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Teks -- Isaiah 59:1-21 (NET)

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Konteks
Injustice Brings Alienation from God
59:1 Look, the Lord’s hand is not too weak to deliver you; his ear is not too deaf to hear you. 59:2 But your sinful acts have alienated you from your God; your sins have caused him to reject you and not listen to your prayers. 59:3 For your hands are stained with blood and your fingers with sin; your lips speak lies, your tongue utters malicious words. 59:4 No one is concerned about justice; no one sets forth his case truthfully. They depend on false words and tell lies; they conceive of oppression and give birth to sin. 59:5 They hatch the eggs of a poisonous snake and spin a spider’s web. Whoever eats their eggs will die, a poisonous snake is hatched. 59:6 Their webs cannot be used for clothing; they cannot cover themselves with what they make. Their deeds are sinful; they commit violent crimes. 59:7 They are eager to do evil, quick to shed innocent blood. Their thoughts are sinful; they crush and destroy. 59:8 They are unfamiliar with peace; their deeds are unjust. They use deceitful methods, and whoever deals with them is unfamiliar with peace.
Israel Confesses its Sin
59:9 For this reason deliverance is far from us and salvation does not reach us. We wait for light, but see only darkness; we wait for a bright light, but live in deep darkness. 59:10 We grope along the wall like the blind, we grope like those who cannot see; we stumble at noontime as if it were evening. Though others are strong, we are like dead men. 59:11 We all growl like bears, we coo mournfully like doves; we wait for deliverance, but there is none, for salvation, but it is far from us. 59:12 For you are aware of our many rebellious deeds, and our sins testify against us; indeed, we are aware of our rebellious deeds; we know our sins all too well. 59:13 We have rebelled and tried to deceive the Lord; we turned back from following our God. We stir up oppression and rebellion; we tell lies we concocted in our minds. 59:14 Justice is driven back; godliness stands far off. Indeed, honesty stumbles in the city square and morality is not even able to enter. 59:15 Honesty has disappeared; the one who tries to avoid evil is robbed. The Lord watches and is displeased, for there is no justice.
The Lord Intervenes
59:16 He sees there is no advocate; he is shocked that no one intervenes. So he takes matters into his own hands; his desire for justice drives him on. 59:17 He wears his desire for justice like body armor, and his desire to deliver is like a helmet on his head. He puts on the garments of vengeance and wears zeal like a robe. 59:18 He repays them for what they have done, dispensing angry judgment to his adversaries and punishing his enemies. He repays the coastlands. 59:19 In the west, people respect the Lord’s reputation; in the east they recognize his splendor. For he comes like a rushing stream driven on by wind sent from the Lord. 59:20 “A protector comes to Zion, to those in Jacob who repent of their rebellious deeds,” says the Lord. 59:21 “As for me, this is my promise to them,” says the Lord. “My spirit, who is upon you, and my words, which I have placed in your mouth, will not depart from your mouth or from the mouths of your children and descendants from this time forward,” says the Lord.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · Zion one of the hills on which Jerusalem was built; the temple area; the city of Jerusalem; God's people,a town and citidel; an ancient part of Jerusalem


Topik/Tema Kamus: ISAIAH, 1-7 | Isaiah, The Book of | Isaiah | Sin | Truth | Wicked | Jesus, The Christ | Conscience | Repentance | Quotations and Allusions | Spider | Lies and Deceits | Malice | Bear | Cockatrice | Church | Viper | Justice | Holy Spirit | QUOTATIONS IN THE NEW TESTAMENT | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Isa 59:3 - Perverseness Perverse words are such as are contrary to God's word. Words every way contrary to God's will.

Perverse words are such as are contrary to God's word. Words every way contrary to God's will.

Wesley: Isa 59:4 - None None seek to redress these wrongs, and violences; they commit all rapines, and frauds with impunity.

None seek to redress these wrongs, and violences; they commit all rapines, and frauds with impunity.

Wesley: Isa 59:4 - Bring forth These two words of conceiving, and bringing forth, denote their whole contrivance, and perfecting their wickedness.

These two words of conceiving, and bringing forth, denote their whole contrivance, and perfecting their wickedness.

Wesley: Isa 59:5 - Cockatrice eggs One kind put for any venomous creature, a proverbial speech signifying by these eggs mischievous designs, and by hatching them, their putting them in ...

One kind put for any venomous creature, a proverbial speech signifying by these eggs mischievous designs, and by hatching them, their putting them in practice.

Wesley: Isa 59:5 - Web Another proverbial speech whereby is taught, both how by their plots they weave nets, lay snares industriously with great pains and artifice. And also...

Another proverbial speech whereby is taught, both how by their plots they weave nets, lay snares industriously with great pains and artifice. And also how their designs will come to nothing, as the spider's web is soon swept away.

Wesley: Isa 59:6 - Webs Their contrivances shall not be able to cover or defend them.

Their contrivances shall not be able to cover or defend them.

Wesley: Isa 59:7 - Wasting They meditate on little or nothing else.

They meditate on little or nothing else.

Wesley: Isa 59:7 - Paths In what way or work soever they are engaged, it all tends to ruin and destruction.

In what way or work soever they are engaged, it all tends to ruin and destruction.

Wesley: Isa 59:8 - The way of peace They live in continual contentions, and discords.

They live in continual contentions, and discords.

Wesley: Isa 59:8 - Judgment No justice, equity, faith, or integrity.

No justice, equity, faith, or integrity.

Wesley: Isa 59:9 - Justice Judgment, and so justice is here taken for deliverance. God doth not defend our right, nor revenge our wrong, because of these outrages, and acts of v...

Judgment, and so justice is here taken for deliverance. God doth not defend our right, nor revenge our wrong, because of these outrages, and acts of violence, injustice, and oppression.

Wesley: Isa 59:10 - As dead men He compares their captivity to men dead without hope of recovery.

He compares their captivity to men dead without hope of recovery.

Wesley: Isa 59:11 - Mourn Their oppressing governors made the wicked roar like bears, and the good mourn like doves.

Their oppressing governors made the wicked roar like bears, and the good mourn like doves.

Wesley: Isa 59:12 - Transgressions The word here signifies sins of an high nature, such as wherein there is much of man's will against light: rebellious sins.

The word here signifies sins of an high nature, such as wherein there is much of man's will against light: rebellious sins.

Wesley: Isa 59:12 - Multiplied They admit of no excuse; for they are acted before thee, and multiplied against thee, whereby thou art justly provoked to deny us all help.

They admit of no excuse; for they are acted before thee, and multiplied against thee, whereby thou art justly provoked to deny us all help.

Wesley: Isa 59:12 - Testify As so many witnesses produced proves our guilt.

As so many witnesses produced proves our guilt.

Wesley: Isa 59:12 - Are with us Are still unforgiven.

Are still unforgiven.

Wesley: Isa 59:12 - We know We are convinced of them.

We are convinced of them.

Wesley: Isa 59:13 - Lying Transgressing here, and lying, seem to be one and the same thing, inasmuch as in their transgressing the law of God, they broke their solemn engagemen...

Transgressing here, and lying, seem to be one and the same thing, inasmuch as in their transgressing the law of God, they broke their solemn engagement to God upon mount Sinai.

Wesley: Isa 59:13 - Departing Turning from God to idols.

Turning from God to idols.

Wesley: Isa 59:13 - Speaking As it were, talking of little else one among another, but how to oppress their neighbours, and apostatize from God.

As it were, talking of little else one among another, but how to oppress their neighbours, and apostatize from God.

Wesley: Isa 59:13 - Uttering That is, first contriving in their heart false accusations, false worship to the dishonour of God; laying the contrivances and uttering them.

That is, first contriving in their heart false accusations, false worship to the dishonour of God; laying the contrivances and uttering them.

Wesley: Isa 59:13 - From the heart And when they dealt with men in ways of fraud, it was from the heart, but when they spake with God it was but from the lip.

And when they dealt with men in ways of fraud, it was from the heart, but when they spake with God it was but from the lip.

Wesley: Isa 59:14 - Judgment He speaks here of the sentences in courts of judicature.

He speaks here of the sentences in courts of judicature.

Wesley: Isa 59:14 - Truth Truth is cast to the ground, and justice trampled under foot, even in publick.

Truth is cast to the ground, and justice trampled under foot, even in publick.

Wesley: Isa 59:14 - Equity No such thing will be admitted in their courts.

No such thing will be admitted in their courts.

Wesley: Isa 59:15 - Faileth All things are amiss, neither judgment or justice, or truth, is to be found among us.

All things are amiss, neither judgment or justice, or truth, is to be found among us.

Wesley: Isa 59:15 - A prey Or, as some render it, is accounted mad, is laughed at. Josephus tells us, that immediately before the destruction of Jerusalem, it was matter of scor...

Or, as some render it, is accounted mad, is laughed at. Josephus tells us, that immediately before the destruction of Jerusalem, it was matter of scorn to be religions. The translators reach the meaning of the word by prey: the wicked, like wild beasts, endeavouring to devour such as are not as bad as themselves: where wickedness rules, innocency is oppressed.

Wesley: Isa 59:16 - No man To appear in the behalf of equity.

To appear in the behalf of equity.

Wesley: Isa 59:16 - His arm He would do his work without help from any other.

He would do his work without help from any other.

Wesley: Isa 59:16 - Righteousness His justice; seeing there could be no justice found among them, he would avenge the innocent himself.

His justice; seeing there could be no justice found among them, he would avenge the innocent himself.

Wesley: Isa 59:17 - For God, resolving to appear as a man of war, puts on his arms; he calls righteousness his breast - plate, to shew the justness of his cause, as also his ...

God, resolving to appear as a man of war, puts on his arms; he calls righteousness his breast - plate, to shew the justness of his cause, as also his faithfulness in making good his promises.

Wesley: Isa 59:17 - Vengeance Or garments made of vengeance: as God is said to put on the former for their sakes, whom he would preserve, so he puts on these for their sakes, whom ...

Or garments made of vengeance: as God is said to put on the former for their sakes, whom he would preserve, so he puts on these for their sakes, whom he will destroy, namely, his peoples enemies.

Wesley: Isa 59:17 - Zeal For his own honour, and for his own people. The sum of all these expressions is, to describe both the cause and effect together; the cause was righteo...

For his own honour, and for his own people. The sum of all these expressions is, to describe both the cause and effect together; the cause was righteousness and zeal in God, the effect, salvation to his people, and vengeance on his enemies.

Wesley: Isa 59:18 - Deeds Heb. recompences or deserts. That is, he will recompence his adversaries with those effects of his fury that they have deserved.

Heb. recompences or deserts. That is, he will recompence his adversaries with those effects of his fury that they have deserved.

Wesley: Isa 59:18 - Islands To those remoter nations under the king of Babylon, that thought themselves secure.

To those remoter nations under the king of Babylon, that thought themselves secure.

Wesley: Isa 59:19 - Fear Worship the Lord.

Worship the Lord.

Wesley: Isa 59:19 - The west The western part of the world.

The western part of the world.

Wesley: Isa 59:19 - His glory The glorious God.

The glorious God.

Wesley: Isa 59:19 - The rising of the sun The eastern parts.

The eastern parts.

Wesley: Isa 59:19 - When At what time soever the devil, or his instruments shall make violent irruptions upon the church.

At what time soever the devil, or his instruments shall make violent irruptions upon the church.

Wesley: Isa 59:19 - A standard God shall make known himself to take their part and defend them, by his spirit alone.

God shall make known himself to take their part and defend them, by his spirit alone.

Wesley: Isa 59:20 - The Redeemer Christ, of whom the apostle expounds it, Rom 11:26, the prophets usually concluding their promises of temporal deliverances with the promises of spiri...

Christ, of whom the apostle expounds it, Rom 11:26, the prophets usually concluding their promises of temporal deliverances with the promises of spiritual, especially such, of which the temporal were evident types.

Wesley: Isa 59:21 - My covenant What I have promised, to them that turn from their iniquity.

What I have promised, to them that turn from their iniquity.

Wesley: Isa 59:21 - My words Which thou hast uttered by virtue of my spirit.

Which thou hast uttered by virtue of my spirit.

Wesley: Isa 59:21 - Of thy seed A promise of the perpetual presence of his word and spirit with the prophets, apostles, and teachers of the church to all ages.

A promise of the perpetual presence of his word and spirit with the prophets, apostles, and teachers of the church to all ages.

JFB: Isa 59:1 - hand . . . shortened (See on Isa 50:2).

(See on Isa 50:2).

JFB: Isa 59:1 - ear heavy (Isa 6:10).

JFB: Isa 59:2 - hid Hebrew, "caused Him to hide" (Lam 3:44).

Hebrew, "caused Him to hide" (Lam 3:44).

JFB: Isa 59:3 - -- (Isa 1:15; Rom 3:13-15).

JFB: Isa 59:3 - hands . . . fingers Not merely the "hands" perpetrate deeds of grosser enormity ("blood"), but the "fingers" commit more minute acts of "iniquity."

Not merely the "hands" perpetrate deeds of grosser enormity ("blood"), but the "fingers" commit more minute acts of "iniquity."

JFB: Isa 59:3 - lips . . . tongue The lips "speak" openly "lies," the tongue "mutters" malicious insinuations ("perverseness"; perverse misrepresentations of others) (Jer 6:28; Jer 9:4...

The lips "speak" openly "lies," the tongue "mutters" malicious insinuations ("perverseness"; perverse misrepresentations of others) (Jer 6:28; Jer 9:4).

JFB: Isa 59:4 - -- Rather, "No one calleth an adversary into court with justice," that is, None bringeth a just suit: "No one pleadeth with truth."

Rather, "No one calleth an adversary into court with justice," that is, None bringeth a just suit: "No one pleadeth with truth."

JFB: Isa 59:4 - they trust . . . iniquity (So Job 15:35; Psa 7:14).

JFB: Isa 59:5 - cockatrice Probably the basilisk serpent, cerastes. Instead of crushing evil in the egg, they foster it.

Probably the basilisk serpent, cerastes. Instead of crushing evil in the egg, they foster it.

JFB: Isa 59:5 - spider's web This refers not to the spider's web being made to entrap, but to its thinness, as contrasted with substantial "garments," as Isa 59:6 shows. Their wor...

This refers not to the spider's web being made to entrap, but to its thinness, as contrasted with substantial "garments," as Isa 59:6 shows. Their works are vain and transitory (Job 8:14; Pro 11:18).

JFB: Isa 59:5 - eateth . . . their eggs He who partakes in their plans, or has anything to do with them, finds them pestiferous.

He who partakes in their plans, or has anything to do with them, finds them pestiferous.

JFB: Isa 59:5 - that which is crushed The egg, when it is broken, breaketh out as a viper; their plans, however specious in their undeveloped form like the egg, when developed, are found p...

The egg, when it is broken, breaketh out as a viper; their plans, however specious in their undeveloped form like the egg, when developed, are found pernicious. Though the viper is viviparous (from which "vi-per" is derived), yet during gestation, the young are included in eggs, which break at the birth [BOCHART]; however, metaphors often combine things without representing everything to the life.

JFB: Isa 59:6 - not . . . garments Like the "fig leaves" wherewith Adam and Eve vainly tried to cover their shame, as contrasted with "the coats of skins" which the Lord God made to clo...

Like the "fig leaves" wherewith Adam and Eve vainly tried to cover their shame, as contrasted with "the coats of skins" which the Lord God made to clothe them with (Isa 64:6; Rom 13:14; Gal 3:27; Phi 3:9). The artificial self-deceiving sophisms of human philosophy (1Ti 6:5; 2Ti 2:16, 2Ti 2:23).

JFB: Isa 59:7 - feet All their members are active in evil; in Isa 59:3, the "hands, fingers, lips, and tongue," are specified.

All their members are active in evil; in Isa 59:3, the "hands, fingers, lips, and tongue," are specified.

JFB: Isa 59:7 - run . . . haste (Rom 3:15). Contrast David's "running and hasting" in the ways of God (Psa 119:32, Psa 119:60).

(Rom 3:15). Contrast David's "running and hasting" in the ways of God (Psa 119:32, Psa 119:60).

JFB: Isa 59:7 - thoughts Not merely their acts, but their whole thoughts.

Not merely their acts, but their whole thoughts.

JFB: Isa 59:8 - peace Whether in relation to God, to their own conscience, or to their fellow men (Isa 57:20-21).

Whether in relation to God, to their own conscience, or to their fellow men (Isa 57:20-21).

JFB: Isa 59:8 - judgment Justice.

Justice.

JFB: Isa 59:8 - crooked The opposite of "straightforward" (Pro 2:15; Pro 28:18).

The opposite of "straightforward" (Pro 2:15; Pro 28:18).

JFB: Isa 59:9 - judgment far Retribution in kind because they had shown "no judgment in their goings" (Isa 59:8). "The vindication of our just rights by God is withheld by Him fro...

Retribution in kind because they had shown "no judgment in their goings" (Isa 59:8). "The vindication of our just rights by God is withheld by Him from us."

JFB: Isa 59:9 - us In Isa 59:8 and previous verses, it was "they," the third person; here, "us . . . we," the first person. The nation here speaks: God thus making them ...

In Isa 59:8 and previous verses, it was "they," the third person; here, "us . . . we," the first person. The nation here speaks: God thus making them out of their own mouth condemn themselves; just as He by His prophet had condemned them before. Isaiah includes himself with his people and speaks in their name.

JFB: Isa 59:9 - justice God's justice bringing salvation (Isa 46:13).

God's justice bringing salvation (Isa 46:13).

JFB: Isa 59:9 - light The dawn of returning prosperity.

The dawn of returning prosperity.

JFB: Isa 59:9 - obscurity Adversity (Jer 8:15).

Adversity (Jer 8:15).

JFB: Isa 59:10 - grope Fulfilling Moses' threat (Deu 28:29).

Fulfilling Moses' threat (Deu 28:29).

JFB: Isa 59:10 - stumble at noon . . . as . . . night There is no relaxation of our evils; at the time when we might look for the noon of relief, there is still the night of our calamity.

There is no relaxation of our evils; at the time when we might look for the noon of relief, there is still the night of our calamity.

JFB: Isa 59:10 - in desolate places Rather, to suit the parallel words "at noonday," in fertile (literally, "fat"; Gen 27:28) fields [GESENIUS] (where all is promising) we are like the d...

Rather, to suit the parallel words "at noonday," in fertile (literally, "fat"; Gen 27:28) fields [GESENIUS] (where all is promising) we are like the dead (who have no hope left them); or, where others are prosperous, we wander about as dead men; true of all unbelievers (Isa 26:10; Luk 15:17).

JFB: Isa 59:11 - roar Moan plaintively, like a hungry bear which growls for food.

Moan plaintively, like a hungry bear which growls for food.

JFB: Isa 59:11 - doves (Isa 38:14; Eze 7:16).

JFB: Isa 59:11 - salvation Retribution in kind: because not salvation, but "destruction" was "in their paths" (Isa 59:7).

Retribution in kind: because not salvation, but "destruction" was "in their paths" (Isa 59:7).

JFB: Isa 59:12 - -- (Dan 9:5, &c.).

(Dan 9:5, &c.).

JFB: Isa 59:12 - thee . . . us Antithesis.

Antithesis.

JFB: Isa 59:12 - with us That is, we are conscious of them (Job 12:3, Margin; Job 15:9).

That is, we are conscious of them (Job 12:3, Margin; Job 15:9).

JFB: Isa 59:12 - know Acknowledge they are our iniquities.

Acknowledge they are our iniquities.

JFB: Isa 59:13 - -- The particulars of the sins generally confessed in Isa 59:12 (Isa 48:8; Jer 2:19-20). The act, the word, and the thought of apostasy, are all here mar...

The particulars of the sins generally confessed in Isa 59:12 (Isa 48:8; Jer 2:19-20). The act, the word, and the thought of apostasy, are all here marked: transgression and departing, &c.; lying (compare Isa 59:4), and speaking, &c.; conceiving and uttering from the heart.

JFB: Isa 59:14 - -- Justice and righteousness are put away from our legal courts.

Justice and righteousness are put away from our legal courts.

JFB: Isa 59:14 - in the street In the forum, the place of judicature, usually at the gate of the city (Zec 8:16).

In the forum, the place of judicature, usually at the gate of the city (Zec 8:16).

JFB: Isa 59:14 - cannot enter Is shut out from the forum, or courts of justice.

Is shut out from the forum, or courts of justice.

JFB: Isa 59:15 - faileth Is not to be found.

Is not to be found.

JFB: Isa 59:15 - he that departeth . . . prey He that will not fall in with the prevailing iniquity exposes himself as a prey to the wicked (Psa 10:8-9).

He that will not fall in with the prevailing iniquity exposes himself as a prey to the wicked (Psa 10:8-9).

JFB: Isa 59:15 - Lord saw it The iniquity of Israel, so desperate as to require nothing short of Jehovah's interposition to mend it, typifies the same necessity for a Divine Media...

The iniquity of Israel, so desperate as to require nothing short of Jehovah's interposition to mend it, typifies the same necessity for a Divine Mediator existing in the deep corruption of man; Israel, the model nation, was chosen to illustrate his awful fact.

JFB: Isa 59:16 - no man Namely, to atone by his righteousness for the unrighteousness of the people. "Man" is emphatic, as in 1Ki 2:2; no representative man able to retrieve ...

Namely, to atone by his righteousness for the unrighteousness of the people. "Man" is emphatic, as in 1Ki 2:2; no representative man able to retrieve the cause of fallen men (Isa 41:28; Isa 63:5-6; Jer 5:1; Eze 22:30).

JFB: Isa 59:16 - no intercessor No one to interpose, "to help . . . uphold" (Isa 63:5).

No one to interpose, "to help . . . uphold" (Isa 63:5).

JFB: Isa 59:16 - his arm (Isa 40:10; Isa 51:5). Not man's arm, but His alone (Psa 98:1; Psa 44:3).

(Isa 40:10; Isa 51:5). Not man's arm, but His alone (Psa 98:1; Psa 44:3).

JFB: Isa 59:16 - his righteousness The "arm" of Messiah. He won the victory for us, not by mere might as God, but by His invincible righteousness, as man having "the Spirit without meas...

The "arm" of Messiah. He won the victory for us, not by mere might as God, but by His invincible righteousness, as man having "the Spirit without measure" (Isa 11:5; Isa 42:6, Isa 42:21; Isa 51:8; Isa 53:11; 1Jo 2:1).

JFB: Isa 59:17 - -- Messiah is represented as a warrior armed at all points, going forth to vindicate His people. Owing to the unity of Christ and His people, their armor...

Messiah is represented as a warrior armed at all points, going forth to vindicate His people. Owing to the unity of Christ and His people, their armor is like His, except that they have no "garments of vengeance" (which is God's prerogative, Rom 12:19), or "cloak of zeal" (in the sense of judicial fury punishing the wicked; this zeal belongs properly to God, 2Ki 10:16; Rom 10:2; Phi 3:6; "zeal," in the sense of anxiety for the Lord's honor, they have, Num 25:11, Num 25:13; Psa 69:9; 2Co 7:11; 2Co 9:2); and for "salvation," which is of God alone (Psa 3:8), they have as their helmet, "the hope of salvation" (1Th 5:8). The "helmet of salvation" is attributed to them (Eph 6:14, Eph 6:17) in a secondary sense; namely, derived from Him, and as yet only in hope, not fruition (Rom 8:24). The second coming here, as often, is included in this representation of Messiah. His "zeal" (Joh 2:15-17) at His first coming was but a type of His zeal and vengeance against the foes of God at His second coming (2Th 1:8-10; Rev 19:11-21).

JFB: Isa 59:18 - deeds Hebrew, "recompenses"; "according as their deeds demand" [MAURER]. This verse predicts the judgments at the Lord's second coming, which shall precede ...

Hebrew, "recompenses"; "according as their deeds demand" [MAURER]. This verse predicts the judgments at the Lord's second coming, which shall precede the final redemption of His people (Isa 66:18, Isa 66:15-16).

JFB: Isa 59:18 - islands (See on Isa 41:1). Distant countries.

(See on Isa 41:1). Distant countries.

JFB: Isa 59:19 - -- (Isa 45:6; Mal 1:11). The result of God's judgments (Isa 26:9; Isa 66:18-20).

(Isa 45:6; Mal 1:11). The result of God's judgments (Isa 26:9; Isa 66:18-20).

JFB: Isa 59:19 - like a flood (Jer 46:7-8; Rev 12:15).

JFB: Isa 59:19 - lift up a standard Rather, from a different Hebrew root, "shall put him to flight," "drive him away" [MAURER]. LOWTH, giving a different sense to the Hebrew for "enemy" ...

Rather, from a different Hebrew root, "shall put him to flight," "drive him away" [MAURER]. LOWTH, giving a different sense to the Hebrew for "enemy" from that in Isa 59:18, and a forced meaning to the Hebrew for "Spirit of the Lord," translates, "When He shall come as a river straitened in its course, which a mighty wind drives along."

JFB: Isa 59:20 - to Zion Rom 11:26 quotes it, "out of Zion." Thus Paul, by inspiration, supplements the sense from Psa 14:7 : He was, and is come to Zion, first with redempti...

Rom 11:26 quotes it, "out of Zion." Thus Paul, by inspiration, supplements the sense from Psa 14:7 : He was, and is come to Zion, first with redemption, being sprung as man out of Zion. The Septuagint translates "for the sake of Zion." Paul applies this verse to the coming restoration of Israel spiritually.

JFB: Isa 59:20 - them that turn from (Rom 11:26). "shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob"; so the Septuagint, Paul herein gives the full sense under inspiration. They turn from transgre...

(Rom 11:26). "shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob"; so the Septuagint, Paul herein gives the full sense under inspiration. They turn from transgression, because He first turns them from it, and it from them (Psa 130:4; Lam 5:21).

JFB: Isa 59:21 - covenant with them . . . thee The covenant is with Christ, and with them only as united to Him (Heb 2:13). Jehovah addresses Messiah the representative and ideal Israel. The litera...

The covenant is with Christ, and with them only as united to Him (Heb 2:13). Jehovah addresses Messiah the representative and ideal Israel. The literal and spiritual Israel are His seed, to whom the promise is to be fulfilled (Psa 22:30).

JFB: Isa 59:21 - spirit . . . not depart . . . for ever (Jer 31:31-37; Mat 28:20). An ode of congratulation to Zion on her restoration at the Lord's second advent to her true position as the mother church...

(Jer 31:31-37; Mat 28:20).

An ode of congratulation to Zion on her restoration at the Lord's second advent to her true position as the mother church from which the Gospel is to be diffused to the whole Gentile world; the first promulgation of the Gospel among the Gentiles, beginning at Jerusalem [Luk 24:47], is an earnest of this. The language is too glorious to apply to anything that as yet has happened.

Clarke: Isa 59:2 - His face His face - For פנים panim , faces, I read panaiv , his face. So the Syriac, Septuagint, Alexandrian, Arabic, and Vulgate. פני panai , MS. F...

His face - For פנים panim , faces, I read panaiv , his face. So the Syriac, Septuagint, Alexandrian, Arabic, and Vulgate. פני panai , MS. Forte legendum פני panai , nam מ mem , sequitur, et loquitur Deus ; confer cap. Isa 58:14. "We should perhaps read פני panai ; for מ mem follows, and God is the speaker."- Secker. I rather think that the speech of God was closed with the last chapter, and that this chapter is delivered in the person of the prophet. - L.

Clarke: Isa 59:3 - -- Your tongue "And your tongue"- An ancient MS., and the Septuagint and Vulgate, add the conjunction.

Your tongue "And your tongue"- An ancient MS., and the Septuagint and Vulgate, add the conjunction.

Clarke: Isa 59:4 - They conceive mischief, and bring forth iniquity They conceive mischief, and bring forth iniquity - There is a curious propriety in this mode of expression; a thought or purpose is compared to conc...

They conceive mischief, and bring forth iniquity - There is a curious propriety in this mode of expression; a thought or purpose is compared to conception; a word or act, which is the consequence of it, to the birth of a child. From the third to the fifteenth verse inclusive may be considered a true statement of the then moral state of the Jewish people; and that they were, in the most proper sense of the word, guilty of the iniquities with which they are charged.

Clarke: Isa 59:8 - -- Whosoever goeth therein shall not know peace "Whoever goeth in them knoweth not peace"- For בה bah , singular, read בם bam , plural, with the ...

Whosoever goeth therein shall not know peace "Whoever goeth in them knoweth not peace"- For בה bah , singular, read בם bam , plural, with the Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate, and Chaldee. The ה he is upon a rasure in one MS. Or, for נתיבתיהם nethibotheyhem , plural, we must read נתיבתם nethibatham , singular, as it is in an ancient MS., to preserve the grammatical concord. - L.

Clarke: Isa 59:10 - -- We stumble at noon day as in the night "We stumble at mid-day, as in the twilight"- I adopt here an emendation of Houbigant, נשגגה nishgegah ,...

We stumble at noon day as in the night "We stumble at mid-day, as in the twilight"- I adopt here an emendation of Houbigant, נשגגה nishgegah , instead of the second, נגששה negasheshah , the repetition of which has a poverty and inelegance extremely unworthy of the prophet, and unlike his manner. The mistake is of long standing, being prior to all the ancient versions. It was a very easy and obvious mistake, and I have little doubt of our having recovered the true reading in this ingenious correction.

Clarke: Isa 59:11 - -- But it is far off from us "And it is far distant from us"- The conjunction ו vau must necessarily be prefixed to the verb, as the Syriac, Chald...

But it is far off from us "And it is far distant from us"- The conjunction ו vau must necessarily be prefixed to the verb, as the Syriac, Chaldee, and Vulgate found it in their copies; ורחקה verachakah , "and far off."

Clarke: Isa 59:14 - Justice standeth afar off Justice standeth afar off - צדקה tsedakah , righteousness, put here, says Kimchi, for alms to the poor. This casts some light on Mat 6:1 : "Tak...

Justice standeth afar off - צדקה tsedakah , righteousness, put here, says Kimchi, for alms to the poor. This casts some light on Mat 6:1 : "Take heed that you do not your alms," ελεημοσυνην . But the best copies have δικαιοσυνην, righteousness; the former having been inserted in the text at first merely as the explanation of the genuine and original word.

Clarke: Isa 59:15 - -- And the Lord saw it "And Jehovah saw it"- This third line of the stanza appears manifestly to me to be imperfect by the loss of a phrase. The reader...

And the Lord saw it "And Jehovah saw it"- This third line of the stanza appears manifestly to me to be imperfect by the loss of a phrase. The reader will perhaps more perfectly conceive my idea of the matter if I endeavor to supply the supposed defect, I imagine it might have stood originally in this manner: -

לו ויחר יהוה וירא
lo veyachar Yehovah vaiyar
    
משפט אין כי בעיניו וירע
mishpat ein ki beeyinaiv veyera

"And Jehovah saw it, and he was wroth

And it displeased him, that there was no judgment.

We have had already many examples of mistakes of omission; this, if it be such, is very ancient, being prior to all the versions. - L.

Clarke: Isa 59:16 - And wondered that there was no intercessor And wondered that there was no intercessor - This and the following verses some of the most eminent rabbins understand as spoken of the Messiah. Kim...

And wondered that there was no intercessor - This and the following verses some of the most eminent rabbins understand as spoken of the Messiah. Kimchi says that Rabbi Joshua ben Levi proposes this objection: "It is written, ‘ Behold, he will come in the clouds of heaven as the son of man,’ Dan 7:13; and elsewhere it is written, ‘ He cometh lowly, and riding upon an ass,’ Zec 9:9. How can these texts be reconciled? Thus: If the Jews have merit, he will come unto them in the clouds of heaven; but if they be destitute of merit, he will come unto them riding upon an ass."Now out of their own mouth they may be condemned. They were truly destitute of all merit when Jesus Christ came into Jerusalem riding upon an ass, according to the letter of the above prophecy; and they neither acknowledged nor received him. And that they were destitute of merit their destruction by the Romans, which shortly followed their rejection of him, sufficiently proves.

Clarke: Isa 59:17 - -- For clothing "For his clothing"- תלבשת tilbosheth . "I cannot but think that this word, תלבשת tilbosheth , is an interpolation 1. ...

For clothing "For his clothing"- תלבשת tilbosheth . "I cannot but think that this word, תלבשת tilbosheth , is an interpolation

1.    It is in no one ancient version

2.    It is redundant in the sense, as it is before expressed in בגדי bigdey

3.    It makes the hemistich just so much longer than it ought to be, if it is compared with the others adjoining

4.    It makes a form of construction in this clause less elegant than that in the others

5.    It might probably be in some margin a various reading for בגדי bigdey , and thence taken into the text

This is more probable, as its form is such as it would be if it were in regimine , as it must be before נקם nakam ."- Dr. Jubb. Two sorts of armor are mentioned: a breast-plate and a helmet, to bring righteousness and salvation to those who fear him; and the garments of vengeance and the cloak of zeal for the destruction of all those who finally oppose him, and reject his Gospel.

Clarke: Isa 59:18 - -- According to their deeds, accordingly he will repay "He is mighty to recompense; he that is mighty to recompense will requite"- The former part of t...

According to their deeds, accordingly he will repay "He is mighty to recompense; he that is mighty to recompense will requite"- The former part of this verse, as it stands at present in the Hebrew text, seems to me to be very imperfect, and absolutely unintelligible. The learned Vitringa has taken a great deal of pains upon it after Cocceius, who he says is the only one of all the interpreters, ancient or modern, who has at all understood it, and has opened the way for him. He thinks that both of them together have clearly made out the sense; I do not expect that any third person will ever be of that opinion. He says, Videtur sententia ad verbum sonare: quasi propter facta [adversariorum ] quasi propter rependet; excandescentiam, etc., et sic reddidit Pagnimus . "According to the height of their demerits, he will repay them to the height: fury to his adversaries, recompense to his enemies,"etc. - Waterland. This he converts, by a process which will not much edify my reader, into Secundum summe merita, secundum summe (merita ) rependet ; which is his translation. They that hold the present Hebrew text to be absolutely infallible must make their way through it as they can; but they ought surely to give us somewhat that has at least the appearance of sense. However, I hope the case here is not quite desperate; the Chaldee leads us very fairly to the correction of the text, which is both corrupted and defective. The paraphrase runs thus: מרי גמליא הוא גמלא ישלם marey gumlaiya hu simla yeshallem , "The Lord of retribution, he will render recompense."He manifestly read בעל baal instead of כעל keal . מרי גמליא marey gumlaiya is בעל גמלות baal gemuloth ; as מרי מרירותא marey merirutha is בעל אף baal aph . Pro 22:24. And so in the Chaldee paraphrase on Isa 35:4 : מרי גמליא יי הוא יתגלי marey gamlaiya yeya hu yithgeley , "The Lord of retribution, Jehovah himself, shall be revealed;"words very near to those of the prophet in this place

The second כעל keal , which the Chaldee has omitted, must be read בעל baal likewise. With this only addition to the Chaldee, which the Hebrew text justifies, we are supplied with the following clear reading of the passage: -

הוא גמלות בעל
hu gemuloth baal
  
ישלם גמלות בעל
yeshallem gemuloth baal

The Lord of retributions h

The Lord of retributions, shall repay

The כ caph in כעל keal twice seems to have been at first ב beth , in MS. This verse in the Septuagint is very imperfect. In the first part of it they give us no assistance: the latter part is wholly omitted in the printed copies; but it is thus supplied by MSS. Pachom. and 1. D. II: Τοις ὑπεναντιοις αυτου· αμυναν τοις εχθροις αυτου· ταις νησοις αποδομα αποτισει . - L.

Clarke: Isa 59:19 - When the enemy shall come in like a flood When the enemy shall come in like a flood - This all the rabbins refer to the coming of the Messiah. If ye see a generation which endures much tribu...

When the enemy shall come in like a flood - This all the rabbins refer to the coming of the Messiah. If ye see a generation which endures much tribulation, then (say they) expect him, according to what is written: "When the enemy shall come in like a flood, the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him.

Kimchi says, he that was the standard-bearer always began the battle by first smiting at the enemy. Here then the Spirit of the Lord is the standard-bearer, and strikes the first blow. They who go against sin and Satan with the Holy Spirit at their head, are sure to win the day

The Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him "Which a strong wind driveth along"- Quam spiritus Domini cogit , "Which the Spirit of the Lord drives on."- Vulg. נוססה nosesah , pihel a נוס nus fugit . Kimchi says his father thus explained this word: נוססה nosesah interpretatur in significatione fugae, et ait, spiritus Domini fugabit hostem;-nam secundum eum נוססה nosesah est ex conjugatione quadrata, ejusque radix est נוס nus : "nosesah he interpreted in the signification of flight, - The Spirit of the Lord shall put the enemy to flight; for according to him the root of the word is נוס nus , he put to flight."The object of this action I explain otherwise. The conjunction ו vau , prefixed to רוח ruach , seems necessary to the sense, it is added by the corrector in one of the Koningsberg MSS., collated by Lilienthal. It is added also in one of my own.

Clarke: Isa 59:20 - -- Unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob "And shall turn away iniquity from Jacob"- So the Septuagint and St. Paul, Rom 11:26, reading instea...

Unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob "And shall turn away iniquity from Jacob"- So the Septuagint and St. Paul, Rom 11:26, reading instead of לשבי leshabey and ביעקב beyaacob , והשיב veheshib and מיעקב meyaacob . The Syriac likewise reads והשיב veheshib ; and the Chaldee, to the same sense, ולהשיב ulehashib . Our translators have expressed the sense of the present reading of the Hebrew text: "And unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob."

Clarke: Isa 59:21 - This is my covenant with them "This is the covenant which I make with them"- For אותם otham , them, twenty-four MSS., (four ancient), and nine editions have אתם ittam , with them

My Spirit that is upon thee This is my covenant with them "This is the covenant which I make with them"- For אותם otham , them, twenty-four MSS., (four ancient), and nine ...

This is my covenant with them "This is the covenant which I make with them"- For אותם otham , them, twenty-four MSS., (four ancient), and nine editions have אתם ittam , with them

My Spirit that is upon thee - This seems to be an address to the Messiah; Kimchi says it is to the prophet, informing him that the spirit of prophecy should be given to all Israelites in the days of the Messiah, as it was then given to him, i.e., to the prophet

Clarke: Isa 59:21 - And my words which I have put in thy mouth And my words which I have put in thy mouth - Whatsoever Jesus spoke was the word and mind of God himself; and must, as such, be implicitly received

And my words which I have put in thy mouth - Whatsoever Jesus spoke was the word and mind of God himself; and must, as such, be implicitly received

Clarke: Isa 59:21 - Nor out of the mouth of thy seed Nor out of the mouth of thy seed - The same doctrines which Jesus preached, all his faithful ministers preach; and his seed - genuine Christians, wh...

Nor out of the mouth of thy seed - The same doctrines which Jesus preached, all his faithful ministers preach; and his seed - genuine Christians, who are all born of God, believe; and they shall continue, and the doctrines remain in the seed’ s seed through all generations - for ever and ever. This is God’ s covenant, ordered in all things and sure.

Calvin: Isa 59:1 - Behold, the hand of Jehovah is not shortened 1.Behold, the hand of Jehovah is not shortened This discourse closely resembles the preceding one; for, after having torn off the mask from hypocrite...

1.Behold, the hand of Jehovah is not shortened This discourse closely resembles the preceding one; for, after having torn off the mask from hypocrites, who vainly boasted of themselves, and after having shown that the punishment inflicted on them was just, he now replies to other objections. Hypocrites are wont to accuse God either of weakness or of excessive severity. He shows, therefore, that he does not want either power or will to save his people, but that he is prevented by their wickedness from exercising his kindness towards them; and therefore that they do wrong in blaming God, and in uttering those slanders against him, when they ought, on the contrary, to accuse themselves.

The word הן ( hen) “behold,” is emphatic, as if the Prophet spoke of something actually present, and pointed it out with the finger, for the sake of expressing certainty, in order to cut off a handle from hypocrites, that they might no longer practice evasion. We must also supply the contrasts to the words “shortened” and “benumbed;“ as if he had said, that formerly there were abundant resources in the hand of God to render assistance to his people, and that he always was ready to be reconciled and lent a willing car to prayers, and that now he is not unlike himself, 129 as if either his hand were broken or his ears grown dull, so that he did not hear distinctly.

Calvin: Isa 59:2 - But your iniquities have made a separation 2.But your iniquities have made a separation The amount of what is said is, that they cannot say that God has changed, as if he had swerved from his ...

2.But your iniquities have made a separation The amount of what is said is, that they cannot say that God has changed, as if he had swerved from his natural disposition, but that the whole blame lies with themselves; because by their own sins they, in some measure, prevent his kindness, and refuse to receive his assistance. Hence we infer that our sins alone deprive us of the grace of God, and cause separation between us and him; for what the Prophet testifies as to the men of his time is applicable to all ages; since he pleads the cause of God, against the slanders of wicked men. Thus God is always like himself, and is not wearied in doing good; and his power is not diminished, but we hinder the entrance of his grace.

It will be objected, that men cannot anticipate God by deserving well of him, and that consequently he must do good to those who are unworthy. I reply, this is undoubtedly true; but sometimes the frowardness of men grows to such an extent as to shut the door against God’s benefits, as if they purposely intended to drive him far away from them. And although he listens to no man without pardoning him, as we always bring before him supplication for the removal of guilt, yet he does not listen to the prayers of the wicked. We need not wonder, therefore, if the Prophet accuse the people of rejecting God’s benefits by their iniquities, and rendering him irreconcilable by their obstinacy, and, in a word, of making a divorce, which drives away or turns aside the ordinary course of grace.

Calvin: Isa 59:3 - For your hands // Are polluted with blood // And your fingers with iniquity // Your lips have uttered falsehood 3.For your hands He now brings forward their actions, that they may not practice evasion, or call in question what are those sins which have “cause...

3.For your hands He now brings forward their actions, that they may not practice evasion, or call in question what are those sins which have “caused the separation.” He therefore takes away from them every excuse, by bringing forward particular instances, as if their shameful life were exhibited on an open stage. Now, he speaks in the second person, because, like an advocate, he argues and pleads the cause of God, and therefore speaks of himself as not belonging to the rank of the wicked, with whom he did not wish to be classed, though he was not entirely free from sin, but feared and served God, and enjoyed liberty of conscience. No man could be at liberty to condemn others, who was involved in the guilt of the same vices; and no man could be qualified for pleading the cause of God, who deprived himself of his right by living wickedly. We must be unlike those whom we reprove, if we do not wish to expose our doctrine to ridicule, and to be reckoned impudent; and, on the other band, when we serve God with a pure conscience, our doctrine obtains weight and authority, and holds even adversaries to be more fully convicted.

Are polluted with blood The picture which he gives of the wicked life of the people is not superfluous; for men seek various subterfuges, and cannot be reduced to a state of obedience, unless they have previously acknowledged their sins. By mentioning blood, he does not mean that murders have been everywhere committed; but by this word he describes the cruelty, extortions, violence, and enormities, which were perpetrated by hypocrites against the poor and defenseless; for they had not to deal with robbers and assassins, but with the king and the nobles, who were highly respected and honored. He calls them manslayers, because they cruelly harassed the innocent, and seized by force and violence the property of others; and so, immediately afterwards he uses the word “iniquity” instead of “blood.”

And your fingers with iniquity Though he appears to extend the discourse farther, yet it is a repetition, or rather, a reduplication, such as is frequently employed by Hebrew writers, accompanied by amplification; for he expresses more by “fingers” than by “hands;“ as if he had said that not even the smallest part was free from unjust violence. 130

Your lips have uttered falsehood Next, he takes notice of one kind of wickedness, that is, when men deceive each other by tricks, or falsehood, or perjury; for that iniquity by which we wound our neighbors is most frequently defended either by cruelty as a body­guard, or by cheating and falsehood. Here the Prophet takes a rapid view of the second table, and, from the crimes which they commit against it, he shows that they are wicked and destitute of all fear of God; for cruelty and treachery, by which human society is infringed, proceed from contempt of God. Thus from “the hands,” that is, from extortion and violence, he descends to falsehoods and deceitful practices, to perjuries and crafty devices, by which we take advantage of our neighbors.

Calvin: Isa 59:4 - There is none that crieth for justice // None that contendeth for truth // They trust in vain things // They talk idly // They conceive mischief, and bring forth iniquity 4.There is none that crieth for justice He means that there is not among them any study of what is right or proper, that no man opposes the acts of i...

4.There is none that crieth for justice He means that there is not among them any study of what is right or proper, that no man opposes the acts of injustice which are committed by the strong on the weak; and that this leads to growing licentiousness, because all wink at it, and there is none who cares about undertaking the defense of justice. It is not enough that we abstain from violence, if we do not, as far as lies in our power, hinder it from being committed by others. And, indeed, whoever permits what he is able to hinder does in some sense command it; so that silence is a sort of consent.

None that contendeth for truth This clause is of the same import as the preceding one. Some take נשפט ( nishpat) in a passive sense, and suppose the Prophet’s meaning to be, “None is rightly judged; for everything is full of corruptions, and yet nobody makes opposition.” But the active signification is more appropriate; for these two statements are closely connected with each other, that “None crieth for justice” and “None defendeth truth or uprightness.” The rendering given by some, “No man judgeth himself truly,” is rather too harsh. But because this verb in Niphal is taken, in many passages, for “to contend,” 131 the whole passage appeared to run more freely thus: that “none comes forward to protect what is right, openly and loudly to defend justice, and to plead against the wicked.” Yet it will perhaps be thought preferable to view the words “cry for justice” as referring to wretched persons who are unjustly harassed; as if he had said that they are dumb, because they would gain nothing by crying. But this would also be harsh.

If God condemns so severely those who pay no attention to the righteous causes of men, and do not aid such as are in difficulties, what shall become of us, if no zeal for defending the glory of God prompt us to rebuke iniquities? If we wink at the mockeries by which wicked men jeer at God’s sacred doctrine and profane his name; if we pay no attention to the efforts which they make to destroy the Church of God, shall not our silence be justly condemned for treachery? 132 In a word, Isaiah says that good order falls into decay through our fault, if we do not, as far as we can, resist the wicked.

They trust in vain things He next points out that this is extreme confusion, when no one rises up in defense of justice. When he says that they “trust in vain things,” he means that they heap up perverse reliances, by means of which they bring upon themselves insensibility. This is the utmost verge of iniquity, when, by seeking flatteries on every hand, they willingly harden themselves to despise God; and by such allurements Satan caresses the reprobate, till he altogether enchants them, so that, shaking off all fear of God, they not only despise sound counsels, but become haughty and fearless mockers. Since therefore foolhardiness drives us headlong, when we place false hopes in opposition to the judgment of God, the Prophet has good reason for representing, as a mark of desperate malice, this confidence under which cunning men shelter themselves; because the disease is manifestly incurable, when men who are openly wicked do not hesitate to flatter themselves, and, relying on their obstinate wickedness, think that they are at liberty to do whatever they please.

They talk idly He adds that their conversation tells plainly what is the nature of their dispositions and morals; as the proverb says, that “the tongue is the image of the mind.” Yet this clause may be explained in two ways; either that they speak nothing sincerely, but, by constant practice, their tongues are formed to deceive, or, that their wickedness breaks out into open boasting. For my own part, I prefer the latter of these expositions.

They conceive mischief, and bring forth iniquity These are elegant metaphors, by which he compares wicked men to women, who support the child in the womb, and afterwards give birth to it. Thus he says that the wicked, while they inwardly contrive their crimes, may be said to be pregnant till they bring forth in due time; that is, when they have found occasions and opportunities. “They conceive,” he says, “purposes of mischief, that afterwards they may unjustly harass simple persons;” as if he had said, that they make preparation for their crimes by long meditation, and are always ready for any mischief; because they do not cease to search in every quarter for indirect methods of annoying those who are giving them no disturbance.

Calvin: Isa 59:5 - They hatch the eggs of the basilisk // And weave the webs of spiders 5.They hatch the eggs of the basilisk The Prophet proceeds farther, comparing the Jews not only to women, but to venomous beasts; so as to make it mo...

5.They hatch the eggs of the basilisk The Prophet proceeds farther, comparing the Jews not only to women, but to venomous beasts; so as to make it more evident that everything that proceeds from them is destructive and deadly. First, then, he says, that “they hatch the eggs of the basilisk;“ because, as a viper cannot lay an egg that is not venomous, so they are so inured to wickedness, and so full of it, that they can throw out nothing but poison. 133

And weave the webs of spiders By “the webs of spiders” he means that they are so barren and destitute of anything good, that even by the appearance of virtues they deceive. By two marks he describes wicked men; first, that the works which they perform manifest their corrupt nature; secondly, that they are of no value whatever, and. contribute nothing towards making them kind, amiable, charitable, and faithful to those with whom they have intercourse. I am aware that it is explained ill a different manner by other commentators; namely, that the wicked, while they are contriving the destruction of others, ruin themselves, and, while they think that they are industrious, labor fruitlessly and to no purpose; that “they are snared in their own nets,” (Psa 9:15) and “fall into the pit which they had digged.” (Psa 7:15) But I am of opinion that the Prophet meant what I have now said; namely, that the wicked do mischief in all places, at all times, and in all transactions, and that they never do anything good; and that every person who has anything to do with them will find them to be venomous and destructive. Such is the import of what he says, that in their eggs there lurks a deadly venom, and that, if they are broken, a serpent will come out of them.

Calvin: Isa 59:6 - Their webs shall not be for clothing 6.Their webs shall not be for clothing He repeats and confirms the same statement, that everything that they attempt or undertake is always useless t...

6.Their webs shall not be for clothing He repeats and confirms the same statement, that everything that they attempt or undertake is always useless to mankind; because they purposely shrink from all acts of kindness. Now, it is an indication of a mind utterly abandoned, to devote themselves to evil deeds in such a manner, that no advantage of any kind can be expected from the life of him who desires to be barren and destitute of all justice. Others explain it, that they will toil unsuccessfully to acquire wealth and to rise to honor. But I consider the meaning to be more simple, that no man will “cover himself with their works,” because in their texture there is nothing solid or durable. 134

By various modes of expression he inculcates the same thing, in order to demonstrate that their works yield no advantage whatever. But we were born for this end, that we should yield assistance to our neighbors, and, in our turn, contribute something to the general good. Thus they are savage beasts, and ought not to be called men, who are only skillful to do mischief, and labor with all their might to avoid doing good. he immediately adds, without a figure, that they are given up, and, as it were, devoted to iniquity.

Calvin: Isa 59:7 - Their feet run to evil // Wasting and destruction are in their paths 7.Their feet run to evil In various ways he paints to us the picture of what may be called extreme wickedness; that is, when men, having shaken off a...

7.Their feet run to evil In various ways he paints to us the picture of what may be called extreme wickedness; that is, when men, having shaken off and cast away from them the fear of God, throw themselves into every kind of wickedness, and break out into all cruelty, extortion, and outrage. He says that they run, because they are eager and hasten with excessive keenness to evil actions. Having formerly spoken of the “hands” and the “tongues,” he likewise adds the feet, in order to show that they are proficients 135 in every kind of villainy, and that there is no part of their body that is entirely free from crime. Some are violent, but restrain their tongues. 136 Others resemble harpies, but are satisfied with the first prey that they meet with. But the Prophet says that his countrymen are swift of foot for committing robberies. 137

Wasting and destruction are in their paths He means that, wherever they go, they will resemble wild beasts, which seize and devour whatever they meet with, and leave nothing behind, so that, by their terrific onset, they drive away every kind of animals from venturing to approach to them. Pliny makes use of the same comparison, when speaking of Domitian, whose arrival was like that of a savage beast. The same thing happens with other violent men, whom all avoid as wild beasts. And in this manner their ways are rendered desolate and solitary, when none have any intercourse with them.

Calvin: Isa 59:8 - The way of peace they know not // And judgment is not in their steps // Whosoever walketh by them 8.The way of peace they know not Some give an ingenious interpretation of the word “peace” as meaning a “peaceful” conscience; because the wi...

8.The way of peace they know not Some give an ingenious interpretation of the word “peace” as meaning a “peaceful” conscience; because the wicked must endure continual agony. But the Prophet summons wicked men to judgment, in order to show, by the transgression of the Second Table, that they have no sincerity and no kindness, and, in a word, that they are ἀστόργους without natural affection. He says that “they know not the way of peace;“ because their cruelty deprives them of justice and equity, by which human society is maintained, the very food of which is mutual peace and kindness; for justice and integrity are nourished by peace. And if every person, with unbridled rage, rush on his neighbors and attack them, there is then open war; for harmony cannot be preserved among us, unless equity be observed by every individual. 138

And judgment is not in their steps What he had just before said is expressed more clearly by the word “Judgment;” as if he had said, that they excite terror wherever they go, because they lay aside all integrity.

Whosoever walketh by them The last clause may be taken in various senses; either, “Whosoever walketh in them shall also be a stranger to peace,” or, “He who falleth into the hands of the wicked shall find them to be savage and barbarous.” Either of those meanings is admissible, and I do not think it worth while to dispute much about them. Thus, after having spoken in general terms, and after having shown that it is not God who prevents the Jews from being prosperous, the Prophet descends to particulars, by which he explains more fully the manner in which they have become estranged from God, and have rendered themselves unworthy of his favor.

Here arises a difficulty; for Paul (Rom 3:17) quotes this passage for the purpose of condemning all mankind as being sinful and corrupted, and as having nothing good; while the Prophet appears to apply it especially to the men of his own time. But the answer is easy; for, while he expressly addresses the Jews, who thought that they were holier than other men, the Gentiles must also be included along with them. If it be objected that the Gentiles, while they live uprightly, “are a law to themselves,” (Rom 2:14) and that “uncircumcision is counted as circumcision,” (Rom 2:26) I reply that the Prophet represents God as complaining of all who have not been renewed by the Spirit of God. In this manner no man can be excepted, if he be viewed in his own nature; but the Prophet speaks of himself as not belonging to their number, because he had been regenerated and was guided by the Spirit of God.

Paul’s quotation of this passage was therefore appropriate; because he intended to show what sort of men they are whom God hath forsaken, and who are under the influence of their own nature. Although the depravity of men does not always break out into gross vice, and the Prophet’s design is to rebuke a very corrupt age; yet whenever crimes become so prevalent, we may behold, as in a mirror, what a pool and how deep a pool of every evil thing is the nature of man. And yet this discourse was undoubtedly very distasteful to the Jews, who were puffed up with vain glorying of the family from which they were descended; but since even they were not spared by the Spirit of God, there is no reason why other nations, who are not less sinful by nature, should wallow in their pleasures.

Calvin: Isa 59:9 - Therefore is judgment far from us // And justice doth not overtake us 9.Therefore is judgment far from us After having described how corrupt and depraved was the condition of that people, he likewise shows that the seve...

9.Therefore is judgment far from us After having described how corrupt and depraved was the condition of that people, he likewise shows that the severe chastisements inflicted on them are richly deserved, that they may not complain of being treated with greater harshness and severity than was proper. Thus he has painted, as in a picture, those vices which were publicly known, that they might more fully perceive in how many and how various ways they were guilty before God; and now he again repeats that we need not wonder if God treat such obstinate dispositions with greater severity, and render to them a just reward. He says that “Judgment is far off, because they were the most wretched of all men, and had not God for their protector as formerly.”

And justice doth not overtake us He employs the words “judgment” and “justice” as denoting God’s guardianship, when he defends us, and shows that he takes care of us. He calls it “justice” when he defends us, and “judgment” when he revenges the injuries done to us. Here he declares that God had cast away the care of his people, and had deprived them of his countenance and aid, because they were unworthy of it; and hence we ought to observe the particle על כן ( gnal ken) “therefore;” for he draws the conclusion that we ought not to blame God, as if he acted unjustly towards his people, since in so many ways they had insulted his majesty.

Of the same import is what he adds, that while they look for light, continual darkness sits down upon them; for the metaphor shows that they were almost consumed by their calamities, and that, when they promised to themselves any alleviation, they were disappointed of their hope. Light is a word very frequently employed to denote prosperity, and darkness to denote adversity. He means, therefore, that it will be vain to expect that their condition shall be changed for the better; and his object is, that the people may learn to ascribe their calamities to themselves, and may not imagine that those calamities happen by chance, or that the Lord is excessively severe; for he always endeavors to bring his people to the doctrine of repentance.

Calvin: Isa 59:10 - We grope for the wall like the blind // We stumble // In solitary places as dead men 10.We grope for the wall like the blind He explains the same thing by different forms of expression; for, in consequence of the grievous complaints w...

10.We grope for the wall like the blind He explains the same thing by different forms of expression; for, in consequence of the grievous complaints which were heard among the people, he determined to omit nothing that was fitted to describe their calamities. It is perhaps by way of concession 139 that he mentions those things; as if he had said, “Our affairs are reduced to the deepest misery, but we ought chiefly to consider the cause, for we have deserved all this and far worse.” But it is not a probable interpretation, that stupid persons are aroused to think of their evil actions; for, although they are abundantly disposed to complain, yet the devil stupifies them, so that the tokens of God’s anger do not awaken them to repentance, he alludes to that metaphor which he employed in the preceding verse, when he said that the people were in darkness and obscurity, and found no escape; and. his meaning is, that they are destitute of counsel, and overwhelmed by so deep anguish that they have no solace or refuge. When a lighter evil presses upon us, we look around and hope to find some means of escape; but when we are overpowered by heavier distresses, despair takes from us all ability to see or to judge. For this reason the Prophet says that they have been thrown into a labyrinth, and are “groping.”

We stumble The same thing is expressed, and even in a still more aggravated form, by this mode of expression, that, if they stir a foot, various stumbling blocks meet them on every hand, and, indeed, that there is no alleviation to their distresses, as if day had been changed into night.

In solitary places as dead men By “solitary places” I understand either gulfs or ruinous and barren regions; for in this passage I willingly follow the version of Jerome, who derives the word אשמנים ( ashmannim) from אשם ( asham,)”to be desolate.” The Jews, who choose to derive it from שמן ( shaman,) to be fat, appear to me to argue idly, and to have no solid ground for their opinion. They think that it denotes men, because שמן ( shemen) denotes “ointment,” and say that this word is used for describing the Gentiles. But the true meaning of the Prophet is, that the Jews have been reduced to a wilderness, so that, shut out from the society of men, they resemble the dead, and have no hope of escape.

Calvin: Isa 59:11 - We all roar like bears // We looked for judgment 11.We all roar like bears He describes two classes of those who cannot silently endure their afflictions without making them known by external signs;...

11.We all roar like bears He describes two classes of those who cannot silently endure their afflictions without making them known by external signs; for some howl fiercely, and others moan like doves. This latter metaphor was employed by him in describing the groans of Hezekiah, (Isa 38:14;) and this happens when we endeavor to restrain our grief, and yet cannot prevent the outward signs of grief from breaking out in spite of us. The meaning is, that sometimes the violence of their grief constrained them to utter loud cries, and sometimes they complained in low and murmuring sounds, but in both cases without avail, because their condition was not changed for the better.

We looked for judgment He again repeats that in vain they “looked for judgment and salvation,” meaning that the people were deprived of the assistance of God, which he desired above all things; and he makes use of the word salvation, in order to describe more fully and completely what he formerly denoted by the word “justice,” and now again by the word “judgment.” Thence infer that it is by our own fault that we are wretched, and grow old and waste away in our wretchedness, till we are converted to God. We may indeed moan and howl, but can obtain no alleviation of our grief without repentance. There can be no end of our afflictions, so long as we provoke the Lord’s wrath, and do not desire with the whole heart to be reconciled to him.

Calvin: Isa 59:12 - For our iniquities are multiplied before thee // Our sins have testified against us, // For our iniquities are with us // And we know our sins 12.For our iniquities are multiplied before thee He confirms what he formerly said, namely, that the people act unjustly in accusing God of cruelty, ...

12.For our iniquities are multiplied before thee He confirms what he formerly said, namely, that the people act unjustly in accusing God of cruelty, and in not understanding that they are justly punished for their iniquities, the huge mass of which towers up to heaven; and in this sense the Prophet says that they “are multiplied.” There is also much weight in the phrase “before thee;” for the Prophet descends into himself, and acknowledges the righteous judgment of God, which was hidden from men. Thus he intended to point out an implied contrast between the judgment of God and the judgment of men, who flatter themselves, and do not consider their sins; but God, who is a just judge, does not the less on that account reprove them, or pay any attention to the frivolous excuses under which they endeavor to shelter themselves. For this reason he does not reckon it enough simply to condemn the people, but says that they have “multiplied” their sins, that is, in many respects they are guilty before God. He acknowledges, therefore, that the Lord is righteous, and performs the part of an excellent judge; since nothing good or right is found among men; and therefore he adds, —

Our sins have testified against us, ( or, answer 140 to us.) Witnesses are not summoned, or brought from heaven; but the Jews are rebuked and condemned by the testimony of conscience. That mode of expression ought to be carefully observed; for it shows that God does not need many proofs, since our sins hold us to be sufficiently convicted. We must not, therefore, strive with God, as if he punished us unjustly, or chastised us too severely; for our sins openly proclaim what we are, and God does not need additional proofs.

For our iniquities are with us Instead of “with us,” some render אתנו ( ittanu) ”upon us;” but I choose rather to adhere to the strict meaning of the word. 141 Men practice evasions, and assume various shapes, in order to appear righteous; but in vain, for they carry with them their iniquities, from which they cannot extricate themselves; as God, in condemning Cain, (Gen 4:7) declares that “sin keepeth watch before the door;“ so that any one who despises the judgment of God shall in vain attempt to escape by his rebellion.

And we know our sins When he says that the Jews “know their sins,” he does not mean that their hearts are truly affected by them, for in that case repentance follows; but he declares that, although they desire to escape the judgment of God, the testimony of their own conscience binds and holds them fast, so that it is vain for them to cavil or seek an excuse. He speaks in the first person, as if he were one of the great body of the people. This is very customary; but at the same time he shows that this evil prevails through the whole body to such an extent that not one member is whole or sound; and, although he may plead his own cause before God, yet, because iniquity is diffused through every part of the body, he acknowledges that he is one of the diseased members and is infected by the general contagion. Nor is there any contradiction in having formerly spoken of himself as not sharing the general guilt, and now laying aside all distinction, and including himself along with others.

Calvin: Isa 59:13 - We have done wickedly // And we have lied to Jehovah // Conceiving and uttering from the heart 13.We have done wickedly Here he enumerates certain classes of sins, in order to arouse the people more keenly to an acknowledgment of their sin. It ...

13.We have done wickedly Here he enumerates certain classes of sins, in order to arouse the people more keenly to an acknowledgment of their sin. It must be regarded as monstrous, that men, who have been chastised and almost crushed by the hand of God, are still proud, and so obstinate that they cannot bend or be humbled by a conviction of their sin. The Lord endeavors to soften our obduracy by stripes and wounds; but when chastisements do us no good, our case must be given up as hopeless. Isaiah therefore labors to show how wretched is the condition of the people, who, while they endured severe hardships, yet murmured against God, and did not suffer themselves to be brought into a state of obedience. And therefore he frequently repeats this warning, and reproves sharply, in order to subdue this obstinacy of the people.

And we have lied to Jehovah By a variety of terms he rebukes their vices, and enumerates classes of them, after having pointed out in a general manner that corruption which everywhere prevailed.: Nor does he mention only slight faults, or those of a small number of persons, but a universal revolt. By these words he pronounces them to have been so deeply corrupted, that no sincerity, uprightness, fear, or conscience remained in them. For what is meant by “lying to God,” but to revolt treacherously from him, as if all obedience were refused? Thus he does not reproach them with one or a few transgressions of the Law, but says that, like fugitives, they have forsaken God, so that they do not follow him when he calls.

Conceiving and uttering from the heart He now adds that they were devoted to the invention of mischief, and thoroughly imbued with falsehood; for “to utter a lie from the heart,” is far worse than to tell lies thoughtlessly, or even to deceive when an occasion presents itself. 142 Nor is there any room to doubt that those reproofs grievously offended the Jews, who, puffed up with pride, imagined that they were exceedingly holy. But it was proper to treat their hypocrisy in this manner, because mere doctrine produced little effect upon them. Taught by this example, pastors, when they see the Church of God corrupt, and men pleasing themselves and flattering their vices, ought to make strenuous opposition, accompanied by loud and sharp reproof.

Calvin: Isa 59:14 - And judgment is driven back // In the street 14.And judgment is driven back It is a mistake to suppose that the Prophet returns to his earliest subject, (Isa 1:5) and speaks of the punishments w...

14.And judgment is driven back It is a mistake to suppose that the Prophet returns to his earliest subject, (Isa 1:5) and speaks of the punishments which the people had suffered at the hand of God; for he still proceeds with the preceding narrative, and explains the diseases under which the people labored, that they may see clearly that they are justly punished. But we must distinguish this verse from the ninth, in which he said that “judgment had gone back;” for there he declared that they were deprived of God’s assistance, because they did not deserve to have him as the defender of their cause; but here he says that “judgment is driven back” in a different sense, that is, because they have overthrown all justice and equity among themselves. They have therefore received a just reward, because no justice of God has shone forth to render assistance, when they have banished far from them justice and equity; for in vain do we expect from God what we have refused to others and cast away from ourselves.

In the street That is, in a public place. He describes those places in which judicial sentences were pronounced. When he says that “truth is fallen in the street,” he means that not only some private individuals have been corrupted, but the whole condition of the people is so thoroughly depraved as to leave no part sound; for, if some vices reign among the common people, some remedy may be obtained, so long as there is room for judgment; but if judgments are overthrown or corrupted, it follows that all things are infected by a universal contagion. He describes also their unbridled licentiousness, in not being ashamed of conduct openly wicked, and in not shrinking from the light and from the eyes of men.

Calvin: Isa 59:15 - Truth faileth // And Jehovah saw 15.Truth faileth Hence it clearly appears that Isaiah, in the preceding verse, did not speak of punishments; for, without interrupting the stream of ...

15.Truth faileth Hence it clearly appears that Isaiah, in the preceding verse, did not speak of punishments; for, without interrupting the stream of his discourse, he proceeds to show that the people ought not to complain of the severity of chastisements, since they have so grievously offended and provoked God. He therefore confirms what he formerly said, that “truth hath fallen, that there is no place for equity;” and he enlarges this statement the more, by adding that he who hath withdrawn from evil hath become a prey. 143 Almost all the Jewish expositors, reading the two clauses consecutively, explain them thus: — “Truth hath failed, and, by departing from evil, hath been made a prey.” Why they adopt that meaning, I do not see.

Jerome’s exposition, which I follow, is much more correct; and appropriate; and a similar mode of expression is frequently employed in the Scriptures. Job is said to have been

“an upright and perfect man, fearing
God, and departing from evil.” (Job 1:1)

Solomon also says,

“The fool is confident, but the righteous man looketh well to himself, and departeth from evil.” (Pro 14:16)

The Prophet means that all uprightness was so greatly abhorred, that the true worshippers of God, if any remained, were not permitted to be safe. As if he had said, “Whoever wishes to live among men must vie with them in wickedness,” 144 according to the common proverb, “Among wolves we must howl; but he who wishes to live innocently shall be torn in pieces, as a sheep is torn by wolves.” Finally, he describes the utmost pitch of wickedness; for he shows that “truth hath failed,” so that no good man is allowed to remain among them; because every one that abstains front acts of injustice “lays himself open to be a prey.”

And Jehovah saw This relates to the consolation of the people; for he declares that, although they have grievously offended, so that it may appear as if there were no room for pardon, still the Lord will have regard to his people, and, although he has inflicted very severe chastisements, will at length remember his covenant, so as to bring incredible relief by healing their wounds. He speaks here of a future period, and promises that one day, after calamities so numerous and diversified, the Lord will aid the people that are left; for the Jews would have lost heart, and would have been altogether discouraged, if the Lord had not brought that consolation.

Thus men commonly rush forward, and throw themselves headlong into opposite vices; for, when they are reproved, they either grow obstinate and harden themselves, or are terrified and fall into despair. We must therefore observe carefully this order which the Prophet followed. First, it was necessary to reprove the Jews, that, being affected and laid low by repentance, they might cease to find fault with God; and, secondly, a mitigation of punishments, accompanied by salvation, is promised, that they might not be discouraged, but expect assistance from the Lord, who is unwilling that his Church should perish, and punishes his people for a time, in order that he may not suffer them to be ruined and destroyed.

Yet if any one prefer to limit this dislike or displeasure of God to the “judgment,” because he had good reason for abhorring a wicked people, I have no objection; as if he had said that God saw nothing in that people but what was ground of hatred. Hence it follows, that there was no other motive that prompted him to yield assistance, than because their affairs were utterly desperate.

Calvin: Isa 59:16 - He saw that there was no man // He wondered that none came forward // Therefore his arm brought // And his righteousness, it upheld him 16.He saw that there was no man Isaiah continues the same subject, but expresses more, and relates more fully what he had briefly noticed; for what h...

16.He saw that there was no man Isaiah continues the same subject, but expresses more, and relates more fully what he had briefly noticed; for what he said in the preceding verse, that “it displeased the Lord that there was no judgment,” might have been obscure. In this passage he repeats that the Lord saw that “there was no man” 145 to render assistance to the Church, and that he wondered. He makes use of the verb ישתומם ( yishtomem) in the Hithpahel conjugation, 146 for the purpose of denoting that the Lord was the cause of his own astonishment; as if he had said, “He made himself astonished.”

He wondered that none came forward Some think that מפגיע ( maphgiang) means an intercessor; but I think that the meaning is this, that there was none who endeavored to relieve their affliction, that there was no physician who applied his hand to this wound, and that for this reason God “wondered.” The reason why he attributes to God this astonishment may be easily understood. By this rebuke he intended to put the Jews to shame, that they might not, according to their custom, resort to hypocritical pretenses for concealing their sins; and, because it was incredible and monstrous that there was not found in a holy and elect people any one that opposed injustice, he represents God as astonished at such a novelty, that the Jews may at length be ashamed and repent. Was it possible that there could be greater obstinacy of which they ought to be ashamed, since by their wickedness they moved God to astonishment?

At the same time he rebukes their hypocrisy, if they pretend to have eminent piety and holiness, when God, after a diligent search, did not find even one upright man. He likewise praises and magnifies the unspeakable mercy of God, in condescending to rescue, as if from the depths of hell, a people whose condition was so desperate; for the Jews were undoubtedly reminded by these words in what manner they ought to hope for redemption; namely, because God is pleased to rise up miraculously to save what was lost. Besides, by the word “wonder” he describes also God’s fatherly care. It is certain that God is not liable to those passions, so as to wonder at anything as new or uncommon; but he accommodates himself to us, in order that, being deeply moved by a conviction of our evils, we may view our condition with horror. Thus, when he says that “the Lord saw,” he means that there is no help in our own industry; when he says that the Lord “wonders,” he means that we are excessively dull and stupid, because we neither perceive nor care for the evils of our condition; and yet that our indifference does not prevent the Lord from rendering assistance to his Church.

Therefore his arm brought (or, made) salvation to him. By these words he means that we ought not to despair, although we receive no assistance from men. Yet, reducing to nothing every other assistance, he pronounces the salvation of his own nation, and consequently of all mankind, to be owing, from first to last, to God’s undeserved goodness and absolute power. Thus, in like manner as, by asserting that God is abundantly sufficient for himself, and has power and strength sufficient to redeem the Jews, he stretches out his hand to the feeble; so, by saying that men can do nothing to promote their salvation, he abases all pride, that, being stripped of confidence in their works, they may approach to God. And we must observe this design of the Prophet; for, in reading the Prophets and Apostles, we must not merely consider what they say, but for what purpose, and with what design. Here, therefore, we ought chiefly to observe the design of the Prophet, that in God alone is there sufficient power for accomplishing our salvation, that we may not look hither and thither; for we are too much disposed to lean on external aids; but that we ought to place the hope of salvation nowhere else than on the arm of God, and that the true foundation of the Church is in his righteousness, and that they do wrong who depend on anything else; since God has borrowed nothing from any but himself.

The usefulness of this doctrine is still more extensive; for, although all remedies often fail us, yet the Lord will find sufficient assistance in his own arm. Whenever, therefore, we are destitute of men’s assistance, and are overwhelmed by calamities of every kind, and see nothing before us but ruin, let us betake ourselves to this doctrine, and let us rest assured that God is sufficiently powerful to defend us; and, since he has no need of the assistance of others, let us learn to rely firmly and confidently on his aid.

Yet we must keep in remembrance the universal doctrine, namely, that the redemption of the Church is a wonderful blessing bestowed by God alone, that we may not ascribe anything to the strength or industry of men. With abhorrence we ought to regard the pride of those who claim for themselves any part of that praise which belongs to God, since in him alone is found both the cause and the effect of our salvation.

And his righteousness, it upheld him Here arm denotes power and strength, and righteousness denotes the integrity which he displays in procuring the salvation of his people, when he is their protector, and delivers them from destruction. 147 When he says that “the arm of God brought to him salvation,” this must not be limited to God, and ought not to be taken passively, as if God saved himself, but, actively; so that this salvation refers to the Church, which he has delivered from the bands of enemies.

Calvin: Isa 59:17 - And he put on righteousness as a coat of mail 17.And he put on righteousness as a coat of mail Here he equips God with his armor, for the purpose both of confirming more and more the confidence o...

17.And he put on righteousness as a coat of mail Here he equips God with his armor, for the purpose both of confirming more and more the confidence of believers, and of stripping all men of all confidence in their own strength. The meaning of the verse amounts to this, that God is in want of nothing for discomfiting his enemies and gaining the victory; because from his righteousness, power, and grace, and from his ardent love of his people, he will make for himself πανοπλίαν complete armor. And this is again worthy of remark; for, although we acknowledge that God is sufficiently powerful, yet we are not satisfied with it, but at. the same time seek other help. Thus our minds are always inclined to unbelief, so that they fasten on inferior means, and are greatly entangled by them.

In order to correct this vice, Isaiah presents this lively description; as if he had said, “Know ye that God has in his hand all the safeguards of your salvation, and will be in want of nothing to deliver you in spite of enemies and bring you back to your native country; and therefore there is no reason why you should tremble.” Besides, there is nothing to which we are more prone than to imagine that we bestow something on God, and thus to claim for ourselves some part of the praise which ought to remain undivided with him.

When he clothes God with vengeance, and with indignation as a cloak, this relates to enemies, against whom God is said to be enraged for the sake of his people; and thus, the more that Satan labors and makes every effort against us, so much the more does God kindle with zeal, and so much the more powerfully does he rise up, to render assistance to us. Although, therefore, Satan and all the reprobate do not rest, but raise up obstacles of every kind to prevent our salvation, and even exert themselves furiously to destroy us, yet, by his power alone, God will defeat all their efforts.

Calvin: Isa 59:18 - As if on account of recompenses 18.As if on account of recompenses He confirms the statement of the preceding verse; for he shows what will be the nature of that vengeance with whic...

18.As if on account of recompenses He confirms the statement of the preceding verse; for he shows what will be the nature of that vengeance with which he had clothed the Lord; namely, that he is prepared to render recompense to his enemies. We must attend to the reason why the Prophet describes the Lord as thus armed, indignant, and ready for vengeance. It is, because the salvation of the Church is connected with the destruction of the wicked; and therefore God must be armed against the enemies who wish to destroy us.

Hence we see God’s infinite love toward us, who loves us so ardently that he bears hostility to our enemies, and declares that he will render recompense to them. So strong is his affection to his little flock, that he sets a higher value on them than on the whole world. This is the reason why he says that he will render recompense to the islands, that is, to countries beyond the sea and far off; for, in order to deliver his people, he overthrew monarchies that were powerful, and that appeared to be invincible. But, although here he mentions none but mortal men, still we must begin with Satan, who is their head.

Calvin: Isa 59:19 - Therefore they shall fear the name of Jehovah // For 19.Therefore they shall fear the name of Jehovah He now testifies that this work of redemption shall be so splendid and illustrious, that the whole w...

19.Therefore they shall fear the name of Jehovah He now testifies that this work of redemption shall be so splendid and illustrious, that the whole world shall wonder, behold, praise, and celebrate, and, struck with fear, shall render glory to God. It is uncertain whether he means the conversion of the Gentiles, or the terror with which God dismays his enemies. For my own part, I am more inclined to the former opinion, that, even to the utmost boundaries of the earth, the name of God shall be revered and honored, so that the Gentiles shall not only tremble, but shall serve and adore him with true repentance.

For 148 the enemy shall come as a river. As to the reason now assigned, commentators differ. But the true meaning, in my opinion, is, that the attack of the enemy shall be so furious that, like a rapid and impetuous torrent, it shall appear to sweep away and destroy everything, but that the Lord shall cause it instantly to subside and disappear. It is therefore intended to heighten the description of the divine power, by which the vast strength and dreadful fury of the enemies are repelled, receive a different direction, and fall to pieces.

A question now arises, “What redemption does the Prophet mean?” I reply, as I have already suggested on another passage, that these promises ought not to be limited, as is commonly done, to a single redemption; for the Jews refer it, exclusively to the deliverance from Babylon, while Christians refer it to Christ alone. For my part, I join both, so as to include the whole period after the return of the people along with that which followed down to the coming of Christ; for this prophecy was not fulfilled but in Christ, and what is said here cannot apply to any other. Never was the glory of God revealed to the whole world, nor were his enemies put to flight so as not to recover their strength, till Christ achieved a conquest and illustrious triumph over Satan, sin, and death.

Calvin: Isa 59:20 - And a Redeemer shall come to Zion // And to them who have turned away from iniquity // Saith Jehovah 20.And a Redeemer shall come to Zion He again confirms what he formerly said, that the people shall be delivered, and that God will be the author of ...

20.And a Redeemer shall come to Zion He again confirms what he formerly said, that the people shall be delivered, and that God will be the author of this blessing. He bids the people, therefore, be of good cheer in their captivity, which shall not be perpetual; and next, he exhorts them to place the hope of redemption in God alone, that they may fix their minds solely on his promises. By the name Zion he denotes here, as in other passages, captives and exiles; for however far they had been banished from their country, still they must have carried the temple in their hearts.

And to them who have turned away from iniquity That the bastard children of Abraham may not apply indiscriminately to themselves what he has just now said, he proceeds to show to whom the redemption shall come, namely, to those only who have been truly consecrated to the Lord. It is certain that many returned from Babylon, who were not moved by any feeling of repentance, and yet who became partakers of the same blessing. But the Prophet speaks of the complete redemption which the elect alone enjoy; for, although the fruit of external redemption extends also to hypocrites, yet they have not embraced the blessing of God for salvation. The design of the Prophet is, to show that the punishment; of banishment will be advantageous, that God may gather his Church, after having purified it from filth and pollution; for we must always bear in remembrance what we saw elsewhere as to the diminution of the people.

In this way the Prophet exhorts the elect to the fear of God, that they may profit by his chastisements. Hence infer, that we cannot be reconciled to God through the blood of Christ, unless we first repent of our sins; not that salvation, which is founded on the pardon of sins, depends on our repentance; but repentance is joined to it in such a manner that it cannot be separated. They whom the Lord receives into favor are renewed by his Spirit in such a manner as to abhor their vices and change their manner of life.

Papists overturn the whole doctrine of salvation, by mingling and confounding pardon of sin with repentance; and not only they, but others also who wish to be thought more acute. 149 They acknowledge that a man is justified by free grace through Christ, but add, that it is because we are renewed by him. Thus they make our justification to depend partly on the pardon of sins and partly on repentance. But in this way our consciences will never be pacified; for we are very far from being perfectly renewed. These things must, therefore, be distinguished, so as to be neither separated nor confounded; and thus our salvation will rest; on a solid foundation.

Paul quotes this passage, (Rom 11:26) in order to show that there is still some remaining hope among the Jews; although from their unconquerable obstinacy it might be inferred that they were altogether cast off and doomed to eternal death. But because God is continually mindful of his covenant, and “his gifts and calling are without repentance,” (Rom 11:29) Paul justly concludes that it is impossible that there shall not at length be some remnant that come to Christ, and obtain that salvation which he has procured. Thus the Jews must at length be collected along with the Gentiles, that out of both “there may be one fold” under Christ. (Joh 10:16) It is of the deliverance from Babylon, however, that the Prophet treats. This is undoubtedly true; but we have said that he likewise includes the kingdom of Christ, and spiritual redemption, to which this prediction relates. Hence we have said that Paul infers that he could not be the redeemer of the world, without belonging to some Jews, whose fathers he had chosen, and to whom this promise was directly addressed.

Saith Jehovah By these words, in the conclusion of the verse, he sets a seal to the excellent sentiment which he has expressed.

Calvin: Isa 59:21 - And I make this my covenant with them // My Spirit that is upon thee, and my words // Shall not depart out of thy mouth // Which I have put in thy mouth // My words shall not depart 21.And I make this my covenant with them Because it was difficult to believe what the Prophet has hitherto declared, therefore he endeavors, in vario...

21.And I make this my covenant with them Because it was difficult to believe what the Prophet has hitherto declared, therefore he endeavors, in various ways, to confirm the Jews, that they may rely with unshaken confidence on this promise of salvation, and may ascribe to God so much honor as to trust in his word. And we ought carefully to observe the word covenant, by which the Prophet points out the greatness and excellence of this promise; for the promises are more extensive, and may be regarded as the stones of the building, while the foundation of it is the covenant, which upholds the whole mass. He makes use of this word, therefore, that they might not think that it contained some matter of ordinary occurrence, and adds these confirmations, that, although the Lord did not immediately perform this, they might nevertheless expect it with firm and unshaken hope; and there appears to be an implied contrast, that believers may cheerfully look forward to the new covenant, which was to be established in the hand of Christ.

My Spirit that is upon thee, and my words What is now added may be thought to be feeble and trivial, when he enjoins the Church to be satisfied with the “word” and “Spirit;“ as if this were a great happiness, to hang in suspense on nothing but God’s promises. Yet although the Prophet commends the value and excellence of doctrine, I have no doubt that still it is not separated from its effect. But because God regulates and dispenses his grace in such a manner, that, as long as believers remain in this world, he always trains them to patience, and does not in every instance answer their prayers, therefore he brings them back to doctrine; as if he had said, “Thou wilt indeed find that I am kind to thee in various ways; but. there is no happiness which will be of greater importance to thee, or which thou oughtest to desire more earnestly, than to feel that I am present by ‘the word’ and ‘the Spirit.’” Hence we infer that this is a most valuable treasure of the Church, that he has chosen for himself a habitation in it, to dwell in the hearts of believers by his Spirit, and next to preserve among them the doctrine of his gospel.

Shall not depart out of thy mouth Finally, he foretells that the Lord will never forsake his people, but will always be present with them by “his Spirit” and by “the word.” The “Spirit” is joined with the word, because, without the efficacy of the Spirit, the preaching of the gospel would avail nothing, but would remain unfruitful. In like manner, “the word” must not be separated from “the Spirit,” as fanatics imagine, who, despising the word, glory in the name of the Spirit, and swell with vain confidence in their own imaginations. It is the spirit of Satan that is separated from the word, to which the Spirit of God is continually joined. Now, when he quickens outward doctrine, so that it strikes root in our hearts, our condition is happy even amidst many afflictions; and I have no doubt that the Prophet expressly declares that, although God deals kindly with his Church, still its life and salvation shall be laid up in faith. Thus the new people is distinguished from the ancient people; for, as the kingdom of Christ is spiritual, so, since he has risen from the dead, believing souls must be raised up along with him. But now he promises that the Church will never be deprived of this invaluable blessing, but will be guided by the Holy Spirit and sustained by heavenly doctrine; for it would be of little avail that the gospel should once be offered to us, and that the Spirit should be given to us, if he did not dwell with us.

Which I have put in thy mouth The Prophet shows that God addresses us in such a manner that he chooses to employ the ministry and agency of men. He might indeed speak from heaven or send angels; but he has consulted our advantage the more by addressing and exhorting us through men like ourselves, that, by their voice and word, he may more gently draw us to himself. This order has therefore been established by him in the Church, that it is vain for those who reject his ministers to boast that they are willing to obey God; and therefore he commands us to seek the word and doctrine from the mouth of prophets and teachers, who teach in his name and by his authority, that we may not foolishly hunt after new revelations.

My words shall not depart The phrase, “shall not depart,” is rendered by some in the imperative mood, for which it is well known that the future tense is sometimes used. But here a command or exhortation is not appropriate; for the Prophet promises that which God intends to fulfill. An exhortation may indeed be drawn from it, but the priority is due to the promise, which is to this effect, that the Lord will assist his Church, and will take care of it, so as never to allow it to be deprived of doctrine. To this, therefore, we ought always to look, when we are tempted by adversity, and when everything does not succeed according to our wish; for we must be supported and upheld by the word and the Spirit, of which the Lord declares that we shall never be left destitute.

Defender: Isa 59:5 - into a viper The pitiful state of the Christian evolutionist is illustrated by the fact that this verse (presenting vipers as being hatched from cockatrice' eggs) ...

The pitiful state of the Christian evolutionist is illustrated by the fact that this verse (presenting vipers as being hatched from cockatrice' eggs) is the main proof text in the Bible that can be cited for evolution. Actually this verse introduces a depressing catalog of human sinfulness (Isa 59:7-15), with Isa 59:7 and Isa 59:8 cited later by Paul as characteristics of all natural men if they yield to their sinful natures (Rom 3:15-17)."

Defender: Isa 59:19 - When the enemy These great promises will be literally fulfilled in the last days of the coming tribulation period (Rev 12:15-17)."

These great promises will be literally fulfilled in the last days of the coming tribulation period (Rev 12:15-17)."

Defender: Isa 59:20 - come to Zion Cited in Rom 11:26, Rom 11:27. In that day, "all Israel shall be saved.""

Cited in Rom 11:26, Rom 11:27. In that day, "all Israel shall be saved.""

TSK: Isa 59:1 - the Lord’ s // that it cannot save // his ear the Lord’ s : Isa 50:2; Gen 18:14; Num 11:23; Jer 32:17 that it cannot save : Isa 63:1; Heb 7:25 his ear : Isa 6:10; Mat 13:15

the Lord’ s : Isa 50:2; Gen 18:14; Num 11:23; Jer 32:17

that it cannot save : Isa 63:1; Heb 7:25

his ear : Isa 6:10; Mat 13:15

TSK: Isa 59:2 - your iniquities // hid your iniquities : Isa 50:1; Deu 32:19; Jos 7:11; Pro 15:29; Jer 5:25 hid : or, made him hide, Isa 57:17; Deu 31:17, Deu 31:18, Deu 32:20; Eze 39:23, E...

TSK: Isa 59:3 - your hands // your lips your hands : Isa 1:15, Isa 1:21; Jer 2:30,Jer 2:34, Jer 22:17; Eze 7:23, Eze 9:9, Eze 22:2, Eze 35:6; Hos 4:2; Mic 3:10-12, Mic 7:2; Mat 27:4 your lip...

TSK: Isa 59:4 - calleth // trust // and speak // they conceive calleth : Isa 59:16; Jer 5:1, Jer 5:4, Jer 5:5; Eze 22:29-31; Mic 7:2-5 trust : Isa 30:12; Job 15:31; Psa 62:10; Jer 7:4, Jer 7:8 and speak : Isa 59:3...

TSK: Isa 59:5 - cockatrice’ // crushed breaketh out into a viper cockatrice’ : or, adder’ s, Isa 14:29; Pro 23:32 *marg. crushed breaketh out into a viper : or, sprinkled is as if there brake out a viper,...

cockatrice’ : or, adder’ s, Isa 14:29; Pro 23:32 *marg.

crushed breaketh out into a viper : or, sprinkled is as if there brake out a viper, Mat 3:7, Mat 12:34

TSK: Isa 59:6 - webs // neither // their works webs : Isa 28:18-20, Isa 30:12-14; Job 8:14, Job 8:15 neither : Isa 30:1, Isa 57:12, Isa 64:6; Rom 3:20-22, Rom 4:6-8; Rev 3:17, Rev 3:18 their works ...

TSK: Isa 59:7 - feet // and they // their thoughts // wasting // destruction feet : Pro 1:16, Pro 6:17; Rom 3:15 and they : Isa 59:3; Jer 22:17; Lam 4:13; Eze 9:9, Eze 22:6; Mat 23:31-37; Rev 17:6 their thoughts : Pro 15:26, Pr...

feet : Pro 1:16, Pro 6:17; Rom 3:15

and they : Isa 59:3; Jer 22:17; Lam 4:13; Eze 9:9, Eze 22:6; Mat 23:31-37; Rev 17:6

their thoughts : Pro 15:26, Pro 24:9; Mar 7:21, Mar 7:22; Act 8:20-22

wasting : Isa 60:18; Rom 3:16

destruction : Heb. breaking

TSK: Isa 59:8 - way // no // judgment // crooked // whosoever way : Pro 3:17; Luk 1:79; Rom 3:17 no : Isa 59:14, Isa 59:15, Isa 5:7; Jer 5:1; Hos 4:1, Hos 4:2; Amo 6:1-6; Mat 23:23 judgment : or, right, Psa 58:1,...

TSK: Isa 59:9 - is judgment // we wait is judgment : Lam 5:16, Lam 5:17; Hab 1:13 we wait : Isa 5:30; Job 30:26; Jer 8:15, Jer 14:19; Amo 5:18-20; Mic 1:12; 1Th 5:3

TSK: Isa 59:10 - grope // in desolate grope : Deu 28:29; Job 5:14; Pro 4:19; Jer 13:16; Lam 4:14; Amo 8:9; Joh 11:9, Joh 11:10, Joh 12:35, Joh 12:40; 1Jo 2:11 in desolate : Lam 3:6

TSK: Isa 59:11 - roar // mourn // for salvation roar : Isa 51:20; Psa 32:3, Psa 32:4, Psa 38:8; Hos 7:14 mourn : Isa 38:14; Job 30:28, Job 30:29; Jer 8:15, Jer 9:1; Eze 7:16 for salvation : Psa 85:9...

TSK: Isa 59:12 - our transgressions // our sins // we know our transgressions : Isa 1:4; Ezr 9:6; Jer 3:2, Jer 5:3-9, Jer 5:25-29, Jer 7:8-10; Eze 5:6, Eze 7:23, Eze 8:8-16; Eze 16:51, Eze 16:52, Eze 22:2-12, ...

TSK: Isa 59:13 - lying // departing // speaking lying : Isa 32:6, Isa 48:8, Isa 57:11; Psa 78:36; Jer 3:10, Jer 42:20; Eze 18:25; Hos 6:7, Hos 7:13; Hos 11:12; Act 5:3, Act 5:4 departing : Isa 31:6;...

TSK: Isa 59:14 - -- Isa 59:4, Isa 5:23, Isa 10:1, Isa 10:2; Psa 82:2-5; Ecc 3:16; Jer 5:27, Jer 5:28, Jer 5:31; Amo 5:7, Amo 5:11; Mic 3:9-11, Mic 7:3-5; Hab 1:4; Zep 3:1...

TSK: Isa 59:15 - truth // he that // maketh himself a prey // displeased him truth : Isa 48:1; Psa 5:9, Psa 12:1, Psa 12:2; Jer 5:1, Jer 5:2, Jer 7:28; Hos 4:1, Hos 4:2; Mic 7:2 he that : Hab 1:13, Hab 1:14; Act 9:1, Act 9:23; ...

truth : Isa 48:1; Psa 5:9, Psa 12:1, Psa 12:2; Jer 5:1, Jer 5:2, Jer 7:28; Hos 4:1, Hos 4:2; Mic 7:2

he that : Hab 1:13, Hab 1:14; Act 9:1, Act 9:23; Rom 8:36; Heb 11:36-38; 1Jo 3:11, 1Jo 3:12

maketh himself a prey : or, is accounted mad, 2Ki 9:11; Jer 29:26; Hos 9:7; Mar 3:21; Joh 8:52, Joh 10:20; Act 26:24; 2Co 5:13

displeased him : Heb. was evil in his eyes, Gen 38:10; 2Sa 11:27; 2Ch 21:7 *marg.

TSK: Isa 59:16 - he saw // therefore he saw : Isa 50:2, Isa 64:7; Gen 18:23-32; Psa 106:23; Jer 5:1; Eze 22:30; Mar 6:6 therefore : Isa 52:10, Isa 63:3-5; Psa 98:1

TSK: Isa 59:17 - he put on righteousness // the garments // with zeal he put on righteousness : Isa 11:5, Isa 51:9; Job 29:14; Rom 13:12-14; 2Co 6:7; Eph 6:14, Eph 6:17; 1Th 5:8; Rev 19:11 the garments : Deu 32:35-43; Ps...

TSK: Isa 59:18 - According // deeds // fury According : Isa 63:6; Job 34:11; Psa 18:24-26, Psa 62:12; Jer 17:10, Jer 50:29; Mat 16:27; Rom 2:6; Rev 20:12, Rev 20:13 deeds : Heb. recompences fury...

TSK: Isa 59:19 - shall they // When // the enemy // the Spirit // lift up a standard against him shall they : Isa 11:9-16, Isa 24:14-16, Isa 49:12, Isa 66:18-20; Psa 22:27, Psa 102:15, Psa 102:16, Psa 113:3; Dan 7:27; Zep 3:8, Zep 3:9; Mal 1:11; R...

shall they : Isa 11:9-16, Isa 24:14-16, Isa 49:12, Isa 66:18-20; Psa 22:27, Psa 102:15, Psa 102:16, Psa 113:3; Dan 7:27; Zep 3:8, Zep 3:9; Mal 1:11; Rev 11:15

When : This all the Rabbins refer to the coming of the Messiah. If, say they, ye see a generation which endured much tribulation, then expect Him, according to what is written, ""When the enemy shall come in like a flood,""etc.

the enemy : Rev 12:10,Rev 12:15-17, Rev 17:14, Rev 17:15

the Spirit : Isa 11:10; Zec 4:6; 2Th 2:8; Rev 20:1-3

lift up a standard against him : or, put him to flight

TSK: Isa 59:20 - the Redeemer // unto the Redeemer : Oba 1:17-21; Rom 11:26, Rom 11:27 unto : Deu 30:1-10; Eze 18:30,Eze 18:31; Dan 9:13; Act 2:36-39, Act 3:19, Act 3:26, Act 26:20; Tit 2:...

TSK: Isa 59:21 - this // My spirit // my words this : Isa 49:8, Isa 55:3; Jer 31:31-34, Jer 32:38-41; Eze 36:25-27, Eze 37:25-27; Eze 39:25-29; Heb 8:6-13, Heb 10:16 My spirit : Isa 11:1-3, Isa 61:...

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Poole: Isa 59:1 - The Lord’ s hand is not shortened // Neither his ear heavy The Lord’ s hand is not shortened he is not grown weaker than in former times, as omnipotent as ever he was: hand is here by a synecdoche put f...

The Lord’ s hand is not shortened he is not grown weaker than in former times, as omnipotent as ever he was: hand is here by a synecdoche put for arm , and so for strength , because the strength of a man doth generally put forth itself in his arm; and thus it is applied to God in his bringing Israel out of Egypt, Psa 136:12 .

Neither his ear heavy or thick of hearing; he is not like your idol gods, that have hands, and cannot help, and ears, and cannot hear. The phrases are much to the same purpose, save only that they seem to be appropriated to the double cavil, or quarrel, that the Jews might have with God; as,

1. Surely if God were not heavy or hard of hearing, he could not but hear those strong cries that we put up in the days of our fast; or,

2. If he did hear, certainly he could not help us; and thus it may have respect to the beginning of the 58th chapter. Or the words may be by way of confirmation and establishment, and so may relate to the close of it, to let them know that if they sought him as they ought, and was before prescribed, he was not inexorable, but willing to hear, and able to make good all those promises that he had made from verse 8 to the end. The sum is, to show that the fault was not in God, that their fasts and cries were not regarded, for his ear was as quick to hear as ever; nor their services rewarded, for his hand was as able to help as ever; but the obstruction lay in their sins, which is positively asserted, Isa 59:2 , and a more particular account given of them in the sequel.

Poole: Isa 59:2 - Have separated // Have hid his face // He will not hear Have separated have been as a thick wall between God and you; have set him at a great distance, Pro 15:29 . Have hid his face: this may be put syne...

Have separated have been as a thick wall between God and you; have set him at a great distance, Pro 15:29 .

Have hid his face: this may be put synecdoehically for the whole person; and the prophet speaking of God by an anthropopathy, may understand his presence ; and then it is, hath made him hide or withdraw his presence, as one that turns away his face from some noisome thing; or rather his favour, that though you cry to be delivered out of Babylon, yet you shall not find that favour.

He will not hear i.e. he will not grant it; thus it is used Psa 45:12 Hos 5:15 : See Poole "Isa 1:15" : see Jud 10:13 .

Poole: Isa 59:3 - Your hands are defiled with blood // Your fingers // Your lips have spoken lies // Your tongue hath muttered // Perverseness Your hands are defiled with blood: here the prophet comes from a more general to a more particular charge against them; by blood we are to understand...

Your hands are defiled with blood: here the prophet comes from a more general to a more particular charge against them; by blood we are to understand either murders and bloodshed properly so called; or ways of injustice, extortion, oppression, and cruelties, whereby men are deprived of a livelihood; hence hating our brother is called murder, 1Jo 3:15 , and the inhabitants of Jerusalem called murderers. See how the prophet phraseth their oppression, Mic 3:1-3 .

Your fingers: this is not added to protract the discourse, but to aggravate their sin: q.d. Not only your hands, but your fingers; you are not free from the least part of injustice.

Your lips have spoken lies not only properly so called, but perjuries, and wronging’ your neighbours by slanders and false accusations; wherein he shows they did not only offer violence by the hand, but they had ways of circumventing with their lips.

Your tongue hath muttered: the verb doth properly signify to muse , or meditate ; then the meaning is, that what they mutter, or utter with the tongue, they do it out of premeditated malice, from a perverse spirit; you may have a larger comment upon this Jer 9:3-6 .

Perverseness: perverse words are such as are contrary to God’ s word, and it is put here in the abstract, to intimate that their words were every way contrary to God’ s will.

Poole: Isa 59:4 - None calleth for justice // Quest // Answ // They trust in vanity // and speak lies // Speak lies // They conceive mischief, and bring forth iniquity None calleth for justice i.e. none seek to redress these wrongs and violences; they commit all rapines and frauds under impunity; either, 1. Because...

None calleth for justice i.e. none seek to redress these wrongs and violences; they commit all rapines and frauds under impunity; either,

1. Because the judges are corrupt. Or,

2. Because none will warn the judges of their duty. Or,

3. Because none seek to bring offenders to justice. Or,

4. Because none will plead a righteous cause, or plead it righteously, or countenance goodness; and this the next expression favours; and so justice suffers, which the Hebrew word mispat , being in the passive voice, seems to intimate: the sense is the same, and whereas it is said none , it is as much as to say very few, as we say few or none; the like Psa 14:3 .

Quest. How could this be charged upon them, when in the time of their captivity they had no courts?

Answ It is probable they had courts among themselves, to judge between one another, by leave of the Babylonish kings.

They trust in vanity either,

1. Relating to their lies, which are words empty and void of all consistency; and so it is the same with the next expression,

and speak lies Or,

2. In their idols, which are stocks and stones, and so oft called vanity and nothing, 1Co 8:4 . For even in Babylon they worshipped idols, as appears by Jer 16:11,12,18 . Or rather,

3. In their power, and craft, and policy, whereby, laying aside justice, they can oppress others; and so he calls it vanity by a metonymy of the adjunct, because it would prove all vain in the end, and either,

1. Frustrate their ends. Or,

2. Not justify them against God’ s proceedings with them. Or,

3. Bring all into emptiness and confusion: the word is tohu , whereby the confusion and mingling of all things is expressed, before the world was brought into order and form, Gen 1:2 .

Speak lies: it may refer both to the judges, and to the lawyers and false prophets, that tell them they shall not go into captivity; they speak that which they know to be false.

They conceive mischief, and bring forth iniquity: these two words of conceiving and bringing forth note their whole contrivance, and perfecting their wickedness; the former notes their plotting, the latter their execution of mischief; whatever is in the mind, only out of sight, warmed and formed there by cogitating and meditation, is called conception , which being ripe, and produced to view, is called a birth; intimating that the wicked sin not occasionally and accidentally, but premeditatingly and professedly; they grow big with it. The expression is allegorical, and in the two next verses compared to the cockatrice’ eggs for the wickedness of it, and to a spider’ s web for the vanity of it.

Poole: Isa 59:5 - They hatch cockatrice eggs // Weave the spider’ s web // He that eateth of their eggs dieth // And that which is crushed breaketh out into a viper They hatch cockatrice eggs or adder , or basilisk ; one kind put for any venomous creature; a proverbial speech, signifying by these eggs mischievo...

They hatch cockatrice eggs or adder , or basilisk ; one kind put for any venomous creature; a proverbial speech, signifying by these eggs mischievous designs, and by hatching them their putting them in practice: this is to show that mischief is natural to them, and they can do no otherwise, poison is natural to these eggs.

Weave the spider’ s web another proverbial speech, whereby is taught, both how by their plots they weave nets, lay snares industriously, with great pains and artifice, whereby they may entangle and involve their poor neighbours in intricacies and perplexities, and so devour them, as the spider weaves her web to catch flies, and then to feed on them; and also how that they contrive nothing but what will tend to their own ruin, as the issue of the viper is the death of the mother, and they and their designs will come to nothing, and not answer their end, as the spider’ s web is soon swept away, and is seen no more, which doth well agree with what follows.

He that eateth of their eggs dieth: here is a catachrestical allusion, noting that he who hath commerce with them, and approves their counsels, which are the eggs which they hatch, will be poisoned with them.

And that which is crushed breaketh out into a viper: if and be copulative here, then the sense is either, If any seek to crush and disappoint their plots, or if they be sprinkled or dispersed abroad, (as the margin seems to favour,) they will seek his ruin, will be as a viper to him. But if and be causal , as it often is, and may be here, then the sense is, q.d. He dieth , because the eggs being crushed, a poisonous viper proceeds from it; the more you partake of their counsels, the more you are infected, there lies such a dreadful poison embodied in them.

Poole: Isa 59:6 - Their webs shall not become garments // Works of iniquity Their webs shall not become garments i.e. their contrivances and deep designs shall not advantage them, they being like a thin and raw garment, eithe...

Their webs shall not become garments i.e. their contrivances and deep designs shall not advantage them, they being like a thin and raw garment, either through which all their wretchedness and malice will appear, as the next words intimate; or, for want of solidity and substance, shall not be able to defend them from their impending evils.

Works of iniquity i.e. works of injustice, whereby their grieve and vex their brethren, which the next words do clear. The act of violence is in their hands, i.e. they exercise themselves in all acts of violence and oppression.

Poole: Isa 59:7 - Their feet run to evil // Their thoughts // Wasting and destruction are in their paths Their feet run to evil: this seems to be taken from Pro 1:16 . See Poole "Pro 1:16" . He had spoken of their hands, lips, and heart, &c. before, and...

Their feet run to evil: this seems to be taken from Pro 1:16 . See Poole "Pro 1:16" . He had spoken of their hands, lips, and heart, &c. before, and now of their feet , to show that they were wholly set upon mischief.

Their thoughts i.e. their heart and mind, is set upon doing wrong and injury; they not only do evil, but do it deliberately. You have the wicked described by this kind of working of their thoughts, Psa 64:6 ; they meditate on little or nothing else.

Wasting and destruction are in their paths a metaphor put for the behaviours and carriages of men; in what way or work soever they are engaged, it all tends to ruin and destruction. A metaphor taken from an overspreading torrent, or sweeping plague, or beasts of prey, that tear and devour whatsoever comes in their way.

Poole: Isa 59:8 - The way of peace they know not // There is no judgment // in their goings // They have made them crooked paths The way of peace they know not they are of such turbulent spirits, living in such continual contentions and discords, that, breaking in pieces the ve...

The way of peace they know not they are of such turbulent spirits, living in such continual contentions and discords, that, breaking in pieces the very bonds of society, they neither know,

1. How to make and keep peace; neither,

2. Do they feel or enjoy the sweet fruits of it; and therefore by consequence,

3. They take not the course that leads to prosperity and happiness. They are not friends to peace.

There is no judgment i.e. no justice, equity, faith, or integrity, which are the foundation of judgment,

in their goings as paths did note their habitual way or manner of living, so goings do signify their actual progress in that way, or their works; thus Job 14:16 .

They have made them crooked paths they walk by no rule, which should discover the crooked from the straight; they are full of unevennesses and uncertainties, contrary to what David speaks, Psa 26:12 . The LXX. render it perverse . Moses joins them both together, Deu 32:5 ; and so doth Solomon, speaking what wisdom shall deliver from, Pro 2:15 ; and it stands in opposition to them that walk uprightly, Pro 28:18 . It may note,

1. Their hypocrisy, that pretend one thing and do another, that oppress under a pretence of justice. Or,

2. Their professed and owned irregularities and deviations from the rule of justice. Shall not know peace, i.e. shall not experience it; whosoever do as they do will be turbulent and perverse, as they are, and have as little peace within, or happiness without, as they have, Isa 57:21 . They shall be poisoned by having converse with them, as in Isa 59:5 , which the next words do intimate.

Poole: Isa 59:9 - Therefore is judgment far from us // We wait for light // But we walk in darkness Therefore is judgment far from us: this seems to be spoken in the person of those Jews that did partake of these sins, giving the reason by way of co...

Therefore is judgment far from us: this seems to be spoken in the person of those Jews that did partake of these sins, giving the reason by way of complaint of those evils that they groaned under. Justice: judgment , and so justice, is herb taken for deliverance, Isa 1:27 : q.d. God doth not defend our right, nor revenge our wrong, nor deliver us, because of these outrages and acts of violence, injustice, and oppression that are committed among us; so that deliverance is called here judgment and justice by a metonymy of the efficient: q.d. If he had executed judgment and equity among one another, they would not now have been far from us. As works are sometimes put for the reward of works, Job 7:2 Psa 109:20 , so judgment and justice is put for the reward of judgment and justice. Or wicked men are in power and seats of judicature, that execute no judgment or justice in the behalf of the oppressed.

We wait for light: how the Hebrews use light and darkness , see before on Isa 58:8,10 .

But we walk in darkness or, mist ; we are in such a thick mist, that which way soever we look, we see no way out, no hope of deliverance; we are still in captivity, and like so to be, till we see judgment and justice executed, and then we may expect good days.

Poole: Isa 59:10 - We grope // And we grope as if we had no eyes // We stumble at noon-day // We are as dead men We grope: as a blind man that hath no other eyes than his hands feels for the wall, from whence he expects either direction or a resting place to lea...

We grope: as a blind man that hath no other eyes than his hands feels for the wall, from whence he expects either direction or a resting place to lean on; so they expect salvation as it were blindfold, not taking direction from the prophets, but hoping to obtain it by their cries and fasts, though they continued in their sins, and therefore may well be said to grope after it. See Deu 28:28,29 Job 12:25 .

And we grope as if we had no eyes as if we were stark blind; and being here put for yea , thereby aggravating the misery in repeating the expression.

We stumble at noon-day: this notes their exceeding blindness, as it must needs be with one that can discern no more at noon-day than if it were midnight, Job 5:14 .

We are as dead men: he compares their captivity to men dead without hope of recovery; their bonds render them as free among the dead, Psa 88:5 . They can see the way, or get out of their captivity, no more than dead men can get out of their graves; thus a calamitous estate is set forth, Psa 44:19 , great calamity and despair oft going together: they are as men cast out, no more to be looked after. Compare Lam 3:6 . All darkness is uncomfortable, but that of the grave terrible.

Poole: Isa 59:11 - We roar // And mourn // For salvation, but it is far off from us We roar: this signifies the greatness of their anguish, that forced from them these loud outcries. And mourn: this notes some sense of their condit...

We roar: this signifies the greatness of their anguish, that forced from them these loud outcries.

And mourn: this notes some sense of their condition, that wrought in them these sorrowful lamentations; or it may relate to the condition that both sorts of people were in under their oppressing governors. It made the wicked roar like bears, and the godly mourn like doves. It is thus expressed because these properties are peculiar to these creatures. The bear, when robbed, goes into his den and roars; the dove , when absent from her mate, sits solitary and mourns.

For salvation, but it is far off from us: see the exposition of this last part of the verse Isa 59:9 .

Poole: Isa 59:12 - Our transgressions // Are multiplied before thee // Our sins testify // Our transgressions are with us // As for our iniquities Our transgressions: the word here signifies sins of a high nature; such as wherein there is much of man’ s will against light; rebellious sins. ...

Our transgressions: the word here signifies sins of a high nature; such as wherein there is much of man’ s will against light; rebellious sins.

Are multiplied before thee: q.d. They admit of no excuse; for they are acted before thee, and multiplied against thee, whereby thou art justly provoked to deny us all help.

Our sins testify every sin that is charged upon is like so many witnesses produced to prove the guilt of our consciences; or, as the Hebrew word, do answer ; and so some make it an elegant metaphorical allusion to the echo, which, as it returns the voice again, so those judgments they cry out of are but the meritorious repercussion of their sins. They had been cruel to others, neither had they executed judgment and justice, and here they suffer all kind of cruelties and indignities from the Chaldeans, as the true and just representation or echo of their own works: see a personal instance in Adoni-bezek, Jud 1:6,7 .

Our transgressions are with us i.e. we lie under the guilt of them, they are a burden to us; God hath not yet forgiven them.

As for our iniquities we know them; we are convinced of them; our guilty consciences must own and acknowledge them, Ps 2 3 . It notes either their conviction or sorrow, or both. See Jer 14:7 . Or, we know what are those sins thou art so angry with us for; and this is favoured by the sequel, where they seem to particularize those sins in the following verses.

Poole: Isa 59:13 - In transgressing // Lying // Departing // Speaking // Conceiving and uttering // From the heart words of falsehood He now enumerates some of those particular sins they profess themselves to be convinced of, whereby he doth not mean the sins of some particular per...

He now enumerates some of those particular sins they profess themselves to be convinced of, whereby he doth not mean the sins of some particular persons, or some slight sins, but a general defection and corruption of the whole body.

In transgressing: properly, we rebel against God, so the word is Isa 1:2 , and have persisted in our rebellion.

Lying being true to none of their engagements, vows, and promises. Some make transgressing here and lying to be one and the same thing, inasmuch as in their transgressing of the law of God they did break their solemn engagement to God upon Mount Sinai, Exo 19:8 24:3 , and elsewhere frequently, which is a downright lying against God; for wherein do we more lie to God than in a perfidious withdrawing from him? So that by transgressing here he doth mean not a breach of One or another of the laws of God, but their being as it were fugitives, that would be under no yoke.

Departing i.e. turning from God to idols.

Speaking as it were talking of little else one among another but how to oppress their neighbours, and apostatize from God.

Conceiving and uttering i.e. first contriving and forging in their heart false accusations to the ruin of their neighbour, and false worship to the dishonour of God, laying the contrivance so that it might be effectual; and then uttering it, or venting themselves one to another in their discourses, thereby encouraging each other in their perverse ways; see Isa 59:3 ; and whereas it is said

from the heart it notes a resoluteness in their wickedness, being a great deal worse than now and then to deal falsely upon some occasion or temptation.

From the heart words of falsehood: they are called words of falsehood , both with reference to men, and so signify slanders and false accusations; as also to God, and so signify their dealing falsely with God, as an adulteress doth with her husband: hence idolaters are called the seed of falsehood , Isa 57:3-5 ; and it is said from the heart , to show that when they dealt with men in ways of fraud, it was from the heart , but when they spake with God, it was but from the lip.

Poole: Isa 59:14 - Judgment is turned away backward // Justice standeth afar off // Truth is fallen // In the street // Equity cannot enter Judgment is turned away backward: he speaks here of the sentences and decrees in courts of judicature, which are carried quite contrary to right and ...

Judgment is turned away backward: he speaks here of the sentences and decrees in courts of judicature, which are carried quite contrary to right and justice. God denies you justice, as you have denied help to others.

Justice standeth afar off: it notes the same thing with the former, to show that justice and judges are far asunder.

Truth is fallen a metaphor taken from a feeble person that wants support, without which he falls; thus truth hath none to support or patronize it: the same, only otherwise expressed, with Isa 59:16 . Truth is cast upon the ground, and justice trampled under foot.

In the street i.e. in public.

Equity cannot enter no such thing will be admitted in their courts; all corrupt, so that all equity and justice is violently kept off by the authority of the great ones.

Poole: Isa 59:15 - Truth faileth // He that departeth from evil // maketh himself a prey // The Lord saw it // It displeased him Truth faileth: q.d. Truth is more than fallen, which he had said in the former verse; it faileth . For being only fallen it may recover itself aga...

Truth faileth: q.d. Truth is more than fallen, which he had said in the former verse; it faileth . For being only fallen it may recover itself again, but failing notes the loss of its very vitals; as being every where neglected, in court, in city, in country, in inferior as well as superior ranks, in the streets, in the gates, in the markets, in the fairs, in all public places of commerce, the condition much like that under the beast coming out of the earth, Rev 13:11 , &c. See Psa 10:7,8 , &c. All things are amiss, neither judgment, nor justice, nor truth is to be found among us, but fraud and deceit; yet none troubled at it.

He that departeth from evil that separateth himself from evil things and persons, will not be as vile as others,

maketh himself a prey or, is accounted mad ; is laughed at that talks of justice, so some. Josephus tells us that immediately before the destruction of Jerusalem, it was matter of scorn to be religious. Though there be no solid ground for nor need of that marginal reading, yet is it a truth. The translators reach the meaning by prey ; the wicked, like wild beasts, endeavouring to devour such as are not as bad as themselves: where wickedness rules, innocency is oppressed: in bargaining, as buying and selling, they that are simple and innocent are outwitted by the crafty and fraudulent, as not willing, or rather daring, to oppose fraud with fraud, but to do all things in sincerity.

The Lord saw it i.e. took notice of it: it is spoken of God after the manner of men, as Gen 11:5 18:21 , and many other places.

It displeased him: q.d. If you would know why God is so angry with you, it is for such things as these; the Lord takes notice of it, and it is a great evil in his eye.

Poole: Isa 59:16 - No man // Wondered // Therefore // His arm brought salvation unto him No man viz. to intercede , which is supplied from the following words; or no man to help in such a case, to show himself and appear in such a corrup...

No man viz. to intercede , which is supplied from the following words; or no man to help in such a case, to show himself and appear in such a corrupt state in the behalf of equity, as Isa 59:4 ; the like circumstances we have Eze 22:29,30 ; or none fit to intercede.

Wondered Heb. iistomen , was amazed , astonished, as it were, not knowing what to do. This notes both God’ s solicitousness about their condition, and their hypocrisy, as if God took no notice of them, together with their dulness and blockishness, in not concerning themselves about it, especially considering they had been a people so well instructed, and yet under the guilt of such gross sins should be no more solicitous about pardon, which God would readily have granted, if any such could have been found, Jer 5:1 .

Therefore or, yet , as it is used, Isa 7:14 51:21 .

His arm brought salvation unto him: this may relate,

1. To the parties thus oppressed. Or,

2. To God, as that either,

1. He would do his work without help from any other, Isa 59:5 . Or,

2. He would avenge himself, his own honour; thus the word is used 1Sa 25:26 ; and this may and seems to be the meaning of the next clause. Or,

3. He had made provision for the maintaining his own righteous cause and people’ s interest: this sense, that phrase, so like this, favours, Isa 53:5 , Salvation unto me. His righteousness , viz. his justice: q.d. Seeing there could be no justice found among them, he would avenge the innocent himself, which agrees with Isa 59:8 , and is justified by Isa 63:5 , where speaking of the destruction of the Idumeans, you have the same words, only the word fury changed for righteousness . The literal meaning is, God’ s taking vengeance on the Chaldeans for the people’ s sake; the mystical is, Christ’ s making use of his own righteousness for the redemption of lest man, being destitute of all other.

Poole: Isa 59:17 - He put on righteousness as a breastplate // breastplate // An helmet // helmet // The garments of vengeance // Was clad with zeal He put on righteousness as a breastplate God, resolving to appear as a man of war against Babylon, that did now oppress his people, puts on his arms,...

He put on righteousness as a breastplate God, resolving to appear as a man of war against Babylon, that did now oppress his people, puts on his arms, Heb. wrapped himself , and particularly his

breastplate which he calls righteousness , to show the justness of his cause, as also his faithfulness in making good his promises to his people.

An helmet: as the breastplate is to defend the heart and vital parts, whereby God doth signify the innocency and justness of his cause, as well as his faithfulness; so the

helmet is to defend the brain, the fountain of the animal spirits, and therefore by this piece of armour would have us know that he is invincible: as by the other, that he defends a just cause in his truth and faithfulness; so by this, that he cannot be disappointed in it by reason of his power and invincibleness.

The garments of vengeance or garments made of vengeance; as God is said to put on the former for their sakes whom he would preserve, so he puts on these for their sakes whom he will destroy, viz. his people’ s enemies, the Chaldeans, and other enemies of the Jews.

Was clad with zeal either,

1. Zeal to his own honour, which had been given to idols; or,

2. Zeal for his own people, who were now in distress; or,

3. Zeal and indignation against the Babylonians, who were such great oppressors of his people, which are the materials that his garment of vengeance and his cloak of zeal is made of. It may be trifling to follow the metaphor of garments too close: see of the phrase Jud 6:34 , margin. The sum of all these expressions is this, to describe both the cause and effect together; the cause was righteousness and zeal in God, the effect salvation to his people, and vengeance on his enemies, as is evident from the next verse.

Poole: Isa 59:18 - Deeds // Fury // Islands Deeds Heb. recompences or deserts , i.e. he will recompense his adversaries with those effects of his fury that they have deserved. Fury a metonym...

Deeds Heb. recompences or deserts , i.e. he will recompense his adversaries with those effects of his fury that they have deserved.

Fury a metonymy of the efficient, for the effects of his fury.

Islands or, islanders ; a metonymy of the containing for the contained; either Mesopotamia, and other adjacent islands, encompassed by Tigris and Euphrates; or those remoter nations (for the Hebrews call nations remote from Judea islands , Gen 10:5 Isa 41:1 . See Poole "Isa 20:6" , and the reason of it) under the king of Babylon, that thought themselves secure.

Poole: Isa 59:19 - Fear the name of the Lord // From the west // His glory // From the rising of the sun // When the enemy shall come in like a flood // Spirit // him Fear the name of the Lord i.e. either worship the Lord; for the name of God is put for God himself, as hath been often showed, and fear is put for hi...

Fear the name of the Lord i.e. either worship the Lord; for the name of God is put for God himself, as hath been often showed, and fear is put for his worship; or make his name renowned.

From the west viz. the western part of the world.

His glory or the glorious God.

From the rising of the sun viz. the eastern parts of the world. The sum is, the whole world, either a synecdoche of the part for the whole, or if you divide the world through the poles, the one half will be east, and the other west, and so compriseth the whole world. It shall fear and worship God, and make his name renowned, laying aside their idolatries; whether you refer it to the deliverance of his people out of Babylon, when they shall hear how God hath executed vengeance on his enemies; or to the redemption by Christ, and his calling of the Gentiles, Mal 1:11 .

When the enemy shall come in like a flood either against the Babylonians, as some understand it, and so it is probably meant of Cyrus, who shall come like a violent flood, against whom there is no head to be made; him God would stir up against the Babylonians for the deliverance of the Jews. Or against his own people; and so it may have either,

1. A more particular respect to Jerusalem, when Sennacherib came up against it; which suits well with what God saith of him, Isa 8:7,8 . Or,

2. More general, at what time soever the devil or his instruments shall make violent irruptions upon the church, Rev 12:15 ; for powerful enemies invading a country are oft compared to a river. See Poole "Isa 18:2" . It is an allusion to the overflowing of Euphrates, which by its violent inundations was wont to do much hurt and damage to the Babylonians. The Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him : and here again, if it be taken in the first sense, viz. against the Babylonians, then the meaning is, God himself shall as it were carry the standard in the midst of Cyrus’ s army, the Medes and Persians, and that with a great deal of fury, intimated here by the

Spirit of the Lord; for spirit is often used among the Hebrews for the passions of the soul, as anger, wrath, fury, &c. Or, as a violent blast or gale of wind, shall help forward the violence of the torrent; and if so, then

him by an enallage of the number, which is frequent, is put for them . But if in either of the other two senses, viz. with particular respect to Sennacherib, then the Spirit of the Lord, as with a blast, only shall puff him away, which was made good, Isa 37:7,36,37 . Or with more general reference to the violence of enemies against the church; then the meaning is, God shall make known himself to take their part and defend them, Psa 48:3-5 , and cause the enemies to give back, or put them to flight , as in the margin, Isa 17:12-14 , and that without power, but by his Spirit alone, as easy as by a puff of wind, Zec 4:6 . Again, if you take this (as some learned men do) in a spiritual sense, then it notes the suddenness of the gospel’ s spreading itself by the Spirit in the ministry of the apostles and evangelists, bearing down like a flood all that opposes it, the Lord Jesus Christ being lifted up in it as a banner or ensign: but this sense, though true, seems to be more forced, and as it relates to temporal deliverances, more genuine and natural: however, the prophet being about to speak of the spiritual deliverances and state of the church by Christ, he seems to slide, as it were, into it by such plain allusions and types, being to speak of it more directly in the following chapters.

Poole: Isa 59:20 - The Redeemer // To Zion // turn from transgression And, moreover, or to wit ; and being here not so much copulative as expositive. The Redeemer: the word notes a redemption with power, viz. 1. Cy...

And, moreover, or to wit ; and being here not so much copulative as expositive.

The Redeemer: the word notes a redemption with power, viz.

1. Cyrus, the instrument for the efficient, viz. God the Redeemer, Isa 43:14 45:13 . Or,

2. Christ, of whom the apostle expounds it, Rom 11:26 ; the prophets usually concluding their promises of temporal deliverances with the promises of spiritual, especially such of which the temporal were evident types.

To Zion viz. Jerusalem, to which though Cyrus came not in person, yet his favours, and the good effects of his conquest over Babylon, reached it, setting free the citizens of Zion, as Christ also his church, which is often called by the name of Zion, and Jacob, and Israel, &c. In Jacob , viz. among the Jews, who were the children of Jacob; and he describes to whom of these, namely, to them, and none else, that

turn from transgression such only whose hearts God touched, and turned to righteousness; and so to come to Zion here by the prophet, and out of Zion by the apostle, is one and the same thing; See Poole "Deu 33:2" ; for the Hebrew lamed is not only an article of the dative case, but put often for mim, of or from , so that letsion is out of Zion ; and for Christ to be given a Redeemer to Zion is the same thing as his coming to take iniquity from Jacob . And so the apostle doth by this expound that, taking an apostolical liberty not only to quote, but to expound this text; and so by laying them together, and making them one, would teach us that God must do for us what he requireth of us, Act 3:26 : or else, which is the opinion of some, he takes the last clause from some other text, or texts, as Isa 4:4 . I incline to the former, partly because there is no need of searching for any other text, and partly because, as the apostle quoteth it, it is agreeable to the LXX., which he frequently makes use of; and this the apostle improves as an allegory to prove that the Jews toward the end of the world shall he converted and saved, when the fulness of the Gentiles shall be brought in: q.d. As this people of old were delivered out of a dark and dolesome estate, when they seemed as it were extinct; so toward the end of the world the remnant of the Jews, that seem to be rejected, God will again bring home unto himself. Saith the Lord ; or, thus it is decreed and determined by the Lord: the prophets are wont to set down these words as a sacred seal of certainty, security, or confirmation of such signal promises as this is of the Redeemer, like to that of the apostle, 1Ti 1:15 .

Poole: Isa 59:21 - This is my covenant // My Spirit that is upon thee // Which I have put in thy mouth // For ever This is my covenant or what I have promised, and so am engaged to see fulfilled, viz. to them that turn from their iniquity; or rather, the promise o...

This is my covenant or what I have promised, and so am engaged to see fulfilled, viz. to them that turn from their iniquity; or rather, the promise of his word and Spirit to abide in his church, upon which account it is also that the Spirit is promised in the next words, by which is understood either the gift of prophecy, or the prophecy itself, given here to Isaiah, and so to the church: and being here, as in the foregoing verse, explicative, not copulative; unless it note that in an ordinary way the Spirit and the word go together wherever either of them are effectual, the Spirit impressing what the word expresses, Joh 14:16-18, and it is the spirit of Satan that is different from the word.

My Spirit that is upon thee See Poole "Num 11:17", See Poole "Num 11:25" , &c.; See Poole "2Ki 2:15" .

Which I have put in thy mouth which thou hast uttered by virtue of my Spirit, it being the church’ s great treasure and happiness to have God present with his word. Shall not depart out of thy mouth , &iowa.; the sense is either, these words, and the fulfilling of them, shall be always talked of, wherever the mention of this deliverance shall come, as is said of Mary’ s ointment, Mat 26:13 . Or rather, he seems to promise the perpetual presence of his word and Spirit with the prophets, apostles, and ministers, and teachers of the church to all succeeding ages thereof, and may have a special reference to the gospel, or new covenant in Christ.

For ever i.e. for a long, though yet a definitive, space of time, as it is often used.

Haydock: Isa 59:1 - In In. Where truth is disregarded, there can be no justice.

In. Where truth is disregarded, there can be no justice.

Haydock: Isa 59:2 - Iniquities Iniquities. The history of Susanna shews that the captives were not all free from sin, which alone prevented their liberation, Lamentations iii. 44....

Iniquities. The history of Susanna shews that the captives were not all free from sin, which alone prevented their liberation, Lamentations iii. 44. (Calmet) [Daniel xiii.] ---

God is willing and able to save. He punishes for sin, to cause us to repent, ver. 20. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 59:4 - Justice // Iniquity Justice. They arraign unjustly. None call upon the just God, but trust in idols. --- Iniquity. They kill themselves, while they strive to injure...

Justice. They arraign unjustly. None call upon the just God, but trust in idols. ---

Iniquity. They kill themselves, while they strive to injure others, Psalm vii. 15., and Micheas ii. 1.

Haydock: Isa 59:5 - Basilisk Basilisk, or viper. (Calmet) --- The young ones "burst through the viper's sides." (Pliny, [Natural History?] x. 62.) --- So the works of the wic...

Basilisk, or viper. (Calmet) ---

The young ones "burst through the viper's sides." (Pliny, [Natural History?] x. 62.) ---

So the works of the wicked are useless or destructive.

Haydock: Isa 59:8 - Peace Peace, or prosperity. They quarrel with all, and ruin themselves, Psalm xiii.

Peace, or prosperity. They quarrel with all, and ruin themselves, Psalm xiii.

Haydock: Isa 59:9 - Therefore Therefore. The wicked Jews nevertheless confess that their sins prove their destruction.

Therefore. The wicked Jews nevertheless confess that their sins prove their destruction.

Haydock: Isa 59:10 - Dead Dead. The Jews will not recognize Christ, notwithstanding the prophecies and miracles.

Dead. The Jews will not recognize Christ, notwithstanding the prophecies and miracles.

Haydock: Isa 59:11 - Judgment Judgment, that God would avenge us, (ver. 9.) and regard our fasts, chap. lviii. 3.

Judgment, that God would avenge us, (ver. 9.) and regard our fasts, chap. lviii. 3.

Haydock: Isa 59:16 - Himself Himself, to arrest his arm, stretched out to chastise his son; or to second him. There is nothing in man to stop God's vengeance. He therefore pard...

Himself, to arrest his arm, stretched out to chastise his son; or to second him. There is nothing in man to stop God's vengeance. He therefore pardons out of his own goodness, chap. lix. 2., and lxiii. 4. (Calmet) ---

He became man to redeem us, as no pure mortal could do it. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 59:17 - Justice Justice. None can blame his conduct.

Justice. None can blame his conduct.

Haydock: Isa 59:19 - On On. Hebrew, "is standard-bearer." (Aquila) (St. Jerome) --- Cyrus, the figurative redeemer, proceeds rapidly.

On. Hebrew, "is standard-bearer." (Aquila) (St. Jerome) ---

Cyrus, the figurative redeemer, proceeds rapidly.

Haydock: Isa 59:20 - To Sion To Sion. Septuagint, "from Sion, and will turn away iniquity from Jacob. ( 21. ) And this," &c. (Haydock) --- St. Paul hence proves that the Jews...

To Sion. Septuagint, "from Sion, and will turn away iniquity from Jacob. ( 21. ) And this," &c. (Haydock) ---

St. Paul hence proves that the Jews will at last be converted, Romans xi. 26. The return of the captives prefigured this event. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 59:21 - Covenant Covenant. Note here a clear promise of perpetual orthodoxy to the Church of Christ. (Challoner) --- She hath still the spirit of truth. (Worthing...

Covenant. Note here a clear promise of perpetual orthodoxy to the Church of Christ. (Challoner) ---

She hath still the spirit of truth. (Worthington) (Matthew xxviii. 20.) ---

None will apply this to the synagogue, which is visibly in the dark, and abandoned. (Calmet)

Gill: Isa 59:1 - Behold, the Lord's hand is not shortened, that it cannot save // Neither his ear heavy, that it cannot hear Behold, the Lord's hand is not shortened, that it cannot save,.... It is not for want of power in the Lord, that he has not as yet destroyed the enemi...

Behold, the Lord's hand is not shortened, that it cannot save,.... It is not for want of power in the Lord, that he has not as yet destroyed the enemies of his people, antichrist, and the antichristian states, and saved them out of their hands, and made them to triumph over them; or brought on the glorious state of the church, and fulfilled the promises of good things, suggested in the latter part of the preceding chapter. His hand is as long as ever, and as able to reach his and their enemies in the greatest height of power, or at the greatest distance, and to do every good thing for them; his power is as great as ever, and not in the least abridged or curtailed.

Neither his ear heavy, that it cannot hear: the prayers of his people, their cries unto him on their fast days, of which he seemed to take no notice, complained of Isa 58:3, this is not owing to any want of attention in him, or of readiness to hear prayer made unto him; for he is a God hearing and answering prayer, and is ready to help his people in every time of need, who apply to him in a proper and suitable manner; his eyes are upon them, and his ears are open to their cries. And this is introduced with a "behold", as requiring attention, and deserving the notice and consideration of his people. The Targum is,

"behold, not through defect of hand (or power) from the Lord ye are not saved; nor because it is heavy to him to hear, that your prayer is not received.''

Gill: Isa 59:2 - and your sins have hid his face from you Like a partition wall dividing between them, so that they enjoy no communion with him in his worship and ordinances; which is greatly the case of the ...

Like a partition wall dividing between them, so that they enjoy no communion with him in his worship and ordinances; which is greatly the case of the reformed churches: they profess the true God, and the worship of him, and do attend the outward ordinances of it; but this is done in such a cold formal way, and such sins and wickedness are perpetrated and connived at, that the Lord does not grant his gracious presence to them, but stands at a distance from them:

and your sins have hid his face from you, that he will not hear; or have caused him to hide himself; withdraw his gracious presence; neglect the prayers put up to him; deny an answer to them; or, however, not appear as yet for the deliverance and salvation of them, and bringing them into a more comfortable, prosperous, and happy condition.

Gill: Isa 59:3 - For your hands are defiled with blood, and your fingers with iniquity // Your lips have spoken lies // your tongue hath muttered perverseness For your hands are defiled with blood, and your fingers with iniquity,.... From a general charge, the prophet proceeds to a particular enumeration of ...

For your hands are defiled with blood, and your fingers with iniquity,.... From a general charge, the prophet proceeds to a particular enumeration of sins they were guilty of; and idolatry not being mentioned, as Jerom observes, shows that the prophecy belongs to other times than Isaiah's, when that sin greatly prevailed. He begins the account with the sin of shedding blood; the blood of innocents, as the Targum; designing either the sin of murder, now frequently committed in Christian nations; or wars between Christian princes, by means of which much blood is shed; or persecutions of Christian brethren, by casting them into prisons, which have issued in their death; and at least want of brotherly love, or, the hatred of brethren, which is called murder, 1Jo 3:15 a prevailing sin in the present Sardian state; and which will not be removed till the spiritual reign or Philadelphian state takes place: and this sin is of a defiling nature; it "defiles" the "hands" or actions; and without love all works signify nothing, 1Co 13:1, yea, even their "fingers" are said to be defiled "with iniquity"; meaning either their lesser actions; or rather those more curiously and nicely performed, and seemingly more agreeable to the divine will; and yet defiled with some sin or other, as hypocrisy, vain glory, or the like: or it may be this may design the same as putting forth the fingers, and smiting with the fist, Isa 58:4, as Kimchi and Ben Melech observe; and so may have respect to some sort of persecution of their brethren for conscience sake, as there.

Your lips have spoken lies: or "falsehood" q; that is, false doctrines, so called because contrary to the word of truth, and which deceive men:

your tongue hath muttered perverseness: that which is a perversion of the Gospel of Christ, and of the souls of men; what is contrary to the sacred Scriptures, the standard of faith and practice, and that premeditated, as the word r signifies; done with design, and on purpose: the abounding of errors and heresies in the present day, openly taught and divulged, to the ruin of souls, seems here to be pointed at. In the Talmud s these are explained of the several sorts of men in a court of judicature; the "hands" of the judges; the "fingers" of, the Scribes; the "lips" of advocates and solicitors; and the "tongue" of adversaries, or the contending parties.

Gill: Isa 59:4 - None calleth for justice // nor any pleadeth for truth // they trust in vanity // and speak lies // they conceive mischief, and bring forth iniquity None calleth for justice,.... Or, "righteousness"; not for civil justice in courts of judicature, as if there were no advocates for it there; or that ...

None calleth for justice,.... Or, "righteousness"; not for civil justice in courts of judicature, as if there were no advocates for it there; or that put those in mind of it, to whom the administration of it belongs; or that see to put the laws against sin in execution, and to relieve those that are oppressed; though of this there may be just cause of complaint in some places: but there are none or few that call for evangelical righteousness, either that preach it, proclaim and publish it to others; even the righteousness of Christ, the grand doctrine of the Gospel, which is therein revealed from faith to faith; so the Syriac version, "there is none that preacheth righteously"; or "in", or "of righteousness" t; and the Septuagint version, "no one speaks righteous things"; the words and doctrines of righteousness and truth: or, "no one calls for righteousness"; desires to hear this doctrine, and have it preached to him; hungers and thirsts after it; but chooses the doctrine of justification by works. The Targum refers it to prayer, paraphrasing it thus,

"there is none that prays in truth;''

in sincerity and uprightness, in faith and with fervour; but in a cold, formal, and hypocritical way:

nor any pleadeth for truth: for the truth of the Gospel, particularly for the principal one, the justification of a sinner by the righteousness of Christ alone; few or none contend earnestly for the faith once delivered to the saints; they are not valiant for the truth, nor stand fast in it, but drop or conceal it, or deny it: or, "none is judged by", or "according to truth" u; by the Scriptures of truth, but by carnal reason; or by forms and rules of man's devising, and so are condemned; as Gospel ministers and professors of it are:

they trust in vanity; in nothing, as the Vulgate Latin; that is worth nothing; in their own strength, wisdom, riches, righteousness, especially the latter:

and speak lies; or "vanity"; vain things, false doctrines, as before:

they conceive mischief, and bring forth iniquity; they "conceive" and contrive "mischief" in their minds against those that differ in doctrine and practice from them: "and bring forth iniquity": do that which is criminal and sinful, by words and actions, by calumnies and reproaches, by violence and persecution. The Targum is,

"they hasten and bring out of their hearts words of violence.''

Gill: Isa 59:5 - They hatch cockatrice eggs, and weave the spider's web // he that eateth of their eggs dieth // and that which is crushed breaketh out into a viper They hatch cockatrice eggs, and weave the spider's web,.... Invent false doctrines according to their own fancies, which may seem fair and plausible, ...

They hatch cockatrice eggs, and weave the spider's web,.... Invent false doctrines according to their own fancies, which may seem fair and plausible, but are poisonous and pernicious; as the "eggs of the cockatrice", which may look like, and may be taken for, the eggs of creatures fit to eat; and spin out of their brains a fine scheme of things, but which are as thin, and as useless, and unprofitable, as "the spider's web"; and serve only to ensnare and entangle the minds of men, and will not stand before the word of God which sweeps them away at once; particularly of this kind is the doctrine of justification by the works of men, which are like the spider's web, spun out of its own bowels; so these are from themselves, as the doctrine of them is a device of man, and is not of God:

he that eateth of their eggs dieth: as a man that eats of cockatrice eggs dies immediately, being rank poison; so he that approves of false doctrines, receives them, and feeds upon them, dies spiritually and eternally; these are damnable doctrines, which bring upon men swift destruction; they are poisonous, and eat as do a canker, and destroy the souls of men:

and that which is crushed breaketh out into a viper; or "cockatrice"; so Kimchi and Ben Melech take it to be the same creature as before, which goes by different names; and the words seem to require this sense; however, it cannot be the creature we call the viper, since that is not oviparous, but viviparous, lays not eggs, but brings forth its young; though both Aristotle w and Pliny x, at the same time they say it is viviparous, yet observe that it breeds eggs within itself, which are of one colour, and soft like fishes. The Targum renders it "flying serpents": the sense is, that if a man is cautious, and does not eat of the cockatrice eggs, but sets his foot on them, and crushes them, out comes the venomous creature, and he is in danger of being hurt by it; so a man that does not embrace false doctrines, and escapes eternal death by them, but tramples upon them, opposes them, and endeavours to crush and destroy them, yet he is exposed to and brings upon himself calumnies, reproach, and persecution.

Gill: Isa 59:6 - Their webs shall not become garments, neither shall they cover themselves with their works // their works are works of iniquity // and the act of violence is in their hands Their webs shall not become garments, neither shall they cover themselves with their works,.... As spiders' webs are not fit to make garments of, are ...

Their webs shall not become garments, neither shall they cover themselves with their works,.... As spiders' webs are not fit to make garments of, are too thin to cover naked bodies, or shelter from bad weather, or injuries from different causes; so neither the false doctrines of men will be of any use to themselves, or to others that receive them; particularly the doctrine of justification by works: these are not proper garments to cover the nakedness of a sinner from the sight of God, or screen him from avenging justice; but his hope which is placed on them will be cut off, and his trust in them will be a spider's web, of no avail to him, Job 8:14,

their works are works of iniquity: both of preacher and hearer; even their best works are sinful; not only as being imperfect, and having a mixture of sin in them, and so filthy rags, and insufficient to justify them before God; but because done from wrong principles, and with wrong views, and tending to set aside the justifying righteousness of Christ, and God's way of justifying sinners by it, which is abominable to him:

and the act of violence is in their hands; they persecuting such that preach and profess the contrary doctrine.

Gill: Isa 59:7 - Their feet run to evil // and they make haste to shed innocent blood // their thoughts are thoughts of iniquity // wasting and destruction are in their paths Their feet run to evil,.... Make haste to commit all manner of sin, and particularly that which follows, with great eagerness and swiftness, taking de...

Their feet run to evil,.... Make haste to commit all manner of sin, and particularly that which follows, with great eagerness and swiftness, taking delight and pleasure therein, and continuing in it; it is their course of life. The words seem to be taken out of Pro 1:16 and are quoted with the following by the Apostle Paul, Rom 3:15 to prove the general corruption of mankind:

and they make haste to shed innocent blood: in wars abroad or at home, in quarrels and riots, or through the heat of persecution; which if it does not directly touch men's lives, yet issues in the death of many that fall under the power of it; and which persecutors are very eager and hasty in the prosecution of. The phrase fitly describes their temper and conduct:

their thoughts are thoughts of iniquity: their thoughts are continually devising things vain and sinful in themselves, unprofitable to them, and pernicious to others: their thoughts, words, and actions being evil; their tongue, lips, hands, and feet being employed in sin, show their general depravity:

wasting and destruction are in their paths: they waste and destroy all they meet with in their ways, their fellow creatures and their substance; and the ways they walk in lead to ruin and destruction, which will be their portion for evermore.

Gill: Isa 59:8 - The way of peace they know not // and there is no judgment in their goings // they have made them crooked paths // whosoever goeth therein shall not know peace The way of peace they know not,.... Neither the way of peace with God, supposing it is to be made by man, and not by Christ; and are ignorant of the s...

The way of peace they know not,.... Neither the way of peace with God, supposing it is to be made by man, and not by Christ; and are ignorant of the steps and methods taken to procure it; nor do they know the way of peace of conscience, or how to attain to that which is true and solid; nor the way to eternal peace and happiness, which is alone by Christ, and the Gospel of peace reveals, to which they are strangers; nor the way of peace among men, which they are unconcerned about, and do not seek after, make use of no methods to promote, secure, and establish it; but all the reverse:

and there is no judgment in their goings; no justice in their actions, in their dealings with men; no judgment in their religious duties, which are done without any regard to the divine rule, or without being able to give a reason for them; they have no judgment in matters of doctrine or worship; they have no discerning of true and false doctrines, and between that which is spiritual and superstitious in worship; they have no knowledge of the word of God, which should be their guide both in faith and practice; but this they do not attend unto:

they have made them crooked paths: they have devised paths and modes of worship of their own, in which they walk, and which they observe, that are not according to the rule of the word; but deviate from it; and so may be said to be crooked, as not agreeable to that:

whosoever goeth therein shall not know peace; the way of peace with God, as before; or he shall not have any experience of true, solid, and substantial peace in his own conscience now, and shall not attain to eternal peace hereafter.

Gill: Isa 59:9 - Therefore is judgment far from us // neither doth justice overtake us // we wait for light, but behold obscurity; for brightness, but we walk in darkness // we walk in mists Therefore is judgment far from us,.... These are the words of the few godly persons in those times, taking notice of prevailing sins, confessing and l...

Therefore is judgment far from us,.... These are the words of the few godly persons in those times, taking notice of prevailing sins, confessing and lamenting them, and observing that these were the source of their calamities under which they groaned; "therefore", because of the above mentioned sins, and in just retaliation, no justice or judgment being among men; therefore, in great righteousness "judgment is far from us"; or God does not appear to right our wrongs, and avenge us of our enemies, but suffers them to afflict and distress us:

neither doth justice overtake us; the righteousness of God inflicting vengeance on our enemies, and saving and protecting us; this does not come up with us, nor do we enjoy the benefit of it, but walk on without it unprotected, and exposed to the insults of men:

we wait for light, but behold obscurity; for brightness, but we walk in darkness; or "for brightnesses" y; for much clear light; but

we walk in mists z; in thick fogs, and have scarce any light at all. The meaning is, they waited for deliverance and salvation; but instead of that had the darkness of affliction and distress; or they were expecting latter day light and glory, the clear and bright shining of Gospel truths; but, instead of that, were surrounded with the darkness of ignorance and infidelity, superstition and will worship, and walked in the mists and fogs of error and heresy of all sorts: this seems to respect the same time as in Zec 14:6.

Gill: Isa 59:10 - We grope for the wall like the blind // and we grope as if we had no eyes // we stumble at noonday as in the night // we are in desolate places as dead men We grope for the wall like the blind,.... Who either with their hands, or with a staff in them, feel for the wall to lean against, or to guide them in...

We grope for the wall like the blind,.... Who either with their hands, or with a staff in them, feel for the wall to lean against, or to guide them in the way, or into the house, that they may know whereabout they are, and how they should steer their course:

and we grope as if we had no eyes: which yet they had, the eyes of their reason and understanding; but which either were not opened, or they made no use of them in searching the Scriptures, to come at the light and knowledge of divine things; and therefore only at most groped after them by the dim light of nature, if thereby they might find them. This is to be understood not of them all, but of many, and of the greatest part:

we stumble at noonday as in the night; as many persons do now: for though it is noonday in some respects, and in some places, where the Gospel and the truths of it are clearly preached; yet men stumble and fall into the greatest errors, as in the night of the greatest darkness; as if it was either the night of Paganism or Popery with them:

we are in desolate places as dead men; or "in fatnesses" a; in fat places where the word and ordinances are administered, where is plenty of the means of grace, yet not quickened thereby; are as dead men, dead in trespasses and sin, and at most have only a name to live, but are dead. Some render it, "in the graves" b; and the Targum thus,

"it is shut before us, as the graves are shut before the dead;''

we have no more light, joy, and comfort, than those in the graves have.

Gill: Isa 59:11 - We roar all like bears, and mourn sore like doves // we look for judgment, but there is none; for salvation, but it is far from us We roar all like bears, and mourn sore like doves,.... Some in a more noisy and clamorous, others in a stiller way, yet all in private: for the bear, ...

We roar all like bears, and mourn sore like doves,.... Some in a more noisy and clamorous, others in a stiller way, yet all in private: for the bear, when robbed of its whelps, goes to its den and roars; and the dove, when it has lost its mate, mourns in solitude: this expresses the secret groanings of the saints under a sense of sin, and the forlorn state of religion. The Targum paraphrases it thus,

"we roar because of our enemies, who are gathered against us as bears; all of us indeed mourn sore as doves:''

we look for judgment, but there is none; for salvation, but it is far from us; we expect that God will take vengeance on our enemies, and save us; look for judgment on antichrist, and the antichristian states, and for the salvation of the church of God; for the vials of divine wrath on the one, and for happy times to the other; but neither of them as yet come; the reason of which is as follows.

Gill: Isa 59:12 - For our transgressions are multiplied before thee // and our sins testify against us // for our transgressions are with us // and as for our iniquities, we know them For our transgressions are multiplied before thee,.... Not only an increase of immorality among the people in common, but among professors of religion...

For our transgressions are multiplied before thee,.... Not only an increase of immorality among the people in common, but among professors of religion; and as their transgressions are committed against the Lord, so they are in his sight taken notice of and observed by him, are loathsome and abominable to him, and call aloud for his judgments on them:

and our sins testify against us; God is a witness against us, in whose sight our sins are done; and our consciences are witnesses against us, which are as a thousand witnesses; and there is no denying facts; our sins stare us in the face, and we must confess our guilt: or, "our sins answer against us" c; as witnesses called and examined answer to the questions put, so our sins, being brought as it were into open court, answer and bear testimony against us; or it must be owned, our punishment for our sins answers to them; it is the echo of our sins, what they call for, and righteously comes upon us:

for our transgressions are with us; or, "on us" d; in our minds, on our consciences, loading us with guilt; continually accusing and condemning us; are manifest to us, as the Targum; too manifest to be denied:

and as for our iniquities, we know them; the nature and number of them, and the aggravating circumstances that attend them; and cannot but own and acknowledge them, confess, lament, and bewail them; an enumeration of which follows.

Gill: Isa 59:13 - In transgressing and lying against the Lord // we have denied the Lord // and departing away from our God // speaking oppression and revolt // conceiving and uttering from the heart words of falsehood In transgressing and lying against the Lord,.... The word of the Lord, as the Targum; they transgress the doctrine of Christ, as well as the law of Go...

In transgressing and lying against the Lord,.... The word of the Lord, as the Targum; they transgress the doctrine of Christ, as well as the law of God, and deny him the only Lord God, even our Lord Jesus Christ, his proper deity, his righteousness, and satisfaction, which is notorious in our days; so the Syriac version renders it,

we have denied the Lord; the Lord that bought them: this is the case of many under a profession of Christ:

and departing away from our God: from following him, from walking in his ways, from attending his worship, word, and ordinances; so the Targum,

"from the worship of our God;''

from Immanuel, God with us, God in our nature; from him the living God, as every degree of unbelief is a departing from him; and especially he is departed from when his divine Person is denied; when neglected as the Saviour; his Gospel corrupted; his ordinances perverted, and his worship, or the assembly of the saints, forsaken:

speaking oppression and revolt: such who are in public office, speakers in the church of God; these speak what is oppressive and burdensome to the minds and consciences of those who are truly gracious; make their hearts sad, whom God would not have made sad, by their false doctrines; and which have a tendency to cause men to revolt from the Lord, and turn their backs on him: or "speak calumny and defection" e, as some render it; calumniate, reproach, and revile the few faithful ones, and draw off many from the truths of the Gospel, and a profession of them. The Targum renders it, "falsehood and apostasy"; false doctrine, which leads to apostasy from Christ; with which the next clause agrees:

conceiving and uttering from the heart words of falsehood; false doctrines; such as agree not with, but are contrary to, the word of God; these are of their own conceiving and contriving; the produce of their own brains; the fruit of their own fancy and imaginations; and which, out of the abundance of their hearts, they utter, even premeditated falsehoods, studied lies, as in Isa 59:3; see Gill on Isa 59:3.

Gill: Isa 59:14 - And judgment is turned away backward, and justice standeth afar off // for truth is fallen in the street // and equity cannot enter And judgment is turned away backward, and justice standeth afar off,.... Jarchi interprets this of the vengeance of God, and his righteousness in his ...

And judgment is turned away backward, and justice standeth afar off,.... Jarchi interprets this of the vengeance of God, and his righteousness in his judgments, not immediately executed; but it is to be understood of the want of judgment and justice being done among men; and therefore are represented as persons turned back, and standing afar off, rejected, neglected, and discouraged. The Targum renders it,

"they that do judgment are turned back, and they that do justice stand afar off;''

having none to take their parts, but everyone opposing them: this may respect both the want of judgment and justice in courts of judicature; no regard being had to right and wrong; no true judgment being given, or justice done, in any cause; but both banished from the bench: and also in the churches of Christ, or, however, under a profession of his name, where there is no judgment in doctrines, or discerning between truth and error; and no justice inflicted on delinquents according to the rules of Christ; no order nor discipline observed in his house; these are dismissed and discarded:

for truth is fallen in the street; where it used to be preached, exalted, established, and confirmed; but now thrown down and trampled upon, and few or none to help it up, and stand by it; and though it may have some secret well wishers, yet very few, if any, public advocates for it:

and equity cannot enter; either into civil courts, or Christian congregations; the doing of that which is just and right between man and man in things civil; and between Christian and Christian in things religious; or that which is right according to the word of God; can find no place, or cannot be admitted into assemblies that are called by his name. The Targum is,

"they that do truth stumble in the street; and they that exercise faith cannot be made manifest;''

such as are on the side of truth, in the service of it, cannot stand their ground through the violence of their opposers; and those that are faithful, and abide by the doctrine of faith, are forced to hide themselves, and cannot appear in the vindication of it.

Gill: Isa 59:15 - Yea, truth faileth // and he that departeth from evil maketh himself a prey // and the Lord saw it, and it displeased him that there was no judgment Yea, truth faileth,.... Or, "is deprived" f; of its life and being; it not only falls in the street, and there lies, without any to show regard unto i...

Yea, truth faileth,.... Or, "is deprived" f; of its life and being; it not only falls in the street, and there lies, without any to show regard unto it; but it fails; it seems as if it had given up the ghost and expired; so very prevalent will error be, before light and truth spring up again and be victorious, as they will:

and he that departeth from evil maketh himself a prey; he that does not give in to the prevailing vices of the age in which he lives, now become fashionable, but abstains from them, and departs from doctrinal as well as practical evils; from all false doctrines, and from all superstitious modes of worship; becomes a prey to others; a reproach and a laughing stock to them; they scoff at him, and deride him for his preciseness in religion; for his enthusiastic and irrational notions in doctrine; and for his stiffness in matters of worship: or, "he makes himself reckoned a madman" g; as some render it; and this is a common notion with profane men, and loose professors, to reckon such as madmen that are upright in doctrine, worship, and conversation; see Act 26:24,

and the Lord saw it, and it displeased him that there was no judgment; he took notice of all this, and resented it, though in a professing people, that there was no judgment or discretion in matters of doctrine and worship; no order or discipline observed; no justice done in civil courts, or in the church of God; no reformation in church or state.

Gill: Isa 59:16 - And he saw that there was no man // and wondered that there was no intercessor // therefore his arm brought salvation to him // and his righteousness, it sustained him And he saw that there was no man,.... Whose works are good, as the Targum adds; no good man, or faithful and righteous one, that had any regard to tru...

And he saw that there was no man,.... Whose works are good, as the Targum adds; no good man, or faithful and righteous one, that had any regard to truth and justice; that was an advocate for truth, and opposed error, and set on foot a reformation; or was concerned for any of these things, and mourned over the general corruption; not that it must be thought there was not one individual person, but very few, comparatively none; since mention is made before of some that departed from evil, and made themselves a prey:

and wondered that there was no intercessor; to stand up, and pray for them, as the Targum; so it seems a spirit of prayer and supplication will be greatly wanting in the times of latter day darkness, and before latter day glory breaks out: or, "that there was no interposer" h; none to appear on the side of truth and justice, and on the behalf of those that become a prey to others. "Wonder" is here ascribed to God by an anthropopathy, after the manner of men, as being a marvellous and surprising thing, and almost incredible, that none could be found in so good a cause, and taking the part of injured truth and righteousness; and it expresses the general corruption and defect of religion in those times; and shows that it is not for the goodness of men, or their merits, that the Lord will do what is next said he did:

therefore his arm brought salvation to him; either to himself, and which redounded to his own honour and glory; or to his people, those that became a prey to their enemies; these he rescued out of their hands, and by his own arm of power saved them; or he himself alone wrought out salvation for them, and delivered them from the insults, reproach, and persecution of men, under whatsoever name; so when antichrist, and antichristianism in every form, shall be destroyed, salvation will be ascribed to God alone, Rev 19:1,

and his righteousness, it sustained him; his righteousness, in taking vengeance on his and his people's enemies; and his faithfulness, in the performance of his promises, will support him in, and carry him through, his work, though attended with difficulties that may seem insuperable to men: this may be understood of Christ, as well as what follows. The Jews i interpret this of the Messiah, who should come in an age in which are none but wicked men, as is here said.

Gill: Isa 59:17 - For he put on righteousness as a breastplate // and an helmet of salvation upon his head // and he put on the garments of vengeance for clothing // and was clad with zeal as a cloak For he put on righteousness as a breastplate,.... Here the Lord is represented as a warrior clothed with armour, and as Christ is, and as he will appe...

For he put on righteousness as a breastplate,.... Here the Lord is represented as a warrior clothed with armour, and as Christ is, and as he will appear in the latter day on the behalf of his people, and against their enemies, who is called faithful and true, and in righteousness will make war, Rev 19:11, he will proceed according to justice and equity in righting the wrongs and avenging the injuries of his people; and both in saving them, and destroying their enemies, he will secure the honour of his faithfulness and justice, and the credit of his name and character; which will be preserved by his conduct, as the breast and inward parts are by the breastplate:

and an helmet of salvation upon his head; the salvation he will work out for his people will be very conspicuous; it will be seen by all, as the helmet on the head; and he will have the glory of it, on whose head are many crowns, Rev 19:12. The apostle has borrowed these phrases from hence, and applied them to the Christian armour, Eph 6:14,

and he put on the garments of vengeance for clothing; or, "he clothed himself with vengeance as a garment" k; he wrapped himself in it, and resolved to execute it on his and his people's enemies; the time being come to avenge the blood of his servants, by shedding the blood of their adversaries, with which his garments will be stained; and therefore is represented as having on a vesture dipped in blood, Rev 19:13,

and was clad with zeal as a cloak; with zeal for his own glory, and the interest of his people, and against antichrist, and all antichristian worship and doctrine; and therefore his eyes are said to be as a flame of fire, Rev 19:12.

Gill: Isa 59:18 - According to their deeds, accordingly he will repay // fury to his adversaries, recompence to his enemies // to the islands he will repay recompence According to their deeds, accordingly he will repay,.... As the enemies of his people have treated them, so will the Lord deal with them; as they have...

According to their deeds, accordingly he will repay,.... As the enemies of his people have treated them, so will the Lord deal with them; as they have shed their blood, he will, according to the laws of retribution and retaliation, give them blood to drink, as they deserve. The whore of Rome shall be rewarded as the followers of Christ have been rewarded by her, and double shall be rendered to her double, according to her works, Rev 16:6,

fury to his adversaries, recompence to his enemies: the church's adversaries and enemies are Christ's, and so he esteems them; and therefore his wrath and fury is poured out by way of recompence to them, for all the ill they have done them, even the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath, Rev 16:19,

to the islands he will repay recompence; even to those who dwell in the more distant and remote parts of the antichristian jurisdiction; for when the cup of wrath shall be given to Babylon every island will flee away, Rev 16:20.

Gill: Isa 59:19 - So shall they fear the name of the Lord from the west, and his glory from the rising of the sun // when the enemy shall come in like a flood // the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him // shall come like a narrow flood // the Spirit of the Lord lifting him up for a standard So shall they fear the name of the Lord from the west, and his glory from the rising of the sun,.... The eastern and western antichrist being destroye...

So shall they fear the name of the Lord from the west, and his glory from the rising of the sun,.... The eastern and western antichrist being destroyed, way shall be made for the spread of the Gospel east and west; which shall be everywhere embraced, and the true worship of God set up; and the glorious name of the Lord, or the Lord who is glorious in his name, nature, perfections, and works, shall be feared and served from the rising of the sun to the setting of the same, or by all nations under the heavens; see Mal 1:11 and even those that are left in the antichristian states, and escape the general ruin, shall be frightened at his judgments, fear his great and awful name, and give glory to the God of heaven, Rev 11:13.

when the enemy shall come in like a flood; when Satan, the common "enemy" of mankind, the avowed and implacable enemy of Christ and his people, "shall come" into the world, and into the church, as he will in the latter day; and has already entered "like" an impetuous flood, threatening to carry all before him, introducing a flood of immorality and profaneness, as in the days of Noah and Lot, to which the times of the Son of Man's coming are likened, Luk 17:26 or else a flood of error and heresy of all sorts; see Rev 12:15 and likewise a flood of persecution, as will be at the slaying of the witnesses, that hour of temptation that will come upon all the earth, to try the inhabitants of it, Rev 3:10. Aben Ezra compares this passage with, and illustrates it by, that time of trouble which will be, such as never was since there was a nation, Dan 12:1 when this will be the case, which seems to be near at hand:

the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him; Christ and his Gospel, or Christ the standard lifted up in the ministry of the Gospel, Isa 11:10 a set of ministers shall be raised up, having the everlasting Gospel, which they shall publish to all nations, and which shall have an universal spread; and by means of which the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea; and which will be a sufficient check to the enemy's flood of immorality, error, and persecution; and which, after this, shall be no more; see Rev 14:6. Some render the words, "when he", the glorious name of the Lord, or he who is the glory of the Lord, the brightness of his glory;

shall come like a narrow flood, that flows with great swiftness and force, and carries all before it;

the Spirit of the Lord lifting him up for a standard l, that is, in the ministry of the word; "so shall they fear", &c.; then multitudes shall serve the Lord, and worship him. The Targum is,

"they that afflict shall be as the overflowing of the river Euphrates; by the word of the Lord shall they be broken;''

and Vitringa thinks there is an allusion to the river Euphrates; interpreting the enemy of the Ottoman Turks, Tartars, and Scythians, stirred up by Satan to distress the church: all this may be applied to the case of particular believers under the assaults of Satan their grand enemy; who seeks all occasions to disturb their peace and destroy their comfort, though he cannot ruin their souls; he comes in, not only into their houses where they dwell, and gives them disturbance there; and into the house of God where they worship, and does all he can to hinder them in attending on the word and ordinances, and to prevent all usefulness, edification, and comfort thereby; but he enters into their hearts, and stirs up the corruptions of their nature, and causes these to rise like a flood, which threaten with bringing them into captivity to the law of sin and death; and attacks them with violent temptations, suggesting that they are not the people of God, the redeemed of the Lamb, or regenerated by the Spirit, but are hypocrites, and never had the work of grace on their hearts; aggravating their sins, and telling them they have sinned the sin against the Holy Ghost, and there is no pardon for them; and at other times filling their minds with blasphemous and atheistical thoughts; all which come upon them sometimes with so much force, that it is like an overflowing flood that threatens with utter destruction; when the Spirit of the Lord within them, who is greater than he that is in the world, lifts up Christ as an ensign or standard to them; and directs them to his blood for peace and pardon, for the cleansing of their souls and the atonement of their sins; where they may see and read, in legible characters, the free and full remission of their sins, and an entire satisfaction to the justice of God for them; and he holds up and holds out the righteousness of Christ unto them, with which God is well pleased, his justice satisfied, and his law made honourable; and by which they are justified from all things, and secured from all charges and condemnation; and who also leads them to the person, power, and grace of Christ, to preserve them in grace to glory, to keep them from falling, and present them faultless before the throne of God; the consequence of which is a check to Satan's temptations; an antidote to the doubts and fears he injects; and an abundance of spiritual peace and comfort; as well as it engages to fear the Lord and his goodness.

Gill: Isa 59:20 - And the Redeemer shall come to Zion // and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the Lord And the Redeemer shall come to Zion,.... Not Cyrus, as some; but the Messiah, as it is applied in the Talmud m and in other Jewish writers n, and as A...

And the Redeemer shall come to Zion,.... Not Cyrus, as some; but the Messiah, as it is applied in the Talmud m and in other Jewish writers n, and as Aben Ezra rightly interprets it; and so Kimchi, who also understands by the enemy, in the preceding verse, Gog and Magog; and this must be understood not of the first coming of Christ to redeem his people by his blood from sin, Satan, and the law; but of his spiritual coming to Zion to the church of God in the latter day, at the time of the conversion of the Jews, as appears from the quotation, and application of it by the apostle, Rom 11:25 and with it compare Rev 14:1,

and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the Lord; that is, to such among the Jews, the posterity of Jacob, who repent of their sins, and turn from them; and particularly their sin of the rejection of the Messiah, and the disbelief of him, and turn to him, and believe in him as their Saviour and King. The Targum is,

"and the Redeemer shall come to Zion, and to turn the transgressors of the house of Jacob to the law;''

but rather the turn will be to the Gospel of Christ.

Gill: Isa 59:21 - As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith the Lord // my Spirit which is upon thee, and my words which I have put in thy mouth // shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, saith the Lord, from henceforth and for ever As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith the Lord,.... Which shall be manifested and made good to them that repent of their sins, and, believe ...

As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith the Lord,.... Which shall be manifested and made good to them that repent of their sins, and, believe in Christ; and to whom the particular blessing of it shall be applied, the forgiveness of their sins; see Rom 11:27,

my Spirit which is upon thee, and my words which I have put in thy mouth; the Spirit of God, with his gifts and graces, which were upon Christ the Redeemer without measure; and the doctrines he received from his divine Father to teach others, and which he gave to his apostles; the same Spirit which in measure was put upon them, and the same truths which were delivered to them:

shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, saith the Lord, from henceforth and for ever; that is, shall always continue with the church and her spiritual seed, such as are born in her, and brought up by her, throughout all successive ages, and to the end of time; and it may be observed, that after the conversion of the Jews, to which this prophecy has a special regard, they shall no more apostatize; the Spirit of the Lord shall not depart from them; and the Gospel shall always be professed by them: and it may be further observed, that the Spirit and the word go together; and that the latter is only effectual as accompanied will, the former, and is a proof of the perseverance of the church of God, and of all such who have the Spirit and grace of God, Christ will always have a church, and that church a seed, in which the Spirit and word will always remain. The grace of the Spirit, in the hearts of God's people, never removes from them; nor his Gospel from such, in whose hearts it works effectually. The Targum interprets this of the words of prophecy; and the Talmud o of the law not departing from the disciples of wise men; but it is best to understand it of the Gospel not departing from the disciples of Christ, and the seed of the church.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Isa 59:1 Heb “or his ear too heavy [i.e., “dull”] to hear.”

NET Notes: Isa 59:2 Heb “and your sins have caused [his] face to be hidden from you so as not to hear.”

NET Notes: Isa 59:4 Or “trouble” (NIV), or “harm.”

NET Notes: Isa 59:5 Heb “that which is pressed in hatches [as] a snake.”

NET Notes: Isa 59:6 Heb “their deeds are deeds of sin, and the work of violence [is] in their hands.”

NET Notes: Isa 59:7 Heb “their thoughts are thoughts of sin, destruction and crushing [are] in their roadways.”

NET Notes: Isa 59:8 Heb “their paths they make crooked, everyone who walks in it does not know peace.”

NET Notes: Isa 59:9 The plural noun form may indicate degree here.

NET Notes: Isa 59:10 Heb among the strong, like dead men.”

NET Notes: Isa 59:11 See the note at v. 9.

NET Notes: Isa 59:12 Heb “indeed [or “for”] our rebellious deeds (are) with us, and our sins, we know them.”

NET Notes: Isa 59:13 Heb “conceiving and uttering from the heart words of falsehood.”

NET Notes: Isa 59:14 Or “for” (KJV, NRSV).

NET Notes: Isa 59:15 Heb “and it is displeasing in his eyes.”

NET Notes: Isa 59:16 Heb “and his justice [or “righteousness”] supports him.”

NET Notes: Isa 59:17 Heb “and he puts on the clothes of vengeance [as] a garment.”

NET Notes: Isa 59:18 Or “islands” (KJV, NIV).

NET Notes: Isa 59:19 Heb “the wind of the Lord drives it on.” The term רוּחַ (ruakh) could be translated “breath” her...

NET Notes: Isa 59:20 Heb “and to those who turn from rebellion in Jacob.”

NET Notes: Isa 59:21 Heb “from now and on into the future.”

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:3 For your hands are defiled with ( a ) blood, and your fingers with iniquity; your lips have spoken lies, your tongue hath uttered perverseness. ( a )...

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:4 None calleth for justice, nor [any] ( b ) pleadeth for truth: they trust in vanity, and speak lies; they conceive mischief, and ( c ) bring forth iniq...

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:5 They hatch ( d ) eggs of an adder, and weave the spider's ( e ) web: he that eateth of their eggs dieth, and that which is crushed breaketh out into a...

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:9 Therefore is ( f ) judgment far from us, neither doth ( g ) justice overtake us: we wait for light, but behold obscurity; for brightness, [but] we wal...

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:10 We grope for the wall like the ( h ) blind, and we grope as if [we had] no eyes: we stumble at noonday as in the night; [we are] in desolate places as...

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:11 We all roar like ( i ) bears, and mourn bitterly like doves: we look for judgment, but [there is] none; for salvation, [but] it is far from us. ( i )...

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:12 For our transgressions are multiplied before thee, and our ( k ) sins testify against us: for our transgressions [are] with us; and [as for] our iniqu...

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:13 In transgressing and lying against the LORD, and departing away from our God, speaking oppression and revolt, conceiving and uttering from the heart w...

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:14 And ( m ) judgment is turned away backward, and justice standeth afar off: for truth is fallen in the street, and equity cannot enter. ( m ) There is...

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:15 Yea, truth faileth; and he [that] departeth from evil maketh himself ( n ) a prey: and the LORD saw [it], and it displeased him that [there was] no ju...

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:16 And he saw that [there was] no man, and wondered that [there was] no intercessor: ( o ) therefore his arm brought ( p ) salvation to him; and his righ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:17 For he put on righteousness as a breastplate, and an ( q ) helmet of salvation upon his head; and he put on the garments of vengeance [for] clothing, ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:18 According to [their] deeds, accordingly he will repay, fury to his adversaries, recompence to his enemies; to the ( r ) isles he will repay recompence...

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:19 So shall they fear the name of the LORD from the west, and his glory from the rising of the sun. When the enemy shall ( s ) come in like a flood, the ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:20 And the Redeemer shall come to Zion, and to ( t ) them that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the LORD. ( t ) By which he declares that the tru...

Geneva Bible: Isa 59:21 As for me, this [is] my covenant with them, saith the LORD; My spirit that [is] upon thee, and my words which I have put in thy mouth, ( u ) shall not...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Isa 59:6 - A Libation To Jehovah Flimsy Garments Their webs shall not become garments.'--Isaiah 59:6. I counsel thee to buy of me, white raiment, that thou mayest be clothed, and tha...

MHCC: Isa 59:1-8 - --If our prayers are not answered, and the salvation we wait for is not wrought for us, it is not because God is weary of hearing prayer, but because we...

MHCC: Isa 59:9-15 - --If we shut our eyes against the light of Divine truth, it is just with God to hide from our eyes the things that belong to our peace. The sins of thos...

MHCC: Isa 59:16-21 - --This passage is connected with the following chapters. It is generally thought to describe the coming of the Messiah, as the Avenger and Deliverer of ...

Matthew Henry: Isa 59:1-8 - -- The prophet here rectifies the mistake of those who had been quarrelling with God because they had not the deliverances wrought for them which they ...

Matthew Henry: Isa 59:9-15 - -- The scope of this paragraph is the same with that of the last, to show that sin is the great mischief-maker; as it is that which keeps good things f...

Matthew Henry: Isa 59:16-21 - -- How sin abounded we have read, to our great amazement, in the former part of the chapter; how grace does much more abound we read in these verses. A...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 59:1-2 - -- This second prophetic address continues the reproachful theme of the first. In the previous prophecy we found the virtues which are well-pleasing to...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 59:3 - -- The sins of Israel are sins in words and deeds. "For your hands are defiled with blood, and your fingers with iniquity; your lips speak lies, your ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 59:4-6 - -- The description now passes over to the social and judicial life. Lying and oppression universally prevail. "No one speaks with justice, and no one ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 59:7 - -- This evil doing of theirs rises even to hatred, the very opposite of that love which is well-pleasing to God. "Their feet run to evil, and make has...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 59:8 - -- Their whole nature is broken up into discord. "The way of peace they know not, and there is no right in their roads: they make their paths crooked:...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 59:9-11 - -- In the second strophe the prophet includes himself when speaking of the people. They now mourn over that state of exhaustion into which they have be...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 59:12-13 - -- The people have already indicated by על־כּן in Isa 59:9 that this benighted, hopeless state is the consequence of their prevailing sins; they ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 59:14-18 - -- The confession of personal sins is followed by that of the sinful state of society. "And right is forced back, and righteousness stands afar off; f...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 59:19-20 - -- The prophet now proceeds to depict the ישׁוּעה , the symbol of which is the helmet upon Jehovah's head. "And they will fear the name of Jehov...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 59:21 - -- Jehovah, having thus come as a Redeemer to His people, who have hitherto been lying under the curse, makes an everlasting covenant with them. "And ...

Constable: Isa 56:1--66:24 - --V. Israel's future transformation chs. 56--66 The last major section of Isaiah deals with the necessity of livin...

Constable: Isa 56:1--59:21 - --A. Recognition of human inability chs. 56-59 It is important that God's people demonstrate righteousness...

Constable: Isa 58:1--59:21 - --2. The relationship of righteousness and ritual chs. 58-59 The structure of this section is simi...

Constable: Isa 59:1-15 - --What Israel did 59:1-15a As mentioned above, this second segment of the section dealing ...

Constable: Isa 59:1-8 - --Isaiah's evidence 59:1-8 "This passage describes the appalling moral breakdown of Jewish society--which perfectly accords with what we know of the deg...

Constable: Isa 59:9-15 - --Israel's confession 59:9-15a Isaiah, speaking for the sinful Israelites (cf. 6:5), first acknowledged the consequences of their behavior (vv. 9-11) an...

Constable: Isa 59:15-21 - --What God would do 59:15b-21 This is the third and last pericope, parallel to 57:14-21, that announces that God would deliver His people from the sin t...

Guzik: Isa 59:1-21 - The Reality Check Isaiah 59 - The Reality Check A. The sin God sees. 1. (1) The problem of God's people: what the cause is not. Behold, the Lord's hand is not short...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) ISAIAH, son of Amoz (not Amos); contemporary of Jonah, Amos, Hosea, in Israel, but younger than they; and of Micah, in Judah. His call to a higher deg...

JFB: Isaiah (Garis Besar) PARABLE OF JEHOVAH'S VINEYARD. (Isa. 5:1-30) SIX DISTINCT WOES AGAINST CRIMES. (Isa. 5:8-23) (Lev 25:13; Mic 2:2). The jubilee restoration of posses...

TSK: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Isaiah has, with singular propriety, been denominated the Evangelical Prophet, on account of the number and variety of his prophecies concerning the a...

TSK: Isaiah 59 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Isa 59:1, The calamities of the Jews not owing to want of saving power in God, but to their own enormous sins; Isa 59:16, Salvation is on...

Poole: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE ARGUMENT THE teachers of the ancient church were of two sorts: 1. Ordinary, the priests and Levites. 2. Extraordinary, the prophets. These we...

Poole: Isaiah 59 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 59 Sin separates between God and us, Isa 59:1,2 . Murder, theft, falsehood, injustice, cruelty, Isa 59:3-8 . Calamity for sin, Isa 59:9-15 ...

MHCC: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Isaiah prophesied in the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. He has been well called the evangelical prophet, on account of his numerous and...

MHCC: Isaiah 59 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Isa 59:1-8) Reproofs of sin and wickedness. (Isa 59:9-15) Confession of sin, and lamentation for the consequences. (Isa 59:16-21) Promises of deliv...

Matthew Henry: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, With Practical Observations, of The Book of the Prophet Isaiah Prophet is a title that sounds very great to those that understand it, t...

Matthew Henry: Isaiah 59 (Pendahuluan Pasal) In this chapter we have sin appearing exceedingly sinful, and grace appearing exceedingly gracious; and, as what is here said of the sinner's sin (...

Constable: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title and writer The title of this book of the Bible, as is true of the o...

Constable: Isaiah (Garis Besar) Outline I. Introduction chs. 1-5 A. Israel's condition and God's solution ch. 1 ...

Constable: Isaiah Isaiah Bibliography Alexander, Joseph Addison. Commentary on the Prophecies of Isaiah. 1846, 1847. Revised ed. ...

Haydock: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE PROPHECY OF ISAIAS. INTRODUCTION. This inspired writer is called by the Holy Ghost, (Ecclesiasticus xlviii. 25.) the great prophet; from t...

Gill: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO ISAIAH This book is called, in the New Testament, sometimes "the Book of the Words of the Prophet Esaias", Luk 3:4 sometimes only t...

Gill: Isaiah 59 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO ISAIAH 59 As the former chapter declares the hypocrisy and formality of professors of religion; this expresses the errors and heres...

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