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Teks -- Isaiah 45:1-25 (NET)

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Konteks
45:1 This is what the Lord says to his chosen one, to Cyrus, whose right hand I hold in order to subdue nations before him, and disarm kings, to open doors before him, so gates remain unclosed: 45:2 “I will go before you and level mountains. Bronze doors I will shatter and iron bars I will hack through. 45:3 I will give you hidden treasures, riches stashed away in secret places, so you may recognize that I am the Lord, the one who calls you by name, the God of Israel. 45:4 For the sake of my servant Jacob, Israel, my chosen one, I call you by name and give you a title of respect, even though you do not recognize me. 45:5 I am the Lord, I have no peer, there is no God but me. I arm you for battle, even though you do not recognize me. 45:6 I do this so people will recognize from east to west that there is no God but me; I am the Lord, I have no peer. 45:7 I am the one who forms light and creates darkness; the one who brings about peace and creates calamity. I am the Lord, who accomplishes all these things. 45:8 O sky, rain down from above! Let the clouds send down showers of deliverance! Let the earth absorb it so salvation may grow, and deliverance may sprout up along with it. I, the Lord, create it.
The Lord Gives a Warning
45:9 One who argues with his creator is in grave danger, one who is like a mere shard among the other shards on the ground! The clay should not say to the potter, “What in the world are you doing? Your work lacks skill!” 45:10 Danger awaits one who says to his father, “What in the world are you fathering?” and to his mother, “What in the world are you bringing forth?” 45:11 This is what the Lord says, the Holy One of Israel, the one who formed him, concerning things to come: “How dare you question me about my children! How dare you tell me what to do with the work of my own hands! 45:12 I made the earth, I created the people who live on it. It was me– my hands stretched out the sky, I give orders to all the heavenly lights. 45:13 It is me– I stir him up and commission him; I will make all his ways level. He will rebuild my city; he will send my exiled people home, but not for a price or a bribe,” says the Lord who commands armies.
The Lord is the Nations’ Only Hope
45:14 This is what the Lord says: “The profit of Egypt and the revenue of Ethiopia, along with the Sabeans, those tall men, will be brought to you and become yours. They will walk behind you, coming along in chains. They will bow down to you and pray to you: ‘Truly God is with you; he has no peer; there is no other God!’” 45:15 Yes, you are a God who keeps hidden, O God of Israel, deliverer! 45:16 They will all be ashamed and embarrassed; those who fashion idols will all be humiliated. 45:17 Israel will be delivered once and for all by the Lord; you will never again be ashamed or humiliated. 45:18 For this is what the Lord says, the one who created the sky– he is the true God, the one who formed the earth and made it; he established it, he did not create it without order, he formed it to be inhabited– “I am the Lord, I have no peer. 45:19 I have not spoken in secret, in some hidden place. I did not tell Jacob’s descendants, ‘Seek me in vain!’ I am the Lord, the one who speaks honestly, who makes reliable announcements. 45:20 Gather together and come! Approach together, you refugees from the nations! Those who carry wooden idols know nothing, those who pray to a god that cannot deliver. 45:21 Tell me! Present the evidence! Let them consult with one another! Who predicted this in the past? Who announced it beforehand? Was it not I, the Lord? I have no peer, there is no God but me, a God who vindicates and delivers; there is none but me. 45:22 Turn to me so you can be delivered, all you who live in the earth’s remote regions! For I am God, and I have no peer. 45:23 I solemnly make this oath– what I say is true and reliable: ‘Surely every knee will bow to me, every tongue will solemnly affirm; 45:24 they will say about me, “Yes, the Lord is a powerful deliverer.”’” All who are angry at him will cower before him. 45:25 All the descendants of Israel will be vindicated by the Lord and will boast in him.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Cyrus the Persian king of Babylon known as Cyrus the Great (OS)
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Ethiopia a country south of Egypt
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · Sabeans people of Seba /Sheba, known as traders or sometimes as bandits


Topik/Tema Kamus: Isaiah, The Book of | Isaiah | God | Cyrus | Jesus, The Christ | Persia | Church | Gentiles | Call | ISAIAH, BOOK OF | One God | NAME | FAITHFUL; FAITHFULNESS | Salvation | SEBA | GATE | CHOOSE; CHOSEN | Potsherd | MAKE, MAKER | PHILOSOPHY | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Isa 45:1 - His anointed His king, whom God has designed, and separated, and fitted, in all respects, for this work.

His king, whom God has designed, and separated, and fitted, in all respects, for this work.

Wesley: Isa 45:1 - Loose I will take away their girdle, which was about their loins; their power and authority, whereof that was an ensign.

I will take away their girdle, which was about their loins; their power and authority, whereof that was an ensign.

Wesley: Isa 45:1 - Gates The great and magnificent gates of their cities and palaces, which shall be opened to him as conqueror.

The great and magnificent gates of their cities and palaces, which shall be opened to him as conqueror.

Wesley: Isa 45:2 - Go To remove all obstructions, to destroy all them that oppose thee, and carry thee through the greatest difficulties.

To remove all obstructions, to destroy all them that oppose thee, and carry thee through the greatest difficulties.

Wesley: Isa 45:3 - The treasures Such as have been long kept in dark and secret places.

Such as have been long kept in dark and secret places.

Wesley: Isa 45:4 - I have I knew, and called thee by thy name, when thou didst neither know nor think of me; nay, when thou hadst no being.

I knew, and called thee by thy name, when thou didst neither know nor think of me; nay, when thou hadst no being.

Wesley: Isa 45:5 - I girded I made thee strong and active, and disposed thee for these great and warlike enterprizes.

I made thee strong and active, and disposed thee for these great and warlike enterprizes.

Wesley: Isa 45:6 - That That all nations may know it by my foretelling these things so long before, and by the wonderful success that I shall give thee, and by my over - ruli...

That all nations may know it by my foretelling these things so long before, and by the wonderful success that I shall give thee, and by my over - ruling thine heart and counsels, to the deliverance of my people.

Wesley: Isa 45:7 - Light All mens comforts and calamities come from thy hand.

All mens comforts and calamities come from thy hand.

Wesley: Isa 45:8 - Drop The righteous and gracious acts of God for his people, shall be so many, as if God rained showers of righteousness out of heaven.

The righteous and gracious acts of God for his people, shall be so many, as if God rained showers of righteousness out of heaven.

Wesley: Isa 45:8 - Open Open itself to bring forth those fruits which may be expected from such showers.

Open itself to bring forth those fruits which may be expected from such showers.

Wesley: Isa 45:8 - Them The heavens and the earth conspiring together.

The heavens and the earth conspiring together.

Wesley: Isa 45:8 - Together Together with salvation.

Together with salvation.

Wesley: Isa 45:8 - It This great work of salvation and righteousness; whereof, tho' Cyrus is the instrument, I am the author.

This great work of salvation and righteousness; whereof, tho' Cyrus is the instrument, I am the author.

Wesley: Isa 45:9 - Woe As God here makes many glorious promises to Cyrus, so he pronounces a curse upon them, who should endeavour to hinder him.

As God here makes many glorious promises to Cyrus, so he pronounces a curse upon them, who should endeavour to hinder him.

Wesley: Isa 45:9 - Contend Contend, if you please, with your fellow creatures, but not with your creator.

Contend, if you please, with your fellow creatures, but not with your creator.

Wesley: Isa 45:9 - Or He turns his speech to the potter.

He turns his speech to the potter.

Wesley: Isa 45:11 - Thus saith Will you not allow me that liberty which yourselves take, of disposing of my own children and works, as I see fit?

Will you not allow me that liberty which yourselves take, of disposing of my own children and works, as I see fit?

Wesley: Isa 45:13 - Him Cyrus.

Cyrus.

Wesley: Isa 45:13 - In righteousness Most justly, to punish the wicked Babylonians, to plead the cause of the oppressed ones, to manifest my righteousness, and truth, and goodness.

Most justly, to punish the wicked Babylonians, to plead the cause of the oppressed ones, to manifest my righteousness, and truth, and goodness.

Wesley: Isa 45:14 - The labour The wealth gotten by their labour.

The wealth gotten by their labour.

Wesley: Isa 45:14 - Thee Jerusalem shall not only be rebuilt, but the wealth and glory of other countries shall be brought to it again. This was in part verified in Jerusalem;...

Jerusalem shall not only be rebuilt, but the wealth and glory of other countries shall be brought to it again. This was in part verified in Jerusalem; but it was much more fully accomplished in the church of the gospel, in the accession of the Gentiles to that church which began in Jerusalem, and from thence spread itself into all the parts of the world.

Wesley: Isa 45:14 - Come over They shall be taken captive by thee, and willingly submit themselves to thee.

They shall be taken captive by thee, and willingly submit themselves to thee.

Wesley: Isa 45:15 - Verily These are the words of the prophet, on contemplation of the various dispensations of God towards his church, and in the world.

These are the words of the prophet, on contemplation of the various dispensations of God towards his church, and in the world.

Wesley: Isa 45:15 - Hidest Thy counsels are deep and incomprehensible, thy ways are past finding out.

Thy counsels are deep and incomprehensible, thy ways are past finding out.

Wesley: Isa 45:19 - In secret The Heathen idols deliver oracles in obscure cells and caverns: but I have delivered my oracles to Israel publickly and plainly.

The Heathen idols deliver oracles in obscure cells and caverns: but I have delivered my oracles to Israel publickly and plainly.

Wesley: Isa 45:19 - In vain Serve and worship me for nought. As I appointed them work, so from time to time I have given them abundant recompence.

Serve and worship me for nought. As I appointed them work, so from time to time I have given them abundant recompence.

Wesley: Isa 45:19 - Right I require nothing of my people which is not highly just and good.

I require nothing of my people which is not highly just and good.

Wesley: Isa 45:20 - Draw near To hear what I have said, and am now about to say.

To hear what I have said, and am now about to say.

Wesley: Isa 45:20 - Of the nations The remnant of the Gentiles, who survive the many destructions, which I am bringing upon the Heathen nations.

The remnant of the Gentiles, who survive the many destructions, which I am bringing upon the Heathen nations.

Wesley: Isa 45:21 - Take counsel To maintain the cause of their idols.

To maintain the cause of their idols.

Wesley: Isa 45:21 - This This great work, Babylon's destruction, and the redemption of God's people.

This great work, Babylon's destruction, and the redemption of God's people.

Wesley: Isa 45:23 - In righteousness It is what I will faithfully perform.

It is what I will faithfully perform.

Wesley: Isa 45:23 - Return Without effect. It is a metaphor from ambassadors, who sometimes return to their princes without any success in their business.

Without effect. It is a metaphor from ambassadors, who sometimes return to their princes without any success in their business.

Wesley: Isa 45:23 - Every tongue Not only the Jews, but all nations.

Not only the Jews, but all nations.

Wesley: Isa 45:24 - In the Lord By or from God alone, or the Messiah, who is the true Jehovah as well as man.

By or from God alone, or the Messiah, who is the true Jehovah as well as man.

Wesley: Isa 45:24 - Righteousness To justify me from all things which I could not be justified by the law of Moses.

To justify me from all things which I could not be justified by the law of Moses.

Wesley: Isa 45:24 - Strength Support and assistance to bear all my burdens, overcome all my enemies, and perform all my duties.

Support and assistance to bear all my burdens, overcome all my enemies, and perform all my duties.

Wesley: Isa 45:24 - Men The Gentiles shall come to Christ.

The Gentiles shall come to Christ.

Wesley: Isa 45:24 - Ashamed But all his implacable enemies shall be brought to shame.

But all his implacable enemies shall be brought to shame.

Wesley: Isa 45:25 - All All Israelites indeed, whether Jews or Gentiles.

All Israelites indeed, whether Jews or Gentiles.

JFB: Isa 45:1 - -- These seven verses should have been appended to previous chapter, and the new chapter should begin with Isa 45:8, "Drop down," &c. [HORSLEY]. Referenc...

These seven verses should have been appended to previous chapter, and the new chapter should begin with Isa 45:8, "Drop down," &c. [HORSLEY]. Reference to the deliverance by Messiah often breaks out from amidst the local and temporary details of the deliverance from Babylon, as the great ultimate end of the prophecy. (Isa 45:1-7)

JFB: Isa 45:1 - his anointed Cyrus is so called as being set apart as king, by God's providence, to fulfil His special purpose. Though kings were not anointed in Persia, the expre...

Cyrus is so called as being set apart as king, by God's providence, to fulfil His special purpose. Though kings were not anointed in Persia, the expression is applied to him in reference to the Jewish custom of setting apart kings to the regal office by anointing.

JFB: Isa 45:1 - right hand . . . holden Image from sustaining a feeble person by holding his right hand (Isa 42:6).

Image from sustaining a feeble person by holding his right hand (Isa 42:6).

JFB: Isa 45:1 - subdue nations Namely, the Cilicians, Syrians, Babylonians, Lydians, Bactrians, &c.; his empire extended from Egypt and the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean, and fr...

Namely, the Cilicians, Syrians, Babylonians, Lydians, Bactrians, &c.; his empire extended from Egypt and the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean, and from Ethiopia to the Euxine Sea.

JFB: Isa 45:1 - loose . . . girdle loins That is, the girdle off the loins; and so enfeeble them. The loose outer robe of the Orientals, when girt fast round the loins, was the emblem of stre...

That is, the girdle off the loins; and so enfeeble them. The loose outer robe of the Orientals, when girt fast round the loins, was the emblem of strength and preparedness for action; ungirt, was indicative of feebleness (Job 38:3; Job 12:21); "weakeneth the strength of the mighty" (Margin), "looseth the girdle of the strong." The joints of (Belshazzar's) loins, we read in Dan 5:6, were loosed during the siege by Cyrus, at the sight of the mysterious handwriting on the palace walls. His being taken by surprise, unaccoutred, is here foretold.

JFB: Isa 45:1 - to open . . . gates In the revelry in Babylon on the night of its capture, the inner gates, leading from the streets to the river, were left open; for there were walls al...

In the revelry in Babylon on the night of its capture, the inner gates, leading from the streets to the river, were left open; for there were walls along each side of the Euphrates with gates, which, had they been kept shut, would have hemmed the invading hosts in the bed of the river, where the Babylonians could have easily destroyed them. Also, the gates of the palace were left open, so that there was access to every part of the city; and such was its extent, that they who lived in the extremities were taken prisoners before the alarm reached the center of the palace. [HERODOTUS, 1.191].

JFB: Isa 45:2 - crooked . . . straight (Isa 40:4), rather, "maketh mountains plain" [LOWTH], that is, clear out of thy way all opposing persons and things. The Keri reads as in Isa 45:13, ...

(Isa 40:4), rather, "maketh mountains plain" [LOWTH], that is, clear out of thy way all opposing persons and things. The Keri reads as in Isa 45:13, "make straight" (Margin).

JFB: Isa 45:2 - gates of brass (Psa 107:16). HERODOTUS (1.179) says, Babylon had a hundred massive gates, twenty-five on each of the four sides of the city, all, as well as their p...

(Psa 107:16). HERODOTUS (1.179) says, Babylon had a hundred massive gates, twenty-five on each of the four sides of the city, all, as well as their posts, of brass.

JFB: Isa 45:2 - bars of iron With which the gates were fastened.

With which the gates were fastened.

JFB: Isa 45:3 - treasures of darkness That is, hidden in subterranean places; a common Oriental practice. Sorcerers pretended to be able to show where such treasures were to be found; in o...

That is, hidden in subterranean places; a common Oriental practice. Sorcerers pretended to be able to show where such treasures were to be found; in opposition to their pretensions, God says, He will really give hidden treasures to Cyrus (Jer 50:37; Jer 51:13). PLINY (Natural History,, 33:3) says that Cyrus obtained from the conquest of Asia thirty-four thousand pounds weight of gold, besides golden vases, and five hundred thousand talents of silver, and the goblet of Semiramis, weighing fifteen talents.

JFB: Isa 45:3 - that thou mayest know Namely, not merely that He was "the God of Israel," but that He was Jehovah, the true God. Ezr 1:1-2 shows that the correspondence of the event with t...

Namely, not merely that He was "the God of Israel," but that He was Jehovah, the true God. Ezr 1:1-2 shows that the correspondence of the event with the prediction had the desired effect on Cyrus.

JFB: Isa 45:3 - which call . . . thy name So long before designate thee by name (Isa 43:1).

So long before designate thee by name (Isa 43:1).

JFB: Isa 45:4 - -- (See on Isa 41:8; Isa 43:14).

(See on Isa 41:8; Isa 43:14).

JFB: Isa 45:4 - surnamed That is, designated to carry out My design of restoring Judah (see on Isa 44:5; Isa 44:28; Isa 45:1). MAURER here, as in Isa 44:5, translates, "I have...

That is, designated to carry out My design of restoring Judah (see on Isa 44:5; Isa 44:28; Isa 45:1). MAURER here, as in Isa 44:5, translates, "I have addressed thee by an honorable name."

JFB: Isa 45:4 - hast not known me Previous to My calling thee to this office; after God's call, Cyrus did know Him in some degree (Ezr 1:1-3).

Previous to My calling thee to this office; after God's call, Cyrus did know Him in some degree (Ezr 1:1-3).

JFB: Isa 45:5 - -- (Isa 42:8; Isa 43:3, Isa 43:11; Isa 44:8; Isa 46:9).

JFB: Isa 45:5 - girded thee Whereas "I will loose (the girdle off) the loins of kings" (Isa 45:1), strengthening thee, but enfeebling them before thee.

Whereas "I will loose (the girdle off) the loins of kings" (Isa 45:1), strengthening thee, but enfeebling them before thee.

JFB: Isa 45:5 - though . . . not known me (Isa 45:4). God knows His elect before they are made to know Him (Gal 4:9; Joh 15:16).

(Isa 45:4). God knows His elect before they are made to know Him (Gal 4:9; Joh 15:16).

JFB: Isa 45:6 - -- From the rising to the setting of the sun, that is, from east to west, the whole habitable world. It is not said, "from north to south," for that woul...

From the rising to the setting of the sun, that is, from east to west, the whole habitable world. It is not said, "from north to south," for that would not imply the habitable world, as, "from east to west" does (Ezr 1:1, &c.). The conquest of Jerusalem by Babylon, the capital of the world, and the overthrow of Babylon and restoration of the Jews by Cyrus, who expressly acknowledged himself to be but the instrument in God's hands, were admirably suited to secure, throughout the world, the acknowledgment of Jehovah as the only true God.

JFB: Isa 45:7 - form . . . create Yatzar, to give "form" to previously existing matter. Bara, to "create" from nothing the chaotic dark material.

Yatzar, to give "form" to previously existing matter. Bara, to "create" from nothing the chaotic dark material.

JFB: Isa 45:7 - light . . . darkness Literally (Gen 1:1-3), emblematical also, prosperity to Cyrus, calamity to Babylon and the nations to be vanquished [GROTIUS] . . . Isaiah refers also...

Literally (Gen 1:1-3), emblematical also, prosperity to Cyrus, calamity to Babylon and the nations to be vanquished [GROTIUS] . . . Isaiah refers also to the Oriental belief in two coexistent, eternal principles, ever struggling with each other, light or good, and darkness or evil, Oromasden and Ahrimanen. God, here, in opposition, asserts His sovereignty over both [VITRINGA].

JFB: Isa 45:7 - create evil Not moral evil (Jam 1:13), but in contrast to "peace" in the parallel clause, war, disaster (compare Psa 65:7; Amo 3:6).

Not moral evil (Jam 1:13), but in contrast to "peace" in the parallel clause, war, disaster (compare Psa 65:7; Amo 3:6).

JFB: Isa 45:8 - Drop Namely, the fertilizing rain (Psa 65:12).

Namely, the fertilizing rain (Psa 65:12).

JFB: Isa 45:8 - skies Clouds; lower than the "heavens."

Clouds; lower than the "heavens."

JFB: Isa 45:8 - righteousness That is, the dews of the Holy Spirit, whereby "righteousness" shall "spring up." (See latter end of the verse).

That is, the dews of the Holy Spirit, whereby "righteousness" shall "spring up." (See latter end of the verse).

JFB: Isa 45:8 - earth Figuratively for the hearts of men on it, opened for receiving the truth by the Holy Ghost (Act 16:14).

Figuratively for the hearts of men on it, opened for receiving the truth by the Holy Ghost (Act 16:14).

JFB: Isa 45:8 - them The earth and the heavens. HORSLEY prefers: "Let the earth open, and let salvation and justice grow forth; let it bring them forth together; I the Lor...

The earth and the heavens. HORSLEY prefers: "Let the earth open, and let salvation and justice grow forth; let it bring them forth together; I the Lord have created him" (Isa 45:13). MAURER translates, "Let all kinds of salvation (prosperity) be fruitful" (Psa 72:3, Psa 72:6-7). The revival of religion after the return from Babylon suggests to the prophet the diffusion of Messiah's Gospel, especially in days still future; hence the elevation of the language to a pitch above what is applicable to the state of religion after the return.

JFB: Isa 45:9 - -- Anticipating the objections which the Jews might raise as to why God permitted their captivity, and when He did restore them, why He did so by a forei...

Anticipating the objections which the Jews might raise as to why God permitted their captivity, and when He did restore them, why He did so by a foreign prince, Cyrus, not a Jew (Isa 40:27, &c.), but mainly and ultimately, the objections about to be raised by the Jews against God's sovereign act in adopting the whole Gentile world as His spiritual Israel (Isa 45:8, referring to this catholic diffusion of the Gospel), as if it were an infringement of their nation's privileges; so Paul expressly quotes it (Rom 9:4-8, Rom 9:11-21).

JFB: Isa 45:9 - Let . . . strive Not in the Hebrew; rather, in apposition with "him," "A potsherd among the potsherds of the earth!" A creature fragile and worthless as the fragment o...

Not in the Hebrew; rather, in apposition with "him," "A potsherd among the potsherds of the earth!" A creature fragile and worthless as the fragment of an earthen vessel, among others equally so, and yet presuming to strive with his Maker! English Version implies, it is appropriate for man to strive with man, in opposition to 2Ti 2:24 [GESENIUS].

JFB: Isa 45:9 - thy . . . He Shall thy work say of thee, He . . . ?

Shall thy work say of thee, He . . . ?

JFB: Isa 45:10 - -- If it be wrong for a child, born in less favorable circumstances, to upbraid his parents with having given him birth, a fortiori, it is, to upbraid Go...

If it be wrong for a child, born in less favorable circumstances, to upbraid his parents with having given him birth, a fortiori, it is, to upbraid God for His dealings with us. Rather translate, "a father . . . a woman." The Jews considered themselves exclusively God's children and were angry that God should adopt the Gentiles besides. Woe to him who says to one already a father, Why dost thou beget other children? [HORSLEY].

JFB: Isa 45:11 - Ask . . . command Instead of striving with Me in regard to My purposes, your wisdom is in prayer to ask, and even command Me, in so far as it is for My glory, and for y...

Instead of striving with Me in regard to My purposes, your wisdom is in prayer to ask, and even command Me, in so far as it is for My glory, and for your real good (Mar 11:24; Joh 16:23, Joh 16:13, latter part of the verse; 1Jo 3:22).

JFB: Isa 45:11 - sons (Isa 54:13; Gal 3:26).

JFB: Isa 45:11 - work of my hands Spiritually (Eph 2:10); also literal Israel (Isa 60:21). MAURER translates, instead of "command," Leave it to Me, in My dealings concerning My sons an...

Spiritually (Eph 2:10); also literal Israel (Isa 60:21). MAURER translates, instead of "command," Leave it to Me, in My dealings concerning My sons and concerning the work of My hands, to do what I will with My own. LOWTH reads it interrogatively, Do ye presume to question Me and dictate to Me (see Isa 45:9-10)? The same sense is given, if the words be taken in irony. But English Version is best.

JFB: Isa 45:12 - -- The same argument for prayer, drawn from God's omnipotence and consequent power, to grant any request, occurs in Isa 40:26-31.

The same argument for prayer, drawn from God's omnipotence and consequent power, to grant any request, occurs in Isa 40:26-31.

JFB: Isa 45:12 - I, even my hands So Hebrew (Psa 41:2), "Thou . . . thy hand" (both nominatives, in apposition).

So Hebrew (Psa 41:2), "Thou . . . thy hand" (both nominatives, in apposition).

JFB: Isa 45:13 - him Cyrus, type of Messiah, who redeems the captives of Satan "without money and without price" (Isa 55:1), "freely" (gratuitously) (Isa 52:3; Isa 61:1; Z...

Cyrus, type of Messiah, who redeems the captives of Satan "without money and without price" (Isa 55:1), "freely" (gratuitously) (Isa 52:3; Isa 61:1; Zec 9:11; Rom 3:24).

JFB: Isa 45:13 - in righteousness To fulfil My righteous purpose (see on Isa 41:2; Isa 42:6; Jer 23:6).

To fulfil My righteous purpose (see on Isa 41:2; Isa 42:6; Jer 23:6).

JFB: Isa 45:14 - -- The language but cursorily alludes to Egypt, Ethiopia, and Seba, being given to Cyrus as a ransom in lieu of Israel whom he restored (Isa 43:3), but m...

The language but cursorily alludes to Egypt, Ethiopia, and Seba, being given to Cyrus as a ransom in lieu of Israel whom he restored (Isa 43:3), but mainly and fully describes the gathering in of the Gentiles to Israel (Act 2:10-11; Act 8:27-38), especially at Israel's future restoration (Isa 2:2; Isa 14:1-2; Isa 19:18-22; Isa 60:3-14; Isa 49:23; Psa 68:31; Psa 72:10-11).

JFB: Isa 45:14 - labour Wealth acquired by labor (Jer 3:24).

Wealth acquired by labor (Jer 3:24).

JFB: Isa 45:14 - Sabeans . . . of stature The men of Meroe, in Upper Egypt. HERODOTUS (3.30) calls the Ethiopians "the tallest of men" (see on Isa 18:2; 1Ch 11:23).

The men of Meroe, in Upper Egypt. HERODOTUS (3.30) calls the Ethiopians "the tallest of men" (see on Isa 18:2; 1Ch 11:23).

JFB: Isa 45:14 - thee Jerusalem ("my city," Isa 45:13).

Jerusalem ("my city," Isa 45:13).

JFB: Isa 45:14 - in chains (Psa 149:8). "The saints shall judge the world" (1Co 6:2) and "rule the nations with a rod of iron" (Zec 14:12-19; Rev 2:26-27). The "chains," in the...

(Psa 149:8). "The saints shall judge the world" (1Co 6:2) and "rule the nations with a rod of iron" (Zec 14:12-19; Rev 2:26-27). The "chains," in the case of the obedient, shall be the easy yoke of Messiah; as "the sword of the Spirit" also is saving to the believer, condemnatory to the unbeliever (Joh 12:48; Heb 4:12; Rev 19:15).

JFB: Isa 45:14 - God is in thee (Jer 3:19).

JFB: Isa 45:15 - God that hidest thyself HORSLEY, after JEROME, explains this as the confession of Egypt, &c., that God is concealed in human form in the person of Jesus. Rather, connected wi...

HORSLEY, after JEROME, explains this as the confession of Egypt, &c., that God is concealed in human form in the person of Jesus. Rather, connected with Isa 45:9-10, the prophet, contemplating the wonderful issue of the seemingly dark counsels of God, implies a censure on those who presume to question God's dealings (Isa 55:8-9; Deu 29:29). Faith still discerns, even under the veil, the covenant-keeping "God of Israel, the Saviour" (Isa 8:17).

JFB: Isa 45:16 - ashamed "disappointed" in their expectation of help from their idols (see on Isa 42:17; Psa 97:7).

"disappointed" in their expectation of help from their idols (see on Isa 42:17; Psa 97:7).

JFB: Isa 45:17 - in the Lord (Isa 45:24-25), contrasted with the idols which cannot give even temporary help (Isa 45:16); in Jehovah there is everlasting salvation (Isa 26:4).

(Isa 45:24-25), contrasted with the idols which cannot give even temporary help (Isa 45:16); in Jehovah there is everlasting salvation (Isa 26:4).

JFB: Isa 45:17 - not . . . ashamed Opposed to the doom of the idolaters, who, in the hour of need, shall be "ashamed" (see on Isa 45:16).

Opposed to the doom of the idolaters, who, in the hour of need, shall be "ashamed" (see on Isa 45:16).

JFB: Isa 45:18 - -- (See on Isa 45:12).

(See on Isa 45:12).

JFB: Isa 45:18 - not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited Therefore, Judah, lying waste during the Babylonish captivity, shall be peopled again by the exiles. The Jews, from this passage, infer that, after th...

Therefore, Judah, lying waste during the Babylonish captivity, shall be peopled again by the exiles. The Jews, from this passage, infer that, after the resurrection, the earth shall be inhabited, for there can be no reason why the earth should then exist in vain any more than now (2Pe 3:13).

JFB: Isa 45:19 - not . . . secret Not like the heathen oracles which gave their responses from dark caverns, with studied obscurity (Isa 48:16). Christ plainly quotes these words, ther...

Not like the heathen oracles which gave their responses from dark caverns, with studied obscurity (Isa 48:16). Christ plainly quotes these words, thereby identifying Himself with Jehovah (Joh 18:20).

JFB: Isa 45:19 - I said not . . . Seek . . . in vain When I commanded you to seek Me (Jehovah did so, Isa 45:11, "Ask Me," &c.), it was not in order that ye might be sent empty away (Deu 32:47). Especial...

When I commanded you to seek Me (Jehovah did so, Isa 45:11, "Ask Me," &c.), it was not in order that ye might be sent empty away (Deu 32:47). Especially in Israel's time of trial, God's interposition, in behalf of Zion hereafter, is expressly stated as about to be the answer to prayer (Isa 62:6-10; Psa 102:13-17, Psa 102:19-21). So in the case of all believers, the spiritual Israel.

JFB: Isa 45:19 - righteousness That which is veracious: not in the equivocal terms of heathen responses, fitly symbolized by the "dark places" from which they were uttered.

That which is veracious: not in the equivocal terms of heathen responses, fitly symbolized by the "dark places" from which they were uttered.

JFB: Isa 45:19 - right True (see on Isa 41:26).

True (see on Isa 41:26).

JFB: Isa 45:20 - escaped of the nations Those of the nations who shall have escaped the slaughter inflicted by Cyrus. Now, at last, ye shall see the folly of "praying to a god that cannot sa...

Those of the nations who shall have escaped the slaughter inflicted by Cyrus. Now, at last, ye shall see the folly of "praying to a god that cannot save" (Isa 45:16). Ultimately, those that shall be "left of all the nations which shall come against Jerusalem" are meant (Zec 14:16). They shall then all be converted to the Lord (Isa 66:23-24; Jer 3:17; Zec 8:20-23).

JFB: Isa 45:21 - -- Challenge the worshippers of idols (Isa 41:1).

Challenge the worshippers of idols (Isa 41:1).

JFB: Isa 45:21 - take counsel together As to the best arguments wherewith to defend the cause of idolatry.

As to the best arguments wherewith to defend the cause of idolatry.

JFB: Isa 45:21 - who . . . from that time (Isa 41:22-23; see on Isa 44:8). Which of the idols has done what God hath, namely, foretold, primarily as to Cyrus; ultimately as to the final resto...

(Isa 41:22-23; see on Isa 44:8). Which of the idols has done what God hath, namely, foretold, primarily as to Cyrus; ultimately as to the final restoration of Israel hereafter? The idolatry of Israel before Cyrus' time will have its counterpart in the Antichrist and the apostasy, which shall precede Christ's manifestation.

JFB: Isa 45:21 - just . . . and . . . Saviour Righteous in keeping His promises, and therefore a Saviour to His people. Not only is it not inconsistent with, but it is the result of, His righteous...

Righteous in keeping His promises, and therefore a Saviour to His people. Not only is it not inconsistent with, but it is the result of, His righteousness, or justice, that He should save His redeemed (Isa 42:6, Isa 42:21; Psa 85:10-11; Rom 3:26).

JFB: Isa 45:22 - Look . . . and be ye saved The second imperative expresses the result which will follow obedience to the first (Gen 42:18); ye shall be saved (Joh 3:14-15). Num 21:9 : "If a ser...

The second imperative expresses the result which will follow obedience to the first (Gen 42:18); ye shall be saved (Joh 3:14-15). Num 21:9 : "If a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass he lived." What so simple as a look? Not do something, but look to the Saviour (Act 16:30-31). Believers look by faith, the eye of the soul. The look is that of one turning (see Margin) to God, as at once "Just and the Saviour" (Isa 45:21), that is, the look of conversion (Psa 22:27).

JFB: Isa 45:23 - sworn by myself Equivalent to, "As I live," as Rom 14:11 quotes it. So Num 14:21. God could swear by no greater, therefore He swears by Himself (Heb 6:13, Heb 6:16).

Equivalent to, "As I live," as Rom 14:11 quotes it. So Num 14:21. God could swear by no greater, therefore He swears by Himself (Heb 6:13, Heb 6:16).

JFB: Isa 45:23 - word . . . in righteousness Rather, "the truth (see on Isa 45:19) is gone forth from My mouth, the word (of promise), and it shall not return (that is, which shall not be revoked...

Rather, "the truth (see on Isa 45:19) is gone forth from My mouth, the word (of promise), and it shall not return (that is, which shall not be revoked)" [LOWTH]. But the accents favor English Version.

JFB: Isa 45:23 - tongue . . . swear Namely, an oath of allegiance to God as their true King (see on Isa 19:18; Isa 65:16). Yet to be fulfilled (Zec 14:9).

Namely, an oath of allegiance to God as their true King (see on Isa 19:18; Isa 65:16). Yet to be fulfilled (Zec 14:9).

JFB: Isa 45:24 - -- Rather, "Only in Jehovah shall men say of me (this clause is parenthetical), is there righteousness" (which includes salvation, Isa 45:21, "a just God...

Rather, "Only in Jehovah shall men say of me (this clause is parenthetical), is there righteousness" (which includes salvation, Isa 45:21, "a just God and a Saviour," Isa 46:13), &c. [MAURER].

JFB: Isa 45:24 - strength Namely, to save.

Namely, to save.

JFB: Isa 45:24 - shall men come Those who have set themselves up against God shall come to Him in penitence for the past (Isa 19:22).

Those who have set themselves up against God shall come to Him in penitence for the past (Isa 19:22).

JFB: Isa 45:24 - ashamed (Isa 45:16; Isa 54:17; Isa 41:11).

JFB: Isa 45:25 - all . . . Israel The spiritual Israel (Rom 2:29) and the literal Israel, that is, the final remnant which shall all be saved (Isa 45:17; Rom 11:26).

The spiritual Israel (Rom 2:29) and the literal Israel, that is, the final remnant which shall all be saved (Isa 45:17; Rom 11:26).

JFB: Isa 45:25 - justified Treated as if they were just, through Christ's righteousness and death (Jer 23:5).

Treated as if they were just, through Christ's righteousness and death (Jer 23:5).

JFB: Isa 45:25 - glory Literally, "sing" in His praise (Jer 9:24; 1Co 1:31).

Literally, "sing" in His praise (Jer 9:24; 1Co 1:31).

Clarke: Isa 45:1 - -- Loose the loins of kings "ungird the loins of kings"- See the note on Isa 5:27. Xenophon gives the following list of the nations conquered by Cyrus:...

Loose the loins of kings "ungird the loins of kings"- See the note on Isa 5:27. Xenophon gives the following list of the nations conquered by Cyrus: the Syrians, Assyrians, Arabians, Cappadocians, both the Phrygians, Lydians, Carians, Phoenicians, Babylonians. He moreover reigned over the Bactrians, Indians, Cilicians, the Sacae Paphlagones, and ldariandyni. - Cyrop., lib. 1 p. 4, Edit. Hutchinson, Quarto. All these kingdoms he acknowledges, in his decree for the restoration of the Jews, to have been given to him by Jehovah, the God of heaven. Ezr 1:2

To open before him the two leaved gates, etc. "That I may open before him the valves; and the gates shall not be shut"- The gates of Babylon within the city leading from the streets to the river, were providentially left open, when Cyrus’ s forces entered the city in the night through the channel of the river, in the general disorder occasioned by the great feast which was then celebrated; otherwise, says Herodotus, 1:191, the Persians would have been shut up in the bed of the river, and taken as in a net, and all destroyed. And the gates of the palace were opened imprudently by the king’ s orders, to inquire what was the cause of the tumult without; when the two parties under Gobrias and Gadatas rushed in, got possession of the palace, and slew the king. - Xenoph., Cyrop. 7 p. 528.

Clarke: Isa 45:2 - -- The crooked places "The mountains"- For הדורים hodurim , crooked places, a word not easily accounted for in this place, the Septuagint read ...

The crooked places "The mountains"- For הדורים hodurim , crooked places, a word not easily accounted for in this place, the Septuagint read הררים hararim , τα ορη, the mountains. Two MSS. have הדרים hadarim , without the ו vau , which is hardly distinguishable from the reading of the Septuagint. The Divine protection that attended Cyrus, and rendered his expedition against Babylon easy and prosperous is finely expressed by God’ s going before him, and making the mountains level. The image is highly poetical: -

At vos, qua veniet, tumidi subsidite montes

Et faciles curvis vallibus este viae

Ovid, Amor. 2:16

"Let the lofty mountains fall down

and make level paths in the crooked valleys.

The gates of brass "The valves of brass"- Abydenus, apud, Euseb. Praep. Evang. 9:41, says, that the wall of Babylon had brazen gates. And Herodotus, i, 179. more particularly: "In the wall all round there are a hundred gates, all of brass; and so in like manner are the sides and the lintels."The gates likewise within the city, opening to the river from the several streets, were of brass; as were those also of the temple of Belus. - Herod. i., 180, 181.

Clarke: Isa 45:3 - I will gave thee the treasures of darkness I will gave thee the treasures of darkness - Sardes and Babylon, when taken by Cyrus, were the wealthiest cities in the world. Croesus, celebrated b...

I will gave thee the treasures of darkness - Sardes and Babylon, when taken by Cyrus, were the wealthiest cities in the world. Croesus, celebrated beyond all the kings of that age for his riches, gave up his treasures to Cyrus, with an exact account in writing of the whole, containing the particulars with which each wagon was loaded when they were carried away; and they were delivered to Cyrus at the palace of Babylon. - Xenoph. Cyrop. lib. 7 p. 503, 515, 540

Pliny gives the following account of the wealth taken by Cyrus in Asia. Jam Cyrus devicta Asia, pondo 34 millia auri invenerat; praeter vasa aurea, aurumque factum, et in eo folia, ac platanum, vitemque. Qua victoria argenti quingenta millia talentorum reportavit; et craterem Semiramidis, cuius pondus quindecim talents colligebat. Talentum autem Aegyptium pondo lxxx. patere 50 capere Varro tradit . - Nat. Hist. 33:15. "When Cyrus conquered Asia, he found thirty-four thousand pounds weight of gold, besides golden vessels and articles in gold; and leaves, (folia, perhaps solia, bathing vessels, Hol.), a plane, and vine tree, (of gold.) By which victory he carried away fifteen thousand talents of silver; and the cup of Semiramis, the weight of which was fifteen tatents. The Egyptian talent, according to Varro, was eighty pounds."This cup was the crater, or large vessel, out of which they filled the drinking cups at great entertainments. Evidently it could not be a drinking vessel, which, according to what Varro and Pliny say, must have weighed 1, 200 pounds

The gold and silver estimated by weight in this account, being converted into pounds sterling, amount to one hundred and twenty-six millions two hwndred and twenty-four thousand pounds. - Brerewood, De Ponderibus, cap. x

Treasures of darkness may refer to the custom of burying their jewels and money under the ground in their house floors, fearing robbers.

Clarke: Isa 45:7 - I form the light, and create darkness I form the light, and create darkness - It was the great principle of the Magian religion, which prevailed in Persia in the time of Cyrus, and in wh...

I form the light, and create darkness - It was the great principle of the Magian religion, which prevailed in Persia in the time of Cyrus, and in which probably he was educated, that there are two supreme, co-eternal, and independent causes always acting in opposition one to the other; one the author of all good, the other of all evil. The good being they called Light; the evil being, Darkness. That when Light had the ascendant, then good and happtness prevailed among men; when Darkness had the superiority, then eviI and misery abounded. An opinion that contradicts the clearest evidence of our reason, which plainly leads us to the acknowledgment of one only Supreme Being, infinitely good as well as powerful. With reference to this absurd opinion, held by the person to whom this prophecy is addressed, God, by his prophet, in the most significant terms, asserts his omnipotence and absolute supremacy: -

"I am Jehovah, and none else

Forming light, and creating darkness

Making peace, and creating evil

I Jehovah am the author of all these things.

Declaring that those powers whom the Persians held to be the original authors of good and evil to mankind, representing them by light and darkness, as their proper emblems, are no other than creatures of God, the instruments which he employs in his government of the world, ordained or permitted by him in order to execute his wise and just decrees; and that there is no power, either of good or evil, independent of the one supreme God, infinite in power and in goodness

There were, however, some among the Persians whose sentiments were more moderate as to this matter; who held the evil principle to be in some measure subordinate to the good; and that the former would at length be wholly subdued by the latter. See Hyde, De Relig. Vet. Pers. cap. xxii

That this opinion prevailed among the Persians as early as the time of Cyrus we may, I think, infer not only from this passage of Isaiah, which has a manifest reference to it, but likewise from a passage in Xenophon’ s Cyropaedia, where the same doctrine is applied to the human mind. Araspes, a noble young Persian, had fallen in love with the fair captive Panthea, committed to his charge by Cyrus. After all his boasting that he was superior to the assaults of that passion, he yielded so far to it as even to threaten violence if she would not comply with his desires. Awed by the reproof of Cyrus, fearing his displeasure, and having by cool reflection recovered his reason; in his discourse with him on this subject he says: "O Cyrus, I have certainly two souls; alld this piece of philosophy I have learned from that wicked sophist, Love. For if I had but one soul, it would not be at the same time good and evil, it would not at the same time approve of honorable and base actions; and at once desire to do, and refuse to do, the very same things. But it is plain that I am animated by two souls, and when the good soul prevails, I do what is virtuous; and when the evil one prevails, I attempt what is vicious. But now the good soul prevails, having gotten you for her assistant, and has clearly gained the superiority."Lib. 6 p. 424

Clarke: Isa 45:7 - I make peace, and create evil I make peace, and create evil - Evil is here evidently put for war and its attendant miseries. I will procure peace for the Israelites, and destroy ...

I make peace, and create evil - Evil is here evidently put for war and its attendant miseries. I will procure peace for the Israelites, and destroy Babylon by war. I form light, and create darkness. Now, as darkness is only the privation of light, so the evil of war is the privation of peace.

Clarke: Isa 45:8 - Drop down, ye heavens Drop down, ye heavens - The eighty-fifth psalm is a very elegant ode on the same subject with this part of Isaiah’ s prophecies, the restoratio...

Drop down, ye heavens - The eighty-fifth psalm is a very elegant ode on the same subject with this part of Isaiah’ s prophecies, the restoration of Judah from captivity; and is, in the most beautiful part of it, a manifest imitation of this passage of the prophet: -

"Verily his salvation is nigh unto them that fear him

That glory may dwell in our land

Mercy and truth have met together

Righteousness and peace have kissed each other

Truth shall spring from the earth

And righteousness shall look down from heaven

Even Jehovah: will give that which is good

And our land shall yield her produce

Righteousness shall go before him

And shall direct his footsteps in the way.

Psalm 85:10-14

See the notes on these verses

These images of the dew and the rain descending from heaven and making the earth fruitful, employed by the prophet, and some of those nearly of the same kind which are used by the psalmist, may perhaps be primarily understood as designed to set forth in a splendid manner the happy state of God’ s people restored to their country, and flourishing in peace and plenty, in piety and virtue; but justice and salvation, mercy and truth, righteousness and peace, and glory dwelling in the land, cannot with any sort of propriety, in the one or the other, be interpreted as the consequences of that event; they must mean the blessings of the great redemption by Messiah

Clarke: Isa 45:8 - Let the earth open, etc. Let the earth open, etc. - Jonathan, in his Targum, refers this to the resurrection of the dead; the earth shall be opened, ויחון מיתיא v...

Let the earth open, etc. - Jonathan, in his Targum, refers this to the resurrection of the dead; the earth shall be opened, ויחון מיתיא veyechon meiteiya , and the dead shall revive. A plain proof that the ancient Jews believed in a future state, and acknowledged the resurrection of the dead

Let them bring forth salvation "Let salvation produce her fruit"- For ויפרו vaiyiphru , the Septuagint, Vulgate, and Syriac read ויפרה vaiyiphrah ; and one MS. has a rasure close after the latter ו vau , which probably was ה he at first.

Clarke: Isa 45:9 - -- Wo unto him that striveth with his Maker "To unto him that contendeth with the power that formed him"- The prophet answers or prevents the objection...

Wo unto him that striveth with his Maker "To unto him that contendeth with the power that formed him"- The prophet answers or prevents the objections and cavils of the unbelieving Jews, disposed to murmur against God, and to arraign the wisdom and justice of his dispensations in regard to them; in permitting them to be oppressed by their enemies, and in promising them deliverance instead of preventing their captivity. St. Paul has borrowed the image, and has applied it to the like purpose with equal force and elegance: "Nay, but, O man! who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus? Hath not the potter power over the clay, out of the same lump to make one vessel to honor, and another to dishonor?"Rom 9:20, Rom 9:21. This is spoken says Kimchi, against the king of Babylon, who insulted the Most High, bringing forth the sacred vessels, drinking out of them, and magnifying himself against God

Or thy work, He hath no hands "And to the workman, Thou hast no hands"- The Syriac renders, as if he had read, ולא היתי פעל ידיך velo hayithi pheal yadeycha , "neither am I the work of thy hands;"the Septuagint, as if they had reads ולא פעלת ואין ודים לך velo phaalta veeyn yaadim lecha , "neither hast thou made me; and thou hast no hands."But the fault seems to be in the transposition of the two pronouns; for ופעלך uphoolcha , read ופעלו uphoolo : and for לו lo , read לך lecha . So Houbigant corrects it; reading also ופעלו uphoolo ; which last correction seems not altogether necessary. The Septuagint, in MSS. Pachom. and 1. D. 2 have it thus, και το εργον ουκ εχεις χειρας, which favors the reading here proposed.

Clarke: Isa 45:11 - -- Ask me of things to come "And he that formeth the things which are to come"- I read ויוצר veyotser , without the ו vau suffixed; from the ...

Ask me of things to come "And he that formeth the things which are to come"- I read ויוצר veyotser , without the ו vau suffixed; from the Septuagint, who join it in construction with the following word, ὁ ποιησας τα επερχομενα

"Do ye question me."- תשאלוני tishaluni , Chald. recte; praecedit ת tau ; et sic forte legerunt reliqui Intt. - Secker. "The Chaldee has, more properly, תשאלוני tishaluni , with a ת tau preceding; and thus the other interpreters probably read."The learned bishop therefore reads the passage thus: -

"Thus saith Jehovah, the Holy One of Israel

And he that formeth the things which are to come

Do ye question me concerning my children

And do ye give me directions concerning the work of my hands?"

Clarke: Isa 45:13 - I have raised him up I have raised him up - This evidently refers to Cyrus, and to what he did for the Jews; and informs us by whom he was excited to do it.

I have raised him up - This evidently refers to Cyrus, and to what he did for the Jews; and informs us by whom he was excited to do it.

Clarke: Isa 45:14 - -- The labor of Egypt "The wealth of Egypt"- This seems to relate to the future admission of the Gentiles into the Church of God. Compare Psa 68:32; Ps...

The labor of Egypt "The wealth of Egypt"- This seems to relate to the future admission of the Gentiles into the Church of God. Compare Psa 68:32; Psa 72:10; Psa 60:6-9. And perhaps these particular nations may be named, by a metonymy common in all poetry, for powerful and wealthy nations in general. See note on Isa 60:1

The Sabeans, men of stature "The Sabeans, tall of stature"- That the Sabeans were of a more majestic appearance than common, is particularly remarked by Agatharchides, an ancient Greek historian quoted by Bochart, Phaleg, 2:26, τα σωματα εστι των κατοικουντων αξιολογωτερα . So also the Septuagint understand it, rendering it ανδρες ὑψηλοι, "tall men."And the same phrase, אנשי מדה anshey middah , is used for persons of extraordinary stature, Num 13:32, and 1Ch 20:6

They shall make supplication unto thee "They shall in suppliant guise address thee"- The conjunction ו vau is supplied by the ancient Versions, and confirmed by fifteen MSS. of Kennicott’ s, (seven ancient), thirteen of De Rossi’ s, and six editions, ואליך veelayich . Three MSS. (two ancient) omit the ו vau before אליך elaylch at the beginning of the line.

Clarke: Isa 45:15 - Verily thou art a God that hidest thyself Verily thou art a God that hidest thyself - At present, from the nations of the world

Verily thou art a God that hidest thyself - At present, from the nations of the world

Clarke: Isa 45:15 - O God of Israel, the Savior O God of Israel, the Savior - While thou revealest thyself to the Israelites and savest them.

O God of Israel, the Savior - While thou revealest thyself to the Israelites and savest them.

Clarke: Isa 45:16 - -- They shall be ashamed "They are ashamed"- The reader cannot but observe the sudden transition from the solemn adoration of the secret and mysterious...

They shall be ashamed "They are ashamed"- The reader cannot but observe the sudden transition from the solemn adoration of the secret and mysterious nature of God’ s counsels in regard to his people, to the spirited denunciation of the confusion of idolaters, and the final destruction of idolatry; contrasted with the salvation of Israel, not from temporal captivity, but the eternal salvation by the Messiah, strongly marked by the repetition and augmentation of the phrase, to the ages of eternity. But there is not only a sudden change in the sentiment, the change is equally observable in the construction of the sentences; which from the usual short measure, runs out at once into two distichs of the longer sort of verse. See Prelim. Dissert. p. 66, etc. There is another instance of the same kind and very like to this, of a sudden transition in regard both to the sentiment and construction in Isa 42:17

"His adversaries"- This line, to the great diminution of the beauty of the distich, is imperfect in the present text: the subject of the proposition is not particularly expressed, as it is in the line following. The version of the Septuagint happily supplies the word that is lost: οἱ αντικειμενοι αυτῳ, "his adversaries,"the original word was צריו tsaraiv . - L.

Clarke: Isa 45:18 - -- He formed it to be inhabited "For he formed it to be inhabited"- An ancient MS. has כי ki before לשבת lashebeth ; and so the ancient Vers...

He formed it to be inhabited "For he formed it to be inhabited"- An ancient MS. has כי ki before לשבת lashebeth ; and so the ancient Versions.

Clarke: Isa 45:19 - I have not spoken tn secret, in a dark place of the earth I have not spoken tn secret, in a dark place of the earth - In opposition to the manner in which the heathen oracles gave their answers, which were ...

I have not spoken tn secret, in a dark place of the earth - In opposition to the manner in which the heathen oracles gave their answers, which were generally delivered from some deep and obscure cavern. Such was the seat of the Cumean Sybil: -

Excisum Euboicae latus ingens rupis in antrum

Virg. Aen. 6:42

"A cave cut in the side of a huge rock.

Such was that of the famous oracle at Delphi; of which, says Strabo, lib. ix., φασι δ ειναι το μαντειον αντρον κοιλον μετα βαθους, ου μαλα ευρυστομον . "The oracle is said to be a hollow cavern of considerable depth, with an opening not very wide."And Diodorus, giving an account of the origin of this oracle, says "that there was in that place a great chasm or cleft in the earth; in which very place is now situated what is called the Adytum of the temple." Αδυτον· σπηλαιον, η το αποκρυφον μερος του ἱερου . Mesych. "Adytum means a cavern, or the hidden part of the temple.

I the Lord speak righteousness, I declare things that are right "I am Jehovah, who speak truth, who give direct answers"- This also is said in opposition to the false and ambiguous answers given by the heathen oracles, of which there are many noted examples; none more so than that of the answer given to Croesus when he marehed against Cyrus, which piece of history has some connection with this part of Isaiah’ s prophecies. Let us hear Cicero’ s account of the Delphic answers in general, and of this in particular: Sed jam ad te venio

O sancte Apollo, qui umbilicum certum terrarum obsides

Unde superstitiosa primum saeva evasit vox fera

Tuis enim oraculis Chrysippus totum volumen implevit, partim falsis, ut ego opinor; partim casu veris, ut fit in omni oratione saepissime; partim flexiloquis et obscuris, ut interpres egeat interprete, et sors ipsa ad sortes referenda sit; partim ambiguis, et quae ad dialecticum deferenda sint. Nam cum sors illa edita est opulentissimo regi Asiea, Croesus Halym penetrans magnam pervertet opum vim: hostium vim sese perversurum putavit; pervertit autem suam. Utrum igitur eorum accidisset, verum oraculum fuisset . De Divinat. 2:56. Mountainous countries, and those which abounded in chasms, caves, and grottos, were the places in which oracles were most frequent. The horror and gloom inspired by such places were useful to the lying priests in their system of deception. The terms in which those oracles were conceived, (they were always ambiguous, or equivocal, or false, or illusory), sometimes the turn of a phrase, or a peculiarity in idiom or construction which might be turned pro or con, contained the essence of the oracular declaration. Sometimes, in the multitude of guesses, one turned out to be true; at other times, so equivocal was the oracle, that, however the thing fell out, the declaration could be interpreted in that way, as in the above to Croesus, from the oracle at Delphi, which was: If Croeses march against Cyrus, he shall overthrow a great empire: he, supposing that this promised him success, fought, and lost his own, while he expected to destroy that of his enemy. Here the quack demon took refuge in his designed ambiguity. He predicted the destruction of a great empire, but did not say which it was; and therefore he was safe, howsoever the case fell out. Not one of the predictions of God’ s prophets is conceived in this way.

Clarke: Isa 45:21 - Bring them near; yea, let them take counsel together Bring them near; yea, let them take counsel together - For יועצו yoatsu or yivvaatsu , let them consult, the Septuagint read ידעו yedau...

Bring them near; yea, let them take counsel together - For יועצו yoatsu or yivvaatsu , let them consult, the Septuagint read ידעו yedau , let them know. but an ancient MS. has יועדו yoedu , let them come together by appointment; which may probably be the true reading.

Clarke: Isa 45:22 - Look unto me, and be ye saved, etc. Look unto me, and be ye saved, etc. - This verse and the following contain a plain prediction of the universal spread of the knowledge of God throug...

Look unto me, and be ye saved, etc. - This verse and the following contain a plain prediction of the universal spread of the knowledge of God through Christ; and so the Targum appears to have understood it; see Rom 14:11; Phi 2:10. The reading of the Targum is remarkable, viz., אתפנו• למימרי ithpeno lemeymri , look to my Word, ὁ Λογος, the Lord Jesus.

Clarke: Isa 45:23 - I have sworn by myself I have sworn by myself - במימרי bemeymri , by my Word: and the word - פתגם pithgam , or saying, to distinguish it from the personal subs...

I have sworn by myself - במימרי bemeymri , by my Word: and the word - פתגם pithgam , or saying, to distinguish it from the personal substantial Word meymra , mentioned before. See the Targum

The word is gone out of my mouth "Truth is gone forth from my mouth; the word"- So the Septuagint distinguish the members of the sentence, preserving the elegance of the construction and the clearness of the sense.

Clarke: Isa 45:24 - -- Surely, shall one say, In the Lord have I righteousness and strength "Saying, Only to Jehovah belongeth salvation and power"- A MS. omits לי li ,...

Surely, shall one say, In the Lord have I righteousness and strength "Saying, Only to Jehovah belongeth salvation and power"- A MS. omits לי li , unto me; and instead of לי אמר li amar , he said or shall say unto me, the Septuagint read, in the copy which they used, לאמר lemor , saying. For יבא yabo , He shall come, in the singular, twelve MSS. three ancient) read יבאו yabeu , plural; and a letter is erased at the end of the word in two others: and so the Alexandrine copy of the Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate read it. For צדקות tsedakoth plural, two MSS. read צדקת tsidkath , singular; and so the Septuagint, Syriac, and Chaldee

Probably these are the words of Cyrus, who acknowledged that all his success came from Jehovah. And this sentiment is in effect contained in his decree or proclamation, Ezr 1:2 : "Thus saith Cyrus, king of Persia, The Lord God of heaven hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth, "etc.

Calvin: Isa 45:1 - Thus saith Jehovah // To Cyrus his anointed // Whose right hand I have taken hold of // I will loose the loins of kings // To open the gates before him 1.Thus saith Jehovah He pursues the subject which he had begun to handle. He shews that not in vain did he promise deliverance to his people, since t...

1.Thus saith Jehovah He pursues the subject which he had begun to handle. He shews that not in vain did he promise deliverance to his people, since the manner of it was altogether decreed and appointed by him; 191 for when the question relates to our salvation, we always inquire into the way and manner. Although God frequently chooses to hold us in suspense, and thus conceals from us the method which he has ready at hand, yet, in this instance he indulges the weakness of his people, and explains the method in which he will deliver them.

To Cyrus his anointed He names the person by whose hand he will bring them back; for, since their faith would be sharply tried by other temptations, he wished in this respect to provide against doubt, that the difficulty of the event might not shake them. And in order to impart greater efficacy to this discourse, he turns to Cyrus himself: “I have chosen thee to be a king to me; I will take hold of thy hand, and will subject the nations to thy authority, so that they shall open up a passage for thee, and voluntarily surrender.” These words have greater effect than if the Lord spoke to his people.

Yet it might be thought strange that he calls Cyrus his Anointed; for this is the designation which was given to the kings of Israel and Judah, because they represented the person of Christ, who alone, strictly speaking, is “the Lord’s Anointed.” “The Lord went forth with his Anointed,” says Habakkuk, “for the salvation of his people.” (Hab 3:13.) In the person of David a kingdom had been set up, which professed to be an image and figure of Christ; and hence also the prophets in many passages call him “David,” and “the Son of David.” (Eze 37:24.) It was indeed a special anointing, intended to distinguish that priestly kingdom from all heathen kingdoms. Since therefore this title belonged to none but the kings of Judea, it might be thought strange that it is here bestowed on a heathen king and a worshipper of idols; for although he was instructed by Daniel, yet we do not read that he changed his religion. True, he regarded with reverence the God of Israel, and considered him to be the Highest; but he was not prompted by a sincere affection of the heart to worship him, and did not advance so far as to forsake superstitions and idolatries.

Thus God deigns to call him his “Anointed,” not by a perpetual title, but because he discharged for a time the office of Redeemer; for he both avenged the Church of God and delivered it from the Assyrians, who were its enemies. This office belongs peculiarly to Christ; and this ordinary appellation of kings ought to be limited to this circumstance, that he restored the people of God to the enjoyment of liberty. This should lead us to observe how highly God values the salvation of the Church, because, for the sake of this single benefit, Cyrus, a heathen man, is called “the Messiah,” 192 or “the Anointed.

Whose right hand I have taken hold of By this mode of expression, he means that Cyrus shall prosper in all his undertakings, for he shall carry on war under God’s direction; and therefore Isaiah declares that, for the sake of the Church, in order that he may deliver her, God will grant to him prosperity in all things; while he again commends the providence of God, that the Jews may fully believe, amidst changes and troubles, that God on high governs all things in such a manner as to promote the benefit of his elect. Now, since it was not easy for Cyrus to penetrate as far as Babylon, because the whole of Asia had leagued together in order to frustrate his designs, the Prophet testifies that God will dissolve all the strength which men can bring against him.

I will loose the loins of kings Because the whole strength lies in the reins, the Hebrew writers use the phrase “opening,” or “loosing the loins,” to denote “being deprived of strength.” We might also view it somewhat differently, that is, that the Lord will “make bare,” or “loose their loins,” according to the customary manner of Scripture, by which kings are said to be ungirded of the belt, namely, of the badge of royalty, when they are deprived of authority. Job (Job 12:18) employs this mode of expression, and Isaiah will afterwards employ it: 193 “I will gird thee.” (Ver. 5.) On this account I more readily adopt this sense, that the force of the contrast may be more evident. This shews clearly that kings have just as much strength and power as the Lord bestows on them for the preservation of each nation; for when he determines to convey their authority to others, they cannot defend their condition by any weapons or swords.

To open the gates before him By this expression he means that no fortresses can resist God, which indeed is acknowledged by all, but yet they do not cease to place foolish confidences in bulwarks and fortresses; for, where cities are well surrounded by walls, and the gates are shut, men think that there they are safe. On the other hand the Prophet shews that all defences are useless, and that it serves no purpose to block up every entrance, when the Lord wishes to open up a way for the enemies. Although it is certain that the gates were shut and securely barred, yet, because Cyrus pushed his way as swiftly as if all the cities had been thrown open, the Prophet justly affirms that nothing shall be closed against him.

Calvin: Isa 45:2 - I will go before thee // That thou mayest know that I am Jehovah // Calling thee by thy name // The God of Israel 2. and 3.I will go before thee These two verses contain nothing new; but, in general, he shews that Cyrus will gain an easy and rapid victory, becau...

2. and 3.I will go before thee These two verses contain nothing new; but, in general, he shews that Cyrus will gain an easy and rapid victory, because he will have the Lord for the leader of his expedition. Accordingly he promises that all crooked paths shall be made straight, because God will remove every obstruction. Now, since money is the sinews of war, and Cyrus came from the scorched and poor mountains of Persia, Jehovah says that treasures which were formerly hidden and concealed shall come into the hands of Cyrus, so that, laden with rich booty, he shall have enough for defraying any expenditure; for by the treasures of darkness he means those which lay concealed, and as it were buried in safe and deep places of defense. It is abundantly clear from history, that all these things happened; for by taking Croesus, king of Lydia, who was at that time the richest of all men, he obtained large sums of money. Nor would any one have expected that he would gain victories so easily; and the reason of so great success is now added, because the Lord called and directed him, that he might give in him an illustrious demonstration of his power; for he adds —

That thou mayest know that I am Jehovah True, Cyrus, as we formerly said, though he acknowledged that the God of Israel is the true God, and was filled with admiration, yet was not converted to him, and never embraced his pure worship according to the standard of the Law. This was therefore special knowledge, that is, so far as he assisted the Church, for whose deliverance he was appointed; and therefore it was necessary that he should be under the influence of this knowledge, in order that he might execute this work of God. Thus he does not speak of that knowledge by which we are enlightened, or about the Spirit of regeneration, but about special knowledge, such as men destitute of religion 194 may possess.

Calling thee by thy name From some commentators this mode of expression has received a trivial interpretation, that “before Cyrus was born, God called and described him by his name.” But we have seen in a former passage, (Isa 43:1,) that the Prophet, while he used the same form of expression, meant something different; for God is said to “call by name” those whom he has chosen, and whom he appoints to perform some particular work, that they may be separated from the multitude. This word denotes closer and more familiar intercourse. Thus a shepherd is said to “call his sheep by name,” (Joh 10:3,) because he knows them individually. This applies indeed, in the highest degree, to believers, whom God reckons as belonging to his flock, and to the number of the citizens of his Church. God did not bestow this favor on Cyrus; but because, by appointing him to be the leader of so excellent a deliverance, he engraved on him distinguished marks of his power; with good reason is the commendation of an excellent calling applied to him.

The God of Israel This ought to be carefully observed; for superstitious men ascribe to their idols the victories which they have obtained, and, as Habakkuk (Hab 1:16) says, “They sacrifice every one to his god;” and therefore they wander in their thoughts, and conceive in their hearts any deity that they fancy, while they ought to acknowledge that Jehovah is the only and true God. What is said of Cyrus ought to be much more applied to us, that we may not fashion any knowledge of God according to our fancy, but may distinguish him from idols, so as to embrace him alone, and to know him in Christ alone, apart from whom nothing but an idol, or even a devil can be worshipped. In that; respect, therefore, let us surpass Cyrus, to whom the knowledge of God was revealed, so that we may lay aside superstitions and all false worship, and may thus adore him in a holy and upright manner.

Calvin: Isa 45:4 - For the sake of my servant Jacob // And Israel mine elect // And yet thou hast not known me 4.For the sake of my servant Jacob He shews for what purpose he would grant such happy and illustrious success to this prince. It is, in order that h...

4.For the sake of my servant Jacob He shews for what purpose he would grant such happy and illustrious success to this prince. It is, in order that he may preserve his people; as if the Lord had said, “Thou shalt indeed obtain a signal victory, bur I will have regard to my own people rather than to thee; for it is for their sake that I subject kings and nations to thy power.” By these predictions, indeed, the Lord intended to encourage the hearts of believers, that they might not despair amidst those distresses; but undoubtedly he intended likewise to excite Cyrus to acknowledge that he owed to that nation all that he should accomplish, that he might he more disposed to treat them with all kindness.

And Israel mine elect In this second clause there is a repetition which serves still farther to explain that reason; and at the same time he shews on what ground he reckons the Israelites to be “his servants.” It is because he condescended to choose them by free grace; for it is not in the power of men to make themselves “servants of God,” or to obtain so great honor by their own exertions. This clause is therefore added, 195 as before, for the sake of explanation. But still it denotes also the end of election; for, since we are naturally the slaves of Satan, we are called in order that, being restored to liberty, we may serve God. Yet he shews that no man is worthy of that honor, as we have said, but he whom God hath chosen; for who will boast that he is worthy of so high an honor, or what can we render or offer to God? Thus “we are not sufficient of ourselves, but the Lord hath made us sufficient,” as Paul says. (2Co 3:5.) The beginning of our salvation, therefore, is God’s election by free grace; and the end of it is the obedience which we ought to render to him.

But although this is limited to the history of Cyrus, still we may draw from it a general doctrine. When various changes happen in the world, God secures at the same time the salvation of his people, and in the midst of storms wonderfully preserves his Church. We are indeed blind and stupid as to the works of God, yet we ought firmly to believe that, even when everything appears to be driven about at random, and to be tossed up and down, God never forgets his Church, whose salvation, on the contrary, he promotes by hidden methods, so that it is at length seen that he is her guardian and defender.

Josephus relates a memorable narrative about Alexander, who, while he was besieging Tyre, sent ambassadors to Jerusalem, to demand the tribute which the Jews were paying to Darius. Jaddus, the high-priest, who had sworn that he would pay that tribute, would not become subject to Alexander, and refused to pay him the tribute. Alexander was highly offended, and, swelling with pride and fierceness, determined to destroy Jerusalem, and, after having conquered Darius, marched to Jerusalem, for the purpose of consigning it to utter destruction. Jaddus went out to meet him, accompanied by other priests and Levites, wearing the priestly dress; and Alexander, as soon as he saw him, leapt from his horse, and threw himself down as a suppliant at his feet. Every person was astonished at a thing so strange and so inconsistent with his natural disposition, and thought that he had lost his senses. Parmenio, who alone of all who were present asked the reason, received a reply, that he did not adore this man, but God, whose servant he was; and that, before he left Dion, a city of Macedonia, a man of that appearance and dress, who appeared to have the form of God, presented himself to him in a dream, encouraged him to take Asia, and promised to be the leader of the army, so that he ought to entertain no doubt of victory, and therefore that he could not but be powerfully affected by seeing him. In this manner, therefore, was Jerusalem rescued from the jaws of that savage highwayman who aimed at nothing else than fire and bloodshed, and even obtained from him greater liberty than before, and likewise gifts and privileges. 196

I have quoted this example in order to shew that the Church of God is preserved in the midst of dangers by strange and unusual methods. Those were troublous times, and scarcely a corner of the earth was at rest; but above all other countries Judea might be said to be devoted to destruction. Yet behold the Church rescued in a wonderful and unusual manner, while other nations are destroyed, and nearly the whole world has changed its face!

And yet thou hast not known me These words are added for the purpose of giving greater force to the statement, not only that Cyrus may learn that this is not granted on account of any of his own merits, but that he may not despise the God of Israel, though he does not know him. The Lord frequently, indeed, reminds us on this subject, that he anticipates all the industry that exists in men, in order that he may beat down all the pride of the flesh. But there is another reason, as regards Cyrus; for if he had thought that the Lord granted those things for his own sake, he would have disregarded the Jews and treated them as despicable slaves. For this reason the Lord testifies that it does not happen on account of Cyrus’s own merit, but only for the sake of the people, whom he determines to rescue out of the hands of enemies. Besides, nothing was more probable than that this man, in his blindness, would appropriate to his idols that which belonged to the true God; because, being entirely under the influence of wicked superstitions, he would not willingly have given place to a strange and unknown God, if he had not been instructed by this prediction.

Calvin: Isa 45:5 - I am Jehovah // I have girded thee 5.I am Jehovah He confirms the preceding statement, and the repetition is not superfluous; for it was proper that it should be often repeated to Cyru...

5.I am Jehovah He confirms the preceding statement, and the repetition is not superfluous; for it was proper that it should be often repeated to Cyrus, that there is one God, by whose hands all rulers and nations are governed, that he might be drawn aside from all delusions and be converted to the God of Israel. Besides, it is clearly stated that we ought not to try to find divinity in any other; as if he had said, “Beware of ascribing this victory to idols, or forming any confused idea of a god such as men imagine; know that the God of Israel is the only author of this victory.” Although Cyrus did not profit by this admonition to such an extent as to leave his idols and devote himself to the true God, yet it made so deep an impression on his heart that he acknowledged Jehovah to be God and to possess the highest authority. At the same time, it was proper that they who were members of the Church should embrace this doctrine, that they might boldly despise all pretended gods.

I have girded thee That girding corresponds to the nakedness which he formerly mentioned, (verse 1,) when he said that he “opened” or “ungirded the loins of kings;” for he is said to “gird” those whom he supplies with strength and courage and renders victorious. Hence it ought to be inferred, that men have no courage but when the Lord imparts to them his power and strength, that neither weapons nor any military force can do anything unless he assist, and, in a word, that he presides over all wars, and gives victory to whomsoever he pleases, that none may think that it happens by chance. He again repeats, Though thou hast not known me, in order to make it still more certain that these things are granted to Cyrus for the sake of the Church, in order that he may give evidence that he remembers it with gratitude, and may shew kindness to the people of God in return for such a distinguished favor.

Calvin: Isa 45:6 - Therefore they shall know 6.Therefore they shall know He means that this favor shall be so remarkable as to be acknowledged and admired by all nations. This was not indeed imm...

6.Therefore they shall know He means that this favor shall be so remarkable as to be acknowledged and admired by all nations. This was not indeed immediately fulfilled; for, although the fame of that victory was spread far and wide, yet few understood that the God of Israel was the author of it; but it was immediately made known to the neighbors, and was communicated by one nation to another, till the report of it was spread throughout the whole world. He does not predict what shall happen immediately, but what shall happen afterwards, though these things were long concealed. God therefore did not permit the remembrance of this transaction to fade away, but determined that it should be handed down in permanent records, that it might be celebrated in all ages, and by the most distant nations, to the very end of the world. We must therefore remember what I formerly remarked, that the Prophet interweaves earlier and later events, because the return of the people was the prelude to a future redemption, and that he thus speaks of a perfect restoration of the Church. Besides, when it happens that the illustrious works of God are buried by the ingratitude and malice of men, still it does not cease to be true, that they shall be visible to the whole world; for they shine openly and brightly, though the blind do not see them.

Calvin: Isa 45:7 - Forming light // Making peace, and creating evil 7.Forming light As if he had said, that they who formerly were wont to ascribe everything either to fortune or to idols shall acknowledge the true Go...

7.Forming light As if he had said, that they who formerly were wont to ascribe everything either to fortune or to idols shall acknowledge the true God, so as to ascribe power and the government and glory of all things, to him alone. He does not speak of perfect knowledge, though this intelligence is requisite for the attainment of it. But since the Prophet says that it shall be manifest even to heathens, that everything is directed and governed by the will of God, they who bear the Christian name ought to be ashamed, when they strip him of his power, and bestow it on various governors, whom they have formed according to their fancy, as we see done in Popery; for God is not acknowledged when a bare and empty name is given to him, but when we ascribe to him full authority.

Making peace, and creating evil By the words “light” and “darkness” he describes metaphorically not only peace and war; but adverse and prosperous events of any kind; and he extends the word peace, according to the custom of Hebrew writers, to all success and prosperity. This is made abundantly clear by the contrast; for he contrasts “peace” not only with war, but with adverse events of every sort. Fanatics torture this word evil, as if God were the author of evil, that is, of sin; but it is very obvious how ridiculously they abuse this passage of the Prophet. This is sufficiently explained by the contrast, the parts of which must agree with each other; for he contrasts “peace” with “evil,” that is, with afflictions, wars, and other adverse occurrences. If he contrasted “righteousness” with “evil,” there would be some plausibility in their reasonings, but this is a manifest contrast of things that are opposite to each other. Consequently, we ought not to reject the ordinary distinction, that God is the author of the “evil” of punishment, but not of the “evil” of guilt.

But the Sophists are wrong in their exposition; for, while they acknowledge that famine, barrenness, war, pestilence, and other scourges, come from God, they deny that God is the author of calamities, when they befall us through the agency of men. This is false and altogether contrary to the present doctrine; for the Lord raises up wicked men to chastise us by their hand, as is evident from various passages of Scripture. (1Kg 11:14.) The Lord does not indeed inspire them with malice, but he uses it for the purpose of chastising us, and exercises the office of a judge, in the same manner as he made use of the malice of Pharaoh and others, in order to punish his people. (Exo 1:11 and Exo 2:23.) We ought therefore to hold this doctrine, that God alone is the author of all events; that is, that adverse and prosperous events are sent by him, even though he makes use of the agency of men, that none may attribute it to fortune, or to any other cause.

Calvin: Isa 45:8 - Drop down dew from above // And let the clouds drop righteousness 8.Drop down dew from above Some think that a form of prayer is here added, which it was the duty of believers to use while they were waiting for the ...

8.Drop down dew from above Some think that a form of prayer is here added, which it was the duty of believers to use while they were waiting for the redemption which is here described; and they connect this verse with the preceding in the following manner, “The Lord will not so speedily deliver you, but still it is your duty to be diligently employed in prayer.” But I interpret it differently in this manner. The Prophet always speaks in the name of God, who, in the exercise of his authority, calls on heaven and earth to lend their services to the restoration of the Church.

This verse is fitted very powerfully to confirm the godly in the hope of future redemption; for the people, wherever they looked, saw nothing but despair. If they tumed their eyes towards heaven, there they beheld the wrath of God; if towards the earth, there also were beheld afflictions and chastisements; and therefore nothing fitted to lead them to entertain favorable hope was visible. On this account the Prophet confirms them, and enjoins heaven and earth, which held out nothing but threatentings and terrors, to bring forth salvation and “righteousness.” This is more emphatic than if he promised that it shall be, when all the elements, which are ready to yield obedience to God, receive orders as to what he wishes them to do. And thus the stream of the discourse will flow on continuously, which otherwise will be abruptly broken off, if we understand this passage to be a prayer. 197

And let the clouds drop righteousness This form of expression is frequently employed in Scripture; such as,

“And the mountains shall bring peace to the people, and the hills righteousness.”
(Psa 72:3.)

And again, “Piety and truth met together, righteousness and peace kissed each other; truth shall spring from the earth, and righteousness looked down from heaven;” where David describes the kingdom of Christ and its prosperity, and shews that in it “righteousness, peace, mercy, and truth, shall be joined together.” (Psa 85:10.) This passage treats of the same subject. There is an allusion to the ordinary food of men, who subsist on bread and other productions of the soil; for their life needs such aids. Now, in order that the earth may bring forth fruits, it must obtain its vigor from heaven and draw water from the clouds, that it may be rendered fertile, and then bring forth herbs and fruits both for men and for animals.

By the word righteousness he means nothing else than the fidelity with which the Lord defends and preserves his people. The Lord thus “drops down from heaven righteousness,” that is, well established order, of which salvation is the fruit; for he speaks of the deliverance of the people from Babylon, in which the Lord shews that he will be their protector. Yet while we understand the natural meaning of the Prophet, we must come down to the kingdom of Christ, to which these words undoubtedly bear a spiritual import; for God does not limit these promises to a few years, but continues his favors down to the coming of Christ, in whom all these things were abundantly fulfilled. There can be no doubt, therefore, that he likewise celebrates that eternal righteousness and salvation which is brought to us by Christ; but we ought first to observe that simple interpretation about the return from the captivity in Babylon.

Calvin: Isa 45:9 - Wo to him that striveth with his Maker! // Potsherd to potsherds // His work hath no hands 9. and 10.Wo to him that striveth with his Maker! This passage is explained in various ways. Some think that it refers to King Belshazzar, who, as is...

9. and 10.Wo to him that striveth with his Maker! This passage is explained in various ways. Some think that it refers to King Belshazzar, who, as is evident from Daniel, haughtily defied God, when he profaned the vessels of the Temple. (Dan 5:3.) But that is too forced an exposition. The second might appear to be more probable, that the Lord grants far more to his children than a man would grant to his sons, or an artisan to his work; for they suppose that a comparison of this kind is made. “If the son rise up against the father, and debate with him, he will not be listened to. The father will choose to retain his power, and deservedly will restrain his son; and in like manner, if the clay rise up against the workman. But the Lord permits questions to be put to him, and kindly offers to satisfy the people; nay, even bids them put questions to him.” And thus they join together the 10th and 11th verses, and think that God’s forbearance is manifested by treating us with greater kindness, and condescending to greater familiarity, than men usually exhibit towards their sons.

The latter exposition is indeed more plausible, but both are at variance with the Prophet’s meaning; and therefore a more simple view appears to me to be, to understand that the Prophet restrains the complaints of men, who in adversity murmur and strive with God. This was a seasonable warning, that the Jews, by patiently and calmly bearing the cross, might receive the consolation which was offered to them; for whenever God holds us in suspense, the flesh prompts us to grumble, “Why does he not do more quickly what he intends to do? Of what benefit is it to him to torture us by his delay?” The Prophet, therefore, in order to chastise this insolence, says, “Does the potsherd dispute with the potter? Do sons debate with their fathers? Has not God a right to treat us as he thinks fit? What remains but that we shall bear patiently the punishments which he inflicts on us? We must therefore allow God to do what belongs to him, and must not take anything from his power and authority.” I consider הוי , (hoi,) Wo! to be an interjection expressive of reproof and chastisement.

Potsherd to potsherds That is, as we say in common language, (Que chacun se prenne a son pareil,) “Let each quarrel with his like,” “Let potsherds strive with potsherds of the earth.” 198 When he sends men to those who are like themselves, he reproves their rashness and presumption, in not considering that it is impossible to maintain a dispute with God without leading to destruction; as if he had said, “With whom do they think that they have to deal? Let them know that they are not able to contend with God, 199 and that at length they must yield. And if, unmindful of their frailty, they attack heaven after the manner of the giants, they shall at length feel that they did wrong in warring 200 with their Maker, who can without any difficulty break in pieces, and even crush into powder, the vessels which he has made.

Some interpret חשים ( charasim) to mean “workmen” or “potters,” and suppose the meaning to be, “Shall the potsherd rise up against the potter?” But those interpreters change the point and read ש ( schin) instead of ש ( sin). I acknowledge that such diversity and change may easily occur, but I prefer to follow the ordinary reading, and to adopt this simple meaning, “Shall the clay say to its maker? A potter is allowed to make any vessel of what form he pleases, a father is allowed to command his sons; will you not admit that God possesses a higher right?” Thus he reproves those who in adversity remonstrate with God, and cannot patiently endure afflictions.

We ought therefore to listen to the warning given by Peter, when he bids us learn to submit to God, and to “humble ourselves under his mighty hand,” (1Pe 5:6,) so as to yield to his authority, and not to strive with him, if he sometimes tries us by various afflictions; because we ought to acknowledge his just right to govern us according to his pleasure. If we must come to debate, he will have such strong and decisive arguments as shall constrain us, being convicted, to be dumb. And when he restrains the insolence of men, it is not because he is destitute of argument, but because it is right and proper that we should yield and surrender ourselves to be wholly governed according to his pleasure; but at the same time he justly claims this right, that his own creatures should not call him to render an account. What can be more detestable than not to approve of his judgments, if they do not please men?

Paul makes use of the same metaphor, but on a higher subject; for he argues about God’s eternal predestination, and rebukes the foolish thoughts of men, who debate with God why he chooses some, and reprobates and condemns others. He shews that we ought, at least, to allow to God as much power as we allow to a potter or workman; and therefore he exclaims,

“O man, who art thou, that repliest against God? Shall the clay say to the potter, Why hast thou made me thus?”
(Rom 9:20.)

“Who is so daring as to venture to oppose God, and to enter into debate with him?” Thus he perfectly agrees with the Prophet, though he makes use of this metaphor on a different and more intricate subject; for both affirm that God has full power over men, so as to permit themselves to be ruled and governed by him, and to endure patiently all adverse events. There is only this difference, that Isaiah reasons about the course of the present life, but Paul ascends to the heavenly and eternal life.

His work hath no hands The Prophet speaks in ordinary language, as we say that one “puts the last hand,” when a thing is completed, and that “hands are wanting,” when a work is disorderly, confused, or imperfect. Thus, whenever men murmur against God for not complying with their wishes, they accuse him either of slothfulness or of ignorance.

Calvin: Isa 45:11 - Thus saith Jehovah 11.Thus saith Jehovah I have already said, that I do not agree with those who connect this verse with the preceding, as if God, abandoning his just r...

11.Thus saith Jehovah I have already said, that I do not agree with those who connect this verse with the preceding, as if God, abandoning his just right, gave permission to the Jews to put questions more than is allowed among men. There is another meaning not much different, that the Israelites are miserable, because they know not, and do not even wish to know the will of the Lord; that they do not seek and even do not accept of consolation; and, in short, that the deep sorrow with which they are oppressed arises from the fault of the people, that is, because they do not ask at the mouth of the Lord. If we adopt this exposition, we must arrive at the conclusion that this passage treats of a different kind of inquiry; for as it is unlawful to thrust ourselves into the secret decrees of God, so he graciously condescends to make known to his people, as far as is necessary, what he intends to do; and, when he opens his sacred mouth, he justly commands us to open our ears to him, and to hear attentively whatever he declares. Now, we also know by experience that which Isaiah brings as a reproach against the ancient people.

But it is more reasonable to view this statement as depending on the preceding, so as to be an application of the metaphor in this sense: “A son will not be allowed to enter into a dispute with his father, and the clay will not be permitted to strive with its potter; how much more intolerable is this liberty which men take, when they prescribe to God in what manner he ought to treat his sons?” For otherwise this sentence would be broken and imperfect, but those two clauses agree beautifully with each other. “The potter will make clay of any shape according to his pleasure, the son of a mortal man will not venture to expostulate with his father; and will you refuse to me, who am the supreme Father and Maker of all things, to have equal power over my sons and my creatures?” If the former meaning be preferred, the Prophet reproaches men with their slothfulness, in not deigning to put questions to God, and to learn from his mouth those things which related to their consolation; for they might have learned from the prophecies that God took care of them, and might have known the conclusion of their distresses. And indeed there is no better remedy in adversity than to ask at the mouth of God, so as not to fix our eyes on the present condition of things, but to embrace with the heart that future salvation which the Lord promises.

“The Lord is faithful, who will not suffer us to be tried beyond what we are able to bear; but with the temptation will also grant deliverance, and will increase his grace in us.”
(1Co 10:13.)

===Command ye === me. This must not be understood as denoting authority; for it does not belong to us to “command” God, or to press upon him unseasonably; and it will not be possible for any person to profit by the word of God, who does not bring an humble heart. 201 But God presents himself to us, that we may ask from him what is of importance to us to know; as if he had said, “Order me; I am ready to reveal those things which are of the highest importance for you to know, that you may derive consolation from them.” But as that would be an unnatural mode of expression, I consider that the complaint which I have stated is more simple, that God is robbed of a father’s right, if he do not retain the absolute and uncontrolled government of his Church. Thus, in the clause, Ask me of things to come, the word ask is taken in a bad sense, when men, forgetting modesty, do not hesitate to summon God to their bar, and to demand a reason for anything that he has done. This is still more evident from the word command; as if he had said, “It will belong to you, forsooth, to prescribe what shape I ought to give to my work!”

In a word, the Prophet’s design is to exhort men to moderation and patience; for, as soon as they begin to dispute with him, they endeavor to drag him from his heavenly throne. Now, he does not address the Jews alone, for he needed to restrain the blasphemies which even at that time were current among infidels. It is as if God, wishing to maintain his right, thus refuted the slanders of the whole world: “How far shall your insolence carry its excesses, that you will not allow me to be master in my own workshop, or to govern my family as I think fit?”

Calvin: Isa 45:12 - I made the earth 12.I made the earth He appears merely to maintain the power of God, as be had formerly done; so that there is an indirect contrast between God and id...

12.I made the earth He appears merely to maintain the power of God, as be had formerly done; so that there is an indirect contrast between God and idols, which superstitious persons worship. Foolish men ask counsel of idols, as if the world were governed at their pleasure. On the contrary, God calls us back to himself, when he says that he

“made the earth, and placed man upon it, and that his hands stretched out the heavens.” (Gen 1:1.)

But it will be more appropriate, in my opinion, to apply the whole of this discourse to the nature of the present subject. “Can anything be more foolish than that men shall uphold their own rank, and shall haughtily interrogate, and treat as a criminal, God, whose majesty is above the heavens?” Thus he indirectly censures the madness of men, who do not scruple to exalt themselves above the very heavens. Yet at the same time he reminds them that, if it must come to a strict examination, God will not want arguments to defend his cause; for, if he governs the whole world, he undoubtedly takes a peculiar care about his own people, and does not care for strangers, so as to allow the members of his family to be scattered and wander. Thus, then, I understand this verse. “Shall I, whose vast and inconceivable wisdom and power shine brightly in heaven and earth, not only be bound by human laws, but be degraded below the ordinary lot of men? And if there be any doubts of my justice, shall not I, who rule and govern all things by my hand, be careful of those whom I have adopted into my family? Shall I not watch over their salvation?”

Thus it is an argument from the less to the greater, and this meaning is agreeable to Scripture. We know that we have been adopted by God, in such a manner that, having been received under his protection, we are guarded by his hand; and none can hurt us, but by his permission. If “a sparrow,” as Christ tells us, “does not fall to the ground without his permission,” (Mat 10:29,) shall we whom he values more than the sparrows be exposed by him at hazard to the rage and cruelty of enemies? And, therefore, since God upholds all the creatures by his providence, he cannot disregard the Church, which he prefers to the whole world. We must, therefore, betake ourselves to this providence, even in the most desperate affairs, and must not give way to any temptations by which Satan attacks us in various ways.

Calvin: Isa 45:13 - I have raised him up // In righteousness // He shall build my city // And shall release my captivity, not for a price, 13.I have raised him up He now continues the subject on which he had entered in the beginning of the chapter; for, having undertaken to soothe their ...

13.I have raised him up He now continues the subject on which he had entered in the beginning of the chapter; for, having undertaken to soothe their affliction, which was exceedingly sharp and severe, Isaiah holds out the hope of deliverance, and stretches out his hand to them, that they may look for an absolutely certain redemption. Though you think that you are ruined, yet the Lord will protect you against destruction. Why the reproof which we have seen was intermingled with it, may be easily gathered from the event itself; for, if Isaiah had not abruptly made this digression, the Jews, in their vehement impatience, would have been hurried into despair.

In righteousness This means “justly and truly,” and must be understood relatively; for it assigns the reason why God determined to raise up Cyrus, that is, because he is a faithful guardian of his Church, and does not disappoint his worshippers. Some explain it, “in justice,” that is, in order that he may punish the Babylonians; and others, “that he may reign justly;” but the Prophet meant nothing of this sort. But in the Scriptures, “righteousness” often signifies fidelity, (Psa 5:8), because the Lord manifests his “righteousness” by fulfilling his promises and defending his servants. The “righteousness” of God shines brightly in giving a display of exalted and perfect rectitude by saving his people; for, although there is no work of God on which a mark of righteousness is not engraven, yet a much more clear and striking proof is seen in the salvation of the Church. The meaning therefore is, that he “raised up” Cyrus, in order to manifest his “righteousness” in him, whom he has appointed to lead and conduct in bringing back his people.

He shall build my city Jerusalem is meant, which he calls “his city,” because he wished that there the remembrance of his name should be preserved, and because he had consecrated it in a peculiar manner to himself. In like manner God himself had declared,

“Wherever I shall cause my name to be recorded, I will come to thee, and will bless thee.” (Exo 20:24.)

Now, there was no other city which he had appointed for sacrifices and vows, and for calling on his name; and, therefore, also it is called (Psa 46:4) “The city of God, the holy tabernacle of the Most High, for God is in the midst of her;” and in another place it is said, “This is my rest for ever and ever.” (Psa 132:14.) Now, Cyrus did not build this city with his own hand, but by royal edicts forbade any one to hinder the rebuilding of it, and likewise supplied the people with provisions and money. (2Ch 36:23; Ezr 1:2.)

And shall release my captivity, not for a price, that is, “for nothing.” This was uncommon; for, if captives are released by a conqueror, either a price is demanded, or harsh conditions are imposed on them; but Cyrus did nothing of that kind. Hence it follows that this deliverance took place by the will of God, and not by the will of man. The word “captivity” is here used as a collective noun, denoting “captives.”

Calvin: Isa 45:14 - Thus saith Jehovah // The labor of Egypt, the merchandise of Ethiopia // In chains they shall pass over // Surely // And there is none besides God 14.Thus saith Jehovah He still speaks of the restoration which was afterwards effected under the conduct of Cyrus; but we must keep in remembrance wh...

14.Thus saith Jehovah He still speaks of the restoration which was afterwards effected under the conduct of Cyrus; but we must keep in remembrance what we formerly remarked, that those promises must be extended farther; for it includes the whole time which followed, down to the coming of Christ. Whoever shall duly consider and weigh this Prophet’s ordinary style will find in his words nothing extravagant, and will not look upon his language as exaggerated.

The labor of Egypt, the merchandise of Ethiopia The Prophet alludes to the expenses which Cyrus contributed for building and adorning the temple. (Ezr 6:8) At that time was fulfilled what he says, that “the labor of Egypt” and “the merchandise of Ethiopia” came to the Jews; for “Egypt and Ethiopia” were tributaries and subjects of the king of Persia. From those tributes the temple of Jerusalem was rebuilt. But as that restoration was only the prelude to that which was accomplished by Christ, so likewise the homage which foreign nations rendered to the people of God was only the beginning of that homage which various nations rendered to the Church of God, after Christ had been revealed to the world.

Now, under the name of “Egypt, Ethiopia, and the Sabeans,” who flourished at that time, he includes also the rest of the nations. It is as if he had said, “You are now oppressed by the tyranny of foreign nations, but the time shall one day come when they shall be subject to you.” This was not immediately fulfilled, but only at the time when Christ, by his coming, subdued their flinty and hitherto untameable hearts, so that they mildly submitted to the yoke that was laid upon them. But the Lord redeemed his people from Babylon, in order that he might preserve some Church till the coming of Christ, to whose authority all nations should be subject; and therefore we need not wonder, if the Prophet, when speaking of the return of the people, directs his discourse at the same time to God’s end and design, and makes it to be one redemption.

In chains they shall pass over When he says that the Israelites shall be victorious over all the nations, this depends on the mutual relation between the Head and the members. Because the Only-begotten Son of God unites to himself those who believe in him, so that they are one with him, it frequently happens that what belongs to him is attributed to

“the Church, which is his body and fullness.”
(Eph 1:23.)

In this sense also government is ascribed to the Church, not so as to obscure by haughty rule the glory of her Head, or even to claim the authority which belongs to him, or, in a word, so as to have anything separate from her Head; but because the preaching of the gospel, which is committed to her, is the spiritual scepter of Christ, by which he displays his power. In this respect no man can bow down submissively before Christ, without also obeying the Church, so far as the obedience of faith is joined to the ministry of doctrine, yet so that Christ their Head alone reigns, and alone exercises his authority.

Surely 202 God is in thee. He relates what will be said by those who shall make respectful entrearies to the Church. They will acknowledge that “God is in her.” Some translate אך ( ach) only, which I do not object to, and even acknowledge to be well adapted to express the Prophet’s meaning; yet it will not be inappropriate to explain it affirmatively, Surely God is in thee

And there is none besides God 203 He explains the manner in which foreign nations shall be subject to the Jews; that is, by acknowledging that there is no other God than He whom the Jews worshipped. If it be objected, that this has nothing to do with the Jews, who are now alienated from the Church, I reply, The gospel nevertheless proceeded from them, and was diffused throughout the whole world; and thus we acknowledge Jerusalem to be the fountain from which pure doctrine flowed. (Psa 76:2; Luk 24:47.) In ancient times there undoubtedly were none but the Jews who understood who is God, and what is the proper manner of worshipping him; the rest were devoted to trifles and delusions, and worshipped their own inventions. Hence also Christ, addressing the Samaritan woman, says, “We know what we worship.” (Joh 4:22.) Justly, therefore, is it here said, “God is in thee,” because other nations were ignorant of God. Yet as there is an implied contrast, I cheerfully admit the adverb only, so as to be a testimony of the repentance of the Gentiles, when they are satisfied with the one God and forsake their idols.

The meaning may be thus summed up, “They who formerly were haughty, and with lofty brow despised the Church, shall submit to her, when it shall be known that she is the sanctuary of the true God,” for, as we have said, when God extols his Church, he does not relinquish his own authority. And this is a Sign of true conversion, that we do not worship a God whom we have imagined, but him who is acknowledged in the Church. We ought also to observe this encomium pronounced on the Church, “God is in thee;” for, as we formerly quoted, “God is in the midst of her,” because he hath chosen her to be his habitation. (Psa 46:5.) If we are the people of God, and are subject to his doctrine which bringeth salvation, it follows that he will assist, us; because he does not wish to forsake his people; for this promise is perpetual, and ought not to be viewed as referring solely to that time.

Calvin: Isa 45:15 - Truly thou art a God that hidest thyself // God the Savior of Israel 15.Truly thou art a God that hidest thyself Isaiah now exclaims, that there is need of long exercise of patience, that we may enjoy the promises of G...

15.Truly thou art a God that hidest thyself Isaiah now exclaims, that there is need of long exercise of patience, that we may enjoy the promises of God; for the people might have been prompted to despair, when the wicked had everything to their wish, and when everything adverse befell themselves. I am aware that some expound it differently. The Jewish writers commonly interpret it to mean, that the Lord will hide himself from the Gentiles, but will reveal himself to his people. Christian interpreters bring forward a different sense, but too far-fetched. There is ingenuity, indeed, in what they say, that Christ is a hidden God, because his divinity lies concealed under the infirmity of the flesh. But it does not agree with the Prophet’s meaning; for he calls himself “a hidden God,” because he appears to withdraw, 204 and, in some measure, to conceal himself, when he permits his people to be afflicted and oppressed by various calamities; and, therefore, our hearts ought to be encouraged by hope. Now, as Paul says, (Rom 8:24,) “hope is not directed to those things which are seen;” and in this sense Isaiah calls him “a hidden God,” because those things which he promised are not immediately visible to our eyes.

Thus he intended that we should withdraw our minds from present objects, and raise them above the heavens, which we must do, 205 if we wish to receive and accept of his aid. There is “need of patience,” (Heb 10:36,) therefore, that we may continue to direct our desires towards him, when he delays the execution of his promises. He had said, a little before, that unbelievers, though at that time they were blind and stupid, would feel the presence of God; but, because the time of manifestation was not yet at hand, this exclamation is appropriately introduced, that God, before he displays his glory, conceals his power in order to try our faith.

God the Savior of Israel That the Prophet does not speak of the essence of God, but of his assistance, may be easily inferred from the epithet which is now added, when he calls God “the Savior.” He explains that God “hides himself” in the method which he takes for saving his Church, because he conceals his hand for a time in such a manner as if he had intended totally to abandon them. He wishes that our salvation should remain, as it were, hidden in darkness, that, if we desire to enjoy it, we may know that we must go out of this world, 206 for it will not all at once present itself to us, or become visible to our eyes. We ought, therefore, to look for it with unshaken steadfastness; for it is highly advantageous that in this manner God should try and prove our faith, that, when we shall be oppressed by various afflictions on every hand, we may nevertheless rely on God and on his promises.

Calvin: Isa 45:16 - They shall all be put to shame 16. and 17.They shall all be put to shame Here the Prophet compares the Jews with the Gentiles, in order to meet a grievous and dangerous temptation...

16. and 17.They shall all be put to shame Here the Prophet compares the Jews with the Gentiles, in order to meet a grievous and dangerous temptation, by which they might be assailed, when they saw the Gentiles enjoying prosperity; 207 for, amidst so great troubles, they might have suspected that God was favorable to the Gentiles, or that he had cast away the care of his people, or that everything was governed by the blind impulse of fortune. The Prophet, therefore, assures them that, although for a time the Gentiles flourish and appear to be exalted to heaven, 208 yet the result must be, that they shall perish and Israel shall be saved. In a word, he exhorts them not to judge of the power of God from the present condition of things, not to have their minds fixed on temporary happiness, but to raise them to eternal salvation, and, when struck by the hand of God, patiently to bear their condition, and, on the other hand, not to envy the prosperity of the wicked, which shall be followed by a moumful reverse, as it is excellently described by the Psalmist. (Psa 37:1.)

This statement is added to the preceding; for whoever shall know that God, when he is a “Savior, ” is “hidden,” will not wonder that wicked men enjoy prosperity, and that good men are poor, and despised, and tried by various afflictions. Thus the Lord makes trial of our faith and patience, and yet no part of our eternal salvation is lost; but they who now appear to be a thousand times safe and happy shall at length perish, and all the wealth which they possess shall plunge them in deeper ruin; because they abuse God’s benefits, and, like robbers, seize on what belongs to other men, even though they appear to possess all of them by a just title. Whenever, therefore, this thought arises in our minds, “Wicked men are at ease, and therefore God favors them, and the promises on which we rely are unworthy of credit;” let us betake ourselves to this declaration of the Prophet as the surest anchor, and let us fortify ourselves by it, “The Lord will not disappoint our expectation, but we shall at length be delivered, even though we be now exposed to the reproaches, slanders, mockings, and cruelty of the wicked.”

Calvin: Isa 45:18 - For thus saith Jehovah // God the maker of the earth // He did not create it empty // He formed it to be inhabited // I am Jehovah 18.For thus saith Jehovah This verse tends to confirm the preceding; for the Prophet means that the Jews are fully convinced that the Lord will at le...

18.For thus saith Jehovah This verse tends to confirm the preceding; for the Prophet means that the Jews are fully convinced that the Lord will at length deliver them, though they are oppressed by wretched bondage.

God the maker of the earth Some think that by “the earth” is here meant Judea, but I consider it to be an argument from the less to the greater, as we said formerly on the twelfth verse, that, since the providence of God extends universally to the creatures, much more does it relate to those whom he has adopted to be his sons; for of them he has a special care. In short, the Prophet’s argument is this. “Since God created the earth, that men might have an abode and habitation in it, much more did he create it, that there might be a residence for his Church; for he takes a deeper concern about his Church than about all the rest.” If, therefore, he founded the earth, if he gave to it a shape and a fixed use, that men might be nourished by the fruits which it should produce, he has undoubtedly assigned to his children the first place and the highest rank of honor. This is not always visible to our eyes, and therefore our hearts ought to be encouraged and upheld by hope, that we may stand unmoved against all temptations.

In a word, as long as the earth shall endure, so long shall the Church of God exist; so long as the sun and moon shall last, it shall not fail. Afterwards the Prophet will use a still stronger argument. “If the covenant which God made with Noah, as to the settled order of this world, is stable, much more the covenant which he hath made concerning the Church must be stable. (Isa 54:9; Gen 9:9.) The world is fading and corruptible; but the Church, that is, the kingdom of Christ, shall be eternal; and therefore it is reasonable to believe that the promises which relate to the Church shall undoubtedly be more stable and permanent than all the rest.

He did not create it empty As it is the principal ornament of the earth that it is the abode of inhabitants, he adds, that it was not created in order that, by being empty, it might be waste and desolate. If it be objected, on the other hand, that the earth was “empty and void” when it was created, as appears from that passage in which Moses employs the same word that is here used by the Prophet, תהו , ( tohu,) which means “shapeless and empty,” the answer is easy. The Prophet does not speak of the commencement of the creation, but of God’s purpose by which the earth was set apart for the use and habitation of men; and therefore, there is nothing here that is contrary to what is said by Moses, for Isaiah contemplates the end and use.

He formed it to be inhabited This statement indeed extends to all mankind, because the earth was appointed to all, that they might dwell in it; for how comes it that God nourishes us and supplies us with everything that is necessary, and even supports wicked men, but because he intended that his decree should stand, by which he gave the earth to be inhabited by men? In any other point of view, it is strange that he bears with so many sins and crimes, and does not entirely destroy mankind; but he has regard to his own purpose, and not to our merit. Hence kingdoms and commonwealths are sustained, and hence ranks of society and forms of government are preserved even amidst barbarians and infidels; for, although God often reduces some countries to desolation on account of the sins of men, and sprinkles them, as it were, with “saltness,” (Psa 107:34, 209) that they may become barren, and may never again be able to support their inhabitants, yet he always adds this alleviation, “that the earth may be inhabited;” for this is his inviolable decree. Yet we must bear in remembrance what I have already said, that, so long as the earth shall be inhabited, it is impossible that God shall not support his worshippers who call upon him. Besides, from this passage all good men ought to derive the highest consolation, that, although they are despised by the world and are few and feeble, and although, on the other hand, wicked men surpass them in numbers, and power, and influence, while they are despised so as to be reckoned of less value than “the offscourings of the world,” (1Co 4:13,) yet they are precious in the sight of God, because he reckons them in the number of his children, and will never suffer them to perish.

I am Jehovah When he repeats that he is God, this is not intended merely to assert his essence, but to distinguish him from all idols, and to keep the Jews in the pure faith; for even superstitious men acknowledge that there is one God, but conceive of him according to their fancy; and therefore we must acknowledge God, who revealed himself to the fathers, and who spoke by Moses. Thus, he does not speak merely of God’s eternal essence, as some think, but of all the offices which belong to him alone, that no part of them may be ascribed to creatures.

Calvin: Isa 45:19 - Not === in secret have I spoken. He now recalls the people to the doctrine of the Law, because God cannot be comprehended by human faculties; but as he is concealed from carnal reason, so he abundantly reveals himself, and affords the remedy, by his word, which supplies what was wanting, that we may not desire anything more. If this had not been granted, we should have had no hope, and should have lost all courage. Now, he solemnly declares that he does not invite us in vain, though he delay his assistance; for what he has promised is most certain, and, as he plainly shewed to whom we ought to betake ourselves, and on whom we ought to rely, so he will give practical demonstration that the hope of those who relied on his word was not vain, or without foundation.

This enables us to see clearly how wicked are the speeches of those who say that no certainty can be obtained from the word, and who pretend that it is a nose of wax, in order to deter others from reading it; for thus do wicked men blaspheme, because the mere doctrine of the word exposes and refutes their errors. But we reply with David,

“Thy word, O Lord, is a lamp to our feet, and a light to our paths.”
(Psa 119:105.)

We reply with Isaiah and the rest of the prophets, that the Lord has taught nothing that is obscure, or ambiguous, or false. We reply also with Peter, that

“the prophetic word is more sure, and you do well if you take heed to it, as to a lamp buming in a dark place, till the day dawn, and the morning-star arise in our hearts.” (2Pe 1:19.)

If these things were said concerning the Law and the prophets, what shall we say of the Gospel, by which the clearest light has been revealed to us? Shall we not say with Paul,

“If the Gospel is dark, it is dark to those who are lost, whom Satan, the prince of this world, hath blinded?”
(2Co 4:3.)

Let blind and weak-sighted men therefore accuse themselves, when they cannot endure this brightness of the word; but, whatever may be the darkness by which they shall endeavor to clothe it, let us adhere firmly and steadfastly to this heavenly light.

Besides, the Prophet appears to allude to the predictions which were uttered out of the groves and tripods of the idols. 210 They are uncertain and deceitful, but nothing of this kind can be found in God’s answers; for he speaks openly, and utters nothing that is deceitful or ambiguous. But experience tells us that Scripture is somewhat dark and hard to be understood. This is indeed true, but ought to be ascribed to the dulness and slowness of our apprehension, and not to the Scripture; for blind or weak-sighted men have no right to accuse the sun, because they cannot look at him.

===I have not said in vain to the seed of Jacob, Seek me // I Jehovah speaking righteousness 19.Not === in secret have I spoken. He now recalls the people to the doctrine of the Law, because God cannot be comprehended by human faculties; but...

19.Not === in secret have I spoken. He now recalls the people to the doctrine of the Law, because God cannot be comprehended by human faculties; but as he is concealed from carnal reason, so he abundantly reveals himself, and affords the remedy, by his word, which supplies what was wanting, that we may not desire anything more. If this had not been granted, we should have had no hope, and should have lost all courage. Now, he solemnly declares that he does not invite us in vain, though he delay his assistance; for what he has promised is most certain, and, as he plainly shewed to whom we ought to betake ourselves, and on whom we ought to rely, so he will give practical demonstration that the hope of those who relied on his word was not vain, or without foundation.

This enables us to see clearly how wicked are the speeches of those who say that no certainty can be obtained from the word, and who pretend that it is a nose of wax, in order to deter others from reading it; for thus do wicked men blaspheme, because the mere doctrine of the word exposes and refutes their errors. But we reply with David,

“Thy word, O Lord, is a lamp to our feet, and a light to our paths.”
(Psa 119:105.)

We reply with Isaiah and the rest of the prophets, that the Lord has taught nothing that is obscure, or ambiguous, or false. We reply also with Peter, that

“the prophetic word is more sure, and you do well if you take heed to it, as to a lamp buming in a dark place, till the day dawn, and the morning-star arise in our hearts.” (2Pe 1:19.)

If these things were said concerning the Law and the prophets, what shall we say of the Gospel, by which the clearest light has been revealed to us? Shall we not say with Paul,

“If the Gospel is dark, it is dark to those who are lost, whom Satan, the prince of this world, hath blinded?”
(2Co 4:3.)

Let blind and weak-sighted men therefore accuse themselves, when they cannot endure this brightness of the word; but, whatever may be the darkness by which they shall endeavor to clothe it, let us adhere firmly and steadfastly to this heavenly light.

Besides, the Prophet appears to allude to the predictions which were uttered out of the groves and tripods of the idols. 210 They are uncertain and deceitful, but nothing of this kind can be found in God’s answers; for he speaks openly, and utters nothing that is deceitful or ambiguous. But experience tells us that Scripture is somewhat dark and hard to be understood. This is indeed true, but ought to be ascribed to the dulness and slowness of our apprehension, and not to the Scripture; for blind or weak-sighted men have no right to accuse the sun, because they cannot look at him.

===I have not said in vain to the seed of Jacob, Seek me This continues to be a fixed principle, that they who shew themselves to be submissive and obedient, do not spend their labor in vain; because God faithfully performs the office of a teacher towards poor and little ones. Now, though all do not rise in the highest degree, yet the labor of those who shall sincerely seek God will never be unprofitable. By this expression, Seek me, Isaiah points out the principal end and use of the Law, to invite men to God; and, indeed, their true happiness lies in being united to God, 211 and the sacred bond of union is faith and sincere piety.

In this second clause he not only asserts that he has spoken clearly and without ambiguity, but declares the certainty and steadfastness of his word; as if he had said, that he does not promise largely with an intention to deceive, or amuse hungry men by words, but actually performs what he has promised. This demonstrates the ingratitude of those who, when they are called, do not answer; since God has no other design than to make us partakers of all blessings, of which we are otherwise empty and destitute.

I Jehovah speaking righteousness This is added for the sake of explanation; as if he had said that the word by which he draws his elect to himself, is not soiled by any stain of fraud, but contains the most perfect holiness. “The words of the Lord,” as David says, “are clean, like silver purified in an earthen fumace, seven times refined.” (Psa 12:6.) Thus, in the word of God we have bright righteousness, which instantly shines into our hearts, when the darkness has been removed.

Calvin: Isa 45:20 - Assemble yourselves, // Ye rejected of the nations // That carry the wood of their graven image 20.Assemble yourselves, He challenges all superstitious persons, and, as it were, appoints a day that they may submit to a righteous judgment, as we ...

20.Assemble yourselves, He challenges all superstitious persons, and, as it were, appoints a day that they may submit to a righteous judgment, as we have formerly seen in expounding other passages, in order to shew that they can plead nothing which shall not be speedily overtumed. Now, indeed, they delight in their superstitions; but all their smoke shall be dispelled, when they come to plead their cause, and without any difficulty they shall be convicted. Let them then “assemble” in crowds, let them conspire and make every effort by fraud, and threatenings, and terrors; the truth shall at length be victorious. This confirmation was highly necessary for the Jews, because in every nation and in every place they beheld the spread of wicked errors which buried the worship of the true God. We also ought to betake ourselves to this refuge, when we see how few and how feeble we are. The Mahometans possess a large portion of the world, the Papists, with elevated crest, triumph far and wide, while we are but a handful of people, 212 and are scarcely reckoned in the number of men. But truth shall at last prevail, and shall cast down all that loftiness which now dazzles the eyes of men.

Ye rejected of the nations 213 פליטי (pelite) is translated by some “rejected,” by others “exiles,” or “those who have escaped;” and the address is supposed to be made to the Jews who had retumed from the captivity. But that is too forced a sense. The more generally received interpretation is, “Rejected of the nations,” because פלט (palat) means “to reject.” Not that he describes the meaner sort, or the refuse of men; but, on the contrary, he directs his discourse to those who were the highest in rank, and wealth, and power, and learning among the Gentiles. He calls them “rejected,” because they are of no value in the sight of God, though they are highly esteemed by men; for

“that which ranks high among men is detestable in the sight of God.” (Luk 16:15.)

Yet if it be thought preferable to translate it “distant,” I have no objection; as if he had said, “Let them assemble from the farthest parts of the earth.”

That carry the wood of their graven image He shews how great is the madness which seizes idolaters, who worship images, which they bear on their shoulders and carry round on waggons. Or we may take נשיים (nesum) as denoting “to place on a lofty and elevated spot,” as it was a crafty device of Satan to erect statues on pillars and lofty places, in order to excite the admiration of men, and to lead men to pay honor and reverence by merely looking at them. But we may interpret it simply as denoting all worship that is rendered to images, so as to convict them of vanity and madness. Superstitious persons know that idols need the aid and assistance of men, instead of men needing the aid and assistance of idols, which cannot even be made to stand upright without the agency of men. 214 And this is the meaning of what next follows, to pray to a god that cannot save; for what can be more foolish than to address vows and prayers to wood and stone? and yet infidels run about to dead statues, for the purpose of seeking salvation from them.

Calvin: Isa 45:21 - Tell ye // Let them also take counsel together // Who hath proclaimed this from the beginning? // And a savior 21.Tell ye He again challenges all those who might have annoyed the Jews and shaken their faith by their taunts; for he always keeps this object in v...

21.Tell ye He again challenges all those who might have annoyed the Jews and shaken their faith by their taunts; for he always keeps this object in view, to fortify the faith of the people against all the assaults of the Gentiles. Amidst temptations so numerous and so severe, there was danger lest the Jews should sink under their terrible afflictions, if there had not been powerful arguments on the other side to induce them still to worship and trust the true God; and therefore he permits heathens to produce and bring forward everything that they can find in support of their cause.

Let them also take counsel together These words are added, in order to inspire greater confidence; for the Prophet means, as we have already said, that they will gain nothing, though they “take counsel” among themselves and enter into a conspiracy. Yet, perhaps, he intended also to make it evident that there is nothing but groundless pretense and falsehood in all that infidels contrive for excusing their errors. Whatever then may be the gaudy ostentation with which they plume themselves on their inventions, the Prophet shews that the word of God will be abundantly strong to support the faith of believers. He challenges them to a strict examination, in order to compare with the Law and the prophets all that infidels boast of as having been foretold by their idols. I cheerfully admit what is generally believed, that the Prophet speaks of the redemption of the people; but as the overthrow of the Babylonian monarchy was likewise connected with it, I think that it is also included.

Who hath proclaimed this from the beginning? Because there is a repetition of the same statement, מקדם (mikkedem) and מאז ( meaz) mean the same thing; as if he had said, “from the beginning,” or, “from of old;” for this prophecy was published long before the event happened. Hence believers might with certainty conclude that God had spoken.

And a savior To foreknowledge he adds power, as in a former passage. Yet he likewise describes for what purposes he exerts his power, that is, for “saving” his people.

Calvin: Isa 45:22 - Look unto me // And ye shall be saved // For I am God 22.Look unto me Hitherto he addressed the Jews alone, as if to them alone salvation belonged, but now he extends his discourse farther. He invites th...

22.Look unto me Hitherto he addressed the Jews alone, as if to them alone salvation belonged, but now he extends his discourse farther. He invites the whole world to the hope of salvation, and at the same time brings a charge of ingratitude against all the nations, who, being devoted to their errors, purposely avoided, as it were, the light of life; for what could be more base than to reject deliberately their own salvation? He therefore commands all “to look to him,” and to the precept adds a promise, which gives it greater weight, and confirms it more than if he had made use of a bare command.

And ye shall be saved Thus we have a striking proof of the calling of the Gentiles; because the Lord, after having broken down “the partition-wall” (Eph 2:14) which separated the Jews from the Gentiles, invites all without exception to come to him. Besides, we are here reminded also what is the true method of obtaining salvation; that is, when we “look to God,” and tum to him with our whole heart. Now, we must “look to him” with the eye of faith, so as to embrace the salvation which is exhibited to all through Christ; for “God so loved the world that he gave his only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him may not perish.” (Joh 3:16.)

For I am God When he exhorts all the ends of the earth, he at the same time shews that all men have hitherto wandered, and have not “looked to” the true God; for where infidelity exists, there cannot be a distinct looking towards God, so as to distinguish him from empty masks. In a word, he declares that the ruin of all has been occasioned by their being driven about by their wicked inventions, and thus revolting from the true God, from the knowledge of whom certain and eternal salvation flows. The Lord therefore stretches out his hand, in order to rescue all and point out the method of obtaining salvation.

This makes it evident that it was not at random that the doctrine of the Gospel was preached to all nations, but by the decree of God, by whom it had been long ago ordained. Yet, as I remarked a little before, he accuses the Gentiles of stupidity, in allowing their senses to be tumed and whirled about in all directions, wherever their fancy led them. Though by nature they could not approach to God, and though they even sucked in with their milk the superstitions by which they were blinded, yet God might have justly reproached them with wicked contempt of his grace; for ignorance always implies hypocrisy, when men choose rather to be deceived by empty flatteries than to go straight to God.

Calvin: Isa 45:23 - I have sworn by myself // The word hath gone out of my mouth in righteousness // And shall not return // That to me every knee shall bow // Every tongue shall swear 23.I have sworn by myself He adds a clearer confirmation of the preceding statement; for, in consequence of this calling being unusual and marvellous...

23.I have sworn by myself He adds a clearer confirmation of the preceding statement; for, in consequence of this calling being unusual and marvellous, he adds an oath, as is usually done in what is new and hard to be believed. The Jews might have objected, that they alone were called by the name of the elect people; but, when he confirms it by an oath, this removes all debate. The Prophet still, indeed, aims at the same object, namely, that the glory of God shall be so visible in the restoration of the Church as to arouse the whole world to the admiration of it from the rising to the setting of the sun, or, to express it more briefly, that this demonstration of the power of God shall be so splendid and illustrious as to strike all nations with fear. Yet from these words we may justly infer what I have remarked, that the Gentiles shall be admitted to an equality with the Jews, so that God shall be the common Father of all, and shall be worshipped in every country.

Now, God “swears by himself,” because he cannot have another equally competent witness of the truth; for he alone is the truth. “Men,” as the Apostle says, “swear by a greater than themselves; but God, because he had no greater, hath sworn by himself.” (Heb 6:16.) We ought to observe the reason why he “swears.” It is because he intended to aid the weakness of his people, that they might not be tossed about in uncertainty. This certainly is wonderful condescension, that, in order to remedy the fault of our distrust, he does not scruple to bring forward his own name as holding the place of a pledge; and the more base and disgraceful must be our unbelief, if even an oath does not satisfy us. Besides, since God claims for himself all confirmation of the truth, we ought to be exceedingly careful, when we appeal to him by an oath, not to mingle any other names either of saints or of any creature, but, by using his name with all becoming reverence, to preserve the honor due to him entire and unabated.

The word hath gone out of my mouth in righteousness He means that all that he has commanded to be published by his Prophet is firm and lasting, as if he had said that this commandment did not proceed “out of his mouth” rashly or unadvisedly. And in this sense the word righteousness is often used in Scripture, that is, for a word that is not deceitful, which shall clearly appear to be perfectly true; and thus he says that the decree cannot be revoked.

And shall not return This is another mode of expression conveying the same idea. It means that the word of God shall continue to make progress, till the actual result shall make manifest that it has proceeded from a just and true and almighty God. A person is said to return, when some obstacle hinders him from proceeding farther; but, because nothing can prevent God from executing what he has decreed, the Prophet justly infers that nothing can interrupt or retard the course of this word. The particle כי , (ki,) that, must be viewed as introducing an explanatory clause; as much as to say, “This is the word,”

That to me every knee shall bow By this mode of expression he means that all the Gentiles shall be suppliants to God, because the astonishing deliverance of the Church shall strike terror upon all. Yet hence also it follows, that his worship shall be spread among all nations; for we cannot truly “bend the knee” before God till he hath been made known to us. To an unknown God, indeed, men may render some kind of worship; but it is false and unprofitable. But here he speaks of a true profession, which proceeds from a knowledge of God deeply seated in our hearts; for, where there is no faith, there can be no worship of God, and faith is not directed to a thing unknown or uncertain. Accordingly, he has made use of the sign to express the thing itself, as is frequently done.

Hence it ought to be observed, that God demands also external worship; for the Prophet does not separate an external profession of religion from the inward feelings of the heart. In vain, therefore, do fanatics boast that in some manner they worship God and do homage to him, while they bow down before idols. In vain, I say, do they pretend that their heart is upright towards God; for the worship of the heart cannot be separated from an external profession. In like manner the soul cannot be dedicated and consecrated to God, while the body is consecrated to the devil; for both ought to be consecrated to God, and thus the worship of the heart ought also to be accompanied by an external profession.

“With the heart we believe to righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made to salvation.” (Rom 10:10)

Hence also the Lord, approving of the piety and uprightness of his people, says, “that they have not bowed a knee before Baal.” (1Kg 19:18; Rom 11:4.)

Paul applies this passage of Isaiah to the last judgment, when he says (Rom 14:10) that “we must all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ;” although the subject here treated of is, the redemption of the people, the publication of the gospel, and the establishment of the kingdom of Christ. But he takes for granted (what all ought to know) that those statements which relate to the kingdom of Christ must not be limited to any part of it, but extend to the whole of its course, till it arrive at full perfection. The knee is bent to Christ, when his doctrine is obeyed, and when the preaching of the gospel is accepted. But many still oppose and boldly despise him; Satan contrives many schemes and incessantly carries on war with him; and therefore we are at a great distance from the full accomplishment of this prophecy. Then shall every knee be truly bent to Christ, when he shall triumph over vanquished and utterly ruined adversaries, and shall render visible to all men his majesty, which Satan and wicked men now oppose. Thus Paul teaches that, when Christ shall ascend his judgment-seat to judge the world, then shall be fully accomplished that which began to be done at the commencement of the gospel, and which we still see done from day to day.

Every tongue shall swear By a figure of speech in which a part is taken for the whole, the word swear is put for worship, reverence, or subjection. “Swearing” is one department of the honor which is due to God; for by it we confess and acknowledge that he is the Author and Father and lawful defender of the truth, and that “all things are naked and open to him.” (Heb 4:13.) Whenever therefore this honor is bestowed on idols, the majesty of God is dishonored by abominable sacrilege; and consequently they who worship him purely swear exclusively by his name. But on this subject we have spoken 215 in the exposition of another passage. (Isa 19:18.)

Calvin: Isa 45:24 - Surely in Jehovah // Righteousness and strength // To him shall he come // But all who defy him shall be ashamed 24.Surely in Jehovah He shews what is the nature of true faith and of the true worship of God; that is, when we not only acknowledge, or perceive by ...

24.Surely in Jehovah He shews what is the nature of true faith and of the true worship of God; that is, when we not only acknowledge, or perceive by the understanding, that there is a God, but likewise feel what he wishes to be towards us. Whoever shall be satisfied with a bare knowledge departs very widely from faith, which must invite us to God in such a manner that we shall feel him to be in us. In like manner Paul wishes that

“Christ should dwell in the hearts of believers through faith.” (Eph 3:17.)

He who imagines that God sits unemployed in heaven either will not humble himself sincerely before him, or will not make an open and sincere profession.

Righteousness and strength As these are the two principal parts of our salvation, when believers acknowledge that they receive both of them from God, they ascribe to him the undivided praise of a happy life, and testify that by nature they do not possess that which they acknowledge that they owe to his grace. Thus they own that in themselves they have nothing either of “righteousness” or of “strength,” but seek them in God alone, that he may not be defrauded of his right.

To him shall he come Here commentators differ; but, for my own part, I take a simple view of this passage as relating to believers who submit themselves to God, so as to enable us to perceive the nature of the contrast between them and rebels, who do not cease obstinately to resist God. I explain it thus: “They who shall confess that their righteousness is placed in God will approach to him.” He means that we obtain access to God through faith, so that they who perceive that their righteousness is placed in him, feel that he is present; and indeed no man, if he be not reconciled to God, will ever approach to him willingly, but, on the contrary, all who dread his majesty will fly to the greatest possible distance from him. Thus the Prophet applauds the very delightful result of grace, because it will unite to God those men who were formerly driven away from him by their wickedness; and to this corresponds what is said by the Psalmist,

“Thou art the God that heareth prayer; to thee shall all flesh come.” (Psa 65:2.)

But all who defy him shall be ashamed After having testified that God wishes to gather strangers from their dispersion, that he may bring them into a state of intimate friendship with himself, he threatens vengeance against despisers, who, being without God, and despising God, give the reins to their wicked passions, and wallow in the enjoyments of the world. As it is only by faith that we obey God, so it is by unbelief alone that Isaiah declares his anger to be provoked; while he distinguishes all unbelievers by this mark, that they are disobedient to God, and even challenge him to a contest. Although they now use the language of triumph, the Prophet declares that they shall be clothed with shame and disgrace.

Calvin: Isa 45:25 - In Jehovah shall be justified // All the seed of Israel // Shall be justified and shall glory 25.In Jehovah shall be justified He now makes a brief reply to an objection which might be urged, that it appeared absurd to say, that the Lord calle...

25.In Jehovah shall be justified He now makes a brief reply to an objection which might be urged, that it appeared absurd to say, that the Lord called the Gentiles, who had always been alienated from him. “Is it in vain that the Lord hath chosen the seed of Abraham? Is his promise void, which he so frequently repeated?” (Gen 15:5.) In order to remove this doubt, he declares that the Lord will nevertheless stand by his promises; that, though he choose the Gentiles, yet the covenant which he made with the fathers shall not fall to the ground, because the elect people shall enjoy the privileges of their rank. Nor does he in this passage, as in many others, speak of the rejection of that nation; but the Prophet simply shews that the grace of God, which shall be diffused throughout the whole world, shall flow from that fountain.

As to the greater number having been rejected by God, still this did not set aside God’s covenant; because the remnant of adoption were always the true and lawful Israel; and although they were few in number, yet they were the first-born in the Church. Besides, all those among the Gentiles who had been ingrafted into that body began also, as we have formerly seen, to be accounted children of Abraham.

“One shall say, I belong to Jacob; another shall subscribe with his band, I am a descendant of Israel.” (Isa 44:5.)

And on this ground we are now reckoned the genuine Israel of God, though we are not the descendants of Israel. The Prophet therefore added this, both that the Jews might not think that the Lord’s covenant had failed, and that they might not boast of their birth and despise the Gentiles.

All the seed of Israel He extends this seed farther, that they may not suppose that it ought to be limited to the family of Abraham; for the Lord gathers his people without distinction from among Jews and Gentiles, and here he speaks universally of the whole human race.

Shall be justified and shall glory It ought to be observed that the Prophet says that we “are justified and glory in the Lord,” for in none else ought we to seek “righteousness” or “glory.” He has joined to it “glory,” which depends on “righteousness,” and is added to it. Hence also Paul says,

“Where is thy glorying? It is excluded. By what law? Of works? No, but by the law of faith.” (Rom 3:27.)

And, again,

“If Abraham was justified by works, he hath glory,
but not before God.” (Rom 4:2.)

It follows, therefore, that they alone deservedly glory who seek their righteousness in God, and acknowledge that in themselves they have no ground for glorying.

Defender: Isa 45:4 - by thy name The Persian emperor Cyrus was thus named by God about 150 years before he was born, and about 100 years before Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Jerusalem and ...

The Persian emperor Cyrus was thus named by God about 150 years before he was born, and about 100 years before Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Jerusalem and the temple, carrying the people of Judah into captivity in Babylonia. The Persian empire still later conquered Babylon, and eventually Cyrus became emperor and fulfilled Isaiah's prophecy about 175 years after Isaiah pronounced it (Ezr 1:1-4)."

Defender: Isa 45:7 - create darkness God did not create light, for He is light. It was the primeval darkness which He created in order to have a division between day and night.

God did not create light, for He is light. It was the primeval darkness which He created in order to have a division between day and night.

Defender: Isa 45:7 - create evil "Evil," as used here, refers to evil of a physical nature (storms), not moral evil."

"Evil," as used here, refers to evil of a physical nature (storms), not moral evil."

Defender: Isa 45:12 - even my hands A clear statement of direct creation (not indirect, through some evolutionary process) - of the earth, of man, of the heavens, and all their host (bot...

A clear statement of direct creation (not indirect, through some evolutionary process) - of the earth, of man, of the heavens, and all their host (both stars and angels)."

Defender: Isa 45:18 - formed the earth Note that the Lord "formed" the earth, He "made" it, He "established" it, He "created" it. He did it "himself."

Note that the Lord "formed" the earth, He "made" it, He "established" it, He "created" it. He did it "himself."

Defender: Isa 45:18 - not in vain Since the word here for "in vain" is the Hebrew tohu, this verse has been made the main proof text (actually pretext) for the so-called gap theory, wh...

Since the word here for "in vain" is the Hebrew tohu, this verse has been made the main proof text (actually pretext) for the so-called gap theory, which attempts to add billions of years of the history of the earth and its inhabitants in a supposed gap between the first two verses of Genesis. Gen 1:2 says that "the earth was without form" - that is, tohu - so the argument here contends that since Isaiah says God did not "create" the earth tohu, it must have "become" tohu in a great cataclysm that climaxed and terminated the geological ages. However, this is an impossible theory geologically, since these ages are based entirely on a supposed uniform continuity with present geological processes, and there is no place in the geological ages for a global cataclysm that would leave the earth without form and void. The main purpose of the gap theory is to avoid conflict with geologists over the age of the earth, but it squarely contradicts them on their basic premise of uniformitarianism. Such a worldwide cataclysm as proposed by proponents of the gap theory would so disintegrate and rearrange the crust of the earth as to leave no evidence of any previous ages. The gap theory would thus accommodate the geological ages by destroying all the evidence for them. This is why no geologist, Christian or otherwise, believes the gap theory.

Defender: Isa 45:18 - to be inhabited The thrust of this verse is that God had a definite purpose for the earth. He created, established, made, and formed it as a habitation for man. When ...

The thrust of this verse is that God had a definite purpose for the earth. He created, established, made, and formed it as a habitation for man. When initially called into existence by God, it was "unformed and empty," as stated in Gen 1:2, but God did not intend to stop there. He took six days to prepare it for man in order to set a pattern for man's work week (Exo 20:8-11); the earth was not "perfect," in the sense of being "finished," until God said so, at the end of the six days (Gen 2:1-3)."

Defender: Isa 45:19 - in vain This is the Hebrew tohu again, as in the preceding verse. This is clearly the best translation of tohu in both verses, just as "without form" is the b...

This is the Hebrew tohu again, as in the preceding verse. This is clearly the best translation of tohu in both verses, just as "without form" is the best translation in Gen 1:2. As with many Hebrew words, the context determines the meaning. The word tohu is rendered ten different ways in its twenty occurrences."

Defender: Isa 45:22 - there is none else This affirmation is repeatedly stressed in Isaiah. There is only one God and Creator. There is no other Savior, and the day will come when every knee ...

This affirmation is repeatedly stressed in Isaiah. There is only one God and Creator. There is no other Savior, and the day will come when every knee shall bow and every tongue shall confess to Him (Isa 45:23; Phi 2:10)."

TSK: Isa 45:1 - to his // whose // holden // to subdue // to open to his : Isa 13:3, Isa 44:28; 1Ki 19:15; Jer 27:6 whose : Isa 41:13, Isa 42:6; Psa 73:23 holden : or, strengthened, Eze 30:21-24 to subdue : Isa 41:2,...

to his : Isa 13:3, Isa 44:28; 1Ki 19:15; Jer 27:6

whose : Isa 41:13, Isa 42:6; Psa 73:23

holden : or, strengthened, Eze 30:21-24

to subdue : Isa 41:2, Isa 41:25; Ezr 1:1; Jer 50:3, Jer 50:35, Jer 51:11, Jer 51:20-24; Dan 5:6, Dan 5:28-30, Dan 7:5, Dan 8:3

to open : All the streets of Babylon, leading on each side to the river, were secured by two leaved brazen gates, and these were providentially left open when Cyrus’ s forces entered the city in the night, through the channel of the river, in the general disorder occasioned by the great feast which was then celebrated; otherwise, says Herodotus, the Persians would have been shut up in the bed of the river, as in a net, and all destroyed. The gates of the palace were also imprudently opened to ascertain the occasion of the tumult; when the two parties under Gobrias and Gadatas rushed in, got possession of the palace, and slew the king. Nah 2:6

TSK: Isa 45:2 - go before // make // break go before : Isa 13:4-17 make : Isa 40:4, Isa 42:16; Act 1:15; Luk 3:5 break : Psa 107:16

go before : Isa 13:4-17

make : Isa 40:4, Isa 42:16; Act 1:15; Luk 3:5

break : Psa 107:16

TSK: Isa 45:3 - I will give // that thou // which call I will give : Jer 27:5-7, Jer 50:37, Jer 51:53; Eze 29:19, Eze 29:20 that thou : Isa 41:23; Ezr 1:2 which call : Isa 43:1, Isa 48:15, Isa 49:1; Exo 33...

TSK: Isa 45:4 - Jacob // I have even // though Jacob : Isa 41:8, Isa 41:9, Isa 43:3, Isa 43:4, Isa 43:14, Isa 44:1; Exo 19:5, Exo 19:6; Jer 50:17-20; Mat 24:22; Mar 13:20; Rom 9:6, Rom 11:7 I have ...

TSK: Isa 45:5 - the Lord // I girded thee the Lord : Isa 45:14-18, Isa 45:21, Isa 45:22, Isa 44:8, Isa 46:9; Deu 4:35, Deu 4:39, Deu 32:39; 1Ki 8:60; Joe 2:27; Joh 1:1; Heb 1:8, Heb 1:9 I gird...

TSK: Isa 45:6 - -- Isa 37:20; 1Sa 17:46, 1Sa 17:47; Psa 46:10, Psa 83:18, Psa 102:15, Psa 102:16; Eze 38:23, Eze 39:21; Mal 1:11

TSK: Isa 45:7 - form // create darkness // I make Peace form : Gen 1:3-5, Gen 1:17, Gen 1:18; Psa 8:3, Psa 104:20-23; Jer 31:35; 2Co 4:6; Jam 1:17 create darkness : Exo 10:21-23, Exo 14:20; Jer 13:16; Eze 3...

TSK: Isa 45:8 - Drop down // let the earth // I the Lord Drop down : Isa 32:15, Isa 44:3; Psa 72:3, Psa 72:6, Psa 85:9-12; Eze 34:26; Hos 10:12, Hos 14:5-8; Joe 2:28, Joe 2:29, Joe 3:18; Act 2:33; Tit 3:3-6 ...

TSK: Isa 45:9 - unto him // Shall the clay unto him : Isa 64:8; Exo 9:16, Exo 9:17; Job 15:24-26, Job 40:8, Job 40:9; Psa 2:2-9; Pro 21:30; Jer 50:24; 1Co 10:22 Shall the clay : Isa 10:15, Isa ...

TSK: Isa 45:10 - -- Deu 27:16; Mal 1:6; Heb 12:9

TSK: Isa 45:11 - the Holy One // Ask // concerning my sons // concerning the work // command the Holy One : Isa 43:3, Isa 43:7, Isa 43:15, Isa 43:21, Isa 48:17 Ask : Jer 33:3; Eze 36:37; Dan 2:18, Dan 9:2, Dan 9:3, Dan 9:24-27; Mar 11:24 conce...

TSK: Isa 45:12 - made the earth // my hands // all their host made the earth : Isa 45:18, Isa 40:28, Isa 42:5; Gen 1:26, Gen 1:27; Psa 102:25; Heb 11:3 my hands : Isa 40:12, Isa 40:22, Isa 44:24; Jer 27:5, Jer 32...

TSK: Isa 45:13 - raised him // in righteousness // direct // he shall build // let go // price raised him : Isa 45:1-6, Isa 41:2, Isa 41:25, Isa 46:11, Isa 48:14, Isa 48:15 in righteousness : Isa 42:6; Psa 65:5 direct : or, make straight, Isa 45...

raised him : Isa 45:1-6, Isa 41:2, Isa 41:25, Isa 46:11, Isa 48:14, Isa 48:15

in righteousness : Isa 42:6; Psa 65:5

direct : or, make straight, Isa 45:1, Isa 45:2

he shall build : Isa 44:28, Isa 52:5; 2Ch 36:22, 2Ch 36:23; Ezr 1:3-11

let go : Isa 49:25, Isa 52:2, Isa 52:3; Rom 3:24-26; 1Pe 1:18, 1Pe 1:19

price : Isa 13:17

TSK: Isa 45:14 - The labour // the Sabeans // men of stature // in chains // they shall fall // Surely // and there The labour : Isa 18:7, Isa 19:23-25, Isa 23:18, Isa 49:23, Isa 60:5-16, Isa 61:5, Isa 61:6, Isa 66:19, Isa 66:20; Psa 68:30,Psa 68:31; Psa 72:10-15; Z...

The labour : Isa 18:7, Isa 19:23-25, Isa 23:18, Isa 49:23, Isa 60:5-16, Isa 61:5, Isa 61:6, Isa 66:19, Isa 66:20; Psa 68:30,Psa 68:31; Psa 72:10-15; Zec 8:22, Zec 8:23

the Sabeans : That the Sabeans were of a most majestic appearance is particularly remarked by Agatharchides, an ancient Greek historian quoted by Bochart. Job 1:15; Eze 23:42; Joe 3:8

men of stature : Isa 10:33; Num 13:32; 2Sa 21:20; Eze 31:3

in chains : Isa 14:2, Isa 49:23; Psa 149:6, Psa 149:8

they shall fall : Isa 60:14, Isa 61:5, Isa 61:9; Exo 11:8; Est 8:17; Act 10:25, Act 10:26; Rev 3:9

Surely : Isa 45:24; Jer 16:19; Zec 8:20-23; 1Co 8:4-6, 1Co 14:25; 1Th 1:9

and there : Isa 45:5, Isa 45:6, Isa 44:8

TSK: Isa 45:15 - a God // O God a God : Isa 8:17, Isa 57:17; Psa 44:24, Psa 77:19; Joh 13:7; Rom 11:33, Rom 11:34 O God : Isa 45:17, Isa 12:2, Isa 43:3, Isa 43:11, Isa 46:13, Isa 60:...

TSK: Isa 45:16 - -- Isa 45:20, Isa 41:19, Isa 42:17, Isa 44:9, Isa 44:11; Psa 97:7; Jer 2:26, Jer 2:27, Jer 10:14, Jer 10:15

TSK: Isa 45:17 - Israel // an everlasting // ye shall not Israel : Isa 45:25, Isa 26:4; Hos 1:7; Rom 2:28, Rom 2:29, Rom 8:1, Rom 11:26; 1Co 1:30,1Co 1:31; 2Co 5:17-21; Phi 3:8, Phi 3:9; 1Jo 4:15 an everlasti...

TSK: Isa 45:18 - that created // he created // I am that created : Isa 42:5; Jer 10:12, Jer 51:15 he created : Isa 45:12; Gen 1:28, Gen 9:1; Psa 115:16; Eze 36:10-12 I am : Isa 45:5, Isa 45:6

TSK: Isa 45:19 - spoken // Seek // speak righteousness spoken : Isa 43:9, Isa 43:10, Isa 48:16; Deu 29:29, Deu 30:11-14; Pro 1:21, Pro 8:1-4; Joh 7:26, Joh 7:28; Joh 7:37-39, Joh 18:20; Act 2:4-8 Seek : Is...

TSK: Isa 45:20 - yourselves // escaped // they yourselves : Isa 41:5, Isa 41:6, Isa 41:21, Isa 43:9 escaped : Isa 4:2; Jer 25:15-29, Jer 50:28, Jer 51:6-9; Eph 2:12, Eph 2:16; Rev. 18:3-18 they : I...

TSK: Isa 45:21 - Tell ye // and bring // who hath declared // and there is // a just Tell ye : Psa 26:7, Psa 71:17, Psa 71:18, Psa 96:10; Jer 50:2; Joe 3:9-12 and bring : Isa 41:1-4 who hath declared : Isa 41:22, Isa 41:23, Isa 43:9, I...

TSK: Isa 45:22 - Look // for Look : Num 21:8, Num 21:9; 2Ch 20:12; Psa 22:17, Psa 65:5; Mic 7:7; Zec 12:10; Joh 3:13-16, Joh 6:40; Heb 12:2 for : Isa 45:21; Joh 10:28-30; Tit 2:13...

TSK: Isa 45:23 - sworn // the word // That unto // every tongue sworn : Gen 22:15-18; Jer 22:5, Jer 49:13; Amo 6:8; Heb 6:13-18 the word : Isa 45:19, Isa 55:11; Num 23:19 That unto : Rom 11:4, Rom 14:10-12; Phi 2:1...

TSK: Isa 45:24 - Surely // in the // righteousness // strength // even // and all Surely : etc. or, Surely he shall say of me, In the Lord is all righteousness and strength in the : Isa 45:25, Isa 54:17, Isa 61:10; Jer 23:5, Jer 23:...

Surely : etc. or, Surely he shall say of me, In the Lord is all righteousness and strength

in the : Isa 45:25, Isa 54:17, Isa 61:10; Jer 23:5, Jer 23:6; 1Co 1:30; 2Co 5:21; 2Pe 1:1 *marg.

righteousness : Heb. righteousnesses

strength : 2Co 12:9, 2Co 12:10; Eph 3:16; Phi 4:13; Col 1:11; 2Ti 4:17, 2Ti 4:18; Zec 10:6, Zec 10:12

even : Isa 55:5, Isa 60:9; Gen 49:10; Mat 11:27, Mat 11:28; Joh 7:37, Joh 12:32; Eph 6:10; Rev 22:17

and all : Isa 41:11; Psa 2:1-12, Psa 21:8, Psa 21:9, Psa 72:9, Psa 110:2; Luk 13:17, Luk 19:27; Rev 11:18

TSK: Isa 45:25 - the Lord // the seed // glory the Lord : Isa 45:17, Isa 45:24; Act 13:39; Rom 3:24, Rom 3:25, Rom 5:1, Rom 5:18, Rom 5:19, Rom 8:1, Rom 8:30,Rom 8:33, Rom 8:34; 1Co 6:11; 2Co 5:21 ...

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Poole: Isa 45:1 - His anointed // I have holden // Nations // I will loose the loins of kings // To open before him the two-leaved gates His anointed i.e. his king, whom God hath designed, and separated, and fitted, in all respects, for his work and service; in which and such-like res...

His anointed i.e. his king, whom God hath designed, and separated, and fitted, in all respects, for his work and service; in which and such-like respects divers persons are said to be anointed, who never had any material oil poured upon them, as the king of Tyrus, Eze 28:14 , and Christ, Isa 61:1 , and Zerubbabel, Zec 4:14 , and Christians, 2 Cop. 1:21 1Jo 2:27 . And they are thus called by way of allusion to the practice of the Jews, whose kings were frequently anointed, 1Sa 10:1 16:13 , &c.

I have holden or strengthened ; whom I will powerfully assist, teaching his hands to war, as the phrase is, Psa 18:34 , supporting and directing his right hand to strike home.

Nations the Babylonians, and those other nations which were confederate with them, and fought for them, as may be gathered from Jer 51:9 .

I will loose the loins of kings I will weaken them, for a man’ s strength consists much in his loins, and receiveth some advantage by the girding of his loins: or, I will take away their girdle, which was about their loins, to wit, their power and authority, whereof that was an ensign, of which see on Job 12:18 Isa 22:21 .

To open before him the two-leaved gates the great and magnificent gates of their cities and palaces, which shall be opened to him as conqueror.

Poole: Isa 45:2 - I will go before thee // I will break in pieces the gates of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron I will go before thee to remove all obstructions, and to prepare the way for thee, as it follows. I will break in pieces the gates of brass, and cut...

I will go before thee to remove all obstructions, and to prepare the way for thee, as it follows.

I will break in pieces the gates of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron I will destroy all them that oppose thee, and carry thee through the greatest difficulties.

Poole: Isa 45:3 - The treasures of darkness // That thou mayest know The treasures of darkness such as have been stored up and long kept in dark and secret places, as well in Babylon, Jer 50:37 51:13 , as in other coun...

The treasures of darkness such as have been stored up and long kept in dark and secret places, as well in Babylon, Jer 50:37 51:13 , as in other countries, which Cyrus conquered; and from which he took infinite treasures, as Pliny and others relate.

That thou mayest know by the accomplishment of these predictions.

Poole: Isa 45:4 - I have even called thee by thy name // I have surnamed thee, though thou hast not known me I have even called thee by thy name I have called thee to this honour, and that by name; not for thy sake, but for Israel’ s sake; therefore do ...

I have even called thee by thy name I have called thee to this honour, and that by name; not for thy sake, but for Israel’ s sake; therefore do not despise them, thou wilt find them a poor and enslaved people, neither be puffed up into a great opinion of thyself.

I have surnamed thee, though thou hast not known me I knew and called thee by thy name, when thou didst neither know nor think of me; nay, when thou hadst no being.

Poole: Isa 45:5 - I girded thee I girded thee I made thee strong and active, and fitted and disposed thee for these great and warlike enterprises. For these were the uses and signif...

I girded thee I made thee strong and active, and fitted and disposed thee for these great and warlike enterprises. For these were the uses and significations of girding in Scripture: see 1Ki 20:11 Psa 18:32 45:3 .

Poole: Isa 45:6 - That they may know That they may know that all nations may know it by my foretelling of these things so long beforehand, and by the wonderful success that I shall give ...

That they may know that all nations may know it by my foretelling of these things so long beforehand, and by the wonderful success that I shall give thee, and by my overruling thins heart, and counsels, and victories, to the deliverance of my people according to my promise.

Poole: Isa 45:7 - -- All men’ s comforts and calamities come from my hand.

All men’ s comforts and calamities come from my hand.

Poole: Isa 45:8 - Let the skies pour down righteousness // Let the earth open // Let them // bring forth salvation // Let righteousness spring up together // I the Lord have created it Let the skies pour down righteousness the righteous and gracious acts of God for his people shall be so many and illustrious, as if God rained down s...

Let the skies pour down righteousness the righteous and gracious acts of God for his people shall be so many and illustrious, as if God rained down showers of righteousness out of heaven.

Let the earth open open itself, either to receive those showers of righteousness to be poured down from heaven, or to bring forth those fruits which might be expected from such showers.

Let them the heavens and the earth conspiring together,

bring forth salvation the redemption of God’ s people.

Let righteousness spring up together together with salvation. Whereas persons or people are sometimes delivered from their troubles by unjust courses, this shall be effected with righteousness, both on God’ s part, who will hereby assert his own justice and faithfulness to his people; and on Cyrus’ s part, who will do a most righteous and worthy action in rescuing a righteous and oppressed nation from cruel tyrants and oppressors.

I the Lord have created it this great work of salvation, and righteousness; whereof, though Cyrus is the instrument, I am the chief author.

Poole: Isa 45:9 - Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker! // Thy work // He hath no hands Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker! This woe is denounced, either, 1. Against those Jews who, hearing this and many other prophecies and prom...

Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker! This woe is denounced, either,

1. Against those Jews who, hearing this and many other prophecies and promises of their deliverance out of captivity, and vet continuing in captivity, were ever prone to distrust God, and to murmur at him for punishing them so grievously, and for not making more speed to deliver them. Or,

2. Against the Babylonians, the great opposers of Cyrus, and of the deliverance of God’ s people, whom they were resolved to keep in bondage, in spite of God and men. And therefore as God here makes many glorious promises to Cyrus, in order to this work; so he pronounceth a curse upon them who should endeavour to hinder it, and admonisheth the Babylonians, that they did not only fight against Cyrus, a man like themselves, but against God, the Maker and Governor of the world. For what Nebuchadnezzar spoke with respect to those three Jews, Dan 3:15 , the Babylonians spoke in their hearts, in reference to the people of the Jews, Who is that God that shall deliver you out of my hands? Let the potsherd strive with the potsherds of the earth ; contend, if you please, with your fellow creatures, but not with your Creator.

Thy work: he turneth his speech to the potter, of whom he spake in the third person in the foregoing clause; such sudden changes of persons being usual in prophetical writings.

He hath no hands the potter that made me had no hands, i.e. no ability or skill to make good work.

Poole: Isa 45:10 - Father of all things As it were an absurd and impudent thing for a child to quarrel with his parents, either simply for begetting him, or for begetting him of this or th...

As it were an absurd and impudent thing for a child to quarrel with his parents, either simply for begetting him, or for begetting him of this or that sex, contrary to his desire; no better is it for any persons to quarrel with God the Maker and

Father of all things as God is called, 1Co 8:6 , for disposing of them and their affairs by his providence as he sees fit, and otherwise than they desire or expect; as. the Jews quarrelled with God for bringing them into captivity, and the Babylonians for translating the empire from them to the Persians.

Poole: Isa 45:11 - His Maker // Ask me of things to come concerning my sons, and concerning the work of my hands command ye me His Maker Israel’ s Maker, who not only created him, as I did all others, but made him a new creature, and a peculiar people to myself. Ask me ...

His Maker Israel’ s Maker, who not only created him, as I did all others, but made him a new creature, and a peculiar people to myself.

Ask me of things to come concerning my sons, and concerning the work of my hands command ye me: the words thus rendered contain a concession or permission; and the sense may be this, Although the potter doth not give an account to the clay, nor parents to their children; yet I will so far condescend to you, as to be at your command in this matter, to give you an account of these great actions of mine, for which you quarrel with me. As for the expression, command ye me , though it seem to be harsh, yet there are instances in Scripture of such wonderful condescensions, as when it is said, that the Lord will make his people in heaven to sit down to meat, and will come forth and serve them , Luk 12:37 . But the words seem to be better rendered interrogatively, as they are by some interpreter, Do you, or will you, ask me of things to come concerning my sons, and concerning the work of mine hands will ye command me ? Will you not allow me that liberty which yourselves take, of disposing of my own children and works as I see fit? Must I give you an account of. these matters? Will you set bounds to me by your commands, that I shall do this, and not that, according to your good pleasure? This is intolerable boldness in you; and yet I am able to give a good account of my actions. And the account is given in the following verse.

Poole: Isa 45:12 - I have made the earth, and created man upon it // All their host have I commanded I have made the earth, and created man upon it they are wholly and solely my creatures, and therefore absolutely at my disposal. All their host have...

I have made the earth, and created man upon it they are wholly and solely my creatures, and therefore absolutely at my disposal.

All their host have I commanded I have commanded them to be, or made them by my command, or the word of my power: compare Psa 148:5 .

Poole: Isa 45:13 - I have raised him // In righteousness // Direct all his ways // Not for price nor reward I have raised him Cyrus, who; was named before, Isa 45:1 . In righteousness not in a way of absolute sovereignty, as I might have done, but most ju...

I have raised him Cyrus, who; was named before, Isa 45:1 .

In righteousness not in a way of absolute sovereignty, as I might have done, but most justly, to punish the wicked Babylonians, to plead the cause of the innocent oppressed ones, to manifest my own righteousness, and truth, and goodness.

Direct all his ways guide and assist him in all his travels and marches, in all his attempts, and battles, and sieges, crowning him with success in all his undertakings.

Not for price nor reward freely, without requiring any ransom for or from them, as is usual in such cases. Such an exact prediction of these things, which depended wholly upon the mind and will of Cyrus, is mentioned here, as an infallible evidence of the certainty of God’ s foreknowledge, and of his being the only true God, because idols could discover no such things at such a distance of time.

Poole: Isa 45:14 - The labour of Egypt // Shall come over unto thee // In chains they shall come over // They shall make supplication, unto thee // Surely God is in thee // There is none else, there is no God The labour of Egypt the wealth gotten by their labour. Men of stature ; a tall and strong people, who yet shall use their strength not to oppose the...

The labour of Egypt the wealth gotten by their labour. Men of stature ; a tall and strong people, who yet shall use their strength not to oppose thee, but to serve thee, and to bring their labour to thee.

Shall come over unto thee either,

1. To thee, O Cyrus: because thou wast so generous as to dismiss my people freely, I will give thee another and a better recompence, even the labour of Egypt , &c. Or,

2. To thee, O my city, or my captivity or captive people. For it is not to be neglected, that there are no less than six pronouns in this verse, all which are of the feminine gender; which seems not to agree to Cyrus. It is true which is objected by the most learned author of this part of the English Annotations, that the Scripture oft speaks of states and kingdoms in the feminine gender; but when it speaks of any particular king or emperor, it constantly speaks of him in the masculine gender, as it doth of Cyrus in this very chapter, Isa 45:1 , and elsewhere. And thus the sense of the place seems to be this, Jerusalem shall not only be rebuilt, but the wealth and glory of other countries shall be brought to it again, as it was in former times; which although it was in part verified in Jerusalem, yet it was much more fully accomplished in the church of the gospel, which is oft expressed in Scripture under the name of Jerusalem; and in the accession of the Gentiles to that church, which began in Jerusalem, and from thence spread itself into all the parts of the world. And this sense seems best to agree with the latter part of this and with the following verse, as we shall see.

In chains they shall come over they shall be taken captive by thee, and willingly submit themselves to thee; which was accomplished in the conversion of the Gentiles, whose subjection to God’ s church is oft expressed in Scripture under such metaphors as this; as Psa 45:5 149:8 , &c.; Psa 68:18 , compared with Eph 4:8 .

They shall make supplication, unto thee to obtain thy favour and society.

Surely God is in thee or, with thee . We plainly discern that God is on thy side, or in the midst of thee; and therefore we desire to join ourselves with thee.

There is none else, there is no God we are now convinced that thou art the only true God, and that idols are vain and empty nothings; which was but very obscurely fulfilled in Cyrus’ s time, but was most evidently and eminently accomplished in the days of the Messiah, of whom Cyrus was a type; as also this deliverance of the Jews from Babylon by Cyrus was a type of the redemption of God’ s people by Christ.

Poole: Isa 45:15 - That hidest thyself These are the words of the prophet, drawn from him by the contemplation of the great and various works and dispensations of God towards his church, ...

These are the words of the prophet, drawn from him by the contemplation of the great and various works and dispensations of God towards his church, and in the world.

That hidest thyself to wit, from thy people for a season. Thy counsels are deep and incomprehensible, thy ways and carriages are past finding out, and full of beautiful variety. Sometimes thou hidest thy face, and withdrawest thy help from thy people, and sometimes thou dost show thyself to be their God and Saviour, as it follows. And therefore it is meet that we should patiently wait for the accomplishment of these glorious things here promised to us. And this admonition is most fitly inserted here, to prevent the mistakes of God’ s people, and to intimate that these promises were not to be speedily executed, but that they must expect and prepare for many and sharp afflictions before that time should come, which yet should end in their salvation.

Poole: Isa 45:16 - They // Makers They the idolatrous Gentiles, as it is explained in the end of the verse, opposed to Israel in the beginning of the next verse. Makers either the a...

They the idolatrous Gentiles, as it is explained in the end of the verse, opposed to Israel in the beginning of the next verse.

Makers either the artificers, or the chief masters that set them on work, and consequently all their worshippers; although the makers being most guilty, and the cause of the sins of others, might justly expect a higher degree of confusion.

Poole: Isa 45:17 - With an everlasting salvation With an everlasting salvation not for a short time, as it was in the days of the judges and of the kings, under whom their dangers and calamities did...

With an everlasting salvation not for a short time, as it was in the days of the judges and of the kings, under whom their dangers and calamities did frequently return upon them; but unto all ages, as it follows; whence it appears that he speaks not only nor chiefly of their deliverance out of Babylon, which was far from being complete or perpetual, as appears both from Scripture, as Ezr 9:8 , and elsewhere, and from other authors; but of their redemption by Christ, by which this was truly and fully verified unto a great number of Israelites after the flesh, and especially unto the mystical, God’ s church and people, who are frequently called in Scripture by that name; as the ordinances and privileges of the gospel are commonly described in the Old Testament by expressions borrowed from the Levitical dispensation. And that this is the meaning of the place is evident from Isa 45:22 , wherein all the ends of the earth are said to be sharers in this salvation.

Poole: Isa 45:18 - -- This description of God is here added, either, 1. To detect the vanity of idols, by asserting that none was to be owned as the true God besides tha...

This description of God is here added, either,

1. To detect the vanity of idols, by asserting that none was to be owned as the true God besides that one God who made the heavens and the earth, and the inhabitants thereof. Or,

2. To demonstrate God’ s sufficiency to fulfil all these glorious promises made to his church, because he made the world of nothing, and upholds it by the word of his power; and withal to discover God’ s goodness to mankind, inasmuch as he did not create the earth in vain, but for the use and comfort of men, that it might be a fit habitation for them; whence it was easy to infer that God would much more be gracious to his own people.

Poole: Isa 45:19 - I have not spoken in secret // Seek ye me in vain; serve and worship me for nought // I the Lord speak righteousness, I declare things that are right I have not spoken in secret in a dark place of the earth: the heathen idols deliver their oracles darkly and doubtfully, in obscure cells and caverns...

I have not spoken in secret in a dark place of the earth: the heathen idols deliver their oracles darkly and doubtfully, in obscure cells and caverns of the earth, or out of the bellies of their priests; but I have delivered my oracles to Israel publicly and plainly, as one that was neither afraid nor ashamed to utter my mind, lest I should be convinced of folly and falsehood; which was the case of idols.

Seek ye me in vain; serve and worship me for nought As I appointed them work, so I promised, and from time to time have given, and shall give, them abundant recompence for their service; whereas the Gentiles seek to their idols in vain, for they can do them no good, as is observed in the next verse.

I the Lord speak righteousness, I declare things that are right I require nothing of my people which is not highly just and good; whereas the idols commanded their worshippers to do many sinful and shameful things, even in their worship, as is notoriously known.

Poole: Isa 45:20 - Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together // Ye that are escaped of the nations // They have no knowledge // That set up Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together to debate the business with me concerning the divinity of your idols, and hear what I have said, and...

Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together to debate the business with me concerning the divinity of your idols, and hear what I have said, and am now about to say again, in that matter.

Ye that are escaped of the nations the remnant of the Gentiles, which shall survive those great and many destructions which I am bringing upon the heathen nations for their abominable idolatries and other wickedness. Let these dreadful judgments upon others, and God’ s singular mercy in sparing you, awaken you to a more impartial and serious consideration of this point, and cast off those idols, which have now discovered their own vanity and inability to help those who serve them and trust in them.

They have no knowledge they hereby discover their deep ignorance and stupidity.

That set up in a high place, where it may be seen and worshipped.

Poole: Isa 45:21 - Let them take counsel together // Who hath declared this? // A just God and a Saviour Let them take counsel together to maintain the cause of their idols. Who hath declared this? this great work of which I have spoken, concerning Bab...

Let them take counsel together to maintain the cause of their idols.

Who hath declared this? this great work of which I have spoken, concerning Babylon’ s destruction, and the redemption of God’ s people.

A just God and a Saviour whereas the gods of the heathens are neither just nor saviours to their people, but wicked, and the authors and abettors of all sorts of wickedness; and so far from being either able or willing to save their worshippers, that they are the chief occasion of their utter destruction.

Poole: Isa 45:22 - -- Upon these considerations, I advise all people upon earth, from one end to the other, to cast away their idols , and to turn their eyes and hearts ...

Upon these considerations, I advise all people upon earth, from one end to the other, to cast away their idols , and to turn their eyes and hearts to me, expecting salvation from me, and from me only; and their labour shall not be in vain; for they shall be saved: the imperative being put for the future, as Gen 42:18 , and oft elsewhere. And this is not only an exhortation to the Gentiles to turn from idols to God, but a prediction that they shall turn to him, and look upon Christ, who shall be the author of salvation to all that obey him, whether Jews or Gentiles, which is confirmed by the following verse.

Poole: Isa 45:23 - I have sworn by myself // The word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness // Shall not return // Unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear I have sworn by myself which is the highest and most solemn oath that is possible, Heb 6:13 , and therefore signifies that the matter here sworn is o...

I have sworn by myself which is the highest and most solemn oath that is possible, Heb 6:13 , and therefore signifies that the matter here sworn is of an extraordinary importance.

The word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness it is not a vain word rashly uttered, and afterwards never remembered nor observed, but what I sincerely speak, and will most faithfully and infallibly perform.

Shall not return to wit, unto me void , or without effect, as this phrase is more fully delivered, Isa 55:11 . It is a metaphor from ambassadors, who sometimes return to their princes without any success in their business.

Unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear not only the Jews, but a people of all nations, shall worship me, and submit to my laws; which is signified by an outward act, the bowing of the knee, Which is a posture of reverence and subjection; and by one eminent part of God’ s worship, which is swearing by his name.

Poole: Isa 45:24 - Shall one say // In the Lord // To him shall men come // And all that are incensed against him shall be ashamed // all that are Shall one say or, shall he say ; each or every one of those whom he now said that they should bow their knees to God, and swear by him, Isa 45:23 . ...

Shall one say or, shall he say ; each or every one of those whom he now said that they should bow their knees to God, and swear by him, Isa 45:23 . Or, it shall be said; such active verbs being oft used impersonally.

In the Lord by or from God alone, or the Messiah, who is the true Jehovah as well as man. Have I righteousness, to justify me from all things, from which I could not be justified by the law of Moses , as is said, Act 13:39 . This plainly points us to the Messiah, whose very name is, The Lord our Righteousness , Jer 23:6 , and whose great business it was to bring in everlasting righteousness , Dan 9:24 , and who is made unto us of God righteousness, 1Co 1:30 . Strength; support and assistance to bear all my burdens, and overcome all my enemies, and perform all my duties. The sense is, the Gentiles shall expect and obtain from Christ both justification, or forgiveness of sins by his blood, and sanctification by his Spirit.

To him shall men come the Gentiles shall come to God and Christ, either,

1. By constraint or necessity, to be judged by him at the last day; or,

2. Willingly, by prayer to seek, and by faith to receive, righteousness and strength from him; which seems better to agree with the foregoing clause, which speaks of true believers only. Coming to Christ is put for believing on him , Mat 11:28 Joh 5:40 6:35-37 , and elsewhere.

And all that are incensed against him shall be ashamed or, but (as this particle is oft rendered)

all that are & c. But all his implacable enemies shall be brought to shame and punishment.

Poole: Isa 45:25 - All the seed of Israel // Justified // Shall glory All the seed of Israel all Israelites indeed, whether Jews or Gentiles; all believers, who are frequently called God’ s Israel in Scripture, as ...

All the seed of Israel all Israelites indeed, whether Jews or Gentiles; all believers, who are frequently called God’ s Israel in Scripture, as Psa 24:6 Rom 9:6 11:26 Gal 6:16 .

Justified acquitted both from real guilt before God, and from all false aspersions before the world; for this justification of the true Israel is opposed to their enemies being ashamed , Isa 45:24 , which seems to design their public shame and confusion before God and men.

Shall glory shall not only receive him, but shall rejoicer and triumph in him as their God and portion.

PBC: Isa 45:2 - -- See Philpot: TREASURES OF DARKNESS

See Philpot: TREASURES OF DARKNESS

PBC: Isa 45:22 - -- See Philpot: THE LORD’S INVITATION TO THE ENDS OF THE EARTH

See Philpot: THE LORD’S INVITATION TO THE ENDS OF THE EARTH

Haydock: Isa 45:1 - Anointed // Cyrus Anointed, often implies one chosen for some great work. Cyrus was to ruin the empire of Babylon, and to set the nations at liberty. He was a proof ...

Anointed, often implies one chosen for some great work. Cyrus was to ruin the empire of Babylon, and to set the nations at liberty. He was a proof of the Deity by executing his decrees. ---

Cyrus. Some copies of the Septuagint seem to have read Greek: kurio, "to the Lord," incorrectly. (St. Jerome) ---

Though Cyrus was not anointed, he is styled thus, in allusion to the custom of the Jewish kings. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 45:2 - Brass Brass. Babylon had 100 such gates. (Herodotus i. 179.)

Brass. Babylon had 100 such gates. (Herodotus i. 179.)

Haydock: Isa 45:3 - Treasures Treasures. See Pliny, [Natural History?] xxxiii. 3. He overcame the rich king of Lydia, &c.

Treasures. See Pliny, [Natural History?] xxxiii. 3. He overcame the rich king of Lydia, &c.

Haydock: Isa 45:4 - Likeness // Known me Likeness of Christ. --- Known me. Before the Jews had shewn Cyrus the prophecies, he did not attribute his success to the Lord, and even afterward...

Likeness of Christ. ---

Known me. Before the Jews had shewn Cyrus the prophecies, he did not attribute his success to the Lord, and even afterwards he seems not to have left the superstitions of his country, as his sacrifices to idols are described. He resembled Nabuchodonosor and the philosophers, who did not glorify God according to their knowledge, Daniel ii. 47., and Romans i. 21. Cyrus even revoked the decree for building the temple, 1 Esdras iv. 5. (Calmet) ---

He believed there was one God; (1 Esdras i.) yet he did not embrace the truth entirely. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 45:7 - Create evil Create evil, &c. The evils of afflictions and punishments, but not the evil of sin. (Challoner) --- I afflict and comfort my people.

Create evil, &c. The evils of afflictions and punishments, but not the evil of sin. (Challoner) ---

I afflict and comfort my people.

Haydock: Isa 45:8 - Saviour // Him Saviour. Thus the ancient saints thirsted for the coming of Christ. His figure is styled the just, chap. xli. 2, 25. --- Him. Christ, born of th...

Saviour. Thus the ancient saints thirsted for the coming of Christ. His figure is styled the just, chap. xli. 2, 25. ---

Him. Christ, born of the virgin, in time, and of God from all eternity. I have appointed Cyrus to be his precursor, to set the captives free. (Calmet) ---

He has been spoken of before. But now the prophet turns to Christ alone, who built his Church on a rock. (Worthington) ---

Cyrus had not a right faith in God, and Zorobabel was himself set free, and was not king. (St. Jerome)

Haydock: Isa 45:9 - Earthen Earthen. Literally, "Samian." (Haydock) --- Samos was famous for its pottery. (Pliny, [Natural History?] xxxv. 12.) Hebrew, "Clay, disputest th...

Earthen. Literally, "Samian." (Haydock) ---

Samos was famous for its pottery. (Pliny, [Natural History?] xxxv. 12.) Hebrew, "Clay, disputest thou against the potters of the earth?" He shews the folly of idols, after having proved his own divinity. (Calmet) ---

Protestants, "Let the potsherds strive with the potsherds of the earth." (Haydock)

Haydock: Isa 45:10 - Forth Forth. As such language would be improper to parents, so it is wrong to complain that God places us in any situation. (Menochius)

Forth. As such language would be improper to parents, so it is wrong to complain that God places us in any situation. (Menochius)

Haydock: Isa 45:11 - To me To me. Ask what will come to pass, or direct me how to act.

To me. Ask what will come to pass, or direct me how to act.

Haydock: Isa 45:13 - Justice Justice. Cyrus shall punish the Chaldeans and restore the Jews. (Calmet) --- The prophet returns to him after having mentioned a greater Saviour, ...

Justice. Cyrus shall punish the Chaldeans and restore the Jews. (Calmet) ---

The prophet returns to him after having mentioned a greater Saviour, ver. 8. (Houbigant)

Haydock: Isa 45:14 - Stature // Besides thee Stature: the people of Saba were the tallest and best proportioned in Arabia. (Agathar. v. 50.) --- Cyrus possessed all these countries. He sent t...

Stature: the people of Saba were the tallest and best proportioned in Arabia. (Agathar. v. 50.) ---

Cyrus possessed all these countries. He sent the Egyptians home in the third year of his reign, at Babylon, the year of the world 3470, Ezechiel xxix. 11. They never became subject to the Jews; but embraced the religion of Christ, acknowledging him for God, ver. 15. (Calmet) ---

Besides thee. Protestants, "Surely God is in thee, and there is none else, there is no God." Those whom we have hitherto adored, deserved not the name. Vulgate and Septuagint make the people address Christ, the God-man. (Haydock)

Haydock: Isa 45:15 - Saviour Saviour. We confess that thou hast delivered the Jews; or rather, we acknowledge that thou, O Christ, art true God under the veils of thy human natu...

Saviour. We confess that thou hast delivered the Jews; or rather, we acknowledge that thou, O Christ, art true God under the veils of thy human nature, and Saviour of all. Cyrus was only a feeble representation of thee.

Haydock: Isa 45:16 - Confusion Confusion. Idolaters shall be confounded, when they shall behold the glory of the elect.

Confusion. Idolaters shall be confounded, when they shall behold the glory of the elect.

Haydock: Isa 45:18 - In vain In vain. Hebrew, "to be a chaos," Genesis viii. 2.

In vain. Hebrew, "to be a chaos," Genesis viii. 2.

Haydock: Isa 45:19 - Earth // In vain Earth. The pagan oracles were given chiefly in mountains, where the impostures of the priests might escape detection. They were also generally ambi...

Earth. The pagan oracles were given chiefly in mountains, where the impostures of the priests might escape detection. They were also generally ambiguous, or mere guesses. The declarations of the true prophets were quite the reverse. ---

In vain; without reward. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 45:20 - Gentiles Gentiles: converts, (Haydock) or Jews, returning from Babylon.

Gentiles: converts, (Haydock) or Jews, returning from Babylon.

Haydock: Isa 45:21 - Me Me. He transports his auditors to the times succeeding the captivity, when the completion of the prophecies will be evident.

Me. He transports his auditors to the times succeeding the captivity, when the completion of the prophecies will be evident.

Haydock: Isa 45:23-24 - Myself // Justice // To me // Swear Myself, having none greater, Hebrews vi. 13. --- Justice: sure. --- To me. All that are born belong to me. The Jewish women had seldom recourse...

Myself, having none greater, Hebrews vi. 13. ---

Justice: sure. ---

To me. All that are born belong to me. The Jewish women had seldom recourse to midwives, (Exodus i. 19., and 1 Kings iv. 19.; Calmet) no more than the Ethiopians. (Ludolf. i. 14.) ---

Swear, by the true God. (Haydock) ---

Oaths on proper occasions, honour him, Deuteronomy vi. 13. Nothing could be spoken more plainly of the Gentiles' conversion.

Haydock: Isa 45:25 - Empire Empire. Cyrus shall make this confession, (1 Esdras i. 2.) and all who embrace the religion of Christ, shall attribute all their virtue to him.

Empire. Cyrus shall make this confession, (1 Esdras i. 2.) and all who embrace the religion of Christ, shall attribute all their virtue to him.

Gill: Isa 45:1 - Thus saith the Lord to his anointed, to Cyrus // whose right hand I have holden // to subdue nations before him // I will loose the loins of kings Thus saith the Lord to his anointed, to Cyrus,.... Cyrus is called the Lord's anointed, not because he was anointed with material oil, as the kings of...

Thus saith the Lord to his anointed, to Cyrus,.... Cyrus is called the Lord's anointed, not because he was anointed with material oil, as the kings of Israel and Judah were; but because he was appointed by the Lord to be a king, and was qualified by him for that office; and was raised up by him to be an instrument of doing great things in the world, and particularly of delivering the Jews from their captivity, and restoring them to their own land:

whose right hand I have holden; whom he raised up, supported, strengthened, guided, and directed to do what he did:

to subdue nations before him; which was accordingly done. Xenophon y relates, that he subdued the Syrians, Assyrians, Arabians, Cappadocians, both the countries of Phrygia, the Lydians, Carians, Phoenicians, and Babylonians; also the Bactrians, Indians, Cilicians, the Sacae, Paphlagonians, and Megadinians; likewise the Greeks that inhabit Asia, Cyprians and Egyptians. Herodotus z says, that he ruled over all Asia: all which the Lord subdued under him; for it was he that did it rather than Cyrus; it was he that clothed him with strength and courage, gave him skill in military affairs, and success and victory:

I will loose the loins of kings; as Croesus king of Lydia, and Belshazzar king of Babylon, by divesting them of their dignity, power, and government; and particularly this was true of the latter, when, by the handwriting on the wall, he was thrown into a panic; "and the joints of his loins were loosed", Dan 5:6, "to open before him the two leaved gates; and the gates shall not be shut"; the gates of cities and palaces wherever he came, which were opened to receive him as their conqueror and sovereign; this was very remarkably true of the gates of the palace of the king of Babylon, when the army of Cyrus by a stratagem had got into the city, and were come up to the king's palace, they found the gates shut; but a clamour and noise being made, the king ordered to see what was the matter; the gates being opened for that purpose, the soldiers of Cyrus rushed in to the king, and slew him a; but, what is more remarkable, the gates of brass, which shut up the descents from the keys to the river, were left open that night Babylon was taken, while the inhabitants were feasting and revelling; which, had they been shut b, would have defeated the enterprise of Cyrus; but God in his providence ordered it to be so.

Gill: Isa 45:2 - I will go before thee, and make the crooked places straight // I will break in pieces the gates of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron I will go before thee, and make the crooked places straight,.... Or, "level the hilly places" c; as pioneers do. The sense is, that he would remove al...

I will go before thee, and make the crooked places straight,.... Or, "level the hilly places" c; as pioneers do. The sense is, that he would remove all impediments and obstructions out of his way, and cause him to surmount all difficulties:

I will break in pieces the gates of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron; with which the brasen gates were barred: in the wall that surrounded Babylon there were a hundred gates, all made of solid brass, twenty five on each side of the square; which, no doubt, are here referred to; which could not hinder the entrance of Cyrus into the city, and the taking of it; though they were not then destroyed by him, but by Darius afterwards d these gates of brass are mentioned by Abydenus e, as made by Nebuchadnezzar, and as continuing till the empire of the Macedonians.

Gill: Isa 45:3 - And I will give thee treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places // that thou mayest know that I the Lord, which call thee by thy name, am the God of Israel And I will give thee treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places,.... What had been laid up in private places, and had not seen the ligh...

And I will give thee treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places,.... What had been laid up in private places, and had not seen the light for many years. The Jewish Rabbins say f, that Nebuchadnezzar having amassed together all the riches of the world, when he drew near his end, considered with himself to whom he should leave it; and being unwilling to leave it to Evilmerodach, he ordered ships of brass to be built, and filled them with it, and dug a place in Euphrates, and hid them in it, and turned the river upon them; and that day that Cyrus ordered the temple to be built, the Lord revealed them to him: the riches of Croesus king of Lydia, taken by Cyrus, are meant; especially what he found in Babylon, which abounded in riches, Jer 51:13. Pliny g says, when he conquered Asia, he brought away thirty four thousand pounds of gold, besides golden vessels, and five hundred thousand talents of silver, and the cup of Semiramis, which weighed fifteen talents. Xenophon h makes mention of great riches and treasures which Cyrus received from Armenius, Gobryas, and Croesus:

that thou mayest know that I the Lord, which call thee by thy name, am the God of Israel; to call him by name two hundred years, or near it, before he was born, was a proof that he was God omniscient, and knew things before they were, and could call things that were not, as though they were; and this Cyrus was made acquainted with; for, as Josephus i says, he read this prophecy in Isaiah concerning him; and all this being exactly fulfilled in him, obliged him to acknowledge him the Lord, to be the Lord God of heaven, and the Lord God of Israel, Ezr 1:2.

Gill: Isa 45:4 - For Jacob my servant's sake, and Israel mine elect, I have even called thee by thy name // I have surnamed thee // though thou hast not known me For Jacob my servant's sake, and Israel mine elect, I have even called thee by thy name,.... Not so much for the sake of Cyrus, and to do honour to hi...

For Jacob my servant's sake, and Israel mine elect, I have even called thee by thy name,.... Not so much for the sake of Cyrus, and to do honour to him, was it that he so long before he was born called him by his name; but to assure the people of the Jews, the Lord's chosen people, and who were his servants, of the certainty of their deliverance, their deliverer being mentioned by name; and it was for their sakes, and not his, that he called him, and raised him up to do such great things as he did, that he might deliver them from their captivity: and it is for the sake of God's elect, whom he has chosen to holiness and happiness, to serve him, and be with him for ever, that he has called Christ, of whom Cyrus was a type, and sent him into the world, to be the Saviour and Redeemer of them:

I have surnamed thee; not only called him by his name, Cyrus, but surnamed him his "shepherd", and "his anointed", Isa 44:28,

though thou hast not known me; as yet not being born; and when he was, and was grown up, he was ignorant of the true God; and though, upon sight of the above prophecy, and under an immediate influence and impression, he acknowledged the God of Israel to be the God of heaven yet it does not appear that he left the Pagan idolatry; for Xenophon k relates, that when he found his end was near, he took sacrifices, and offered them to Jupiter, and the sun, and the rest of the gods; and gave them thanks for the care they had taken of him; and prayed them to grant happiness to his wife, children, friends, and country.

Gill: Isa 45:5 - I am the Lord, and there is none else // there is no God besides me // I girded thee, though thou hast not known me I am the Lord, and there is none else,.... Whom thou, O Cyrus, for the words are directed to him, ought to own, serve, and worship: there is no God...

I am the Lord, and there is none else,.... Whom thou, O Cyrus, for the words are directed to him, ought to own, serve, and worship:

there is no God besides me; in heaven or earth, in any of the countries conquered by thee, and thou rulest over; for though there were gods and lords many, so called, these were only nominal fictitious deities; not gods by nature, as he was; of which the following, as well as what is before said, is a proof:

I girded thee, though thou hast not known me; the Lord girded him with a royal girdle, a symbol of kingly power; he made him king over many nations; he girded him with strength, courage, and valour for war; and made him so expeditious, successful, and victorious, as he was, though a Heathen prince, and ignorant of him, in order to answer some valuable ends of his own glory, and the good of his people, and particularly for what follows.

Gill: Isa 45:6 - That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west // that there is none besides me: I am the Lord, and there is none else That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west,.... That all the inhabitants of the world, from east to west, which takes in the hab...

That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west,.... That all the inhabitants of the world, from east to west, which takes in the habitable part of the world, that from north to south not being entirely so; that all within this compass, by hearing what great things God did by Cyrus, and for his people, might know, own, and acknowledge,

that there is none besides me: I am the Lord, and there is none else; or, "besides me there is nothing" l; all creatures are nonentities in comparison of God; and he fills up all places, and everything lives, and moves, and has its being in him; and there is no God, the Lord, the eternal Jehovah, but the one true God, Father, Son, and Spirit.

Gill: Isa 45:7 - I form the light, and create darkness // I make peace, and create evil // I the Lord do all these things I form the light, and create darkness,.... Natural light, or that light which was produced at the first creation, and of which the sun is the fountain...

I form the light, and create darkness,.... Natural light, or that light which was produced at the first creation, and of which the sun is the fountain and source; or day which is light, and night which is darkness, the constant revolutions of which were formed, appointed, and are continued by the Lord, Gen 1:3, moral light, or the light of nature, the rational understanding in man; spiritual light, or the light of grace, by which things spiritual and supernatural are known; the light of joy and comfort from Christ, the sun of righteousness; and the light of eternal glory and happiness: this is all from God, of his producing and giving; and so darkness is his creature; that natural darkness which was upon the face of the earth at the beginning; what arises from the absence of the sun, or is occasioned by the eclipses of it, or very black clouds; or any extraordinary darkness, such as was in Egypt; or deprivation of sight, blindness in men; and, in a figurative sense, ignorance and darkness that follow upon sin; judicial blindness, God gives men up and leaves them to; temporal afflictions and distresses, and everlasting punishment, which is blackness of darkness:

I make peace, and create evil; peace between God and men is made by Christ, who is God over all; spiritual peace of conscience comes from God, through Christ, by the Spirit; eternal glory and happiness is of God, which saints enter into at death; peace among the saints themselves here, and with the men of the world; peace in churches, and in the world, God is the author of, even of all prosperity of every kind, which this word includes: "evil" is also from him; not the evil of sin; this is not to be found among the creatures God made; this is of men, though suffered by the Lord, and overruled by him for good: but the evil of punishment for sin, God's sore judgments, famine, pestilence, evil beasts, and the sword, or war, which latter may more especially be intended, as it is opposed to peace; this usually is the effect of sin; may be sometimes lawfully engaged in; whether on a good or bad foundation is permitted by God; moreover, all afflictions, adversities, and calamities, come under this name, and are of God; see Job 2:10,

I the Lord do all these things; and therefore must be the true God, and the one and only one. Kimchi, from Saadiah Gaon, observes, that this is said against those that assert two gods, the one good, and the other evil; whereas the Lord is the Maker of good and evil, and therefore must be above all; and it is worthy of observation, that the Persian Magi, before Zoroastres m, held two first causes, the one light, or the good god, the author of all good; and the other darkness, or the evil god, the author of all evil; the one they called Oromazes, the other Arimanius; and, as Dr. Prideaux n observes,

"these words are directed to Cyrus king of Persia, and must be understood as spoken in reference to the Persian sect of the Magians; who then held light and darkness, or good and evil, to be the supreme Beings, without acknowledging the great God as superior to both;''

and which these words show; for Zoroastres, who reformed them in this first principle of their religion, was after Isaiah's time.

Gill: Isa 45:8 - Drop down, ye heavens, from above, and let the skies pour down righteousness // let the earth open, and let them bring forth salvation // I the Lord have created it Drop down, ye heavens, from above, and let the skies pour down righteousness,.... Or, "the righteous One", as the Vulgate Latin version; the Lord our ...

Drop down, ye heavens, from above, and let the skies pour down righteousness,.... Or, "the righteous One", as the Vulgate Latin version; the Lord our righteousness, Christ the author of righteousness, who was to bring in an everlasting one; and whose coming was to be, and was, as the rain, as the former and latter rain to the earth, Hos 6:3, and who came from heaven to earth to fulfil all righteousness; and with him came an abundance of blessings of rich grace, even all spiritual blessings, peace, pardon, righteousness, salvation, and eternal life, which were poured down from above upon the sons of men; thus the Holy Ghost, the spirit of prophecy, proceeds at once from Cyrus to Christ, from the type to the antitype, from the temporal redemption of the Jews to the spiritual redemption of the Lord's people; and these words are to be considered, not as a petition of the prophet, or of the church, for the coming of Christ, and salvation by him; but a promise and prophecy of it. Aben Ezra and Kimchi take them to be an address to the angels of heaven to assist in the affair of the salvation of Israel; these did drop down or descend, even a great multitude of them, at the incarnation of Christ, and published the good tidings of good things that came by him:

let the earth open, and let them bring forth salvation; or the "Saviour", as the Vulgate Latin version; Christ the author of salvation, who was appointed to be the salvation or Saviour of his people, who came to effect it, and has obtained it; heaven and earth were both concerned in bringing forth this "fruit" of righteousness and salvation, as the word o rendered "bring forth" signifies; see Isa 4:2. Christ was the Lord from heaven, and yet made of a woman in the lowest parts of the earth: Christ, who is the "truth", sprung "out of the earth"; and he, who is the author of "righteousness", looked down from heaven, Psa 85:11 and it follows: "let righteousness spring up together"; or "bud forth" p as a branch; one of the names of the Messiah, frequent in prophecy:

I the Lord have created it; or that, both righteousness and salvation; or Christ as man, the author of both, whom God appointed, and raised up, and sent to be the Redeemer and Saviour of his people. The Targum interprets this of the resurrection of the dead, paraphrasing the whole thus;

"let the heavens from above minister, and the clouds flow with good; let the earth open, and the dead revive; and let righteousness be revealed together; I the Lord have created them.''

Gill: Isa 45:9 - Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker // let the potsherd strive with the potsherds of the earth // shall the clay say to him that fashioneth it, what makest thou // thy work, he hath no hands Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker,.... That contends with him, enters into a controversy, and disputes with him, or litigates a point with him...

Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker,.... That contends with him, enters into a controversy, and disputes with him, or litigates a point with him; quarrels with his purposes and decrees; murmurs and repines at his providences, and finds fault with his dispensations: this seems to have respect to the murmurs, quarrels, and contests of the Jews about Christ, the author of righteousness and salvation, when he should appear:

let the potsherd strive with the potsherds of the earth; let men strive with men, who are as earthen vessels made of the same mass and lump, and so are upon an equal foot, and a match for each other; but let them not have the insolence and vanity to strive with their Maker, who, as he has made them, can dash them in pieces as a potter's vessel:

shall the clay say to him that fashioneth it, what makest thou? yet this might be said with as much propriety and justice as that the Jews should quarrel with God for not sending the Messiah as a temporal prince to rescue them from the Roman yoke; but in a mean and humble manner, in the form of a servant, as a man of sorrows, and acquainted with griefs; and, at last, became obedient to the death of the cross, the way in which he was to be the Saviour of men: or

thy work, he hath no hands? or thus, or "thy work say unto thee, he, the potter, hath no hands"; no power nor skill to make me; I can make myself: as weakly, as wickedly, and as foolishly did the Jews, seeing no need of the Saviour sent them, nor of his righteousness and salvation, argue for justification by their own works, and in favour of their self-sufficiency to work out their own salvation. The Targum takes the words to be spoken to idolaters, and paraphrases the former part thus;

"woe to him who thinks to contend in judgment against the words of his Creator, and trusts that earthen images shall profit him, which are made out of the dust of the earth, &c.''

and there are many interpreters who think they are spoken against the idolatrous Babylonians, particularly against Belshazzar, as Kimchi; and others, against Astyages, a king of Persia, who was angry with the father and mother of Cyrus, and sought to have slain him as soon as born q.

Gill: Isa 45:10 - Woe unto him that saith unto his father, what begettest thou // or to the woman // what hast thou brought forth Woe unto him that saith unto his father, what begettest thou?.... That quarrels with him, and complains of him, because he was not of the other sex, o...

Woe unto him that saith unto his father, what begettest thou?.... That quarrels with him, and complains of him, because he was not of the other sex, or not so wise, or so rich, or so handsome, as others:

or to the woman; disdaining to call her mother:

what hast thou brought forth? equally as absurd and impious it was in the Jews to quarrel with Christ for his conversation with sinners, and the reception of them; or for the regeneration of such persons; or to find fault with God for the conversion of the Gentiles, and resent it, and be angry at it, as they were; see Rom 10:19.

Gill: Isa 45:11 - Thus saith the Lord, the Holy One of Israel, and his Maker // ask me of things to come concerning my sons, and concerning the work of my hands command ye me Thus saith the Lord, the Holy One of Israel, and his Maker,.... He whose name alone is Jehovah, who is glorious in holiness, the Sanctifier of his peo...

Thus saith the Lord, the Holy One of Israel, and his Maker,.... He whose name alone is Jehovah, who is glorious in holiness, the Sanctifier of his people, and the Maker of them, both as creatures, and new creatures:

ask me of things to come concerning my sons, and concerning the work of my hands command ye me; these words are not spoken to idolaters, or the idolatrous Jews, or those of them that were inclined to idolatry; directing them to ask of the Lord, and not of their idols, things to come, which they were not able to show, and to seek to him for, and insist upon the performance of his promises to them, his children, and creatures; but to the spiritual Israel of God, as the preface shows, directing them to inquire after things future, concerning his children and people, especially among the Gentiles, whom the carnal Jews despised; and to expect, and believe, and even as it were demand the performance of them, being promised and prophesied of: there are some who are the "sons" of God, not by creation only, or by natural birth, or by desert, or merely by profession, but by adopting grace; which is a very great and excellent privilege, preferable to civil or national adoption, or to the highest rank of sonship among men; a blessing which continues forever, and entitles to eternal life: and these become the work of the Lord's hands in regeneration; they are made new creatures; they are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus; whatever is wrought in them is of his operation, faith, hope, love, and every grace, which make up that good work which shall be performed until the day of Christ: first, men are the sons of God by adoption, and then they are his workmanship in regeneration; and the latter because of the former, and of which the latter is an evidence: now there were and are "things to come", concerning these persons; there were some things to come, and which were to come to pass, and did, in the first times of the Gospel, as the incarnation of Christ, and redemption by him; his sufferings and death, and the glory that should follow; the effusion of Spirit, and the conversion of the Gentiles; all which were for the sake of these "sons" of God, and respected them: and there are other things yet to come concerning them, and will be accomplished in the latter day; some things sad and sorrowful, as the giving the outward court to the Gentiles, the Protestant churches to the Papists, and the slaying of the witnesses; and others desirable and joyful, as the numerous conversions of the Jews and Gentiles; their extensive knowledge of spiritual things, and their abundant peace and prosperity; the increase of brotherly love, their purity, spirituality, holiness, and righteousness; their power, authority, and dominion, both in the spiritual and personal reign of Christ, and their ultimate glory. And now the Lord allows his people, and encourages them to "ask" of him these things; to inquire of him by prayer, and by searching the Scriptures, what these things are that are to come; what of them have been accomplished, and what of them remain to be accomplished, "and how long it will be to the end of these wonders", Dan 12:6, and so Jarchi interprets the word, rendered "things to come in the text", signs and wonders: and they may and should pray for the accomplishment of them; yea, insist upon and demand them. The Lord not only allows his people to put him in remembrance of his promises and prophecies, but to plead for, and, as it were, require the performance of them; and so the words are an encouragement to the importunate prayer of faith. Faith in prayer has great power with God, a kind of command over him; it holds him to his word; it will not let him go without the blessing; nor let him alone till he has made good his promise; nor give him any rest, day nor night, till he has fulfilled the things to come concerning his sons. Some r read the words by way of interrogation, "do ye ask or question me concerning things to come?" what I intend to do hereafter? am I obliged to give you an account of my secret purposes and designs? or make you acquainted with future events? "do ye, or should ye, command me concerning, my sons and the works of my hands?" will you prescribe to me what I shall do in my family? am I a father, and must I be directed what to do with my sons? am I the Maker of all men, and must I be told what to do with the work of my hands? what arrogance and insolence is this! but the former reading and sense are best.

Gill: Isa 45:12 - I have made the earth // and created man upon it // I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens // and all their host have I commanded I have made the earth,.... The Targum adds, "by my Word"; the essential Word, the Lord Jesus Christ; see Heb 11:3, this, with what follows, is said to...

I have made the earth,.... The Targum adds, "by my Word"; the essential Word, the Lord Jesus Christ; see Heb 11:3, this, with what follows, is said to show that the Lord was able to bring to pass things to come, concerning his children, and the works of his hands, which he allowed his people to inquire of him concerning, and to insist upon the performance of them; since he was the Creator of all things, and had made the earth out of nothing, in the beginning of time, by the word of his power:

and created man upon it; the last and chief of the creation, for the sake of whom the earth was made; and man was made to dwell upon it, manure, and cultivate it:

I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens; as a canopy over the earth, as a curtain and tent to dwell in; a phrase often used to express the greatness and majesty of God; see Isa 40:22,

and all their host have I commanded; into being, and to perform their offices regularly and constantly, the sun, moon, and stars, as well as the heavenly host of angels; see Psa 33:9, what is it that such a God cannot do? he is able to do more than his people can ask of him, or think to receive from him, Eph 3:20.

Gill: Isa 45:13 - I have raised him up in righteousness // I have raised him up a King with righteousness // and I will direct all his ways // he shall build my city // and he shall let go my captives, not for price, nor reward, saith the Lord of hosts I have raised him up in righteousness,.... Though this may be said with some respect to Cyrus, yet chiefly to Christ, of whom Cyrus was a type; him th...

I have raised him up in righteousness,.... Though this may be said with some respect to Cyrus, yet chiefly to Christ, of whom Cyrus was a type; him the Lord appointed and determined to be the Saviour and Redeemer of his people; him he sent forth in time for that purpose, in righteousness or faithfulness to concerning him: or, "unto righteousness" s, as the Vulgate Latin version; to bring in an everlasting righteousness for the justification of his people: or, "with righteousness", as the Septuagint version is t:

I have raised him up a King with righteousness; a righteous King, a King that reigns in righteousness, as Christ does, and better agrees with him than Cyrus; see Jer 23:5,

and I will direct all his ways; or "make them plain" u; remove all difficulties and obstructions out of his way; he shall succeed and prosper, as the "pleasure of the Lord did prosper" in the hands of Christ; God being at his right hand as man and Mediator, to direct, counsel, and assist him, and to make him successful:

he shall build my city; not Cyrus, for he did not build the city of Jerusalem, whatever orders he might give for it, Isa 44:28 though his proclamation only mentions the temple, Ezr 1:2, but Christ, the builder of the church, often compared to a city, and called the city of God, of which the saints are fellow citizens; and which is built by Christ, upon himself the Rock, against which the gates of hell cannot prevail, Mat 16:18,

and he shall let go my captives, not for price, nor reward, saith the Lord of hosts; the Lord's people are captives to sin, Satan, and the law; Christ has not only redeemed these captives, but has proclaimed liberty to them, and delivered them from their bondage by his Spirit and grace; and all this freely, not through any merits of theirs, but of his own rich grace and mercy; and though they are redeemed with a price; yet not with corruptible things, as silver and gold, but with the precious blood of Christ; and whatever their redemption and freedom cost him, it costs them nothing, it is to them without money and without price, Isa 52:3.

Gill: Isa 45:14 - Thus saith the Lord // the labour of Egypt, and merchandise of Ethiopia, and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee // they shall come after thee // in chains they shall come over // and they shall fall down unto thee, they shall make supplication unto thee // saying, surely God is in thee, and there is none else, there is no god // they shall come over to thee // they shall be thine // they shall bow down to thee, and make supplication to thee // surely God is in thee Thus saith the Lord,.... The following words are said not to Cyrus, nor to Christ, but to the church, as the feminine pronouns show; and Kimchi observ...

Thus saith the Lord,.... The following words are said not to Cyrus, nor to Christ, but to the church, as the feminine pronouns show; and Kimchi observes, they are directed to Jerusalem:

the labour of Egypt, and merchandise of Ethiopia, and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee; a prophecy of the conversion of many in these nations, who should join themselves to the churches of Christ, formed among them, and make use of their riches, got by merchandise, labour, and industry, for the support of the interest of religion; and had its accomplishment in part, in the first times of the Gospel, which was brought into Egypt, as it is said, by the Evangelist Mark; and by which, no doubt, many were converted and formed into a church state, and others joined them. The Ethiopian eunuch, baptized by Philip, carried it into his country, where it also met with success, was embraced and professed; as it will be more so in the latter day, when the kings of Seba and Sheba shall offer gifts to Christ, and bring their riches into the church, the same with the Sabeans here; see Psa 72:10, who are said to be "men of stature"; that is, of a large and tall stature, as the men of Seba are said to be by other w authors; or, "men of measure" x. The Targum renders it, "men of merchandise"; who used measures in trade and business: "and they shall be thine": give up themselves to the church, become members of it, and submit to its rule and discipline:

they shall come after thee; follow the church and its pastors, as they have them, for examples. The Targum is,

"they shall walk after thy word;''

be directed, guided, and governed by the church:

in chains they shall come over; being subdued and conquered by the grace of God, shall come in the chains of efficacious grace, drawn with the cords of love, and bands of a man; and yet shall come willingly, being made willing in the day of the power of divine grace upon their souls:

and they shall fall down unto thee, they shall make supplication unto thee; this is not to be understood of religious worship and invocation, such as is made to God, who only is the object of adoration and prayer in that sense; but is only expressive of their profound veneration and respect for the church of God, beseeching that it would receive them into, though unworthy of, its communion; see Isa 49:23,

saying, surely God is in thee, and there is none else, there is no god; induced thus to come to the church, and show all this respect unto her, from this consideration, that God is in the midst of her, of a truth, her name being "Jehovah Shammah", the Lord is there; here he grants his presence, here his word is preached, and ordinances administered; and hither converts flock, in hope of enjoying the same blessing also, being fully satisfied there is no other God but in Zion, Zec 8:23, Eze 48:35. This passage of Scripture is thus explained in the Jewish Chronicles y: "the labour of Egypt", that is, Pharaoh king of Egypt: "and the merchandise of Ethiopia", that is, Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia: "and the Sabeans, men of stature", these are their armies:

they shall come over to thee, this is Jerusalem:

they shall be thine, peace being now made with thee:

they shall come after thee, that is, Hezekiah:

in chains they shall come over, in chains and bracelets:

they shall bow down to thee, and make supplication to thee, they shall give praise to God in the midst of thee, and say,

surely God is in thee.

Gill: Isa 45:15 - Verily thou art a God that hideth thyself // O God of Israel, the Saviour Verily thou art a God that hideth thyself,.... Who hid himself from the Gentile world for some hundreds of years, who had no knowledge of the true God...

Verily thou art a God that hideth thyself,.... Who hid himself from the Gentile world for some hundreds of years, who had no knowledge of the true God, lived without him in the world, and whose times of ignorance God overlooked, and suffered them to walk in their own ways; though now he would make himself known by his Gospel sent among them, and blessed for the conversion of them. He is also a God that hides himself from his own people at times, withdraws his gracious presence, and withholds the communication of his love and grace. These seem to be the words of the prophet, speaking his own experience, and that of other saints: or rather of the church, upon the access of the Gentiles to her, declaring what the Lord had been to them in former times; but now had showed himself to them in a way of grace and mercy. Some render it "thou art the hidden God" z; invisible in his nature; incomprehensible in his essence; not to be found out to perfection, nor to be traced in his providential dispensations; his judgments are unsearchable, and his ways past finding out. It may be applied to Christ in his state of humiliation; for though he was God manifest in the flesh, yet the glory of his deity was seen but by a few, being hid in the coarse veil of humanity; he appearing in the form of a servant, who was in the form of God, and equal to him; and to him the following words agree:

O God of Israel, the Saviour; for he is God over all, and the God of his spiritual Israel in an especial manner; and the Saviour of them from sin, wrath, condemnation, and death, by his obedience, sufferings, and death; or if it is to be understood of God the Father, who is the God of Israel, he is the Saviour of them by his Son.

Gill: Isa 45:16 - They shall be ashamed, and also confounded, all of them // they shall go to confusion together, that are makers of idols They shall be ashamed, and also confounded, all of them,.... This refers not to any persons spoken of before; not to Israel or the church, or converts...

They shall be ashamed, and also confounded, all of them,.... This refers not to any persons spoken of before; not to Israel or the church, or converts among the Gentiles that came to her; but to those that follow, of whom the same is said in other words:

they shall go to confusion together, that are makers of idols; the Targum is,

"worshippers of images;''

both may be designed: this refers to the first times of the Gospel, and its coming into the Gentile world, and its success there; when the oracles of the Heathens were struck dumb; idols and idol temples were forsaken; and Paganism was abolished in the Roman empire; and when the gods they served could not help them, but they fled to the rocks to hide them from the wrath of God and the Lamb, Rev 6:15.

Gill: Isa 45:17 - But Israel shall be saved in the Lord // all Israel shall be saved // ye shall not be ashamed, nor confounded, world without end But Israel shall be saved in the Lord,.... Not the carnal seed of Israel, or the natural posterity of Jacob, for only a remnant of them were saved; in...

But Israel shall be saved in the Lord,.... Not the carnal seed of Israel, or the natural posterity of Jacob, for only a remnant of them were saved; indeed, in the latter day, when there will be a general conversion of them, there will be a general salvation of them,

all Israel shall be saved; but here the spiritual Israel of God are meant, such as God has appointed unto salvation; who are taken into the covenant of his grace, in which their salvation is secured; who are his spiritual people, whom Christ saves from their sins; who are redeemed by the blood of Christ, and are called by his grace; who believe in him, and hope in the Lord: these "shall be saved": there is a certainty of their salvation, and not a mere probability and possibility of it only. It is not they "may be", but they "shall be" saved; it is the will of God they should, whose will cannot be resisted; they are the purchase of Christ, which he will never lose, and the Spirit is the earnest and pledge of salvation to them: and it is "in" and "by the Lord" they are saved, not in of themselves; their destruction is of themselves, but their salvation is of the Lord; and they are saved as they are in him, and owing to their being in him; they are chosen in him, and hence spring all the blessings of grace and salvation to them; they are representatively in him, as their federal Head; they are openly in him, in effectual calling; and they are justified in him, and by his righteousness, and so saved; and being in him, there is no condemnation to them, nor can they ever come into it. They are saved "by" the Lord; by the Word of the Lord, as the Targum; by Jesus Christ, the incarnate Word; by his obedience, sufferings, and death; by his blood, righteousness, and sacrifice; and by his interceding life, and that "with an everlasting salvation"; which is distinguished, by this epithet, from a temporal one, and is opposed to eternal damnation, the desert of sin; it is the salvation of the immortal soul, and includes in it grace and glory, which are perpetual and everlasting; and the duration of it is owing to the perpetuity of Christ's person, office, and grace: or, "with a salvation of ages", or "worlds" a:

ye shall not be ashamed, nor confounded, world without end; or, "unto the ages of eternity" b; that is, such who believe in Christ, and are saved by him, they shall not be ashamed, though the makers and worshippers of idols will; they shall not be confounded, neither in this world, nor in the other; they shall not be ashamed of Christ, his word, and ordinances, nor of their faith and hope in him, or of their sufferings for him; they shall not be ashamed in the resurrection morn, their vile bodies being fashioned like to the glorious body of Christ, when others shall rise to shame and everlasting contempt; nor shall they be ashamed at the coming of Christ, and when they stand before him, being clothed with white robes, and having on the wedding garment; when they shall be introduced into his own and his Father's kingdom and glory, into the world of happiness, which will know no end.

Gill: Isa 45:18 - For thus saith the Lord, that created the heavens // God himself, that formed the earth, and made it, he hath established it // he created it not in vain // I am the Lord, there is none else For thus saith the Lord, that created the heavens,.... These words, and what follow, are the words of the Son of God, of the Lord the Saviour, in whom...

For thus saith the Lord, that created the heavens,.... These words, and what follow, are the words of the Son of God, of the Lord the Saviour, in whom Israel is saved with an everlasting salvation; and this is said to assure them of it, as well as to distinguish himself from the gods of the Gentiles, who made not the heavens and the earth, as he had done; for by the Word of the Lord, the essential Word of God, were the heavens made in the beginning; see Psa 33:6,

God himself, that formed the earth, and made it, he hath established it; the Saviour is God himself, truly and properly God, who has all the perfections of deity in him; and this appears as from his creation of the heavens, so from his forming, making and establishing the earth; he made the chaos of the earth out of nothing; he formed that chaos he made into a beautiful order, and prepared, as the last word c signifies, fitted, and furnished it with everything convenient for man and beast:

he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited; the earth indeed was "tohu" when it was first created, Gen 1:2, which word is used of the chaos of the earth first made, here rendered "in vain"; but then it was not created to continue so, nor did it continue so; for though it was first without form, it was soon formed in a beautiful manner, and fitted for the habitation of men and beasts, and especially the former; and more especially for the habitation of the saints, those sons of men, with whom the delights of Christ were from eternity, and whom he foresaw would dwell in the habitable parts of the earth, which was a pleasure to him; and for the sake of them was it made to be inhabited, and not by them with the wicked promiscuously only as now, but when purified, and refined by fire, to be the habitation of the righteous, with Christ at the head of them; as will be the case in the thousand years' reign:

I am the Lord, there is none else; the one Jehovah with the Father and the Spirit, and there is no other that is the Creator of the heavens and the earth.

Gill: Isa 45:19 - I have not spoken in secret, in a dark place of the earth // I said not unto the seed of Jacob, seek ye me in vain // I the Lord speak righteousness // I declare things that are right I have not spoken in secret, in a dark place of the earth,.... In a private whisper, in a muttering manner, and out of the belly, as the Heathen pries...

I have not spoken in secret, in a dark place of the earth,.... In a private whisper, in a muttering manner, and out of the belly, as the Heathen priests did; and from out of cells, dens, and caverns of the earth, from whence the oracles of Heathen deities were delivered; but in a free, open, clear, and public manner, before multitudes, in the face of all men, or where there was a great concourse of people: so Christ delivered the law on Mount Sinai, in an audible manner, attended with a multitude of angels, and before all the people; and when here on earth he said nothing in secret, but openly to the world, in the synagogues and temple of the Jews, where they resorted in great numbers, Joh 18:20 and ordered his disciples also to publish on the housetops what they heard with their ears, Mat 10:27,

I said not unto the seed of Jacob, seek ye me in vain; that is, he never suffered the seed of Jacob, Israelites indeed, praying Jacobs and prevailing Israels, the true worshippers of him, to seek him in vain; to pray unto and worship him to no purpose, or without fruit to themselves; for all such who seek him early and earnestly, heartily and diligently, and where he may be found, always find him; he receives them, and not rejects them; and they receive that from him which is worth seeking after, and amply rewards all their trouble. The Targum is,

"nor have I said to the seed of the house of Jacob in vain, seek my fear:''

I the Lord speak righteousness; the word of righteousness, the doctrine of justification by his own righteousness; that which he wrought out by his obedience, sufferings, and death, he declared and brought near in the ministry of the word; see Isa 46:13. The Targum renders it, "truth"; grace and truth came by Christ, Joh 1:17,

I declare things that are right; according to right reason, agreeably to the word of God, both law and Gospel, fit for men to receive, and what made for his own and his Father's glory; see Pro 8:6.

Gill: Isa 45:20 - Assemble yourselves, and come; draw near together, ye that are escaped of the nations // they have no knowledge that set up the wood of their graven image // and pray to a god that cannot save Assemble yourselves, and come; draw near together, ye that are escaped of the nations,.... Not that escaped the sword of Cyrus's army, the Chaldeans; ...

Assemble yourselves, and come; draw near together, ye that are escaped of the nations,.... Not that escaped the sword of Cyrus's army, the Chaldeans; nor the Jews that escaped out of Babylon and other countries, by his means; but the remnant, according to the election of grace among the Gentiles; such who were called out of Heathenish darkness into the marvellous light of the Gospel, and escaped the idolatries that others continued in; these are called and summoned together, as to observe the grace of God to themselves, so to labour to convince others of their gross ignorance and stupidity in worshipping idols, and to judge and pass sentence on the obstinate among them:

they have no knowledge that set up the wood of their graven image; or that "lift up" or "carry the wood of their graven image" d; the inside of whose graven image is wood, though covered with some metal which is graved; and for a man to carry such an image on his shoulders, either in procession or in order to fix it in some proper place for adoration, argues great ignorance and stupidity; such persons can have no knowledge of deity, that can believe that a log of wood, covered with gold or silver, graved by art and man's device, and which they are obliged to carry upon their shoulders, can be a god, or a fit object of worship:

and pray to a god that cannot save; itself, nor them; cannot hear their prayers, nor return an answer to them; cannot help and assist them in distress, nor deliver them out of their troubles; and therefore it must be the height of madness and folly to pray unto it.

Gill: Isa 45:21 - Tell ye, and bring them near, and let them take counsel together // who hath declared this from ancient time? who hath told it from that time // Have not I the Lord // and there is no God else beside me; a just God and a Saviour Tell ye, and bring them near, and let them take counsel together,.... Tell them what I say of their ignorance and stupidity; and gather them all toget...

Tell ye, and bring them near, and let them take counsel together,.... Tell them what I say of their ignorance and stupidity; and gather them all together, their gods, their makers, and their worshippers, and let them lay their heads together, and consult what proof they are able to give of their divinities, particularly by foretelling things to come:

who hath declared this from ancient time? who hath told it from that time? that is, who of all their gods or priests have ever declared this or anyone thing at any distance of time before it came to pass? either this everlasting salvation of my people, or the redemption by Cyrus, which was a type of it, and was spoken of beforehand? have ever any of them foretold anything like this, and it came to pass as predicted? not one of them.

Have not I the Lord? he had. Christ, by his Spirit in the prophets, signified before hand his sufferings and his death, and the glory that should follow, 1Pe 1:11 and when he was here on earth, he foretold his being betrayed to the chief priests; his being delivered to the Gentiles; his scourging and crucifixion, and resurrection from the dead; all which came to pass exactly as he had predicted, Mat 20:18,

and there is no God else beside me; a just God and a Saviour: there is "none beside me", Christ is the one God with the Father and Spirit, and there is no other; nor any Saviour of lost sinners, but him; there is salvation in him, and in no other; and he is "just" in things pertaining to God, in satisfying his justice, and fulfilling his law; he was set forth as Mediator to declare his righteousness, and which is displayed in the work of redemption by him; so that God is just, while he is the justifier of him that believes in him, Rom 3:25.

Gill: Isa 45:22 - Look unto me // and be ye saved // all the ends of the earth // for I am God, and there is none else Look unto me,.... And not to idols, nor to any creature, nor to the works of your hands; to your own righteousness and doings; to your wounds; to your...

Look unto me,.... And not to idols, nor to any creature, nor to the works of your hands; to your own righteousness and doings; to your wounds; to your tears and humiliations; to your own hearts and frames; to your graces and the exercise of them; all must be looked off of, and Christ only looked unto by a direct act of faith, for righteousness, for pardon, for all supplies of grace, and for glory and eternal happiness. He is to be looked unto as the Son of God, whose glory is the glory of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth; as the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world; as the only Mediator between God and man; as the Saviour and Redeemer of lost sinners; and considered in all his offices and relations: under all circumstances he is to be looked to; when in the dark, look to him for light; when dead and lifeless, look to him for life; when weak, look to him for strength; when sick, look to him for healing; when hungry, look to him for food; and when disconsolate, look to him for comfort; for none ever look to him and are ashamed or disappointed, they have what they look for; and as it is profitable, so pleasant to look to Jesus, and he himself is well pleased with it; and therefore here encourages to it, adding,

and be ye saved; or, "ye shall be saved" e: Christ is set up in the Gospel, and the ministration of it to be looked at, that men may be saved by him; and it is the will of God, not only that men should look to him, but that whosoever sees him, and believes in him, should not perish, but have everlasting life: the ministers of the Gospel are appointed to show men the way of salvation by Christ, and to assure them that he that believes in him shall be saved; and saints in all ages have looked unto him, and have been saved by him; and therefore this may be taken for a sure and certain thing, that such that look to Christ, as the Israelites did to the brasen serpent, the type of him, shall be saved, Joh 3:14,

all the ends of the earth; all that live at the furthest part of the earth; Christ has a people there, the Father has given him for his possession, and which are the purchase of his blood, and for whose sins he became the propitiation; and to these he sends his Gospel and his ministers, to find them out, and publish salvation to them, and to assure them, that however distant they are, both as to place and state, yet through looking to him by faith they shall be saved, even though they are the worst and vilest of sinners:

for I am God, and there is none else; and so mighty to save, able to save to the uttermost, all that come to him, and to God by him, be they where they will; since he is truly God, there is virtue enough in his blood to pardon sin, and cleanse from it; and in his righteousness to justify from all sin; and in his sacrifice to expiate it; and therefore sensible sinners may safely look to him, and venture their souls on him. The Targum is,

"look unto my Word, and be ye saved, &c.''

Gill: Isa 45:23 - I have sworn by myself // the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness // that unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear I have sworn by myself,.... Christ being the true God, he could swear by no greater, Heb 6:13, this shows that what follows, and is here sworn unto, i...

I have sworn by myself,.... Christ being the true God, he could swear by no greater, Heb 6:13, this shows that what follows, and is here sworn unto, is of great importance, and strictly true, and would certainly be accomplished:

the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness; both what goes before, that such that look unto him shall be saved; and also what follows, concerning the subjection of every creature to him; this was what he had resolved in his mind, and declared in his word, by promise and prophecy, should be; and as it was agreeably to truth and justice, it should certainly, and in faithfulness, be performed, and shall not return void and without effect, but be exactly and punctually accomplished:

that unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear; that is, everyone, or at least the generality of mankind, shall be subject to Christ, embrace his Gospel, submit to his ordinances, profess his name, and serve and worship him; this will be when the fulness of the Gentiles is brought in, and the Jews are converted: the apostle quotes this passage, and applies it to the judgment day, when all, whether they will or not, shall confess that Christ is God, which he so often asserts in this context; see Rom 14:10.

Gill: Isa 45:24 - Surely, shall one say, in the Lord have I righteousness and strength // Even to him shall men come // And all that are incensed against him shall be ashamed Surely, shall one say, in the Lord have I righteousness and strength,.... That is, one and everyone of these that shall be brought to submit to Christ...

Surely, shall one say, in the Lord have I righteousness and strength,.... That is, one and everyone of these that shall be brought to submit to Christ, and to confess him, shall declare it as their faith, that in Christ alone is their "righteousness or righteousnesses" f; that they have a full and complete righteousness in him, and which serves for many; consisting of the holiness of his nature, the obedience of his life, and his sufferings of death; by which the law is honoured, justice satisfied, God is well pleased, and they are acquainted and discharged; and which is pure, perfect, and everlasting, is given them of grace, and entitles them to eternal life; and this they have in Christ as their covenant head and representative, and which they come to have by being in him: it is not inherent in them, but is in Christ, by whom it is wrought out, and becomes theirs by the imputation of it to them, and which they receive by faith; and this is an act of faith concerning it here expressed, and which declares the certainty of it, and of interest in it, and excludes all other: for it may be rendered, "only in the Lord", &c. g; and seems to be spoken with great joy, in an exulting way, and what may be said at all times; for this righteousness is always in Christ, and "strength" likewise to enable them to exercise every grace; to do the will and work of God; to bear afflictions; to withstand Satan's temptations, and oppose their own corruptions; and to which they have not sufficient strength in themselves, but there is enough in Christ. Some take these to be the words of the prophet, and differently interpret them. Some thus, as Abendana observes,

"saith the prophet, these future things I know not in a way of wisdom, but by the Lord, who saith unto me, my God of righteousness and strength.''

Aben Ezra thus,

"surely in the Lord that speaketh with me alone are righteousness and strength.''

Joseph Kimchi takes it to be in the form of an oath,

"the prophet said, I swear by the name of the Lord, that unto me he saith, righteousness and strength unto him shall come; as if he had said, the author or doer of righteousness and strength shall draw near to him, and all that are incensed against him shall be ashamed.''

Even to him shall men come: or everyone of the above persons; they shall come to Christ, not merely to his word and ordinances, but to himself by faith; for righteousness and strength; for peace and pardon; for spiritual rest, joy, and comfort; for food and clothing; for all supplies of grace, and for eternal life; or if not in a way of grace now, they shall come to him, and appear before him at the last judgment, whether they will or not.

And all that are incensed against him shall be ashamed; that are incensed against his person, his deity, personality, and divine sonship; against his blood, righteousness, sacrifice, and satisfaction; against his offices, kingdom, and glory; these shall be ashamed, either when they are convinced of the truth of these things now, or however when they shall appear in his glory at the last day. Kimchi connects this verse with the preceding, thus,

"he saith, every tongue shall swear verily by the Lord alone, and not by another god; and so saith God, I have righteousness and strength to give to them that serve me; and all the people who are incensed against me, and reject my service unto that day, then shall they come unto him, and confess before him, and shall be ashamed for what they have done.''

The Targum is,

"in his word they shall confess, and all the people shall be confounded with their idols, who rush upon his people.''

Gill: Isa 45:25 - In the Lord shall all the seed of Israel be justified // and shall glory In the Lord shall all the seed of Israel be justified,.... All the spiritual Israel of God, whether Jews or Gentiles; all the spiritual seed and offsp...

In the Lord shall all the seed of Israel be justified,.... All the spiritual Israel of God, whether Jews or Gentiles; all the spiritual seed and offspring of Christ, to whom he stands in the relation of the, everlasting Father and federal Head; these being given to him, and being in him, are justified in him from all things; and these, all and everyone, shall be brought to see their need of his righteousness, and look to him for it, and receive it from him by faith; and be manifestatively justified in their own consciences, as they will be openly at the bar of God, before angels and men, hereafter. The Targum is,

""in" or by the Word of the Lord all the seed of Israel shall be justified:''

and shall glory; in Christ, as the Lord their righteousness; not in themselves, in their own righteousness, holiness, wisdom, and strength, but in this, that Christ is made to them wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption, 1Co 1:30.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Isa 45:1 Heb “and the belts of kings I will loosen”; NRSV “strip kings of their robes”; NIV “strip kings of their armor.”

NET Notes: Isa 45:2 That is, on the gates. Cf. CEV “break the iron bars on bronze gates.”

NET Notes: Isa 45:3 Heb “treasures of darkness” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “treasures from dark, secret places.”

NET Notes: Isa 45:4 Or “know” (NCV, NRSV, TEV, NLT); NIV “acknowledge.”

NET Notes: Isa 45:5 Or “know” (NAB, NCV, NRSV, TEV, CEV, NLT); NIV “have not acknowledged.”

NET Notes: Isa 45:6 Heb “they” (so KJV, ASV); TEV, CEV “everyone”; NLT “all the world.”

NET Notes: Isa 45:7 This verses affirms that God is ultimately sovereign over his world, including mankind and nations. In accordance with his sovereign will, he can caus...

NET Notes: Isa 45:8 The masculine singular pronominal suffix probably refers back to יָשַׁע (yasha’, “salvation”).

NET Notes: Isa 45:9 Heb “your work, there are no hands for it,” i.e., “your work looks like something made by a person who has no hands.”

NET Notes: Isa 45:10 Verses 9-10 may allude to the exiles’ criticism that the Lord does not appear to know what he is doing.

NET Notes: Isa 45:11 Heb “Do you command me about…?” The rhetorical question sarcastically expresses the Lord’s disgust with those who question his...

NET Notes: Isa 45:12 Heb “and to all their host I commanded.” See the notes at 40:26.

NET Notes: Isa 45:13 Heb “I stir him up in righteousness”; NASB “I have aroused him.” See the note at 41:2. Cyrus (cf. 44:28) is in view here.

NET Notes: Isa 45:14 Heb “there is no other” (so NIV, NRSV). The same phrase occurs at the end of v. 18, in v. 21, and at the end of v. 22.

NET Notes: Isa 45:16 “together they will walk in humiliation, the makers of images.”

NET Notes: Isa 45:17 Heb “you will not be ashamed and you will not be humiliated for ages of future time.”

NET Notes: Isa 45:18 Or “unformed.” Gen 1:2 describes the world as “unformed” (תֹהוּ, tohu) prior to God’s crea...

NET Notes: Isa 45:19 The translation above assumes that צֶדֶק (tsedeq) and מֵישָׁרִי...

NET Notes: Isa 45:21 Or “a righteous God and deliverer”; NASB, NIV, NRSV “a righteous God and a Savior.”

NET Notes: Isa 45:22 The Niphal imperative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose after the preceding imperative. The Niphal probably has a tolerative sense, “...

NET Notes: Isa 45:23 Heb “swear” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “confess allegiance.”

NET Notes: Isa 45:24 Heb “will come to him and be ashamed.”

NET Notes: Isa 45:25 Heb “In the Lord all the offspring of Israel will be vindicated and boast.”

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:1 Thus saith the LORD to his anointed, to ( a ) Cyrus, whose ( b ) right hand I have held, to ( c ) subdue nations before him; and I will loose the loin...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:2 I will go before thee, and make the ( d ) crooked places straight: I will break in pieces the gates of brass, and cut asunder the bars of iron: ( d )...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:3 And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest ( e ) know that I, the LORD, who call [thee] by t...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:4 For Jacob my servant's ( f ) sake, and Israel my elect, I have even called thee by thy name: I have surnamed thee, though thou hast not known me. ( f...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:5 I [am] the LORD, and [there is] none else, [there is] no God besides me: I ( g ) girded thee, though thou hast not known me: ( g ) I have given you s...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:7 I form the ( h ) light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the LORD do all these [things]. ( h ) I send peace and war, prosperity ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:8 Drop down, ye heavens, from above, and let the skies pour down ( i ) righteousness: let the earth open, and let them bring forth salvation, and let ri...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:9 ( l ) Woe to him that contendeth with his Maker! [Let] the potsherd [contend] with the potsherds of the earth. Shall the clay say to him that fashione...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:11 Thus saith the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, and his Maker, Ask me ( n ) of things to come concerning my sons, and concerning the work of my hands com...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:12 I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, [even] my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their ( o ) host have I commanded. ( o ) ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:13 I have raised ( p ) him up in righteousness, and I will direct all his ways: he shall build my city, and he shall let go my captives, not for ( q ) pr...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:14 Thus saith the LORD, The labour ( r ) of Egypt, and merchandise of Cush and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over to thee, and they shall be...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:15 Verily thou [art] a God that ( t ) hidest thyself, O God of Israel, the Saviour. ( t ) By this he exhorts the Jews to patience, though their delivera...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:18 For thus saith the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:19 I have not spoken in secret, ( x ) in a dark place of the earth: I have not said to the seed of Jacob, Seek ye me in vain: I the LORD speak righteousn...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:20 Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together, ( y ) ye [that have] escaped of the nations: they have no knowledge that set up the wood of their gr...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:22 Look to me, and be ye saved, all ( z ) the ends of the earth: for I [am] God, and [there is] none else. ( z ) He calls the idolaters to repentance, w...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:23 I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth [in] ( a ) righteousness, and shall not return, That to me every ( b ) knee shall bow, every ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 45:24 Surely, ( c ) shall [one] say, in the LORD have I righteousness and strength: [even] to him shall [men] come; and all that are ( d ) incensed against ...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Isa 45:15-19 - A Libation To Jehovah Hidden And Revealed Verily thou art a God that hidest Thyself, O God of Israel, the Saviour … I have not spoken in secret, in a dark place of th...

MHCC: Isa 45:1-4 - --Cyrus is called God's anointed; he was designed and qualified for his great service by the counsel of God. The gates of Babylon which led to the river...

MHCC: Isa 45:5-10 - --There is no God beside Jehovah. There is nothing done without him. He makes peace, put here for all good; and creates evil, not the evil of sin, but t...

MHCC: Isa 45:11-19 - --Believers may ask in prayer for what they need; if for their good, it will not be withheld. But how common to hear God called to account for his deali...

MHCC: Isa 45:20-25 - --The nations are exhorted to draw near to Jehovah. None besides is able to help; he is the Saviour, who can save without the assistance of any, but wit...

Matthew Henry: Isa 45:1-4 - -- Cyrus was a Mede, descended (as some say) from Astyages king of Media. The pagan writers are not agreed in their accounts of his origin. Some tell u...

Matthew Henry: Isa 45:5-10 - -- God here asserts his sole and sovereign dominion, as that which he designed to prove and manifest to the world in all the great things he did for Cy...

Matthew Henry: Isa 45:11-19 - -- The people of God in captivity, who reconciled themselves to the will of God in their affliction and were content to wait his time for their deliver...

Matthew Henry: Isa 45:20-25 - -- What here is said is intended, as before, I. For the conviction of idolators, to show them their folly in worshipping gods that cannot help them, an...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 45:1-3 - -- The first strophe of the first half of this sixth prophecy (Isa 44:24.), the subject of which is Cyrus, the predicted restorer of Jerusalem, of the ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 45:4-7 - -- A second and third object are introduced by a second and third למען . "For the sake of my servant Jacob, and Israel my chosen, I called thee h...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 45:8 - -- In the prospect of this ultimate and saving purpose of the mission of Cyrus, viz., the redemption of Israel and the conversion of the heathen, heave...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 45:9-10 - -- The promise is now continued in the third strophe (Isa 45:9-13), and increases more and more in the distinctness of its terms; but just as in Isa 29...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 45:11-12 - -- After this double woe, which is expressed in general terms, but the application of which is easily made, the words of Jehovah are directly addressed...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 45:13 - -- He who created all things, and called all things into existence, had also raised up this Cyrus, whose victorious career had increased the anxieties ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 45:14 - -- The second half is uttered in the prospect, that the judgment which Cyrus brings upon the nations will prepare the way for the overthrow of heatheni...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 45:15 - -- What follows in Isa 45:15 is not a continuation of the words of the Gentiles, but a response of the church to their confession. The nations that hav...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 45:16-17 - -- The way in which this God who hides Himself is ultimately revealed as the God of salvation, is then pointed out in Isa 45:16, Isa 45:17 : "They are...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 45:18-19 - -- The second and last strophe of this prophecy commences with Isa 45:18. By the fulfilment of the promise thus openly proclaimed, those of the heathen...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 45:20-21 - -- The salvation of Israel, foretold and realized by Jehovah, becomes at the same time the salvation of the heathen world. "Assemble yourselves and co...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 45:22-23 - -- It is in accordance with this holy loving will that the cry is published in Isa 45:22 : "Turn unto me, and be ye saved, all ye ends of the earth; f...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 45:24-25 - -- This bending of the knee, this confession as an oath of homage, will be no forced one. Isa 45:24 "Only in Jehovah, do men say of me, is fulness of ...

Constable: Isa 40:1--55:13 - --IV. Israel's calling in the world chs. 40--55 This part of Isaiah picks up a theme from chapters 1-39 and develo...

Constable: Isa 40:1--48:22 - --A. God's grace to Israel chs. 40-48 These chapters particularly address the questions of whether God cou...

Constable: Isa 44:23--48:1 - --3. The Lord's redemption of His servant 44:23-47:15 Isaiah began this section of the book dealin...

Constable: Isa 45:1-13 - --The instrument of redemption 45:1-13 This section begins with God's promise to Cyrus (vv. 1-8; cf. Ps. 2: 110) and concludes with a vindication of God...

Constable: Isa 45:14--47:1 - --The God of redemption 45:14-46:13 This section develops the ideas that preceded by unfolding the characteristics of Yahweh that His people needed to a...

Guzik: Isa 45:1-25 - "Look to Me and Be Saved" Isaiah 45 - "Look to Me and Be Saved" A. Looking to the God who chose Cyrus. 1. (1-3) God's calling and mission for Cyrus. Thus says the...