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Teks -- Isaiah 63:1-19 (NET)

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Konteks
The Victorious Divine Warrior
63:1 Who is this who comes from Edom, dressed in bright red, coming from Bozrah? Who is this one wearing royal attire, who marches confidently because of his great strength? “It is I, the one who announces vindication, and who is able to deliver!” 63:2 Why are your clothes red? Why do you look like someone who has stomped on grapes in a vat? 63:3 “I have stomped grapes in the winepress all by myself; no one from the nations joined me. I stomped on them in my anger; I trampled them down in my rage. Their juice splashed on my garments, and stained all my clothes. 63:4 For I looked forward to the day of vengeance, and then payback time arrived. 63:5 I looked, but there was no one to help; I was shocked because there was no one offering support. So my right arm accomplished deliverance; my raging anger drove me on. 63:6 I trampled nations in my anger, I made them drunk in my rage, I splashed their blood on the ground.”
A Prayer for Divine Intervention
63:7 I will tell of the faithful acts of the Lord, of the Lord’s praiseworthy deeds. I will tell about all the Lord did for us, the many good things he did for the family of Israel, because of his compassion and great faithfulness. 63:8 He said, “Certainly they will be my people, children who are not disloyal.” He became their deliverer. 63:9 Through all that they suffered, he suffered too. The messenger sent from his very presence delivered them. In his love and mercy he protected them; he lifted them up and carried them throughout ancient times. 63:10 But they rebelled and offended his holy Spirit, so he turned into an enemy and fought against them. 63:11 His people remembered the ancient times. Where is the one who brought them up out of the sea, along with the shepherd of his flock? Where is the one who placed his holy Spirit among them, 63:12 the one who made his majestic power available to Moses, who divided the water before them, gaining for himself a lasting reputation, 63:13 who led them through the deep water? Like a horse running on flat land they did not stumble. 63:14 Like an animal that goes down into a valley to graze, so the Spirit of the Lord granted them rest. In this way you guided your people, gaining for yourself an honored reputation. 63:15 Look down from heaven and take notice, from your holy, majestic palace! Where are your zeal and power? Do not hold back your tender compassion! 63:16 For you are our father, though Abraham does not know us and Israel does not recognize us. You, Lord, are our father; you have been called our protector from ancient times. 63:17 Why, Lord, do you make us stray from your ways, and make our minds stubborn so that we do not obey you? Return for the sake of your servants, the tribes of your inheritance! 63:18 For a short time your special nation possessed a land, but then our adversaries knocked down your holy sanctuary. 63:19 We existed from ancient times, but you did not rule over them, they were not your subjects.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abraham a son of Terah; the father of Isaac; ancestor of the Jewish nation.,the son of Terah of Shem
 · Bozrah a town of Edom,a town of Moab
 · Edom resident(s) of the region of Edom
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · sea the Dead Sea, at the southern end of the Jordan River,the Mediterranean Sea,the Persian Gulf south east of Babylon,the Red Sea


Topik/Tema Kamus: Isaiah, The Book of | Isaiah | ISAIAH, 8-9 | God | TRINITY, 1 | Jesus, The Christ | Afflictions and Adversities | Edomites | Obadiah, Book of | EDOM, IDUMAEA OR IDUMEA | Anger | Prayer | WINE; WINE PRESS | LOVE | Angel | Colors | Holy Spirit | Power | Arm | Intercession | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Isa 63:1 - Who The church makes enquiry, and that with admiration, who it is that appears in such a habit or posture? Edom - Idumea, where Esau dwelt. It is put for ...

The church makes enquiry, and that with admiration, who it is that appears in such a habit or posture? Edom - Idumea, where Esau dwelt. It is put for all the enemies of the church.

Wesley: Isa 63:1 - Bozrah The capital city of Idumea. Here is also an allusion to the garments of this conqueror, Edom signifying red, and Bozrah a vintage.

The capital city of Idumea. Here is also an allusion to the garments of this conqueror, Edom signifying red, and Bozrah a vintage.

Wesley: Isa 63:1 - Glorious Such as generals march before their armies in.

Such as generals march before their armies in.

Wesley: Isa 63:1 - Righteousness Here Christ gives an answer, wherein he both asserts his fidelity, that he will faithfully perform what he hath promised, and that he will truly execu...

Here Christ gives an answer, wherein he both asserts his fidelity, that he will faithfully perform what he hath promised, and that he will truly execute justice.

Wesley: Isa 63:1 - Mighty I have power to accomplish salvation.

I have power to accomplish salvation.

Wesley: Isa 63:3 - Trodden I have destroyed the enemies of my people, I have crushed them as grapes are crushed, this being an usual metaphor to describe the utter destruction o...

I have destroyed the enemies of my people, I have crushed them as grapes are crushed, this being an usual metaphor to describe the utter destruction of a people.

Wesley: Isa 63:4 - Of vengeance To take vengeance on the enemies of my church.

To take vengeance on the enemies of my church.

Wesley: Isa 63:5 - None to help Not that he needed it, but to see what men would do, in regard his people needed it; therefore the standing, or not standing by his people, is the sam...

Not that he needed it, but to see what men would do, in regard his people needed it; therefore the standing, or not standing by his people, is the same thing with standing, or not standing by him.

Wesley: Isa 63:5 - Uphold A metaphor, taken from a staff, that is an help to one that leans on it.

A metaphor, taken from a staff, that is an help to one that leans on it.

Wesley: Isa 63:6 - Drunk They go as it were to and fro, not knowing what to do with themselves.

They go as it were to and fro, not knowing what to do with themselves.

Wesley: Isa 63:6 - Bring down Whatever it is wherein their strength lies, he will bring to the very dust, to nothing.

Whatever it is wherein their strength lies, he will bring to the very dust, to nothing.

Wesley: Isa 63:7 - Mention Here begins a new matter, which contains the prophet's prayer, to the end of chap. 64, wherein he begins with mentioning the great kindnesses that God...

Here begins a new matter, which contains the prophet's prayer, to the end of chap. 64, wherein he begins with mentioning the great kindnesses that God had shewn the Jews, and that emphatically, setting them forth with the greatest advantages.

Wesley: Isa 63:8 - He said When he made a covenant with our fathers, and brought them out of Egypt.

When he made a covenant with our fathers, and brought them out of Egypt.

Wesley: Isa 63:8 - Not lie That will keep my covenant.

That will keep my covenant.

Wesley: Isa 63:8 - So he Not Cyrus, Zerubbabel, or Nehemiah, but Christ himself.

Not Cyrus, Zerubbabel, or Nehemiah, but Christ himself.

Wesley: Isa 63:9 - The angel The same that conducted them through the wilderness; the Lord Jesus Christ, who appeared to Moses in the bush.

The same that conducted them through the wilderness; the Lord Jesus Christ, who appeared to Moses in the bush.

Wesley: Isa 63:9 - Saved them From the house of bondage.

From the house of bondage.

Wesley: Isa 63:9 - Carried He carried them in the arms of his power, and on the wings of his providence. And he is said to do it of old, To remember his ancient kindness for man...

He carried them in the arms of his power, and on the wings of his providence. And he is said to do it of old, To remember his ancient kindness for many generations past.

Wesley: Isa 63:11 - He remembered This relates, either To the people, and then he is collectively taken, and so it looks like the language of the people in Babylon, and must be read, h...

This relates, either To the people, and then he is collectively taken, and so it looks like the language of the people in Babylon, and must be read, he shall remember. Or, It may look back to their condition in the wilderness, and thus they may properly say, Where is he? Or that God who delivered his people of old, to do the like for us now? There is a like phrase used by God, as it were recollecting himself, Where is he? Where am I with my former bowels, that moved me to help them of old? His people - What great things he had done for them by Moses.

Wesley: Isa 63:11 - The sea Here God speaks of himself, as in the former clause, that divided the sea for them.

Here God speaks of himself, as in the former clause, that divided the sea for them.

Wesley: Isa 63:11 - Shepherds Moses and Aaron.

Moses and Aaron.

Wesley: Isa 63:11 - Holy spirit Those abilities and gifts, wherewith God furnished Moses, as properly proceeding from the Spirit.

Those abilities and gifts, wherewith God furnished Moses, as properly proceeding from the Spirit.

Wesley: Isa 63:13 - As an horse With as much ease and tenderness, as an horse led by the bridle.

With as much ease and tenderness, as an horse led by the bridle.

Wesley: Isa 63:13 - Not stumble That, tho' the sea were but newly divided, yet it was dried and smoothed by the wind, that God sent, as it were to prepare the way before them.

That, tho' the sea were but newly divided, yet it was dried and smoothed by the wind, that God sent, as it were to prepare the way before them.

Wesley: Isa 63:14 - The valley A laden beast goeth warily and gently down the hill.

A laden beast goeth warily and gently down the hill.

Wesley: Isa 63:14 - Rest Led them easily, that they should not be over - travelled, or fall down, through weariness; thus Jeremiah expresses it, Jer 31:2, and thus God gave th...

Led them easily, that they should not be over - travelled, or fall down, through weariness; thus Jeremiah expresses it, Jer 31:2, and thus God gave them rest from their enemies, drowning them in the sea, and in their safe conduct, that they could not annoy or disturb them, leading them 'till he found them a place for resting; the word for leading, and resting, being much of a like notion, Zec 10:6, pointing at their several rests by the way, Num 10:33, or it may be read by way of interrogation, as all the foregoing words, and be the close of that enquiry, And where is the spirit, that caused then to rest? Or, he led them to Canaan the place of their rest.

Wesley: Isa 63:15 - Look Now the prophet begins to expostulate with God, and to argue both from the goodness of his nature, and from the greatness of his works. God sees every...

Now the prophet begins to expostulate with God, and to argue both from the goodness of his nature, and from the greatness of his works. God sees every where, and every thing, but he is said to look down from heaven, because there is his throne whereon he sits in majesty.

Wesley: Isa 63:15 - Behold Not barely see, but behold with regard, and respect thy poor people.

Not barely see, but behold with regard, and respect thy poor people.

Wesley: Isa 63:15 - Where What is become of that love, which of old would not let thee suffer thy people to be wronged? Strength - That power of thine manifested in those great...

What is become of that love, which of old would not let thee suffer thy people to be wronged? Strength - That power of thine manifested in those great acts? The founding - This is spoken of God after the manner of men.

Wesley: Isa 63:16 - Abraham He who was our father after the flesh, though he be dead, and so ignorant of our condition.

He who was our father after the flesh, though he be dead, and so ignorant of our condition.

Wesley: Isa 63:16 - Redeemer This is urged as another argument for pity; because their Father was their Redeemer.

This is urged as another argument for pity; because their Father was their Redeemer.

Wesley: Isa 63:16 - From everlasting Thou hast been our Redeemer of old.

Thou hast been our Redeemer of old.

Wesley: Isa 63:17 - Made us Suffered us to err.

Suffered us to err.

Wesley: Isa 63:17 - Hardened Suffered it to be hardened.

Suffered it to be hardened.

Wesley: Isa 63:17 - Thy fear The fear of thee.

The fear of thee.

Wesley: Isa 63:17 - Servants sake For our sakes, that little remnant that are thy servants.

For our sakes, that little remnant that are thy servants.

Wesley: Isa 63:17 - Inheritance The land of Canaan, which God gave them as an inheritance.

The land of Canaan, which God gave them as an inheritance.

Wesley: Isa 63:18 - People The people set apart for his servants.

The people set apart for his servants.

Wesley: Isa 63:18 - A little while Comparatively to the promise, which was for ever.

Comparatively to the promise, which was for ever.

Wesley: Isa 63:18 - Sanctuary The temple.

The temple.

Wesley: Isa 63:19 - Thine We continue so; we are in covenant, which they never were; and thus it is an argument they use with God to look upon them.

We continue so; we are in covenant, which they never were; and thus it is an argument they use with God to look upon them.

Wesley: Isa 63:19 - Never Not in that manner thou didst over us.

Not in that manner thou didst over us.

Wesley: Isa 63:19 - They Neither owned thee, nor were owned by thee.

Neither owned thee, nor were owned by thee.

JFB: Isa 63:1 - Who The question of the prophet in prophetic vision.

The question of the prophet in prophetic vision.

JFB: Isa 63:1 - dyed Scarlet with blood (Isa 63:2-3; Rev 19:13).

Scarlet with blood (Isa 63:2-3; Rev 19:13).

JFB: Isa 63:1 - Bozrah (See on Isa 34:6).

(See on Isa 34:6).

JFB: Isa 63:1 - travelling Rather, stately; literally, "throwing back the head" [GESENIUS].

Rather, stately; literally, "throwing back the head" [GESENIUS].

JFB: Isa 63:1 - speak in righteousness Answer of Messiah. I, who have in faithfulness given a promise of deliverance, am now about to fulfil it. Rather, speak of righteousness (Isa 45:19; I...

Answer of Messiah. I, who have in faithfulness given a promise of deliverance, am now about to fulfil it. Rather, speak of righteousness (Isa 45:19; Isa 46:13); salvation being meant as the result of His "righteousness" [MAURER].

JFB: Isa 63:1 - save The same Messiah that destroys the unbeliever saves the believer.

The same Messiah that destroys the unbeliever saves the believer.

JFB: Isa 63:2 - -- The prophet asks why His garments are "dyed" and "red."

The prophet asks why His garments are "dyed" and "red."

JFB: Isa 63:2 - winefat Rather, the "wine-press," wherein the grapes were trodden with the feet; the juice would stain the garment of him who trod them (Rev 14:19-20; Rev 19:...

Rather, the "wine-press," wherein the grapes were trodden with the feet; the juice would stain the garment of him who trod them (Rev 14:19-20; Rev 19:15). The image was appropriate, as the country round Bozrah abounded in grapes. This final blow inflicted by Messiah and His armies (Rev 19:13-15) shall decide His claim to the kingdoms u surped by Satan, and by the "beast," to whom Satan delegates his power. It will be a day of judgment to the hostile Gentiles, as His first coming was a day of judgment to the unbelieving Jews.

JFB: Isa 63:3 - -- Reply of Messiah. For the image, see Lam 1:15. He "treads the wine-press" here not as a sufferer, but as an inflicter of vengeance.

Reply of Messiah. For the image, see Lam 1:15. He "treads the wine-press" here not as a sufferer, but as an inflicter of vengeance.

JFB: Isa 63:3 - will tread . . . shall be . . . will stain Rather preterites, "I trod . . . trampled . . . was sprinkled . . . I stained."

Rather preterites, "I trod . . . trampled . . . was sprinkled . . . I stained."

JFB: Isa 63:3 - blood Literally, "spirited juice" of the grape, pressed out by treading [GESENIUS].

Literally, "spirited juice" of the grape, pressed out by treading [GESENIUS].

JFB: Isa 63:4 - is Rather, "was." This assigns the reason why He has thus destroyed the foe (Zep 3:8).

Rather, "was." This assigns the reason why He has thus destroyed the foe (Zep 3:8).

JFB: Isa 63:4 - my redeemed My people to be redeemed.

My people to be redeemed.

JFB: Isa 63:4 - day . . . year Here, as in Isa 34:8; Isa 61:2, the time of "vengeance" is described as a "day"; that of grace and of "recompense" to the "redeemed," as a "year."

Here, as in Isa 34:8; Isa 61:2, the time of "vengeance" is described as a "day"; that of grace and of "recompense" to the "redeemed," as a "year."

JFB: Isa 63:5 - -- The same words as in Isa 59:16, except that there it is His "righteousness," here it is His "fury," which is said to have upheld Him.

The same words as in Isa 59:16, except that there it is His "righteousness," here it is His "fury," which is said to have upheld Him.

JFB: Isa 63:6 - -- Rather, preterites, "I trod down . . . made them drunk." The same image occurs Isa 51:17, Isa 51:21-23; Psa 75:8; Jer 25:26-27.

Rather, preterites, "I trod down . . . made them drunk." The same image occurs Isa 51:17, Isa 51:21-23; Psa 75:8; Jer 25:26-27.

JFB: Isa 63:6 - will bring down . . . strength to . . . earth Rather, "I spilled their life-blood (the same Hebrew words as in Isa 63:3) on the earth" [LOWTH and Septuagint].

Rather, "I spilled their life-blood (the same Hebrew words as in Isa 63:3) on the earth" [LOWTH and Septuagint].

JFB: Isa 63:7 - -- Israel's penitential confession and prayer for restoration (Psa 102:17, Psa 102:20), extending from Isa. 63:7-64:12.

Israel's penitential confession and prayer for restoration (Psa 102:17, Psa 102:20), extending from Isa. 63:7-64:12.

JFB: Isa 63:7 - loving-kindnesses . . . praises . . . mercies . . . loving-kindnesses The plurals and the repetitions imply that language is inadequate to express the full extent of God's goodness.

The plurals and the repetitions imply that language is inadequate to express the full extent of God's goodness.

JFB: Isa 63:7 - us The dispersed Jews at the time just preceding their final restoration.

The dispersed Jews at the time just preceding their final restoration.

JFB: Isa 63:7 - house of Israel Of all ages; God was good not merely to the Jews now dispersed, but to Israel in every age of its history.

Of all ages; God was good not merely to the Jews now dispersed, but to Israel in every age of its history.

JFB: Isa 63:8 - he Jehovah "said," that is, thought, in choosing them as His covenant-people; so "said" (Psa 95:10). Not that God was ignorant that the Jews would not ke...

Jehovah "said," that is, thought, in choosing them as His covenant-people; so "said" (Psa 95:10). Not that God was ignorant that the Jews would not keep faith with Him; but God is here said, according to human modes of thought to say within Himself what He might naturally have expected, as the result of His goodness to the Jews; thus the enormity of their unnatural perversity is the more vividly set forth.

JFB: Isa 63:8 - lie Prove false to Me (compare Psa 44:17).

Prove false to Me (compare Psa 44:17).

JFB: Isa 63:8 - so In virtue of His having chosen them, He became their Saviour. So the "therefore" (Jer 31:33). His eternal choice is the ground of His actually saving ...

In virtue of His having chosen them, He became their Saviour. So the "therefore" (Jer 31:33). His eternal choice is the ground of His actually saving men (Eph 1:3-4).

JFB: Isa 63:9 - he was afflicted English Version reads the Hebrew as the Keri (Margin), does, "There was affliction to Him." But the Chetib (text) reads, "There was no affliction" (th...

English Version reads the Hebrew as the Keri (Margin), does, "There was affliction to Him." But the Chetib (text) reads, "There was no affliction" (the change in Hebrew being only of one letter); that is, "In all their affliction there was no (utterly overwhelming) affliction" [GESENIUS]; or, for "Hardly had an affliction befallen them, when the angel of His presence saved them" [MAURER]; or, as best suits the parallelism, "In all their straits there was no straitness in His goodness to them" [HOUBIGANT], (Jdg 10:16; Mic 2:7; 2Co 6:12).

JFB: Isa 63:9 - angel of his presence Literally, "of His face," that is, who stands before Him continually; Messiah (Exo 14:19; Exo 23:20-21; Pro 8:30), language applicable to no creature ...

Literally, "of His face," that is, who stands before Him continually; Messiah (Exo 14:19; Exo 23:20-21; Pro 8:30), language applicable to no creature (Exo 32:34; Exo 33:2, Exo 33:14; Num 20:16; Mal 3:1).

JFB: Isa 63:9 - bare them (Isa 46:3-4; Isa 40:11; Exo 19:4; Deu 32:11-12).

JFB: Isa 63:10 - vexed Grieved (Psa 78:40; Psa 95:10; Act 7:51; Eph 4:30; Heb 3:10, Heb 3:17).

JFB: Isa 63:10 - he fought Rather, "He it was that fought," namely, the angel of His presence [HORSLEY], (Lam 2:5).

Rather, "He it was that fought," namely, the angel of His presence [HORSLEY], (Lam 2:5).

JFB: Isa 63:11 - remembered Notwithstanding their perversity, He forgot not His covenant of old; therefore He did not wholly forsake them (Lev 26:40-42, Lev 26:44-45; Psa 106:45-...

Notwithstanding their perversity, He forgot not His covenant of old; therefore He did not wholly forsake them (Lev 26:40-42, Lev 26:44-45; Psa 106:45-46); the Jews make this their plea with God, that He should not now forsake them.

JFB: Isa 63:11 - saying God is represented, in human language, mentally speaking of Himself and His former acts of love to Israel, as His ground for pitying them notwithstand...

God is represented, in human language, mentally speaking of Himself and His former acts of love to Israel, as His ground for pitying them notwithstanding their rebellion.

JFB: Isa 63:11 - sea Red Sea.

Red Sea.

JFB: Isa 63:11 - shepherd Moses; or if the Hebrew be read plural, "shepherds," Moses, Aaron, and the other leaders (so Psa 77:20).

Moses; or if the Hebrew be read plural, "shepherds," Moses, Aaron, and the other leaders (so Psa 77:20).

JFB: Isa 63:11 - put . . . Spirit . . . within him Hebrew, "in the inward parts of him," that is, Moses; or it refers to the flock, "in the midst of his people" (Num 11:17, Num 11:25; Neh 9:20; Hag 2:5...

Hebrew, "in the inward parts of him," that is, Moses; or it refers to the flock, "in the midst of his people" (Num 11:17, Num 11:25; Neh 9:20; Hag 2:5).

JFB: Isa 63:12 - -- The right hand of Moses was but the instrument; the arm of God was the real mover (Exo 15:6; Exo 14:21).

The right hand of Moses was but the instrument; the arm of God was the real mover (Exo 15:6; Exo 14:21).

JFB: Isa 63:12 - dividing the water (Neh 9:11; Psa 78:13).

JFB: Isa 63:13 - deep Literally, "the tossing and roaring sea."

Literally, "the tossing and roaring sea."

JFB: Isa 63:13 - wilderness Rather, the "open plain" [HORSLEY], wherein there is no obstacle to cause a horse in its course the danger of stumbling.

Rather, the "open plain" [HORSLEY], wherein there is no obstacle to cause a horse in its course the danger of stumbling.

JFB: Isa 63:14 - As a beast . . . rest Image from a herd led "down" from the hills to a fertile and well-watered "valley" (Psa 23:2); so God's Spirit "caused Israel to rest" in the promised...

Image from a herd led "down" from the hills to a fertile and well-watered "valley" (Psa 23:2); so God's Spirit "caused Israel to rest" in the promised land after their weary wanderings.

JFB: Isa 63:14 - to make . . . name (So Isa 63:12; 2Sa 7:23).

JFB: Isa 63:15 - -- Here begins a fervent appeal to God to pity Israel now on the ground of His former benefits.

Here begins a fervent appeal to God to pity Israel now on the ground of His former benefits.

JFB: Isa 63:15 - habitation of . . . holiness (Isa 57:15; Deu 26:15; 2Ch 30:27; Psa 33:14; Psa 80:14).

JFB: Isa 63:15 - zeal . . . strength Evinced formerly for Thy people.

Evinced formerly for Thy people.

JFB: Isa 63:15 - sounding of . . . bowels Thine emotions of compassion (Isa 16:11; Jer 31:20; Jer 48:36; Hos 11:8).  

Thine emotions of compassion (Isa 16:11; Jer 31:20; Jer 48:36; Hos 11:8).  

JFB: Isa 63:16 - thou . . . father Of Israel, by right not merely of creation, but also of electing adoption (Isa 64:8; Deu 32:6; 1Ch 29:10).

Of Israel, by right not merely of creation, but also of electing adoption (Isa 64:8; Deu 32:6; 1Ch 29:10).

JFB: Isa 63:16 - though Abraham . . . Israel It had been the besetting temptation of the Jews to rest on the mere privilege of their descent from faithful Abraham and Jacob (Mat 3:9; Joh 8:39; Jo...

It had been the besetting temptation of the Jews to rest on the mere privilege of their descent from faithful Abraham and Jacob (Mat 3:9; Joh 8:39; Joh 4:12); now at last they renounce this, to trust in God alone as their Father, notwithstanding all appearances to the contrary. Even though Abraham, our earthly father, on whom we have prided ourselves, disown us, Thou wilt not (Isa 49:15; Psa 27:10). Isaac is not mentioned, because not all his posterity was admitted to the covenant, whereas all Jacob's was; Abraham is specified because he was the first father of the Jewish race.

JFB: Isa 63:16 - everlasting An argument why He should help them, namely, because of His everlasting immutability.

An argument why He should help them, namely, because of His everlasting immutability.

JFB: Isa 63:17 - made us to err That is, "suffer" us to err and to be hardened in our heart. They do not mean to deny their own blameworthiness, but confess that through their own fa...

That is, "suffer" us to err and to be hardened in our heart. They do not mean to deny their own blameworthiness, but confess that through their own fault God gave them over to a reprobate mind (Isa 6:9-10; Psa 119:10; Rom 1:28).

JFB: Isa 63:17 - Return (Num 10:36; Psa 90:13).

JFB: Isa 63:18 - people of . . . holiness Israel dedicated as holy unto God (Isa 62:12; Deu 7:6).

Israel dedicated as holy unto God (Isa 62:12; Deu 7:6).

JFB: Isa 63:18 - possessed Namely, the Holy Land, or Thy "sanctuary," taken from the following clause, which is parallel to this (compare Isa 64:10-11; Psa 74:6-8).

Namely, the Holy Land, or Thy "sanctuary," taken from the following clause, which is parallel to this (compare Isa 64:10-11; Psa 74:6-8).

JFB: Isa 63:18 - thy An argument why God should help them; their cause is His cause.

An argument why God should help them; their cause is His cause.

JFB: Isa 63:19 - thine . . . never Rather, "We are Thine from of old; Thou barest not rule over them" [BARNES]. LOWTH translates, "We for long have been as those over whom Thou hast not...

Rather, "We are Thine from of old; Thou barest not rule over them" [BARNES]. LOWTH translates, "We for long have been as those over whom Thou hast not ruled, who are not called by Thy name"; "for long" thus stands in contrast to "but a little while" (Isa 63:18). But the analogy of Isa 63:18 makes it likely that the first clause in this verse refers to the Jews, and the second to their foes, as English Version and BARNES translate it. The Jews' foes are aliens who have unjustly intruded into the Lord's heritage.

Clarke: Isa 63:1 - Who is this that cometh from Edom Who is this that cometh from Edom - Probably both Edom and Bozrah are only figurative expressions, to point out the place in which God should discom...

Who is this that cometh from Edom - Probably both Edom and Bozrah are only figurative expressions, to point out the place in which God should discomfit his enemies. Edom signifies red, and Bozrah, a vintage. Kimchi interprets the whole of the destruction of Rome

I that speak in righteousness "I who publish righteousness"- A MS. has המדבר hammedabber , with the demonstrative article added with greater force and emphasis: The announcer of righteousness. A MS. has צדקה tsedakah , without ב be prefixed; and so the Septuagint and Vulgate. And thirty-eight MSS. (seven ancient) of Dr. Kennicott’ s, and many of De Rossi’ s, and one of my own, add the conjunction ו vau to רב rab , and mighty; which the Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate confirm. - L.

Clarke: Isa 63:2 - Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel - For ללבושך lilebushecha , twenty-nine MSS. (nine ancient) of Kennicott’ s, and thirty of De Ro...

Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel - For ללבושך lilebushecha , twenty-nine MSS. (nine ancient) of Kennicott’ s, and thirty of De Rossi s, and one edition, have ללבושיך lilebusheycha in the plural; so the Septuagint and Syriac. And all the ancient Versions read it with מ mem , instead of the first ל lamed . But the true reading is probably מלבושך malbushecha in the singular, as in Isa 63:3. - L.

Clarke: Isa 63:3 - And of the people there was none with me And of the people there was none with me - I was wholly abandoned by them: but a good meaning is, No man has had any part in making the atonement; i...

And of the people there was none with me - I was wholly abandoned by them: but a good meaning is, No man has had any part in making the atonement; it is entirely the work of the Messiah alone. No created being could have any part in a sacrifice that was to be of infinite merit

And I will stain "And I have stained"- For אגאלתי egalti , a verb of very irregular formation, compounded, as they say, of the two forms of the preterite and future, a MS. has אגאלהו egalehu , the regular future with a pleonastic pronoun added to it, according to the Hebrew idiom: "And all my raiment, I have stained it."The necessity of the verb’ s being in the past tense seems to have given occasion to the alteration made in the end of the word. The conversive ו vau at the beginning of the sentence affects the verb, though not joined to it; of which there are many examples: -

עניתני רמים ומקרני

"And thou wilt hear me (or hear thou me) from among the horns of the unicorns,

Psa 22:22. - L

Instead of על בגדי al begadai , upon my garments, one of my ancient MSS. has לארץ בגדי larets begadai , to the earth: but this word is partly effaced, and על al written in the margin by a later hand.

Clarke: Isa 63:5 - -- And my fury "And mine indignation"- For וחמתי vachamathi , nineteen MSS. (three ancient) of Kennicott’ s, nine of De Rossi’ s, and o...

And my fury "And mine indignation"- For וחמתי vachamathi , nineteen MSS. (three ancient) of Kennicott’ s, nine of De Rossi’ s, and one of mine, and four editions, have וצדקתי vetsidkathi , and my righteousness; from Isa 59:16, which I suppose the transcriber retained in his memory. It is true that the Versions are in favor of the common reading; but that noticed above seems to stand on good authority, and is a reading both pleasing and impressive. Opposite, in the margin, my MS. has the common reading by a later hand.

Clarke: Isa 63:6 - -- And make them drunk in my fury "And I crushed them in mine indignation"- For ואשכרם vaashkerem , and I made them drunken, twenty-seven MSS., ...

And make them drunk in my fury "And I crushed them in mine indignation"- For ואשכרם vaashkerem , and I made them drunken, twenty-seven MSS., (three ancient), twelve of De Rossi’ s, and the old edition of 1488, have ואשברם vaashabberem , and I crushed them: and so the Syriac and Chaldee. The Septuagint have omitted this whole line.

Clarke: Isa 63:7 - I will mention the loving-kindnesses of the Lord I will mention the loving-kindnesses of the Lord - The prophet connects the preceding mercies of God to the Jews with the present prospect he has of...

I will mention the loving-kindnesses of the Lord - The prophet connects the preceding mercies of God to the Jews with the present prospect he has of their redemption by the Messiah; thus making a circle in which eternal goodness revolves. The remaining part of this chapter, with the whole chapter following, contains a penitential confession and supplication of the Israelites in their present state of dispersion, in which they have so long marvellously subsisted, and still continue to subsist, as a people; cast out of their country; without any proper form of civil polity or religious worship, their temple destroyed, their city desolated and lost to them, and their whole nation scattered over the face of the earth, apparently deserted and cast off by the God of their fathers, as no longer his peculiar people

They begin with acknowledging God’ s great mercies and favors to their nation, and the ungrateful returns made to them on their part, that by their disobedience they had forfeited the protection of God, and had caused him to become their adversary. And now the prophet represents them, induced by the memory of the great things that God had done for them, as addressing their humble supplication for the renewal of his mercies. They beseech him to regard them in consideration of his former loving-kindness, they acknowledge him for their Father and Creator, they confess their wickedness and hardness of heart, they entreat his forgiveness, and deplore their present miserable condition under which they have so long suffered. It seems designed as a formulary of humiliation for the Israelites, in order to their conversion

The whole passage is in the elegiac form, pathetic and elegant; but it has suffered much in our present copy by the mistakes of transcribers

The praises of the Lord "The praise of Jehovah"- For תהלות tehilloth , plural, twenty-nine MSS. (three ancient) and two editions, have תהלת tehillath , in the singular number; and so the Vulgate renders it; and one of the Greek versions, in the margin of Cod. Marchal. and in the text of MSS. Pachom. and 1. D. 2: την αινεσιν Κυριου, "the praise of the Lord."- L.

Clarke: Isa 63:8-9 - -- So he was their Savior. In all their affliction "And he became their Savior in all their distress"- I have followed the translation of the Septuagin...

So he was their Savior. In all their affliction "And he became their Savior in all their distress"- I have followed the translation of the Septuagint in the latter part of the eighth, and the former part of the ninth verse; which agrees with the present text, a little differently divided as to thee members of the sentence. They read מכל miccol , out of all, instead of בכל bechol , in all, which makes no difference in the sense; and צר tsar they understand as ציר tsir . Και εγενετο αυτοις εις σωτηριαν εκ πασης θλιψεως αυτων· ου πρεσβυς, ουδε αγγελος· . "And he was salvation to them in all their tribulation; neither an ambassador nor an angel, but himself saved them."An angel of his presence means an angel of superior order, in immediate attendance upon God. So the angel of the Lord says to Zacharias, "I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God,"Luk 1:19. The presence of Jehovah, Exo 33:14, Exo 33:15, and the angel, Exo 33:20, Exo 33:21, is Jehovah himself; here an angel of his presence is opposed to Jehovah himself, as an angel is in the following passages of the same book of Exodus. After their idolatrous worshipping of the golden calf, "when God had said to Moses, I will send an angel before thee - I will not go up in the midst of thee - the people mourned,"Exo 33:2-4. God afterwards comforts Moses, by saying, "My presence (that is I myself in person, and not by an angel) will go with thee,"Exo 33:14. Αυτος προπορευσομαι σου, "I myself will go before thee, "as the Septuagint render it

The MSS. and editions are much divided between the two readings of the text and margin in the common copies, לא lo , not, and לו lo , to him. All the ancient Versions express the chetib reading, לא lo , not

"And he bare then and carried them all the days of ol

And he took them up, and he bore them, all the days of old

- See the note on Isa 46:3 (note). - L.

Clarke: Isa 63:10 - And he fought against them And he fought against them - Twenty-six MSS. (ten ancient) and the first edition, with another, add the conjunction ו vau , והוא vehu , and h...

And he fought against them - Twenty-six MSS. (ten ancient) and the first edition, with another, add the conjunction ו vau , והוא vehu , and he.

Clarke: Isa 63:11 - Moses and his people "Moses his servant"- For עמו ammo , his people, two MSS. (one of them ancient) and one of my own, (ancient), and one of De Rossi’ s, and the old edition of 1488, and the Syriac, read עבדו abdo , his servant. These two words have been mistaken one for the other in other places; Psa 78:71, and Psa 80:5, for עמו ammo , his people, and עמך ammecha , thy people, the Septuagint read עבדו abdo , his servant, and עבדך abdecha , thy servant

Where is he that brought them up out of the sea with the shepherd of his flock? where etc. "How he brought them up from the sea, with the shepherd of his flock; how,"etc. Moses and his people "Moses his servant"- For עמו ammo , his people, two MSS. (one of them ancient) and one of my own, (ancient), and one of De ...

Moses and his people "Moses his servant"- For עמו ammo , his people, two MSS. (one of them ancient) and one of my own, (ancient), and one of De Rossi’ s, and the old edition of 1488, and the Syriac, read עבדו abdo , his servant. These two words have been mistaken one for the other in other places; Psa 78:71, and Psa 80:5, for עמו ammo , his people, and עמך ammecha , thy people, the Septuagint read עבדו abdo , his servant, and עבדך abdecha , thy servant

Where is he that brought them up out of the sea with the shepherd of his flock? where etc. "How he brought them up from the sea, with the shepherd of his flock; how,"etc. - For איה aiyeh , how, interrogative, twice, the Syriac Version reads איך eich , how, without interrogation, as that particle is used in the Syriac language, and sometimes in the Hebrew. See Rth 3:18; Ecc 2:16

Clarke: Isa 63:11 - The shepherd of his flock The shepherd of his flock - That is, Moses. The MSS. and editions vary in this word; some have it רעה roeh , in the singular number; so the Sept...

The shepherd of his flock - That is, Moses. The MSS. and editions vary in this word; some have it רעה roeh , in the singular number; so the Septuagint, Syriac, and Chaldee. Others רעי roey , plural, the shepherds. - L.

Clarke: Isa 63:13-14 - That led them through the deep - As a beast goeth down into the valley That led them through the deep - As a beast goeth down into the valley - In both these verses there is an allusion to the Israelites going through t...

That led them through the deep - As a beast goeth down into the valley - In both these verses there is an allusion to the Israelites going through the Red Sea, in the bottom of which they found no more inconvenience than a horse would in running in the desert, where there was neither stone nor mud; nor a beast in the valley, where all was plain and smooth.

Clarke: Isa 63:14 - -- The Spirit of the Lord caused him to rest "The Spirit of Jehovah conducted them"- For תניחנו tenichennu , caused him to rest, the Septuagint ...

The Spirit of the Lord caused him to rest "The Spirit of Jehovah conducted them"- For תניחנו tenichennu , caused him to rest, the Septuagint have ὡδηγησεν αυτους, conducted them; they read תנחם tanchem . The Syriac, Chaldee, and Vulgate read תנחנו tanchennu , conducted him. Two MSS. have the word without the י yod in the middle.

Clarke: Isa 63:15 - And thy strength "And thy mighty power"- For גבורתיך geburotheycha , plural, thirty-two MSS. (seven ancient) and twenty-one of De Rossi’ s, and seven editions, have גבורתך geburathecha , singular

Are they restrained? And thy strength "And thy mighty power"- For גבורתיך geburotheycha , plural, thirty-two MSS. (seven ancient) and twenty-one of De Rossi̵...

And thy strength "And thy mighty power"- For גבורתיך geburotheycha , plural, thirty-two MSS. (seven ancient) and twenty-one of De Rossi’ s, and seven editions, have גבורתך geburathecha , singular

Are they restrained? - For אלי elai , from (or in regard to) me, the Septuagint and Syriac read אלינו eleynu , from us. - L.

Clarke: Isa 63:16 - -- Our Redeemer; thy name is from everlasting "O deliver us for the sake of thy name"- The present text reads, as our translation has rendered it, "Our...

Our Redeemer; thy name is from everlasting "O deliver us for the sake of thy name"- The present text reads, as our translation has rendered it, "Our Redeemer, thy name is from everlasting."But instead of מעולם meolam , from everlasting, an ancient MS. has למען lemaan , for the sake of, which gives a much better sense. To show the impropriety of the present reading, it is sufficient to observe, that the Septuagint and Syriac translators thought it necessary to add עלינו aleynu , upon us, to make out the sense; That is, "Thy name is upon us, or we are called by thy name, from of old."And the Septuagint have rendered גאלנו goalenu , in the imperative mood, ῥυσαι ἡμας, deliver us. - L.

Clarke: Isa 63:17 - Why hast thou made us to err Why hast thou made us to err - A mere Hebraism, for why hast thou permitted us to err. So, Lead us not into temptation; do not suffer us to fall int...

Why hast thou made us to err - A mere Hebraism, for why hast thou permitted us to err. So, Lead us not into temptation; do not suffer us to fall into that to which we are tempted.

Clarke: Isa 63:18 - -- The people of thy holiness have possessed it but a little while "It is little that they have taken possession of thy holy mountain"- The difficulty ...

The people of thy holiness have possessed it but a little while "It is little that they have taken possession of thy holy mountain"- The difficulty of the construction in this place is acknowledged on all hands. Vitringa prefers that sense as the least exceptionable which our translation has expressed; in which however there seems to be a great defect; that is, the want of that in the speaker’ s view must have been the principal part of the proposition, the object of the verb, the land, or it, as our translators supply it, which surely ought to have been expressed, and not to have been left to be supplied by the reader. In a word, I believe there is some mistake in the text; and here the Septuagint help us out; they had in their copy הר har , mountain, instead of עם am , people, του ορους του ἁγιου σου, the mountain of thy Holy One. "Not only have our enemies taken possession of Mount Sion, and trodden down thy sanctuary; even far worse than this has befallen us; thou hast long since utterly cast us off, and dost not consider us as thy peculiar people."- L.

Calvin: Isa 63:1 - Who is this that cometh from Edom? // Beautiful in his raiment // Marching in the greatness of his strength // I who speak 1.Who is this that cometh from Edom? This chapter has been violently distorted by Christians, as if what is said here related to Christ, whereas the ...

1.Who is this that cometh from Edom? This chapter has been violently distorted by Christians, as if what is said here related to Christ, whereas the Prophet speaks simply of God himself; and they have imagined that here Christ is red, because he was wet with his own blood which he shed on the cross. But the Prophet meant nothing of that sort. The obvious meaning is, that the Lord comes forth with red garments in the view of his people, that all may know that he is their protector and avenger; for when the people were weighed down by innumerable evils, and at the same time the Edomites and other enemies, as if they had been placed beyond the reach of all danger, freely indulged in wickedness, which remained unpunished, a dangerous temptation might arise, as if these things happened by chance, or as if God did not care for his people, or chastised them too severely. If the Jews were punished for despising God, much more the Edomites, and other avowed enemies of the name of God, ought to have been punished.

The Prophet meets this very serious temptation by representing God the avenger as returning from the slaughter of the Edomites, as if he were drenched with their blood. There is great liveliness and energy in a description of this sort, Who is this? for that question raises the hearts of the hearers into a state of astonishment, and strikes them more forcibly than a plain narrative. On this account the Prophet employed it, in order to arouse the hearts of the Jews from their slumbering and stupefaction.

We know that the Edomites were somewhat related to the Jews by blood; for they were descended from the same ancestors, and derived their name from Esau, who was also called Edom. (Gen 36:1.) Having corrupted the pure worship of God, though they bore the same mark of circumcision, they persecuted the Jews with deadly hatred. They likewise inflamed the rage of other enemies against the Jews, and shewed that they took great pleasure in the ruin of that people, as is evident; from the encouraging words addressed by them to its destroyers.

“Remember, O Lord, (says the Psalmist,) the children of Edom, who, in the day of the destruction of Jerusalem, said, Raze, raze it even to the foundations.” (Psa 137:7.)

The Prophet, therefore, threatens that judgment shall be passed on the Edomites, that none may imagine that they shall escape punishment for that savage cruelty with which they burned towards their brethren; for God will punish all wicked men and enemies of the Church in such a manner as to shew that the Church is the object of his care.

Beautiful in his raiment Because spots of blood pollute and stain the conquerors, Isaiah affirms that God will nevertheless be “beautiful in his raiment,” after having taken vengeance on the enemies. In like manner, we have seen in other passages (Isa 34:6) that the slaughter of the wicked is compared to sacrifices, because the glory of God shines brightly in them; for can we conceive of any ornament more lovely than judgment? Thus, in order to impress men with reverence for God’s righteous vengeance, he pronounces the blood with which he was sprinkled, by slaying and destroying the wicked, to be highly beautiful and ornamental. As if he had said, “Think not that God will resemble a person of mean rank. Though he be drenched with blood, yet this will not prevent his glory and majesty from shining brightly.”

Marching in the greatness of his strength Various expositions of the word צעה ( tzogneh) are given by the Jews. Some view it in a transitive sense, as referring to the people whom the Lord brought back from captivity. Others refer it to the nations whom the Lord will remove to another country, though they appear to have a settled habitation. But I consider it to he more agreeable to the context to give to it an absolute sense as a noun. The Prophet, therefore, describes God’s majestic march and heroic firmness, by which he displays vast power.

I who speak The Lord himself replies; and this carries much more authority than if the Prophet spoke in his own person. Believers are reminded by him of former predictions, that they may know that in the judgments of God not only his justice and goodness, but likewise his faithfulness is manifested. As if he had said, “Behold, ye now see fulfilled what I have already and frequently testified to you by my servants. This effect of my promises clearly shews that I am true, and that I speak justly and sincerely, and not for the purpose of deceiving you.” The vision would have been little fitted to strike their minds, if the Jews had not remembered those promises which they formerly heard; but since the design of it was, that they should rely on God’s salvation, he at the same time claims for himself no ordinary power to save.

Calvin: Isa 63:2 - Wherefore is thy raiment red? 2.Wherefore is thy raiment red? He proceeds with the same subject; but, as it would have impaired the force of the narrative, he does not immediately...

2.Wherefore is thy raiment red? He proceeds with the same subject; but, as it would have impaired the force of the narrative, he does not immediately explain whence came the red color of God’s garments, but continues to put questions, that he may arouse their minds to the consideration of what is strange and uncommon. He means that this sprinkling of blood is something remarkable and extraordinary. The comparison drawn from a “wine-press” is highly appropriate; for the town Bozrah, which he mentioned a little before, lay in a vine-bearing district. As if he had said, “There will be other vintages than those which are customary; for blood shall be shed instead of the juice of the grapes.”

Calvin: Isa 63:3 - Alone have I pressed the wine-press // And of the peoples there was none with me // For I will tread them // And I will stain all my raiment // In my wrath 3.Alone have I pressed the wine-press The Prophet now explains the vision, and the reason why the Lord was stained with blood. It is because he will ...

3.Alone have I pressed the wine-press The Prophet now explains the vision, and the reason why the Lord was stained with blood. It is because he will take vengeance on the Edomites and other enemies who treated his people cruelly. It would be absurd to say that these things relate to Christ, because he alone and without human aid redeemed us; for it means that God will punish the Edomites in such a manner that he will have no need of the assistance of men, because he will be sufficiently able to destroy them. The Jews might have objected that the Edomites are powerful, and are not harassed by any wars, but are in a flourishing and tranquil condition. The Prophet shews that this does not prevent the Lord from inflicting punishment on them whenever he shall think proper. Human means were, indeed, employed by him when he took vengeance on the Edomites, but in such a manner that it was made evident to all that it was entirely directed by his hand, and that no part of it could be ascribed to human forces or counsels. They were overwhelmed by sudden and unlooked-for destruction, of which the people ought not to have doubted that God, who had so often warned them of it, was the author.

And of the peoples there was none with me 173 This is added in order to intimate that, although “peoples” will arise out of the earth in order to destroy the nation of Edom, yet the work of God shall be separate from them, because nothing was farther from the design of heathen nations than to inflict punishment on the Edomites for their unjust cruelty. For this reason the Lord wishes his judgment to be known and to be illustriously displayed amidst the din of arms and tempestuous commotions.

For I will tread them I willingly retain the future tense; for the Prophet speaks of events that are future and not yet accomplished; and although the Edomites were living in prosperity and at their ease, yet God would severely punish them on account of their cruelty. Why the Prophet makes use of the metaphor of a bloody wine-press, which is a shocking and melancholy sight, we have already in part explained; but it ought likewise to be added, that the punishments and vengeance which God inflicts on enemies are appropriately called his vintage, as if he gathered them when he ruins or destroys them. In like manner, such punishment is called in another passage (Isa 34:6) a solemn sacrifice; that we may learn that glory ought to be ascribed to God, not less when he executes his judgments than when he exhibits tokens of compassion. 174

And I will stain all my raiment He nevertheless describes his amazing love toward the Jews, in deigning to sprinkle himself with the blood of enemies on their account; and that is the reason why he makes use of the word stain.

In my wrath He shews that this is of itself sufficient for destroying the Edomites, that the Lord is angry with them; as if he had said that there will be none to rescue them, when the Lord shall be pleased to chastise, Hence we may infer that the destruction of men proceeds from nothing else than the wrath of God; as, on the other hand, on his graco alone depends our salvation. In a word, God intended here to testify that the Edomites shall not remain unpunished for having persecuted the Church of God.

Calvin: Isa 63:4 - For the day of vengeance is in my heart // And the year of my redeemed is come 4.For the day of vengeance is in my heart In the former clause of this verse Isaiah intimates that God does not cease to discharge his office, though...

4.For the day of vengeance is in my heart In the former clause of this verse Isaiah intimates that God does not cease to discharge his office, though he does not instantly execute his judgments, but, on the contrary, delays till a seasonable time, which he knows well; and that it does not belong to us to prescribe to him when or how he ought to do this or that, but we ought to bow submissively to his decree, that he may administer all things according to his pleasure. Let us not, therefore, imagine that he is asleep, or that he is idle, when he delays.

And the year of my redeemed is come In this latter clause he shews that all these things are done for the sake of believers. “Day” and “year” are here used by him in the same sense; but by the word “year” is denoted the long duration of the captivity, that the Jews may not despair or grow faint and weary, if the redemption be long delayed. The Lord therefore punishes and destroys wicked men for the purpose of delivering the godly and of redeeming his Church, for which he has a special regard.

Finally, by the slaughter and destruction of them he opens up a way for his grace. And this tends to our consolation, that whenever we see tokens of God’s wrath toward the wicked, we may know that the fruit of the punishment which they endure will come to us; for in this way it is clearly seen that our groans are heard, and that God, when he wishes to relieve the afflicted, is armed with strength to put to flight all the enemies of his Church. Wherefore, although the cross be heavy to us, yet by hearing patiently let us learn to lift up our minds by hope to that “year” which God hath appointed for executing his vengeance.

Calvin: Isa 63:5 - I looked, and there was none to help // And I wondered 5.I looked, and there was none to help Although the Jews were destitute of all assistance, and no one aided them by word or deed, yet he shews that t...

5.I looked, and there was none to help Although the Jews were destitute of all assistance, and no one aided them by word or deed, yet he shews that the arm of the Lord is alone sufficient to punish enemies, and to set his people at liberty. He shews, therefore, that from God alone they ought to expect salvation, that they may not gaze around in every direction, but may have their eyes wholly fixed on God, who has no need of the assistance of others.

And I wondered He represents God as amazed that there is none to stretch out a hand to him, when he wishes to execute his judgments, that he may impress more deeply on the minds of believers this doctrine, that God has no need of human aid, and that he is sufficient of himself for procuring salvation to his people. By this circumstance he magnifies still more the assistance which he had determined to render to his people, partly to correct their distrust, and partly to exhort them to gratitude in future; for God assumes a different character, when he says that he stood like one astonished; because this stupidity belonged literally to the Jews, who scarcely believed what could not be done by the power of men. With every assistance, therefore, he contrasts his own arm, with the invincible power of which he says that he will be satisfied, both that he may be seen to be their Savior, and that he may scatter and lay low all the wicked.

Calvin: Isa 63:6 - And I will tread down the peoples // And will make them drunk // And will cast down their strength to the earth 6.And I will tread down the peoples From the preceding statement he draws the conclusion, that God’s wrath is sufficiently powerful to destroy the ...

6.And I will tread down the peoples From the preceding statement he draws the conclusion, that God’s wrath is sufficiently powerful to destroy the wicked, without calling for the assistance of others; and he does so in order that the Jews may not be deterred from cherishing favorable hopes by the strength that is arrayed against them.

And will make them drunk The expression, “make drunk,” must here be taken in a different sense from what it formerly had in some passages. We have seen that sometimes we are made drunk, when God strikes us with fury or madness, (Isa 29:9,) or with a spirit of giddiness, (Isa 19:14,) or, in a word, “gives us up to a reprobate mind.” (Rom 1:28.) But here it means nothing else than “to fill,” and to strike even to satiety, or, as we commonly say, ( tout leur saoul ,) “to their heart’s content;” a metaphor which the prophets frequently employ.

And will cast down their strength to the earth. That is, though they think that they are invincible, yet I will cast down and destroy them. The meaning may be thus summed up. “The Jews, when they are afflicted, must not call in question their salvation, as if God hated them, and must not be amazed at the chastisements which they endure, as if they happened by chance; for other nations, by whom they are now oppressed, shall be punished, there shall be a revolution of affairs, and they shall not escape who chant a triumph before the time. He produces as an example the Edomites, because they were nearer and better known than others, and were also the most injurious.

Calvin: Isa 63:7 - I will keep in remembrance the compassions of Jehovah // As upon all that Jehovah hath bestowed on us // In the multitude of kindness toward the house of Israel 7.I will keep in remembrance the compassions of Jehovah Isaiah brings consolation to his people in distressed and calamitous circumstances, and by hi...

7.I will keep in remembrance the compassions of Jehovah Isaiah brings consolation to his people in distressed and calamitous circumstances, and by his example bids the Jews, when they were oppressed by afflictions, call to remembrance God’s ancient benefits, and betake themselves to prayer; that they may not be like hypocrites, who only in prosperity feel the goodness of God, and are so much cast down by adversity as to remember no benefit. But when the Lord chastises us, we ought to mention and celebrate his benefits, and to cherish better hopes for the future; for the Lord is always the same, and does not change his purpose or his inclination; and therefore if we leave room for his compassion, we shall never be left destitute.

Such appears to me to be the scope of the context, though others view it in a different light, namely, that the Prophet, having hitherto spoken of the destruction of the people, comforts himself by this confident hope of compassion, that God wishes to save some of them. But they are mistaken in supposing that Isaiah has hitherto spoken of the Jews, as if God punished them only, whereas he testified that he would likewise punish other nations, that they might not think that they alone were hated by God; and accordingly, he now exhorts them to celebrate the remembrance of those benefits which God had formerly bestowed on the fathers, that by their example they may know better the love of God toward them. From the context it will also appear clearly, that the Jews are joined with their fathers, that the covenant which belongs to them in common with their fathers, may encourage them to hope well.

As upon all that Jehovah hath bestowed on us He employs the particle of comparison, As, in order to shew that in adversity we ought instantly to remember those benefits which the Lord bestowed on his people, as if they were placed before our eyes, though they appear to be buried by extreme old age; for if they do not belong to us, the remembrance of them would be idle and unprofitable.

He confirms this also by saying on us. Because the Jews were members of the same body, he justly reckons them the descendants of their grandfathers and other ancestors. Isaiah did not, indeed, experience those benefits which he mentions; but because they had been bestowed on the Church, the fruit of them came partly to himself, because he was a member of the Church. And undoubtedly that communion of saints which we profess to believe, ought to be so highly valued by us, as to lead us to think that what the Church has received from the hand of God has been given to us; for the Church of God is one, and that which now is has nothing separate from that which formerly was. 175

In the multitude of kindness toward the house of Israel By these words Isaiah more fully explains his meaning. Since therefore the Lord shewed himself to be kind and bountiful toward his people, we ought to hope for the same thing in the present day, because we are “fellow-citizens,” and members of the very same Church. (Eph 2:19.) Although we feel that God is angry with us on account of our sins, yet our hearts ought to be encouraged by hope and armed by confidence; because he cannot forsake his Church. Yet it ought to be carefully observed, that the Prophet extols and magnifies in lofty terms the mercy of God, that we may know that the foundation of our salvation and of all blessings is laid on it; for this excludes the merits of men, that nothing may in any way be ascribed to them.

That this doctrine may be better understood, we must take into account the time of which Isaiah speaks. At that time righteousness and godliness chiefly flourished; for although the people were exceedingly corrupted, yet Moses, Aaron, and other good men, gave illustrious examples of unblamable and holy lives. Yet the Prophet shews that all the blessings which the Lord. bestowed on Moses and others ought to be ascribed, not to their merits, but to the mercy of God. But what are we in comparison of Moses, that we should deserve anything from God? This repetition, therefore, of kindness, mercies, and compassions, as it raises feeble minds on high, that they may rise above stupendous and formidable temptations, ought also to remove and swallow up all thought of human merits.

Calvin: Isa 63:8 - For he said, Surely they are my people // Children that do not lie // Therefore he became their Savior 8.For he said, Surely they are my people He mentions the election of the people, and represents God as speaking of it, that we may keep in view the e...

8.For he said, Surely they are my people He mentions the election of the people, and represents God as speaking of it, that we may keep in view the end of our calling., that he wished to have a peculiar people, who should call upon him. And yet he accuses the people of ingratitude, in having disappointed God of his expectation; not that the Lord can be deceived, for he dearly foresaw what they would become, and also declared it (Deu 32:15) by Moses; but Scripture speaks in this manner, when it is altogether owing to the ingratitude of men that they, disappoint God, as we formerly saw,

“I looked that it should yield grapes, and it hath yielded wild grapes.” (Isa 5:4.)

Nor does he treat of God’s secret decree, but speaks after the manner of men about the mutual consent between God and believers, that all to whom he deigns to offer himself as their Father, may answer to God when he calls; “for the foundation standeth sure, that none of the elect shall perish, because the Lord knoweth who are truly his. (2Ti 2:19.)

Children that do not lie We know that the end of our calling is, that we may lead a holy and blameless life, as the whole of Scripture testifies, and as we have often stated at former passages. (Isa 43:21.) Justly, therefore, does the Lord say that he elected the people, that they might be holy and true, that he might have children who were averse to falsehood and vanity. But the people did not keep their promise, and were far removed from that simplicity which they ought to have followed; for everything was full of deceit and hypocrisy. Yet nevertheless he holds out the hope of pardon, provided that they fly to God and humble themselves by sincere repentance.

Therefore he became their Savior The Prophet shews what is the chief part of the service of God; namely, to have a pure and upright heart. Hence it follows that God forsakes us, because we are treacherous and are covenant-breakers. Seeing therefore that this people took pleasure in their vices, it was proper first to convict them of their unbelief, that being afterwards converted to God, they might find him to be their Savior.

Calvin: Isa 63:9 - In all their affliction he was afflicted // And the angel of his face saved them // In his love // He bore them and carried them // All the days of the age 9.In all their affliction he was afflicted He enlarges on the goodness of God toward his people, and shews that he was kind to the fathers, so long a...

9.In all their affliction he was afflicted He enlarges on the goodness of God toward his people, and shews that he was kind to the fathers, so long as they permitted themselves to be governed by him, and was so careful about them that he himself bore their distresses and afflictions. By speaking in this mainner, he declares the incomparable love which God bears toward his people. In order to move us more powerfully and draw us to himself, the Lord accommodates himself to the manner of men, by attributing to himself all the affection, love, and (συμπαθεία) compassion which a father can have. And yet in human affairs it is impossible to conceive of any sort of kindness or benevolence which he does not immeasurably surpass.

I acknowledge that לא ( lo) with א ( aleph) literally signifies not; and therefore I do not altogether reject a different interpretation, that the people in their afflictions were not afflicted, because God always applied some remedy to alleviate their sorrows. But since א , ( aleph,)in many passages, is manifestly changed into ו , ( vau,) learned commentators justly, in my opinion, view it as equivalent to the pronoun לו , ( lo,) to him. In this sense the Prophet testifies that God, in order to alleviate the distresses and afflictions of his people, himself bore their burdens; not that he can in any way endure anguish, but, by a very customary figure of speech, he assumes and applies to himself human passions. 176

And the angel of his face saved them Of the care which he took of them he next explains the effect, by saying that he always delivered them by the hand of his angel, whom he calls “the angel of his face,” because he was the witness of the presence of God, and, as it were, his herald to execute his commands; that we may not think that angels come forth of their own accord, or move at their own suggestion, to render assistance to us; for the Lord makes use of their agency, and makes known to us his presence by means of them. Angels can do nothing of themselves, and give no assistance, except so far as the Lord commissions them

“to be ministers of our salvation.” (Heb 1:14.)

Let us not, therefore, fix our whole attention on them, for they lead us straight to God.

If it be thought preferable to interpret this phrase as describing the lively image of God, because that angel, being the leader and guardian of the people, shewed the face of God as in a mirror, that meaning will be highly appropriate. And indeed I have no doubt that the office of Savior is ascribed to Christ, as we know that he was the angel of highest rank, by whose guidance, safeguard, and protection, the Church has been preserved and upheld.

In his love. He shews what was the cause of so great benefits; namely, his love and undeserved kindness, as Moses also teaches. “How came it that God adopted thy fathers, but because he loved them, and because his heart clave to them?” (Deu 4:37.) Moses wishes to set aside entirely the lofty opinion which they might entertain of themselves, because they were proud and haughty, and claimed more for themselves than they had a right to claim; and therefore he shews that there was no other cause for so great benefits than the absolute and undeserved goodness of God.

He bore them and carried them. He next makes use of the same metaphor which Moses employs in his song, when he says that God

“carried his people in the same manner as an eagle bears her young on her wings.” (Deu 32:11.)

Or perhaps some may choose to refer it to sheep, as we have seen elsewhere, “He will lead those that are with young.” (Isa 40:11.) Yet it is more natural to view this as a comparison to a mother, who not only carries the child in the womb, but rears it till it arrive at full strength. The meaning may be thus summed up. “The people experienced the grace of God, not only once, when they were redeemed, but during the whole course of their life, so that to him alone ought to be ascribed all the benefits which they have received.” And therefore he adds —

All the days of the age; that is, in an uninterrupted succession of many years; for God is not wearied in doing good, nor is it only to a single age that he shews his kindness; for he has never ceased to adorn and enrich his Church with various gifts.

Calvin: Isa 63:10 - But they were rebellious // Therefore he became an enemy to them // And they provoked his Holy Spirit 10.But they were rebellious The Prophet now comes down to the second clause, in which he states that the Lord ceased to shew kindness to his people, ...

10.But they were rebellious The Prophet now comes down to the second clause, in which he states that the Lord ceased to shew kindness to his people, because they revolted, and turned aside from him. The question turns on this point: “God exercised his kindness towards our fathers for a long time; why do not we experience the same kindness? Is he unlike himself?” By no means; but we ourselves, by our rebellion, refuse and even drive away his goodness. Yet the Prophet not only accuses the men of his own age, but likewise condemns former ages. We see how, even when they had Moses for their leader, they murmured against God and rebelled. (Exo 17:5; Num 11:1.)

Therefore he became an enemy to them He shews that the effect of their rebellion was, that God, who had loved them tenderly, yet, in consequence of their obstinacy, “became an enemy to them.” Let them accuse themselves, therefore, for suffering the punishment of their transgressions; for God is by nature disposed to shew kindness, and nothing is more agreeable to him than to bestow his favors.

And they provoked his Holy Spirit We are said to irritate “the Holy Spirit” by our wickedness; and this form of expression, after the manner of men, is intended to produce in us stronger abhorrence against sin, which provokes God’s wrath and hatred. Now, since it is the same Spirit that performs the work of our salvation, the Prophet suggests that God is alienated from us by our sins, which break asunder the bond of union. To this belongs the exhortation of Paul,

“Grieve not; the Spirit of God, by whom ye have been sealed to the day of redemption.” (Eph 4:30.)

It ought also to be observed here, that we have no reason for blaming men, who hate and persecute us, seeing that the Lord makes war with us, and punishes our transgressions by their hand. We ought therefore to accuse and condemn our transgressions; for they are the cause of all the evils which we endure.

Calvin: Isa 63:11 - And he remembered the days of old // With the shepherd of his flock // That put his Holy Spirit in the midst of him 11.And he remembered the days of old This is the design of the chastisement, that the people may be roused from their lethargy, and may call to remem...

11.And he remembered the days of old This is the design of the chastisement, that the people may be roused from their lethargy, and may call to remembrance those things which they had formerly forgotten; for we are so intoxicated by prosperity that we altogether forget God. And therefore chastisements bring back this thought, which had been defaced in us, “Where is God who bestowed so many benefits on our fathers?” For I refer these things to the past time; and therefore I have translated עולם ( gnolam) “of old.” and not “of the age,” which would be unsuitable to this passage, seeing that he mentions those times in which Moses governed the people of God. Wherefore, the true meaning is, that the Jews, being wretchedly oppressed, thought of “the times of old,” in which the Lord displayed his power for defending his people. As to the opinion of some commentators, who refer it to God, as if he contended with the wickedness of the people, because he chose rather to bestow his favors improperly on ungrateful persons, than not to complete what he had begun, it appears to be too harsh and unnatural; and therefore the Prophet rather utters the groans and complaints of a wretched people, when they have learned from chastisements how miserable it is to lose God’s protection.

With the shepherd of his flock. By “the shepherd” he means Moses, and I see no good reason for translating it in the plural rather than the singular number. 177

That put his Holy Spirit in the midst of him He describes also the manner; namely, that he endowed him with a remarkable grace of the Holy Spirit; for “to put the Spirit in the midst of him” means nothing else than to display the power of his Spirit. Others prefer to view it as referring to the people; and I do not object to that opinion. But when the Lord chose Moses, and appointed him to be the leader of the whole people, in him especially the Lord is said to have “put his Spirit.” Now, he gave his Spirit to him for the benefit of the whole people, that he might be a distinguished minister of his grace, and might restore them to liberty. At the same time, the power of the Spirit of God was seen in the midst of the whole people.

Calvin: Isa 63:12 - Who led them 12.Who led them Here he goes on to describe the miraculous deliverance of the people, who were led out of Egypt under the guidance of Moses; and he g...

12.Who led them Here he goes on to describe the miraculous deliverance of the people, who were led out of Egypt under the guidance of Moses; and he goes on to relate the complaints which might occur to the minds of the afflicted Jews. Here we see two things connected; namely, the right hand of Moses and the arm of God’s majesty. The Lord employs the labors and ministry of men in such a manner that his praise and glory must not be in any degree diminished or obscured; for, while these things are transacted under Moses as the leader, everything is ascribed to God. Just as, when the ministers of the Gospel are said to “forgive sins,” (Joh 20:23,) which nevertheless belongs to God alone, does this detract from his authority and majesty? Not at all; for they are only his instruments, and lend their labor to God, to whom the undivided praise ought to be rendered. And indeed, what could the hand of a single man have accomplished, if it had not been wielded by the arm of God?

Accordingly, he expressly adds the design, that God performed miracles at that time, in order that he might gain for himself an everlasting name; and if we are not at liberty to deprive him of this, it will not be lawful to transfer to man even the smallest portion of praise.

Calvin: Isa 63:13 - Who made them walk through the depths 13.Who made them walk through the depths These things are added for the purpose of setting that benefit in a stronger light. He likewise brings forwa...

13.Who made them walk through the depths These things are added for the purpose of setting that benefit in a stronger light. He likewise brings forward comparisons, in order to describe that extraordinary power of God: “As a horse in the desert, As a beast into a plain;” that is, he led out his people as gently as if one were leading a horse into a plain. By the word “desert” is not meant the wilderness of Paran in which the people dwelt forty years; but, in accordance with the ordinary usage of the Hebrew tongue, it denotes pasture, in which herds and flocks wander at large. This is still more evident from the following verse, —

Calvin: Isa 63:14 - As a beast into a plain // A glorious name 14.As a beast into a plain Here, instead of “desert,” he makes use of the word “plain;” and the same meaning is drawn from what he says, that...

14.As a beast into a plain Here, instead of “desert,” he makes use of the word “plain;” and the same meaning is drawn from what he says, that “the people walked through the depths without stumbling, as horses are wont to do in the desert.” In a word, he informs them that the Red Sea was no obstacle to the people marching through the midst of the depths, as if they were walking on level ground. 178

A glorious name This is in the same sense that he called it a little before “an everlasting name.” The people now argue with God, that if he once wished to obtain “a glorious name,” he must not now throw away all care about it; otherwise the remembrance of the benefits which he formerly bestowed on the fathers will be entirely blotted out.

Calvin: Isa 63:15 - Look down from heaven // Behold from the habitation of thy holiness // Where is thy zeal? // The multitude of bowels and of compassions 15.Look down from heaven After having, in the name of the whole people, related the benefits of former times, he now applies this to the present subj...

15.Look down from heaven After having, in the name of the whole people, related the benefits of former times, he now applies this to the present subject, and entreats the Lord to pay regard to his people.

Behold from the habitation of thy holiness By these words he means that the power of God is not diminished, though this does not always appear; for we must supply a contrast, that God at that time might be said to be concealed, and did not shew himself to them as he had shewn himself to the fathers. “Although, therefore, we do not see thee, O Lord, and although thou hast withdrawn from us as if thou wert shut up in heaven, so that thou mayest seem to have altogether ceased to care about us, yet ‘look down from heaven, and from thy habitation’ behold our distresses.” Believers must differ from unbelievers in acknowledging a powerful and kind God, even when they perceive no tokens of his power or kindness; and thus, even when he is at a great distance, they nevertheless call on him; for God never ceases to care about his people, (1Pe 5:7,) since he governs unceasingly every part of the world.

Where is thy zeal? By these questions believers appear in some measure to reproach God, as if he were not now moved by any affection toward them, or as if his power were diminished; but the Prophet’s meaning is different; for in thus extolling those benefits, his object is, as I have already remarked, to confirm the hope of believers for the future, that they may know that God is always like himself, and will never lay aside his care about his people. This will appear more clearly from what follows.

The multitude of bowels and of compassions denotes God’s vast goodness; for God displays and opens up his bowels, so to speak, when he exercises toward us bounty and kindness, which truly is so great that we cannot praise it in adequate language. Nor is it a new thing that believers, when oppressed by grief, expostulated familiarly with God for shutting up his bowels. They do indeed hold by this principle, that God is always compassionate, because he does not change his nature; and though they impute it to their sins that they do not experience him to be compassionate, yet, that they may not sink into despair, they ask how it is possible that God should treat them with severity, and, as if he had forgotten his natural disposition, should shew nothing but tokens of absolute displeasure? 179

Calvin: Isa 63:16 - Surely thou art our Father // Though Abraham do not know us // Our Redeemer // From everlasting is thy name 16.Surely thou art our Father God permits us to reveal our hearts familiarly before him; for prayer is nothing else than the opening up of our heart ...

16.Surely thou art our Father God permits us to reveal our hearts familiarly before him; for prayer is nothing else than the opening up of our heart before God; as the greatest alleviation is, to pour our cares, distresses, and anxieties into his bosom. “Roll thy cares on the Lord,” says David. (Psa 37:5.) After having enumerated God’s benefits, from which his goodness and power are clearly seen, so that it is evident that it is nothing else than the sins of men that hinder them from feeling it as formerly, he returns to this consideration, that the goodness of God is nevertheless so great as to exceed the wickedness of men. He calls God a Father in the name of the Church; for all cannot call him thus, but it is the peculiar privilege of the Church to address him by a father’s name. Hence it ought to be inferred that Christ, as the first-born, or rather the only-begotten Son of God, always governed his Church; for in no other way than through him can God be called Father. And here we again see that believers do not contend with God, but draw an argument from his nature, that, by conquering temptation, they may strive to cherish good hope.

Though Abraham do not know us Here a question arises, Why does he say that the patriarch does not know the people? Jerome thinks that this is done because they were degenerated, and therefore were unworthy of so high an honor; but that interpretation appears to me to be exceedingly unnatural. The true meaning is, “Though our fathers deny us, yet God will reckon us as children, and will act toward us as a Father.”

They who say that Abraham and other believers care no more about the affairs of men, torture by excessive ingenuity the words of the Prophet. I do not speak of the fact itself, but I say that those words do not prove that the saints have no care about us. The natural and true meaning is, “O Lord, that thou art our Father will be so sure and so firmly established, that even though all parentage and all relationship should cease among men, yet thou wilt not fail to be our Father. Sooner shall the rights of nature perish than thou shalt not act toward us as a Father, or the sacred adoption shall be infringed, which was founded on thy unchangeable decree, and ratified by the death of thine only-begotten Son.” 180

Yet we may infer from this that holy men present themselves before God, and pray to him, in such a manner as not to look at any intercessions of others; for they are commanded to pray so as to rely on God’s fatherly kindness, and to lay aside every other confidence. And if the Prophet did not instruct the Jews, in order that God might listen to them, to turn their mind to Abraham and Jacob, to whom promises so numerous and so great had been given, assuredly much less ought we to resort, to Peter, and Paul, and others; for this is not a private prayer offered by a single individual or by a few persons, but the public and universal prayer of the whole Church, as if the Prophet laid down a general form. Besides, our confidence ought to be founded on God’s favor and kindness as a Father, so as to shut our eyes on all the intercessions of men, whether living or dead. In a word, believers profess that they do not gaze around in all directions, but rely on God alone.

It comes now to a question, Why did he pass by Isaac and mention in a special manner Abraham and Jacob? The reason is, that with those two persons the covenant was more solemnly ratified. Isaac was, indeed, a partaker of the covenant, but did not receive promises so large and so numerous.

Our Redeemer Redemption is here described as a testimony of that adoption; for by this proof God manifested himself to be the Father of the people; and therefore boldly and confidently do believers call on God as their Father, because he gave a remarkable testimony of his fatherly kindness toward them, which encouraged them to confidence. But redemption alone would, not have been enough, if a promise had not likewise been added; and therefore, as he once redeemed them, he promised that he would always be their Father.

From everlasting is thy name By the word “everlasting” 181 is pointed out the stability and continuance of his fatherly name, for we did not deserve the name of children; but his will, by which he once adopted us to be children, is unchangeable. Since, therefore, the Lord has an eternal name, it follows that the title and favor which are connected with that eternity and flow from it, shall be durable and eternal. 182

Calvin: Isa 63:17 - Why didst thou cause as to wander, O Jehovah, from thy ways? // And hast caused our heart to depart from thy fear // Return on account of thy servants // To the tribes of thine inheritance 17.Why didst thou cause as to wander, O Jehovah, from thy ways? Because these modes of expression appear to be rough and harsh, some think that unbel...

17.Why didst thou cause as to wander, O Jehovah, from thy ways? Because these modes of expression appear to be rough and harsh, some think that unbelievers are here introduced as murmuring against God and uttering blasphemies, with the rage and obstinacy of men who are in a state of despair. But the connection in which these words occur does not at all admit of that interpretation; for the Prophet points out the fruit that would result from the calamities and afflictions of the Jews, because, having been subdued and tamed, they no longer are fierce or indulge in their vices. They are therefore ashamed that in time past they departed so far from the right way, and they acknowledge their own fault.

And indeed when they trace their sins to the wrath of God, they do not intend to free themselves from blame, or to set aside their guilt. But the Prophet employs a mode of expression which is of frequent occurrence; for in the Scriptures it is frequently said that God drives men into error, (2Th 2:11;) “gives them up to a reprobate mind,” (Rom 1:28;) and “hardens them.” (Rom 9:18.) When believers speak in this manner, they do not intend to make God the author of error or of sin, as if they were innocent, or to free themselves from blame; but they look higher, and rather acknowledge that it is by their own fault that they are estranged from God and deprived of his Spirit, and that this is the reason why they are plunged into every kind of evils.

Those who say that God leads us into error by privation, that is, by depriving us of his Spirit, do not perceive the actual design; for God himself is said to harden and to blind, when he gives up men to be blinded by Satan, who is the minister and executioner of his wrath. Without this we would be exposed to the rage of Satan; but, since he can do nothing without the command of God, to whose dominion he is subject, there will be no impropriety in saying that God is the author of blinding and hardening, as Scripture also affirms in many passages. (Rom 9:18.) And yet it cannot be said or declared that God is the author of sin, because he punishes the ingratitude of men by blinding them in this manner.

Thus believers here acknowledge that God has forsaken them, but that it is by their own fault; 183 and they acknowledge God’s righteous vengeance against them. In like manner, when Moses says that “God hath not hitherto given to the people eyes to see and a heart to understand,” (Deu 29:4,) he does not lay the blame on God, but reminds the Jews whence they should seek to obtain a remedy for that stupidity of which they had been convicted. Yet it may appear as if here they aimed at something else, by inquiring into the cause and remonstrating with God, that he ought to have acted differently towards them and treated them less harshly. But I reply, that believers always look at the goodness of God, even when they acknowledge that they suffer justly on account of their sins.

Some refer these words to the captivity; as if believers complained that God permitted them to languish so long in captivity. As if he had said, “The chief cause of their obstinacy is, that the Lord does not permit them to partake of his grace.” Believers are troubled by a dangerous temptation, when they see wicked men pursuing their career without being punished, and are almost driven by it to despair; as it is beautifiully expressed by David. (Psa 115:3.) But I think that the Prophet’s meaning is more general; for believers acknowledge that they “wandered,” because they were not governed by the Spirit of God; and they do not; expostulate with God, but desire to have that Spirit, by whom their fathers were guided, and from whom they obtained all prosperity.

And hast caused our heart to depart from thy fear תקשיח , ( takshiach,) is rendered by some, hast hardened; but as that would not agree with the words, “in thy fear,” I have preferred to translate it, “Hast caused to depart;” for קשח , ( kashach,) also signifies “to remove and place at a distance.”

Return on account of thy servants Some think that these words relate to the whole people, as Scripture frequently gives the appellation of “servants of God” to all the citizens of the Church. But I think that they relate literally to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and that is much more probable; not that the people relied on their intercession, but because the Lord had made a covenant with them, which they should transmit from hand to hand to their posterity. Thus they do not hold out these patriarchs as men, but as ministers and depositaries or messengers of the covenant which was the foundation of their confidence. In the same manner, in that psalm,

“Lord, remember David,” (Psa 132:1,)

the name of the dead patriarch is mentioned to God, not because the saints thought that he would be their intercessor, but that the promise given to a single individual, as to establishing the kingdom in his family for ever, belongs to the body of the people.

The Papists eagerly seize on these words, as if they were a proof of the intercessions of the saints. But how easy it is to reply may be easily seen from the true interpretation; for the fathers are mentioned, not because they had a right to obtain anything for them, or because they now intercede, but because with them was formed a gracious covenant, which belongs not only to themselves, but to all their posterity.

To the tribes of thine inheritance I have added the preposition To, which was understood, in order that the meaning might be more easy and obvious. It is a customary form of expression among the Hebrews, “Return the tribes,” instead of “Return to the tribes;” as if he had said, “Return to a state of friendship with thy people.” Hence it is evident that what was formerly said had no other object than that the people urged God to the exercise of mercy by representing to God their distresses and calamities. And in this manner we must come to God; that is, by recounting former benefits and laying before him our afflictions, if we desire to be delivered from them.

He employs the word Inheritance, because God hath chosen that people to be his heritage; as if he had said, “Where shall thy people be, if we perish?” Not that the Lord was bound to that people, but that he had given his promise to them. 184 Accordingly, the people venture to remind God of his promise and to offer earnest prayer, because he had laid himself under a voluntary obligation both to the fathers and to posterity. Now, since all the promises are ratified and confirmed in Christ, (2Co 1:20,) and since we possess the reality of all things, we ought to be fortified by stronger confidence; for not only was the covenant made in his hand, but it was ratified and sealed by his blood. To the ancient fathers also he was indeed the Mediator, but we have everything clearer and plainer; because they were still kept amidst the darker shadows.

Calvin: Isa 63:18 - For a little time // Our adversaries have trodden down thy sanctuary 18.For a little time It is wonderful that the people should call it “a little time;” for fourteen hundred years had elapsed since the people bega...

18.For a little time It is wonderful that the people should call it “a little time;” for fourteen hundred years had elapsed since the people began to possess that land. But we must take into account the promise by which he said that the seed of Abraham should have it as an everlasting inheritance; and therefore that was a short time, when compared with eternity. (Gen 17:8.) Believers, therefore, represent to God the shortness of that time; not that they accuse him of insincerity, but that he may remember the promise and covenant, and may have more regard to his own goodness than to the chastisements which they justly deserved. Thus the ancient Church complains that

“her strength was weakened in the journey, that her days were shortened, and prays that she may not be cut off in the middle of her course,” (Psa 102:23,)

that is, because the fullness of age depended on the coming of Christ.

Our adversaries have trodden down thy sanctuary This was a much heavier complaint, that wicked men had profaned the land which the Lord had consecrated to himself. Undoubtedly this was far more distressing to the people than the rest of their calamities, and justly; for we ought not to care so much about ourselves as about religion and the worship of God. And this is also the end of redemption, that there may be a people that praises the name of the Lord and worships him in a right manner.

Calvin: Isa 63:19 - We have been of old // On whom thy name hath not been called 19.We have been of old The words of the Prophet admit of two meanings. Some view this passage in such a light as if the people argued with God on thi...

19.We have been of old The words of the Prophet admit of two meanings. Some view this passage in such a light as if the people argued with God on this ground, that they were elected at that time when the rest of the nations were rejected, and that this covenant was ratified “from of old,” that is, for a long period. Another meaning, which I prefer, is this, that the people argue with God, and complain that they seem as if they did not differ at all from unbelievers; that is, because they receive from him no assistance or relief in adversity, which is unreasonable and improper. This statement is remarkable and worthy of notice; for, whenever we are oppressed beyond measure with adversity, we are permitted to complain to God, and to represent to him our calling, that he may render assistance, and shew how wide a difference there is between us and strangers.

On whom thy name hath not been called This is of the same import with what goes before; for it means that the calling of God must not be made void. And indeed the Lord does not wish that we should call upon him in vain; for prayers would be unprofitable and useless, if the Lord took no care of us. Now, the Church is distinguished by this mark, that “his name is called upon her.” Unbelievers cannot call upon him; for there is no access to him but through the word, of which they have no knowledge; and therefore, wherever there is faith, there is also calling on him; and if there be no faith, it is certain that there is no hope or confidence.

Defender: Isa 63:1 - cometh from Edom The answer to this question is the returning Messiah, the Lord Jesus Christ, who will evidently come to the great host of armies of the Beast assemble...

The answer to this question is the returning Messiah, the Lord Jesus Christ, who will evidently come to the great host of armies of the Beast assembled all the way from Edom on the south to Armageddon on the north (Isa 34:5, Isa 34:6; Rev 14:20). The "great slaughter" (Isa 34:6) will apparently commence at Bozrah, the capitol of Edom (or Idumea), then continue up the great "valley of Jehoshaphat" (Joe 3:2), climaxing in the valley of Megiddo, near Armageddon (Rev 16:16), the "Mount of Slaughter.""

Defender: Isa 63:2 - red in thine apparel His apparel is red, as one treading in a winepress because "He treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God," and thus He has a ...

His apparel is red, as one treading in a winepress because "He treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God," and thus He has a "vesture dipped in blood" (Rev 19:13, Rev 19:15)."

Defender: Isa 63:4 - day of vengeance The long-awaited "day of vengeance" is sure to come, though Christ clearly indicated it would be deferred until His second coming (Isa 61:2)."

The long-awaited "day of vengeance" is sure to come, though Christ clearly indicated it would be deferred until His second coming (Isa 61:2)."

Defender: Isa 63:9 - angel of his presence Christ, in a pre-incarnate theophany, was suffering with, and for, His people even prior to His incarnation."

Christ, in a pre-incarnate theophany, was suffering with, and for, His people even prior to His incarnation."

Defender: Isa 63:10 - his holy Spirit A noteworthy Old Testament reference to the Holy Spirit. Vexing Him is, no doubt, tantamount in this age to quenching or grieving the Holy Spirit (1Th...

A noteworthy Old Testament reference to the Holy Spirit. Vexing Him is, no doubt, tantamount in this age to quenching or grieving the Holy Spirit (1Th 5:19; Eph 4:30)."

TSK: Isa 63:1 - is this // from Edom // dyed // Bozrah // glorious // travelling // speak // mighty is this : Psa 24:7-10; Son 3:6, Son 6:10, Son 8:5; Mat 21:10 from Edom : Isa 34:5, Isa 34:6; Psa 137:7 dyed : Isa 63:2, Isa 63:3, Isa 9:5; Rev 19:13 B...

TSK: Isa 63:3 - trodden // and of the people // and trample trodden : Isa 25:10; Lam 1:15; Mal 4:3; Rev 14:19, Rev 14:20, Rev 19:13-15 and of the people : The very remarkable Isa 63:1 contained in the first six...

trodden : Isa 25:10; Lam 1:15; Mal 4:3; Rev 14:19, Rev 14:20, Rev 19:13-15

and of the people : The very remarkable Isa 63:1 contained in the first six verses of this chapter seems in a manner detached from the rest, and to stand by itself; containing a prophetical representation of the victories of the Messiah over the enemies of his church, here designated by the names of Edom and Bozrah. Though, as Bp. Lowth observes, this prophecy must have its accomplishment, there is no necessity for supposing that it has been already accomplished. There are prophecies which intimate a great slaughter of the enemies of God and his people, which remain to be fulfilledcaps1 . tcaps0 hose in Ezek. 38, and Rev 20:1-15 are called Gog and Magog. This prophecy of Isaiah may possibly refer to the same, or the like event.

and trample : Isa 63:6, Isa 34:2-5; 2Ki 9:33; Eze 38:18-22; Mic 7:10; Zec 10:5

TSK: Isa 63:4 - -- Isa 34:8, Isa 35:4, Isa 61:2; Jer 51:6; Zec 3:8; Luk 21:22; Rev 6:9-17, Rev 11:13; Rev 18:20

TSK: Isa 63:5 - looked // mine own // my fury looked : Isa 63:3, Isa 41:28, Isa 50:2, Isa 59:16; Joh 16:32 mine own : Isa 40:10, Isa 51:9, Isa 52:10; Psa 44:3, Psa 98:1; Hos 1:7; 1Co 1:24; Heb 2:1...

TSK: Isa 63:6 - make // I will bring make : Isa 63:2, Isa 63:3, Isa 49:26, Isa 51:21-23; Job 21:20; Psa 60:3, Psa 75:8; Jer 25:16, Jer 25:17, Jer 25:26, Jer 25:27; Lam 3:15; Rev 14:10, Re...

TSK: Isa 63:7 - mention // the great goodness // according to his mention : Isa 41:8, Isa 41:9, Isa 51:2; Neh 9:7-15, Neh 9:19-21, Neh 9:27, Neh 9:31; Psa 63:3, 78:11-72, 105:5-45; Psa 107:8, Psa 107:15, Psa 107:21, ...

TSK: Isa 63:8 - Surely // children // so he Surely : Isa 41:8; Gen 17:7; Exo 3:7, Exo 4:22, Exo 4:23, Exo 6:7, Exo 19:5, Exo 19:6; Rom 11:1, Rom 11:2, Rom 11:28 children : Isa 57:11; Exo 24:7; P...

TSK: Isa 63:9 - all their // the angel // in his // carried all their : Exo 3:7-9; Jdg 10:16; Zec 2:8; Mat 25:40,Mat 25:45; Act 9:4; Heb 2:18, Heb 4:15 the angel : Gen 22:11-17, Gen 48:16; Exo 14:19, Exo 23:20,...

TSK: Isa 63:10 - they rebelled // vexed // he was they rebelled : Isa 1:2, Isa 65:2; Exo 15:24, Exo 16:8, Exo 32:8; Num 14:9-11, 16:1-35; Deu 9:7, Deu 9:22-24; Neh 9:16, Neh 9:17, Neh 9:26, Neh 9:29; ...

TSK: Isa 63:11 - he remembered // Where is he that brought // shepherd // where is he that put he remembered : Lev 26:40-45; Deu 4:30,Deu 4:31; Psa 25:6, Psa 77:5-11, Psa 89:47-50, Psa 143:5; Luk 1:54, Luk 1:55 Where is he that brought : Isa 63:...

TSK: Isa 63:12 - with // dividing // to make with : Exo 15:6, Exo 15:13, Exo 15:16; Psa 80:1 dividing : Exo 14:21; Jos 3:16; Neh 9:11; Psa 78:13, Psa 114:5-7, Psa 136:13-16 to make : Isa 55:13; E...

TSK: Isa 63:13 - -- Psa 106:9; Hab 3:15

TSK: Isa 63:14 - the Spirit // to make the Spirit : Jos 22:4, Jos 23:1; Heb 4:8-11 to make : Isa 63:12; Num 14:21; 2Sa 7:23; 1Ch 29:13; Neh 9:5; Luk 2:14; Eph 1:6, Eph 1:12

TSK: Isa 63:15 - down // the habitation // where // sounding // thy bowels // Are down : Deu 26:15; Psa 33:14, Psa 80:14, Psa 102:19, Psa 102:20; Lam 3:50 the habitation : Isa 57:15, Isa 66:1; 1Ki 8:27; 2Ch 30:27; Psa 113:5, Psa 113...

TSK: Isa 63:16 - thou art // though // redeemer; thy name is from everlasting thou art : Isa 64:8; Exo 4:22; Deu 32:6; 1Ch 29:10; Jer 3:19, Jer 31:9; Mal 1:6, Mal 2:10; Mat 6:9 though : Job 14:21; Ecc 9:5 redeemer; thy name is f...

thou art : Isa 64:8; Exo 4:22; Deu 32:6; 1Ch 29:10; Jer 3:19, Jer 31:9; Mal 1:6, Mal 2:10; Mat 6:9

though : Job 14:21; Ecc 9:5

redeemer; thy name is from everlasting : or, Redeemer from everlasting is thy name, Isa 63:12, Isa 41:14, Isa 43:14, Isa 44:6, Isa 54:5; 1Pe 1:18-21

TSK: Isa 63:17 - why // and hardened // Return why : Psa 119:10,Psa 119:36, Psa 141:4; Eze 14:7-9; 2Th 2:11, 2Th 2:12 and hardened : Isa 6:10; Deu 2:30; Jos 11:20; Joh 12:40; Rom 9:18-20 Return : N...

TSK: Isa 63:18 - people // our people : Isa 62:12; Exo 19:4-6; Deu 7:6, Deu 26:19; Dan 8:24; 1Pe 2:9 our : Isa 64:11, Isa 64:12; Psa 74:3-7; Lam 1:10, Lam 4:1; Mat 24:2; Rev 11:2

TSK: Isa 63:19 - are thine // they were not called by thy name are thine : Psa 79:6, Psa 135:4; Jer 10:25; Act 14:16; Rom 9:4; Eph 2:12 they were not called by thy name : or, thy name was not called upon them, Isa...

are thine : Psa 79:6, Psa 135:4; Jer 10:25; Act 14:16; Rom 9:4; Eph 2:12

they were not called by thy name : or, thy name was not called upon them, Isa 65:1; Amo 9:12; Act 15:17

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Poole: Isa 63:1 - Edom // With dyed garments // Bozrah // Glorious in his apparel // In the greatness of his strength // I that speak in righteousness // Mighty to save Edom that is, the country of Idumea, where Esau dwelt, and Esau himself was sometimes called by this name, Gen 25:30 ; and it is put synecdochically ...

Edom that is, the country of Idumea, where Esau dwelt, and Esau himself was sometimes called by this name, Gen 25:30 ; and it is put synecdochically for all the enemies of the church, as Moab is, Isa 25:10 : See Poole "Isa 25:10" .

With dyed garments or, stained : thus Christ is described, Rev 19:13 , and so also Isa 63:3 : LXX., the redness of garments.

Bozrah the capital city of Idumea; see further Isa 34:6 , a parallel text; and Edom and Bozrah here are mentioned, either,

1. Not as relating to the places so called, but by way of allusion to the garments of this conqueror, Edom signifying red , and Bozrah a vintage ; the one relating to his treading the winepress, and the other to the blood sprinkled upon his garments, Isa 63:3 : the like manner of speaking you have Psa 120:5 . Or rather,

2. Put synecdochically for all the enemies of the church, among whom, though antichrist be not particularly designed, yet may be reckoned, being one of the chief of them; thus typifying Christ’ s victories over all the enemies of the church, Rev 19:19-21 ; and this is usual. Babylon is put for any detestable city, and Moab for all that are vile and abominable, Isa 25:10 ; so Edom here for all God’ s enemies. And he mentions these Idumeans rather than the Chaldeans, who were the Jews’ chief and particular enemies,

2. Partly to set forth the greatness of the enmity, being of old standing, and an inbred malignity, Gen 25:22,23 , and irreconcilable, and perpetual, Amo 1:11 , and particularly put forth when the Babylonians took Jerusalem, Psa 137:7 2 . Partly to comfort the Jews, both because God would take particular revenge upon Edom, as he had threatened, and prophesied by Obadiah, which is the substance of that whole prophecy; and also these being their near neighbours, God doth give them security, that they shall not only be delivered frons the Chaldeans, those remoter enemies, but from the Idumeans also, whose vicinity and neighbourhood might have been troublesome to them.

Glorious in his apparel such as generals are wont to march before their armies in, or great conquerors, that walk in state and gallantry from their conquests.

In the greatness of his strength in or according to the majesty of his gait, being an indication of the greatness of his strength, and intimating that he hath thoroughly done his work, and fears no pursuing enemy, as the lion that keepeth his majestic gait without the fear of any other beast, Pro 30:30 : this notes the invincibleness of his power, and that it is his own strength, he needeth not the help of armies or other instruments, and thus he will travel through all the countries of his enemies.

I that speak in righteousness: here the Lord Christ gives an answer, wherein he both asserts his fidelity, that he will faithfully perform what he hath promised, and that he will truly execute justice, Rev 19:11 ; and hereby also he distinguisheth himself from all idol gods, Isa 45:19,20 .

Mighty to save I have power to accomplish salvation as powerful as faithful, Isa 19:20 .

Poole: Isa 63:2 - -- Having inquired of the person, now he inquires the reason of his habit being thus sprinkled.

Having inquired of the person, now he inquires the reason of his habit being thus sprinkled.

Poole: Isa 63:3 - I have trodden the winepress // Alone // Of the people there was none with me // of the people there was none with him // their blood // And trample them in my fury // Shall be sprinkled // I will stain I have trodden the winepress i.e. I have destroyed the enemies of my people, I have crushed them as grapes are crushed; this being a usual metaphor t...

I have trodden the winepress i.e. I have destroyed the enemies of my people, I have crushed them as grapes are crushed; this being a usual metaphor to describe the utter destruction of a people, Psa 44:5 Isa 25:10 Rev 14:19,20 ; and the easiness of doing it, no more than to crush a bunch of grapes.

Alone to note his good-will and great power. The masters of vineyards are not willing to do this drudgery themselves; neither, if they would, could they be able to manage a whole vintage by themselves: but Christ was willing to undertake it, and able to go through it, without calling in the help of any other.

Of the people there was none with me:

1. Not that he excludes the Jews, but the other nations that dwelt about them; therefore he saith

of the people there was none with him but God and his own people may be reckoned as one, Jud 5:23 . And though this be true of his passion, in which sense some would carry it, yet doth it not so well suit with the design; for Christ is described here not as a priest sacrificing, or shedding of his own blood, but as a king, conquering and shedding the blood of his and his church’ s enemies; hence it is said

their blood not his own, to show that it cannot fairly relate to his passion: besides Christ could expect no help in that, for he knew none could; but here he looked, and wondered that there was none, Isa 63:5 . And though it may be said that he makes use of instruments both in his conquering of temporal enemies, and also spiritual, consider,

1. That here he speaks as a general, and therefore the whole victory is ascribed to him alone.

2. They do it not only by commission and authority derived from him, but by strength conveyed to them from him, without which they could do no more than a watch without a spring, or tool without the workman’ s strength and skill: and that Christ may make it appear they are no coadjutors that he needs, he makes them bring about such things as they never designed, as he speaks of the Assyrian; See Poole "Isa 10:6" , See Poole "Isa 10:7" ; and this is to be understood in like manner of Christ’ s conquest over spiritual enemies, 2Co 4:7 . See Act 3:12,13 .

And trample them in my fury: this latter expression is but an aggravating of the former; it implies a kind of insulting, an allusion to conquerors, who were wont to make the conquered to lie down, that others might trample on them, Isa 51:23 .

Shall be sprinkled or, was sprinkled ; as in treading of grapes the juice sparkles upon the clothes: q.d. in his answer, Thus came my garments to be sprinkled.

I will stain it shall not be, or it was not, only sprinkled, but perfectly stained, as it were rolled in blood, Isa 9:5 .

Poole: Isa 63:4 - The day of vengeance // Day // year // Is in mine heart // My redeemed // Is come The day of vengeance designed and purposed by me to take vengeance on the enemies of my church; or particularly the posterity of Esau. Day and yea...

The day of vengeance designed and purposed by me to take vengeance on the enemies of my church; or particularly the posterity of Esau.

Day and

year is all one, save the latter may have some respect to the length of their captivity.

Is in mine heart or, was in my heart; a desire of execution, Psa 40:8 . I have meditated or studied revenge; being long forborne, hath wrought in me resolutions of revenge; therefore wonder not that I am so bloody: noting the severity of his proceedings against his enemies.

My redeemed: the Jews have this title, because he redeemed them out of Egypt, and would also out of Babylon.

Is come is at hand : see Psa 102:13 Isa 34:8 . The former part of the verse shows that Christ is still about his work, though he defer the execution till the fit time come; he may allude to the year of jubilee.

Poole: Isa 63:5 - There was none to help // None to uphold // My fury There was none to help not that he needed it, for help implies a defect of power, or wisdom, or wealth, or opportunity, &c.; but to see what men woul...

There was none to help not that he needed it, for help implies a defect of power, or wisdom, or wealth, or opportunity, &c.; but to see what men would do, in regard his people needed it; therefore the standing or not standing by his people is the same thing with standing or not standing by him, Jud 5:23 Mat 25:35,40,42,45 .

None to uphold a metaphor taken from a staff, that is a help to one that leans on it.

My fury or zeal , viz. against the adversaries of the church. God’ s arm notes his strength and power, and his zeal sets this power on work, Isa 9:7 ; but See Poole "Isa 59:16" , See Poole "Isa 59:17" .

Poole: Isa 63:6 - Make them drunk // I will bring down their strength to the earth Make them drunk: the Hebrew often expresseth calamities by a cup of wine, or strong drink, by which the distressed persons are made drunk, Psa 75:8 I...

Make them drunk: the Hebrew often expresseth calamities by a cup of wine, or strong drink, by which the distressed persons are made drunk, Psa 75:8 Isa 51:21,22 ; they go as it were to and fro, not knowing what to do with themselves; and in special drunk with their own blood, Isa 49:26 Rev 16:6 .

I will bring down their strength to the earth whatever it is wherein their strength lies, their strong ones, or their strong places, or deep counsels, &c., he will bring to the very dust, to nothing; like drunken men, they shall fall to the ground, not being able to stand; the most miserable condition that men can fall into, Psa 36:12 .

Poole: Isa 63:7 - -- Whether this ought to be the beginning of a new chapter, or no, is not material; but certainly here begins a new matter, which contains the prophet&...

Whether this ought to be the beginning of a new chapter, or no, is not material; but certainly here begins a new matter, which contains the prophet’ s prayer, either in his own name or the church’ s, to the end of Isa 64 ; wherein he begins with mentioning the great kindnesses that God had shown the Jews, and that emphatically, setting it forth with the greatest advantages; and the more, either to aggravate their great unkindness, or to give them some hope of finding him the like again in their distresses, or by way of argument with God to show them mercy, because he had been so good to them.

Poole: Isa 63:8 - For he said // Surely they are my people // Children that will not lie // So he was their Saviour For he said viz. within himself of old, when he made a covenant with our fathers, and brought them out of Egypt, Surely they are my people in coven...

For he said viz. within himself of old, when he made a covenant with our fathers, and brought them out of Egypt,

Surely they are my people in covenant; though they are unworthy of me, yet I cannot but look upon them as my people. Their enemies would persuade themselves, O they are not God’ s people, but cast-outs, that none cared for or looked after; but God will own them.

Children that will not lie that will keep my covenant; they will not deal falsely with me, that are under such obligations: or, I presume they will not; though they did go after their idols, and prove unfaithful to me in serving Baal and Ashteroth, &c., now I presume they will do so no more. Thus parents are apt tenderly to think of those children that they have been indulgent to, that they will not offer to abuse their kindness; thus God thinks the best of them. Or, he intimates here what they are obliged to do, though he knew they would do otherwise. Or, they will not degenerate after I have renewed them.

So he was their Saviour viz. on these hopes and on these conditions he undertook the charge of them, Exo 19:5,6 Ps 81:8-10 ; or, he; so he alone was their Saviour; when none to save, none to uphold, then he saved them; not Cyrus, Zerubbabel, Nehemiah, &c., but Christ himself.

Poole: Isa 63:9 - In all their affliction he was afflicted // In his love and in his pity // He bare them, and carried them // of old In all their affliction he was afflicted because of all the afflictions they endured in Egypt: this notes the sympathy that is in Christ, he having t...

In all their affliction he was afflicted because of all the afflictions they endured in Egypt: this notes the sympathy that is in Christ, he having the same Spirit in him that the church hath, and her Head and Father. Or, In all their afflictions no affliction ; so the words may be read; their afflictions were rather favors than afflictions ; all that befell them from the Red Sea through the wilderness; and then tzar is taken actively, he afflicted not : this may note his clemency, their sting was taken out; either way it may be read according to the different spelling of lo , whether by aleph or vau . The first seems the more genuine; they that list to drive this notion further may consult the Latin Synopsis, and the English Annotations. The angel of his presence ; the same that conducted them through the wilderness, called an angel , Exo 33:2 , and his presence , Isa 63:14 , and Jehovah, Exo 13:21 ; so that it must be the Lord Jesus Christ, who appeared to Moses in the bush, as Stephen doth interpret it, Act 7:35 , &c. Other angels are in his presence, but they were not always; he was ever so, therefore so called by way of eminency; hence the LXX. express it not a legate , or angel , but himself. Saved them from the house of bondage; brought them through the Red Sea, the wilderness, &c. Their Rock was Christ , 1Co 10:4 .

In his love and in his pity: this shows the ground of his kindness; they were a stubborn, superstitious, idolatrous people, yet Christ’ s love and pity saved them for all that; it was because he loved them.

He bare them, and carried them he left them not to shift for themselves, but bare them as a father his child, or an eagle her young ones; he carried them in the arms of his power; see Isa 46:4 ; and on the wings of his providence: see Deu 32:10-12 ; and See Poole "Deu 1:31" . And he is said to do it

of old to remember his ancient kindness for many generations past; elam signifies an eternity, or a long time past, as well as to come; from the clays of Abraham or Moses, from their bondage in Egypt, to the time of Isaiah; and it is used as an argument to move him to do so still; he will carry her till he bring her unto his Father.

Poole: Isa 63:10 - They rebelled // Vexed his holy Spirit // He was turned to be their enemy They rebelled: many of their rebellions we read of in Exodus and Numbers in their travels. The Lord tells Moses that they had tempted him ten times, ...

They rebelled: many of their rebellions we read of in Exodus and Numbers in their travels. The Lord tells Moses that they had tempted him ten times, and therefore severely threatens them, Num 14:22,23 . There were three principal times of their rebellion:

1. In the wilderness, where they murmured for want of bread and water.

2. In Canaan, in not destroying, but only making tributary, such nations as God commanded them to destroy.

3. Before the Babylonian captivity, when they set themselves against the prophets, which Stephen chargeth upon them, Act 7:51,52 . Among which also we may reckon all their behaviours under their judges and their kings. Or we may understand it of their not answering God’ s end and expectation.

Vexed his holy Spirit Spirit of his holiness; they vexed him by their obstinacy against his will and mind, and walking contrary unto him: not that there are such passions in God, but it is spoken after the manner of men, as they are vexed when their will is crossed.

He was turned to be their enemy overthrew them not only in the wilderness, Psa 78:33,59,60 , &c., sending among them fiery serpents, Num 21:6 ; but even in Canaan, stirring up against them adversaries sometimes the Philistines, and the Midianites, and then the Moabites, &c.

Poole: Isa 63:11 - Then // he remembered // Moses and his people Then or yet, he remembered: this relates either, 1. To the people, and then he is collectively taken; and so it looks like the language of the peo...

Then or yet,

he remembered: this relates either,

1. To the people, and then he is collectively taken; and so it looks like the language of the people in Babylon, and must be read, he shall remember . Or,

2. It may look back to their condition in the wilderness; and thus they may properly say, Where is he? or that God that delivered his people of old, to do the like for us now? there is a like phrase used by Elisha, 2Ki 2:14 . Or rather

3. To God, as it were recollecting himself in a pathetical prosopoeia: q.d. Where is he? Where am I with my former bowels, that moved me to help them of old, that I would now turn to be their enemy? Or, Is my hand shortened that I cannot do it? And so in the following verses he gives a particular description how kind he had been to them formerly, the times mentioned Isa 63:9 ; and thus God seems to work upon himself.

Moses and his people or what great things he had done for them by Moses

Poole: Isa 63:12 - The right land // With his glorious arm // Dividing the water The right land viz. the strength and power that God gave to Moses, expressed by the right hand , that being usually esteemed the stronger, Psa 16:8 ...

The right land viz. the strength and power that God gave to Moses, expressed by the right hand , that being usually esteemed the stronger, Psa 16:8 20:6 . Or, the rod in his right hand; by which understand also all the wonders that he did for them in Egypt.

With his glorious arm or that arm wherewith God gained to himself so much glory, being always present at the assistance of Moses, Deu 4:34 : or Moses’ s right hand, led by God’ s glorious arm, as parents lead their children, that God may have all the glory in the using of his instruments.

Dividing the water the Red Sea, Exo 14:21 , and also Jordan, Jos 3:15,16 . To make himself an everlasting name; with reference both to his power and providence, as respecting either his aim and end in doing what he did, or the effect of it when it was done, it got him renown.

Poole: Isa 63:13 - That led them through the deep // As an horse in the wilderness // That they should not stumble That led them through the deep showing that God did not dry up shallow places, but the very depth of the sea, the very channel, which is the deepest ...

That led them through the deep showing that God did not dry up shallow places, but the very depth of the sea, the very channel, which is the deepest part. Or, between those heaps of waters that stood up as a wall on each side of them, which might make it seem terrible, and therefore it is ascribed to their faith, Heb 11:29 .

As an horse in the wilderness or, plain ; for so wilderness is sometimes taken, and may be here meant, by comparing it to a valley in the next verse, viz. with as much safety as the horse runs up and down in the plain ground; or, with as much ease and tenderness as a horse led by the bridle; not as men affrighted, but soberly and orderly.

That they should not stumble: this may be taken metaphorically, they came to no harm; or properly, that though the sea were but newly divided, yet it was so dried, that the mud, as also the unevenness of the ground, was not any occasion of their stumbling, or their sticking in it; probably so dried and smoothed by the wind that God sent as it were to prepare the way before them. See Isa 40:3-5 .

Poole: Isa 63:14 - As a beast goeth down into the valley // going down for going along // The Spirit of the Lord // caused him to rest // So didst thou lead As a beast goeth down into the valley a laden beast goeth warily and gently down the hill: or, as a beast goeth down to the valley for grass, that be...

As a beast goeth down into the valley a laden beast goeth warily and gently down the hill: or, as a beast goeth down to the valley for grass, that being a mountainous country: or

going down for going along so the word is used Isa 38:8 ; noting the evenness of their passage; or alluding to their going down from the shore into that great channel (as the coming out of it is called a going up, Isa 63:11 ) now made through the sea, orderly, and composedly, not like the Gadarenes’ swine, through consternation, ready to break their necks for haste.

The Spirit of the Lord i.e. the Lord himself,

caused him to rest led them easily, that they should not be over-travelled, or fall down, or come to any injury through weariness; thus Jeremiah expresseth it, Jer 31:2 , and thus God gave them rest from their enemies, drowning of them in the sea, and in their safe conduct, that they could not annoy or disturb them, leading them till he found them a place for resting; the word for leading and resting being much of a like notion, Zec 10:6 ; pointing at their several rests by the way, Num 10:33 : or it may be read by way of interrogation, as all the foregoing words, and be the close of that inquiry, And where is the Spirit that caused them to rest? or he led them to Canaan, the place of their rest; so called Deu 12:9 Psa 95:11 .

So didst thou lead: the prophet here by an apostrophe doth only repeat the words in the name of the Jews that he had spake before, Isa 63:12 : q.d. As thou didst then, so mayst thou do again if thou pleasest.

Poole: Isa 63:15 - Look down from heaven // look // Behold // The habitation of thy holiness // Thy strength // The sounding of thy bowels // Are they restrained? // Doubtless Look down from heaven: now they, or the prophet, begin to pray, and expostulate with God, and to argue both from the goodness of his nature, and from...

Look down from heaven: now they, or the prophet, begin to pray, and expostulate with God, and to argue both from the goodness of his nature, and from the greatness of his works that he had done. God sees every where and every thing, but he is said to

look down from heaven, because there is his throne, whereon he sits in great majesty and splendour.

Behold is added to note that he would not only barely see and look on, but that he would behold with regard, and respect his poor people in captivity.

The habitation of thy holiness a description of heaven by a periphrasis, frequently used and explained, Deu 26:15 . W here is thy zeal ? what is become of that love which of old would not let time suffer thy people to be wronged? Isa 37:32 .

Thy strength that power of thine manifested in those valiant acts which thou didst put forth for thy people, Psa 145:11,12 150:2 : see Jer 14:9 .

The sounding of thy bowels: by the sounding thereof may be understood those sympathizing sighs and compassionate groans that proceed from the bowels when they are affected, which being thought the subject of pity are often by a metonymy put for compassion, and hence proceed those rumblings of the bowels occasioned by strong passions called yearnings : it is spoken of God after the manner of men. Is all this shut up from me? Thou art naturally so compassionate, dost thou lay a restraint upon thyself, that thy bowels shall not move towards me?

Are they restrained? or canst thou be thus straitened? Psa 77:7-9 Isa 64:12 ; an expostulation, that agrees very well with the next verse,

Doubtless & c. How can this come to pass?

Poole: Isa 63:16 - Doubtless thou art our Father // Though Abraham // And Israel // Thou art our Father, our Redeemer // Thy name is from everlasting Doubtless thou art our Father: thus they urge God with that relation he stands in unto them, Mal 2:10 ; therefore we as thy children expect the bowel...

Doubtless thou art our Father: thus they urge God with that relation he stands in unto them, Mal 2:10 ; therefore we as thy children expect the bowels and compassions of a father.

Though Abraham he who was our father after the flesh, though he be dead, and so ignorant of our condition.

And Israel or, Jacob; who was also our father; and therefore a vain thing to call upon them; or if they were not dead, they could not help us out of our straits; or if they were alive, we are so much degenerate that they would not own us. Some say Abraham and Israel are here mentioned, and not Isaac,

1. Because the covenant was made more solemnly, and the promises more frequently renewed, with them, than with Isaac.

2. Because with Abraham the covenant was first made, and the whole seed of Israel was taken into it; but not so of Isaac. Or else,

3. Abraham and Israel being named Isaac is included.

Thou art our Father, our Redeemer: this is urged as another argument for pity, and the more because their Father was their Redeemer, Deu 32:6 .

Thy name is from everlasting or, Redeemer is thy name from everlasting ; thou hast been our Redeemer of old.

Poole: Isa 63:17 - Made us to err from thy ways // Made us to sin // From thy fear // Return for thy servants’ sake // The tribes of thine inheritance Made us to err from thy ways commandments. It is the language of the godly among them being troubled, and therefore complaining that so gracious a Fa...

Made us to err from thy ways commandments. It is the language of the godly among them being troubled, and therefore complaining that so gracious a Father should leave them to such exigences.

Made us to sin by withdrawing thy Spirit and leaving us to ourselves, Psa 81:12 . It is not to be understood as if God did force them to it, but either letting loose their hearts, or by giving occasion to their hearts, being naturally too apt to apostatize by their severe afflictions: see this more cleared in the Latin Synopsis. Or, make us desperate, by leaving us so long under the oppression of the adversary, thereby casting off thy worship.

From thy fear or fear of time, viz. as the object, Psa 5:7 ; or, that we may not fear thee; as seeing, that they may not see , Psa 69:23 ; or, thy service, Isa 29:13 , so as to go after other gods.

Return for thy servants’ sake either our godly forefathers, or particularly to Abraham, Isaac, &c., viz. for the sake of thy promises made to them; or rather, our sakes, that little remnant that are thy servants, be reconciled to us, Psa 90:13 ; for the next words seem to be put by apposition to the former.

The tribes of thine inheritance either,

1. The people themselves, which were divided into tribes; or, rather,

2. The land of Canaan, which God gave them as an inheritance, as appears by the next verse: q.d. What will thine enemies say if thou suffer us to perish, or thine inheritance to be destroyed. Or rods , meaning their rulers, see Isa 43:28 , or heads of their tribes.

Poole: Isa 63:18 - The people of thy holiness // But a little while // Have trodden down thy sanctuary The people of thy holiness or, thy holy people, as being set apart for his servants; holiness being to be understood for a covenant separation from...

The people of thy holiness or, thy holy people, as being set apart for his servants; holiness being to be understood for a covenant separation from other people.

But a little while i.e.

1. Comparatively to the promise, which was for ever, though they had possessed it about one thousand four hundred years. Or,

2. It seeming to them so, as things, especially such as are desirable, seem when they are past, Job 9:25,26 Ps 90 4 . Or,

3. They enjoyed but small spaces of time in quietness, so they had small enjoyment of it. Or,

4. It may respect the temple, which stood but four hundred years.

Have trodden down thy sanctuary the temple, called the sanctuary from the holiness of it; this our adversaries the Babylonians have trodden down, 2Ch 36:19 ; and this also implies their ruining of their whole ecclesiastical policy.

Poole: Isa 63:19 - We are thine // Thou never barest rule over them // They were not called by thy name We are thine we continue so; we are in covenant which they never were; and thus it is an argument they use with God to look upon them. Or, the word ...

We are thine we continue so; we are in covenant which they never were; and thus it is an argument they use with God to look upon them. Or, the word thine , being not in the text, some do otherwise interpret it; We are even in the same condition we were in at first, either in Egypt, or Ur of the Chaldees, before thou broughtest us into covenant, and are accordingly dealt with; we are become even as they, whom thou didst not bear rule over. Or, we are as, if thou hadst never ruled over us of old.

Thou never barest rule over them not in that manner, or in that relation to them, that thou didst over us.

They were not called by thy name neither owned thee, nor owned by thee: this phrase implies a near relation in some circumstance or other, as wife, or servant, or child, &c., Isa 4:1 .

PBC: Isa 63:10 - -- See PB: Ps 78:17

See PB: Ps 78:17

PBC: Isa 63:14 - -- See PB: Ps 78:17

See PB: Ps 78:17

Haydock: Isa 63:1 - Flock // One Flock. Psalm lxxvi. 21. --- One. Moses inspired by God. (Calmet)

Flock. Psalm lxxvi. 21. ---

One. Moses inspired by God. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 63:1 - Edom Edom. Edom and Bosra (a strong city of Edom) are here taken in a mystical sense for the enemies of Christ and his Church. (Challoner) --- St. Jero...

Edom. Edom and Bosra (a strong city of Edom) are here taken in a mystical sense for the enemies of Christ and his Church. (Challoner) ---

St. Jerome with reason finds it difficult to explain it of Christ, as it regards the Machabees. (Houbigant) ---

The first six verses are applied to our Saviour's ascension, which excites the admiration of angels, Psalm xxiii. 7. Judas, the Machabee, the glorious figure of Christ, is introduced speaking in this and the following chapter. He conquered Idumea, (1 Machabees v. 3., and 2 Machabees x. 10.) and fought to save the people, 1 Machabees ix. 21. (Calmet) ---

The highest order of angels asks this question, admiring the beauty of Christ, though imbrued in blood after his victory. (St. Dionysius, Hierar. vii.) (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 63:3 - Press Press. Christ suffered, (St. Cyril) and punished his enemies, Apocalypse xiv. 19. Judas received God's sword from Jeremias, (2 Machabees xv. 15.) a...

Press. Christ suffered, (St. Cyril) and punished his enemies, Apocalypse xiv. 19. Judas received God's sword from Jeremias, (2 Machabees xv. 15.) and liberated his people.

Haydock: Isa 63:5 - Me Me. I depended on the goodness of my cause, and on God's aid, chap. lix. 15. (Calmet)

Me. I depended on the goodness of my cause, and on God's aid, chap. lix. 15. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 63:6 - Drunk Drunk with the wine of my fury, Psalm lxxiv. 9., and Ezechiel xxiii. 31. (Haydock)

Drunk with the wine of my fury, Psalm lxxiv. 9., and Ezechiel xxiii. 31. (Haydock)

Haydock: Isa 63:7 - I I, Isaias; or rather the hero mentions what induced him to rise up, 1 Machabees xvi. 10. (Calmet) --- The Jews confess God's mercies. (St. Jerome)

I, Isaias; or rather the hero mentions what induced him to rise up, 1 Machabees xvi. 10. (Calmet) ---

The Jews confess God's mercies. (St. Jerome)

Haydock: Isa 63:8 - Deny Deny, or prove degenerate. (Calmet) --- God approves the conduct of the Machabees. (Haydock)

Deny, or prove degenerate. (Calmet) ---

God approves the conduct of the Machabees. (Haydock)

Haydock: Isa 63:9 - Presence Presence, in high authority, Exodus xxxiii. 20. (Calmet) --- The angel guardian of the Church. Particular guardians also see God's face, Matthew x...

Presence, in high authority, Exodus xxxiii. 20. (Calmet) ---

The angel guardian of the Church. Particular guardians also see God's face, Matthew xviii. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 63:10 - One One; Moses, Numbers xiv. 29., and xx. 3, 12.

One; Moses, Numbers xiv. 29., and xx. 3, 12.

Haydock: Isa 63:13 - Not Not, the road was so plain, Wisdom xix. 7. (Haydock)

Not, the road was so plain, Wisdom xix. 7. (Haydock)

Haydock: Isa 63:15 - Back Back. This is spoken by the prophet in the person of the Jews, at the time when for their sins they were given up to their enemies. (Challoner) ---...

Back. This is spoken by the prophet in the person of the Jews, at the time when for their sins they were given up to their enemies. (Challoner) ---

Judas uses the same language at Maspha, 1 Machabees iii. 50. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 63:16 - Abraham Abraham, &c. That is, Abraham will not now acknowledge us for his children, by reason of our degeneracy; but thou, O Lord, art our true father and o...

Abraham, &c. That is, Abraham will not now acknowledge us for his children, by reason of our degeneracy; but thou, O Lord, art our true father and our redeemer, and no other can be called our parent in comparison with thee. (Challoner) ---

Abraham is not able to save us. (Calmet) ---

The patriarchs may justly disregard us, as degenerate children; yet we hope in God's mercies. Thus St. Jerome, &c., explain the passage, which does not favour the errors of Vigilantius and of Luther, who maintain that the saints departed do not know what passes in this world. St. Augustine (Cura xv.) shews the contrary, from the example of Lazarus, Luke xvi. They know each other, though they had not lived together, (St. Gregory, Dial. iv. 33.) and beheld in the light of God what regards their clients. (St. Augustine, City of God xxii. 29.) We cannot decide how the martyrs do help those whom it is certain they assist. (St. Augustine, cura xvi., and contra Faust. xx. 21.; St. Jerome, contra Vigil.; St. Gregory, 3 ep. 30., and 7 ep. 126., &c.) (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 63:17 - Hardened Hardened, &c. The meaning is, that God, in punishment of their great and manifold crimes, and their long abuse of his mercy and grace, had withdrawn...

Hardened, &c. The meaning is, that God, in punishment of their great and manifold crimes, and their long abuse of his mercy and grace, had withdrawn his graces from them, and so given them up to error and hardness of heart. (Challoner) ---

They had abused his patience, to sin the more. (Theodoret) ---

The Jews are accustomed to attribute all to God, though they agree with us in reality God might prevent any sin. (Calmet) ---

But he chooses to leave man to the free exercise of his liberty. He hardens (Haydock) "not by infusing malice, but by not shewing mercy; and those to whom he shews it not, are undeserving." (St. Augustine, ep. ad Sixt. cxciv. 14.) ---

God is never the author of error. Man takes occasion from his indulgence to become obdurate. (St. Jerome) (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 63:18 - Nothing // Sanctuary Nothing; holding them in the greatest contempt. Epiphanes though he should make them easily change their religion. His persecution lasted only thre...

Nothing; holding them in the greatest contempt. Epiphanes though he should make them easily change their religion. His persecution lasted only three years and a half. ---

Sanctuary. 1 Machabees i. 23, 49, 57., and iii. 45.

Haydock: Isa 63:19 - Name Name. We seem to have no distinction, temple, &c. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "We are thine. Thou never bearest rule over them. They were," &c. ...

Name. We seem to have no distinction, temple, &c. (Calmet) ---

Protestants, "We are thine. Thou never bearest rule over them. They were," &c. (Haydock)

Gill: Isa 63:1 - Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah // this that is glorious in his apparel // travelling in the greatness of his strength? // I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah?.... These are not the words of the angels at the time of Christ's ascension to heav...

Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah?.... These are not the words of the angels at the time of Christ's ascension to heaven; or of the people of Israel; but rather of the prophet, or of the church he represents; by whom this question is put, not concerning Michael the archangel returning from fighting the king of Persia, for what has Edom and Bozrah to do with Persia? nor concerning Judas Maccabaeus, in whose times it seems a victory was obtained over the Edomites: the description is too grand and august to agree with any mere man; rather therefore it is to be understood of God himself taking vengeance on the wicked, many of the characters agreeing with the description of him in Isa 59:16 though it seems best of all to interpret it of the Messiah. Aben Ezra observes, that there are some that say this is the Messiah; others that it is Michael; but, says he, it is right that it respects the glorious name, that is, Jehovah himself; the first sense he gives is most correct. Several Jewish writers, ancient as well as modern, interpret this of the Messiah, whom they yet expect to come from Rome to the land of Israel, which they suppose is meant by Edom. So says one n of their writers,

"when the King Messiah shall come, he will be clothed in purple, beautiful to look at, which in colour shall be like to wine for the clothing of the King Messiah shall be silk, red as blood; and it shall be worked with the needle in various colours, and he shall be the Head of Israel; and this is what is said in Isa 63:1 "wherefore art thou red in thy apparel?"''

And, say others of their ancient writers o, the Ishmaelites or Turks shall fight three battles in the latter day; one in the forest of Arabia; another in the sea; and a third in the great city Rome, which shall be greater than the other two; and from thence shall spring the Messiah, and he shall look upon the destruction of the one and of the other, and from thence shall he come into the land of Israel, as it is said, "who is this that comes from Edom?" &c. So Abarbinel p asserts, that the Ishmaelites or Turks shall come against Rome, and destroy it; and then shall be revealed the Messiah, the son of David, and shall complete the redemption of the Lord, according to Dan 12:1 and then quotes the above passage of their wise men; and upon it observes, that from thence it appears that Messiah, the son of David, shall be of the Jews that are in the captivity of Edom (or Rome), for so they explain Isa 63:1 "who is this that comes from Edom?" &c.; and so Kimchi interprets the prophecy of time to come: but though the Messiah is intended, this is to be understood not of his first coming, which was out of Zion, out of the tribe of Judah, and out of Bethlehem Ephratah; nor of his ascension to heaven, after his bloody sufferings and death, and the victory he had obtained over all our spiritual enemies, sin, Satan, the world, death, and hell; for that was from the land of Judea, from Mount Olivet, near to Jerusalem, the place of his sufferings and death; but of his spiritual coming, which is yet future, to take vengeance on antichrist, and all the antichristian powers. It is usual in Scripture for the enemies of the church and people of God in Gospel times to be expressed by such who were the known and implacable enemies of the people of Israel; and such were the Edomites, the inhabitants of Idumea, of which Bozrah was a principal city; see Psa 137:7 and were a lively emblem of antichrist and his followers, for their relation to the people of Christ, their cruelty to them, and contempt of them; from the conquest and slaughter of which Christ is here represented returning as a victorious and triumphant conqueror; see Isa 34:5 hence he is said to come from thence "with dyed garments", or "stained" q; that is, with the blood of his enemies; so Jarchi interprets it dyed in blood, or dipped in it; to which agrees the apparel of Christ in Rev 19:18, where he is said to be clothed with a vesture dipped in blood; which chapter is the best commentary upon this passage, referring to the same time and case: it follows,

this that is glorious in his apparel; for though it was thus stained and discoloured with the blood of his enemies, yet was glorious to himself, having gotten such a complete victory over all his and his church's enemies, and so was glorious to them to behold; and especially, since on this vesture, and on his thigh, is a name written, "King of kings, and Lord of lords", Rev 19:16,

travelling in the greatness of his strength? marching in great stateliness and majesty at the head of his victorious troops, he nor they having nothing to fear from their enemies, being all vanquished and destroyed. Strength, and the greatness of it, may well be ascribed to Christ, who is the mighty God, yea, the Almighty; the mighty man, made strong by the Lord for himself; and the mighty Mediator, having all power in heaven and earth: he travelled in the greatness of his strength from heaven to earth, by the assumption of our nature; while here he went about continually doing good; with the utmost intrepidity he went forth to meet his foes, and death itself, at the proper time, and without fear passed through the valley of the shadow of death; when raised again, in his ascension to heaven, he marched through the territories of Satan, the air, in great triumph, dragging him and his principalities and powers at his chariot wheels; and when he had poured down his Spirit plentifully, he went forth into the Gentile world in the ministration of the Gospel, conquering and to conquer; and in the latter day he will come and take vengeance on all the antichristian states, and return in triumph, to which this passage refers; see Rev 17:14 the answer to the question follows,

I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save; these are the words of Christ describing himself, by his speech and by his power, by his word and by his works: he "spoke in righteousness", at the making of the covenant of grace in eternity, some things by way of request for his elect, others by way of promise for them; all which he has faithfully and righteously performed: under the Old Testament dispensation, he spake many things in righteousness by his prophets, and by his Spirit in them; yea, he often appeared in a human form, and spoke to the patriarchs and others: when here on earth, he spoke "in" or "of righteousness" r; of the righteousness of God he came to declare; of his own righteousness he came to bring in; and of the happiness of those who sought it, and were justified by it; and of the insufficiency of man's righteousness to bring him to heaven: here it seems to have a more especial respect to the promises made to the church, of her salvation from her enemies, and of the destruction of them; which will now be accomplished, and appear to be the true and faithful sayings of Christ, Rev 19:9 and that he is "mighty to save" appears from the spiritual salvation of his people he has already wrought out: God laid help on one that is mighty, and he being mighty undertook it, and has accomplished it; and which work required strength, even almighty power, since sin was to be atoned for by bearing it, the law to be fulfilled, justice to be satisfied, the wrath and curse of God to be endured, and innumerable enemies to be engaged with; and of such a nature was that salvation, that neither angels nor men could ever have effected it: and this his power to save will be further manifest, when the beast and false prophet, antichrist, and all the antichristian powers, shall be destroyed by him, and his people entirely delivered out of their hands, Rev 11:18. The Targum of the whole is,

"who hath said these things that shall bring the blow upon Edom, the strong vengeance on Bozrah, to execute the vengeance of the judgment of his people, as he hath sworn unto them by his word? he saith, behold I appear as I spake in righteousness, much power is before or with me to save''

see Rev 18:8.

Gill: Isa 63:2 - Wherefore art thou red in thy apparel // and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat Wherefore art thou red in thy apparel,.... Christ having satisfied the church as to her first question, concerning his person, who he was; she puts a ...

Wherefore art thou red in thy apparel,.... Christ having satisfied the church as to her first question, concerning his person, who he was; she puts a second to him, about the colour of his garments, which was red, and the reason of it. His garments at his transfiguration were white as snow, whiter than any fuller on earth could whiten them; his robe of righteousness is fine linen, clean and white; the garment of his human nature, or his form as man, was white and ruddy; but this, through his bloody sufferings, became red, being all over bloody through the scourges he received, the crown of thorns he wore, the piercing of his hands, feet, and sides, with the nails and spear; but here it appears of this colour not with his own blood, but with the blood of his enemies, as is hereafter explained:

and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat? or winepress, into which clusters of grapes are cast, and these are trodden by men, the juice of which sparkles on their garments, and stains them, so that they become of a red colour.

Gill: Isa 63:3 - I have trodden the winepress alone // And of the people there was none with me // for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury // and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment I have trodden the winepress alone,.... This is an answer to the question before put, and confirms what was observed, that his garments were like one ...

I have trodden the winepress alone,.... This is an answer to the question before put, and confirms what was observed, that his garments were like one that treadeth in the winepress; this was very true, he had trodden it, and trodden it alone, and that was the reason his garments were of such a hue; what others did by their servants, he did by himself, alone and without them. The winepress is a symbol of the wrath of God; not of what Christ bore himself as the sinner's surety, for then he was trodden as a vine, or the clusters of it, himself; but of what he executed on others. Wicked men are compared to clusters of the vine; the winepress into which they are cast is the wrath of God, and Christ is the treader of it; particularly he will be in the latter day, when antichrist and his followers will be destroyed by him; see Rev 14:18.

And of the people there was none with me; either fighting with him, that could oppose him, any more than the clusters of grapes can resist the treaders of them; or to assist him in taking vengeance on his enemies: for though the armies of heaven follow him in white, these are little more than attendants and spectators, at most but instruments; all the power to conquer and destroy is from himself, and owing to the twoedged sword proceeding out of his mouth, Rev 19:14 even as when he stood in the legal place and stead of his people there were none of them with him; he alone was the author of salvation, none could bear the wrath of God but himself, or engage with spiritual enemies, or work out salvation for them. But of this the texts speaks not, only of the destruction of the enemies of Christ and his church:

for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; with great eagerness, with all his might and strength; and this is the reason why his garments were so stained, even with the blood of his enemies, trodden and trampled under foot by him in this furious manner; as a person in a winepress alone, and treading it with all his might, has his garments more sparkled and stained with the juice of the grape, than when there are many, and these tread lightly. The words being in the future tense show that they respect time to come; and the manner of speaking ascertains the accomplishment of them, and which is further confirmed by what follows:

and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment; just as the garments of those that tread in the winepress are sprinkled and stained with the juice of the grape; this will have its accomplishment when he shall appear in a vesture dipped in blood, or shall be as bloody, with the blood of his enemies, as if it was dipped in it, Rev 19:13.

Gill: Isa 63:4 - For the day of vengeance is in my heart // and the year of my redeemed is come For the day of vengeance is in my heart,.... Resolved on with him, fixed by him, and which is desirable to him; he has it at heart, and longs as it we...

For the day of vengeance is in my heart,.... Resolved on with him, fixed by him, and which is desirable to him; he has it at heart, and longs as it were till the time is come to avenge the blood of his saints on the Romish antichrist, whom he will destroy with the breath of his mouth, and the brightness of his coming; see 2Th 2:8 and when he shall pour out all his vials on the antichristian states, and revenge the cause and quarrel of his people, Rev 16:1,

and the year of my redeemed is come; the time when those who are already redeemed by the blood of Christ, and so are his property, whom he claims as his own, being the purchase of his blood, shall be redeemed again from antichristian bondage and slavery, shall be called and brought out of Babylon; and when those, who have led them captive, shall go into captivity themselves: this will be a jubilee year to the saints; a time of refreshing from the presence of the Lord; when, being rid of all their persecuting enemies, they will enjoy the utmost peace, prosperity, and safety; see Rev 13:10.

Gill: Isa 63:5 - And I looked, and there was none to help // and I wondered that there was none to uphold // therefore mine own arm brought salvation unto me // and my fury it upheld me And I looked, and there was none to help,.... As, in the first redemption and salvation by Christ here on earth, there were none among the angels, nor...

And I looked, and there was none to help,.... As, in the first redemption and salvation by Christ here on earth, there were none among the angels, nor any of the sons of men, to help him and assist him therein, none but Jehovah the Father; so, in this latter salvation, the church and people of God will be reduced to such a low, helpless, and forlorn condition, that there will be none to lend an assisting hand; their deliverance will appear most manifestly to be the sole work of almighty power:

and I wondered that there was none to uphold; not the Saviour and Redeemer, he needed none; but his people under their sufferings, trials, and exercises, and his sinking, dying, cause and interest: this is spoken after the manner of men, and to make the salvation appear the more remarkable, distinguishing, and great, and solely his own work; for otherwise expectation and disappointment, consternation and amazement, as the word r signifies, cannot be properly ascribed to this great Redeemer:

therefore mine own arm brought salvation unto me; to himself, his mystical self, his church and people, and for his own glory; a salvation which his own omnipotent arm could only effect; See Gill on Isa 59:16,

and my fury it upheld me; his zeal for his church and people, and his indignation against their enemies, excited his almighty power on their behalf, and carried him through the work of their deliverance and salvation he engaged in; see Isa 9:7.

Gill: Isa 63:6 - And I will tread down the people in mine anger // and make them drunk in my fury // and I will bring down their strength to the earth And I will tread down the people in mine anger,.... See Gill on Isa 63:3, and make them drunk in my fury; or with it s the wrath of God is signifie...

And I will tread down the people in mine anger,.... See Gill on Isa 63:3,

and make them drunk in my fury; or with it s the wrath of God is signified by a cup, which he gives wicked men to drink, and which is an inebriating one to them, Psa 75:8, and here it signifies the cup of the wine of the fierceness of God's wrath, which shall be given to mystical Babylon, to antichrist and his followers, Rev 14:10,

and I will bring down their strength to the earth; their strong kingdoms, fortified cities, and mighty men, their wealth and riches, of which they boasted, and in which they trusted; see Isa 26:5. The eighteenth chapter of the Revelation is a commentary on these words.

Gill: Isa 63:7 - I will mention the lovingkindnesses of the Lord // and the praises of the Lord, according to all that the Lord hath bestowed on us // great goodness towards the house of Israel, which he hath bestowed on them according to his mercies, and according to the multitude of his lovingkindnesses I will mention the lovingkindnesses of the Lord,.... These are the words of the prophet, as Jarchi and Kimchi observe; who, having heard what the Lord...

I will mention the lovingkindnesses of the Lord,.... These are the words of the prophet, as Jarchi and Kimchi observe; who, having heard what the Lord would do for his church and people in later times, by avenging them on their enemies, calls to mind the favours bestowed on Israel of old; and determines to make mention of them, and put the saints in mind of them, as types, earnests, and pledges of what would be done for them; and to encourage their faith and hope in the performance of what was promised them: these he calls "the lovingkindnesses of the Lord"; meaning not only the instances of his providential goodness in bringing them out of Egypt, leading them through the Red sea and wilderness, and settling them in Canaan's land, after particularly mentioned; but also those of his special grace and goodness to the chosen of God among them; called in the plural number "lovingkindnesses", being the acts of all the three Persons displayed in election, redemption, and sanctification; and because these are many and various, and an abundance of grace and love is manifested in them:

and the praises of the Lord, according to all that the Lord hath bestowed on us; which are due to him from all creatures, angels and men, and especially the saints; and which belong to each divine Person, according to the various gifts of grace freely bestowed by them; such as the gift of God himself to his people; the gifts of his Son, and of the blessed Spirit, with all his graces, faith, hope, love, repentance, &c.; and all the blessings of grace; as pardon, justification, adoption, and eternal life; a right unto it, and meetness for it all which call for praise and thankfulness: and the

great goodness towards the house of Israel, which he hath bestowed on them according to his mercies, and according to the multitude of his lovingkindnesses; the gifts of grace are bestowed, not according to the merits of men, for then they would not be free grace gifts; and, besides, there is no merit in a creature; the best works of the best of men are not meritorious, of anything at the hand of God; but all they have flow from mere sovereign mercy, pure grace, and free unmerited love, which is abundant, yea, boundless, and even infinite. A heap of words is here made use of, and all little enough to express the wonderful kindness of God in the acts of his grace and goodness to his church and people; which ought always to be had in sight and mind, and to be remembered and spoken of in private and in public.

Gill: Isa 63:8 - For he said, surely they are my people // children that will not lie // so he was their Saviour For he said, surely they are my people,.... Not in common with the rest of mankind, being his creatures, and the care of his providence; but his speci...

For he said, surely they are my people,.... Not in common with the rest of mankind, being his creatures, and the care of his providence; but his special people, whom he had chosen to be such, and had made a covenant with; he had avouched them for his people, and they had avouched him to be the Lord their God; and this covenant interest was the ground and foundation of the actual donation and application of all the blessings of grace and goodness to them before mentioned. These are the words of Jehovah himself, related by the prophet; and are applicable to all the elect of God, whom he has chosen in Christ; taken into the covenant of grace made with him; and who appear manifestly to be his peculiar people by their effectual calling; when it is a sure and certain thing, that they, who were not known by themselves or others to be the people of God, are evidently so; and the Lord himself makes no scruple of acknowledging them as such, even though their conduct and behaviour towards him is not altogether as it should be, and which was the case of the people of Israel; however, he is willing to hope well of them, as parents do of their children, speaking after the manner of men, and that they will behave better for the future, being by fresh mercies laid under obligation to him, as he did of Israel of old:

children that will not lie; not the children of Satan, as liars are, who was a liar from the beginning, and the father of lies; as wicked men are, who go astray from the womb, speaking lies; but children of God by adopting grace, and through faith in Christ; and therefore should not lie to God, nor to men, nor to one another, as being unbecoming their relation as children: this opinion the Lord entertains of his children, speaking after the manner of men, that they will not deal deceitfully and hypocritically with him, but serve him in sincerity, and worship him in spirit and in truth; that their hearts will be right with him, and they steadfast in his covenant: thus he hoped well of Israel of old, and so he does of all his spiritual Israel, his special people, and dear children:

so he was their Saviour; in this view and expectation of things, as he is of all men in a providential way, and especially of them that believe; he was the Saviour of literal Israel in a temporal manner, in Egypt, the Red sea, and wilderness; and of his chosen people among them, in a spiritual manner, as he is of all his elect in Christ Jesus; and even though they do not entirely answer the just expectations expressed concerning them.

Gill: Isa 63:9 - In all their affliction he was afflicted // and the Angel of his presence saved them // in his love and in his pity he redeemed them // and he bare them, and carried them all the days of old In all their affliction he was afflicted,.... That is, God, who said the above words; not properly speaking; for to be afflicted is not consistent wit...

In all their affliction he was afflicted,.... That is, God, who said the above words; not properly speaking; for to be afflicted is not consistent with his nature and perfections, being a spirit, and impassible; nor with his infinite and complete happiness; but this is said after the manner of men, and is expressive of the sympathy of God with his afflicted people, and his tender care of them, and concern for them under affliction, as one friend may have for another: afflictions belong to the people of God; they come to them, not by chance, but according to the will of God; and are not in wrath, but in love; they are many and various; there is an "all" of them, yet not one too many, and in everyone of them God is afflicted, or sympathizes with them: as he looked upon the affliction of the people of Israel, in Egypt, at the Red sea, and in the wilderness, and had compassion upon them, and saved them, so he visits all his people when afflicted, and pities them, and speaks comfortably to them; knows and owns their souls in adversity; makes known himself to them; grants them his gracious presence; puts underneath them his everlasting arms; makes their bed in their affliction, and supplies their wants; and this sympathy arises from their union to him, from his relation to them as a Father, and from his great love to them. There is a double reading of these words; the marginal reading is, "in all their affliction there is affliction to him" t; or, "he was afflicted"; which our version follows: the textual reading is, "there is no affliction"; or, "he was not afflicted" u; he seemed to take no notice of their affliction, or be concerned at it, that he might the sooner bring them to a sense of themselves and their sins, Hos 5:15. The Targum follows this reading, and renders it actively, "and he afflicted them not" w: they were indeed in affliction, but they, and not he, brought it upon them, and by their sins. Some render it, "he was no enemy" x; though he afflicted them, yet not in wrath, but love; or, "in all their straits there was no strait" y; the Israelites were in straits when Pharaoh's army pursued them behind, the rocks were on both sides them, and the sea before them, and yet there was no strait as it were, they were so soon delivered out of it; and so it may be read, "in all their afflictions there was no affliction"; there is so much love in the afflictions of God's people, and they work so much for their good, and they are so soon delivered out of them, that they scarce deserve the name of afflictions; and so both readings may be taken in, "in all their afflictions there was no affliction to him"; or to them, to Israel, to the people of God:

and the Angel of his presence saved them; not Michael, as Jarchi; but the Messiah is here meant; the Angel of the covenant, the Angel which went before the Israelites in the wilderness, Exo 23:20 not a created angel, or an angel by nature, but by office; being sent of God, as the word signifies, on the errand and business of salvation; called "the Angel of God's presence", or "face", because his face was seen in him; his name, and nature, and perfections were in him; he is the brightness of his Father's glory, and the express image of his person besides, the presence of God was always with him; he is the "Ithiel", the Word that was with God, and with whom God always was; who lay in the bosom of his Father, and was ever with him; and who also, as Mediator, introduces his people into the presence of God, and always appears in it for them as their advocate and intercessor: now to him salvation is ascribed; he saved Israel out of Egypt, and out of the hands of all their enemies in the wilderness; and which salvation was typical of the spiritual, eternal, and complete salvation, which is only by Christ, and issues in eternal glory:

in his love and in his pity he redeemed them; Israel out of Egyptian bondage, and from all their enemies, which was owing to his great love to them, which operated in a way of mercy, pity, and compassion, Hos 11:1, and it is he who has redeemed the spiritual Israel of God, not by power only, but by price, from sin, Satan, and the law, death, and hell, with a spiritual and eternal redemption, and which flows from his love to those persons; hence he undertook to be their Redeemer; came in their nature to redeem them; and gave himself for them for that purpose; which love is wonderful and matchless, and showed itself in pity and compassion; he became a merciful as well as a faithful high priest; he saw them in their low estate, pitied them, and delivered them out of it:

and he bare them, and carried them all the days of old; he bore them in his bosom, and in his arms, as a nursing father his child; he carried them, as on eagles' wings, from the time of their coming out of Egypt, to their settlement in Canaan's land, Num 11:12 he bore with their manners for forty years, and carried them through all their trials and difficulties, and supported them under them, and brought them out of them all, Act 13:18 and so he bears all his people on his heart, and in his hands, and bears them up under all their temptations and afflictions; and, from the time of their conversion, carries on his work in them, and carries them safe to heaven, as the great Captain of their salvation, and never leaves them, nor forsakes them; see Isa 46:3.

Gill: Isa 63:10 - But they rebelled // and vexed his Holy Spirit // therefore he was turned to be their enemy // and he fought against them But they rebelled,.... Against the Lord, not withstanding he thought so well of them; did so many good things for them; sympathized with them, and sho...

But they rebelled,.... Against the Lord, not withstanding he thought so well of them; did so many good things for them; sympathized with them, and showed them so many favours; wretched ingratitude! they rebelled against the Lord in the times of Moses, at the Red sea, and in the wilderness, by their murmurings, unbelief, and idolatry; wherefore he calls them a rebellious people, and says they were such from the day he had been with them; and so in later times, in the times of the judges, and of the prophets Isaiah and Ezekiel, they rebelled against God their Parent, Protector, and King; see Deu 9:7 and so they did in the times of Christ, whom they rejected as the Messiah, and disowned as their King, and still continue in their rebellion, Luk 19:14,

and vexed his Holy Spirit; the Spirit of God the Father, who pitied them in all their afflictions; or the Spirit of the Angel of his presence, that redeemed and saved them; for the Spirit is both the Spirit of the Father and of the Son; and he is holy in his nature and operations, and the author of sanctification in the hearts of his people; him they vexed and provoked to anger against them, speaking after the manner of men, by their sins and transgressions; rejecting his counsels and instructions by Moses, and by the prophets in later times, in and by whom he spake unto them, and by the apostles in Gospel times; for the Jews, as their fathers before them ever did, resisted the Holy Spirit of God in the evidence he gave of the Messiah, which must be very provoking, Act 7:51. The Targum paraphrases it, the word of his holy prophets; and so Kimchi and Ben Melech interpret it; and according to some, in Aben Ezra, the Angel of glory is meant, who went before the people of Israel, whom they were charged not to provoke, Exo 23:20,

therefore he was turned to be their enemy; not that there is any change in God, or any turn in him from love to hatred; but he may, and sometimes does, so appear in his providential dispensations towards his people, as to seem to be their enemy, and to be thought to be so by them, Job 13:24. The Targum is, and his Word became their enemy; compare with this Luk 19:27,

and he fought against them; as he threatened he would when they behaved ill towards him; and as he actually did when he brought the sword upon them, gave them up into the hands of their enemies, as often in the times of the judges, and particularly when the king of Babylon came against them; see Lev 26:25 and as the Messiah did when he brought the Roman armies against them, and destroyed their city, to which times this prophecy is thought by some to have respect, and not without reason.

Gill: Isa 63:11 - Then he remembered the days of old, Moses, and his people // where is he // remember the years of the right hand of the most High // where is he that brought them up out of the sea, with the shepherd of his flock // where is he that put his Holy Spirit within him Then he remembered the days of old, Moses, and his people,.... Which may be understood either of the Lord, who remembered his lovingkindnesses towards...

Then he remembered the days of old, Moses, and his people,.... Which may be understood either of the Lord, who remembered his lovingkindnesses towards these people, and his tender mercies which had been ever of old; the covenant he made with their fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; the wonders he did for them in Egypt, at the Red sea, and in the wilderness, by the hand of Moses; his intercession to him on their behalf, and the many great and good things he did for them; and therefore determined not now to cast them off altogether, but to do as he had done before; and, to stir up himself thereunto, puts the following questions:

where is he? &c.; so the Targum paraphrases it,

"he had mercy for the glory of his name, and because of the remembrance of his goodness of old, the mighty things he did by the hands of Moses to his people;''

and adds,

"lest they should say;''

that is, the Gentiles, as Aben Ezra also explains it, lest they should by way of taunt and reproach say, as follows: "where is he?" &c.; compare with this Deu 32:26. Gussetius z thinks the last words should be rendered, "the extractor of his people"; or, he that drew out his people; that is, out of many waters, delivered them from various afflictions, as in Psa 18:16 and to be understood not of Moses, only in allusion to him, who had his name from being drawn out of the waters; but of a divine Person, who is said to do all the following things; so Ben Melech says the word here has the signification of drawing, or bringing out, as in the above psalm: or else these are the words of the people themselves; at least of some of the truly good and gracious, wise and faithful, among them, in this time of their distress; calling to mind former times, and former appearances of God for them, using them as pleas and arguments with him, and as an encouragement to their faith and hope; and right it is to

remember the years of the right hand of the most High, Psa 77:10 so Jarchi takes them to be the words of the prophet in his distress, bemoaning and saying, in a supplicating way, what is after expressed; and Kimchi interprets them of Israel in captivity; it seems to be the language of the believing Jews a little before the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, or about the time of their conversion in the latter day: saying,

where is he that brought them up out of the sea, with the shepherd of his flock? or "shepherds" a, according to another reading; that is, Moses and Aaron, by the hands of whom the Lord led his people Israel as a flock of sheep, and which were his, and not the property of those shepherds; they were only instruments by, and with whom, he brought them through the sea, and out of it, which was a wonderful work of God, and often mentioned as a proof of his power, as it is here; for what is it he cannot do who did this? see Psa 77:20.

where is he that put his Holy Spirit within him? either within Moses, the shepherd of the flock, as Aben Ezra; or within Israel, the flock itself, as Jarchi; for the Spirit of God was not only upon Moses, but upon the seventy elders, and upon all the people at Sinai, as Kimchi observes; and indeed the Holy Spirit was given to the body of the people to instruct and teach them, according to Neh 9:20 now these questions are put, not by way of jeer, but by way of complaint, for want of the divine presence as formerly; and by way of inquiry where the Lord was; and by way of expostulation with him, that he would show himself again, as in the days of old.

Gill: Isa 63:12 - That led them by the right hand of Moses with his glorious arm // dividing the water before them That led them by the right hand of Moses with his glorious arm,.... That is, through the Red sea, as the next clause shows: this was done by the right...

That led them by the right hand of Moses with his glorious arm,.... That is, through the Red sea, as the next clause shows: this was done by the right hand of Moses, and the rod in it, to which Kimchi thinks respect is had; who, by divine order, lifted up his rod, and stretched out his hand over the sea, and divided it, and so led the people through it: but, lest this should be attributed to Moses and his rod, the glorious arm of the Lord is made mention of, which held and guided the right hand of Moses, and from whence came all that power that was exerted on this occasion. Aben Ezra interprets this of the Angel of the Lord, that went before them: it seems to design the arm of omnipotence, which was gloriously displayed, Exo 15:6,

dividing the water before them; the waters of the sea, so that they rose up as a wall on each side them, through which they passed as on dry land: to make himself an everlasting name? or to get himself everlasting honour and glory, as he did on Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen, Exo 14:17 and which wonderful action of his has been and ever will be spoken of to the glory of his name, which was the end he had in view.

Gill: Isa 63:13 - That led them through the deep // as an horse in the wilderness // that they should not stumble That led them through the deep,.... The depths, the bottom of the sea; not through the shallow, but where the waters had been deepest, the descent gre...

That led them through the deep,.... The depths, the bottom of the sea; not through the shallow, but where the waters had been deepest, the descent greatest; and at the bottom of which might have been expected much filth and dirt to hinder them in their passage, yet through this he led them:

as an horse in the wilderness; or rather, "in a plain", as the word b sometimes signifies; and so Kimchi renders it a plain land, and Jarchi smooth land. The sense is, that the Israelites passed through the sea with as much ease, and as little difficulty, as a good horse will run over a plain, where there is nothing to stop his course:

that they should not stumble? there being no clay to stick in, no stone to stumble at, but all like an even plain.

Gill: Isa 63:14 - As a beast goeth down into the valley // the Spirit of the Lord caused him to rest // so didst thou lead thy people // to make thyself a glorious name As a beast goeth down into the valley,.... Softly and gently, especially when laden; which may have some respect to the descent of the Israelites into...

As a beast goeth down into the valley,.... Softly and gently, especially when laden; which may have some respect to the descent of the Israelites into the sea, into which they entered without any fear and dread, and without any hurry and precipitation, though Pharaoh's host was behind them; or rather, "as a beast goes along a valley", or "plain" c; with ease, and without any interruption, so passed the Israelites through the sea. Thus the Targum renders it,

"as a beast goes, or is led, in a plain;''

so the word is used in Isa 38:8, and elsewhere:

the Spirit of the Lord caused him to rest; or gently led him, that is, Israel; he walked on through the sea, with as much facility, and as little danger, as a beast walks on in a valley, or a horse in a plain. Some understand this of leading Israel through the wilderness, where often resting places were found for them, and at last they were brought to the land of rest, Canaan, and settled there:

so didst thou lead thy people; both through the sea, and through the wilderness, in a like easy, safe, and gentle manner:

to make thyself a glorious name; among the nations of the world, as he did by this amazing appearance of his for Israel; and it is hoped by those, whose words these are, he would do the like again, and get himself immortal glory.

Gill: Isa 63:15 - Look down from heaven // and behold from the habitation of thy holiness and of thy glory // where is thy zeal, and thy strength // the sounding of thy bowels, and of thy mercies towards me? // are they restrained Look down from heaven,.... Here begins the prayer of the church and people of God, which continues to the end of the chapter, goes through the next, a...

Look down from heaven,.... Here begins the prayer of the church and people of God, which continues to the end of the chapter, goes through the next, and the answer to which begins at Isa 65:1. Aben Ezra calls it the prayer of the wise in captivity: it seems to be the petition of some converts among the Jews, either in the first times of the Gospel, or in the latter day; who entreat that the Lord would "look down from heaven", the third heaven, the seat of his majesty, where is his throne of glory, and his presence is most visible to angels and glorified saints; this is on high, as the phrase imports; and the persons below, on earth, at his footstool, whom he is desired to look down upon, and which to do is a great condescension in him, Psa 113:6, and this is to be understood, not of that general view of persons and things, which he is always taking, Psa 33:13, but of a special look of love, grace, and mercy; such an one with which he looks upon his people in Christ, with complacency and delight: indeed his eyes are always on them, and never withdrawn from them; he ever looks upon them, to preserve and protect them, to communicate unto them, to support them under their afflictions, and to deliver out of them; but because of this they are not always sensible, but are ready to conclude that he looks off from them, and turns his back upon them, therefore they desire him to return, look down, and behold; see Psa 80:14,

and behold from the habitation of thy holiness and of thy glory; this is a description of heaven, as the dwelling place of God, who is most holy, holiness itself, in whom that perfection is most glorious, and which is displayed in all his works; and hence heaven is a holy as well as a high place, and where none but holy persons dwell; and which is a glorious place, where the glory of God is displayed, the glory of Christ is seen, and which is glory itself; and from hence the holy God is desired to behold; what creatures, dust, and ashes, sinful ones, polluted worms, at his footstool, a poor and an afflicted people:

where is thy zeal, and thy strength? his "jealousy" of his great name, and of his own glory; his jealousy of his dear people, that they are not wronged and injured; his "fervent love", and warm affections for them, of which he has given pregnant proofs; which, shed abroad in the heart, warms that, and is what many waters cannot quench: this indeed is not always alike manifest, and therefore unbelief asks where it is, as if it was quite gone; or, however, faith prays for a fresh manifestation of it. The "strength" or power of God has appeared in creation, and in the sustentation of all things; in Christ, the man of his right hand; in strengthening his people, destroying their enemies, and delivering them; and yet this not appearing sometimes at once, immediately for their help and protection, they ask where it is: it follows:

the sounding of thy bowels, and of thy mercies towards me? the noise and rumbling of the bowels, to which the allusion is, are sometimes occasioned by the working of strong passions, as fear and love, and which produce what is called the yearning of the bowels; of which there are instances in Joseph, and in the harlot in Solomon's time, Gen 43:30, the tender mercies of God, his pity and compassion, are expressed hereby, to which are owing the mission of his Son, the forgiveness of sins, and help and relief under afflictions; see Luk 1:77, now it is asked, where are those?

are they restrained? it was thought they were shut up in anger, and would not be let out again; see Psa 77:7. The phrase "towards me", in the former clause, seems, according to the accents, to belong to this; and should be read, "are they restrained towards me" d? or "shut up from me?" the Lord seemed to harden his heart against his church and people, and to have no heart of compassion towards them, as they imagined.

Gill: Isa 63:16 - Doubtless thou art our father // though Abraham be ignorant of us, and Israel acknowledge us not // thou, O Lord; art our father // our Redeemer; thy name is from everlasting Doubtless thou art our father,.... Therefore why shouldst thou restrain thy mercies and bowels of compassion from us? or therefore look down upon us, ...

Doubtless thou art our father,.... Therefore why shouldst thou restrain thy mercies and bowels of compassion from us? or therefore look down upon us, and behold us; the church pleads her relation to God, and in a strong manner; faith of interest continued with her, though he hid his face from her. This relation of father and children, which subsists between God and his people, is not upon the foot of creation, so he is a father to all men; nor on account of national adoption, so he was to the whole body of the Jewish people; but through special adopting grace, which is a sovereign act of his will, founded in divine predestination; is a blessing of the covenant of grace; comes to men through Christ, through relation to him, and redemption by him, and is made manifest in regeneration; and a loving tender hearted father he is to his children, who sympathizes with them, provides all things for them, food and raiment, and bestows them on them, and lays up for them, for time to come, even an inheritance rescued in heaven; and though there are sometimes doubts in the minds of the children of God about this relation, through the temptations of Satan, by reason of their sins and corruptions, and because of their afflictions; yet those doubts are wholly removed through the testimony of the spirit of adoption, witnessing to their spirits that they are the children of God, when they can in the strength of faith claim their interest, and call him their Father:

though Abraham be ignorant of us, and Israel acknowledge us not; those, who were their ancestors, were both dead; and the dead know not any thing of their posterity, and of their case and circumstances in this world, temporal or spiritual; nor are capable of giving them any help or aid in time of distress; and perhaps the prophet, in the name of the church, purposely expresses himself in this language, knowing what confidence the Jews were apt to place in Abraham and Israel, to draw off their minds from them, and to lead them to look to God as their only Father; who only could help them in their time of affliction, and was infinitely more to them than any earthly father could possibly be. Some think the sense is, that they confess they were become so degenerate, that if Abraham and Jacob were to return from the dead, they would not know them to be their seed and offspring; and yet, notwithstanding this, God was their Father. This may be the language of some persons, who have comfortable views of their relation to God, when earthly parents, and even professors of religion, disown and slight them:

thou, O Lord; art our father; which is repeated for the confirmation of it, and to express their full assurance of faith in it the more strongly:

our Redeemer; thy name is from everlasting; or, "our Redeemer from everlasting is thy name" e; more agreeably to the accents: Christ was appointed from everlasting to be the Redeemer of his people; God was so early in him, drawing the scheme of redemption and salvation, and made so early a covenant with him concerning it; which may be properly enough called the covenant of redemption, though not as distinct from the covenant of grace; and Christ was the Redeemer of his people in all ages, and lived as such, as well as God the Father was, of old, in all ages, the protector of his people, and the avenger of their wrongs, to whom they might at all times apply for help.

Gill: Isa 63:17 - O Lord, why hast thou made us to err from thy ways, and hardened our heart from thy fear // return for thy servants' sake, the tribes of thine inheritance O Lord, why hast thou made us to err from thy ways, and hardened our heart from thy fear?.... These are the words, not of wicked men among the Jews, c...

O Lord, why hast thou made us to err from thy ways, and hardened our heart from thy fear?.... These are the words, not of wicked men among the Jews, charging all their errors, hardness of heart, and wickedness they were guilty of, upon the Lord, as if he was the author and occasion of them, and led them into them; but of the truly godly, lamenting and confessing their wandering from the ways, commands, and ordinances of God, the hardness of their hearts; their want of devotion and affection for God; and their neglect of his worship; not blaming him for these things, or complaining of him as having done anything amiss or wrong; but expostulating with him, and wondering at it, that he, who was their loving and tender Father, that he should suffer them to err from his ways, and to wander from his worship, by withholding his grace and withdrawing his presence from them; by leaving them to the corruptions and hardness of their hearts; by chastising them sorely, and suffering the enemy to afflict them in such a severe manner as laid them under temptation to desert the worship of God, and cast off the fear of him. The Jews f interpret this of their being hardened from the fear of God, and made to err from his ways by seeing the prosperity of the wicked, and their own long captivity, troubles, and distresses:

return for thy servants' sake, the tribes of thine inheritance; or turn g; turn from thine anger and displeasure to thy people; or, as the Targum,

"return thy Shechinah to thy people;''

thy gracious and glorious presence, which has been so long withdrawn; or "return" thy people from their captivity, the twelve tribes, thy portion and "inheritance"; and do this "for thy servants' sake"; for the sake of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: or because of the covenant made with them; or for the sake of all thy people, who are thy servants, and which also are the tribes of thine inheritance, return unto them.

Gill: Isa 63:18 - The people of thy holiness have possessed it but a little while // our adversaries have trodden down thy sanctuary The people of thy holiness have possessed it but a little while,.... Either the land of Canaan, which the Jews, the Lord's holy people, whom he had se...

The people of thy holiness have possessed it but a little while,.... Either the land of Canaan, which the Jews, the Lord's holy people, whom he had separated from others, possessed about fourteen hundred years, which was but a little while in comparison of "for ever", as was promised; or they enjoyed it but a little while in peace and quiet, being often disturbed by their neighbours; or else the sanctuary, the temple, as it is to be supplied from the next clause, which stood but little more than four hundred years:

our adversaries have trodden down thy sanctuary; the temple; the first temple was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar; and the second temple by the Romans; and Antiochus, and Pompey, and others, profaned it, by treading in it.

Gill: Isa 63:19 - We are thine // they were not called by thy name We are thine,.... Thy children, thy people, thy subjects. Some read it, taking a word from the next clause, "we are thine of old", or "from everlastin...

We are thine,.... Thy children, thy people, thy subjects. Some read it, taking a word from the next clause, "we are thine of old", or "from everlasting" h; as the Lord's special people are, being chosen by him in Christ before the foundation of the world, and taken into an everlasting covenant by him, when he became their God, and they his people; agreeably to which is the Targum,

"we are thy people that were of old;''

so Kimchi reads the words: "thou never barest rule over them"; the Heathens that oppressed them; they never acknowledged God as their King as they did, or were subject to him as they were; and therefore had no claim to protection from him as they had:

they were not called by thy name; they were not called the people of God, nor the children of God, nor the servants or subjects of God; or, "thy name is not called upon them" i; or they called after it; nor did they call upon it, but served other gods. The Targum is,

"thou hast not given unto the people the doctrine of thy law, neither is thy name called upon by them.''

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Isa 63:1 Heb “I, [the one] speaking in vindication [or “righteousness”], great to deliver.”

NET Notes: Isa 63:2 Heb “and your garments like one who treads in a vat?”

NET Notes: Isa 63:3 Heb “and I stained.” For discussion of the difficult verb form, see HALOT 170 s.v. II גאל. Perhaps the form is mixed, co...

NET Notes: Isa 63:4 Heb “for the day of vengeance was in my heart, and the year of my revenge came.” The term גְּאוּל...

NET Notes: Isa 63:5 Heb “and my anger, it supported me”; NIV “my own wrath sustained me.”

NET Notes: Isa 63:6 Heb “and I brought down to the ground their juice.” “Juice” refers to their blood (see v. 3).

NET Notes: Isa 63:7 Heb “according to.”

NET Notes: Isa 63:8 Heb “children [who] do not act deceitfully.” Here the verb refers to covenantal loyalty.

NET Notes: Isa 63:9 Heb “all the days of antiquity”; KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV “days of old.”

NET Notes: Isa 63:10 The phrase “holy Spirit” occurs in the OT only here (in v. 11 as well) and in Ps 51:11 (51:13 HT), where it is associated with the divine ...

NET Notes: Isa 63:11 See the note at v. 10.

NET Notes: Isa 63:12 Heb “making for himself a lasting name.”

NET Notes: Isa 63:13 Heb “in the desert [or “steppe”].”

NET Notes: Isa 63:14 Heb “making for yourself a majestic name.”

NET Notes: Isa 63:15 The Hebrew text reads literally, “the agitation of your intestines and your compassion to me they are held back.” The phrase “agitat...

NET Notes: Isa 63:16 Heb “our protector [or “redeemer”] from antiquity [is] your name.”

NET Notes: Isa 63:17 How direct this hardening is, one cannot be sure. The speaker may envision direct involvement on the Lord’s part. The Lord has brought the exile...

NET Notes: Isa 63:18 Heb “your adversaries trampled on.”

NET Notes: Isa 63:19 Heb “you did not rule them, your name was not called over them.” The expression “the name is called over” indicates ownership;...

Geneva Bible: Isa 63:1 Who [is] this that cometh ( a ) from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this [that is] glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 63:2 ( c ) Why [art thou] red in thy apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the wine press? ( c ) Another question, to which the Lord answers...

Geneva Bible: Isa 63:4 For the day of vengeance [is] in my heart, and the ( d ) year of my redeemed is come. ( d ) Showing that when God punishes his enemies, it is for the...

Geneva Bible: Isa 63:5 And I looked, and [there was] none to help; and I wondered that [there was] none to uphold: therefore my own ( e ) arm brought salvation to me; and my...

Geneva Bible: Isa 63:6 And I will tread down the people in my anger, and make them ( f ) drunk in my fury, and I will bring down their strength to the earth. ( f ) I will s...

Geneva Bible: Isa 63:7 I will ( g ) mention the lovingkindnesses of the LORD, [and] the praises of the LORD, according to all that the LORD hath bestowed on us, and the grea...

Geneva Bible: Isa 63:8 For he said, Surely they [are] my ( h ) people, children [that] will not lie: so he was their Saviour. ( h ) For I chose them to be mine, that they s...

Geneva Bible: Isa 63:9 In all their affliction he was ( i ) afflicted, and the angel ( k ) of his presence saved them: in his love and in his pity he redeemed them; and he b...

Geneva Bible: Isa 63:11 Then he ( l ) remembered the days of old, Moses, [and] his people, [saying], Where [is] he that brought them out of the sea with the ( m ) shepherd of...

Geneva Bible: Isa 63:13 That led them through the deep, as an ( o ) horse in the wilderness, [that] they should not stumble? ( o ) Peaceably and gentle, as a horse is led to...

Geneva Bible: Isa 63:15 ( p ) Look down from heaven, and behold from the habitation of thy holiness and of thy glory: where [is] thy ( q ) zeal and thy strength, the sounding...

Geneva Bible: Isa 63:16 Doubtless thou [art] our father, though ( s ) Abraham be ignorant of us, and Israel acknowledge us not: thou, O LORD, [art] our father, our redeemer; ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 63:17 O LORD, why hast ( t ) thou made us to err from thy ways, [and] hardened our heart from thy fear? Return for thy ( u ) servants' sake, the tribes of t...

Geneva Bible: Isa 63:18 The people of thy holiness have possessed [it] but a little ( x ) while: our adversaries have trodden down thy sanctuary. ( x ) That is, in respect t...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Isa 63:1 - A Libation To Jehovah Mighty To Save Mighty to save.'--Isaiah 63:1. WE have here a singularly vivid and dramatic prophecy, thrown into the form of a dialogue between the p...

Maclaren: Isa 63:2-3 - A Libation To Jehovah The Winepress And Its Treader Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat? I have trodden the win...

Maclaren: Isa 63:9 - A Libation To Jehovah The Sympathy Of God In all their afflictions He was afflicted, and the angel of His presence saved them.'--Isaiah 63:9. I. The wonderful ...

MHCC: Isa 63:1-6 - --The prophet, in vision, beholds the Messiah returning in triumph from the conquest of his enemies, of whom Edom was a type. Travelling, not as wearied...

MHCC: Isa 63:7-14 - --The latter part of this chapter, and the whole of the next, seem to express the prayers of the Jews on their conversation. They acknowledge God's grea...

MHCC: Isa 63:15-19 - --They beseech him to look down on the abject condition of their once-favoured nation. Would it not be glorious to his name to remove the veil from thei...

Matthew Henry: Isa 63:1-6 - -- It is a glorious victory that is here enquired into first and then accounted for. 1. It is a victory obtained by the providence of God over the enem...

Matthew Henry: Isa 63:7-14 - -- The prophet is here, in the name of the church, taking a review, and making a thankful recognition, of God's dealings with his church all along, eve...

Matthew Henry: Isa 63:15-19 - -- The foregoing praises were intended as an introduction to this prayer, which is continued to the end of the next chapter, and it is an affectionate,...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 63:1 - -- This is the smallest of all the twenty-seven prophecies. In its dramatic style it resembles Psa 24:1-10; in its visionary and emblematical character...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 63:2 - -- The seer surmises this also, and now inquires still further, whence the strange red colour of his apparel, which does not look like the purple of a ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 63:3-6 - -- The person replies: "I have trodden the wine-trough alone, and of the nations no one was with me: and I trode them in my wrath, and trampled them d...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 63:7-8 - -- The prophet, as the leader of the prayers of the church, here passes into the expanded style of the tephillah. Isa 63:7 "I will celebrate the merci...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 63:9 - -- The next v. commemorates the way in which He proved Himself a Saviour in heart and action. "In all their affliction He was afflicted, and the Angel...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 63:10 - -- Israel's ingratitude. "But they resisted and vexed His Holy Spirit: then He turned to be their enemy; He made war upon them." Not only has ועצּ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 63:11-14 - -- Israel being brought to a right mind in the midst of this state of punishment, longed fro the better past to return. "Then His people remembered th...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 63:15 - -- The way is prepared for the petitions for redemption which follow, outwardly by the change in Isa 63:14 , from a mere description to a direct addre...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 63:16 - -- The prayer for help, and the lamentation over its absence, are now justified in Isa 63:16 : "For Thou art our Father; for Abraham is ignorant of us...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 63:17 - -- But the in the existing state of things there was a contrast which put their faith to a severe test. "O Jehovah, why leadest Thou us astray from Th...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 63:18-19 - -- But the existing condition of Israel looks like a withdrawal of this grace; and it is impossible that these contrasts should cease, unless Jehovah c...

Constable: Isa 56:1--66:24 - --V. Israel's future transformation chs. 56--66 The last major section of Isaiah deals with the necessity of livin...

Constable: Isa 63:1--66:24 - --C. Recognition of divine ability chs. 63-66 The third and final subdivision of this last part of the boo...

Constable: Isa 63:1--65:17 - --1. God's faithfulness in spite of Israel's unfaithfulness 63:1-65:16 Isaiah proceeded to glorify...

Constable: Isa 63:1-6 - --The solitary Warrior 63:1-6 "Having described the exaltation of Zion and her enlargement through the influx of the Gentiles, the prophet turns to desc...

Constable: Isa 63:7--65:1 - --The delayed salvation 63:7-64:12 If the Lord was capable of defeating Israel's enemies, ...

Constable: Isa 63:7-14 - --The reminiscence 63:7-14 This part of Isaiah's lament consists of a review of Israel's relationship with the Lord (vv. 7-10) and a call for Israel to ...

Constable: Isa 63:15-19 - --The complaint 63:15-19 Isaiah next appealed to God, on behalf of the nation, to have pity on Israel. The prophet was speaking for the faithful remnant...

Guzik: Isa 63:1-19 - Prayer from Captivity Isaiah 63 - Prayer from Captivity A. The day of vengeance. 1. (1) A question and an answer: "Who is this?" Who is this who comes from Ed...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) ISAIAH, son of Amoz (not Amos); contemporary of Jonah, Amos, Hosea, in Israel, but younger than they; and of Micah, in Judah. His call to a higher deg...

JFB: Isaiah (Garis Besar) PARABLE OF JEHOVAH'S VINEYARD. (Isa. 5:1-30) SIX DISTINCT WOES AGAINST CRIMES. (Isa. 5:8-23) (Lev 25:13; Mic 2:2). The jubilee restoration of posses...

TSK: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Isaiah has, with singular propriety, been denominated the Evangelical Prophet, on account of the number and variety of his prophecies concerning the a...

TSK: Isaiah 63 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Isa 63:1, Christ shews who he is, Isa 63:2, what his victory over his enemies, Isa 63:7, and what his mercy toward his church; Isa 63:10,...

Poole: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE ARGUMENT THE teachers of the ancient church were of two sorts: 1. Ordinary, the priests and Levites. 2. Extraordinary, the prophets. These we...

Poole: Isaiah 63 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 63 Christ’ s victory over his enemies, Isa 63:1-6 , and mercy towards his church; in judgment remembering mercy, Isa 63:7-14 . The chu...

MHCC: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Isaiah prophesied in the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. He has been well called the evangelical prophet, on account of his numerous and...

MHCC: Isaiah 63 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Isa 63:1-6) Christ's victory over his enemies. (Isa 63:7-14) His mercy toward his church. (Isa 63:15-19) The prayer of the church.

Matthew Henry: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, With Practical Observations, of The Book of the Prophet Isaiah Prophet is a title that sounds very great to those that understand it, t...

Matthew Henry: Isaiah 63 (Pendahuluan Pasal) In this chapter we have, I. God coming towards his people in ways of mercy and deliverance, and this is to be joined to the close of the foregoing...

Constable: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title and writer The title of this book of the Bible, as is true of the o...

Constable: Isaiah (Garis Besar) Outline I. Introduction chs. 1-5 A. Israel's condition and God's solution ch. 1 ...

Constable: Isaiah Isaiah Bibliography Alexander, Joseph Addison. Commentary on the Prophecies of Isaiah. 1846, 1847. Revised ed. ...