (compare Jer 49:19).

It shall become a vast hunting ground, abounding in wild beasts (compare Jer 49:19).

JFB: Isa 7:25 - shall be Rather, "were once."

Rather, "were once."

JFB: Isa 7:25 - digged In order to plant and rear vines (Isa 5:6).

In order to plant and rear vines (Isa 5:6).

JFB: Isa 7:25 - there shall not come That is, none shall come who fear thorns, seeing that thorns shall abound on all sides [MAURER]. Otherwise, "Thou shalt not come for fear of thorns" [...

That is, none shall come who fear thorns, seeing that thorns shall abound on all sides [MAURER]. Otherwise, "Thou shalt not come for fear of thorns" [GESENIUS]. Only cattle shall be able to penetrate the briery ground.

JFB: Isa 7:25 - lesser cattle Sheep and goats. The first seven verses of the ninth chapter belong to this section. The eighth chapter continues the subject of the seventh chapter,...

Sheep and goats.

The first seven verses of the ninth chapter belong to this section. The eighth chapter continues the subject of the seventh chapter, but at a later period (compare Isa 8:4 with Isa 7:16); implying that the interval till the accomplishment is shorter now than then. The tone of Isa 8:17, Isa 8:21-22, expresses calamity more immediate and afflictive than Isa 7:4, Isa 7:15, Isa 7:22.

Clarke: Isa 7:3 - Now Now - נא na , is omitted by two MSS., the Septuagint, Syriac, Arabic, and Vulgate.

Now - נא na , is omitted by two MSS., the Septuagint, Syriac, Arabic, and Vulgate.

Clarke: Isa 7:4 - -- The Syriac omits וארם vearam , "and Syria;"the Vulgate reads מלך ארם melech aram , "king of Syria:"one or the other seems to be the true r...

The Syriac omits וארם vearam , "and Syria;"the Vulgate reads מלך ארם melech aram , "king of Syria:"one or the other seems to be the true reading. I prefer the former: or, instead of וארם ובן vearam uben , read ופקח בן vepekach ben , and pekah son , MS.

Clarke: Isa 7:5 - Because - Remaliah Because - Remaliah - All these words are omitted by one MS. and the Syriac; a part of them also by the Septuagint.

Because - Remaliah - All these words are omitted by one MS. and the Syriac; a part of them also by the Septuagint.

Clarke: Isa 7:8-9 - For the head of Syria, etc. For the head of Syria, etc. - "Though the head of Syria be Damascus, And the head of Damascus Retsin; Yet within threescore and five years Ephraim s...

For the head of Syria, etc. - "Though the head of Syria be Damascus, And the head of Damascus Retsin; Yet within threescore and five years Ephraim shall be broken, that he be no more a people: And the head of Ephraim be Samaria; And the head of Samaria Remaliah’ s son

"Here are six lines, or three distichs, the order of which seems to have been disturbed by a transposition, occasioned by three of the lines beginning with the same word וראש verosh , "and the head,"which three lines ought not to have been separated by any other line intervening; but a copyist, having written the first of them, and casting his eye on the third, might easily proceed to write after the first line beginning with וראש verosh , that which ought to have followed the third line beginning with וראש verosh . Then finding his mistake, to preserve the beauty of his copy, added at the end the distich which should have been in the middle; making that the second distich, which ought to have been the third. For the order as it now stands is preposterous: the destruction of Ephraim is denounced, and then their grandeur is set forth; whereas naturally the representation of the grandeur of Ephraim should precede that of their destruction. And the destruction of Ephraim has no coherence with the grandeur of Syria, simply as such, which it now follows: but it naturally and properly follows the grandeur of Ephraim, joined to that of Syria their ally

"The arrangement then of the whole sentence seems originally to have been thus: -

Though the head of Syria be Damascus, And the head of Damascus Retsin And the head of Ephraim be Samaria; And the head of Samaria Remaliah’ s son: Yet within threescore and five years Ephraim shall be broken that he be no more a people."Dr. Jubb

Clarke: Isa 7:8-9 - Threescore and five years Threescore and five years - It was sixty-five years from the beginning of the reign of Ahaz, when this prophecy was delivered, to the total depopula...

Threescore and five years - It was sixty-five years from the beginning of the reign of Ahaz, when this prophecy was delivered, to the total depopulation of the kingdom of Israel by Esarhaddon, who carried away the remains of the ten tribes which had been left by Tiglath-pileser, and Shalmaneser, and who planted the country with new inhabitants. That the country was not wholly stripped of its inhabitants by Shalmaneser appears from many passages of the history of Josiah, where Israelites are mentioned as still remaining there, 2Ch 34:6, 2Ch 34:7, 2Ch 34:33; 2Ch 35:18; 2Ki 23:19, 2Ki 23:20. This seems to be the best explanation of the chronological difficulty in this place, which has much embarrassed the commentators: see Usserii Annal. 5. T. ad an. 3327, and Sir 1. Newton, Chronol. p. 283

"That the last deportation of Israel by Esarhaddon was in the sixty-fifth year after the second of Ahaz, is probable for the following reasons: The Jews, in Seder Olam Rabba, and the Talmudists, in D. Kimchi on Ezekiel iv., say that Manasseh king of Judah was carried to Babylon by the king of Assyria’ s captains, 2Ch 33:11, in the twenty-second year of his reign; that is, before Christ 676, according to Dr. Blair’ s tables. And they are probably right in this. It could not be much earlier; as the king of Assyria was not king of Babylon till 680, ibid. As Esarhaddon was then in the neighborhood of Samaria, it is highly probable that he did then carry away the last remains of Israel, and brought those strangers thither who mention him as their founder, Ezr 4:2. But this year is just the sixty-fifth from the second of Ahaz, which was 740 before Christ. Now the carrying away the remains of Israel, who, till then, though their kingdom was destroyed forty-five years before, and though small in number, might yet keep up some form of being a people, by living according to their own laws, entirely put an end to the people of Israel, as a people separate from all others: for from this time they never returned to their own country in a body, but were confounded with the people of Judah in the captivity; and the whole people, the ten tribes included, were called Jews."- Dr. Jubb. Two MSS. have twenty-five instead of sixty-five; and two others omit the word five, reading only sixty

Clarke: Isa 7:8-9 - If ye will not believe "If ye believe not" If ye will not believe "If ye believe not" - "This clause is very much illustrated by considering the captivity of Manasseh as happening at the same...

If ye will not believe "If ye believe not" - "This clause is very much illustrated by considering the captivity of Manasseh as happening at the same time with this predicted final ruin of Ephraim as a people. The near connection of the two facts makes the prediction of the one naturally to cohere with the prediction of the other. And the words are well suited to this event in the history of the people of Judah: ‘ If ye believe not, ye shall not be established;’ that is, unless ye believe this prophecy of the destruction of Israel, ye Jews also, as well as the people of Israel, shall not remain established as a kingdom and people; ye also shall be visited with punishment at the same time: as our Savior told the Jews in his time, ‘ Unless ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish;’ intimating their destruction by the Romans; to which also, as well as to the captivity of Manasseh, and to the Babylonish captivity, the views of the prophet might here extend. The close connection of this threat to the Jews with the prophecy of the destruction of Israel, is another strong proof that the order of the preceding lines above proposed is right."- Dr. Jubb

"If ye believe not in me."- The exhortation of Jehoshaphat, 2Ch 20:20, to his people, when God had promised to them, by the prophet Jahaziel, victory over the Moabites and Ammonites, is very like this both in sense and expression, and seems to be delivered in verse

"Hear me, O Judah; and ye inhabitants of Jerusalem

Believe in Jehovah your God, and ye shall be established

Believe his prophets, and ye shall prosper.

Where both the sense and construction render very probable a conjecture of Archbishop Secker on this place; that instead of כי ki , we should read בי bi . "If ye will not believe in me, ye shall not be established."So likewise Dr. Durell. The Chaldee has, "If ye will not believe in the words of the prophet;"which seems to be a paraphrase of the reading here proposed. In favor of which it may be farther observed that in one MS. כי ki is upon a rasure; and another for the last לא lo reads ולא velo , which would properly follow בי bi , but could not follow כי ki

Some translate thus, and paraphrase thus: If ye will not believe, surely ye shall not be established. Or, If ye do not give credit, it is because ye are unfaithful. Ye have not been faithful to the grace already given: therefore ye are now incapable of crediting my promises.

Clarke: Isa 7:11 - -- In the depth "Go deep to the grave"- So Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, and the Vulgate.

In the depth "Go deep to the grave"- So Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, and the Vulgate.

Clarke: Isa 7:14 - The Lord "Jehovah"- For אדני Adonai , twenty-five of Kennicott’ s MSS., nine ancient, and fourteen of De Rossi’ s, read יהוה Jehovah . And so Isa 7:20, eighteen MSS

Immanuel The Lord "Jehovah"- For אדני Adonai , twenty-five of Kennicott’ s MSS., nine ancient, and fourteen of De Rossi’ s, read יהוה J...

The Lord "Jehovah"- For אדני Adonai , twenty-five of Kennicott’ s MSS., nine ancient, and fourteen of De Rossi’ s, read יהוה Jehovah . And so Isa 7:20, eighteen MSS

Immanuel - For עמנואל Immanuel , many MSS. and editions have עמנו אל immanu El , God with us.

Clarke: Isa 7:15 - That he may know "When he shall know" That he may know "When he shall know" - "Though so much has been written on this important passage, there is an obscurity and inconsequence which st...

That he may know "When he shall know" - "Though so much has been written on this important passage, there is an obscurity and inconsequence which still attends it, in the general run of all the interpretations given to it by the most learned. And this obscure incoherence is given to it by the false rendering of a Hebrew particle, viz., ל le , in לדעתו ledato . This has been generally rendered, either ‘ that he may know,’ or ‘ till he know.’ It is capable of either version, without doubt; but either of these versions makes Isa 7:15 incoherent and inconsistent with Isa 7:16. For Isa 7:16 plainly means to give a reason for the assertion in Isa 7:16, because it is subjoined to it by the particle כי ki , for. But it is no reason why a child should eat butter and honey till he was at an age to distinguish, that before that time the land of his nativity should be free from its enemies. This latter supposition indeed implies, what is inconsistent with the preceding assertion. For it implies, that in part of that time of the infancy spoken of the land should not be free from enemies, and consequently these species of delicate food could not be attainable, as they are in times of peace. The other version, ‘ that he may know,’ has no meaning at all; for what sense is there in asserting, that a child shall eat butter and honey that he may know to refuse evil and choose good? Is there any such effect in this food? Surely not. Besides, the child is thus represented to eat those things, which only a state of peace produces, during its whole infancy, inconsistently with Isa 7:16, which promises a relief from enemies only before the end of this infancy: implying plainly, that part of it would be passed in distressful times of war and siege, which was the state of things when the prophecy was delivered

"But all these objections are cut off, and a clear, coherent sense is given to this passage, by giving another sense to the particle ל le . which never occurred to me till I saw it in Harmer’ s Observat., vol. i., p. 299. See how coherent the words of the prophet run, with how natural a connection one clause follows another, by properly rendering this one particle: ‘ Behold this Virgin shall conceive and bear a Son, and thou shalt call his name Immanuel; butter and honey, shall he eat, when he shall know to refuse evil, and choose good. For before this child shall know to refuse evil and choose good, the land shall be desolate, by whose two kings thou art distressed.’ Thus Isa 7:16 subjoins a plain reason why the child should eat butter and honey, the food of plentiful times, when he came to a distinguishing age; viz., because before that time the country of the two kings, who now distressed Judea, should be desolated; and so Judea should recover that plenty which attends peace. That this rendering, which gives perspicuity and rational connection to the passage, is according to the use of the Hebrew particle, is certain. Thus לפנות בקר liphnoth boker , ‘ at the appearing of morning, or when morning appeared,’ Exo 14:27; לעת האכל leeth haochel , ‘ at mealtime, or when it was time to eat,’ Rth 2:14. In the same manner, לדעתו ledato , ‘ at his knowing, that is, when he knows.’

"Harmer (ibid.) has clearly shown that these articles of food are delicacies in the East, and, as such, denote a state of plenty. See also Jos 5:6. They therefore naturally express the plenty of the country, as a mark of peace restored to it. Indeed, in Isa 7:22 it expresses a plenty arising from the thinness of the people; but that it signifies, Isa 7:15, a plenty arising from deliverance from war then present, is evident; because otherwise there is no expression of this deliverance. And that a deliverance was intended to be here expressed is plain, from calling the child which should be born Immanuel, God with us. It is plain, also, because it is before given to the prophet in charge to make a declaration of the deliverance, Isa 7:3-7; and it is there made; and this prophecy must undoubtedly be conformable to that in this matter."- Dr. Jubb

The circumstance of the child’ s eating butter and honey is explained by Jarchi, as denoting a state of plenty: "Butter and honey shall this child eat, because our land shall be full of all good."Comment in locum. The infant Jupiter, says Callimachus, was tenderly nursed with goat’ s milk and honey. Hymn, in Jov. 48. Homer, of the orphan daughters of Pandareus: -

Κομισσε δε δι Αφροδιτ

Τυρῳ και μελιτι γλυκερῳ, και ἡδει οινῳ.

Odyss. XX., 68

"Venus in tender delicacy rear

With honey, milk, and wine, their infant years.

Pope

Τρυφης εστιν ενδειξις ; "This is a description of delicate food,"says Eustathius on the place

Agreeably to the observations communicated by the learned person above mentioned, which perfectly well explain the historical sense of this much disputed passage, not excluding a higher secondary sense, the obvious and literal meaning of the prophecy is this:"that within the time that a young woman, now a virgin, should conceive and bring forth a child, and that child should arrive at such an age as to distinguish between good and evil, that is, within a few years, (compare Isa 8:4), the enemies of Judah should be destroyed."But the prophecy is introduced in so solemn a manner; the sign is so marked, as a sign selected and given by God himself, after Ahaz had rejected the offer of any sign of his own choosing out of the whole compass of nature; the terms of the prophecy are so peculiar, and the name of the child so expressive, containing in them much more than the circumstances of the birth of a common child required, or even admitted; that we may easily suppose that, in minds prepared by the general expectation of a great Deliverer to spring from the house of David, they raised hopes far beyond what the present occasion suggested; especially when it was found, that in the subsequent prophecy, delivered immediately afterward, this child, called Immanuel, is treated as the Lord and Prince of the land of Judah. Who could this be, other than the heir of the throne of David; under which character a great and even a Divine person had been promised? No one of that age answered to this character except Hezekiah; but he was certainly born nine or ten years before the delivery of this prophecy. That this was so understood at that time is collected, I think, with great probability, from a passage of Micah, a prophet contemporary with Isaiah, but who began to prophesy after him; and who, as I have already observed, imitated him, and sometimes used his expressions. Micah, having delivered that remarkable prophecy which determines the place of the birth of Messiah, "the Ruler of God’ s people, whose goings forth have been of old, from everlasting;"that it should be Bethlehem Ephratah; adds immediately, that nevertheless, in the mean time, God would deliver his people into the hands of their enemies: "He will give them up, till she, who is to bear a child, shall bring forth,"Mic 5:3. This obviously and plainly refers to some known prophecy concerning a woman to bring forth a child; and seems much more properly applicable to this passage of Isaiah than to any others of the same prophet, to which some interpreters have applied it. St. Matthew, therefore, in applying this prophecy to the birth of Christ, does it, not merely in the way of accommodating the words of the prophet to a suitable case not in the prophet’ s view, but takes it in its strictest, clearest, and most important sense; and applies it according to the original design and principal intention of the prophet. - L

After all this learned criticism, I think something is still wanting to diffuse the proper light over this important prophecy. On Mat 1:23 I have given what I judge to be the true meaning and right application of the whole passage, as there quoted by the evangelist, the substance of which it will be necessary to repeat here: -

At the time referred to, the kingdom of Judah, under the government of Ahaz, was reduced very low. Pekah, king of Israel, had slain in Judea one hundred and twenty thousand persons in one day; and carried away captives two hundred thousand, including women and children, together with much spoil. To add to their distress, Rezin, king of Syria, being confederate with Pekah, had taken Elath, a fortified city of Judah, and carried the inhabitants away captive to Damascus. In this critical conjuncture, need we wonder that Ahaz was afraid that the enemies who were now united against him must prevail, destroy Jerusalem, end the kingdom of Judah, and annihilate the family of David? To meet and remove this fear, apparently well grounded, Isaiah is sent from the Lord to Ahaz, swallowed up now both by sorrow and by unbelief, in order to assure him that the counsels of his enemies should not stand; and that they should be utterly discomfited. To encourage Ahaz, he commands him to ask a sign or miracle, which should be a pledge in hand, that God should, in due time, fulfill the predictions of his servant, as related in the context. On Ahaz humbly refusing to ask any sign, it is immediately added, "Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a son; and shall call his name Immanuel. Butter and honey shall he eat,"etc. Both the Divine and human nature of our Lord, as well as the miraculous conception, appear to be pointed out in the prophecy quoted here by the evangelist: He shall be called עמנואל Immanuel ; literally, The Strong God with Us: similar to those words in the New Testament: The word which was God - was made flesh, and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth; Joh 1:1, Joh 1:14. And God was manifested in the flesh, 1Ti 3:16. So that we are to understand God with us to imply, God incarnated - God in human nature. This seems farther evident from the words of the prophet, Isa 7:15 : Butter and honey shall he eat - he shall be truly man - grow up and be nourished in a human natural way; which refers to his being With Us, i.e., incarnated. To which the prophet adds, That he may know to refuse the evil, and choose the good; or rather, According to his knowledge, לדעתו ledato , reprobating the evil, and choosing the good; this refers to him as God, and is the same idea given by this prophet, chap. Isa 53:11 : By (or in) his knowledge, בדעתו bedato , (the knowledge of Christ crucified), shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their offenses. Now this union of the Divine and human nature is termed a sign or miracle, אות oth , i.e., something which exceeds the power of nature to produce. And this miraculous union was to be brought about in a miraculous way: Behold, a Virgin shall conceive: the word is very emphatic, העלמה haalmah , The virgin; the only one that ever was, or ever shall be, a mother in this way. But the Jews, and some called Christians, who have espoused their desperate cause, assert that "the word עלמה almah does not signify a Virgin only; for it is applied Pro 30:19 to signify a young married woman."I answer, that this latter text is no proof of the contrary doctrine: the words דרך גבר בעלמה derech geber bealmah , the way of a man with a maid, cannot be proved to mean that for which it is produced. Besides, one of De Rossi’ s MSS. reads בעלמיו bealmaiv , the way of a strong or stout man ( גבר geber ) In His Youth; and in this reading the Syriac, Septuagint, Vulgate, and Arabic agree; which are followed by the first version in the English language, as it stands in a MS. in my own possession: the weie of a man in his waxing youth: so that this place, the only one that can with any probability of success be produced, were the interpretation contended for correct, which I am by no means disposed to admit, proves nothing. Besides, the consent of so many versions in the opposite meaning deprives it of much of its influence in this question

The word עלמה almah , comes from עלם alam , to lie hid, be concealed: and we are told, that "virgins were so called, because they were concealed or closely kept up in their father’ s houses till the time of their marriage."This is not correct: see the case of Rebecca, Gen 24:43 (note), and my note there; that of Rachel, Gen 29:6-9 (note), and the note there also; and see the case of Miriam, the sister of Moses, Exo 2:8, and also the Chaldee paraphrase on Lam 1:4, where the virgins are represented as going out in the dance. And see also the whole history of Ruth. This being concealed or kept at home, on which so much stress is laid, is purely fanciful; for we find that young unmarried women drew water, kept sheep, gleaned publicly in the fields, etc., etc., and the same works they perform among the Turcomans to the present day. This reason, therefore, does not account for the radical meaning of the word; and we must seek it elsewhere. Another well-known and often-used root in the Hebrew tongue will cast light on this subject. This is גלה galah , which signifies to reveal, make manifest, or uncover; and is often applied to matrimonial connections in different parts of the Mosaic law: עלם alam , therefore, may be considered as implying the concealment of the virgin, as such, till lawful, marriage had taken place. A virgin was not called עלמה almah , because she was concealed by being kept at home in her father’ s house, which is not true; but, literally and physically, because as a woman she had not been uncovered - she had not known man. This fully applies to the blessed virgin, see Luk 1:34. "How can this be, seeing I know no man?"And this text throws much light on the subject before us. This also is in perfect agreement with the ancient prophecy, "The seed of the woman shall bruise the head of the serpent,"Gen 3:15; for the person who was to destroy the work of the devil was to be the progeny of the woman, without any concurrence of the man. And hence the text in Genesis speaks as fully of the virgin state of the person from whom Christ, according to the flesh, should come, as that in the prophet, or this in the evangelist. According to the original promise there was to be a seed, a human being, who should destroy sin: but this seed or human being, must come from the woman Alone; and no woman Alone could produce such a human being without being a virgin. Hence, A virgin shall bear a son, is the very spirit and meaning of the original text, independently of the illustration given by the prophet; and the fact recorded by the evangelist is the proof of the whole. But how could that be a sign to Ahaz which was to take place so many hundreds of years after? I answer, the meaning of the prophet is plain: not only Rezin and Pekah should be unsuccessful against Jerusalem at that time, which was the fact; but Jerusalem, Judea, and the house of David should be both preserved, notwithstanding their depressed state, and the multitude of their adversaries, till the time should come when a Virgin should bear a son. This is a most remarkable circumstance the house of David could never fail, till a virgin should conceive and bear a son - nor did it: but when that incredible and miraculous fact did take place, the kingdom and house of David became extinct! This is an irrefragable confutation of every argument a Jew can offer in vindication of his opposition to the Gospel of Christ. Either the prophecy in Isaiah has been fulfilled, or the kingdom and house of David are yet standing. But the kingdom of David, we know, is destroyed: and where is the man, Jew or Gentile, that can show us a single descendant of David on the face of the earth? The prophecy could not fail: the kingdom and house of David have failed; the virgin, therefore, must have brought forth her son, and this son is Jesus, the Christ. Thus Moses, Isaiah, and Matthew concur; and facts the most unequivocal have confirmed the whole! Behold the wisdom and providence of God

Notwithstanding what has been said above, it may be asked, In what sense could this name, Immanuel, be applied to Jesus Christ, if he be not truly and properly God? Could the Spirit of truth ever design that Christians should receive him as an angel or a mere man; and yet, in the very beginning of the Gospel history, apply a character to him which belongs only to the most high God? Surely no. In what sense, then, is Christ God with Us? Jesus is called Immanuel, or God with us, in his incarnation; God united to our nature; God with man, God in man; God with us, by his continual protection; God with us, by the influences of his Holy Spirit, in the holy sacrament, in the preaching of his word, in private prayer. And God with us, through every action of our life, that we begin, continue, and end in his name. He is God with us, to comfort, enlighten, protect, and defend us, in every time of temptation and trial, in the hour of death, in the day of judgment; and God with us and in us, and we with and in him, to all eternity

Clarke: Isa 7:15 - Isa 7:17

The Lord shall bring "But Jehovah will bring"- Houbigant reads וביא vaiyabi , from the Septuagint, αλλα επαξει ὁ Θεος, to mark the transition to a new subject

Even the king of Assyria Isa 7:17 The Lord shall bring "But Jehovah will bring"- Houbigant reads וביא vaiyabi , from the Septuagint, αλλα επαξει ὁ Θεο...

Isa 7:17

The Lord shall bring "But Jehovah will bring"- Houbigant reads וביא vaiyabi , from the Septuagint, αλλα επαξει ὁ Θεος, to mark the transition to a new subject

Even the king of Assyria - Houbigant supposes these words to have been a marginal gloss, brought into the text by mistake; and so likewise Archbishop Secker. Besides their having no force or effect here, they do not join well in construction with the words preceding, as may be seen by the strange manner in which the ancient interpreters have taken them; and they very inelegantly forestall the mention of the king of Assyria, which comes in with great propriety in the 20th verse (Isa 7:20). I have therefore taken the liberty of omitting them in the translation.

Clarke: Isa 7:18 - Hiss for the fly "Hist the fly"- See note on Isa 5:26

Egypt, and - Assyria Hiss for the fly "Hist the fly"- See note on Isa 5:26 Egypt, and - Assyria - Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, Pharaoh-necho, and Nebuchadnezzar, who one a...

Hiss for the fly "Hist the fly"- See note on Isa 5:26

Egypt, and - Assyria - Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, Pharaoh-necho, and Nebuchadnezzar, who one after another desolated Judea.

Clarke: Isa 7:19 - -- Holes of the rocks "Caverns"- So the Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, whence Houbigant supposes the true reading to be הנחללים hannachalolim...

Holes of the rocks "Caverns"- So the Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, whence Houbigant supposes the true reading to be הנחללים hannachalolim . One of my oldest MSS. reads הנחלולים hannochalolim .

Clarke: Isa 7:20 - The river The river - That is, the Euphrates: הנהר hanahar . So read the Septuagint and two MSS Shall the Lord shave with a razor that is hired "Jehova...

The river - That is, the Euphrates: הנהר hanahar . So read the Septuagint and two MSS

Shall the Lord shave with a razor that is hired "Jehovah shall shave by the hired razor"- To shave with the hired razor the head, the feet, and the beard, is an expression highly parabolical, to denote the utter devastation of the country from one end to the other; and the plundering of the people, from the highest to the lowest, by the Assyrians, whom God employed as his instrument to punish the Jews. Ahaz himself, in the first place, hired the king of Assyria to come to help him against the Syrians, by a present made to him of all the treasures of the temple, as well as his own. And God himself considered the great nations, whom he thus employed as his mercenaries; and paid them their wages. Thus he paid Nebuchadnezzar for his services against Tyre, by the conquest of Egypt, Eze 29:18-20. The hairs of the head are those of the highest order in the state; those of the feet, or the lower parts, are the common people; the beard is the king, the high priest, the very supreme in dignity and majesty. The Eastern people have always held the beard in the highest veneration, and have been extremely jealous of its honor. To pluck a man’ s beard is an instance of the greatest indignity that can be offered. See Isa 50:6. The king of the Ammonites, to show the utmost contempt of David, "cut off half the beards of his servants, and the men were greatly ashamed; and David bade them tarry at Jericho till their beards were grown,"2Sa 10:4, 2Sa 10:6. Niebuhr, Arabie, p. 275, gives a modern instance of the very same kind of insult. "The Turks,"says Thevenot, "greatly esteem a man who has a fine beard; it is a very great affront to take a man by his beard, unless it be to kiss it; they swear by the beard."Voyages, i., p. 57. D’ Arvieux gives a remarkable instance of an Arab, who, having received a wound in his jaw, chose to hazard his life, rather than suffer his surgeon to take off his beard. Memoires, tom. iii., p. 214. See also Niebuhr, Arabie, p. 61

The remaining verses of this chapter, Isa 7:21-25, contain an elegant and very expressive description of a country depopulated, and left to run wild, from its adjuncts and circumstances: the vineyards and cornfields, before well cultivated, now overrun with briers and thorns; much grass, so that the few cattle that are left, a young cow and two sheep, have their full range, and abundant pasture, so as to yield milk in plenty to the scanty family of the owner; the thinly scattered people living, not on corn, wine, and oil, the produce of cultivation; but on milk and honey, the gifts of nature; and the whole land given up to the wild beasts, so that the miserable inhabitants are forced to go out armed with bows and arrows, either to defend themselves against the wild beasts, or to supply themselves with necessary food by hunting

A Very judicious friend has sent me the following observations on the preceding prophecy, which I think worthy of being laid before the reader; though they are in some respects different from my own view of the subject

"To establish the primary and literal meaning of a passage of Scripture is evidently laying the true foundation for any subsequent views or improvements from it

"The kingdom of Judah, under the government of Ahaz, was reduced very low. Pekah, king of Israel, had slain in Judea one hundred and twenty thousand in one day; and carried away captive two hundred thousand including women and children, with much spoil. To add to this distress, Rezin, king of Syria, being confederate with Pekah, had taken Elath, a fortified city of Judah, and carried the inhabitants to Damascus. I think it may also be gathered from the sixth verse of chap. 8, that the kings of Syria and Israel had a considerable party in the land of Judea, who, regardless of the Divine appointment and promises, were disposed to favor the elevation of Tabeal, a stranger, to the throne of David

"In this critical conjuncture of affairs, Isaiah was sent with a message of mercy, and a promise of deliverance, to Ahaz. He was commanded to take with him Shearjashub, his son whose name contained a promise respecting the captives lately made by Pekah, whose return from Samaria, effected by the expostulation of the prophet Oded and the concurrence of the princes of Ephraim, was now promised as a pledge of the Divine interposition offered to Ahaz in favor of the house of David. And as a farther token of this preservation, notwithstanding the incredulity of Ahaz, Isaiah was directed to predict the birth of another son which should be born to him within the space of a year, and to be named Emmanuel, signifying thereby the protection of God to the land of Judah and family of David at this present conjuncture, with reference to the promise of the Messiah who was to spring from that family, and be born in that land. Compare Isa 8:8. Hence Isaiah testifies, Isa 8:18 : ‘ Behold, I and the children whom the Lord hath given me are for signs and for types in Israel.’ Compare Zec 3:8 : ‘ Thy companions are men of sign and type:’ see Dr. Lowth on this verse. The message of Divine displeasure against Israel is in like manner expressed by the names the prophet Hosea was directed to give his children; see Hos 1:1-11 and 2

"Concerning this child, who was to be named Immanuel, the prophet was commissioned to declare, that notwithstanding the present scarcity prevailing in the land from its being harassed by war, yet within the space of time wherein this child should be of age to discern good and evil, both these hostile kings, viz., of Israel and Syria, should be cut off; and the country enjoy such plenty, that butter and honey, food accounted of peculiar delicacy, should be a common repast. See Harmer’ s Observations, p. 299

"To this it may be objected that Isaiah’ s son was not named Immanuel, but Maher-shalal-hash-baz; the signification of which bore a threatening aspect, instead of a consolatory one. To this I think a satisfactory answer may be given. Ahaz, by his unbelief and disregard of the message of mercy sent to him from God, (for instead of depending upon it he sent and made a treaty with the king of Assyria), drew upon himself the Divine displeasure, which was expressed by the change of the child’ s name, and the declaration that though Damascus and Samaria should, according to the former prediction, fall before the king of Assyria, yet that this very power, i.e., Assyria, in whom Ahaz trusted for deliverance, (see 2Ki 16:7, etc.), should afterwards come against Judah, and ‘ fill the breadth of the land,’ which was accomplished in the following reign, when Jerusalem was so endangered as to be delivered only by miracle. The sixth and seventh verses of chap. 8 indicate, I think, as I before observed, that the kings of Syria and Israel had many adherents in Judah, who are said to refuse the peaceful waters of Shiloah or Siloam, him that is to be sent, who ought to have been their confidence, typified by the fountain at the foot of Mount Zion, whose stream watered the city of Jerusalem; and therefore, since the splendor of victory, rather than the blessings of peace, was the object of their admiration, compared to a swelling river which overflowed its banks, God threatens to chastise them by the victorious armies of Ashur. The prophet at the same time addresses words of consolation to such of the people who yet feared and trusted in Jehovah, whom he instructs and comforts with the assurance (Isa 8:10) that they shall prove the fulfillment of the promise contained in the name Immanuel

"But it may still be objected, that according to this interpretation of the fourteenth verse of chap. 7 nothing miraculous occurs, which is readily admitted; but the objection rests upon the supposition that something miraculous was intended; whereas the word אות oth , ‘ sign,’ does by no means generally imply a miracle, but most commonly an emblematic representation, (see Eze 4:3-12; 11; Eze 20:20; Zec 6:14), either by actions or names, of some future event either promised or threatened. Exo 3:12; 1Sa 2:34; 2Ki 19:29; Jer 44:29, Jer 44:30, are all examples of a future event given as a sign or token of something else which is also future. The birth of Isaiah’ s son was indeed typical of him whose name he was, at first, appointed to bear, viz., Immanuel, even as Oshea the son of Nun had his name changed to Jehoshua, the same with Jesus, of whom he was an eminent type. Hence the prophet, in the ninth chapter, breaks forth into a strain of exultation: ‘ To us a child is born;’ after which follow denunciations against Rezin and the kingdom of Israel, which are succeeded by declarations, that when Assyria had completed the appointed chastisement upon Judah and Jerusalem, that empire should be destroyed. The whole of the tenth chapter is a very remarkable prophecy, and was probably delivered about the time of Sennacherib’ s invasion

"But still it will be urged, that St. Matthew, when relating the miraculous conception of our Lord, says, ‘ Now all this was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet,’ etc. To this it may readily be answered, that what was spoken by the prophet was indeed now fulfilled in a higher, more important, and also in a more literal sense, than the primary fulfillment could afford, which derived all its value from its connection with this event, to which it ultimately referred

"In like manner the prophecy of Isaiah, contained in the second chapter, received a complete fulfillment in our Savior’ s honoring Capernaum with his residence, and preaching throughout Galilee; though there appears reason to interpret the passage as having a primary respect to the reformation wrought by Hezekiah and which, at the eve of the dissolution of the kingdom of Israel by the captivity of the ten tribes, extended to the tribes of Asher and Zebulun, and many of the inhabitants of Ephraim and Manasseh, who were hereby stirred up to destroy idolatry in their country. See 2Ch 31:1. And without doubt the great deliverance wrought afterwards for Judah by the miraculous destruction of Sennacherib’ s army, and the recovery of Hezekiah in so critical a conjuncture from a sickness which had been declared to be unto death, contributed not a little to revive the fear of God in that part of Israel which, through their defection from the house of David, had grievously departed from the temple and worship of the true God; and as Galilee lay contiguous to countries inhabited by Gentiles, they had probably sunk deeper into idolatry than the southern part of Israel

"In several passages of St. Matthew’ s Gospel, our translation conveys the idea of things being done in order to fulfill certain prophecies; but I apprehend that if the words ἱνα και ὁπως were rendered as simply denoting the event, so that and thus was fulfilled, the sense would be much clearer. For it is obvious that our Lord did not speak in parables or ride into Jerusalem previously to his last passover, simply for the purpose of fulfilling the predictions recorded, but also from other motives; and in chap. 2 the evangelist only remarks that the circumstance of our Lord’ s return from Egypt corresponded with the prophet Hosea’ s relation of that part of the history of the Israelites. So in the twenty-third verse Joseph dwelt at Nazareth because he was directed so to do by God himself; and the sacred historian, having respect to the effect afterwards produced, (see Joh 7:41, Joh 7:42, Joh 7:52), remarks that this abode in Nazareth was a means of fulfilling those predictions of the prophets which indicate the contempt and neglect with which by many the Messiah should be treated. Galilee was considered by the inhabitants of Judea as a degraded place, chiefly from its vicinity to the Gentiles; and Nazareth seems to have been proverbially contemptible; and from the account given of the spirit and conduct of the inhabitants by the evangelists, not without reason."- E. M. B

To my correspondent, as well as to many learned men, there appears some difficulty in the text; but I really think this is quite done away by that mode of interpretation which I have already adopted; and as far as the miraculous conception is concerned, the whole is set in the clearest and strongest light, and the objections and cavils of the Jeers entirely destroyed.

Calvin: Isa 7:1 - And it came to pass // Went up 1.And it came to pass Here is related a remarkable prophecy about the wonderful deliverance of Jerusalem, when it appeared to have been utterly ruine...

1.And it came to pass Here is related a remarkable prophecy about the wonderful deliverance of Jerusalem, when it appeared to have been utterly ruined. Now the Prophet explains all the circumstances, that by means of them the miracle may be more fully displayed, and to make it manifest, that not by the wisdom or power of man, but by the favor of God, the city has been preserved. For so ungrateful were the people, that, at the close of this transaction, they would not have understood that they had been delivered by the hand of the Lord, if all the circumstances had not been expressly brought to their remembrance. And, indeed, there were very few persons who, in the hour of danger, ventured to hope what Isaiah promised; because they judged of themselves and of the state of public affairs from present appearances. In order, therefore, to make known the remarkable kindness of God, he enters into all the details, that they may perceive from what danger and from whose hand they have been delivered. Let us also understand that this kindness was conferred on ungrateful men, that the Church might be preserved, and that Christ might afterwards appear.

It ought to be observed that the Prophet speaks of the second war which was fought by Rezin and Pekah; and this may easily be inferred from the sacred history; for in the former war Ahaz was vanquished, and a vast multitude were carried into captivity, who were at length restored by the Israelites, when the Prophet, in the name of God, commanded that it should be done. Having again collected an army, (2Kg 16:5,) the kings of Israel and Syria attacked Ahaz, because they thought that he had been worn out by the former war, and had no power to resist. The mention of this second war is intended to show the greatness of the miracle; for Ahaz had not strength left to resist so great a multitude, the flower of the whole nation having been swept away by the former war, and such of the people as remained being quite dispirited, and not yet recovered from the terror arising out of their recent defeat. So much the more, therefore, are the goodness and power of God displayed, that, pitying so great distress, he gave assistance to his people, and in a moment rescued them from the jaws of death, when all regarded their condition as hopeless.

Went up This may be regarded as a statement and summary of the whole transaction; for he mentions the subjects on which he is about to speak, and in the Hebrew modes of expression briefly glances at those matters which he will afterwards explain more fully and at large. From the first he tells the result, that the expedition of the two kings was unsuccessful, and afterwards he will assign the reasons why Jerusalem could not be stormed; but before coming to that, he briefly notices the plan or design of King Ahaz.

Calvin: Isa 7:2 - And it was told the house of David // And his heart was moved 2.And it was told the house of David He does not mean that, at the very time when the two kings were approaching to the city, the king received intel...

2.And it was told the house of David He does not mean that, at the very time when the two kings were approaching to the city, the king received intelligence about the league; for it would not have been safe for Ahaz to go out, when the invading army was spread over the country; but before they had collected their forces, it is said that King Ahaz trembled. Hence there is reason to believe that his consternation became greater when he saw the danger nearer. The house of David means the king’s palace and court; as if the Prophet had said that Ahaz and his counsellors had been informed about the conspiracy which had been formed against Judea.

As to the words, נחה ( nachah) is variously rendered by interpreters. The signification of this Hebrew word being to lead, some draw from it this meaning, “The King of Syria led his soldiers to aid the army;” and they think that על ( al) with ע ( ain) is put for אל ( al) with א ( aleph). Others derive it from נוח ( nuach), as if the letter ו ( vau) were wanting, and render it, he rested. According to others, it is rather an inversion of the letters, and נחה ( nahah) is put for חנה ( chanah), which means to pitch a camp; and, therefore, they choose to render it, Syria is confederate 101 Nothing else was meant by the Prophet than that a league in war hath been formed between the Israelites and the Syrians, that with their united forces they might attack Jerusalem. In the use of the word Ephraim there is a figure of speech (synecdoche) very frequent in the Prophets, by which a part is taken for the whole. Under Ephraim the whole kingdom of Israel is included, not only because that tribe was superior to the rest in numbers and wealth, but because their first king, Jeroboam, was descended from it. (1Kg 11:26.)

And his heart was moved We see that by the house of David is here meant nothing else than “the king’s palace,” from which the terror spread to the whole nation; and indeed it was impossible but that, when they heard of the alarm of the king and the princes, the body of the people should be moved by the same kind of terror. As soon as this intelligence was received, all were struck with such dread that no man was master of himself. He expresses their trembling by an appropriate metaphor, which is also frequently employed by ourselves, ( Il tremble comme la fueille en l’arbre ,) he trembles like the leaf of a tree. The design of this is to heighten the miracle; for we learn from it that not only in the opinion of others, but likewise in their own opinion, their case was desperate. They would therefore have been utterly ruined if the Lord had not seasonably interposed.

This passage sets before us a very bright mirror, in which we may behold the thoughtlessness of the ungodly, when they do not feel the hand of God; and, on the other hand, the fearful trembling with which they are suddenly seized, when the Lord presents to them any danger. In the midst of their prosperity they are so much at their ease that they hardly believe that they are subject to the government of God, and undoubtedly imagine that they are placed beyond the reach of all danger. Adversity stuns them in such a manner that they suddenly fall down, and their senses are so entirely overpowered by terror that they lie like people who are lifeless or bereft of their senses. Such is the punishment by which the Lord arouses them from their deep slumber. At first they appear to be firm and immovable, as if nothing could throw them down from their rank; but now, at the slightest noise, they are suddenly seized with trembling. That terror is the righteous vengeance of God, to whom they never do homage until they are compelled.

Let us learn, that if we have any spark of faith, we ought not to distrust God when we are in any danger. It is indeed impossible that we should not be agitated and alarmed when dangers press upon us; but we ought not to tremble so as to be tossed about by our anxiety in every direction, and unable to see a harbour to which we may safely direct our course. There must always be this difference between the fear of the godly and of the ungodly, that the ungodly find no remedy for composing their minds; but the godly immediately betake themselves to God, in whom, knowing that they have a very safe harbour, though they be harassed by uneasiness, still they remain calm.

Calvin: Isa 7:3 - Then said the LORD // To the way of the fuller’s field 3.Then said the LORD First, we see how God, remembering his covenant, anticipates this wicked king by sending the Prophet to meet him; for he does no...

3.Then said the LORD First, we see how God, remembering his covenant, anticipates this wicked king by sending the Prophet to meet him; for he does not wait for his prayers, but of his own accord promises that he will grant deliverance. His son Shear-jashub is joined with the Prophet as a witness of the prediction, and there is reason to believe that his name, Shear-jashub, was not given at random, but by the secret inspiration of the Spirit, or by an immediate command of God, and in order to point out the future deliverance of the people. He, therefore, carried in his name what might be regarded as an engraven seal, both of the approaching captivity and of the return. It is also probable that this symbol of the prediction was generally known, for he would not have been joined with his father on any other account than because he bore in his person some authority.

To the way of the fuller’s field The place is mentioned in order to give authenticity to the history. It is possible that the king, for the purpose of repelling the enemy, may have set out to watch his approach, which appears more clearly from the sacred history. (2Kg 18:17.) It is called the way of the fuller’s field, perhaps because it was customary to wash clothes there, or because the name arose out of some ancient occurrence. However that may be, it was an evidence of anxiety and dread, that this wretched hypocrite was running about in all directions, when Isaiah came forth to meet him and to soothe his mind.

Calvin: Isa 7:4 - And thou shalt say to him // Fear not // And let not thy heart be faint // For the two tails 4.And thou shalt say to him 102 The Hebrew word שמר ( shamar,) which signifies to keep, is here put in the Hiphil; 103 and the greater part of ...

4.And thou shalt say to him 102 The Hebrew word שמר ( shamar,) which signifies to keep, is here put in the Hiphil; 103 and the greater part of interpreters take it for beware; but they erroneously apply this to an unnatural and far-fetched meaning, that Ahaz should beware of carrying on war. A more natural meaning is, that he ought not to waver or wander about in uncertainty, but to remain calm and serene. Accordingly, I have rendered it refrain. The meaning therefore is, that Ahab should be composed, and should not be agitated or harass his mind by uneasiness, as fickle and unsteady persons are wont to do when they are struck with terror.

This interpretation is confirmed by the word which follows, Be quiet; for these two are connected, first, to keep quiet watch, so as not to be distracted by a variety of opinions, or gaze around in all directions; and, secondly, to have a calm and composed mind. Such are the highly delightful fruits which are yielded by faith; for through a variety of attacks unbelievers give way, and wander in uncertainty, and know not to which hand they ought to turn, while believers keep themselves under restraint, and quietly betake themselves to God. Ungodliness is never at rest; but where faith exists, there the mind is composed, and does not tremble to an immoderate degree. These words very fitly express the power of faith.

Fear not After having pointed out the remedy for allaying the distresses of the mind, he likewise bids them not fear; for faith, which places our salvation in the hand of God, is not more opposite to anything than to fear. It is impossible, I acknowledge, not to fear when dangers threaten, for faith does not deprive us of all feeling. On the contrary, the children of God are undoubtedly moved by two kinds of fear, one of which arises from the feeling of human nature, even though they be endued with perfect faith. The other arises from the weakness of faith; for no man has made such proficiency as not to have any remains of that distrust against which we ought continually to strive. We must not, therefore, understand the exhortation of the Prophet to mean that the Lord forbids every kind of fear, but he enjoins believers to be armed with such firmness as to overcome fear. As if he had said, “Do not suffer yourselves to be discouraged; and if you are assailed by fierce and severe attacks, maintain unshaken resolution, that you may not be overpowered by dangers, but, on the contrary, live to God and overcome all your distresses.” For the same reason he immediately adds, —

And let not thy heart be faint To be faint means “to melt away,” for not without reason does the Apostle exhort us to strengthen our hearts by faith. (Heb 11:27.) It is the softness of indolence, when we forget God and melt away, as it were, through our unbelief. You would not call that man soft or effeminate who relies on the Spirit of God and steadfastly resists adversity. Hence we infer that the Prophet meant nothing else than that Ahaz should undauntedly await the accomplishment of what the Lord had promised to him.

For the two tails Isaiah employs an elegant metaphor to lessen the conception which the Jews had formed about those two very powerful kings which had filled their minds with terror. Their rage and cruelty appeared to be a devouring fire, which was sufficient to consume the whole of Judea, and could not be quenched. Isaiah, on the other hand, calls them not firebrands, (for that might have been thought to be something great,) but tails, that is, some fragments or ends of firebrands, and these, too, not burning, but only smoking, as if some firebrand snatched from the fire were going out, and gave out nothing else than a slight smoke. This metaphor yields high consolation, for it warns us to form a very different opinion about the violence of the ungodly from what it appears to be. One would think that they are endued with so great power that they could burn and destroy the whole world. To put down the excess of terror, the Lord declares that what we imagined to be a burning, and a perpetual burning, is but a slight smoke and of short duration.

Calvin: Isa 7:5 - The king of Syria hath taken evil counsel against thee 5.The king of Syria hath taken evil counsel against thee Though he foretold that empty would be the threats, and vain the attempts of the enemies of ...

5.The king of Syria hath taken evil counsel against thee Though he foretold that empty would be the threats, and vain the attempts of the enemies of the people of God, yet he does not conceal that their devices are cruel, if the Lord do not restrain them. By evil counsel he means destructive counsel, for these two kings had leagued together to destroy Judea. To express it more fully, and to place it as it were before their eyes, he relates their very words.

Calvin: Isa 7:6 - Let us go up // Let us open it to us // The son of Tabeal 6.Let us go up. That is, Let us make an invasion נקיצנה ( nekitzennah) is rendered by some, Let us distress or afflict; which is also ex...

6.Let us go up. That is, Let us make an invasion נקיצנה ( nekitzennah) is rendered by some, Let us distress or afflict; which is also expressed by the derivation of the word. But in this conjugation it rather signifies “to stir up and arouse.” Though I do not reject the former interpretation, yet I prefer the latter, because it agrees better with the scope of the passage. Again, I understand the word arouse as meaning to disturb, and to cause revolutions; as we commonly say, to raise disturbances, 104 so as not to allow the tranquillity of that kingdom to be preserved.

Let us open it to us The following word, נבקיענה , ( nabkignennah,) is interpreted by some, Let us break into it 105 Others render it, Let us cause it to break up to us. I have rendered it, Let us open; for בקע ( bakang) also signifies what we commonly express by the phrase, to make a breach or opening 106 Now, the way to open up the entrance to Judea was to rush through its fortifications by the force of arms, or, through the influence of fear, to induce timid and fickle persons to revolt; for so long as they continue to be loyal, entrance cannot be obtained; but when everything is disturbed by insurrections, an entrance is made, so that it becomes easy to break through into the strongest and best fortified places.

Thus, these two kings hoped that, as soon as they came into Judea, they would immediately terrify the whole nation by the extent and power of the army, so that there would be no ability or inclination to resist. When they brought together an army so prodigiously numerous, it is not probable that they placed any dependence on a long siege; for Jerusalem was strongly fortified; but they thought that the inhabitants of Jerusalem would be terrified and alarmed at the sight of their forces, and would be induced to make an immediate surrender. Yet I leave it to every person to adopt any interpretation of these words that he pleases, for whatever sense be put upon them, the meaning of the Prophet is not doubtful.

The son of Tabeal Who this Tabeal was cannot easily be learned from history. Probably he was some Israelite, an enemy of the house of David, whom those kings were desirous to set up as one of their own dependents.

Calvin: Isa 7:7 - It shall not stand 7.It shall not stand What he had formerly stated was intended to show more fully that the deliverance was great and uncommon; for when the Lord inten...

7.It shall not stand What he had formerly stated was intended to show more fully that the deliverance was great and uncommon; for when the Lord intends to assist us in our trials, he represents the greatness of the danger, that we may not think that he promises less than the necessity requires. He does not usually give a mitigated view of the evils which press upon us, but rather holds out their full extent, and afterwards makes a promise, and shows that he is able to deliver us, though we may appear to be ruined. Such was the method adopted by the Prophet; for he might have told them in plain terms what would happen, and might have encouraged the king and the nation not to be terrified or discouraged at the sight of those armies. But he opened up the scheme and design of those kings, with which he now contrasts the promise and decree of God, that his wonderful assistance may be more strikingly displayed.

This is the sacred anchor which alone upholds us amidst the billows of temptations; for in adversity we shall never be able to stand if God take away his word from us. Although, therefore, the king was almost overwhelmed with despair, Isaiah shows that there is nothing so dreadful that it may not be despised, provided that he fortify himself by the promise of God, and patiently look for that which is not yet seen, and which even appears to be incredible. He affirms, that whatever men attempt, after the manner of the giants, in rising up against God, it shall not stand. He uses the word תקים , ( thakum,) shall arise, in the same sense in which that metaphor is employed in the Latin language, that a work is making progress; and, in a word, he declares that such daring sacrilege shall not stand

Still more emphatic is that which he adds, לא תהיה , ( lo thihyeh,) it shall not be; that is, it shall be reduced to nothing, as if it had never existed. This mode of expression deserves notice, for it was the bare and naked word of God which was contrasted with the vast army and scheme of the kings.

Calvin: Isa 7:8 - For the head of Syria is Damascus // And Ephraim shall be broken // Within sixty-five years 8.For the head of Syria is Damascus As if he had said, “Those two kings shall have their limits, such as they have them now. They aspire to thy kin...

8.For the head of Syria is Damascus As if he had said, “Those two kings shall have their limits, such as they have them now. They aspire to thy kingdom; but I have set bounds to them which they shall not pass.” Damascus was the metropolis of Syria, as Paris is of France. He says, therefore, that those kings ought to be satisfied with their possessions, and that their future condition would be the same as it then was.

And Ephraim shall be broken. After having said that it is now useless to attempt to extend their boundaries, he foretells the calamity of the kingdom of Israel; for by the word broken he means that the kingdom of Israel shall be annihilated, so that it shall no longer exist. The Israelites were carried into captivity, and incorporated with another nation, just as in our own time a part of Savoy has passed under the government of France, and has lost its name. This is what the Prophet means, when he says מעם , ( megnam,) that it be not a people; for at that time Israel was mixed with foreign nations, and its peculiar name was blotted out.

Within sixty-five years The Israelites were led into captivity in the sixth year of King Hezekiah, and Ahaz reigned not more than sixteen years; and, therefore, it is certain that this calculation ought not to be made from the day on which Isaiah was sent to deliver this message, for it was only twenty years to the time when the ten tribes were carried into captivity. Amoz had prophesied of that captivity; and there can be no doubt that this prophecy of Amoz, (Amo 3:11,) and the time specified in it were generally known, and that all understood the reckoning of the number of years. If, therefore, we reckon from the time when Amoz makes this prediction, we shall find it to be sixty-five years; for Jotham reigned sixteen years, (2Kg 15:33;) Ahaz as many, (2Kg 16:2;) to those must be added six years of King Hezekiah, which brings us down to the year when the ten tribes were carried into captivity; and if we afterwards add twenty-seven years, during which Uzziah reigned after the publication of the prophecy, there will be sixty-five years This conjecture is highly probable; and there ought not to be any doubt that this was Isaiah’s meaning; for there is a prediction of the Prophet Amoz, in which the Lord warned the people that they might not meet with anything unexpected, and complain that they had been overtaken suddenly. Isaiah confirms that prediction, and announces the same time which already was universally known.

Moreover, by these words he sharply reproves the thoughtlessness of the Israelitish nation, that, when they had been warned of the destruction of their country and their name, not only did they freely indulge in despising the judgment of God, but as if they had purposely intended to mock at the heavenly predictions, they opened their mouth to devour Judea; for a long period was already past, and they thought that they had escaped. The Prophet ridicules this madness, in imagining that the word of God grew old in so small a number of years. But because the Israelites were deaf, Isaiah assigns to the Jews a time when they may look for the destruction of their enemies. Now, this passage shows that the Prophets faithfully assisted each other, that by their united labors they might serve God.

Calvin: Isa 7:9 - Meanwhile // If you do not believe 9.Meanwhile 107 the head of Ephraim is Samaria. As it is a repetition by which he confirms what he formerly said, that God had set bounds to the ki...

9.Meanwhile 107 the head of Ephraim is Samaria. As it is a repetition by which he confirms what he formerly said, that God had set bounds to the kingdom of Israel for an appointed time, I have rendered the copulative ו , ( vau,) meanwhile. Otherwise, it would have been absurd to say that the metropolis of the kingdom would be preserved, after that the kingdom had been destroyed, as he lately foretold. The meaning therefore is, “In the meantime, till the sixty-five years are fulfilled, Israel enjoys a kind of truce. His head shall be Samaria. Let him be satisfied with his boundaries, and not aim at anything beyond them; for such shall be his condition, until he be utterly destroyed, and be no longer reckoned to be a people. ”

If you do not believe The particle כי ( ki) is placed in the middle of the sentence, to mark the reason or cause; and, therefore, some render it, “If you do not believe, the reason is, that you are not believers.” They limit the former clause to the prophecy of Isaiah, but extend the latter to any part of the word of God, as if he had said, “If you have no faith in my sayings, this gives a general proof of your unbelief.” But in that way, the verb תאמינו , ( thaaminu,) which is in Hiphil conjugation, will not differ from the verb תאמנו , ( theamenu,) which is in the Niphal. It is not without reason, however, that the Prophet has changed the termination; and, from many passages of Scripture, it is abundantly evident that the Hebrew verb אמן , ( aman,) in the Niphal conjugation, signifies to stand, or, to remain fixed in its condition. I interpret it, therefore, as if he had said, “This is the only support on which you can rely. Wait calmly and without uneasiness of mind for what the Lord has promised, that is, deliverance. If you do not wait for it, what else remains for you than destruction?”

The particle כי , ( ki,) therefore, as in many other instances, means truly; for he declares that they cannot stand, if they do not rely on the promise; and indirectly he expresses still more, that God will stand, though they disbelieve his word, and, as far as lies in their power, endeavor to destroy its stability; but that they will not stand, unless they rely on the promise which has been made to them.

Hence we ought to draw a universal doctrine, that, when we have departed from the word of God, though we may suppose that we are firmly established, still ruin is at hand. For our salvation is bound up with the word of God, and, when this is rejected, the insult offered to it is justly punished by him who was ready to uphold men by his power, if they had not of their own accord rushed headlong to ruin. The consequence is, that either we must believe the promises of God, or it is in vain for us to expect salvation.

Calvin: Isa 7:10 - And Jehovah added to speak to Ahaz 10.And Jehovah added to speak to Ahaz 108 As the Lord knew that King Ahaz was so wicked as not to believe the promise, so he enjoins Isaiah to confir...

10.And Jehovah added to speak to Ahaz 108 As the Lord knew that King Ahaz was so wicked as not to believe the promise, so he enjoins Isaiah to confirm him by adding a sign; for when God sees that his promises do not satisfy us, he makes additions to them suitable to our weakness; so that we not only hear him speak, but likewise behold his hand displayed, and thus are confirmed by an evident proof of the fact. Here we ought carefully to observe the use of signs, that is, the reason why God performs miracles, namely, to confirm us in the belief of his word; for when we see his power, if we have any hesitation about what he says to us, our doubt is removed by beholding the thing itself; for miracles added to the word are seals.

Calvin: Isa 7:11 - Either in the deep 11.Either in the deep I understand it simply to mean Either above or below. He allows him an unrestricted choice of a miracle, to demand either what...

11.Either in the deep I understand it simply to mean Either above or below. He allows him an unrestricted choice of a miracle, to demand either what belongs to earth or what belongs to heaven. But perhaps in the word deep there is something still more emphatic; as if he had said, “It belongs to you to choose. God will immediately show that his dominion is higher than this world, and that it likewise extends to all depths, so that at his pleasure he can raise the dead from their graves.” It was undoubtedly astonishing forbearance towards this wicked king and people of God, that not only did he patiently bear their distrust for a time, but so graciously condescended to them that he was willing to give them any pledge of his power which they chose. Yet he had in his eye not unbelievers only, but he intended likewise to provide for the benefit of the weak, in whom there was a seed of godliness; that they might be fully convinced that Isaiah did not speak at random, for he could easily give a proof of the power of God in confirmation of what he had said.

The same goodness of God is now also displayed towards men, to whom he exercises such forbearance, when he might justly have been offended at them; for how shockingly do they insult God, when they doubt his truth? What do you leave to God, if you take that from him? And whatever may be our doubts, not only does he pardon us, but even aids our distrust, and not only by his word, but by adding miracles; and he exhibits them not only to believers, but also to the ungodly, which we may behold in this king. And if he was at that time so kind to strangers, what ought not his own people to expect from him?

Calvin: Isa 7:12 - And Ahaz said 12.And Ahaz said By a plausible excuse he refuses the sign which the Lord offered to him. That excuse is, that he is unwilling to tempt the LORD; fo...

12.And Ahaz said By a plausible excuse he refuses the sign which the Lord offered to him. That excuse is, that he is unwilling to tempt the LORD; for he pretends to believe the words of the Prophet, and to ask nothing more from God than his word. Ungodliness is certainly detestable in the sight of God, and in like manner God unquestionably sets a high value on faith. Accordingly, if a man rely on his word alone, and disregard everything else, it might be thought that he deserves the highest praise; for there can be no greater perfection than to yield full submission and obedience to God.

But a question arises. Do we tempt God, when we accept what he offers to us? Certainly not. Ahaz therefore speaks falsehood, when he pretends that he refuses the sign, because he is unwilling to tempt God; for there can be nothing fitter or more excellent than to obey God, and indeed it is the highest virtue to ask nothing beyond the word of God; and yet if God choose to add anything to his word, it ought not to be regarded as a virtue to reject this addition as superfluous. It is no small insult offered to God, when his goodness is despised in such a manner as if his proceedings towards us were of no advantage, and as if he did not know what it is that we chiefly need. We know that faith is chiefly commended on this ground, that it maintains obedience to him; but when we wish to be too wise, and despise anything that belongs to God, we are undoubtedly abominable before God, whatever excuse we may plead before men. While we believe the word of God, we ought not to despise the aids which he has been pleased to add for the purpose of strengthening our faith.

For instance, the Lord offers to us in the gospel everything necessary for salvation; for when he brings us into a state of fellowship with Christ, the sum of all blessings is truly contained in him. What then is the use of Baptism and the Lord’s Supper? Must they be regarded as superfluous? Not at all; for any one who shall actually, and without flattery, acknowledge his weakness, of which all from the least to the greatest are conscious, will gladly avail himself of those aids for his support. We ought indeed to grieve and lament, that the sacred truth of God needs assistance on account of the defect of our flesh; but since we cannot all at once remove this defect, any one who, according to his capacity shall believe the word, will immediately render full obedience to God. Let us therefore learn to embrace the signs along with the word, since it is not in the power of man to separate them.

When Ahaz refuses the sign offered to him, by doing so he displays both his obstinacy and his ingratitude; for he despises what God had offered for the highest advantage. Hence also it is evident how far we ought to ask signs, namely, when God offers them to us; and therefore he who shall reject them when offered, must also reject the grace of God. In like manner fanatics of the present day disregard Baptism and the Lord’s Supper, and consider them to be childish elements. They cannot do this without at the same time rejecting the whole gospel; for we must not separate those things which the Lord has commanded us to join.

But a question may be asked, Is it not sometimes lawful to ask signs from the Lord? For we have an instance of this in Gideon, who wished to have his calling confirmed by some sign. (Jud 6:17.) The Lord granted his prayer, and did not disapprove of such a desire. I answer, though Gideon was not commanded by God to ask a sign, yet he did so, not at his own suggestion, but by an operation of the Holy Spirit. We must not abuse his example, therefore, so that each of us may freely allow himself that liberty; for so great is the forwardness of men that they do not hesitate to ask innumerable signs from God without any proper reason. Such effrontery ought therefore to be restrained, that we may be satisfied with those signs which the Lord offers to us.

Now, there are two kinds of signs; for some are extraordinary, and may be called supernatural; such as that which the Prophet will immediately add, and that which, we shall afterwards see, was offered to Hezekiah. (Isa 38:7.) Some are ordinary, and in daily use among believers, such as Baptism and the Lord’s Supper, which contain no miracle, or at least may be perceived by the eye or by some of the senses. What the Lord miraculously performs by his Spirit is unseen, but in those which are extraordinary the miracle itself is seen. Such is also the end and use of all signs; for as Gideon was confirmed by an astonishing miracle, so we are confirmed by Baptism and the Lord’s Supper, though our eyes behold no miracle.

Calvin: Isa 7:13 - And he said, Hear now, O house of David // Is it a small thing for you to weary men? // My God 13.And he said, Hear now, O house of David Under the pretense of honor to exclude the power of God, which would maintain the truth of the promise, wa...

13.And he said, Hear now, O house of David Under the pretense of honor to exclude the power of God, which would maintain the truth of the promise, was intolerable wickedness; and therefore the Prophet kindles into warmer indignation, and more sharply rebukes wicked hypocrites. Though it would have been honorable to them to be reckoned the descendants of David, provided that they imitated his piety, yet it is rather for the sake of reproach that he calls them the posterity or family of David. It was indeed no small aggravation of the baseness, that the grace of God was rejected by that family from which the salvation of the whole world would proceed. Grievous disgrace must have been brought on them, by naming their ancestry, from which they had so basely and shamefully degenerated.

This order ought to be carefully observed; for we ought not to begin with severe reproof, but with doctrine, that men may be gently drawn by it. When plain and simple doctrine is not sufficient, proofs must be added. But if even this method produce no good effect, it then becomes necessary to employ greater vehemence. Such is the manner in which we hear Isaiah thundering on the present occasion. After having exhibited to the king both doctrine and signs, he now resorts to the last remedy, and sharply and severely reproves an obstinate man; and not him only, but the whole royal family which was guilty of the same kind of impiety.

Is it a small thing for you to weary men? He makes a comparison between God and men; not that it is possible to make an actual separation between God and the prophets and holy teachers of whom he speaks, who are nothing else than God’s instruments, and make common cause with him, when they discharge their duty; for of them the Lord testifies,

He who despiseth you despiseth me.
He who heareth you heareth me. (Luk 10:16.)

The Prophet therefore adapts his discourse to the impiety of Ahaz, and of those who resembled him; for they thought that they had to deal with men. Those very words were undoubtedly spoken in ancient times which we hear at the present day from the mouths of the ungodly: “Are they not men that speak to us?” And thus they endeavor to disparage the doctrine which comes from God. As it was customary at that time for irreligious despisers of doctrine to use the same kind of language, the Prophet, by way of admission, says that those who performed the sacred office of teaching the word were men. “Be it so. You tell me that I am a mortal man. That is the light in which you view the prophets of God. But is it a small thing to weary us, if you do not also weary God ? Now, you despise God, by rejecting the sign of his astonishing power which he was willing to give to you. In vain therefore do you boast that you do not despise him, and that you have to do with men, and not with God. ” This then is the reason why the Prophet was so greatly enraged. Hence we see more clearly what I mentioned a little before, that the proper season for giving reproofs is, when we have attempted everything that God enjoined, and have neglected no part of our duty. We ought then to break out with greater vehemence, and to expose the ungodliness which lurked under those cloaks of hypocrisy.

My God He formerly said, Ask a sign for thee from the Lord thy God; for at that time his obstinacy and rebellion had not been manifestly proved. But now he claims it as peculiar to himself; for Ahaz, and those who resembled him, had no right to boast of the name of God. He therefore intimates that God is on his side, and is not on the side of those hypocrites: and in this way he testifies his confidence; for he shows how conscientiously he promised deliverance to the king; as if he had said, that he did not come but when God sent him, and that he said nothing but what he was commanded to say. With the same boldness ought all ministers to be endued, not only so as to profess it, but to have it deeply rooted in their hearts. The false prophets also boast of it loudly, but it is empty and unmeaning talk, or a blind confidence arising from rashness.

Calvin: Isa 7:14 - Therefore the // Behold, a virgin shall conceive // Will give you a sign // Behold, a virgin shall conceive // And shall call // Immanuel 14.Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign. Ahaz had already refused the sign which the Lord offered to him, when the Prophet remonstrated ...

14.Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign. Ahaz had already refused the sign which the Lord offered to him, when the Prophet remonstrated against his rebellion and ingratitude; yet the Prophet declares that this will not prevent God from giving the sign which he had promised and appointed for the Jews. But what sign?

Behold, a virgin shall conceive This passage is obscure; but the blame lies partly on the Jews, who, by much cavilling, have labored, as far as lay in their power, to pervert the true exposition. They are hard pressed by this passage; for it contains an illustrious prediction concerning the Messiah, who is here called Immanuel; and therefore they have labored, by all possible means, to torture the Prophet’s meaning to another sense. Some allege that the person here mentioned is Hezekiah; and others, that it is the son of Isaiah.

Those who apply this passage to Hezekiah are excessively impudent; for he must have been a full-grown man when Jerusalem was besieged. Thus they show that they are grossly ignorant of history. But it is a just reward of their malice, that God hath blinded them in such a manner as to be deprived of all judgment. This happens in the present day to the papists, who often expose themselves to ridicule by their mad eagerness to pervert the Scriptures.

As to those who think that it was Isaiah’s son, it is an utterly frivolous conjecture; for we do not read that a deliverer would be raised up from the seed of Isaiah, who should be called Immanuel; for this title is far too illustrious to admit of being applied to any man.

Others think, or, at least, (being unwilling to contend with the Jews more than was necessary,) admit that the Prophet spoke of some child who was born at that time, by whom, as by an obscure picture, Christ was foreshadowed. But they produce no strong arguments, and do not show who that child was, or bring forward any proofs. Now, it is certain, as we have already said, that this name Immanuel could not be literally applied to a mere man; and, therefore, there can be no doubt that the Prophet referred to Christ.

But all writers, both Greek and Latin, are too much at their ease in handling this passage; for, as if there were no difficulty in it, they merely assert that Christ is here promised from the Virgin Mary. Now, there is no small difficulty in the objection which the Jews bring against us, that Christ is here mentioned without any sufficient reason; for thus they argue, and demand that the scope of the passage be examined: “Jerusalem was besieged. The Prophet was about to give them a sign of deliverance. Why should he promise the Messiah, who was to be born five hundred years afterwards?” By this argument they think that they have gained the victory, because the promise concerning Christ had nothing to do with assuring Ahaz of the deliverance of Jerusalem. And then they boast as if they had gained the day, chiefly because scarcely any one replies to them. That is the reason why I said that commentators have been too much at their ease in this matter; for it is of no small importance to show why the Redeemer is here mentioned.

Now, the matter stands thus. King Ahaz having rejected the sign which God had offered to him, the Prophet reminds him of the foundation of the covenant, which even the ungodly did not venture openly to reject. The Messiah must be born; and this was expected by all, because the salvation of the whole nation depended on it. The Prophet, therefore, after having expressed his indignation against the king, again argues in this manner: “By rejecting the promise, thou wouldest endeavor to overturn the decree of God; but it shall remain inviolable, and thy treachery and ingratitude will not hinder God from being, continually the Deliverer of his people; for he will at length raise up his Messiah.”

To make these things more plain, we must attend to the custom of the Prophets, who, in establishing special promises, lay down this as the foundation, that God will send a Redeemer. On this general foundation God everywhere builds all the special promises which he makes to his people; and certainly every one who expects aid and assistance from him must be convinced of his fatherly love. And how could he be reconciled to us but through Christ, in whom he has freely adopted the elect, and continues to pardon them to the end? Hence comes that saying of Paul, that

all the promises of God in Christ are Yea and Amen.
(2Co 1:20.)

Whenever, therefore, God assisted his ancient people, he at the same time reconciled them to himself through Christ; and accordingly, whenever famine, pestilence, and war are mentioned, in order to hold out a hope of deliverance, he places the Messiah before their eyes. This being exceedingly clear, the Jews have no right to make a noise, as if the Prophet made an unseasonable transition to a very remote subject. For on what did the deliverance of Jerusalem depend, but on the manifestation of Christ? This was, indeed, the only foundation on which the salvation of the Church always rested.

Most appropriately, therefore, did Isaiah say, “True, thou dost not believe the promises of God, but yet God will fulfill them; for he will at length send his Christ, for whose sake he determines to preserve this city. Though thou art unworthy, yet God will have regard to his own honor.” King Ahaz is therefore deprived of that sign which he formerly rejected, and loses the benefit of which he proved himself to be unworthy; but still God’s inviolable promise is still held out to him. This is plainly enough intimated by the particle לכן , ( lachen,) therefore; that is, because thou disdainest that particular sign which God offered to thee, הוא , ( hu,) He, that is, God himself, who was so gracious as to offer it freely to thee, he whom thou weariest will not fail to hold out a sign. When I say that the coming of Christ is promised to Ahaz, I do not mean that God includes him among the chosen people, to whom he had appointed his Son to be the Author of salvation; but because the discourse is directed to the whole body of the people.

Will give you a sign The word לכם , ( lachem,) to you, is interpreted by some as meaning to your children; but this is forced. So far as relates to the persons addressed, the Prophet leaves the wicked king and looks to the nation, so far as it had been adopted by God. He will therefore give, not to thee a wicked king, and to those who are like thee, but to you whom he has adopted; for the covenant which he made with Abraham continues to be firm and inviolable. And the Lord always has some remnant to whom the advantage of the covenant belongs; though the rulers and governors of his people may be hypocrites.

Behold, a virgin shall conceive The word Behold is used emphatically, to denote the greatness of the event; for this is the manner in which the Spirit usually speaks of great and remarkable events, in order to elevate the minds of men. The Prophet, therefore, enjoins his hearers to be attentive, and to consider this extraordinary work of God; as if he had said, “Be not slothful, but consider this singular grace of God, which ought of itself to have drawn your attention, but is concealed from you on account of your stupidity.”

Although the word עלמה , ( gnalmah,) a virgin, is derived from עלם , ( gnalam,) which signifies to hide, because the shame and modesty of virgins does not allow them to appear in public; yet as the Jews dispute much about that word, and assert that it does not signify virgin, because Solomon used it to denote a young woman who was betrothed, it is unnecessary to contend about the word. Though we should admit what they say, that עלמה ( gnalmah) sometimes denotes a young woman, and that the name refers, as they would have it, to the age, (yet it is frequently used in Scripture when the subject relates to a virgin,) the nature of the case sufficiently refutes all their slanders. For what wonderful thing did the Prophet say, if he spoke of a young woman who conceived through intercourse with a man? It would certainly have been absurd to hold out this as a sign or a miracle. Let us suppose that it denotes a young woman who should become pregnant in the ordinary course of nature; 109 everybody sees that it would have been silly and contemptible for the Prophet, after having said that he was about to speak of something strange and uncommon, to add, A young woman shall conceive. It is, therefore, plain enough that he speaks of a virgin who should conceive, not by the ordinary course of nature, but by the gracious influence of the Holy Spirit. And this is the mystery which Paul extols in lofty terms, that

God was manifested in the flesh. (1Ti 3:16.)

And shall call The Hebrew verb is in the feminine gender, She shall call; for as to those who read it in the masculine gender, I know not on what they found their opinion. The copies which we use certainly do not differ. If you apply it to the mother, it certainly expresses something different from the ordinary custom. We know that to the father is always assigned the right of giving a name to a child; for it is a sign of the power and authority of fathers over children; and the same authority does not belong to women. But here it is conveyed to the mother; and therefore it follows that he is conceived by the mother in such a manner as not to have a father on earth; otherwise the Prophet would pervert the ordinary custom of Scripture, which ascribes this office to men only. Yet it ought to be observed that the name was not given to Christ at the suggestion of his mother, and in such a case it would have had no weight; but the Prophet means that, in publishing the name, the virgin will occupy the place of a herald, because there will be no earthly father to perform that office.

Immanuel This name was unquestionably bestowed on Christ on account of the actual fact; for the only-begotten Son of God clothed himself with our flesh, and united himself to us by partaking of our nature. He is, therefore, called God with us, or united to us; which cannot apply to a man who is not God. The Jews in their sophistry tell us that this name was given to Hezekiah; because by the hand of Hezekiah God delivered his people; and they add, “He who is the servant of God represents his person.” But neither Moses nor Joshua, who were deliverers of the nation, were so denominated; and therefore this Immanuel is preferred to Moses and Joshua, and all the others; for by this name he excels all that ever were before, and all that shall come after him; and it is a title expressive of some extraordinary excellence and authority which he possesses above others. It is therefore evident that it denotes not only the power of God, such as he usually displays by his servant, but a union of person, by which Christ became God-man. Hence it is also evident that Isaiah here relates no common event, but points out that unparalleled mystery which the Jews labor in vain to conceal.

Calvin: Isa 7:15 - Butter and honey shall he eat // That he may know 15.Butter and honey shall he eat Here the Prophet proves the true human nature of Christ; for it was altogether incredible that he who was God should...

15.Butter and honey shall he eat Here the Prophet proves the true human nature of Christ; for it was altogether incredible that he who was God should be born of a virgin. Such a prodigy was revolting to the ordinary judgment of men. To hinder us from thinking that his fancy now presents to us some apparition, he describes the marks of human nature, in order to show, by means of them, that Christ will actually appear in flesh, or in the nature of man; that is, that he will be reared in the same manner that children commonly are. The Jews had a different way of rearing children from what is followed by us; for they used honey, which is not so customary among us; and to this day they still retain the custom of causing a child to taste butter and honey, as soon as it is born, before receiving suck.

That he may know That is, until he arrive at that age when he can distinguish between good and evil, or, as we commonly say, till the years of discretion; ל ( lamed) denotes the term and period up to which he shall be reared after the manner of a child; and this contributes still more to prove the reality of his nature. He therefore means understanding and judgment, such as is obtained when the period of childhood is past. Thus we see how far the Son of God condescended on our account, so that he not only was willing to be fed on our food, but also, for a time, to be deprived of understanding, and to endure all our weaknesses. (Heb 2:14.) This relates to his human nature, for it cannot apply to his Divinity. Of this state of ignorance, in which Christ was for a time, Luke testifies when he says,

And he grew in wisdom, and in stature,
and in favor with God and with man. (Luk 2:52.)

If Luke had merely said that Christ grew, he might have been supposed to mean with men; but he expressly adds, with God. Christ must therefore have been, for a time, like little children, so that, so far as relates to his human nature, he was deficient in understanding.

Calvin: Isa 7:16 - Before the child shall know // The child // The land // Which thou hatest 16.Before the child shall know Many have been led into a mistake by connecting this verse with the preceding one, as if it had been the same child th...

16.Before the child shall know Many have been led into a mistake by connecting this verse with the preceding one, as if it had been the same child that was mentioned. They suppose that it assigns the reason, and that the particle כי ( ki) means for 110 But if we carefully examine the Prophet’s meaning, it will quickly be apparent that he leaves the general doctrine, to which he had made a short digression, and returns to his immediate subject. After having founded the hope of the preservation of the city on the promised Mediator, he now shows in what way it will be preserved.

The child I interpret this word as referring, not to Christ, but to all children in general. Here I differ from all the commentators; for they think that the demonstrative ה points out a particular child. But I view הנער , ( hannagnar,) so that ה is indeed added for the purpose of making it more definite, but is intended to point out the age, and not any particular child; as when we say, The child, 111 and add the article The 112 for the purpose of giving greater definiteness. This is very customary in Scripture. If he had pointed out a particular child, he would have added הזה , ( hazzeh,) as is frequently done in other passages. It is not probable that this promise of the overturn of the kingdoms of Syria and Samaria, which immediately followed, would be deferred for five hundred years, that is, till the coming of Christ; and, indeed, it would have been altogether absurd. The meaning therefore is, “Before the children, who shall be born hereafter, can distinguish between good and evil, the land which thou hatest shall be forsaken.”

The land By the land I understand Israel and Syria; for though they were two, yet on account of the league which had been formed between the two kings, they are accounted one. Some understand by it Judea; but that cannot agree on account of the plural noun which follows, her kings. That these things happened as they are written may be easily inferred from the sacred history; for when Ahaz called the Assyrians to aid him, Rezin was slain by them. (2Kg 16:9.) Not long afterwards, Pekah, king of Israel, died, in the twelfth year of King Ahaz, and was succeeded by Hoshea, the son of Elah. (2Kg 15:30.) Thus, before the children who should afterwards be born were grown up, both countries would be deprived of their kings; for before that time both Rezin and Pekah were removed out of the land of the living. Now the discourse is addressed to Ahaz, and God promises to him, by way of consolation, that he will inflict punishment on the enemies of Ahaz, but for no other purpose than to render him more inexcusable.

Which thou hatest As to the word hatest, Syria and the land of Israel are said to be hated or abhorred by King Ahaz, because from that quarter he was attacked by invading armies. He therefore promises that those kings will soon perish. Some render מפני , ( mippenei,) on account of; 113 and I admit that this word is generally used in this sense. But I adopt here a more natural rendering, as if he had said, It shall be forsaken from the face or from the presence of the two kings, and shall be left by them, so that they shall no more be seen. And by these words it is sufficiently evident that this must be understood as referring to both kingdoms.

Calvin: Isa 7:17 - The // From the day that Ephraim departed from Judah 17.The Lord shall bring upon thee. Here the Prophet, on the other hand, threatens the wicked hypocrite, who pretended that he was unwilling to temp...

17.The Lord shall bring upon thee. Here the Prophet, on the other hand, threatens the wicked hypocrite, who pretended that he was unwilling to tempt God, and yet called for those whom the Lord had forbidden him to call to his aid. (Exo 23:32.) That he might not indulge in undue exultation and insolence on account of the former promise, he likewise threatens his destruction, and declares that what he hopes to be his preservation, that is, the aid of the Assyrians, will be utterly destructive to him. (2Kg 16:7; 2Ch 28:16.) As if he had said, “Thou promisest everything to thyself from the king of Assyria, and thinkest that he will be faithful to thee, because thou hast entered into a league and covenant with him, which God had forbidden; but thou shalt quickly understand of what advantage it will be to thee to have tempted God. Thou mightest have remained at home and at ease, and mightest have received the assistance of God; but thou choosest rather to call in the Assyrians. Thou shalt find them to be worse than thine own enemies;”

This discourse, therefore, agrees with what goes before; for he presses more closely the treachery and ingratitude of the king, who had rejected both the word of God and the sign, and had rendered himself unworthy of every promise. And as it is customary with hypocrites, when they have escaped from any danger and fear, immediately to return to their natural disposition, he affirms that nothing shall protect the Jews from being likewise involved in just punishments. He expressly declares that the family of David, which might have claimed exemption on the ground of its peculiar privilege, will be exposed to the same kind of calamities; for God regulates his judgments in such a manner, that while he spares his Church and provides for her permanent existence, he does not permit the wicked, who are mingled with the good, to escape unpunished.

From the day that Ephraim departed from Judah In this manner does Scripture speak when it describes any serious calamity; for the Jews could not have received a severer chastisement than when, by the withdrawing of the ten tribes, (1Kg 12:16,) not only was the kingdom wretchedly divided, but the body of the nation was rent and torn. The revolt of Ephraim from Judah was, therefore, an indication of the worst kind of calamity; for the resources of the kingdom of Judah being more seriously affected by that division than it could have been by any defeat by a foreign enemy, he says that since that time the Jews had not sustained a greater calamity.

Hence, as I have already said, we see how God, while he punishes hypocrites, at the same time remembers believers, and opens the way for his mercy. We ought to observe this wonderful arrangement, that amidst the most dreadful deaths still the Church remains safe. Who would ever have thought that Jerusalem would be delivered from the vast army of the two kings? Or, that the kingdom of Syria, which was then in a flourishing condition, would quickly be overturned? Or, that Samaria was not far from destruction? And in the mean time, that the Assyrians, on whom the Jews relied, would do them more injury than the Israelites and Syrians had ever done? All these things the Lord did for the sake of preserving his Church, but at the same time in such a manner that he likewise took vengeance on the wickedness of King Ahaz.

Calvin: Isa 7:18 - And it shall be in that day 18.And it shall be in that day The Jews thought that the Assyrians were bound by their league with them; but the Prophet ridicules this folly, and de...

18.And it shall be in that day The Jews thought that the Assyrians were bound by their league with them; but the Prophet ridicules this folly, and declares that they will be ready at God’s bidding to drive them in any direction that he thinks fit. Yet instead of command he employs the metaphor hiss, in allusion to the climate of those kingdoms of which he speaks; for Egypt abounds in flies, because the country is hot and marshy; and when the air is both hot and moist, there must be produced a great abundance of flies. Assyria, on the other hand, abounded in bees; and when he says that he will bring them by a hiss, he alludes to the natural habits of bees and flies, but he means that he will find no difficulty in sending them. As if he had said, “There will be no need of great exertion; for as soon as I shall give the sign, they will instantly run.” In this manner he shows what efficacy belongs to his secret operation or design, that by a hiss he compels the most powerful nations to yield obedience.

Calvin: Isa 7:19 - And they shall come 19.And they shall come He follows out the same metaphor; for bees commonly seek nests for themselves in caverns, or valleys and bushes, and such like...

19.And they shall come He follows out the same metaphor; for bees commonly seek nests for themselves in caverns, or valleys and bushes, and such like places; as if he had said that there would not be a corner in which the enemy would not settle down and dwell. It is unnecessary to give ourselves much trouble in explaining why he speaks of bushes and thorns rather than of other things, for the language is figurative. And yet I have no doubt that he intended to state, that whether they hide themselves in caverns, or seek concealment in valleys, there will be no escape; for the enemy will take possession of the whole country.

Hence we again infer what has been formerly observed, that nothing takes place at random or by chance, but that everything is governed by the hand of God. Again, though wicked men may rage and may be hurried forward in blind attack, still God puts a bridle on them that they may promote his glory. Therefore, when we see that wicked men throw everything into disorder, let us not think that God has laid the bridle on their neck, that they may rush forward wherever they please; but let us be fully convinced that their violent attacks are under control. From this we ought to derive wonderful consolation amidst those disturbances in which the Christian world is so deeply involved, and by the violence of which it is so powerfully shaken, that almost everything appears to be in a state of confusion. We should consider that the Lord has a concealed bridle by which he restrains furious beasts, so that they cannot break through wherever the madness of their rage drives them, or go beyond the limits which the Lord prescribes to them.

Calvin: Isa 7:20 - The // Who are beyond the river // A hired razor // The head and the hair of the feet 20.The Lord will shave with a hired razor. He now employs a different metaphor, and compares those enemies by whom the Lord had determined to afflic...

20.The Lord will shave with a hired razor. He now employs a different metaphor, and compares those enemies by whom the Lord had determined to afflict Judea at the appointed time, to a razor, by which the beard and hair are shaved, and other excrescences of the same kind are removed. ב ( beth) is here superfluous, and is only employed in accordance with the Hebrew idiom, to denote an instrument, and, therefore, I have merely rendered it he will shave with a razor. What he means he immediately explains; namely, that the Assyrians will serve for a razor in the hand of God, and that they will come from a distant country.

Who are beyond the river This means that Euphrates will not hinder them from passing over to execute the commands of God. He likewise adds, that it will not be some portion of that nation rushing forward of its own accord into foreign territories, or wandering without a settled leader; but that the king himself will lead them, so that the nation and the king at the same time will overwhelm Judea, and it will sink under such a burden.

A hired razor It is not without reason that he says that this razor is hired; for he expresses by it the dreadful nature of the calamity which would be brought upon them by the Assyrians. If a man make use of a hired horse or a hired sword, he will use it the more freely, and will not spare or take care of it as he would do with his own, for men wish to gain advantage from what they have hired to the full value of the hire. Thus the Lord threatens that he will not at all spare the razor, though he should be under the necessity of blunting it, which means, that he will send the Assyrians with mad violence and rage. If the Lord took such dreadful vengeance on the Jews for those reasons which the Prophet formerly enumerated, we ought to fear lest we be punished in the same manner; or rather, we ought to dread the razor with which he has already begun to shave us.

The head and the hair of the feet By the hair of the feet he means the lower parts; for by the feet is meant all that is below the belly, and it is a figure of speech, by which a part is taken for the whole. 114 In short, he means that the whole body, and even the beard, must be shaved. Now, if we set aside the figures, and wish to get at the plain and natural meaning, it is as if he had said, that this shaving will reach from the top of the head down to the feet, and that kings and princes will not be exempted from that calamity, but that they also must feel the edge of the razor

Calvin: Isa 7:21 - And it shall come to pass on that day 21.And it shall come to pass on that day In these verses, down to the end of the chapter, the Prophet describes the state of a country torn and waste...

21.And it shall come to pass on that day In these verses, down to the end of the chapter, the Prophet describes the state of a country torn and wasted; for he intends to present a striking and lively picture of such overwhelming distress that, wherever you turn your eyes, nothing is to be seen but the traces of frightful desolation. Some think that a mitigation of punishment is here promised, but we shall soon see that this does not agree with the context. Though he employs the appellation, a man, without any limitation, yet strictly it is of the richest men that he speaks; for he does not say that every one will have so many; but they who formerly were accustomed to rear a large number of oxen and sheep will be satisfied with having a few. He means, therefore, that all will be reduced to very deep poverty. Some think that the Hebrew word which the Prophet employs, יחיה , ( yechaiyeh,) he shall quicken, means “to deliver from death;” but the meaning which I have adopted is more natural and more generally approved.

Calvin: Isa 7:22 - On account of the abundance of milk 22.On account of the abundance of milk Some explain it thus: “there will scarcely be as much obtained from one cow as would be required for the foo...

22.On account of the abundance of milk Some explain it thus: “there will scarcely be as much obtained from one cow as would be required for the food of a family;” for those who rear cattle do not feed on milk alone, but likewise make cheeses, and have butter to sell. When, therefore, he says, that out of all their abundance nothing more would be produced than what was necessary for the use of the family, in the opinion of those commentators it denotes poverty. Others think that this is a promise of fertility, that however small may be the number of their cows and sheep, still they will have abundant means of support. A third exposition is preferable; for it appears as if the Prophet intended to show that the men will be so few in number that a small quantity of milk will be sufficient for them all; and it is a far heavier affliction that a country should want inhabitants than that it should have a small supply of herds and flocks.

In the preceding verse Isaiah declared, that Judea would be so impoverished, that very few herds and flocks would be left; but now he adds that the men will be still fewer, for a very little milk will be sufficient for the inhabitants of the land. I adopt this exposition the more readily, because here a promise would be inappropriate. The former sense is forced; and he does not speak only of cattle-feeders who had cows, but of all the inhabitants; for he expressly says, Every one that shall be left, and by that expression he again denotes the smallness of their number. His statement, therefore, is intended to show, that the country will be so generally forsaken and so miserably wasted, that no great supply of milk and butter will be needed; for, when the devastation has taken place, there will be few men left.

Calvin: Isa 7:23 - A thousand vines // On account of briers and thorns 23.A thousand vines As to the opinion of those who think that Isaiah here comforts believers, I pass it by without refutation; for it is sufficiently...

23.A thousand vines As to the opinion of those who think that Isaiah here comforts believers, I pass it by without refutation; for it is sufficiently refuted by the context, and the words plainly declare that Isaiah continues to threaten destruction, and to describe the desolation of the land. Others think that the meaning is this, “Where a thousand vines were, which were sold for a thousand pieces of silver, there briers and thorns will be found.” But it is plain that this would be far too low a price, if the statement were applied to the whole country; for who would think of reckoning a shekel to be the price of a vine, which is the most precious of all possessions? It is of the same import with a common expression, “to sell for a trifle,” to give away for a piece of bread; 115 when anything is sold at a very low price. Any field, however barren or uncultivated, might be sold at a higher price, if due attention were paid to the cultivation of land, as is usually done where there is a crowded population.

On account of briers and thorns He assigns a reason for the alteration of the price, which makes it evident that he speaks of desolation. On account of briers and thorns, says he; for there will be none to cultivate the land, which usually happens when a heavy calamity has been sustained. ל , ( lamed,) which some render to or for, means, I think, on account of; for, everything having been thrown into confusion by the fury of the invading army, there are no vinedressers or laborers, and the most highly cultivated lands must have been covered over and choked up by briers and thorns. The meaning therefore is, that the inhabitants will be so few, that you will scarcely find and one that would give the smallest coin to buy the most valuable estates.

Calvin: Isa 7:24 - With arrows and bow shall they come thither 24.With arrows and bow shall they come thither The verb יבא , ( yabo,) he shall come, is in the singular number; but it ought to be explained by...

24.With arrows and bow shall they come thither The verb יבא , ( yabo,) he shall come, is in the singular number; but it ought to be explained by the plural, that the archers will march through Judea. Some think that Isaiah speaks of bows and arrows, because such would be the dread of enemies, that no man unarmed would venture to approach his possessions. But I consider it to be more probable that the Prophet means that, where the richest cultivation formerly existed, opportunity for hunting will be found; for there the wild beasts have their dens. Now, it is a most wretched change, when fields formerly cultivated and fertile are turned into woods and thickets. By bow and arrow here, therefore, I understand hunting, in this sense: “it shall not be approached by husbandmen but by hunters, and they shall not plant or dress vines, but chase wild beasts.” In short, it means nothing else than frightful desolation, which shall change the aspect of the land.

Calvin: Isa 7:25 - And on all the hills that are dug with the hoe 25.And on all the hills that are dug with the hoe Here the Prophet appears to contradict himself; for, having hitherto spoken of the desolation of th...

25.And on all the hills that are dug with the hoe Here the Prophet appears to contradict himself; for, having hitherto spoken of the desolation of the land, he now describes what may be called a new condition, when he says that, where thorns and briers were, there oxen will feed. The consequence has been, that some have applied these words to the consolation of the people. But the intention of the Prophet is totally different; for he means that hills, which were at a great distance from a crowded population, and which could not be approached without much difficulty, will be fit for pasturage, on account of the great number of men who go thither; that is, because men will betake themselves to desert mountains, which formerly were inaccessible, there will be no need to be afraid of briers, 116 for there will be abundance of inhabitants. Now, this is a most wretched state of things, when men cannot escape death but by resorting to thorns and briers; for he means hills formerly desolate and uncultivated, in which men shall seek a residence and abode, because no part of the country will be safe. Thus he describes a distressful and melancholy condition of the whole country, and destruction so awful that the aspect of the country shall be altogether different from what it had formerly been.

When he foretold these things to King Ahaz, there can be no doubt that Ahaz despised them; for that wicked king, relying on his forces and on his league with the Assyrians, settled, as it were, on his lees, as soon as the siege of the city was raised. But Isaiah was bound to persevere in the discharge of his office, in order to show that there was no help but from God, and to inform the wretched hypocrite, that his destruction would come from that quarter from which he expected his preservation.

Defender: Isa 7:11 - a sign The Lord was willing to give King Ahaz a sign involving any great miracle, but Ahaz was unwilling even to consider God's Word."

The Lord was willing to give King Ahaz a sign involving any great miracle, but Ahaz was unwilling even to consider God's Word."

Defender: Isa 7:14 - Lord himself Since Ahaz refused the proffered sign, God would in due time give the whole "house of David" (Isa 7:13) a sign, a miracle unique in all of history.

Since Ahaz refused the proffered sign, God would in due time give the whole "house of David" (Isa 7:13) a sign, a miracle unique in all of history.

Defender: Isa 7:14 - a virgin This should read "the virgin," indicating a very specific virgin, long awaited by the entire human race. This could be nothing less than the primeval ...

This should read "the virgin," indicating a very specific virgin, long awaited by the entire human race. This could be nothing less than the primeval promise of the coming "Seed of the Woman" (Gen 3:15), who would someday defeat Satan and redeem not only the House of David but all mankind.

Defender: Isa 7:14 - virgin Many critics have argued that the Hebrew word means simply "young, unmarried woman," rather than "virgin," and some translations have translated it as...

Many critics have argued that the Hebrew word means simply "young, unmarried woman," rather than "virgin," and some translations have translated it as such. This is nothing but a device to avoid the miracle of Christ's virgin birth. The word is used six or more times in the Old Testament and in all instances the context favors (or at least does not preclude) its rendering as "virgin." Conception by a "young unmarried woman" would hardly be a sign of anything except sin, for such events occur frequently. A virgin conception would require a mighty act of creation by God Himself. The quotation of this verse in the New Testament (Mat 1:23) should remove any lingering doubt, for the Greek word parthenos used there can only mean "virgin" (Jer 31:22.)

Defender: Isa 7:14 - Immanuel "Immanuel" means "God with us" - that is, God incarnate in human flesh, the unique miracle implied by the Edenic promise of the conquering "Seed of th...

"Immanuel" means "God with us" - that is, God incarnate in human flesh, the unique miracle implied by the Edenic promise of the conquering "Seed of the Woman" in Gen 3:15. Men produce genetic seed naturally, but a woman could only generate a "seed" supernaturally. A true virgin conception has only occurred once in human history, leading to the birth of Christ. Christ as the God-man is the only one who could ever destroy the "old serpent, the devil" (Mic 5:2; Joh 1:14)."

TSK: Isa 7:1 - the days // Rezin // but could the days : 2Ki 16:1; 2Ch 28:1-6 Rezin : Isa 8:6; 2Ki 15:37; Psa 83:3-5 but could : Isa 7:4-9, Isa 8:9, Isa 8:10

TSK: Isa 7:2 - the house // is confederate with // And his heart the house : Isa 7:13, Isa 6:13, Isa 37:35; 2Sa 7:16; 1Ki 11:32, 1Ki 12:16, 1Ki 13:2; Jer 21:12 is confederate with : Heb. resteth on, Isa 7:17, Isa 11...

TSK: Isa 7:3 - Go forth // Shearjashub // the end // highway Go forth : Exo 7:15; Jer 19:2, Jer 19:3, Jer 22:1 Shearjashub : that is, The remnant shall return, Isa 6:13, Isa 10:21, Isa 55:7; Rom 9:27 the end : I...

Go forth : Exo 7:15; Jer 19:2, Jer 19:3, Jer 22:1

Shearjashub : that is, The remnant shall return, Isa 6:13, Isa 10:21, Isa 55:7; Rom 9:27

the end : Isa 36:2; 2Ki 18:17, 2Ki 20:20

highway : or, causeway

TSK: Isa 7:4 - Take heed // fear not // neither be fainthearted // the two tails Take heed : Isa 30:7, Isa 30:15; Exo 14:13, Exo 14:14; 2Ch 20:17; Lam 3:26 fear not : Isa 8:11-14, Isa 35:4, Isa 41:14, Isa 51:12, Isa 51:13; Mat 10:2...

Take heed : Isa 30:7, Isa 30:15; Exo 14:13, Exo 14:14; 2Ch 20:17; Lam 3:26

fear not : Isa 8:11-14, Isa 35:4, Isa 41:14, Isa 51:12, Isa 51:13; Mat 10:28, Mat 24:6

neither be fainthearted : Heb. let not they heart be tender, Deu 20:3; 1Sa 17:32

the two tails : Isa 7:8, Isa 8:4; 2Ki 15:29, 2Ki 15:30; Amo 4:11

TSK: Isa 7:5 - Syria Syria : Psa 2:2, Psa 83:3, Psa 83:4; Nah 1:11; Zec 1:15

TSK: Isa 7:6 - vex vex : or, waken, lit, disgust, [Strong’ s H6973]

vex : or, waken, lit, disgust, [Strong’ s H6973]

TSK: Isa 7:7 - -- Isa 8:10, Isa 10:6-12, Isa 37:29, Isa 46:10,Isa 46:11; Psa 2:4-6, Psa 33:11, Psa 76:10; Pro 21:30; Lam 3:37; Dan 4:35; Act 4:25-28

TSK: Isa 7:8 - For the head // within // that it be not a people For the head : Dr. Jubb transposes the former part of Isa 7:9, and renders, ""Though the head of Syria be Damascus; and the head of Damascus Retzin; a...

For the head : Dr. Jubb transposes the former part of Isa 7:9, and renders, ""Though the head of Syria be Damascus; and the head of Damascus Retzin; and the head of Ephraim be Samaria; and the head of Samaria Remaliah’ s son; yet within threescore and five years Ephraim shall be broken, that he be no more a people.""This renders the passage perfectly clear; and the prophecy received its full accomplishment when Esarhaddon carried away the remains of the ten tribes. 2Sa 8:6

within : Isa 8:4, Isa 17:1-3; 2Kings 17:5-23; Ezr 4:2

that it be not a people : Heb. from a people, Hos 1:6-10

TSK: Isa 7:9 - the head // If ye the head : 1Ki 16:24-29; 2Ki 15:27 If ye : etc. or, ye not believe, it is because ye are not stable, 2Ch 20:20; Act 27:11, Act 27:25; Rom 11:20; Heb 1...

the head : 1Ki 16:24-29; 2Ki 15:27

If ye : etc. or, ye not believe, it is because ye are not stable, 2Ch 20:20; Act 27:11, Act 27:25; Rom 11:20; Heb 11:6; 1Jo 5:10

TSK: Isa 7:10 - Moreover Moreover : etc. Heb. and the Lord added to speak, Isa 1:5, Isa 1:13, Isa 8:5, Isa 10:20; Hos 13:2 *marg.

Moreover : etc. Heb. and the Lord added to speak, Isa 1:5, Isa 1:13, Isa 8:5, Isa 10:20; Hos 13:2 *marg.

TSK: Isa 7:11 - a sign // ask it either in the depth a sign : Isa 37:30, Isa 38:7, Isa 38:8, Isa 38:22; Jdg 6:36-40; 2Ki 20:8-11; Jer 19:1, Jer 19:10, Jer 51:63, Jer 51:64; Mat 12:38-40, Mat 16:1-4 ask i...

a sign : Isa 37:30, Isa 38:7, Isa 38:8, Isa 38:22; Jdg 6:36-40; 2Ki 20:8-11; Jer 19:1, Jer 19:10, Jer 51:63, Jer 51:64; Mat 12:38-40, Mat 16:1-4

ask it either in the depth : or, make thy petition deep

TSK: Isa 7:12 - I will not ask // neither // tempt I will not ask : 2Ki 16:15; 2Ch 28:22 neither : Eze 33:31 tempt : Deu 6:16; Mal 3:15; Act 5:9; 1Co 10:9

I will not ask : 2Ki 16:15; 2Ch 28:22

neither : Eze 33:31

tempt : Deu 6:16; Mal 3:15; Act 5:9; 1Co 10:9

TSK: Isa 7:13 - O house // Is it a small // to weary // will ye O house : Isa 7:2; 2Ch 21:7; Jer 21:12; Luk 1:69 Is it a small : Gen 30:15; Num 16:9, Num 16:13; Eze 16:20,Eze 16:47, Eze 34:18 to weary : 2Ch 36:15, ...

TSK: Isa 7:14 - Behold // shall call // shall call // Immanuel Behold : Gen 3:15; Jer 31:22; Mat 1:23; Luk 1:35 shall call : or, thou, O virgin shall call : Gen 4:1, Gen 4:2, Gen 4:25, Gen 16:11, Gen 29:32, Gen 30...

TSK: Isa 7:15 - Butter // know Butter : Connecting this verse with the preceding and following, we may render with Dr. Jubb and Lowth, ""Behold the virgin (haalmah as the word un...

Butter : Connecting this verse with the preceding and following, we may render with Dr. Jubb and Lowth, ""Behold the virgin (haalmah as the word uniformly signifies, Gen 24:43; Exo 2:8; Psa 68:26; Pro 30:19; Son 1:3; Son 6:8) shall conceive and bear a son, and thou shalt call his name Immanuel; butter and honey shall he eat when he shall know to refuse the evil and choose the good. For,""etc. Isa 7:22; Mat 3:4

know : Psa 51:5; Amo 5:15; Luk 1:35, Luk 2:40,Luk 2:52; Rom 12:9; Phi 1:9, Phi 1:10

TSK: Isa 7:16 - before // the land before : Deu 1:39; Jon 4:11 the land : Isa 8:4, Isa 9:11, Isa 17:1-3; 2Ki 15:29, 2Ki 15:30, 2Ki 16:9

TSK: Isa 7:17 - bring upon // the day bring upon : Isa 8:7, Isa 8:8, Isa 10:5, Isa 10:6, 36:1-37:38; 2Kings 18:1-19:37; 2Ch 28:19-21, 32:1-33; 2Ch 33:11, 2Ch 36:6-20; Neh 9:32 the day : 1K...

bring upon : Isa 8:7, Isa 8:8, Isa 10:5, Isa 10:6, 36:1-37:38; 2Kings 18:1-19:37; 2Ch 28:19-21, 32:1-33; 2Ch 33:11, 2Ch 36:6-20; Neh 9:32

the day : 1Ki 12:16-19; 2Ch 10:16-19

TSK: Isa 7:18 - hiss // fly // bee hiss : Isa 5:26 fly : Isa 30:1, Isa 30:2, Isa 31:1; Exo 8:21, Exo 8:24; Deu 1:44, Deu 7:20; Jos 24:12; Psa 118:12 bee : Isa 7:17; 2Ki 23:33, 2Ki 23:34

TSK: Isa 7:19 - in the holes // bushes in the holes : Isa 2:19, Isa 2:21; 2Ch 33:11; Jer 16:16; Mic 7:17 bushes : or, commendable trees

in the holes : Isa 2:19, Isa 2:21; 2Ch 33:11; Jer 16:16; Mic 7:17

bushes : or, commendable trees

TSK: Isa 7:20 - shave // head shave : Isa 10:6; 2Ki 16:7, 2Ki 16:8; 2Ch 28:20,2Ch 28:21; Jer 27:6, Jer 27:7; Eze 5:1-4, Eze 29:18, Eze 29:20 head : Isa 1:5, Isa 9:14-17, Isa 24:2

TSK: Isa 7:21 - a man a man : Isa 7:25, Isa 5:17, Isa 17:2, Isa 37:30; Jer 39:10

TSK: Isa 7:22 - butter and honey // land butter and honey : Isa 7:15; 2Sa 17:29; Mat 3:4 land : Heb. midst of the land

butter and honey : Isa 7:15; 2Sa 17:29; Mat 3:4

land : Heb. midst of the land

TSK: Isa 7:23 - a thousand vines // be for briers a thousand vines : Son 8:11, Son 8:12; Mat 21:33 be for briers : Isa 5:6, Isa 32:12-14; Jer 4:26; Heb 6:8

a thousand vines : Son 8:11, Son 8:12; Mat 21:33

be for briers : Isa 5:6, Isa 32:12-14; Jer 4:26; Heb 6:8

TSK: Isa 7:24 - -- Gen 27:3

TSK: Isa 7:25 - but it but it : Isa 7:21, Isa 7:22, Isa 13:20-22, Isa 17:2; Zep 2:6

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Isa 7:1 - In the days of Ahaz // To war against it In the days of Ahaz a most wicked king; yet no prophecies are more comfortable than those which were delivered in his time; God so ordering it, part...

In the days of Ahaz a most wicked king; yet no prophecies are more comfortable than those which were delivered in his time; God so ordering it, partly for the encouragement of the faithful that lived under his tyrannical and impious reign; and partly to manifest the riches and freeness of his grace, in conferring such favours upon a most worthless generation.

To war against it which they attempted before in Jotham’ s reign, 2Ki 15:37 , but now more seriously undertook, though without success, as is noted here, and 2Ki 16:5 .

Poole: Isa 7:2 - The house of David // Ephraim // Was moved The house of David Ahaz, and his royal relations and courtiers. He calls them the house of David , to intimate that the following comfortable messag...

The house of David Ahaz, and his royal relations and courtiers. He calls them the house of David , to intimate that the following comfortable message was sent to Ahaz, not for his own sake, but only for the sake of his worthy progenitor, David, to whom God had promised an everlasting kingdom.

Ephraim the kingdom of the ten tribes, commonly called Ephraim , as Isa 28:1 Hos 12:1 , because that was far the most numerous and potent of’ all of them.

Was moved with excessive fear, arising partly from the conscience of their own guilt, whereby they had put themselves out of God’ s protection; and partly from the consideration of the great strength and power of his enemies, who having prevailed against him severally, 2Ch 28:5,8 , and having now united their threes, he, having no faith in God, nor confidence to desire or expect his help, concluded his case desperate and deplorable.

Poole: Isa 7:3 - Go forth now to meet Ahaz // Shear-jashub // At the end of the conduit of the upper pool in the highway of the fuller’ s field Go forth now to meet Ahaz though he do not seek nor send to thee, as he ought. This is an eminent instance of preventing mercy. Shear-jashub whose ...

Go forth now to meet Ahaz though he do not seek nor send to thee, as he ought. This is an eminent instance of preventing mercy.

Shear-jashub whose very name carried in it a sign and pledge of the promised deliverance.

At the end of the conduit of the upper pool in the highway of the fuller’ s field whither he probably went to take care about the waters, which thence were brought into the city, either to secure them to himself, or to keep them from the enemy, as Hezekiah afterward did, 2Ch 32:3,4 .

Poole: Isa 7:4 - Take heed, and be quiet // Smoking fire-brands // The son of Remaliah // the son of Remaliah Take heed, and be quiet see that thou be quiet, abandon thy fears, and settle thy mind by the belief of that joyful message and promise which I am no...

Take heed, and be quiet see that thou be quiet, abandon thy fears, and settle thy mind by the belief of that joyful message and promise which I am now to deliver thee from the Lord.

Smoking fire-brands they are not whole firebrands burning in the fire, but small pieces or ends of them, taken out of the fire, in which there is more smoke than fire, and the fire will be speedily extinguished. They have more of show and terror than of strength.

The son of Remaliah Pekah king of Israel, Isa 7:1 , whom here, and in the next verse, he calls only

the son of Remaliah to intimate that he was unworthy of the name of king, as having got that title and power by usurpation, and the murder of his master and king Pekahiah, 2Ki 15:25 .

Poole: Isa 7:6 - Let us make a breach therein // The son of Tabeal Let us make a breach therein either, 1. Break and divide that country into two parts, one for time, and another for me; or rather, 2. Break their p...

Let us make a breach therein either,

1. Break and divide that country into two parts, one for time, and another for me; or rather,

2. Break their power and kingdom, and subdue it to ourselves: for,

1. The same word and phrase is so used 2Ch 32:1 , where there was no such division intended.

2. Because the next clause intimates that the kingdom of Judah was still to be united under another king, who should pay tribute to them severally, as they should agree.

The son of Tabeal some considerable captain, in whose fidelity both of them had good confidence; but whether he was an Israelite or Syrian is uncertain, and not material.

Poole: Isa 7:7 - -- Their evil counsel, as it is called, Isa 7:5 .

Their evil counsel, as it is called, Isa 7:5 .

Poole: Isa 7:8 - Is Damascus // Within threescore and five years Is Damascus or rather, shall be Damascus ; for the verb is not expressed in the Hebrew text, and therefore may be either way supplied. The sense is,...

Is Damascus or rather, shall be Damascus ; for the verb is not expressed in the Hebrew text, and therefore may be either way supplied. The sense is, Damascus shall still continue to be the capital and chief city of the kingdom of Syria; and therefore Jerusalem shall not be taken, nor become a part of Rezin’ s dominion; but he shall be kept within his own bounds, and be king of Damascus only, and not, as he hopes, of Jerusalem.

Within threescore and five years to be computed either,

1. From the prophecy of Amos, who prophesied in the days of Uzziah, two years before the earthquake , Amo 1:1 , which the Jews affirm to have happened about the time of his usurpation of the priest’ s office, and being smitten with leprosy, 2Ch 26:16 , &c., which though it be not proved, yet it may be admitted, because it cannot be disproved. And it is more than probable that that action and accident was divers years before his death, during which time Jotham acted as his viceroy, 2Ch 26:21 . And the prophecy of Amos being express and full concerning the destruction of the people and commonwealth of Israel, being also fresh in the memory of many now living, the prophet Isaiah might well have respect to it. So the sense is as if he had said, There shall be but sixty-five years between the delivery and the execution of that prophecy. And so the number of years may be thus made up. Fix the beginning of them ten years before Uzziah’ s death, add the sixteen years of Jotham’ s reign, and then the sixteen years of Ahaz’ s reign, and then six of Hezekiah’ s reign, in which Israel was carried captive, 2Ki 18:10 , these make up forty-eight years; and for the seventeen years which yet remain of the sixty-five, they may be taken out of the rest of Hezekiah’ s reign. For although the transportation of that people began in the sixth year of Hezekiah, yet it might be continued or repeated divers years after, and completed seventeen years after, Jer 52:28-30 . Or rather,

2. These years may be computed from the time of this prophecy of Isaiah. And whereas it may objected against this opinion, that the judgment here threatened was executed in the sixth year of Hezekiah, as was before noted, and therefore within eighteen or nineteen years of this prophecy, which was delivered in the third or fourth year of Ahaz; two things may be answered,

1. That the Israelites were not transported in the sixth year of Hezekiah; for although Samaria be said to be taken in the sixth year of Hezekiah, 2Ki 18:10 , and the transportation of the Israelites be mentioned immediately after it, Isa 7:11 , yet it doth not thence follow that it was done immediately, and at that one time; because this is not unusual in Scripture, in historical relations to mention those things together which were done at a considerable distance of time one from another, as it is recorded, Act 7:15,16 , Jacob died, he and our fathers, and were carried over into Sychem, and laid in the sepulchre of Abraham , &c., although it was above two hundred years ere all which is said in those few words was done. And other instances of like nature might easily be produced.

2. That this work of transportation was not done at once, but successively, and by degrees. Thus it certainly was in the transportation of Judah, which was begun in Nebuchadnezzar’ s seventh year, continued in his eighteenth year, and perfected in his three and twentieth year, Jer 52:28-30 . And thus it might be, and probably was, in this transportation. It might be begun presently after the taking of Samaria, and afterwards continued, until at last the whole body of the people was removed; and as soon as that was done, and not before, the king of Assyria brought into their place those new colonies mentioned 2Ki 17:24 . Which that it was not done at the time of the taking of Samaria, but many years after it, seems to me evident, because those colonies were not brought thither by Shalmanezer, who took Samaria, 2Ki 18:10 , no, nor by Sennacherib, his next successor; but by Esar-haddon, as is affirmed, Ezr 4:2 , who was the son and successor of Sennacherib, 2Ki 19:37 , and reigned above fifty years; for he seems to have begun his reign about the fourteenth year of Hezekiah’ s reign, by comparing 2Ki 18:13 , and 2Ki 19:35-37 ; and so he reigned with Hezekiah about fifteen years, and with Manasseh above forty years, as the learned Sir John Marsham affirms in his Chronicus Canon, &c, p. 496. And this work of transporting the remainders of the Israelites, and bringing the new colonies, might not be done till towards the end of his reign; which delay might be occasioned by his wars, or other great affairs. And lest this should seem to be only my own private conjecture, if the reader consult Sir John Marsham’ s fourth and last chronological table, inserted after p. 589 of his work, he will find that learned chronologer to be of the same mind, and to make above fifty years’ distance between the taking of Samaria, and the translation of the new colonies into those parts. And thus these sixty-five years might well be accomplished in his time. And so this place agrees with other scriptures, and the difficulties objected against other interpretations seem to be avoided.

Poole: Isa 7:9 - Is Samaria // Ye shall not be established Is Samaria or rather, shall be Samaria ; and the sense is the same as in the foregoing verse, Samaria shall continue to be the chief city of the kin...

Is Samaria or rather, shall be Samaria ; and the sense is the same as in the foregoing verse, Samaria shall continue to be the chief city of the kingdom of Israel, and Pekah shall not conquer Jerusalem, as he hoped and designed to do.

Ye shall not be established if you do not believe this and the other promises of God, but, in distrust of God, shall seek to the Assyrians for succour, to which I perceive you are inclined, instead of that deliverance and settlement which you expect, you shall be distressed and consumed thereby; the accomplishment of which threatening is recorded 2Ch 28:20 . And by this threatening he implies, that if they did rely upon God’ s word and help, they should be established. Only he delivereth it in the form of a threatening, rather than of promise, partly because he foresaw that they would choose the worse part, and bring the judgment threatened upon themselves; and partly because this was most necessary for them, to affright them out of their present security and infidelity.

Poole: Isa 7:11 - Ask thee a sign of the Lord // Thy God // Ask it either in the depth, or in the height above Ask thee a sign of the Lord I perceive thou dost not believe God’ s word and message now delivered by me; yet God is so patient and merciful to ...

Ask thee a sign of the Lord I perceive thou dost not believe God’ s word and message now delivered by me; yet God is so patient and merciful to thee, that he gives thee liberty to demand of him any signal or miraculous work, whereby thou mayst be assured of the truth and certainty of this promise.

Thy God both by right of dominion, and by virtue’ of his gracious covenant made with all Israel, of whom thou art a member and king; and by thy own profession, for he still worshipped God together with his idols; and by the continuance of his care and kindness to thee and to thy people, notwithstanding all your wickedness; whereof this promise and offer is a clear demonstration.

Ask it either in the depth, or in the height above demand some prodigy to be wrought, either in earth or in heaven, at thy pleasure.

Poole: Isa 7:12 - I will not ask // Neither will I tempt the Lord I will not ask: this refusal proceeded not from the strength of his faith, but from his contempt of God, and total distrust and disregard of his word...

I will not ask: this refusal proceeded not from the strength of his faith, but from his contempt of God, and total distrust and disregard of his word, and inward resolution to take another course; as is manifest both from the following words, and from the history of Ahaz, 2Ch 18 .

Neither will I tempt the Lord either,

1. By asking a sign, as if he questioned the truth of his word: so this was deep hypocrisy. Or,

2. By neglecting any means necessary for my preservation, which were indeed a tempting of God. And therefore I shall not sit still and rely upon God till I be destroyed, which will be the effect of thy counsel; but I shall do as becometh a wise king, seek for succour from potent allies, such as the Assyrian is. So this is flat rebellion against God.

Poole: Isa 7:13 - House of David // Is it a small thing for you? // To weary men // Will ye weary my God also House of David of which see above, Isa 7:2 . He reproveth them all, because they were the king’ s counsellors, and promoted the design of sendin...

House of David of which see above, Isa 7:2 . He reproveth them all, because they were the king’ s counsellors, and promoted the design of sending for the Assyrian succours.

Is it a small thing for you? is not that wickedness more than enough? must you add more to it?

To weary men to vex God’ s prophets and people, and the generality of your subjects, with your oppressions and horrid impieties.

Will ye weary my God also by your cursed ingratitude, and unbelief, and disobedience to his commands? He saith, my God , i.e. the God whose servant and prophet or messenger I am, to intimate that this heinous offence was not committed against a weak and foolish man, such as they might think the prophet to be, but against God himself, who sent the message. Compare Exo 16:8 .

Poole: Isa 7:14 - Therefore // A sign // Quest // Answ // Behold // A virgin // Bear a Son // And shall call // Immanuel Therefore because you despise me, and the sign which I now offer to you, God of his own free grace will send you a more honourable messenger, and giv...

Therefore because you despise me, and the sign which I now offer to you, God of his own free grace will send you a more honourable messenger, and give you a nobler sign, to try whether that will cure you of your infidelity. Or, nevertheless , as this particle seems to be understood, Isa 30:18 Jer 16:14 30:16 . Although you deserve no sign nor favour, yet, for the comfort of those few believers which are among you, and to leave you without excuse, I shall mind you or another and a greater sign, which God hath promised, and will in his due time perform; which also is a pledge of the certain accomplishment of all God’ s promises. Or, surely , as this particle is sometimes used, as Gen 4:15 Jer 2:33 5:2 Zec 11:7 .

A sign to wit, of your deliverance.

Quest. How was this birth of a virgin, which was not to come till many ages after, a sign of their deliverance from the present danger?

Answ

1. Because this was a clear demonstration of God’ s infinite power, and goodness, and faithfulness, and consequently of the certain truth of all God’ s promises from time to time, which can never fill so long as those attributes of God stand; and men’ s faith is either strong or weak, as they believe them or doubt of them; of which see Psa 77:8 78:19,20 Ro 4:20,21 . And so this was a proper remedy for Ahaz’ s disease, which was a secret suspicion that God either could not or would not deliver them.

2. Because that promise, I say not only the actual giving, which was long after, but even the promise, of the Messiah, which had been made long since, and oft renewed, and was universally believed by all the people, was the foundation of all God’ s mercies and promises unto them, 2Co 1:20 , and a pledge of the accomplishment of them.

3. Because this promised birth did suppose and require the preservation of that city, and nation, and tribe, in and of which the Messiah was to be born; and therefore there was no cause to fear that utter ruin which their enemies now threatened to bring upon them.

4. This is one, but not the only sign here given, as we shall see at Isa 7:16 .

Behold you who will not believe that God alone is able to deliver you from the united force of Syria and Israel, take notice, for your full satisfaction, that God is not only able to do this work, but to do far greater and harder things, which he hath promised, and therefore both can and will accomplish.

A virgin strictly and properly so called. The Jews, that they may obscure this plain text, and weaken this proof of the truth of Christian religion, pretend that this Hebrew word signifies a young woman, and not a virgin. But this corrupt translation is easily confuted,

1. Because this word constantly signifies a virgin in all other places of Scripture where it is used, which are Gen 24:43 , compared with Isa 7:16 Exo 2:8 Psa 68:25 Son 1:3 6:8 ; to which may be added Pro 30:19 , The way of a man with a maid, or a virgin : for though it be supposed that he did design and desire to corrupt her, and afterwards did so; yet she may well be called a virgin, partly because he found her a virgin, and partly because she seemed and pretended to others to be such, which made her more careful to use all possible arts to preserve her reputation, and so made the discovery of her impure conversation with the man more difficult, whereas the filthy practices of common harlots are easily and vulgarly known.

2. From the scope of this place, which is to confirm their faith by a strange and prodigious sign, which surely could not be not a young woman should conceive a child, but that a virgin should conceive, &c.

Bear a Son or rather, bring forth, as it is rendered, Mat 1:23 , and as this Hebrew word is used, Gen 16:11 17:19 Jud 13:5 .

And shall call the virgin, last mentioned, shall call; which is added as a further evidence of her virginity, and that this Son had no human father, because the right of naming the child (which, being a sign of dominion, is primarily in the husband, and in the wife only by his consent or permission, as is evident from Gen 5:29 35:18 Luk 1:60,63 , and many other places of Scripture) is wholly appropriated to her.

Immanuel which signifies, God with us ; God dwelling among us, in our nature, Joh 1:14 , God and man meeting in one person, and being a Mediator between God and men. For the design of these words is not so much to relate the name by which Christ should commonly be called, as to describe his nature and office; as we read that his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor , &c., Isa 9:6 , and that this is said to be his (the Messiah’ s) name whereby he shall be called, The Lord our Righteousness , Jer 23:6 , although he be never called by these names in any other place of the Old or New Testament; but the meaning of these places is, He shall be wonderful, and our Counsellor, &c., and our Righteousness; for to be called is oft put for to be, as Isa 1:26 4:3 , &c.

Poole: Isa 7:15 - Butter and honey // He // That he may know // To refuse the evil Butter and honey the common food of children in that Country, where they were in great abundance, and of the best sort. He the virgin’ s Son l...

Butter and honey the common food of children in that Country, where they were in great abundance, and of the best sort.

He the virgin’ s Son last mentioned, who, though he be God blessed for ever, yet shall become man, and, to show the truth of his humanity, shall not only be conceived and brought forth, but also shall be nourished and brought up, by the same means and steps as other children; which is justly mentioned here as a stupendous and miraculous work of God.

That he may know that by this food he may grow up, and so may know, &c. Or, until he know , as it is rendered by divers learned men, and, among others, by the Chaldee interpreter, who best knew the use of this particle among the Hebrews.

To refuse the evil and choose the good; to discern between things morally good and evil; which children are capable of doing, in some measure, when they are five or six years old. Compare Deu 1:39 , where young children are described by this character, that they had no knowledge between good and evil.

Poole: Isa 7:16 - For // The child // The land // That thou abhorrest // Shall be forsaken of both her kings For or, yea ; for so this particle is used by way of amplification or addition, Isa 32:13 Jer 14:5,18 . So the sense is, Not only this land of thine...

For or, yea ; for so this particle is used by way of amplification or addition, Isa 32:13 Jer 14:5,18 . So the sense is, Not only this land of thine shall be preserved until the virgin’ s Son be born, but thine enemy’ s land shall be sorely scourged, and these two kings destroyed, within a very little time.

The child Heb. this child ; not the virgin’ s Son, but the prophet’ s child, Shear-jashub, whom in all probability the prophet, to prevent mistakes, pointed at, and who was brought hither by God’ s special command, Isa 7:3 , and that for this very use; for otherwise his presence was wholly insignificant.

The land the lands, to wit, of Syria and Israel, as is evident from the next words. It is an enallage of the singular for the plural.

That thou abhorrest for its cruel designs and practices against time. Or, which vexeth or molesteth thee, as this word is used, Exo 1:12 Num 22:3 , &c.

Shall be forsaken of both her kings so far shall Pekah and Rezin be from conquering thy land, that they shall lose their own lands, and their lives too; which they did within two years after this time, being both slain by the king of Assyria, 2Ki 15:29,30 16:9 .

Poole: Isa 7:17 - The Lord shall bring // Upon thee // Upon thy father’ s house // Days // The day that Ephraim departed from Judah // Even the king of Assyria The Lord shall bring but although God will deliver you at this time for his own name’ s sake, yet he will remember and requite all your present ...

The Lord shall bring but although God will deliver you at this time for his own name’ s sake, yet he will remember and requite all your present and following wickedness, and hath a dreadful judgment in store for you.

Upon thee for part of this Assyrian storm fell in Ahaz’ s reign, 2Ch 28:20 .

Upon thy father’ s house upon thy sons and successors, the kings of Judah; the accomplishment whereof is recorded in their history.

Days to wit, evil days, by a synecdoche; or calamities; for days are oft put for the events which happen in them, and especially for judgments or tribulations, as Job 18:20 Psa 137:7 Isa 9:4 Oba 1:12 .

The day that Ephraim departed from Judah when ten tribes revolted from thy father’ s house, and set up another opposite kingdom.

Even the king of Assyria who may well be called their plague or calamity, as he is called the rod of God’ s anger, Isa 10:5 . Or, with (as this Hebrew particle oft signifies) the king , &c.; or, by the king , &c. And king is here put for kings , as Dan 2:37 8:21 .

Poole: Isa 7:18 - In that day // Shall hiss // The fly // In the uttermost part // Of the rivers // The bee // In the land of Assyria In that day known to God, and appointed by him for the execution of these judgments. Shall hiss: See Poole "Isa 5:26". The fly the flies. So he ca...

In that day known to God, and appointed by him for the execution of these judgments.

Shall hiss: See Poole "Isa 5:26".

The fly the flies. So he calls these enemies, to imply either their great numbers, or their speedy march, or their unavoidable assault.

In the uttermost part in, or near, or towards their extremity or end, where they go out into the sea.

Of the rivers of the river Nilus, which may be called rivers, either for its greatness, for which cause the title of rivers is given also to Euphrates, Psa 137:1 , and to Tigris, Nah 2:6 ; or because, towards the end of it, it is divided into seven famous streams, by which it emptieth itself into the midland sea, Isa 11:15 . He seems plainly to design and describe the Egyptians, who were always dangerous neighbours to Judah, and did probably animate and assist the Philistines, and Edomites, and others against them, and at last made a formal invasion and conquest of their land, 2Ki 23:33 , &c. Besides, when the Chaldeans had in good measure subdued the Egyptians, it is very probable that great numbers of the Egyptian soldiers did list themselves in the Chaldean army, and with them invade the land of Judah.

The bee the bees, the Assyrian army, who are compared to bees, as for their numerous forces and orderly march, so for their fierce attempts and mischievous effects.

In the land of Assyria in the empire of Assyria, or Babylon; for these two were united into one empire, and therefore in Scripture are promiscuously called sometimes by one title, and sometimes by the other.

Poole: Isa 7:19 - They // Shall rest all of them // The desolate valleys // The rocks // Bushes They the flies, and especially the bees. Shall rest all of them they shall have an easy victory; few or none of them shall be slain in the attempt....

They the flies, and especially the bees.

Shall rest all of them they shall have an easy victory; few or none of them shall be slain in the attempt.

The desolate valleys either,

1. Such as were and had long been desolate. So it signifies the vast numbers of their enemies, which filled all places, both such as were well inhabited, and such as were in a great measure desolate. Or,

2. Such as they found very fruitful, but made them desolate.

The rocks to which possibly the Israelites fled for refuge.

Bushes which he mentions, partly because flies and bees use frequently to rest there, and partly to intimate that no place should escape the fury of this enemy.

Poole: Isa 7:20 - Shave with a razor // The river // By the king of Assyria // The hair of the feet // The beard Shave with a razor i.e. utterly spoil and destroy, as shaving takes away all the hair, and leaves not any thing of it visible, as there is when the h...

Shave with a razor i.e. utterly spoil and destroy, as shaving takes away all the hair, and leaves not any thing of it visible, as there is when the hair is only cut or polled. Hired ; either,

1. By Ahaz, who did hire them, 2Ki 16:7,8 . And so the prophet notes the just judgment of God, in scourging them with a rod of their own making; and by this threatening he endeavours to prevent that wicked design which then was on foot, of hiring Assyrian succours. Or,

2. By God, who did stir them up, and send them upon his errand against Judah, as he threatens, Isa 10:6 , and paid them liberally for that service, as he did Nebuchadnezzar, of which see Jer 25:9 27:6,7 Da 2:37,38 .

The river Euphrates, called the river, by way of eminency, Psa 72:8 Jer 2:18 , beyond which Assyria lay.

By the king of Assyria by the successive kings of the Assyrian empire, Sennacherib, 2Ki 18:13 , &c., Esarhaddon, 2Ch 33:11 , and especially by Nebuchadnezzar, who having subdued the Assyrian monarchy, from thenceforth was king of Assyria as well as of Chaldea. And the prophet rather mentions Assyria than Chaldea or Babylon, partly because the Assyrian began and continued to execute this judgment, although the Babylonian completed it; and partly to inform them that they laid the foundation of their own ruin, by opening the door to the Assyrian, who afterwards entered at his pleasure, and left it open for Nebuchadnezzar.

The hair of the feet of the lower or secret parts, which come under that name, Eze 16:7,25 , and elsewhere, as it hath been noted again and again; and which the Jewish writers affirm to have been shaved in the purification of lepers and Levites, Lev 14:8,9 Nu 8:7 .

The beard which they highly esteemed, as a great ornament. By these metaphorical expressions he signifies the total destruction of their state, from head to foot, from the highest to the lowest.

Poole: Isa 7:21 - -- This and the following verse contain either, 1. A mitigation of the foregoing calamity, or some comfort for the remainders of the people, after the...

This and the following verse contain either,

1. A mitigation of the foregoing calamity, or some comfort for the remainders of the people, after the public devastation; or rather,

2. A further declaration of the threatened desolation; which best agrees not only with the foregoing, but also with the following verses. So the sense of this verse is this, They who formerly used to keep great herds of cattle, and many flocks of sheep, shall esteem it a great happiness if they can keep but one cow and two sheep, to keep themselves from extremity of famine.

Poole: Isa 7:22 - For the abundance of milk that they shall give // Butter and honey For the abundance of milk that they shall give because they shall have excellent and large pastures, by reason of the great scarcity of cattle; where...

For the abundance of milk that they shall give because they shall have excellent and large pastures, by reason of the great scarcity of cattle; whereas formerly their lands were ofttimes overstocked with cattle.

Butter and honey may be here mentioned, either,

1. As mean and vulgar food, being very common in those parts; which are opposed to that flesh and corn, and other excellent fruits of the earth, wherewith their land formerly abounded. Or,

2. As very good and pleasant food, which the poorer sort had formerly used to sell, to procure more necessary and cheaper food for themselves; but now the land should be so destitute of people, that there were none to whom they could sell them, and those few who did survive might freely eat all sorts of provisions.

Poole: Isa 7:23 - A thousand vines at a thousand silverings // It shall even be for briers and thorns // it shall be for briers and thorns A thousand vines at a thousand silverings or, pieces of silver , as the same word is commonly rendered. Whereby we may understand either, 1. So man...

A thousand vines at a thousand silverings or, pieces of silver , as the same word is commonly rendered. Whereby we may understand either,

1. So many pounds; a pound for each vineyard, to wit, for the annual rent. Or,

2. So many shekels, which word is most commonly understood, when no particular kind of coin is expressed, as 2Sa 18:11,12 Mt 26:15 ; and then the meaning is, not that the thousand vineyards were let for a thousand shekels, a vineyard for a shekel, which is a contemptible price; but that each of the thousand vineyards might have been sold or let for a thousand shekels, which was the yearly rent of some excellent vineyards, as may be gathered from Son 8:11 ; except we understand this not of so many vineyards, as other interpreters do, but of so many single vines, as the word properly and generally signifies, planted together in one large vineyard, which may be here meant by the place of the river, and then each vine may be valued at a shekel. But this place may possibly be otherwise rendered, and that exactly according to the Hebrew text, every place where there are a thousand vines, shall be for a thousand pieces of silver , i.e. it shall be valued or offered, either to be let, or rather to be sold, at that price; which was a very low price, and therefore fitly signifies the greatness of the desolation.

It shall even be for briers and thorns because it shall be utterly neglected, and therefore overspread with them. Or, yea,

it shall be for briers and thorns No man will either buy or hire it upon any terms.

Poole: Isa 7:24 - With arrows and with bows With arrows and with bows either to hunt, or to defend themselves from wild beasts, which commonly abide in such desolate and overgrown grounds.

With arrows and with bows either to hunt, or to defend themselves from wild beasts, which commonly abide in such desolate and overgrown grounds.

Poole: Isa 7:25 - That shall be digged // There shall not come thither the fear of briers and thorns // that there might not come thither // It shall be // For the sending forth of oxen, and for the treading of lesser cattle That shall be digged or, that were digged , to wit, formerly; that used to be digged and dressed for the planting of vines, or other choice fruit tr...

That shall be digged or, that were digged , to wit, formerly; that used to be digged and dressed for the planting of vines, or other choice fruit trees.

There shall not come thither the fear of briers and thorns: the words thus rendered sound like a promise, but that doth no way agree with the scope of the place. And they may be, and are by some, understood not of briers and thorns growing in those grounds, which would hinder the feeding of cattle there, but of such wherewith they were fenced, and by which the cattle were affrighted or hindered from breaking into them, which cause of their fear being now removed by the general devastation, they might now enter there, and feed at pleasure, as the next words imply. Or they may be rendered thus, as they are by a late learned interpreter,

that there might not come thither & c., which is mentioned as the reason why they were digged and dressed, that they might be freed from briers and thorns. And so there is only a defect of the Hebrew particle asher , which is frequent, and that not only as it signifies which, but as it is taken finally for that, as Isa 5:11 10:2 , and elsewhere.

It shall be or, even (as this particle is oft rendered) there shall be , to wit, a place; which word is understood, 2Sa 7:1 1Ki 18:12 . Or the words may be thus rendered, and all hills that shall be digged— and thorns, even they or each of them shall be ; the singular being taken collectively, as is very usual.

For the sending forth of oxen, and for the treading of lesser cattle all sorts of cattle may fairly enter, and feed there, the fences being broken down, and the owners generally slain, or carried into captivity.

PBC: Isa 7:10 - -- See Philpot: PLEASANT PLANTS AND DESPERATE SORROW

See Philpot: PLEASANT PLANTS AND DESPERATE SORROW

Haydock: Isa 7:1 - Achaz Achaz. This must be seventeen years later than the former prediction, 4 Kings xv. 37. The kings of Syria and Israel jointly attacked Juda, but were...

Achaz. This must be seventeen years later than the former prediction, 4 Kings xv. 37. The kings of Syria and Israel jointly attacked Juda, but were forced to raise the siege of Jerusalem. The next year they came separately, and committed the following ravages. The news of their junction threw all into confusion, ver. 2. Isaias was then sent to inform the king, that the designs of his enemies should not take effect. Yet the two kings obtained each a victory. But they could not dethrone Achaz, as they intended. (Calmet) ---

Paine traduces this prophecy as a lie, asserting that they succeeded. What! did they make Tabeel king? ver. 6. The Israelites would not even keep the captives who had been taken, 2 Chronicles xxviii. 15. (Watson, let. 5.) ---

Achaz had been made captive before. But now the Lord defeated the projects of his enemies, as he will the conspiracy of heretics against his Church. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 7:3 - Jasub Jasub. This name was mysterious: Shear-Jashub means "the rest shall return" from Babylon, or be converted under Ezechias, chap. x. 22. (Calmet) -...

Jasub. This name was mysterious: Shear-Jashub means "the rest shall return" from Babylon, or be converted under Ezechias, chap. x. 22. (Calmet) ---

Protestants, Go "thou, and Shear-Jashub, thy son, at the end of the conduit," &c. (Haydock)

Haydock: Isa 7:4 - Tails Tails. So he styles the two kings in derision. The distrust of Achaz was punished by the loss of many of his subjects, but he was not dethroned, ha...

Tails. So he styles the two kings in derision. The distrust of Achaz was punished by the loss of many of his subjects, but he was not dethroned, having engaged the Egyptians and Assyrians to attack his enemies, ver. 17.

Haydock: Isa 7:6 - Tabeel Tabeel. Chaldean, "whom we shall think proper." He will not so much as name him.

Tabeel. Chaldean, "whom we shall think proper." He will not so much as name him.

Haydock: Isa 7:8 - Rasin // And five Rasin. Both the king and his capital shall be ruined. --- And five. Capellus (p. 497.) would read six and five; or, in eleven years time. But (C...

Rasin. Both the king and his capital shall be ruined. ---

And five. Capellus (p. 497.) would read six and five; or, in eleven years time. But (Calmet) Ephraim was led captive twenty-one years after, and the Cutheans took their place when sixty-five years had elapsed. (The year of the world 3327., Usher) ---

Most people date from the prophecy of Amos to the ruin of Samaria, just sixty-five years. The former solution seems preferable. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 7:9 - Continue Continue. Septuagint, "and will not understand, even the Lord," &c. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "and since you do not believe," (Calmet) or "because you...

Continue. Septuagint, "and will not understand, even the Lord," &c. (Haydock) ---

Hebrew, "and since you do not believe," (Calmet) or "because you are not confirmed" by a miracle. (Grotius)

Haydock: Isa 7:11 - Above Above. Require it to thunder, (1 Kings xii. 17.) or the earth to open, Numbers xvi. 28. (Calmet)

Above. Require it to thunder, (1 Kings xii. 17.) or the earth to open, Numbers xvi. 28. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 7:12 - Lord Lord. He was afraid of being forced to relinquish his evil ways. (St. Jerome) --- Though an idolater, he knew he ought not to tempt God.

Lord. He was afraid of being forced to relinquish his evil ways. (St. Jerome) ---

Though an idolater, he knew he ought not to tempt God.

Haydock: Isa 7:14 - Virgin, halma // Called Virgin, halma, (Haydock) one secluded from the company of men. Alma in Latin signifies "a holy person," and in Punic "a virgin." The term is neve...

Virgin, halma, (Haydock) one secluded from the company of men. Alma in Latin signifies "a holy person," and in Punic "a virgin." The term is never applied to any but "a young virgin." If it meant a young woman, what sort of a sign would this be? (St. Jerome) ---

It was indeed above the sagacity of man to declare that the child to be born would be a boy, and live till the kings should be destroyed. But the prophet undoubtedly speaks of Jesus Christ, the wonderful, &c., (chap. ix. 5.) as well as of a boy, who should prefigure him, and be an earnest of the speedy destruction of the two kings. He was to be born of Isaias, (chap. viii. 4.) and of all the qualities belonging to the true Emmanuel, only that regards him, which intimates that the country should be delivered before he should come to years of discretion, ver. 16. (Calmet, Diss.) (Bossuet) ---

The Fathers generally apply all to Christ. ---

Called. Or shall be in effect, chap. i. 26. (Calmet) ---

The king hardly trusted in God's mercies, whereupon the incarnation of Christ, &c., is foretold. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 7:15 - Honey Honey. Like other infants. (Calmet) --- The new baptized received some to remind them of innocence. (Tertullian, cor. 3.) --- Christ shall be tr...

Honey. Like other infants. (Calmet) ---

The new baptized received some to remind them of innocence. (Tertullian, cor. 3.) ---

Christ shall be true man. (Menochius)

Haydock: Isa 7:16 - Good // Land Good. Being arrived at the age of discretion, Achaz engaged the Assyrians to invade Damascus. Its citizens and four tribes were carried into captiv...

Good. Being arrived at the age of discretion, Achaz engaged the Assyrians to invade Damascus. Its citizens and four tribes were carried into captivity the year following. Phacee only survived another year, the year of the world 3265. This was a pledge, that what regarded the son of the virgin would also be accomplished. (Calmet) ---

Land of the enemy. (Calmet) (4 Kings xvi.) (Menochius)

Haydock: Isa 7:17 - Assyrians Assyrians. His aid shall prove the greatest scourge, (2 Paralipomenon xxviii. 20.) while the Idumeans and Philistines shall also ravage the country....

Assyrians. His aid shall prove the greatest scourge, (2 Paralipomenon xxviii. 20.) while the Idumeans and Philistines shall also ravage the country. (2 Paralipomenon xxviii. 17.) Achaz has vainly trusted in man.

Haydock: Isa 7:18 - Of Egypt Of Egypt. The Idumeans, &c., dwell on the borders, chap. v. 26. Yet many explain this of the victories of Nabuchodonosor and Nechas.

Of Egypt. The Idumeans, &c., dwell on the borders, chap. v. 26. Yet many explain this of the victories of Nabuchodonosor and Nechas.

Haydock: Isa 7:20 - Razor // Hired Razor. Or cut off with scissors all the hair, as was done with lepers, (Leviticus xiv. 9.) and Levites, Numbers viii. 7. The country shall be pilla...

Razor. Or cut off with scissors all the hair, as was done with lepers, (Leviticus xiv. 9.) and Levites, Numbers viii. 7. The country shall be pillaged, and all shall be in mourning. (Calmet) ---

The men shall be despised as no better than women and cowards. (St. Jerome) (Theodoret) ---

Hired. With large sums. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 7:22 - Land Land. Pastures shall be so large, (Menochius) though uncultivated, the greatest part of the inhabitants being removed.

Land. Pastures shall be so large, (Menochius) though uncultivated, the greatest part of the inhabitants being removed.

Haydock: Isa 7:23 - Pieces Pieces. Sicles. This was the price of the best vineyards, Canticle of Canticles viii. 2. (Calmet) --- Now people may hunt in them. (Haydock) ---...

Pieces. Sicles. This was the price of the best vineyards, Canticle of Canticles viii. 2. (Calmet) ---

Now people may hunt in them. (Haydock) ---

The subjects of Achaz were much reduced. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 7:24 - Thither Thither. The hedges shall be rooted up (Haydock) or neglected, so that cattle may graze. (Menochius) --- Two sorts of mountains are specified; som...

Thither. The hedges shall be rooted up (Haydock) or neglected, so that cattle may graze. (Menochius) ---

Two sorts of mountains are specified; some for vineyards, and others for pasture. (Calmet)

Gill: Isa 7:1 - And it came to pass in the days of Ahaz the son of Jotham, the son of Uzziah king of Judah // that Rezin the king of Syria, and Pekah, the son of Remaliah king of Israel, went up towards Jerusalem to war against it // but could not prevail against it And it came to pass in the days of Ahaz the son of Jotham, the son of Uzziah king of Judah,.... Here begins a new prophecy under the reign of another ...

And it came to pass in the days of Ahaz the son of Jotham, the son of Uzziah king of Judah,.... Here begins a new prophecy under the reign of another king; who, though a wicked king, had religious ancestors; and who are mentioned, not, as the Jewish writers u generally say, because it was owing to their worthiness that the enemies of Ahaz could not prevail against him; but because it was under these kings the prophet had prophesied: what is contained in the first five chapters were delivered in the times of Uzziah; and the vision in the sixth was in the times of Jotham, in the beginning of his reign; and what is said here, and in some following chapters, was in the time of Ahaz; so that this is mentioned to fix and carry on the date of the prophecy:

that Rezin the king of Syria, and Pekah, the son of Remaliah king of Israel, went up towards Jerusalem to war against it; at the latter end of Jotham's reign, and the beginning of Ahaz's; these two separately came up against Judah, and greatly distressed and afflicted the kingdom, slew many, and carried others captive, 2Ki 15:37 but afterwards, in the third w or fourth x year of Ahaz, as it is said, they joined together to besiege Jerusalem, which this refers to, 2Ki 16:5,

but could not prevail against it; or "he could not"; that is, according to Aben Ezra, the king of Israel, Pekah, the son of Remaliah; but, according to Kimchi, it was Rezin king of Syria, who, he says, was the principal in the war, and brought Pekah along with him; but it may very well be understood of them both, since in 2Ki 16:5, the plural number is used; "and they could not"; and so the Septuagint, Vulgate Latin, and Oriental versions here.

Gill: Isa 7:2 - And it was told the house of David // saying, Syria is confederate with Ephraim // and his heart was moved, and the heart of his people, as the trees of the wood are moved with the wind And it was told the house of David,.... Ahaz, and his family, the princes of the blood, his court and counsellors; who had intelligence of the designs...

And it was told the house of David,.... Ahaz, and his family, the princes of the blood, his court and counsellors; who had intelligence of the designs and preparations of the Syrians and Israelites against them:

saying, Syria is confederate with Ephraim; the ten tribes; or the kingdom and king of Israel. Some render it, "Syria led"; that is, its army "unto Ephraim" y; marched it into the land of Israel, and there joined the king of Israel's army; others, as the Vulgate Latin version, "Syria rests upon Ephraim" z; depends upon, trusts in, takes heart and encouragement from Ephraim, or the ten tribes, being his ally. The Septuagint version is, "Syria hath agreed with Ephraim"; entered into a confederacy and alliance with each other; which is the sense of our version; and is confirmed by the Targum, which is,

"the king of Syria is joined with the king of Israel:''

and his heart was moved, and the heart of his people, as the trees of the wood are moved with the wind; the metaphor denotes the strength and force of the confederate armies, comparable to a strong, blustering, boisterous wind; see Isa 32:2 and the weakness of the king and people of Judah, who were like to trees shaken by the wind; and also the fear they were possessed with, partly through consciousness of guilt, and partly through distrust of divine power and Providence; and also on account of what they had suffered already from these powerful enemies, when they attacked them singly; and therefore might much more dread them, as they were combined together against them; see 2Ch 28:5.

Gill: Isa 7:3 - Then said the Lord unto Isaiah // go forth now to meet Ahaz // thou, and Shearjashub thy son // at the end of the conduit of the upper pool // in the highway of the fuller's field Then said the Lord unto Isaiah,.... The prophet, the inspired penman of these prophecies, that go by his name; what follows, the Lord said unto him in...

Then said the Lord unto Isaiah,.... The prophet, the inspired penman of these prophecies, that go by his name; what follows, the Lord said unto him in vision, or by an articulate voice, or by an impulse on his mind:

go forth now to meet Ahaz; the prophet was in the city of Jerusalem, and Ahaz was without, as appears by the place after mentioned, where he was to meet him; perhaps Ahaz was at his country house, which, upon the news brought him of the designs of his enemies, he leaves, and betakes himself to Jerusalem, his metropolis, and fortified city, where he might be more safe; or he had been out to reconnoitre the passes about Jerusalem, and give orders and directions for the strengthening and keeping of them:

thou, and Shearjashub thy son: whose name signifies "the remnant shall return", and who was taken with the prophet, to suggest either that the remnant that were left of the former devastations by those two kings ought to return to the Lord by repentance; or that though the people of Judah should hereafter be carried captive by the Assyrians, yet a remnant should return again. The Targum interprets this not of Isaiah's natural son, but of his disciples; paraphrasing it thus,

"thou, and the rest of thy disciples, who have not sinned, and are turned from sin:''

at the end of the conduit of the upper pool; for there was an upper pool and a lower one; see Isa 22:9 this was outside the city, and is the same place where Rabshakeh afterwards stood, and delivered his blasphemous and terrifying speech, 2Ki 18:17,

in the highway of the fuller's field; where they washed and dried their garments, and whitened them; the pool, conduit, and field, being fit for their purpose.

Gill: Isa 7:4 - And say unto him, take heed, and be quiet // fear not // neither be fainthearted // for the two tails of these smoking firebrands // For the fierce anger of Rezin with Syria, and of the son of Remaliah And say unto him, take heed, and be quiet,.... Or "keep" thyself, not within the city, and from fighting with his enemies, but from unbelief, fear, an...

And say unto him, take heed, and be quiet,.... Or "keep" thyself, not within the city, and from fighting with his enemies, but from unbelief, fear, and dread; or, as the Septuagint version, "keep" thyself, "that thou mayest be quiet" a; be easy, still, and silent, and see the salvation of God: the Jewish writers interpret the first word of resting and settling, as wine upon the lees: see Jer 48:11,

fear not; this explains the former:

neither be fainthearted; or "let thy heart soft" b, and melt like wax, through dread and diffidence:

for the two tails of these smoking firebrands: meaning the two kings of Syria and Israel: and so the Targum,

"for these two kings, who are as smoking firebrands;''

a metaphor used to express the weakness of these princes, their vain wrath and impotent fury, and the short continuance of it; they being like to firebrands wholly burnt and consumed to the end; a small part remaining, which could not be laid hold upon to light fires or burn with, and that only smoking, and the smoke just ready to vanish.

For the fierce anger of Rezin with Syria, and of the son of Remaliah; this shows who are meant by the two firebrands, Rezin king of Syria, and Pekah king of Israel; and what by the smoke of them, their fierce anger; which, though it seemed to threaten with utter destruction, in the opinion of Ahaz and his court, was only like the smoke of a firebrand burnt to the end, weak and vanishing.

Gill: Isa 7:5 - Because Syria, Ephraim, and the son of Remaliah // have taken evil counsel against thee // saying Because Syria, Ephraim, and the son of Remaliah,.... Not that there were three parties in the counsel and confederacy against Judah, only two, the kin...

Because Syria, Ephraim, and the son of Remaliah,.... Not that there were three parties in the counsel and confederacy against Judah, only two, the kingdoms of Syria and Ephraim, or Israel; the king of the former is not mentioned at all, and the latter only as if he was the son of a private person, which is purposely done by way of contempt:

have taken evil counsel against thee: which is expressed in the next verse;

saying; as follows.

Gill: Isa 7:6 - Let us go up against Judah, and vex it // and let us make a breach therein for us // and set a king in the midst of it, even the son of Tabeal Let us go up against Judah, and vex it,.... By besieging or distressing it; or "stir it up" to war, as Jarchi interprets it: and let us make a brea...

Let us go up against Judah, and vex it,.... By besieging or distressing it; or "stir it up" to war, as Jarchi interprets it:

and let us make a breach therein for us; in the walls of the city of Jerusalem, and enter in at it; the Targum is,

"let us join, and put it to us;''

and so Jarchi, let us level it with us, as this valley, which is even: the sense may be, let us make a breach and division among them, and then part the kingdom between us c; or if we cannot agree on that, let us set up a king of our own, as follows:

and set a king in the midst of it, even the son of Tabeal; which Jarchi, by a situation of the alphabet the Jews call "albam", makes it to be the same with Remala, that is, Remaliah; and so supposes, that the intention was to set Pekah, son of Remaliah, king of Israel, over Judah; but it is not reasonable to think that the king of Syria should join in such a design; and besides, the method of interpretation, Aben Ezra says, is mere vanity; and whose sense of the words is much preferable, taking Tabeal to be the name of some great prince, either of Israel or of Syria; and so Kimchi thinks that he was a man of the children of Ephraim, whom they thought to make king in Jerusalem. The Targum understands not any particular person, but anyone that should be thought proper; and paraphrases it thus,

"let us appoint a king in the midst of it, who is right for us,''

or pleases us; the name seems to be Syriac, see Ezr 4:7. Dr. Lightfoot thinks it is the same with Tabrimmon, the name of some famous family in Syria. One signifies "good God": and the other "good Rimmon", which was the name of the idol of the Syrians, 2Ki 5:18.

Gill: Isa 7:7 - Thus saith the Lord GOD, it shall not stand // neither shall it come to pass Thus saith the Lord GOD, it shall not stand,.... That is, the counsel they had taken against Judah to vex it, make a breach in it, and set a king of t...

Thus saith the Lord GOD, it shall not stand,.... That is, the counsel they had taken against Judah to vex it, make a breach in it, and set a king of their own liking over it; so the Septuagint and Arabic versions render the words, "that counsel shall not stand"; the counsel of God shall stand, but not the counsel of men, when it is against him, Pro 19:21,

neither shall it come to pass; or "shall not be"; so far from standing, succeeding, and going forward, till it is brought to a final accomplishment, it should not take footing, or have a being.

Gill: Isa 7:8 - For the head of Syria is Damascus // and the head of Damascus is Rezin // and within threescore and five years shall Ephraim be broken, that it be not a people For the head of Syria is Damascus,.... Damascus was the metropolis of Syria, the chief city in it, where the king had his palace, and kept his court;...

For the head of Syria is Damascus,.... Damascus was the metropolis of Syria, the chief city in it, where the king had his palace, and kept his court; of which See Gill on Gen 15:2, Act 9:2,

and the head of Damascus is Rezin; he was king of it, as of all Syria; the meaning is, that Syria, of which Damascus was the principal city, was the only country that Rezin should govern, his dominion should not be enlarged; and Ahaz, king of Judah, might assure himself that Rezin should never possess his kingdom, or be able to depose him, and set up another; and as for Ephraim or Israel, the ten tribes, they should be so far from succeeding in such a design against him, that it should befall them as follows:

and within threescore and five years shall Ephraim be broken, that it be not a people; which is by some reckoned, not from the time of this prophecy, that being in the third or fourth year of Ahaz, who reigned in all but sixteen years; and in the ninth of Hosea king of Israel, and in the sixth of Hezekiah king of Judah, Samaria was taken, and Israel carried captive into Assyria, 2Ki 17:6 which was but about eighteen or nineteen years from this time: some think indeed the time was shortened, because of their sins; but this does not appear, nor is it probable: and others think that it designs any time within that term; but the true meaning undoubtedly is, as the Targum renders it,

"at the end of sixty and five years, the kingdom of the house of Israel shall cease.''

This is commonly reckoned by the Jewish writers d from the prophecy of Amos, who prophesied two years before the earthquake in Uzziah's time, concerning the captivity both of Syria and Israel, Amo 1:1, Amo 7:11 which account may be carried either through the kings of Judah or of Israel; Jarchi goes the former way, reckoning thus,

"the prophecy of Amos was two years before Uzziah was smitten with the leprosy, according to Amo 1:1. Uzziah was a leper twenty five years, lo, twenty seven. Jotham reigned sixteen years, Ahaz sixteen, and Hezekiah six; as it is said, "in the sixth year of Hezekiah (that is, the ninth year of Hoshea king of Israel) Samaria was taken", 2Ki 18:10 lo, sixty five years.''

So Abarbinel; but Kimchi goes another way, which comes to the same, reckoning thus,

"the prophecy of Amos, according to computation, was in the seventeenth year of Jeroboam, son of Joash, king of Israel, how is it? Jeroboam reigned forty one years, Menahem ten, so there are fifty one; Pekahiah the son of Menahem two, so fifty three; and Pekah twenty, so seventy three; and Hoshea the son of Elah nine, and then Israel were carried captive, so there are eighty two: take out of them seventeen (the years of Jeroboam before the prophecy), and there remain sixty five, the number intended; for we do not reckon the six months of Zechariah, and the month of Shallum.''

Cocceius reckons from the death of Jeroboam, who died in the forty first year of his reign, and in the fifteenth of Uzziah, so that there remained thirty seven years of Uzziah; in the twentieth of Jotham, that is, in the fourth after his death, Hoshea son of Elah was made king, this was the twelfth of Ahaz, 2Ki 15:30 and in the ninth of Hoshea, Samaria was taken, and Israel carried captive. But Junius and Tremellius are of a different mind from either of these, and think the prophecy wholly respects time to come; they observe, that

"Isaiah in these words first shows, that the kingdom of Syria should be immediately cut off, and the king should die, which at furthest must needs happen four years after; so (say they) we may suppose that these things were said by the prophet in the first year of Ahaz; thence, from the destruction of the Syrians, to the full carrying captive of the Israelites, or from the time of this prophecy, sixty five years must have run out; for although the kingdom of Israel was abolished in the sixth year of Hezekiah, yet Israel did not immediately cease to be a people when only some part of it was carried away; but they entirely ceased to be a people when new colonies were introduced by Esarhaddon, the son of Sennacherib, and all the Israelites were forced into bondage, which the Samaritans explain, Ezr 4:2 wherefore so we fix the series of the times, from the fourth year of Ahaz, in which the kingdom of Syria fell, unto the end, are eleven years, Hezekiah reigned twenty nine years, so the last translation of the Israelites was in the twenty fifth year of Manasseh's reign; but if you begin from the time of the prophecy; the thing will fall upon the twenty first or twenty second of Manasseh's reign; at which time perhaps, as some say, Manasseh was carried captive into Babylon.''

And of this mind was the learned Dr. Prideaux e, who observes, that in the twenty second year of Manasseh, Esarhaddon prepared a great army, and marched into the parts of Syria and Palestine, and again added them to the Assyrian empire; and adds,

"and then was accomplished the prophecy which was spoken by Isaiah in the first year of Ahaz against Samaria, that within threescore and five years Ephraim should be absolutely broken, so as from thenceforth to be no more a people; for this year being exactly sixty five years from the first of Ahaz, Esarhaddon, after he had settled all affairs in Syria, marched into the land of Israel, and there taking captive all those who were the remains of the former captivity (excepting only some few, who escaped his hands, and continued still in the land), carried them away into Babylon and Assyria; and then, to prevent the land becoming desolate, he brought others from Babylon, and from Cutha, and from Havah, and Hamath, and Sephervaim, to dwell in the cities of Samaria in their stead; and so the ten tribes of Israel, which had separated from the house of David, were brought to a full and utter destruction, and never after recovered themselves again.''

And this seems to be the true accomplishment of this prophecy; though the sense of the Jewish writers is followed by many, and preferred by Noldius; so that there is no need with Grotius and Vitringa to suppose a corruption of the text. Gussetius f fancies that ששים signifies twice six, that is, twelve; as עשרים twice ten, or twenty; and so five, added to twelve, makes seventeen; and from the fourth of Ahaz, to the taking of Samaria, was about seventeen years.

Gill: Isa 7:9 - And the head of Ephraim is Samaria // and the head of Samaria is Remaliah's son // If ye will not believe // surely ye shall not be established And the head of Ephraim is Samaria,..... Samaria was the metropolis or chief city of Ephraim, or the ten tribes of Israel: and the head of Samaria...

And the head of Ephraim is Samaria,..... Samaria was the metropolis or chief city of Ephraim, or the ten tribes of Israel:

and the head of Samaria is Remaliah's son; Pekah, son of Remaliah, was king of Samaria, as of all Israel. The sense is, that, until the sixty five years were ended, there should be no enlargement of the kingdom of Israel; Judah should not be added to it; Samaria should continue, and not Jerusalem be the metropolis of it; and Pekah, during his life, should be king of Israel, but not of Judah.

If ye will not believe; the Targum adds,

"the words of the prophet;''

surely ye shall not be established, or remain g; that is, in their own land, but should be carried captive, as they were after a time; or it is, "because ye are not true and firm"; in the faith of God, as Kimchi interprets it; or, "because ye are not confirmed" h; that is, by a sign; wherefore it follows:

Gill: Isa 7:10 - Moreover the Lord spake again unto Ahaz // saying Moreover the Lord spake again unto Ahaz,.... By the prophet Isaiah: saying; as follows:

Moreover the Lord spake again unto Ahaz,.... By the prophet Isaiah:

saying; as follows:

Gill: Isa 7:11 - Ask thee a sign of the Lord thy God // ask it either in the depth, or in the height above Ask thee a sign of the Lord thy God,.... For though Ahaz was a wicked man, yet the Lord was his God, as he was the God of the people of Israel in gene...

Ask thee a sign of the Lord thy God,.... For though Ahaz was a wicked man, yet the Lord was his God, as he was the God of the people of Israel in general, as a nation; and knowing his unbelief and diffidence of his word unto him, offers to confirm it by a sign or miracle:

ask it either in the depth, or in the height above, in earth, or in heaven: so the Targum,

"ask that a miracle may be done for thee upon earth, or that a sign may be shown thee in heaven;''

either that the earth might gape and open its mouth, as in the days of Moses; or that the sun might stand still, as in the times of Joshua; or that a dead man might be raised out of the depth of the earth; or that there might be some strange appearances in the heavens.

Gill: Isa 7:12 - But Ahaz said, I will not ask // neither will I tempt the Lord But Ahaz said, I will not ask,.... That is, a sign or miracle to be wrought; being unwilling to take the advice to be still and quiet, and make no pre...

But Ahaz said, I will not ask,.... That is, a sign or miracle to be wrought; being unwilling to take the advice to be still and quiet, and make no preparation for war, or seek out for help from the Assyrians, and to rely upon the promise and power of God, and therefore chose not to have it confirmed by a sign; adding as an excuse,

neither will I tempt the Lord, by asking a sign; suggesting that this was contrary to the command of God, Deu 6:16 so pretending religion and reverence of God; whereas, to ask a sign of God, when it was offered, could not be reckoned a tempting him; but, on the contrary, to refuse one; when offered, argued great stubbornness and ingratitude, as Calvin well observes.

Gill: Isa 7:13 - And he said // hear ye now, O house of David // is it a small thing for you to weary man // but will ye weary my God also And he said,.... That is, the Prophet Isaiah; which shows that it was by him the Lord spoke the foregoing words: hear ye now, O house of David; for...

And he said,.... That is, the Prophet Isaiah; which shows that it was by him the Lord spoke the foregoing words:

hear ye now, O house of David; for not only Ahaz, but his family, courtiers, and counsellors, were all of the same mind with him, not to ask a sign of God, nor to depend upon, his promise of safety, but to seek out for help, and provide against the worst themselves. Some think that Ahaz's name is not mentioned, and that this phrase is used by way of contempt, and as expressive of indignation and resentment:

is it a small thing for you to weary man; meaning such as himself, the prophets of the Lord; so the Targum,

"is it a small thing that ye are troublesome to the prophets;''

disturb, grieve, and vex them, by obstinacy and unbelief:

but will ye weary my God also? the Targum is,

"for ye are troublesome to the words of my God;''

or injurious to them, by not believing them; or to God himself, by rejecting such an offer of a sign as was made to them.

Gill: Isa 7:14 - Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign // Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son // And shall call his name Immanuel Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign,.... Whether they would ask one or not; a sign both in heaven and earth, namely, the promised Messiah...

Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign,.... Whether they would ask one or not; a sign both in heaven and earth, namely, the promised Messiah; who being the Lord from heaven, would take flesh of a virgin on earth; and who as man, being buried in the heart of the earth, would be raised from thence, and ascend up into heaven; and whose birth, though it was to be many years after, was a sign of present deliverance to Judah from the confederacy of the two kings of Syria and Israel; and of future safety, since it was not possible that this kingdom should cease to be one until the Messiah was come, who was to spring from Judah, and be of the house of David; wherefore by how much the longer off was his birth, by so much the longer was their safety.

Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son; this is not to be understood of Hezekiah, the son of Ahaz, by his wife, as some Jewish writers interpret it; which interpretation Jarchi refutes, by observing that Hezekiah was nine years old when his father began to reign, and this being, as he says, the fourth year of his reign, he must be at this time thirteen years of age; in like manner, Aben Ezra and Kimchi object to it; and besides, his mother could not be called a "virgin": and for the same reason it cannot be understood of any other son of his either by his wife, as Kimchi thinks, or by some young woman; moreover, no other son of his was ever lord of Judea, as this Immanuel is represented to be, in Isa 8:8 nor can it be interpreted of Isaiah's wife and son, as Aben Ezra and Jarchi think; since the prophet could never call her a "virgin", who had bore him children, one of which was now with him; nor indeed a "young woman", but rather "the prophetess", as in Isa 8:3 nor was any son of his king of Judah, as this appears to be, in the place before cited: but the Messiah is here meant, who was to be born of a pure virgin; as the word here used signifies in all places where it is mentioned, as Gen 24:43 and even in Pro 30:19 which is the instance the Jews give of the word being used of a woman corrupted; since it does not appear that the maid and the adulterous woman are one and the same person; and if they were, she might, though vitiated, be called a maid or virgin, from her own profession of herself, or as she appeared to others who knew her not, or as she was antecedent to her defilement; which is no unusual thing in Scripture, see Deu 22:28 to which may be added, that not only the Evangelist Matthew renders the word by παρθενος, "a virgin"; but the Septuagint interpreters, who were Jews, so rendered the word hundreds of years before him; and best agrees with the Hebrew word, which comes from the root עלם, which signifies to "hide" or "cover"; virgins being covered and unknown to men; and in the eastern country were usually kept recluse, and were shut up from the public company and conversation of men: and now this was the sign that was to be given, and a miraculous one it was, that the Messiah should be born of a pure and incorrupt virgin; and therefore a "behold" is prefixed to it, as a note of admiration; and what else could be this sign or wonder? not surely that a young married woman, either Ahaz's or Isaiah's wife, should be with child, which is nothing surprising, and of which there are repeated instances every day; nor was it that the young woman was unfit for conception at the time of the prophecy, which was the fancy of some, as Jarchi reports, since no such intimation is given either in the text or context; nor did it lie in this, that it was a male child, and not a female, which was predicted, as R. Saadiah Gaon, in Aben Ezra, would have it; for the sign or wonder does not lie in the truth of the prophet's prediction, but in the greatness of the thing predicted; besides, the verification of this would not have given the prophet much credit, nor Ahaz and the house of David much comfort, since this might have been ascribed rather to a happy conjecture than to a spirit of prophecy; much less can the wonder be, that this child should eat butter and honey, as soon as it was born, as Aben Ezra and Kimchi suggest; since nothing is more natural to, and common with young children, than to take down any kind of liquids which are sweet and pleasant.

And shall call his name Immanuel; which is, by interpretation, "God with us", Mat 1:23 whence it appears that the Messiah is truly God, as well as truly man: the name is expressive of the union of the two natures, human and divine, in him; of his office as Mediator, who, being both God and man, is a middle person between both; of his converse with men on earth, and of his spiritual presence with his people. See Joh 1:14.

Gill: Isa 7:15 - Butter and honey shall he eat // that he may know to refuse the evil, and choose the good Butter and honey shall he eat..... As the Messiah Jesus no doubt did; since he was born in a land flowing with milk and honey, and in a time of plenty...

Butter and honey shall he eat..... As the Messiah Jesus no doubt did; since he was born in a land flowing with milk and honey, and in a time of plenty, being a time of general peace; so that this phrase points at the place where, and the time when, the Messiah should be born, as well as expresses the truth of his human nature, and the manner of his bringing up, which was in common with that of other children. חמאה signifies the "cream of milk", as well as "butter", as Jarchi, in Gen 18:8, observes; and milk and honey were common food for infants:

that he may know to refuse the evil, and choose the good; meaning not knowledge of good and bad food, so as to choose the one, and refuse the other; but knowledge of moral good and evil; and this does not design the end of his eating butter and honey, as if that was in order to gain such knowledge, which have no such use and tendency; but the time until which he should live on such food; namely, until he was grown up, or come to years of discretion, when he could distinguish between good and evil; so that as the former phrase shows that he assumed a true body like ours, which was nourished with proper food; this that he assumed a reasonable soul, which, by degrees, grew and increased in wisdom and knowledge; see Luk 2:52. לדעתו should be rendered, "until he knows"; as לפרש in Lev 24:12 which the Chaldee paraphrase of Onkelos renders, "until it was declared to them"; and so the Targum here,

"butter and honey shall he eat, while or before the child knows not, or until he knows to refuse the evil, and choose the good.''

Gill: Isa 7:16 - For before the child shall know to refuse the evil, and choose the good // the land that thou abhorrest shall be forsaken of both her kings For before the child shall know to refuse the evil, and choose the good,.... This may be understood of Isaiah's child, Shearjashub, he had along with ...

For before the child shall know to refuse the evil, and choose the good,.... This may be understood of Isaiah's child, Shearjashub, he had along with him, he was bid to take with him; and who therefore must be supposed to bear some part, or answer some end or other, in this prophecy; which it is very probable may be this, viz. to assure Ahaz and the house of David that the land which was abhorred by them should be forsaken of both its kings, before the child that was with him was grown to years of discretion; though it may be understood of any child, and so of the Messiah; and the sense be, that before any child, or new born babe, such an one as is promised, Isa 7:14, arrives to years of discretion, even in the space of a few years, this remarkable deliverance should be wrought, and the Jews freed from all fears of being destroyed by these princes:

the land that thou abhorrest shall be forsaken of both her kings; meaning not the land of Judea, now distressed by them, which they should leave; for that could not be said to be abhorred by Ahaz, or the house of David; but the land of Israel and Syria, called one land, because of the confederacy between the kings of them, Rezin and Remaliah's son, which Ahaz and his nobles abhorred, because of their joining together against them; and so it was, that in a very little time both these kings were cut off; Pekah the son of Remaliah was slain by Hoshea the son of Elah, who reigned in his stead, 2Ki 15:30 and Rezin was slain by the king of Assyria, 2Ki 16:9.

Gill: Isa 7:17 - The Lord shall bring upon thee // and upon thy people, and upon thy father's house // days that have not come, from the day that Ephraim departed from Judah // even the king of Assyria The Lord shall bring upon thee,.... These words are directed to Ahaz; and show, that though he and his kingdom would be safe from the two kings that c...

The Lord shall bring upon thee,.... These words are directed to Ahaz; and show, that though he and his kingdom would be safe from the two kings that conspired against him, yet evils should come upon him from another quarter, even from the Assyrians he sent to for help, and in whom he trusted; in which the Lord himself would have a hand, and permit them in his providence, in order to chastise him for his unbelief, stubbornness, and ingratitude in refusing the sign offered him, and for his other sins; and the calamities threatened began in his time; and therefore it is said, "upon thee"; for Tilgathpilneser, king of Assyria, to whom he sent for help, instead of helping and strengthening him, distressed him, 2Ch 28:20,

and upon thy people, and upon thy father's house; so in the reign of his son Hezekiah, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, invaded the land of Judah, took all its fenced cities, excepting Jerusalem, and came up even to that, 2Ki 18:13 and in the times of Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, came up against Jerusalem, and destroyed it, and carried the people of Judah captive, 2Ki 25:1 and these are the evil days, the days of affliction and adversity, here threatened:

days that have not come, from the day that Ephraim departed from Judah: meaning the revolt of the ten tribes from the house of David, in the times of Rehoboam, 1Ki 12:16 which was a day of great adversity, a great affliction to the house of Judah; and there had been several evil days since, and that very lately; as when the king of Syria came into the land, and carried away great multitudes captives to Damascus; and when Pekah, king of Israel, slew in Judah, on one day, a hundred and twenty thousand valiant men, and carried captive two hundred thousand women, sons and daughters, with a great spoil, 2Ch 28:5 and yet these were not to be compared with the calamitous times yet to come:

even the king of Assyria; or "with the king of Assyria", as the Vulgate Latin version renders it; rather the meaning is, that those days of trouble should come by the king of Assyria i, as they did. The Septuagint version renders it, "from the day that Ephraim took away from Judah the king of the Assyrians"; and the Syriac and Arabic versions, just the reverse, "from the day that the king of the Assyrians", or "Assyria, carried away Ephraim from Judea"; neither of them right.

Gill: Isa 7:18 - And it shall come to pass in that day // that the Lord shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt // and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria And it shall come to pass in that day,.... the time when those evil days before spoken of should take place: that the Lord shall hiss for the fly ...

And it shall come to pass in that day,.... the time when those evil days before spoken of should take place:

that the Lord shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt; or flies, as the Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic versions render it; the Egyptians, so called because their country abounded with flies; and because of the multitude of their armies, and the swiftness of their march; this seems to have had its accomplishment when Pharaohnechoh king of Egypt slew Josiah, put his son Jehoahaz, that reigned after him, in bands, placed Eliakim his brother in his stead, and made the land of Judah tributary to him, 2Ki 23:29 though some think either the Edomites or Philistines, that bordered on Egypt, are meant; who in Ahaz's time invaded Judah, and brought it low, 2Ch 28:17 or else the Ethiopians, that inhabited on the furthermost borders of Egypt, and the rivers of it; who either came up separately against Judah, or served under Nebuchadnezzar; see Isa 18:1,

and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria; the Assyrian army, so called because the country abounded with bees; and because of the number of their armies, their military order and discipline, and their hurtful and mischievous nature. The Targum paraphrases the whole thus,

"and it shall be at that time that the Lord shall call to a people, bands of armies, of mighty men, who are numerous as flies, and shall bring them from the ends of the land of Egypt; and to mighty armies, who are powerful as bees, and shall bring them from the uttermost parts of the land of Assyria:''

hissing or whistling for them denotes the ease with which this should be done, and with what swiftness and readiness those numerous and powerful armies should come; and the allusion is to the calling of bees out of their hives into the fields, and from thence into their hives again, by tinkling of brass, or by some musical sound, in one way or another.

Gill: Isa 7:19 - And they shall come // and shall rest all of them in the desolate valleys // and in the holes of the rocks // and upon all thorns, and upon all bushes And they shall come,.... The Egyptian and Assyrian armies, when the Lord calls for them in his providence, and his time is come to make use of them as...

And they shall come,.... The Egyptian and Assyrian armies, when the Lord calls for them in his providence, and his time is come to make use of them as a scourge to his people:

and shall rest all of them in the desolate valleys: made so by war; this is said in allusion to flies and bees resting on trees and flowers; and signifies that these armies, after long and tedious marches, should all of them, without being diminished by the way, enter the land of Judea, fill all places, and take up their abode there for a while:

and in the holes of the rocks. Kimchi thinks that the former phrase designs cities in valleys, and this fortified cities which are upon rocks:

and upon all thorns, and upon all bushes; in allusion to flies and bees. Kimchi interprets this of unwalled towns and villages. The Targum of the whole verse is,

"and they shall all of them come and dwell in the streets of the cities, and in the clifts of the rocks, and in all deserts full of sedges, and in all houses of praise.''

The sense is, that they should be in all cities, towns, and villages, whether fortified or not, and in all houses of high and low, rich and poor, in cottages and in palaces; there would be no place free from them, nor no escaping out of their hands.

Gill: Isa 7:20 - In the same day shall the Lord shave with a razor that is hired // namely, by them beyond the river // by the king of Assyria // the head, and the hair of the feet; and it shall also consume the beard In the same day shall the Lord shave with a razor that is hired,.... Meaning the Assyrian monarch, whom he would use as an instrument in his hand to s...

In the same day shall the Lord shave with a razor that is hired,.... Meaning the Assyrian monarch, whom he would use as an instrument in his hand to spoil and cut off the people of the Jews; who is compared to a "razor" for sharpness; and for the thorough work, and utter ruin and destruction, he should be the means of; and called a "hired" one, either in reference to the present Ahaz sent to the king of Assyria, by which he prevailed upon him to come and help him against the kings of Syria and Israel, 2Ki 16:7 or to a reward given by the Lord to Nebuchadnezzar for the service in which he employed him, see Eze 29:18,

namely, by them beyond the river; not Nile, but Euphrates; even the Assyrians, Chaldeans, and Babylonians, who lived on the other side that river; which, with what follows, explains the simile of the razor:

by the king of Assyria; who ruled over those beyond the river:

the head, and the hair of the feet; and it shall also consume the beard; signifying that as a razor cuts off the hair entirely where it is applied, and leaves nothing behind, whether of the head, beard, or feet, or privy parts, which are meant by the latter; so the king of Assyria should carry all clean off captive out of the land of Judea; king, princes, nobles, and common people; those of the highest, and of the middling, and of the lowest class. The Targum is,

"in that time the Lord shall slay them as one is slain by a sharp sword, by clubs, and by saws, by those beyond the river, and by the king of Assyria; the king, and his army, and even his rulers, together shall he destroy.''

So Jarchi explains it. Several of the Jewish writers, as Aben Ezra, Abarbinel, and Kimchi k, explain this of the Angel of the Lord destroying Sennacherib's army, when before Jerusalem, in Hezekiah's time; so the latter interprets it: "the head"; the heads of his armies: "the hair of the feet"; the multitude of the people: "the beard"; the king, who died, not in the camp, but was killed by his sons in his own land; but this is not a prophecy of the destruction of the Assyrian army, but of the Jewish people by it; and the whole denotes the mean and low condition, the state of slavery and bondage, the Jews should be brought into; of which the shaving of the hair is the symbol; it was usual to shave the head and hair of such as were taken captive, as a sign of reproach and servitude; see 2Sa 10:4 l.

Gill: Isa 7:21 - And it shall come to pass in that day // that a man shall nourish a young cow and two sheep And it shall come to pass in that day,.... Not in the days of Hezekiah, after the destruction of Sennacherib's army, when there followed great fruitfu...

And it shall come to pass in that day,.... Not in the days of Hezekiah, after the destruction of Sennacherib's army, when there followed great fruitfulness and plenty, Isa 37:30 as Kimchi and Jarchi interpret it; but in the days of Nebuchadnezzar, after the destruction of Jerusalem, when some poor men were left in the land to till it, Jer 39:10 for of these, and not of rich men, are the following words to be understood:

that a man shall nourish a young cow and two sheep; this seems to denote both the scarcity of men and cattle, through the ravages of the army of the Chaldeans; that there should not be large herds and flocks, only a single cow, and two or three sheep; and yet men should be so few, and families so thin, that these would be sufficient to support them comfortably.

Gill: Isa 7:22 - And it shall come to pass, for the abundance of milk that they shall give // he shall eat butter // for butter and honey shall everyone eat that is left in the land And it shall come to pass, for the abundance of milk that they shall give,.... The cow and the two sheep, having large pastures, and few cattle to fe...

And it shall come to pass, for the abundance of milk that they shall give,.... The cow and the two sheep, having large pastures, and few cattle to feed upon them, those few would give such abundance of milk, that the owner of them would make butter of it, and live upon it, having no occasion to eat milk; and there being few or none to sell it to:

he shall eat butter; the milk producing a sufficient quantity of it for himself and his family:

for butter and honey shall everyone eat that is left in the land: signifying that though they would be few, they would enjoy a plenty of such sort of food as their small flocks and herds would furnish them with, and the bees produce. The Targum and Jarchi interpret this of the righteous that shall be left in the land; but it is rather to be extended unto all, righteous and unrighteous.

Gill: Isa 7:23 - And it shall come to pass in that day; that every place shall be // where there were a thousand vines at a thousand silverlings // it shall even be for briers and thorns And it shall come to pass in that day; that every place shall be,.... Barren and unfruitful, for want of men to till the ground: where there were ...

And it shall come to pass in that day; that every place shall be,.... Barren and unfruitful, for want of men to till the ground:

where there were a thousand vines at a thousand silverlings; which were so good, as to be sold or let out for so many silver shekels m; or the fruit of them came to such a price; see Son 8:11,

it shall even be for briers and thorns; for want of persons to stock the ground and cultivate it.

Gill: Isa 7:24 - With arrows and with bows shall men come thither // because all the land shall become briers and thorns With arrows and with bows shall men come thither,.... For fear of wild beasts, serpents, and scorpions, as Jarchi; or in order to hunt them, as other...

With arrows and with bows shall men come thither,.... For fear of wild beasts, serpents, and scorpions, as Jarchi; or in order to hunt them, as others; or because of thieves and robbers, as Aben Ezra:

because all the land shall become briers and thorns; among which such creatures, and such sort of men, would hide themselves.

Gill: Isa 7:25 - And on all hills that shall be digged with the mattock // there shall not come thither the fear of briers and thorns // but it shall be for the setting forth of oxen, and for the treading of lesser cattle And on all hills that shall be digged with the mattock,.... Which could not be ploughed with a plough, but used to be dug with a mattock or spade, an...

And on all hills that shall be digged with the mattock,.... Which could not be ploughed with a plough, but used to be dug with a mattock or spade, and then sowed with corn:

there shall not come thither the fear of briers and thorns; where thorns and briers used not to grow, and where there was no fear or danger of being overrun with them, as the vineyards in the valleys and champaign country; yet those places should become desolate in another way; or rather, there shall be now no fences made of briers and thorns, which deter cattle from entering into fields and vineyards thus fenced:

but it shall be for the setting forth of oxen, and for the treading of lesser cattle; there being no fence of briers and thorns to keep them out, cattle both of the greater and lesser sort should get into the corn, and feed upon it, and make such places desolate, where much pains were taken to cultivate them. The Targum is,

"it shall be for a place of lying down of oxen, and for a place of dwelling of flocks of sheep;''

not for pastures, but for folds for them; though the Septuagint, Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Arabic versions, suggest these places should become pastures; and therefore some understand this as a prophecy of a change in the country for the better, and of the great fruitfulness of it after the Jews' return from the Babylonish captivity.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Isa 7:1 Or perhaps, “but they were unable to attack it.” This statement sounds like a summary of the whole campaign. The following context explain...

NET Notes: Isa 7:2 Heb “and his heart shook and the heart of his people shook, like the shaking of the trees of the forest before the wind.” The singular pro...

NET Notes: Isa 7:3 Heb “the field of the washer”; traditionally “the fuller’s field” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NRSV); NIV “the Washerman...

NET Notes: Isa 7:4 The derogatory metaphor indicates that the power of Rezin and Pekah is ready to die out.

NET Notes: Isa 7:5 This sentence opens with the conjunction יַעַן כִּי (ya’an ki, “because”). Con...

NET Notes: Isa 7:6 The precise identity of this would-be puppet king is unknown. He may have been a Syrian official or the ruler of one of the small neighboring states. ...

NET Notes: Isa 7:7 The Hebrew term translated “sovereign master” here and in vv. 14, 19 is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).

NET Notes: Isa 7:8 This statement is problematic for several reasons. It seems to intrude stylistically, interrupting the symmetry of the immediately preceding and follo...

NET Notes: Isa 7:9 Heb “if you do not believe, you will not endure.” The verb forms are second plural; the Lord here addresses the entire Davidic family and ...

NET Notes: Isa 7:11 Heb “Make it as deep as Sheol or make it high upwards.” These words suggest that Ahaz can feel free to go beyond the bounds of ordinary hu...

NET Notes: Isa 7:12 Ahaz uses the verb נָסַה (nasah, “test”) in its negative sense of “challenge, provoke.” However,...

NET Notes: Isa 7:13 The address to the “house of David” is designed to remind Ahaz and his royal court of the protection promised to them through the Davidic ...

NET Notes: Isa 7:14 The name Immanuel means “God [is] with us.”

NET Notes: Isa 7:15 Heb “for his knowing.” Traditionally the preposition has been translated in a temporal sense, “when he knows.” However, though...

NET Notes: Isa 7:16 Heb “the land will be abandoned, which you fear because of its two kings.” After the verb קוּץ (quts, “loath...

NET Notes: Isa 7:17 Initially the prophecy appears to be a message of salvation. Immanuel seems to have a positive ring to it, sour milk and honey elsewhere symbolize pro...

NET Notes: Isa 7:18 Swarming flies are irritating; bees are irritating and especially dangerous because of the pain they inflict with their sting (see Deut 1:44; Ps 118:1...

NET Notes: Isa 7:19 The meaning of this word (נַהֲלֹל, nahalol) is uncertain; some understand this as referring to another type ...

NET Notes: Isa 7:20 Heb “the hair of the feet.” The translation assumes that the word “feet” is used here as a euphemism for the genitals. See BDB...

NET Notes: Isa 7:21 Heb “in that day.” The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the futur...

NET Notes: Isa 7:22 The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated, see note on 2:2.

NET Notes: Isa 7:23 Heb “will become” (so NASB); NAB “shall be turned to.”

NET Notes: Isa 7:24 Heb “will be” (so NASB, NRSV).

NET Notes: Isa 7:25 At this point one is able to summarize the content of the “sign” (vv. 14-15) as follows: A young woman known to be present when Isaiah del...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:1 And it came to pass in the days of Ahaz the son of Jotham, the son of Uzziah, king of Judah, [that] Rezin the king of Syria, and Pekah the son of Rema...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:2 And it was told the house of ( b ) David, saying, Syria is confederate with ( c ) Ephraim. And his heart was ( d ) moved, and the heart of his people,...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:3 Then said the LORD to Isaiah, Go forth now to meet Ahaz, thou, and ( e ) Shearjashub thy son, at the end of the conduit of the upper pool in the highw...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:4 And say to him, Take heed, and be quiet; fear not, neither be fainthearted for the two tails of these smoking ( f ) firebrands, for the fierce anger o...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:6 Let us go up against Judah, and trouble it, and let us conquer it for ourselves and set a king in the midst of it, [even] the son of ( g ) Tabeal: ( ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:8 For the head of Syria [is] Damascus, and the head of Damascus [is] Rezin; and within ( h ) sixty five years shall Ephraim be broken, that it be not a ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:11 Ask thee ( i ) a sign from the LORD thy God; ask it either in the depth, or in the height above. ( i ) For the confirmation of this thing that your e...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:12 But Ahaz said, I will not ask, neither will I ( k ) tempt the LORD. ( k ) Not to believe God's word without a sign, is to tempt God, but to refuse a ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:13 And he said, Hear ye now, O house of David; [Is it] a small thing for you to weary ( l ) men, but will ye weary my God also? ( l ) You think you have...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:14 Therefore the Lord ( m ) himself shall give you a sign; Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. ( m ) Fo...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:15 ( n ) Butter and honey shall he eat, that he may know to refuse the evil, and choose the good. ( n ) Meaning that Christ is not only God, but man als...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:16 For before the ( o ) child shall know to refuse the evil, and choose the good, the land that thou abhorrest shall be forsaken by both her kings. ( o ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:17 The LORD shall bring upon thee, and upon thy people, and upon thy father's house, days that have not come, from the day that ( p ) Ephraim departed fr...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:18 And it shall come to pass in that day, [that] the LORD shall hiss for the ( r ) fly that [is] in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt, and for th...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:19 And they shall come, and shall rest all of them in the desolate valleys, and in the clefts of the rocks, and upon all thorns, and upon all ( s ) bushe...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:20 In the same day shall the Lord shave with a razor that is hired, [namely], by them beyond the river, by the king of Assyria, the head, and the hair of...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:21 And it shall come to pass in that day, [that] a man shall ( u ) nourish a young cow, and two sheep; ( u ) He who before had a great number of cattle ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:22 And it shall come to pass, for the ( x ) abundance of milk [that] they shall give he shall eat butter: for butter and honey shall every one eat that i...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:24 With arrows and with ( y ) bows shall [men] come there; because all the land shall become briers and thorns. ( y ) As they who go to seek wild beasts...

Geneva Bible: Isa 7:25 And [on] ( z ) all hills that shall be dug with the mattock, there shall not come there the fear of briers and thorns: but it shall be for the sending...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Isa 7:1-9 - --Ungodly men are often punished by others as bad as themselves. Being in great distress and confusion, the Jews gave up all for lost. They had made God...

MHCC: Isa 7:10-16 - --Secret disaffection to God is often disguised with the colour of respect to him; and those who are resolved that they will not trust God, yet pretend ...

MHCC: Isa 7:17-25 - --Let those who will not believe the promises of God, expect to hear the alarms of his threatenings; for who can resist or escape his judgments? The Lor...

Matthew Henry: Isa 7:1-9 - -- The prophet Isaiah had his commission renewed in the year that king Uzziah died, Isa 6:1. Jotham his son reigned, and reigned well, sixteen years. A...

Matthew Henry: Isa 7:10-16 - -- Here, I. God, by the prophet, makes a gracious offer to Ahaz, to confirm the foregoing predictions, and his faith in them, by such sign or miracle a...

Matthew Henry: Isa 7:17-25 - -- After the comfortable promises made to Ahaz as a branch of the house of David, here follow terrible threatenings against him, as a degenerate branch...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 7:1 - -- As the following prophecies could not be understood apart from the historical circumstances to which they refer, the prophet commences with a histor...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 7:2 - -- It is this which is referred to in Isa 7:2 : "And it was told the house of David, Aram has settled down upon Ephraim: then his heart shook, and the...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 7:3 - -- In this season of terror Isaiah received the following divine instructions. "Then said Jehovah to Isaiah, Go forth now to meet Ahaz, thou and Shear...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 7:4 - -- No means were left untried. "And say unto him, Take heed, and keep quiet; and let not thy heart become soft from these two smoking firebrand-stumps...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 7:5-7 - -- "Because Aram hath determined evil over thee, Ephraim and the son of Remaliah ( Remalyahu ) , saying, We will march against Judah, and terrify it,...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 7:8-9 - -- "For head of Aram is Damascus, and head of Damascus Rezin, and in five-and-sixty years will Ephraim as a people be broken in pieces. And head of Ep...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 7:10-12 - -- Thus spake Isaiah, and Jehovah through him, to the king of Judah. Whether he replied, or what reply he made, we are not informed. He was probably si...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 7:13 - -- The prophet might have ceased speaking now; but in accordance with the command in Isa 6:1-13 he was obliged to speak, even though his word should be...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 7:14-15 - -- "Therefore the Lord, He will give you a sign: Behold, the virgin conceives, and bears a son, and calls his name Immanuel. Butter and honey will he ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 7:16-17 - -- "For before the boy shall understand to refuse the evil, and choose the good, the land will be desolate, of whose two kings thou art afraid. Jehova...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 7:18-19 - -- "And it comes to pass in that day, Jehovah will hiss for the fly which is at the end of the Nile-arms of Egypt, and the bees that are in the land o...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 7:20 - -- "In that day will the Lord shave with a razor, the thing for hire on the shore of the river, with the king of Assyria, the head and the hair of the...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 7:21-22 - -- "And it will come to pass in that day, that a man will keep a small cow and a couple of sheep; and it comes to pass, for the abundance of the milk ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 7:23-25 - -- The prophet repeats this three times in Isa 7:23-25 : "And it will come to pass in that day, every place, where a thousand vines stood at a thousan...

Constable: Isa 7:1--39:8 - --III. Israel's crisis of faith chs. 7--39 This long section of the book deals with Israel's major decision in Isa...

Constable: Isa 7:1--12:6 - --A. The choice between trusting God or Assyria chs. 7-12 This section of Isaiah provides a historical int...

Constable: Isa 7:1--9:8 - --1. Signs of God's presence 7:1-9:7 A unifying theme in this subsection is children. The children...

Constable: Isa 7:1-9 - --The command to trust God 7:1-9 This introductory segment provides the basic information about the historical situation that Judah faced plus God's com...

Constable: Isa 7:10--8:11 - --Ahaz and Judah's test 7:10-8:10 Now Ahaz had to make a decision. Would he trust that God...

Constable: Isa 7:10-17 - --The sign of Immanuel 7:10-17 Isaiah next tried to move Ahaz to faith (vv. 10-12), then denounced the king for his failure to trust Yahweh (vv. 13-15),...

Constable: Isa 7:18-25 - --The threat of Assyria 7:18-25 This section explains how the coming days would be the worse since the division of the kingdom (v. 17). Assyria was not ...

Guzik: Isa 7:1-25 - Shear-Jashub and Immanuel Isaiah 7 - Shear-Jashub and Immanuel A. The sign of Shear-Jashub. 1. (1-2) The northern nation of Israel and Syria combine to attack Judah. Now it...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) ISAIAH, son of Amoz (not Amos); contemporary of Jonah, Amos, Hosea, in Israel, but younger than they; and of Micah, in Judah. His call to a higher deg...