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Teks -- Isaiah 37:1-38 (NET)

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37:1 When King Hezekiah heard this, he tore his clothes, put on sackcloth, and went to the Lord’s temple. 37:2 Eliakim the palace supervisor, Shebna the scribe, and the leading priests, clothed in sackcloth, sent this message to the prophet Isaiah son of Amoz: 37:3 “This is what Hezekiah says: ‘This is a day of distress, insults, and humiliation, as when a baby is ready to leave the birth canal, but the mother lacks the strength to push it through. 37:4 Perhaps the Lord your God will hear all these things the chief adviser has spoken on behalf of his master, the king of Assyria, who sent him to taunt the living God. When the Lord your God hears, perhaps he will punish him for the things he has said. So pray for this remnant that remains.’” 37:5 When King Hezekiah’s servants came to Isaiah, 37:6 Isaiah said to them, “Tell your master this: ‘This is what the Lord says: “Don’t be afraid because of the things you have heard– these insults the king of Assyria’s servants have hurled against me. 37:7 Look, I will take control of his mind; he will receive a report and return to his own land. I will cut him down with a sword in his own land.”’” 37:8 When the chief adviser heard the king of Assyria had departed from Lachish, he left and went to Libnah, where the king was campaigning. 37:9 The king heard that King Tirhakah of Ethiopia was marching out to fight him. He again sent messengers to Hezekiah, ordering them: 37:10 “Tell King Hezekiah of Judah this: ‘Don’t let your God in whom you trust mislead you when he says, “Jerusalem will not be handed over to the king of Assyria.” 37:11 Certainly you have heard how the kings of Assyria have annihilated all lands. Do you really think you will be rescued? 37:12 Were the nations whom my predecessors destroyed– the nations of Gozan, Haran, Rezeph, and the people of Eden in Telassar– rescued by their gods? 37:13 Where are the king of Hamath, the king of Arpad, and the kings of Lair, Sepharvaim, Hena, and Ivvah?’” 37:14 Hezekiah took the letter from the messengers and read it. Then Hezekiah went up to the Lord’s temple and spread it out before the Lord. 37:15 Hezekiah prayed before the Lord: 37:16 “O Lord who commands armies, O God of Israel, who is enthroned on the cherubim! You alone are God over all the kingdoms of the earth. You made the sky and the earth. 37:17 Pay attention, Lord, and hear! Open your eyes, Lord, and observe! Listen to this entire message Sennacherib sent and how he taunts the living God! 37:18 It is true, Lord, that the kings of Assyria have destroyed all the nations and their lands. 37:19 They have burned the gods of the nations, for they are not really gods, but only the product of human hands manufactured from wood and stone. That is why the Assyrians could destroy them. 37:20 Now, O Lord our God, rescue us from his power, so all the kingdoms of the earth may know that you alone are the Lord.” 37:21 Isaiah son of Amoz sent this message to Hezekiah: “This is what the Lord God of Israel says: ‘Because you prayed to me concerning King Sennacherib of Assyria, 37:22 this is what the Lord says about him: “The virgin daughter Zion despises you– she makes fun of you; daughter Jerusalem shakes her head after you. 37:23 Whom have you taunted and hurled insults at? At whom have you shouted and looked so arrogantly? At the Holy One of Israel! 37:24 Through your messengers you taunted the sovereign master, ‘With my many chariots I climbed up the high mountains, the slopes of Lebanon. I cut down its tall cedars and its best evergreens. I invaded its most remote regions, its thickest woods. 37:25 I dug wells and drank water. With the soles of my feet I dried up all the rivers of Egypt.’ 37:26 Certainly you must have heard! Long ago I worked it out, in ancient times I planned it, and now I am bringing it to pass. The plan is this: Fortified cities will crash into heaps of ruins. 37:27 Their residents are powerless; they are terrified and ashamed. They are as short-lived as plants in the field or green vegetation. They are as short-lived as grass on the rooftops when it is scorched by the east wind. 37:28 I know where you live and everything you do and how you rage against me. 37:29 Because you rage against me and the uproar you create has reached my ears, I will put my hook in your nose, and my bridle between your lips, and I will lead you back the way you came.” 37:30 “This will be your reminder that I have spoken the truth: This year you will eat what grows wild, and next year what grows on its own. But the year after that you will plant seed and harvest crops; you will plant vines and consume their produce. 37:31 Those who remain in Judah will take root in the ground and bear fruit. 37:32 “For a remnant will leave Jerusalem; survivors will come out of Mount Zion. The intense devotion of the Lord who commands armies will accomplish this. 37:33 So this is what the Lord says about the king of Assyria: ‘He will not enter this city, nor will he shoot an arrow here. He will not attack it with his shielded warriors, nor will he build siege works against it. 37:34 He will go back the way he came– he will not enter this city,’ says the Lord. 37:35 I will shield this city and rescue it for the sake of my reputation and because of my promise to David my servant.”’” 37:36 The Lord’s messenger went out and killed 185,000 troops in the Assyrian camp. When they got up early the next morning, there were all the corpses! 37:37 So King Sennacherib of Assyria broke camp and went on his way. He went home and stayed in Nineveh. 37:38 One day, as he was worshiping in the temple of his god Nisroch, his sons Adrammelech and Sharezer struck him down with the sword. They ran away to the land of Ararat; his son Esarhaddon replaced him as king.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Adrammelech a god of the Assyrians for whom they burned their children,son of Sennacherib the King of Assyria in the time of Hezekiah
 · Amoz father of the prophet Isaiah
 · Ararat a mountain, the surrounding land, & a kingdom in the area
 · Arpad a town of Syria 40 km north of Aleppo & 100 km east of the Great Sea
 · Assyria a member of the nation of Assyria
 · Assyrian a member of the nation of Assyria
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel
 · Eden a place near where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers meet (NIVsn),son of Joah (Gershon Levi) in King Hezekiah's time,a district along the Euphrates River south of Haran (NIVsn)
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Eliakim son of Abiud the son of Zerubbabel over 20generations from David; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Melea, only 4 generations from David; an ancester of Jesus,son of Hilkiah; head of Hezekiah's household,son of Josiah; made king of Judah by Pharaoh Neco,a priest who helped celebrate the completion of the wall
 · Esar-Haddon son and successor of Sennacherib the King of Assyria
 · Esar-haddon son and successor of Sennacherib the King of Assyria
 · Ethiopia a country south of Egypt
 · Gozan a town on the Habor River 100 km ESE of Haran
 · hamath a town of Syria on the Orontes between Aleppo and Damascus (OS)
 · Hamath a town of unknown location
 · Haran a town of upper Mesopotamia,an English name representing two different Hebrew names,as representing the Hebrew name 'Haran',son of Terah; brother of Abraham,a Levitical chief of the descendants of Ladan under King David; son of Shimei,as representing the Hebrew name 'Xaran', beginning with a velar fricative,son of Caleb of Judah and Ephah his concubine
 · Hena a town on the Euphrates about 300 km NW of ancient Babylon (ZD)
 · Hezekiah the son of Ahaz who succeeded him as king of Judah; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Ahaz; king of Judah,forefather of the prophet Zephaniah,an Israelite chief who signed the covenant to obey God's law
 · Isaiah a son of Amoz; a prophet active in Judah from about 740 to 701 B.C.,son of Amoz; a major prophet in the time of Hezekiah
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Ivvah a town in Syria
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Lachish a town of Judah 23 km west of Hebron & 40 km north of Beersheba (SMM)
 · Lebanon a mountain range and the adjoining regions (IBD)
 · Libnah a place where Israel encamped,a town in the western foothills of Judah 12 km SE of Gath & 23 km NE of Hebron
 · Nineveh a town located on the left bank of the Tigris River in northeastern Mesopotamia (Iraq).,the capital city of Assyria
 · Nisroch a pagan god
 · Rabshakeh a senior official who governed provinces (IBD)
 · Rezeph a nation (town-state)


Topik/Tema Kamus: Assyria | Hezekiah | TOPHETH | Libnah | Blasphemy | ISAIAH, 1-7 | HEZEKIAH (2) | Rabmag | Isaiah | ISAIAH, 8-9 | Letters | Prayer | Nisroch | God | Sepharvaim | Rezeph | Nineveh | Adrammelech | RABSHAKEH | Tirhakah | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

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Catatan Kata/Frasa
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Maclaren , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

JFB: Isa 37:1 - sackcloth (See on Isa 20:2).

(See on Isa 20:2).

JFB: Isa 37:1 - house of the Lord The sure resort of God's people in distress (Psa 73:16-17; Psa 77:13).

The sure resort of God's people in distress (Psa 73:16-17; Psa 77:13).

JFB: Isa 37:2 - unto Isaiah Implying the importance of the prophet's position at the time; the chief officers of the court are deputed to wait on him (compare 2Ki 22:12-14).

Implying the importance of the prophet's position at the time; the chief officers of the court are deputed to wait on him (compare 2Ki 22:12-14).

JFB: Isa 37:3 - rebuke That is, the Lord's rebuke for His people's sins (Psa 149:7; Hos 5:9).

That is, the Lord's rebuke for His people's sins (Psa 149:7; Hos 5:9).

JFB: Isa 37:3 - blasphemy Blasphemous railing of Rab-shakeh.

Blasphemous railing of Rab-shakeh.

JFB: Isa 37:3 - the children, &c. A proverbial expression for, We are in the most extreme danger and have no power to avert it (compare Hos 13:13).

A proverbial expression for, We are in the most extreme danger and have no power to avert it (compare Hos 13:13).

JFB: Isa 37:4 - hear Take cognizance of (2Sa 16:12).

Take cognizance of (2Sa 16:12).

JFB: Isa 37:4 - reprove Will punish him for the words, &c. (Psa 50:21).

Will punish him for the words, &c. (Psa 50:21).

JFB: Isa 37:4 - remnant The two tribes of the kingdom of Judah, Israel being already captive. Isaiah is entreated to act as intercessor with God.

The two tribes of the kingdom of Judah, Israel being already captive. Isaiah is entreated to act as intercessor with God.

JFB: Isa 37:6 - servants Literally, "youths," mere lads, implying disparagement, not an embassy of venerable elders. The Hebrew is different from that for "servants" in Isa 37...

Literally, "youths," mere lads, implying disparagement, not an embassy of venerable elders. The Hebrew is different from that for "servants" in Isa 37:5.

JFB: Isa 37:6 - blasphemed me (Isa 36:20).

JFB: Isa 37:7 - blast Rather, "I will put a spirit (Isa 28:6; 1Ki 22:23) into him," that is, so influence his judgment that when he hears the report (Isa 37:9, concerning T...

Rather, "I will put a spirit (Isa 28:6; 1Ki 22:23) into him," that is, so influence his judgment that when he hears the report (Isa 37:9, concerning Tirhakah), he shall return [GESENIUS]; the "report" also of the destruction of his army at Jerusalem, reaching Sennacherib, while he was in the southwest of Palestine on the borders of Egypt, led him to retreat.

JFB: Isa 37:7 - by the sword (Isa 37:38).

JFB: Isa 37:8 - returned To the camp of his master.

To the camp of his master.

JFB: Isa 37:8 - Libnah Meaning "whiteness," the Blanche-garde of the Crusaders [STANLEY]. EUSEBIUS and JEROME place it more south, in the district of Eleutheropolis, ten mil...

Meaning "whiteness," the Blanche-garde of the Crusaders [STANLEY]. EUSEBIUS and JEROME place it more south, in the district of Eleutheropolis, ten miles northwest of Lachish, which Sennacherib had captured (see on Isa 36:2). Libnah was in Judea and given to the priests (1Ch 6:54, 1Ch 6:57).

JFB: Isa 37:9 - Tirhakah (See on Isa 17:12; Isa 18:6). Egypt was in part governed by three successive Ethiopian monarchs, for forty or fifty years: Sabacho, Sevechus, and Tirh...

(See on Isa 17:12; Isa 18:6). Egypt was in part governed by three successive Ethiopian monarchs, for forty or fifty years: Sabacho, Sevechus, and Tirhakah. Sevechus retired from Lower Egypt owing to the resistance of the priests, whereupon Sethos, a prince-priest, obtained supreme power with Tanis (Zoan in Scripture), or Memphis, as his capital. The Ethiopians retained Upper Egypt under Tirhakah, with Thebes as the capital. Tirhakah's fame as a conqueror rivalled that of Sesostris; he, and one at least, of the Pharaohs of Lower Egypt, were Hezekiah's allies against Assyria. The tidings of his approach made Sennacherib the more anxious to get possession of Jerusalem before his arrival.

JFB: Isa 37:9 - sent 2Ki 19:9 more fully expresses Sennacherib's eagerness by adding "again."

2Ki 19:9 more fully expresses Sennacherib's eagerness by adding "again."

JFB: Isa 37:10 - -- He tries to influence Hezekiah himself, as Rab-shakeh had addressed the people.

He tries to influence Hezekiah himself, as Rab-shakeh had addressed the people.

JFB: Isa 37:10 - God . . . deceive (Compare Num 23:19).

(Compare Num 23:19).

JFB: Isa 37:11 - all lands (Isa 14:17). He does not dare to enumerate Egypt in the list.

(Isa 14:17). He does not dare to enumerate Egypt in the list.

JFB: Isa 37:12 - Gozan In Mesopotamia, on the Chabour (2Ki 17:6; 2Ki 18:11). Gozan is the name of the district, Chabour of the river.

In Mesopotamia, on the Chabour (2Ki 17:6; 2Ki 18:11). Gozan is the name of the district, Chabour of the river.

JFB: Isa 37:12 - Haran More to the west. Abraham removed to it from Ur (Gen 11:31); the Carroe of the Romans.

More to the west. Abraham removed to it from Ur (Gen 11:31); the Carroe of the Romans.

JFB: Isa 37:12 - Rezeph Farther west, in Syria.

Farther west, in Syria.

JFB: Isa 37:12 - Eden There is an ancient village, Adna, north of Baghdad. Some think Eden to be the name of a region (of Mesopotamia or its vicinity) in which was Paradise...

There is an ancient village, Adna, north of Baghdad. Some think Eden to be the name of a region (of Mesopotamia or its vicinity) in which was Paradise; Paradise was not Eden itself (Gen 2:8). "A garden in Eden."

JFB: Isa 37:12 - Telassar Now Tel-afer, west of Mosul [LAYARD]. Tel means a "hill" in Arabic and Assyrian names.

Now Tel-afer, west of Mosul [LAYARD]. Tel means a "hill" in Arabic and Assyrian names.

JFB: Isa 37:13 - Hena . . . Ivah In Babylonia. From Ava colonists had been brought to Samaria (2Ki 17:24).

In Babylonia. From Ava colonists had been brought to Samaria (2Ki 17:24).

JFB: Isa 37:14 - spread Unrolled the scroll of writing. God "knows our necessities before we ask Him," but He delights in our unfolding them to Him with filial confidence (2C...

Unrolled the scroll of writing. God "knows our necessities before we ask Him," but He delights in our unfolding them to Him with filial confidence (2Ch 20:3, 2Ch 20:11-13).

JFB: Isa 37:16 - dwellest The Shekinah, or fiery symbol of God's presence, dwelling in the temple with His people, is from shachan, "to dwell" (Exo 25:22; Psa 80:1; Psa 99:1).

The Shekinah, or fiery symbol of God's presence, dwelling in the temple with His people, is from shachan, "to dwell" (Exo 25:22; Psa 80:1; Psa 99:1).

JFB: Isa 37:16 - cherubim Derived by transposition from either a Hebrew root, rachab, to "ride"; or rather, barach, to "bless." They were formed out of the same mass of pure go...

Derived by transposition from either a Hebrew root, rachab, to "ride"; or rather, barach, to "bless." They were formed out of the same mass of pure gold as the mercy seat itself (Exo 25:19, Margin). The phrase, "dwellest between the cherubim," arose from their position at each end of the mercy seat, while the Shekinah, and the awful name, JEHOVAH, in written letters, were in the intervening space. They are so inseparably associated with the manifestation of God's glory, that whether the Lord is at rest or in motion, they always are mentioned with Him (Num 7:89; Psa 18:10). (1) They are first mentioned (Gen 3:24) "on the edge of" (as "on the east" may be translated) Eden; the Hebrew for "placed" is properly to "place in a tabernacle," which implies that this was a local tabernacle in which the symbols of God's presence were manifested suitably to the altered circumstances in which man, after the fall, came before God. It was here that Cain and Abel, and the patriarchs down to the flood, presented their offerings: and it is called "the presence of the Lord" (Gen 4:16). When those symbols were removed at the close of that early patriarchal dispensation, small models of them were made for domestic use, called, in Chaldee, "seraphim" or "teraphim." (2) The cherubim, in the Mosaic tabernacle and Solomon's temple, were the same in form as those at the outskirts of Eden: compound figures, combining the distinguishing properties of several creatures: the ox, chief among the tame and useful animals; the lion among the wild ones; the eagle among birds; and man, the head of all (the original headship of man over the animal kingdom, about to be restored in Jesus Christ, Psa 8:4-8, is also implied in this combination). They are, throughout Scripture, represented as distinct from God; they could not be likenesses of Him which He forbade in any shape. (3) They are introduced in the third or gospel dispensation (Rev 4:6) as "living creatures" (not so well translated "beasts" in English Version), not angels, but beings closely connected with the redeemed Church. So also in Eze. 1:5-25; 10:1-22. Thus, throughout the three dispensations, they seem to be symbols of those who in every age should officially study and proclaim the manifold wisdom of God.

JFB: Isa 37:16 - thou alone Literally, "Thou art He who alone art God of all the kingdoms"; whereas Sennacherib had classed Jehovah with the heathen gods, he asserts the nothingn...

Literally, "Thou art He who alone art God of all the kingdoms"; whereas Sennacherib had classed Jehovah with the heathen gods, he asserts the nothingness of the latter and the sole lordship of the former.

JFB: Isa 37:17 - ear . . . eyes Singular, plural. When we wish to hear a thing we lend one ear; when we wish to see a thing we open both eyes.

Singular, plural. When we wish to hear a thing we lend one ear; when we wish to see a thing we open both eyes.

JFB: Isa 37:18 - have laid waste Conceding the truth of the Assyrian's allegation (Isa 36:18-20), but adding the reason, "For they were no gods."

Conceding the truth of the Assyrian's allegation (Isa 36:18-20), but adding the reason, "For they were no gods."

JFB: Isa 37:19 - cast . . . gods into . . . fire The policy of the Assyrians in order to alienate the conquered peoples from their own countries was, both to deport them elsewhere, and to destroy the...

The policy of the Assyrians in order to alienate the conquered peoples from their own countries was, both to deport them elsewhere, and to destroy the tutelary idols of their nation, the strongest tie which bound them to their native land. The Roman policy was just the reverse.

JFB: Isa 37:20 - -- The strongest argument to plead before God in prayer, the honor of God (Exo 32:12-14; Psa 83:18; Dan 9:18-19).

The strongest argument to plead before God in prayer, the honor of God (Exo 32:12-14; Psa 83:18; Dan 9:18-19).

JFB: Isa 37:21 - Whereas thou hast prayed to me That is, hast not relied on thy own strength but on Me (compare 2Ki 19:20). "That which thou hast prayed to Me against Sennacherib, I have heard" (Psa...

That is, hast not relied on thy own strength but on Me (compare 2Ki 19:20). "That which thou hast prayed to Me against Sennacherib, I have heard" (Psa 65:2).

JFB: Isa 37:22 - -- Transition to poetry: in parallelism.

Transition to poetry: in parallelism.

JFB: Isa 37:22 - virgin . . . daughter Honorable terms. "Virgin" implies that the city is, as yet, inviolate. "Daughter" is an abstract collective feminine personification of the population...

Honorable terms. "Virgin" implies that the city is, as yet, inviolate. "Daughter" is an abstract collective feminine personification of the population, the child of the place denoted (see on Isa 23:10; Isa 1:8). Zion and her inhabitants.

JFB: Isa 37:22 - shaken . . . head In scorn (Psa 22:7; Psa 109:25; Mat 27:39). With us to shake the head is a sign of denial or displeasure; but gestures have different meanings in diff...

In scorn (Psa 22:7; Psa 109:25; Mat 27:39). With us to shake the head is a sign of denial or displeasure; but gestures have different meanings in different countries (Isa 58:9; Eze 25:6; Zep 2:15).

JFB: Isa 37:23 - Whom Not an idol.

Not an idol.

JFB: Isa 37:24 - said Virtually. Hast thou within thyself?

Virtually. Hast thou within thyself?

JFB: Isa 37:24 - height Imagery from the Assyrian felling of trees in Lebanon (Isa 14:8; Isa 33:9); figuratively for, "I have carried my victorious army through the regions m...

Imagery from the Assyrian felling of trees in Lebanon (Isa 14:8; Isa 33:9); figuratively for, "I have carried my victorious army through the regions most difficult of access, to the most remote lands."

JFB: Isa 37:24 - sides Rather, "recesses" [G. V. SMITH].

Rather, "recesses" [G. V. SMITH].

JFB: Isa 37:24 - fir trees Not cypresses, as some translate; pine foliage and cedars are still found on the northwest side of Lebanon [STANLEY].

Not cypresses, as some translate; pine foliage and cedars are still found on the northwest side of Lebanon [STANLEY].

JFB: Isa 37:24 - height of . . . border In 2Ki 19:23, "the lodgings of his borders." Perhaps on the ascent to the top there was a place of repose or caravansary, which bounded the usual atte...

In 2Ki 19:23, "the lodgings of his borders." Perhaps on the ascent to the top there was a place of repose or caravansary, which bounded the usual attempts of persons to ascend [BARNES]. Here, simply, "its extreme height."

JFB: Isa 37:24 - forest of . . . Carmel Rather, "its thickest forest." "Carmel" expresses thick luxuriance (see on Isa 10:18; Isa 29:17).

Rather, "its thickest forest." "Carmel" expresses thick luxuriance (see on Isa 10:18; Isa 29:17).

JFB: Isa 37:25 - digged, and drunk water In 2Ki 19:24, it is "strange waters." I have marched into foreign lands where I had to dig wells for the supply of my armies; even the natural destitu...

In 2Ki 19:24, it is "strange waters." I have marched into foreign lands where I had to dig wells for the supply of my armies; even the natural destitution of water there did not impede my march.

JFB: Isa 37:25 - rivers of . . . besieged places Rather, "the streams (artificial canals from the Nile) of Egypt." "With the sole of my foot," expresses that as soon as his vast armies marched into a...

Rather, "the streams (artificial canals from the Nile) of Egypt." "With the sole of my foot," expresses that as soon as his vast armies marched into a region, the streams were drunk up by them; or rather, that the rivers proved no obstruction to the onward march of his armies. So Isa 19:4-6, referring to Egypt, "the river--brooks of defense--shall be dried up." HORSLEY, translates the Hebrew for "besieged places," "rocks."

JFB: Isa 37:26 - -- Reply of God to Sennacherib.

Reply of God to Sennacherib.

JFB: Isa 37:26 - long ago Join, rather, with "I have done it." Thou dost boast that it is all by thy counsel and might: but it is I who, long ago, have ordered it so (Isa 22:11...

Join, rather, with "I have done it." Thou dost boast that it is all by thy counsel and might: but it is I who, long ago, have ordered it so (Isa 22:11); thou wert but the instrument in My hands (Isa 10:5, Isa 10:15). This was the reason why "the inhabitants were of small power before thee" (Isa 37:27), namely, that I ordered it so; yet thou art in My hands, and I know thy ways (Isa 37:28), and I will check thee (Isa 37:29). Connect also, "I from ancient times have arranged ('formed') it." However, English Version is supported by Isa 33:13; Isa 45:6, Isa 45:21; Isa 48:5.

JFB: Isa 37:27 - Therefore Not because of thy power, but because I made them unable to withstand thee.

Not because of thy power, but because I made them unable to withstand thee.

JFB: Isa 37:27 - grass Which easily withers (Isa 40:6; Psa 37:2).

Which easily withers (Isa 40:6; Psa 37:2).

JFB: Isa 37:27 - on . . . housetops Which having little earth to nourish it fades soonest (Psa 129:6-8).

Which having little earth to nourish it fades soonest (Psa 129:6-8).

JFB: Isa 37:27 - corn blasted before it be grown up SMITH translates, "The cornfield (frail and tender), before the corn is grown."

SMITH translates, "The cornfield (frail and tender), before the corn is grown."

JFB: Isa 37:28 - abode Rather, "sitting down" (Psa 139:2). The expressions here describe a man's whole course of life (Deu 6:7; Deu 28:6; 1Ki 3:7; Psa 121:8). There is also ...

Rather, "sitting down" (Psa 139:2). The expressions here describe a man's whole course of life (Deu 6:7; Deu 28:6; 1Ki 3:7; Psa 121:8). There is also a special reference to Sennacherib's first being at home, then going forth against Judah and Egypt, and raging against Jehovah (Isa 37:4).

JFB: Isa 37:29 - tumult Insolence.

Insolence.

JFB: Isa 37:29 - hook in . . . nose Like a wild beast led by a ring through the nose, he shall be forced back to his own country (compare Job 41:1-2; Eze 19:4; Eze 29:4; Eze 38:4). In a ...

Like a wild beast led by a ring through the nose, he shall be forced back to his own country (compare Job 41:1-2; Eze 19:4; Eze 29:4; Eze 38:4). In a bas-relief of Khorsabad, captives are led before the king by a cord attached to a hook, or ring, passing through the under lip or the upper lip, and nose.

JFB: Isa 37:30 - -- Addressed to Hezekiah.

Addressed to Hezekiah.

JFB: Isa 37:30 - sign A token which, when fulfilled, would assure him of the truth of the whole prophecy as to the enemy's overthrow. The two years, in which they were sust...

A token which, when fulfilled, would assure him of the truth of the whole prophecy as to the enemy's overthrow. The two years, in which they were sustained by the spontaneous growth of the earth, were the two in which Judea had been already ravaged by Sennacherib (Isa 32:10). Thus translate: "Ye did eat (the first year) such as groweth of itself, and in the second year that . . . but in this third year sow ye," &c., for in this year the land shall be delivered from the foe. The fact that Sennacherib moved his camp away immediately after shows that the first two years refer to the past, not to the future [ROSENMULLER]. Others, referring the first two years to the future, get over the difficulty of Sennacherib's speedy departure, by supposing that year to have been the sabbatical year, and the second year the jubilee; no indication of this appears in the context.

JFB: Isa 37:31 - remnant Judah remained after the ten tribes were carried away; also those of Judah who should survive Sennacherib's invasion are meant.

Judah remained after the ten tribes were carried away; also those of Judah who should survive Sennacherib's invasion are meant.

JFB: Isa 37:33 - with shields He did come near it, but was not allowed to conduct a proper siege.

He did come near it, but was not allowed to conduct a proper siege.

JFB: Isa 37:33 - bank A mound to defend the assailants in attacking the walls.

A mound to defend the assailants in attacking the walls.

JFB: Isa 37:34 - -- (See Isa 37:29, Isa 37:37; Isa 29:5-8).

JFB: Isa 37:35 - I will defend Notwithstanding Hezekiah's measures of defense (2Ch 32:3-5), Jehovah was its true defender.

Notwithstanding Hezekiah's measures of defense (2Ch 32:3-5), Jehovah was its true defender.

JFB: Isa 37:35 - mine own sake Since Jehovah's name was blasphemed by Sennacherib (Isa 37:23).

Since Jehovah's name was blasphemed by Sennacherib (Isa 37:23).

JFB: Isa 37:35 - David's sake On account of His promise to David (Psa 132:17-18), and to Messiah, the heir of David's throne (Isa 9:7; Isa 11:1).

On account of His promise to David (Psa 132:17-18), and to Messiah, the heir of David's throne (Isa 9:7; Isa 11:1).

JFB: Isa 37:36 - -- Some attribute the destruction to the agency of the plague (see on Isa 33:24), which may have caused Hezekiah's sickness, narrated immediately after; ...

Some attribute the destruction to the agency of the plague (see on Isa 33:24), which may have caused Hezekiah's sickness, narrated immediately after; but Isa 33:1, Isa 33:4, proves that the Jews spoiled the corpses, which they would not have dared to do, had there been on them infection of a plague. The secondary agency seems, from Isa 29:6; Isa 30:30, to have been a storm of hail, thunder, and lightning (compare Exo 9:22-25). The simoon belongs rather to Africa and Arabia than Palestine, and ordinarily could not produce such a destructive effect. Some few of the army, as 2Ch 32:21 seems to imply, survived and accompanied Sennacherib home. HERODOTUS (2.141) gives an account confirming Scripture in so far as the sudden discomfiture of the Assyrian army is concerned. The Egyptian priests told him that Sennacherib was forced to retreat from Pelusium owing to a multitude of field mice, sent by one of their gods, having gnawed the Assyrians' bow-strings and shield-straps. Compare the language (Isa 37:33), "He shall not shoot an arrow there, nor come before it with shields," which the Egyptians corrupted into their version of the story. Sennacherib was as the time with a part of his army, not at Jerusalem, but on the Egyptian frontier, southwest of Palestine. The sudden destruction of the host near Jerusalem, a considerable part of his whole army, as well as the advance of the Ethiopian Tirhakah, induced him to retreat, which the Egyptians accounted for in a way honoring to their own gods. The mouse was the Egyptian emblem of destruction. The Greek Apollo was called Sminthian, from a Cretan word for "a mouse," as a tutelary god of agriculture, he was represented with one foot upon a mouse, since field mice hurt corn. The Assyrian inscriptions, of course, suppress their own defeat, but nowhere boast of having taken Jerusalem; and the only reason to be given for Sennacherib not having, amidst his many subsequent expeditions recorded in the monuments, returned to Judah, is the terrible calamity he had sustained there, which convinced him that Hezekiah was under the divine protection. RAWLINSON says, In Sennacherib's account of his wars with Hezekiah, inscribed with cuneiform characters in the hall of the palace of Koyunjik, built by him (a hundred forty feet long by a hundred twenty broad), wherein even the Jewish physiognomy of the captives is portrayed, there occurs a remarkable passage; after his mentioning his taking two hundred thousand captive Jews, he adds, "Then I prayed unto God"; the only instance of an inscription wherein the name of GOD occurs without a heathen adjunct. The forty-sixth Psalm probably commemorates Judah's deliverance. It occurred in one "night," according to 2Ki 19:35, with which Isaiah's words, "when they arose early in the morning," &c., are in undesigned coincidence.

JFB: Isa 37:36 - they . . . they "the Jews . . . the Assyrians."

"the Jews . . . the Assyrians."

JFB: Isa 37:37 - dwelt at Nineveh For about twenty years after his disaster, according to the inscriptions. The word, "dwelt," is consistent with any indefinite length of time. "Nineve...

For about twenty years after his disaster, according to the inscriptions. The word, "dwelt," is consistent with any indefinite length of time. "Nineveh," so called from Ninus, that is, Nimrod, its founder; his name means "exceedingly impious rebel"; he subverted the existing patriarchal order of society, by setting up a system of chieftainship, founded on conquest; the hunting field was his training school for war; he was of the race of Ham, and transgressed the limits marked by God (Gen 10:8-11, Gen 10:25), encroaching on Shem's portion; he abandoned Babel for a time, after the miraculous confusion of tongues and went and founded Nineveh; he was, after death, worshipped as Orion, the constellation (see on Job 9:9; Job 38:31).

JFB: Isa 37:38 - Nisroch Nisr, in Semitic, means "eagle;" the termination och, means "great." The eagle-headed human figure in Assyrian sculptures is no doubt Nisroch, the sam...

Nisr, in Semitic, means "eagle;" the termination och, means "great." The eagle-headed human figure in Assyrian sculptures is no doubt Nisroch, the same as Asshur, the chief Assyrian god; the corresponding goddess was Asheera, or Astarte; this means a "grove," or sacred tree, often found as the symbol of the heavenly hosts (Saba) in the sculptures, as Asshur the Eponymus hero of Assyria (Gen 10:11) answered to the sun or Baal, Belus, the title of office, "Lord." This explains "image of the grove" (2Ki 21:7). The eagle was worshipper by the ancient Persians and Arabs.

JFB: Isa 37:38 - Esar-haddon In Ezr 4:2 he is mentioned as having brought colonists into Samaria. He is also thought to have been the king who carried Manasseh captive to Babylon ...

In Ezr 4:2 he is mentioned as having brought colonists into Samaria. He is also thought to have been the king who carried Manasseh captive to Babylon (2Ch 33:11). He built the palace on the mound Nebbiyunus, and that called the southwest palace of Nimroud. The latter was destroyed by fire, but his name and wars are recorded on the great bulls taken from the building. He obtained his building materials from the northwest palaces of the ancient dynasty, ending in Pul.

Clarke: Isa 37:6 - Thus shall ye say Thus shall ye say - כה תאמרון ko tomerun , "thus shall ye (explicitly, earnestly, and positively) say. "The paragogic nun deepens and incre...

Thus shall ye say - כה תאמרון ko tomerun , "thus shall ye (explicitly, earnestly, and positively) say. "The paragogic nun deepens and increases the sense.

Clarke: Isa 37:7 - I will send a blast "I will infuse a spirit into him" I will send a blast "I will infuse a spirit into him" - " נותין בו רוח nothen bo roach never signifies any thing but putting a spirit in...

I will send a blast "I will infuse a spirit into him" - " נותין בו רוח nothen bo roach never signifies any thing but putting a spirit into a person: this was πνευμα δειλιας, the spirit of deceit."- Secker. "I will send a blast"- I do not think that Archbishop Secker has hit the true meaning of these words. I believe רוח ruach means here a pestilential wind, such as the Arabs call simoom , that instantly suffocates both man and beast; and is what is termed "the angel of the Lord,"God’ s messenger of death to the Assyrians, Isa 37:36.

Clarke: Isa 37:8 - Rabshakeh returned Rabshakeh returned - From Isa 36:2, we learn that the king of Assyria had sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem; now it is likely that Rabshakeh ...

Rabshakeh returned - From Isa 36:2, we learn that the king of Assyria had sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem; now it is likely that Rabshakeh had besieged that place, and that the king of Assyria had taken his station before this city, and dispatched Rabshakeh against Jerusalem. But, as in the verse above it is said, "he had departed from Lachish,"probably he had been obliged to raise the siege, and sat down before Libnah, which promised an easier conquest.

Clarke: Isa 37:9 - He heard say concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia He heard say concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia - When he heard that Tirhakah king of Ethiopia had come out against him, then he sent that blasphe...

He heard say concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia - When he heard that Tirhakah king of Ethiopia had come out against him, then he sent that blasphemous manifesto which is contained in Isa 37:10-13, to terrify Hezekiah into submission. How much was this like, in words and spirit, to the manifesto sent to the Parisians by the late Duke of Brunswick, from the plains of Champaigne, in 1792, which was the forerunner of the mighty torrents of human blood which was shed in the French revolution! And what a blast of God fell upon him and his army - nearly like that which fell on the army of Sennacherib

He sent messengers "He sent messengers again"- The word וישמע vaiyishma , "and he heard, "which occurs the second time in this verse, is repeated by mistake from the beginning of the verse. It is omitted in an ancient MS. It is a mere tautology, and embarrasses the sense. The true reading instead of it is, וישב veyesheb , "and he returned, "which the Septuagint read in this place, απεστρεψε, and which is preserved in the other copy, 2Ki 19:9 : "He returned and sent, "that is, according to the Hebrew idiom, "he sent again."

Clarke: Isa 37:12 - As Gozan, and Haran As Gozan, and Haran - חרן Charan : but הרן Haran is the reading of four of Kennicott’ s MSS. and one of De Rossi’ s.

As Gozan, and Haran - חרן Charan : but הרן Haran is the reading of four of Kennicott’ s MSS. and one of De Rossi’ s.

Clarke: Isa 37:14 - -- And read it "And read them"- ויקראם vayikraem . So MS. Bodl. in this place; and so the other copy; instead of ויקראהו vaiyikraehu , ...

And read it "And read them"- ויקראם vayikraem . So MS. Bodl. in this place; and so the other copy; instead of ויקראהו vaiyikraehu , "and read It.

And spread it "And spread them"- ויפרשהו vaiyiphresehu . הו hu is upon a rasure in a MS., which probably was at first ם mem . The same mistake as in the foregoing note.

Clarke: Isa 37:15 - -- Unto the Lord "Before Jehovah"- That is, in the sanctuary. For אל el , the Syriac, Chaldee, and the other copy, 2Ki 19:15, read לפני liphney...

Unto the Lord "Before Jehovah"- That is, in the sanctuary. For אל el , the Syriac, Chaldee, and the other copy, 2Ki 19:15, read לפני liphney , "before the face."

Clarke: Isa 37:18 - The nations The nations - הארצות haratsoth , "the lands; "instead of this word, which destroys the sense, ten of Kennicott’ s and five of De Rossi&#...

The nations - הארצות haratsoth , "the lands; "instead of this word, which destroys the sense, ten of Kennicott’ s and five of De Rossi’ s MSS. (one ancient) have here גוים goyim , "nations;"which is undoubtedly the true reading, being preserved also in the other copy; 2Ki 19:17. Another MS. suggests another method of rectifying the sense in this place, by reading מלכם malcam , "their king, "instead of ארצם artsam , "their land;"but it ought to be מלכיהם malcheyhem , "all the countries and their kings."

Clarke: Isa 37:20 - -- Save us "Save us, we beseech thee"- The supplicating particle, נא na , is supplied here from eighteen MSS., three ancient, of Dr. Kennicott, and ...

Save us "Save us, we beseech thee"- The supplicating particle, נא na , is supplied here from eighteen MSS., three ancient, of Dr. Kennicott, and ten of De Rossi, and from the other copy; 2Ki 19:19

That thou art the Lord, even thou only "That thou Jehovah art the only God"- The word אלהים Elohim , "God, "is lost here in the Hebrew text, but preserved in the other copy; 2Ki 19:19. The Syriac and Septuagint seem here to have had in their copies אלהים Elohim , instead of יהוה Yehovah .

Clarke: Isa 37:21 - Then Isaiah - sent unto Hezekiah Then Isaiah - sent unto Hezekiah - The Syriac and Septuagint understand and render the verb passively, was sent Whereas thou hast prayed to me agai...

Then Isaiah - sent unto Hezekiah - The Syriac and Septuagint understand and render the verb passively, was sent

Whereas thou hast prayed to me against Sennacherib "Thy prayer unto me concerning Sennacherib - I have heard"- שמעתי shamati ; this word, necessary to the sense, is lost in this place out of the Hebrew text. One MS. of Dr. Kennicott’ s and one of De Rossi’ s have it written above the line in a later hand. The Septuagint and Syriac found it in their copies; and it is preserved in the other copy; 2Ki 19:20.

Clarke: Isa 37:23 - Against the Holy One of Israel Against the Holy One of Israel - For אל el , to, the other copy has על al , against, rather more properly.

Against the Holy One of Israel - For אל el , to, the other copy has על al , against, rather more properly.

Clarke: Isa 37:24 - By thy servants "By thy messengers"- The text has עבדיך abdeycha , thy servants; but the true reading seems to be מלאכיך malacheycha , thy messengers, as in the other copy, 2Ki 19:23; and as the Septuagint and Syriac found it in their copies in this place

Reproached the Lord By thy servants "By thy messengers"- The text has עבדיך abdeycha , thy servants; but the true reading seems to be מלאכיך malacheycha , ...

By thy servants "By thy messengers"- The text has עבדיך abdeycha , thy servants; but the true reading seems to be מלאכיך malacheycha , thy messengers, as in the other copy, 2Ki 19:23; and as the Septuagint and Syriac found it in their copies in this place

Reproached the Lord - אדני Adonai : but one of my MSS. has יהוה אדני Yehovah Adonai , Jehovah the Lord. This reading is not found, I think, in any other MS., but several have יהוה Yehovah for אדני Adonai

Clarke: Isa 37:24 - I will enter into the height of his border "I will penetrate into his extreme retreats"- The text has מרום marom , the height which seems to have been taken by mistake from the line but one above. Two MSS. have here מלון malon , the lodge or retreat; which is the word in the other copy, 2Ki 19:23, and I think is the true reading

The forest of has Carmel I will enter into the height of his border "I will penetrate into his extreme retreats"- The text has מרום marom , the height which seems to ha...

I will enter into the height of his border "I will penetrate into his extreme retreats"- The text has מרום marom , the height which seems to have been taken by mistake from the line but one above. Two MSS. have here מלון malon , the lodge or retreat; which is the word in the other copy, 2Ki 19:23, and I think is the true reading

The forest of has Carmel - The forest and his fruitful field; that is, I will possess myself of the whole country.

Clarke: Isa 37:25 - Water "Strange waters"- The word זרים zarim , strange, lost out of the Hebrew text in this place, is supplied from the other copy. A MS. supplies the word רבים rabbim , many, instead of it

With the sole of my feet Water "Strange waters"- The word זרים zarim , strange, lost out of the Hebrew text in this place, is supplied from the other copy. A MS. suppli...

Water "Strange waters"- The word זרים zarim , strange, lost out of the Hebrew text in this place, is supplied from the other copy. A MS. supplies the word רבים rabbim , many, instead of it

With the sole of my feet - With my infantry

All the rivers of the besieged places "All the canals of fenced places"- The principal cities of Egypt, the scene of his late exploits, were chiefly defended by deep moats, canals, or large lakes, made by labor and art, with which they were surrounded. See Harmer’ s Observ. 2 p. 304. Claudian introduces Alaric boasting of his conquests in the same extravagant manner: -

" Subsidere nostri

Sub pedibus montes; arescere vidimus amnes. -

Fregi Alpes, galeisque Padum victricibus hausi .

De Bello Getic. 526

"The mountains have passed away under our feet; we have seen the rivers dried up. I have broken the Alps, and laden out the Po with our victorious helmets."

Clarke: Isa 37:26 - -- Lay waste defended cities into ruinous heaps "Lay waste warlike nations; strong fenced cities"- גלים נצים gallim nitstsim . It is not easy...

Lay waste defended cities into ruinous heaps "Lay waste warlike nations; strong fenced cities"- גלים נצים gallim nitstsim . It is not easy to give a satisfactory account of these two words, which have greatly embarrassed all the interpreters, ancient and modern. For גלים gallim I read גוים goyim , as the Septuagint do in this place, εθνη . The word נצים netsim the Vulgate renders in this place compugnantium ; in the parallel place, 2Ki 19:25, pugnantium ; and the Septuagint μαχιμων, fighting, warlike. This rendering is as well authorized as any other that I know of; and, with the reading of the Septuagint, perfectly clears up the construction. See the margin on all the preceding verses.

Clarke: Isa 37:27 - Corn blasted Corn blasted - שדמה shedemah , parched: it does not appear that there is any good authority for this word. The true reading seems to be שדפ...

Corn blasted - שדמה shedemah , parched: it does not appear that there is any good authority for this word. The true reading seems to be שדפה shedephah , blasted, as it is in six MSS. (two ancient) here, and in the other copy.

Clarke: Isa 37:29 - Will I put my hook in thy nose Will I put my hook in thy nose - Et fraenum meum : Jonathan vocem מתג metheg , interpretatus est זמם zemam , i.e., annulum, sive uncum,...

Will I put my hook in thy nose - Et fraenum meum : Jonathan vocem מתג metheg , interpretatus est זמם zemam , i.e., annulum, sive uncum, eumque ferreum, quem infigunt naribus camelae: eoque trahitur, quoniam illa feris motibus agitur: et hoc est, quod discimus in Talmude; et camela cum annulo narium: scilicet, egreditur die sabbathi . "And my bridle: Jonathan interprets the word metheg by zemam , a ring, or that iron hook which they put in the nostrils of a camel to lead her about, check her in her restiveness, etc. And this is what we mean in the Talmud, when we say, And the camel with the ring of her nostrils shall go out on the Sabbath day."- Jarchi in 2Ki 19:28. Ponam circulum in naribus tuis . "I will put a ring in thy nostrils."- Jerome. Just as at this day they put a ring into the nose of the bear, the buffalo, and other wild beasts, to lead them, and to govern them when they are unruly. Bulls are often ringed thus in several parts of England. The Hindoos compare a person who is the slave of his wife to a cow led by the ring in her nose.

Clarke: Isa 37:36 - Then the angel Then the angel - Before "the angel, "the other copy, 2Ki 19:35, adds "it came to pass the same night, that "- The Prophet Hosea, Hos 1:7, has given ...

Then the angel - Before "the angel, "the other copy, 2Ki 19:35, adds "it came to pass the same night, that "- The Prophet Hosea, Hos 1:7, has given a plain prediction of the miraculous deliverance of the kingdom of Judah: -

"And to the house of Judah I will be tenderly merciful

And I will save them by Jehovah their God

And I will not save them by the bow

Nor by sword, nor by battle

By horses, nor by horsemen.

- L.

||&&$

Clarke: Isa 37:38 - His sons smote him His sons smote him - What an awful punishment of his blasphemy! Who can harden his neck against God, and be successful? God does not lightly pass by...

His sons smote him - What an awful punishment of his blasphemy! Who can harden his neck against God, and be successful? God does not lightly pass by blasphemy against himself, his government, his word, his Son, or his people. Let the profligate take care!

Calvin: Isa 37:1 - And it came to pass // That King Hezekiah rent his clothes 1.And it came to pass The Prophet declares that the only hope of safety that was left to the pious king was to bring his complaints before God as a r...

1.And it came to pass The Prophet declares that the only hope of safety that was left to the pious king was to bring his complaints before God as a righteous judge; as it is said in the Psalm, that

“in the same manner as servants or handmaids, when they are injured, look to the protection of their master or mistress, so the eyes of believers are fixed on the assistance of God.” —
(Psa 123:2.)

Thus, when Jerusalem appears to be completely ruined, Hezekiah, being bereft of earthly assistance, betakes himself to the protection of God, and thus acknowledges that there is no other remedy for heavy distresses. Hence also the grace of God shone more brightly, so that it was evidently miraculous, when the pious king was rescued from the jaws of that lion. We ought, therefore, to observe this circumstance, that we may better understand the great excellence of the work of God. Here we are also taught what we ought to do in the most desperate circumstances, not to be indolent or sluggish in supplicating the assistance of God, who himself invites us to come to him. We must not tremble or despair, but, on the contrary, ought to be stimulated by the necessity which presses upon us to seek his aid; as we see what Hezekiah did, who immediately betook himself to the temple in the same manner as to a place of safety, that he and all his people might take refuge under the shadow of God.

That King Hezekiah rent his clothes He likewise adds the outward expressions of repentance, the “rending of the clothes and wearing sackcloth,” sprinkling of ashes, and other things of the same kind; for these were the ordinary signs of repentance, when, under the weight of any calamity by which they were afflicted, they confessed their guilt before God and implored pardon from him. Wonderful is the modesty of the holy king, who, after having performed so many illustrious works, and after having been adorned by the excellence of so many virtues, does not hesitate to prostrate himself humbly before God; and, on the other hand, wonderful is his courage and the steadfastness of his faith, in not being hindered by the weight of so heavy a temptation from freely seeking God by whom he was so severely smitten. Scarcely do we find one man in a hundred who does not murmur if God treats him with any degree of severity, who does not bring forward his good deeds as a ground of complaint, and remonstrate that he has been unjustly rewarded. Other men, when God does not comply with their wishes, complain that their worship of God has served no good purpose.

We perceive nothing of this kind in Hezekiah, who, though he is conscious of possessing uncommon piety, does not shrink from a confession of guilt, and therefore if we desire to turn away God’s anger, and to experience his favor in adversity, we must testify our repentance and sincerely acknowledge our guilt; for adversity does not fall out to us by chance, but is the method by which God arouses us to repentance. True, indeed, sackcloth and ashes will be of little avail, if they be not preceded by the inward feelings of the heart; for we know that hypocrites are abundantly liberal in the use of ceremonies; but as we have formerly said, the Holy Spirit justly commends those exercises, when they are directed to their proper object. And indeed it was a proof of uncommon piety and modesty, that the pious king and the whole nation excited themselves in this manner to fear God, and that he made a voluntary acknowledgment of guilt in a form attended by wretched filthiness; for we know how unwilling kings are to let themselves down from their rank.

Calvin: Isa 37:2 - And he sent Eliakim // To Isaiah, the son of Amos the Prophet 2.And he sent Eliakim This message was not intended merely to invite Isaiah to join with him in lamentation, but to request some consolation from his...

2.And he sent Eliakim This message was not intended merely to invite Isaiah to join with him in lamentation, but to request some consolation from his doctrine. And indeed to no purpose shall prayers be poured into the air, if they do not rest on the word of God. Thus we see that unbelievers are exceedingly noisy in their prayers, and yet they flee from God by despising or disregarding his promises. It was therefore a proof of sincere piety in Hezekiah, that, while he was earnestly employed in prayer, he at the same time added a confirmation of his hope, that he might not yield to temptation.

To Isaiah, the son of Amos the Prophet He follows the method appointed by God, when he wishes to hear God speaking by the mouth of “the Prophet.” (Deu 18:15; Mal 2:7.) Though he relies on God alone, he does not reject the testimony of a mortal man; and therefore not without reason does he expressly add the designation Prophet; for he sends to Isaiah, that he may be confirmed by some new prediction, and names him, not as a private individual, but as the servant of God, whose duty it was to soothe the pious king by some consolation.

There are therefore two remedies that deserve our attention, by which we are soothed in affliction. First, we ought to call on God to deliver us; and, secondly, we ought to consult the prophets, at least, if we can obtain them, that they may bring us some comfort out of the word of God; for it is their duty to encourage and comfort the afflicted by promises, and if they fail to do so, still abundant consolation is communicated to us from the word. And we ought to consult the prophets, who were appointed, not only for their own age, but also for posterity and for every age; for although the men are dead, yet their books survive; their doctrine lives and shall never die. We shall never, therefore, be destitute of true remedies, if we do not reject them; but, in a word, we ought always to consult God.

It may be asked, “Was not Hezekiah abundantly supplied and fortified by the promises of God? Was it not a sign of distrust to seek new promises from the Prophet?” I reply, it ought not to be ascribed to unbelief or distrust, that he seeks a new promise; for, being conscious of his weakness, he does not scruple to ask new confirmations. The flesh always excites us to distrust, and therefore we ought not to despise additional aid; on the contrary, we ought always to seek every kind of assistance, by which we may resist various temptations; for on all sides Satan attacks and besieges us in such a manner that, if we are not strongly fortified, we shall scarcely be able to escape his snares and devices till the end. Although, therefore, we have been taught by the word of God that he will assist us in adversity, yet when we are engaged in any arduous contest, it is proper that we should again and again ask at the mouth of the Lord, and seek new confirmations for the purpose of strengthening our faith. There are indeed no prophecies of the same kind that are given to us in the present day; but we ought to apply to our use the general prophecies, which were also written for our benefit. (Rom 15:4.)

As to the reason why Hezekiah sent ambassadors, and did not himself go to Isaiah, it was obviously because he was praying in the Temple; for the circumstance, that all the elders and counsellors were clothed with sackcloth, shews clearly that the mourning was general; and it is probable that prayers were publicly offered by the command of the king. Yet it ought to be observed, that the Prophet did not remain at home for his own ease or pleasure, but by his absence God intended to try the faith of the pious king.

Calvin: Isa 37:4 - If perhaps Jehovah thy God will hear // If perhaps Jehovah, thy God shall hear the words which Jehovah thy God hath heard // Jehovah thy God // Thou wilt therefore lift up a prayer // For the remnant that is still left 4.If perhaps Jehovah thy God will hear Hezekiah appears to doubt whether, or not the Lord is willing to hear him; for the particle אולי (ulai)...

4.If perhaps Jehovah thy God will hear Hezekiah appears to doubt whether, or not the Lord is willing to hear him; for the particle אולי (ulai) is translated perhaps, and this is the meaning which it frequently bears in Scripture. But it ought to be observed that believers, even though they know with certainty that the Lord will assist them, yet, in consequence of being perplexed by the difficulty of the case, often speak in this manner. Hezekiah had reasons for hesitating, if we look at the matter itself; but when he turns his eyes to the word, he is made certain as to the will of God, so that he ceases to tremble. But as it is impossible that the flesh should not retard believers by making them walk in a halting and staggering manner, 46 they sometimes accommodate their language to the present appearances of things.

It may also be observed, in other passages of Scripture, that the saints, even while speaking of what was certain, spoke in this manner; for Peter, in exhorting Simon, says,

If perhaps this thought of thy heart may be forgiven thee.”
(Act 8:22.)

He does not advise Simon to tremble and hesitate in prayer; for stroh a supplication would have been vain; but he points out the heinousness of the offense; that he may strike his mind more forcibly, and may at length constrain him to rouse himself that he may approach God with true repentance. This word perhaps, therefore, does not imply doubt, but is equivalent to an expression which we commonly use, if it be possible, when we venture to hope and promise to ourselves something. And Hezekiah did not speak as if God were deaf to the words of the ungodly, or as if anything escaped his notice; but because it was a fixed principle in his heart that “God is near to all that truly call upon him,” (Psa 145:18,) he determines to strive against despondency, and arms himself by prayer; and because he does not expect to gain the conquest without difficulty, he says, If perhaps. 47 Besides, he mentions two kinds of hearing, which in some measure removes the difficulty.

If perhaps Jehovah, thy God shall hear the words which Jehovah thy God hath heard At first sight there is some apparent contradiction in these words; but the manner of speaking is highly appropriate, because Hezekiah was assuredly and beyond all controversy convinced that nothing is hidden from God; only he argues with himself on this point, whether or not, God determines to call in question the blasphemy of this filthy dog; because frequently he delays and conceals vengeance for a time, and thus seems to shut his eyes and overlook it. In short, taking for granted that

“all things are open and manifest to God,” (Heb 4:13,)

he only asks with earnestness whether or not God actually shews that he is so highly offended by the blasphemies of Rabshakeh that he determines not to allow them to remain unpunished. In a word, he wishes God to hear effectually, that is, by restoring those things which were scattered and confused, and shewing himself to be a judge; for then do we know that he actually sees and observes all things. In this manner Hezekiah asks, “Hath not the Lord heard the blasphemies of Rabshakeh, to take vengeance on them, and to shew that he hath a regard to the glory of his name?”

Jehovah thy God By calling him “the God of Isaiah,” Hezekiah does not mean that there is only one man who worships God, nor does he exclude himself from the number of the godly; but because prayers flowed from doctrine, the pious king wished to speak in commendation of the ministry of the Prophet, and to testify that he was a true servant of God. That relation is somewhat more extensive; for all believers call on God, and, on the other hand, God reckons them among his people; but God is reckoned in a peculiar manner to be the God of Isaiah and Paul, because they have a special calling. In a word, these words expressly contain praise and commendation of Isaiah’s calling.

Thou wilt therefore lift up a prayer This is the second reason why Hezekiah sent messengers to Isaiah; namely, that he also would pray along with others. Hence we learn that it is the duty of a prophet, not only to comfort the afflicted by the word of the Lord, but also to offer his prayers for their salvation. Let not pastors and ministers of the word, therefore, think that they have fully discharged their duty, when they have exhorted and taught, if they do not also add prayer. This indeed is what all ought to do; but Hezekiah sent to Isaiah in a particular manner, because he ought to lead the way to others by his example. Besides, “to lift up a prayer” is nothing else than “to pray,” but the mode of expression deserves attention; for it shews how our feelings ought to be regulated when we pray. Scripture everywhere enjoins us to “lift up our hearts to heaven,” (Lam 3:41;) for otherwise we would have no fear of God. Moreover, our stupidity is so great that we are immediately seized by gross imaginations of God; so that if he did not bid us look to heaven, we would choose rather to seek him at our feet. “To lift up a prayer,” therefore, is to pray in such a manner that our hearts may not grovel on the earth, or think anything earthly or gross about God, but may ascribe to him what is suitable to his majesty, and that our warm and earnest affections may take a lofty flight. In this sense it is said in the Psalm,

“Let my prayer come up before thee as incense,
and as the evening sacrifice.” (Psa 141:2.)

For the remnant that is still left When he desires that prayer should be offered “for the remnant of the people that was left,” this circumstance was fitted powerfully to move the Lord; not that he is moved after the manner of men, but he acts towards us in this manner, and accommodates himself to our weakness. Thus when our affairs are brought to such an extremity that we are not far from destruction, we ought to spread our misery before God, that our minds may receive some consolation; for God declares that he hath regard to “the poor and afflicted.” (Psa 22:24.) And the nearer we appear to be to destruction, so much the more warmly and earnestly ought we to implore that he would render assistance to us, as we see here that Hezekiah did when matters were desperate.

Calvin: Isa 37:5 - And the servants of King Hezekiah came to Isaiah 5.And the servants of King Hezekiah came to Isaiah As the Prophet formerly related that the pious king had no other refuge than to consult the mouth ...

5.And the servants of King Hezekiah came to Isaiah As the Prophet formerly related that the pious king had no other refuge than to consult the mouth of the Lord, so he now shews that he did not consult in vain; for he received the consolation which he desired. Instructed by this example, if we seek relief from him by pouring our cares and anxieties into the bosom of God, our hope shall never be disappointed; and although there will not always be prophets in the world, such as Isaiah was, yet he will come forth seasonably to render assistance in an appropriate manner.

Calvin: Isa 37:6 - Thus saith Jehovah // Fear not // The servants of the king of Assyria 6.Thus saith Jehovah Isaiah begins by saying that he gives the reply in the name of God, and expressly declares that the oracle comes from God, both ...

6.Thus saith Jehovah Isaiah begins by saying that he gives the reply in the name of God, and expressly declares that the oracle comes from God, both because prophets ought always to beware of bringing forward anything of their own, and because in so difficult a matter the authority of God was needful. In this manner also, the Prophet shewed that he met the prayers of the pious king. Even false prophets, indeed, boast of the name of God, but falsely. Isaiah was truly the organ of the Holy Spirit, and therefore he has a right to mention the holy name of Him that sent him.

Fear not When he bids him “not fear,” he exhorts Hezekiah to be of a courageous or, at least, a calm disposition. Whenever we hear this word, let us be reminded that we are enjoined to cultivate that peace which faith produces in our hearts; for all who trust in God, and expect from him deliverance from their distresses, rise superior to all fears by the exercise of patience, so that even in the midst of affliction they have peace. Besides, in order that the pious king may continue cheerfully to expect a joyful issue, he plainly declares that God conducts his own cause which he has undertaken to defend, because he cannot permit wicked men unpunished to dishonor his name without making it appear at length that he is a righteous judge. 48

The servants of the king of Assyria By calling them servants, he presents in a stronger light the baseness of the action; for although the king himself had spoken in this manner, still it would have been intolerable that the Lord should be despised and so shamefully attacked by a mortal man. Hence it might easily be concluded that much less would he endure to be so highly insulted by “servants,” 49 and therefore the rank of the person increases the heinoushess of the attack.

Calvin: Isa 37:7 - Behold, I will bring a wind upon him // For he shall hear a report // And I will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land 7.Behold, I will bring a wind upon him Others translate it, “I will put my Spirit in him,” as if the Prophet were speaking of a secret influence ...

7.Behold, I will bring a wind upon him Others translate it, “I will put my Spirit in him,” as if the Prophet were speaking of a secret influence of the heart; but that is a forced interpretation. It is a highly appropriate metaphor that there is in the hand of God a wind or whirlwind to drive Sennacherib in another direction. To compare wicked men to “straw or chaff,’ (Psa 1:4) is a mode of expression frequently employed in Scripture, because God easily drives them wherever he thinks proper, when they think that they are standing very firm. The commotion that arose in the kingdom of Sennacherib is compared by the Prophet to a “wind” or “storm” which drove him out of Judea, and then he shews that the Lord will find no more difficulty in repelling that enemy than if he wished to move straw or chaff; and the very same thing might be said of all tyrants, however powerful.

For he shall hear a report The words “and he shall hear” are evidently added for the sake of explanation, and therefore I have chosen to interpret them as assigning a reason, “For he shall hear.” 50 This is the wind by the raising of which Sennacherib was suddenly driven away; for a report which he heard about the kings of Egypt and Ethiopia constrained him to return to his own country.

And I will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land This means as if he had said, “He now annoys and harasses others, and endeavors to extend widely the limits of his empire; but I will raise up enemies to him, in the very bosom of his own land, who shall discomfit him.” Some expound it to mean the land of Israel, but that is an excessively forced interpretation; for he speaks of the land of the king of Assyria himself, and there is an implied contrast, “He who subdued other men’s cities and kingdoms shall not be able to defend his own country, but shall be destroyed and perish in it.”

Calvin: Isa 37:8 - And Rabshakeh having returned 8.And Rabshakeh having returned He now declares how Rabshakeh, without doing anything, returned to his king, not to the same place where he had left ...

8.And Rabshakeh having returned He now declares how Rabshakeh, without doing anything, returned to his king, not to the same place where he had left him; for he understood that he had raised the siege of Lachish, and had departed into Egypt for the purpose of attacking Libnah. Some think that this city is Pelusium, others choose rather to assign it to Judea. It is, indeed, probable that, in consequence of a report that reached him about the approach of enemies, he moved his camp towards Egypt, that by meeting them he might prevent them from advancing. Though God restrained the violence of the tyrant by a new war, in order to give some relief to the Jews, yet he did not wish to conquer the tyrant by the hand of man, but only to shew openly and, as it were, to display on a theater his unconquerable pride; because, even when he was in great danger, he did not cease to vomit out the same blasphemies, as we shall soon see.

Calvin: Isa 37:9 - And hearing concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia // He sent messengers to Hezekiah 9.And hearing concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia From what follows we may conjecture the reason why the king of Assyria suddenly departed from Jude...

9.And hearing concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia From what follows we may conjecture the reason why the king of Assyria suddenly departed from Judea; for the kings of Egypt and Ethiopia had formed a league with each other against Sennacherib, because they saw that his power was becoming excessive, and that his invasion of other countries had no limit, and therefore they readily concluded that, unless they opposed his violence at an early period, they also would be in imminent danger from him. These kings did not intend to provide for the safety of Judea at their own loss, but looked to themselves; for so great power possessed by one individual is commonly and deservedly viewed with suspicion by other princes and nations. They therefore act wisely in joining their forces and meeting him early; for separately they would easily have been subdued and destroyed. For this reason these two kings took arms together, in order to repel the power and violence of that tyrant.

He sent messengers to Hezekiah The king of Assyria, being involved in so hazardous a war, “sends messengers to Hezekiah,” to induce him by terrors and threatenings to surrender; for tyrants are maddened by ambition and by a false opinion of their own greatness, and therefore imagine that their words, the report of their name, and even their shadow, will strike terror into all men. Entangled in a hazardous war, he thinks of subduing Judea, from which he had been compelled to withdraw, ashamed of not having continued the siege, but perhaps thinking that he will gain in his absence what he could not accomplish by his presence. But the Lord miraculously assisted his people who appeared to be very near destruction. And, first, in order to restrain the violence of this tyrant, he presented hinderances and obstructions, from which he could not so speedily extricate himself; just as if one should “lay a bridle on the mouth or a hook on the nose” of a wild and savage beast, as the Prophet will afterwards say. (Isa 37:29.) His rage and cruelty, indeed, are not abated, but are restrained so that they can do no harm.

We see the same thing in the present day. How many cruel tyrants would wish that the Church of God were destroyed! What schemes are employed for the accomplishment of it! How diversified are the plans which they form! What forces do they assemble from every quarter! But when they think that they will accomplish anything, the Lord suddenly raises up enemies against them, sometimes even brings them to fight with each other, and turns against themselves that cruelty which they wished to exercise against the children of God. Yet they go on in their cruelty, and cease not to attempt this or that; as this Sennacherib, though he is surrounded by difficulties, ceases not to annoy Hezekiah, and addresses him from his royal throne, as if he were a despicable slave, and commands him as if he were his vassal, and even to God himself addresses insolent and opprobrious language, and goes beyond his agent Rabshakeh in arrogance; for, although Rabshakeh’s words had the same meaning, still this man, in a more impudent manner, and, as we may say, with more open mouth reviles God.

Calvin: Isa 37:10 - Let not thy God deceive thee // Saying, Jerusalem shall not be delivered 10.Let not thy God deceive thee How shocking is this blasphemy, to speak of God the Author of truth, and to accuse him of falsehood and deceit, as if...

10.Let not thy God deceive thee How shocking is this blasphemy, to speak of God the Author of truth, and to accuse him of falsehood and deceit, as if he actually imposed on his people! What is left to God when his truth is taken away, for nothing is more absolutely his own? God extorted this word from the wicked man, although he formerly pretended to revere some deity; for such impiety, as we have formerly said, God does not permit to remain any longer concealed.

Saying, Jerusalem shall not be delivered This quotation of the words uttered by God himself, that “Jerusalem would be preserved,” has led some to conjecture that Isaiah’s prediction had been disclosed to the king of Assyria by the traitor Shebna. But there is no need of such conjectures; for the Assyrian knew well that Hezekiah placed his hope in God, and was not ignorant of the promises which were made both to him and to David,

“This is my rest; here will I dwell for ever and ever.”
(Psa 132:14.)

Not that he gave himself any trouble about heavenly oracles, but because every person knew and talked of them, and the Jews gloried in them wonderfully, and often boasted of the assistance and protection of God in opposition to their enemies.

These promises, therefore, the tyrant meets by this blasphemy, — “Let not thy God deceive thee.” And thus he exalts himself against God, as if God were not sufficiently powerful to defend Jerusalem, and as if his own power were greater, not only than all the power of men, but even than the power of God himself. He endeavors to prove this by examples, because he has vanquished nations which were under the protection of other gods, and draws an argument from the power of his ancestors, — “They conquered the gods of other nations, and I am far superior to my ancestors; therefore the God of Israel will not conquer me.”

Thus do wicked men commonly exalt themselves more and more in prosperity, so that at length they forget that they are men, and not only claim for themselves, but even think that they surpass, Divine Majesty. Setting aside all distinction between right and wrong, satisfied with the mere power of doing injury, they glory in their own crimes and those of their ancestors, and egregiously flatter themselves on the ground of their being descended from robbers and infamous men; for frequently the most powerful of monarchs is the best entitled to be called the rich son of a great robber. This tyrant does not consider whether it was in a right or a wrong manner that so many countries came into the power of his ancestors; for they have no regard to justice or injustice, when they aim at greatness; it is enough for them if in any way, either lawful or unlawful, they can bring others under their yoke. Thus they think that they are at liberty to do whatever they can. They hold by that proverb, (εἰ ἀδικητέον τυραννίδος περὶ ἀδικητέον) “if justice ought to be violated, it ought to be violated for the sake of reigning;” and this vice was not peculiar to a single age, but even now we feel it to be excessive.

Calvin: Isa 37:11 - Behold, thou hast heard 11.Behold, thou hast heard Here we ought to observe a twofold comparison; for he compares Hezekiah to other kings of Judah who preceded him, because ...

11.Behold, thou hast heard Here we ought to observe a twofold comparison; for he compares Hezekiah to other kings of Judah who preceded him, because he was inferior to them, and yet they were vanquished by the kings of Assyria; and Sennacherib, on the other hand, having obtained greater power than all the rest, is more daring and insolent. It followed, that Hezekiah could not resist him. The other comparison is that of the kings of Assyria, and Sennacherib himself, with the idols of the nations; for if the idols could not protect the nations that adored them, consequently neither will the God of Israel defend the nation by which he is adored.

When we thus read that singular assaults of temptations were directed against the faith of Hezekiah, let us prepare ourselves for the contest by being equipped with the same armor. Even while leisure is granted to us, let us endeavour to fortify ourselves early, in order that, when we come into such a field of battle, we may fight courageously. And if Satan taunt us with the destruction of many nations, we must attend to the difference of our condition; because, although we are liable to similar calamities, still we have assured hope of our salvation, of which they are destitute.

Calvin: Isa 37:12 - Gozan 12.Gozan This place is mentioned in 2Kg 17:6. We may infer that it was a town in Media, though some think that it was situated elsewhere; but it is e...

12.Gozan This place is mentioned in 2Kg 17:6. We may infer that it was a town in Media, though some think that it was situated elsewhere; but it is enough that, with regard to Jerusalem, it lay in an easterly direction. Haran is often mentioned in Scripture. Pliny places this town in Arabia; but it is more generally believed to have been in Mesopotamia, and this is confirmed by the journeyings of Abraham, who came to it along with his father, after having left his native country Chaldaea. (Act 7:24; Gen 11:31.) It is called Charrae, in the plural number, by heathen historians, who also mention that Crassus and his son were killed there.

Calvin: Isa 37:14 - Hezekiah took the letters // And spread them before Jehovah 14.Hezekiah took the letters The Prophet now shews what kind of refuge Hezekiah had amidst so great calamities. He immediately went into the Temple, ...

14.Hezekiah took the letters The Prophet now shews what kind of refuge Hezekiah had amidst so great calamities. He immediately went into the Temple, to lament before the Lord the calamity which: he could not remove, and to “cast upon him” (Psa 55:22) his grief and his anxieties. 51 Nor was this a blind or confused lamentation, but the pious king wished to move God by his tears and complaints to render assistance. We are taught by his example that, when we are sore pressed, there is nothing better than to east our burden into the bosom of God. All other methods of relief will be of no avail, if this single method be wanting.

And spread them before Jehovah In “spreading the letters before the Lord,” he does not do this as if the Lord did not know what was contained in the letters, but God allows us to act in this manner towards him in accommodation to our weakness Neither prayers, nor tears, nor complaints make known to God what we need; for he

“knows our wants and necessities before we ask anything
from him.” (Mat 6:8.)

But here we ought rather to consider what is necessary for us, that is, that God should manifest that he knows the blasphemies of adversaries, and that they who have uttered them will not remain unpunished. The reason and design, therefore, why Hezekiah “spread before the Lord the letters” of the wicked tyrant was this, that he might excite his own earnestness, and inflame his own ardor, in prayer.

Calvin: Isa 37:15 - Then Hezekiah prayed to God, saying, O Jehovah of hosts 15.Then Hezekiah prayed to God, saying, O Jehovah of hosts Because Sennacherib was the agent employed by Satan to shake the faith of Hezekiah, he def...

15.Then Hezekiah prayed to God, saying, O Jehovah of hosts Because Sennacherib was the agent employed by Satan to shake the faith of Hezekiah, he defends himself by this rampart, that God possesses infinite power; for, by bestowing on God those lofty praises, he undoubtedly encourages himself to confidence in supplication. That out’ prayers may not be unsuccessful, we ought always to hold it as certain that God “is the rewarder of all who seek him.” (Heb 11:6.) It was especially necessary for the pious king, that he might boldly and undauntedly remove the obstruction by which Satan had attempted to stop the progress of his confidence, to believe that although wicked men mock and undervalue the power of God, still it remains undiminished. The heroic, courage of the pious king appeared by not only contending with a wicked king in maintaining the power of God, but. by exalting it in his own heart and appealing to God as the witness of his inward feelings. Accordingly, before forming any prayer, he overturns the delusions by which Satan had endeavored to shake his courage.

Calvin: Isa 37:16 - Thou alone art God over all the kingdoms of the earth // Thou hast made heaven and earth // O Jehovah of hosts, God of Israel, who dwellest between the Cherubim 16.Thou alone art God over all the kingdoms of the earth Not only does he assert God’s almighty power, but likewise maintains the authority which h...

16.Thou alone art God over all the kingdoms of the earth Not only does he assert God’s almighty power, but likewise maintains the authority which he exercises over the whole world. And these statements are made by the pious king for the purpose of strengthening himself in the faith which he entertained about the providence of God, by which he governs the world and every part of it. All believers ought above all to believe this, that they may not think that they pray in vain. Nor would the prayer of the king have had so much efficacy if he had only said, “Incline thine ear, O Lord,” or something of that sort, as when he believes that the Lord takes care of his works. He persuades himself that God will undertake that cause. If it belongs to God to rule and govern the whole world, he will not permit this tyrant to act in this insolent manner without restraining his insolence; for Sennacherib claims for himself what belonged to God, and at length would not pass unpunished.

The statement, that all the kingdoms of the earth are under the power and authority of God, applies especially to the present subject. Yet while this title always belongs to God alone, that he “rules over all kingdoms,” Still the Prophet does not deny that kings also, and princes, and magistrates hold their dominion, but so as to be subject to God, and to owe to him all their power and authority. In like manner, when Paul asserts that government belongs to God alone, (1Ti 6:15,) he does not overthrow princes and magistrates, but shews that all, how great and powerful soever they may be, depend on God alone, that they may not imagine themselves to be his equals or companions, but may acknowledge him as their Lord and Prince. Thus will kings, therefore, retain their authority, if they keep an intermediate position between God and men, and do not wish to rise higher.

Thou hast made heaven and earth Hezekiah draws the same inference from creation itself; for it is impossible that God, who is the Creator of heaven and earth, should forsake his work; on the contrary, he governs by his providence the human race, which is the chief part of the world. It would be absurd to confine creation within such narrow boundaries as if it were a proof of a sudden and transitory exercise of the power of God; but we must extend it to perpetual government. Hence it is evident that tyrants who wish to rule at their pleasure rob God of his honor, and therefore are justly punished for their insolence.

O Jehovah of hosts, God of Israel, who dwellest between the Cherubim Here are other titles employed by Hezekiah for the confirmation of his faith. And, first, by calling him “Jehovah of hosts,” he again extols his power. But when he adds “God of Israel,” he brings him near, and on familiar terms; for it was no ordinary token of love to take that nation under his protection. Such is also the import of “sitting between the cherubim;” as if he had said, “Thou hast here placed thy seat, and promised that thou wilt be the protector of those who call upon thee before the ark of the covenant. Relying on this promise, I flee to thee as my guardian.”

Hezekiah had in view, I have no doubt, the form of the ark, which was surrounded by two cherubim. Others interpret Cherubim to mean angels, as if it were said, that God reigneth in heaven and sitteth among the angels. But this interpretation is unsuitable; for he is said to “sit between the cherubim,” on account of the form of the ark, which was constructed in this manner. (Exo 25:18.) We know that it was a symbol of the presence of God, though his power was not confined to it; and Hezekiah, by mentioning it, intended to express his firm belief that God was present with him, and had designed to gather a people to himself by spreading, so to speak, his wings over them. There being a wide distance between God and us, Hezekiah embraced that token of adoption. Yet there was nothing gross or earthly in his conceptions of God, as superstitious men would desire to bring him down from heaven, but, satisfied with the promise which he had received, he expresses his firm belief that we do not need to go far to seek the grace of God.

This mode of expression, therefore, deserves our attention, and teaches us, that while we gradually ascend to heaven by the light of the word which leads the way, still, in order to obtain assistance, we must not think of God as absent; for he has chosen his dwelling in the midst of us. Since his majesty far exceeds heaven and earth, we must not limit him within the capacity of our understanding; and yet, as he has revealed himself to us by the word, we may comprehend him in proportion to the small ability and measure of our understanding, not that we may bring him down from his heavenly throne, but that our understandings, which are naturally feeble and sluggish, may approach to him by degrees; for it is proper that we should strive to approach to his loftiness, since he invites us by the Word and sacraments. If we are skillful interpreters, the spiritual knowledge of God will always flourish among us; we shall not give the name of God to stones, or wood, or trees; there will be nothing earthly or gross in our conceptions of him; but the nearer he comes down to us, the more earnestly shall we labor to make a proper use of those aids which he holds out, that our minds may not grovel on the earth; since God accommodates himself to our weakness for no other reason than that the sacraments may serve to us the purpose of ladders, 52 which superstition abuses for a contrary purpose.

Calvin: Isa 37:17 - incline thine ear, O Jehovah // Open thine eyes, O Jehovah, and see 17.incline thine ear, O Jehovah From these words we conclude how great was the perplexity of Hezekiah; for the earnestness that pervades the prayer b...

17.incline thine ear, O Jehovah From these words we conclude how great was the perplexity of Hezekiah; for the earnestness that pervades the prayer breathes an amazing power of anguish, so that it is. easily seen that he had a struggle attended by uncommon difficulty to escape from the temptation. Though his warmth in prayer shews the strength and eminence of his faith, yet at the same time it exhibits, as in a mirror, the stormy passions. Whenever we shall be called to sustain such contests, let us learn by the example of the pious king to combat our passions by everything that is fitted to strengthen our faith, so that the very disturbance may conduct us to safety and peace, and that we may not be terrified by a conviction of our weakness, if at any time we shall be powerfully assailed by fear and perplexity. It is, indeed, the will of the Lord that we shall toil hard, and sweat and shiver; for we must not expect to gain the victory while we repose in indolence, but after diversified contests he promises to us a prosperous issue, which he will undoubtedly grant.

But why does Hezekiah demand that God should listen? Does he think float he is asleep or does not hear? By no means; but in a matter of such difficulty we frequently speak in such a manner as if we thought that God was absent or did not attend to our afflictions. He shews that he was oppressed by so great perplexity that he almost thought that God had forsaken him; that is, according to the eyes of the flesh; for if he had not by the eyes of faith beheld God as present, he would have lost courage.

Open thine eyes, O Jehovah, and see It is as if Hezekiah had prayed that the assistance of God, which he had long kept in his heart committed to the guardianship of hope, would be actually and publicly manifested; and therefore he prays that Jehovah would “open his eyes and see;” that is, would shew that he cares about these matters. Hezekiah shews plainly what was the subject about which he was most anxious, namely, that God would revenge the insults offered to him; for although he was deeply affected by anxiety about his kingdom and people, yet he set a higher value on the glory of God than on all other sources of uneasiness. The advancement of that glory ought:, indeed, above all things, to move and impress our hearts, and the more especially because we know that it is closely connected with our salvation.

Thus Hezekiah here represents this tyrant as an enemy of God, who dishonors him by reproaches and curses because Jerusalem glories in his name and protection, and concludes that God cannot forsake the city which he hath undertaken to defend, without at the same time abandoning his own name. Since, therefore, God in his infinite goodness chooses to connect our salvation with his glory, we ought to lay held on those promises for the purpose of strengthening our hearts, that although the wicked, while they reproach God and pour and vomit out the venom of their breast, harden themselves in the vain hope that they shall not be punished, still there will not be a syllable which the Lord does not hear, and which he does not at length call to account.

Calvin: Isa 37:18 - Truly, O Jehovah 18. and 19.Truly, O Jehovah Here Hezekiah begins to distinguish between the false gods and the true God, which we also ought to do very carefully. W...

18. and 19.Truly, O Jehovah Here Hezekiah begins to distinguish between the false gods and the true God, which we also ought to do very carefully. Wicked men, who have no light, indulge in some confused imaginations about God, which quickly pass away, so that they think that there is no God, or care nothing about him. 53 But God does not wish that his people shall be moved by a slight and passing opinion, but that he shall be acknowledged by them as the true God, who drives away all superstitions by the brightness of his power. 54 It is not; enough, therefore, that we believe in something which heathens imagine to be a deity, but we must believe in God in such a manner as to distinguish him from pretended gods, and to separate truth from falsehood; and, indeed, when he has once shone into our hearts, those false religions which formerly occupied our minds immediately give way.

This doctrine ought to be the more carefully held, because many persons rest satisfied with dark speculations, and think that it is enough if they acknowledge some deity. They evidently do not know whether they ought to worship the God of the Mahometans or of the Jews; and fly in the air, so that, as the saying is, they neither touch heaven nor earth. Nothing can be more destructive than this imagination; for it mingles and confounds idols with God, whose majesty does not hold its due rank. if it does not reign in solitary grandeur over the ruins of all the false gods. Thus the beginning of true piety is, that from the whole multitude of false gods we shall wisely distinguish that one God to whom we ought to be entirely devoted.

Calvin: Isa 37:19 - For they are not gods, but the work of the hands of man, wood and stone For they are not gods, but the work of the hands of man, wood and stone By two arguments Hezekiah shews that “they were not gods;” first, because ...

For they are not gods, but the work of the hands of man, wood and stone By two arguments Hezekiah shews that “they were not gods;” first, because they consisted of matter, 55 and secondly, because they were formed by the hands of men. Nothing can be more absurd than for a man to assume the right to create a god, not only because he had a beginning, while God is eternal, but because not even for a single moment does he subsist by his own power. Let the whole world collect all its strength into a single man, 56 he will not even be able to create a fica. What presumption is it, therefore, that every mortal man shall make for himself either one god or many! 57 Since, therefore, there is nothing in us but what is frail and fading, we shall never be able to produce a deity.

Besides, it is in the highest degree absurd to attempt, as an exercise of skill, to frame some deity out of matter which is corruptible and devoid of feeling, as if “wood or stone,” whenever it received a shape, began to be a god. In this manner, therefore, all the superstitions that men have ever invented are speedily overturned; for the existence of those gods can be found nowhere but in their own brains, and, indeed, all that they have of themselves contrived is condemned as empty and false.

Calvin: Isa 37:20 - And now, O Jehovah our God // May know that thou alone art Jehovah 20.And now, O Jehovah our God At the conclusion of his prayer, the pious king now rises above that fear with which he had struggled; for the aids by ...

20.And now, O Jehovah our God At the conclusion of his prayer, the pious king now rises above that fear with which he had struggled; for the aids by which he had hitherto fortified himself undoubtedly encouraged him boldly to add this short clause. Although God does not always deliver his people from temporal evils, yet as he had promised that he would be the protector of the city, Hezekiah could firmly believe that all the efforts of that wicked tyrant, which were directed to the destruction of that city, would be fruitless.

May know that thou alone art Jehovah When he pleads it as an argument with God that the deliverance of the city will be an occasion of promoting his glory, we conclude that nothing is more desirable than to make his name glorious in every possible way; and this is even the chief design of our salvation, from which we are not at liberty to depart, if we desire that God should be gracious to us. Hence we conelude that those men are unworthy of his assistance, who, satisfied with their own salvation, disregard or forget the reason why God chooses to preserve them. Not only do they dishonor God by this ingratitude, but they likewise inflict grievous injury on themselves, by separating those things which God had joined; for in saving his people he glorifies his name, which must be, as we have already said, our highest consolation. Besides, Hezekiah does not only desire that the God of Israel shall hold a certain rank, but that all idols shall be abolished, and that he shall reign alone; for at that time many idolaters would have allowed him to be worshipped along with others, but, since he does not admit companions, every deity framed by the hand of man must be destroyed, that He may hold the undivided sovereignty.

Calvin: Isa 37:21 - Then Isaiah sent to Hezekiah // Thus saith Jehovah the God of Israel // Since thou hast prayed to // Concerning Sennacherib king of Assyria 21.Then Isaiah sent to Hezekiah This shews the result of the prayer; for, as soon as matters have come to an extremity, God suddenly holds out his ha...

21.Then Isaiah sent to Hezekiah This shews the result of the prayer; for, as soon as matters have come to an extremity, God suddenly holds out his hand to assist the pious king by the Prophet Isaiah. (2Kg 19:20.) Not that he immediately stretches out his arm to drive away the enemies, but he promises deliverance by the mouth of the Prophet, and thus calls even now into exercise the faith of his servant. Isaiah undoubtedly could not of himself render any assistance, and therefore it would have been foolish for him to promise this or that, if Hezekiah had not been convinced that God had sent him. Thus, until God should give a manifestation of his power, he rested satisfied with this consolation.

Thus saith Jehovah the God of Israel Here we are taught that we ought always to ask at the mouth of God, if we wish to obtain any alleviation in our anxieties and distresses; for if we reject the doctrine which he communicates to us by the hand of faithful teachers, we are utterly unworthy of receiving any consolation. Fed and nourished by it, we ought to make continual progress, and to seek from it new confirmations, that new remedies may be constantly found for new distresses, and that we may never be destitute of consolation even amidst the sharpest afflictions; for even they whose resources and means of defense are most extensive cannot be too abundantly supplied with this doctrine. In Hezekiah a striking instance of faith and steadfastness is here exhibited; and yet the Lord does not merely comfort him once or only by a single prophecy, but confirms him by many prophecies, in order that we, who are far removed from such steadfastness, may know that we need many and various aids, to give uninterrupted support to our faith.

Since thou hast prayed to me. In the sacred history (2Kg 19:20) the word I have heard, is used; and consequently in that passage אשר ( asher) is a relative pronoun; but here, as in many other passages, it is introduced either for the sake of explanation or in assigning a reason. 58 To supply the word I have heard, as some commentators do, is harsh and unnatural; and the sentence flows on in unbroken connection, when God declares that he grants it as an answer to the prayers of Hezekiah, that he will frustrate all the efforts of the tyrant, and restrain his violence and rage; as if he had said, that God’s answer corresponded to the prayers of the pious king. And, indeed, whoever addresses prayers to him will at length experience how ready he is to answer; but very frequently he is silent, and offers no consolation from his word, because amidst our distresses we are dumb.

Concerning Sennacherib king of Assyria The prediction amounts to this, that there is no reason why Hezekiah, under a consciousness of destitution and weakness, should faint or despair, when he sees the insolence of this haughty tyrant; because God will interpose between them. Sennacherib having offered those insults to the wretched Jews, God declares that he takes this cause into his own hands, because the affront was directed against himself. By these words he shews that he will take vengeance, when his grace is despised by unbelievers; and he advises believers not to be greatly distressed on account of their being despised by the world, provided that their weakness finds assistance ready prepared in heaven.

Calvin: Isa 37:22 - The virgin daughter of Zion 22.The virgin daughter of Zion There is greater emphasis in this address to the whole Church than if he had said the same tiring to Hezekiah as a pri...

22.The virgin daughter of Zion There is greater emphasis in this address to the whole Church than if he had said the same tiring to Hezekiah as a private individual; for this circumstance heightens the baseness of treating with scorn the defencelessness of a wretched people, as if the aid of heaven had been of no avail. Thus he censures the blindness of Sennacherib, in disregarding God and haughtily despising an afflicted Church. Cities are frequently called daughters. (Psa 9:14.) Sometimes also, as we have formerly seen, delicate cities are called virgins. (Isa 1:8.) But here he intended to express the weakness of the city of Jerusalem, because she was like an orphan and destitute virgin, who was insulted by this base ruffian and infamous robber; while God, as the father to whom this insult is offered, declares that he knows well what are the schemes of that wicked man, and what is the condition of the whole of Judea.

Calvin: Isa 37:23 - Whom hast thou reproached? // Against whom hast thou raised thy voice? // Against the Holy One of Israel 23.Whom hast thou reproached? In the former verse he describes the fact, such as it might be seen and beheld by all; but now he raises their minds hi...

23.Whom hast thou reproached? In the former verse he describes the fact, such as it might be seen and beheld by all; but now he raises their minds higher, by shewing that this tyrant insults not only Jerusalem but God himself. Let this passage be brought to our remembrance, whenever we see ourselves exposed to the taunts and insolence of wicked men; for, though we have no armor, and though no one undertakes our defense, and though our weakness prompts our enemies to growing insolence, yet the Lord is near and will defend us as with an ample shield, for they who fight against us wage war with the living God. Nor were these words spoken merely for the sake of a single age, but on the contrary, as this promise is perpetual,

“I will be thy God and thy shield,”
(Gen 15:1,)

“I will be a friend to thy friends, and an adversary to thy adversaries,”
(Gen 12:3; Exo 23:22,)

so the less strength that is left to us, let us be more fully convinced that the power of God is close at hand. Since therefore the Lord hath entered into covenant with us on the condition of undertaking our cause, let us not doubt that he will actually fulfill it, and will shew that the insults which are offered to us are offered to himself. In a word, he is joined to us in such a manner that he wishes all that belongs to him and to us to be in common.

Besides, those reproaches which Sennacherib had thrown out against the Church God applies to himself, in order to shew that wicked men are greatly mistaken when they are proud of their greatness, as if they would escape punishment for treading on the Church, because she is lying at their feet. We know that they treat with contempt the providence of God; and especially when they see believers groaning under the yoke, they think them unworthy of receiving assistance from God, who therefore rises up and testifies that the contempt shewn to his poor flock grieves him as much as if his majesty were openly dishonored. Although, therefore, enemies think that we are forsaken by God when they see us destitute of earthly resources, and on that account commit grosser outrage, as if we were given to them for a prey, yet, on the other hand, God declares that our salvation is dear and precious to him.

Against whom hast thou raised thy voice? The Prophet employs a variety of terms in describing the disdain and insolence of this haughty man, as one who in speech, in face, in gesture, in his eyes, and, in short, in the whole attitude of his body, was absolutely intolerable; for tyrants, having such an opinion of themselves, assume such airs and look down on every one else as if they had fallen down from heaven.

Against the Holy One of Israel At length he adds, that, although the affairs of the nation are at a low ebb, still God, under whose protection they are placed, remains in heaven as powerful as ever, he thus censures the madness of Sennacherib in judging of a nation from earthly appearances, and not considering that they were dedicated and consecrated to God. In order, therefore, that we may remain safe through the power of God: and that his arm may give us seasonable aid, we must be his Israel; which will be the case if, relying on his word, we

“recline under the shadow of his wings.” (Psa 36:7.)

Calvin: Isa 37:24 - By the hand of thy servants // I will ascend the heights of the mountains, the sides of Lebanon 24.By the hand of thy servants This also heightens the baseness and cruelty of the insult, for it is harder to bear reproaches from a servant than fr...

24.By the hand of thy servants This also heightens the baseness and cruelty of the insult, for it is harder to bear reproaches from a servant than from his master, the insult being rendered more grievous by the meanness of the person. Renee also proud and insolent men, in order to render their threatenings more galling and offensive, boast that they will do this or that by one of their servants or footmen, for the purpose of testifying more strongly their contemptuous feelings towards those whom they hate. The Prophet therefore intended to represent more strongly the baseness of the blasphemy by this circumstance, that Sennacherib had not only vomited it out of his own mouth, but had employed “his servant” Rabshakeh to utter scornful language against the holy name of God.

I will ascend the heights of the mountains, the sides of Lebanon What he now repeats as having been spoken by Sennacherib, some understand to relate generally to former victories which he had gained, and by which, as we have already said, he had vanquished many nations. But I choose rather to take a more simple view, and to interpret it as relating to the present siege. Perceiving almost the whole of Judea subjected to his power, having taken possession of the hills which surrounded that country on all sides, he swells with insolence as if he had gained a complete victory, and threatens that he will take within his grasp those battlemerits and Mount Lebanon, with its cedars and firs and ether attractions; as if he had said that nothing shall hinder him from taking possession of the bulwarks, castles, and best fortified places, and wielding the whole of Judea at his pleasure. Thus do tyrants, though they acknowledge that war is doubtful, still dream of having in their power the successful results of battles.

Calvin: Isa 37:25 - I shall dig and drink water 25.I shall dig and drink water The tyrant still goes on to boast of his strength, and threatens that e will bring so powerful an army that by means o...

25.I shall dig and drink water The tyrant still goes on to boast of his strength, and threatens that e will bring so powerful an army that by means of their numbers he will dry up all the fountains and rivers. Yet, when he says, “With the sole of my feet I shall dry up all the lakes of the siege,” by the lakes of the siege 59 some understand the fountain of Siloah, and the cisterns and pools of which the besieged Jews could not be deprived without being consumed by thirst. And, indeed, in the former clause he appears to say that, though the whole country were dry, still he does not dread a scarcity of water, because his vast military forces will be abundantly able to dig wells. In the second clause he adds, that he will have at his command the means of drying up all the waters of the city, so as to slay the Jews by thirst. In short, he means that Jerusalem will be unable to resist the siege, and will not be able to stand out any longer, but must immediately surrender. But while wicked men thus vaunt, God sits in heaven, from which he will at length execute judgment against them; for this narrative of the Prophet is intended to lead us to consider the stupendous judgment of God against that tyrant.

Calvin: Isa 37:26 - Hast thou not heard? // That I made it long ago // And should I now bring it to be desolation? 26.Hast thou not heard? The greater part of commentators explain this verse as if the Lord declared that nothing was now done, or had formerly been d...

26.Hast thou not heard? The greater part of commentators explain this verse as if the Lord declared that nothing was now done, or had formerly been done by this tyrant, which he had not foretold by the mouth of the Prophet, and thus affirmed that he was the author of those things. But I explain it in a different manner, which is, that Jerusalem will be preserved by the assistance of God, because he is the protector of it.

That I made it long ago For the sake of giving greater emphasis, he suppresses the name of the city, and employs the demonstrative pronoun it, as if all other cities had been of no value in the sight of God. 60 Others view the pronoun it as referring to the deliverance which depended on the secret decree of God; but whoever examines judiciously the design and words of the Prophet, will acknowledge that it rather denotes Jerusalem. God had complained that he was dishonored by base reproaches; and yet, in repeating the words of Sennacherib, he mentioned only “Lebanon” and the adjacent country. In order now to shew that under the name “Lebanon” war has been declared against himself, he affirms, as in many other passages of Scripture, that Jerusalem was founded by his own hand and built by his direction, and therefore that, until he was conquered, Sennacherib could not overthrow it.

This doctrine is found everywhere, and frequently repeated in the Scriptures, (Psa 48:8; Isa 14:32,) and contains a remarkable consolation, by which the godly may be sustained amidst the severest afflictions that can befall them; and that consolation is, that they will continually be under God’s protection, because he has elected them. He employs this argument, “I have founded the Church, and therefore the salvation of the Church shall always be my care; because I will not leave unfinished the work which I have begun, but will carry it forward to perfection.” In short, the Lord testifies that he defends and preserves his work, because it involves his honor and our salvation. Yet he is called “the maker of the Church,” in a different sense from that in which he is commonly called the Creator of heaven and earth; for we are his peculiar work, “his workmanship, (τὸ ποίημα,) created anew by his Spirit,” as Paul speaks, and as we have formerly explained on other passages. 61 This work is, therefore, more excellent than the whole creation of the world; that no one may ascribe it to his own exertions or power that he has been adopted into the Church of God; for it is not without good reason that we are called “his workmanship.”

It may be asked, “Why does the Lord say that he formed Jerusalem from ancient days? for there were other cities far more ancient.” I reply, this must not be viewed as referring to the outward form or structure of the city, but to that eternal decree by which he chose it to be his dwelling-place; for although it was declared, even when the ark was built, “This is my rest, here will I dwell,” (Psa 132:14;) and again by Moses,

“Wherever I shall record my name, I will come to thee and will bless thee,” (Exo 20:24;)

yet it had been ordained by God long before. “We were chosen,” as Paul also informs us,

“before the foundations of the world were laid,”
(Eph 1:4;)

and James declares that

“we were begotten by the word of truth, that we might be as it were the first-fruits of all the creatures.” (Jas 1:18.)

He will, therefore, preserve us above all creatures, and will never allow us to perish; and indeed, for the same reason that Christ is called “the firstborn of every creature,” (Col 1:15) “the Church, which is his body,” (Eph 1:22,) possesses the highest honor and dignity in the whole world. I leave to the Rabbins their dreams, that God created the Messiah and Jerusalem with a throne of glory before he created heaven and earth. But we must maintain this doctrine, that God will be the faithful guardian of his Church, because he has deigned to prefer her to the whole world.

And should I now bring it to be desolation? Others take these words in a different sense. I acknowledge that the Prophet’s words are in the past tense, Now have I brought and placed it; but as the change of tenses is frequent in the Hebrew language, the Prophet, after having said that God is the founder of his Church, and that it is the most illustrious of all his works, undoubtedly argues from it that it is impossible that he shall involve his Church in the same ruin as ordinary things. We must therefore read it as a question, “Shall I now bring it?” or, “Shall I now have brought it? As if he had said, “Should I allow it to be ruined, like other cities that have been destroyed and razed?” 62 For he compares Jerusalem to other cities which had been overthrown by the king of Assyria, and subjected to his power, that no one may think that the tyrant can so easily overturn it; because it holds a different position from other cities which have been destroyed and levelled with the ground. It ought not therefore to be compared even to the best fortified cities, for they quickly fall with their earthly strength; but the Church, though small and feeble, has a firm and solid foundation.in the election of God, and cannot be overturned by any billows or tempests.

We see wonderful changes that have often taken place throughout the whole world, republics subverted, empires overthrown, very powerful nations subdued, their name extinguished, and their glory effaced. Where is now the majesty of the Roman Empire? Where is the grandeur of that nation which was mistress of the whole world? If there are any remains of it, (and they are few,) do they not aid the wretched bondage of that detestable monster, Antichrist, whose tyranny is exercised over the whole world? Where is now the liberty of Rome? Where is the beauty of that illustrious republic? May not Rome be justly called the workshop of iniquity, and the lodginghouse of every crime?

But amidst those frightful changes, the Lord declares that he will assist Jerusalem, that is, his Church, and that although amidst those changes she may be afflicted and tossed in various ways, yet she shall stand erect, or at least the shaking and oppression which she may suffer shall not hinder her from being renewed and multiplied from age to age by various resurrections. Although there are not always in the world the same members of the Church, yet it is the same body joined to the same head, that is, Christ. The Lord will therefore defend his city, and will cause

“the children of his servants to continue, that their seed may be established for ever.” (Psa 102:28.)

Calvin: Isa 37:27 - For their inhabitants were maimed // Like the grass of the field and the green herb // The grass of the housetops // Which withereth before it is ripe 27.For their inhabitants were maimed 63 Here the Prophet expresses more fully what he had formerly glanced at briefly, that we ought not to judge of ...

27.For their inhabitants were maimed 63 Here the Prophet expresses more fully what he had formerly glanced at briefly, that we ought not to judge of the condition of the Church from the stability of this world; for although fortified cities are taken, and the strongest men lose courage and fall into the hands of their enemies, yet the Church shall stand and flourish, because it does not rest on its own strength, and has its foundation not on the earth but in heaven. There is thus an implied contrast between fortified cities, which alarmed and terrorstruck inhabitants are unable to defend, and the Church of God, which rests on his grace alone, and therefore resists every attack, so that it never fails; for the Church refers everything to God alone, from whom she receives the commencement of life, uninterrupted strength, perseverance, every part of salvation, and every blessing.

Hence we learn that all fortresses are of no avail, if the hand of the Lord do not assist. All human strength will be broken and decay, if it be not supported by his power; castles, bulwarks, and the most powerful armies will be of no use without him. This is expressed more fully by the following metaphors,

Like the grass of the field and the green herb It is of importance that believers should be led to admire the wonderful grace which God exercises towards them, that they may not envy the earthly wealth possessed by irreligious men. Although their power be dazzling and magnificent, yet he shews that they are like “the green herb and the grass,” which indeed flourish for a time, but quickly wither. He dwarfs them still more by another metaphor which he adds,

The grass of the housetops It is indeed lofty and seen by all, but the more elevated its position, it is the nearer to the heat, and withers more quickly, and is of no use whatever; and it is said also in the psalm, that

“they who pass by do not bless it.” (Psa 129:8.)

Though the enemies of the Church 64 are high, and as it were exalted to heaven, though they flourish and have abundant wealth, yet they quickly fall. In like manner, therefore, as the corn which lies on the ground at our feet is more valuable than the unfruitful herb that grows on the housetops; so the Lord shews that the low condition of his servants is far more desirable than that of those who, leaning on their own strength, vaunt themselves above others, and boast against God himself. 65

Which withereth before it is ripe Some think that this is a fourth comparison, but I think that the Prophet added it for the sake of exposition; as if he had said, that grass of this kind withers before it come into the stalk, that is, before it is fully ripe; in the same manner as it is said in the psalm, “Before it is grown up, it withereth.” (Psa 129:6.)

Calvin: Isa 37:28 - I know thy sitting down and thy rising up // And thy indignation against me 28.I know thy sitting down and thy rising up He returns to the insufferable pride of that tyrant, who claimed everything for himself, as if he had no...

28.I know thy sitting down and thy rising up He returns to the insufferable pride of that tyrant, who claimed everything for himself, as if he had not been subject to any one, and dared to despise God as compared to himself, and to load him with reproaches. He rebukes that man’s pride and insolence, “But I know thy sitting down.” This being the cause of the fierceness of wicked men, that they think that no one is above them, and that they are not even subject to the providence of God, he shews that they can absolutely do nothing except so far as he permits them. By sitting down, and rising up, are here denoted deliberations, plans, and schemes. Wicked and irreligious men enter into various deliberations how they may be able to oppress and destroy the people of God; but to whatever hand they turn, and which way soever they pursue, they will accomplish nothing without the will of God. The providence of God restrains them, and drives them hither and thither, so that frequently, contrary to their intention, they are conducted to a very good end, as God thinks fit, to whom it peculiarly belongs to “direct the steps of men.” (Pro 16:9.)

And thy indignation against me He warns Sennacherib that he is well aware of his rage, and declares that, while wicked men storm on the earth, he preserves calm silence, and laughs at their madness; and because Sennacherib was furious, and thought that he would not be punished for it, the Prophet expressly adds this, that believers may not think that this is new or unknown to God, or that he pays no attention to them.

Calvin: Isa 37:29 - Because thou wast angry against me // Therefore will I put my hook 29.Because thou wast angry against me The more furiously wicked men rise up against God, and the more outrageous the violence by which they are actua...

29.Because thou wast angry against me The more furiously wicked men rise up against God, and the more outrageous the violence by which they are actuated, so much the more is he wont eventually to set himself in opposition to them. For a time, indeed, he permits them to domineer and to have everything that they wish, but after long forbearance he restrains them, and, as it were, puts a bridle on their neck, that they may not imagine that they have everything in their power. Sennacherib was a remarkable instance of this, for in his rage against God, the more insolently he vaunted, the heavier did he find the wrath of God to be against him; which all wicked men ought also to expect.

Therefore will I put my hook (or, my ring) in thy nose. This is pleasant mockery of stupidity and wantonness; as if he had said, “I see how it is, by treating thee mildly and gently, I would gain nothing; for thy rage is insatiable. But since thou canst not be tamed, I will curb thee like a savage beast.” And in this manner he declares more plainly, that God not only sees and knows what is proposed or contrived by wicked men, but also subdues and restrains their fierceness in such a manner, that he drags them reluctantly where ever he pleases, as one would lead a wild beast held by a bridle or a ring. חח (chach) 66 is translated by some a hook, but I have preferred to translate it a ring; because a hook is used for catching fishes, and would not so well apply to a beast.

Sennacherib was compelled to return by the way by which he came, because, while he was revolving the project of subduing every part of Judea and Egypt, he hastily, without having accomplished anything, took the speediest method of returning, which he would net have done of his own accord, if God had not drawn him back by unseen methods.

Calvin: Isa 37:30 - And this shall be a sign to thee 30.And this shall be a sign to thee He now directs his discourse to Hezekiah and the whole nation; for he did not address Sennacherib as if he expect...

30.And this shall be a sign to thee He now directs his discourse to Hezekiah and the whole nation; for he did not address Sennacherib as if he expected him to listen, but in order that, by contemptuously mocking at the absent tyrant, he might more powerfully stimulate the minds of believers to stronger confidence. If he had simply said, “Take courage, Hezekiah; though Sennacherib is insolent, yet in due time I will restrain him;” that discourse would have been less impressive, than when he addresses the tyrant, and, by thundering against him, encourages believers to despise his presumption. 67 Accordingly, the speech directed to the tyrant is now followed by a seasonable address to Hezekiah and the nation, and a promise of deliverance to them; not only that he will rescue them from the jaws of a savage beast, but also that Hezekiah shall enjoy a peaceful reign, and that the rest of the people shall have everything necessary for leading a prosperous and happy life. Thus he enlarges on the benefit derived from the deliverance in such a manner as to shew that he intends, not in one way only, but in a variety of ways, to promote the interests of his people; for not only does he once and instantaneously rescue them from dangers, but largely and bountifully bestows his kindness upon them, so that the fruit is seen long afterwards.

But there is an apparent impropriety in putting as “a sign” an event which occurred later than the deliverance itself; for if he intended to encourage the besieged to entertain favorable hopes, he ought to have made some exhibition beforehand, instead of relating what he would do afterwards. 68 I reply, there are two kinds of signs. Some go before the event, and lead us to it as by the hand; while others follow for the purpose of confirming the event, that it may be more strongly impressed upon our minds, and may never be effaced from our remembrance. For instance, when the Lord brought back his people out of Egypt, he gave many signs to Moses beforehand; but he also appointed another that should be after the deliverance,

“You shall sacrifice to me three days afterwards.”
(Exo 3:12.)

The design was, that they should not forget so great a blessing, but should give thanks to God after having received this additional favor. It is a sign of this nature which Isaiah here describes; and certainly it tends greatly to confirm our faith, to place before our eyes the uninterrupted course of God’s favours towards us, that we may consider how various they are.

When the enemy had been repelled, there was danger from famine, which most commonly comes after war; for the wasting and pillaging of the fields must have been followed by great scarcity of provisions. Amidst so great scarcity as seemed likely to ensue, the Lord promises that there will be no lack of food, and holds out this as a very evident sign of deliverance, in order to convince them the more that he will be the author of the deliverance, or, at least, to fix it more deeply on their hearts. This was indeed incredible, and exceeded all expectation and belief; but it was necessary that the faith of Hezekiah and of the people should be excited in such a manner that, after having heard of so great kindness, they might be more ready to hope well, and next, that the event might shew that those illustrious works of God could not be ascribed to chance.

The meaning therefore is, “After having driven out the enemy, God will restrain him so that he cannot bring fresh troops, and thou shalt peacefully possess thy country; he will also supply thee with food and nourishment, so that thou shalt be in want of nothing.” But because, as usually happens, they had consumed a large portion of the crop, and destroyed a part. of it, and because they who were besieged or fugitives had it not in their power to attend to agricultural labors, he promises that they shall have food without sowing till they sow on the third year.

Calvin: Isa 37:31 - And that which shall be preserved of the house of Judah // And that which shall be left // Shall strike root downward // And bear fruit upwards 31.And that which shall be preserved of the house of Judah He follows out the former statement; for he declares that the Lord will deliver Jerusalem ...

31.And that which shall be preserved of the house of Judah He follows out the former statement; for he declares that the Lord will deliver Jerusalem so as not to east away his care of her afterwards, but will be her savior to the end. And indeed all the blessings that the Lord bestows upon us are a sign and testimony of continued kindness towards us, that we may know that we shall never be forsaken by him. But here we ought chiefly to remember what we formerly remarked, that the defense of Jerusalem belonged to God, because he had chosen it to be his sanctuary, and because the Messiah would proceed from it.

And that which shall be left פליטה (peletah) literally signifies deliverance; but here it is a collective noun for “men delivered,” in the same manner as in other passages, “captivity” is put for “captives.” (Psa 14:7; Jer 29:14.) And it is not without reason that he promises increase to a small remnant; for although the siege had been raised, still the people, being greatly diminished, had slight cause of joy, and full restoration could scarcely be expected by so small a number of persons. For the purpose of soothing this grief, therefore, he declares that the land will be full of inhabitants, as if a very abundant harvest would fill the granaries which had formerly been empty.

Nor was it merely the desolation of the land of Judah that might have discouraged the hearts of believers or pierced them with sorrow, but likewise that greater diminution which arose from the ten tribes being led into captivity. (2Kg 15:29.) Although they have been thus cut down, Isaiah declares that the Lord will cause them to recover their former condition, and a vast multitude to spring up; for the Lord permits his people to be thus diminished and brought very low, that his glory may afterwards be illustriously displayed in their deliverance. What he accomplished at that time ought also to be expected in the present day; so that in proportion as we see the strength of the Church weakened and brought low, we may be more fully convinced that. God has in his power the means of multiplying a small number; for this restoration must not be measured by our powers of judging.

Shall strike root downward He declares that there will be so great desolation that it shall seem as if the Church had been uprooted, and had utterly perished; and indeed the destruction of the kingdom of Israel was a very sad spectacle of cutting off. But the Prophet says, that there shall be such an increase that the tree which had been nearly torn up shall “strike its roots” deep; for although the Church does not make professions of towering greatness, as is commonly done by the rulers of this world, yet the Lord imparts a secret vigor which causes it to spring up and grow beyond human expectation. Let us not be terrifled, therefore, when no roots are seen, or when we think that they are dead; for he hath promised that he will cause it to “strike root downwards.”

And bear fruit upwards This is added, because the Church does not only flourish like grass, (which was formerly said of the condition of the wicked, 69) but brings forth abundant fruit; and thus the Lord completes in her what he hath once begun.

Calvin: Isa 37:32 - For out of Jerusalem shall go forth a remnant // The zeal of Jehovah of hosts will do this 32.For out of Jerusalem shall go forth a remnant Formerly by the metaphor of a root and of fruits he foretold the deliverance of the Church; he now d...

32.For out of Jerusalem shall go forth a remnant Formerly by the metaphor of a root and of fruits he foretold the deliverance of the Church; he now declares the same thing without a figure. He alludes to the siege by which a small number of people, who had been left in the city, were shut up as in a prison and reduced to very great straits; he says that they shall now go out, and that the whole country shall be open to them, and that they shall be at liberty to move wherever they please without fear. The going forth is thus contrasted with the narrow limits within which the trembling Jews had been forced by the dread of enemies to confine themselves. Yet by this word he expresses not only liberty to go out, but the increase of the nation, which had been reduced to a small number. When not only was Judea again covered by a multitude of men, but from the remnant there sprung vast multitudes who were spread over the various countries of the world, this could not have been done, unless out of that small number the Lord had created not merely a single nation, but many nations.

The zeal of Jehovah of hosts will do this Not only does he contrast “the zeal of God” with the purposes of men, in order to extol the excellence of the work, but he states that it is sufficient for every purpose, that God may give an astonishing demonstration of his power. At first sight, as we have said, the thing was incredible; there were obstacles on every side, and no means of relief; and therefore he declares that God regards his Church with such fervent love, that he does not hesitate to work in an extraordinary manner for promoting her salvation. The same mode of expression was employed by him on a similar occasion. (Isa 9:7.)

Calvin: Isa 37:33 - Therefore thus saith Jehovah // He shall not enter into the city 33.Therefore thus saith Jehovah He now returns to the deliverance of which he had formerly spoken; for God proraised, first, that he would drive out ...

33.Therefore thus saith Jehovah He now returns to the deliverance of which he had formerly spoken; for God proraised, first, that he would drive out Sennacherib; secondly, that he would grant food and nourishment for the sustenance of the people, though the country had been wasted and pillaged; and, thirdly, that he would cause flint small number to grow into a vast multitude. Having made these declarations, he returns to the first, because without it all the rest might appear to be useless; that is, if the people were not rescued from the hands, of that tyrant.

He shall not enter into the city God threatens that he will be as a fortress, to hinder him from “entering into the city,” and that he will even meet him, so as to hinder him from coming nearer or fighting against it; for he says that he shall not cast an arrow nor a balister. I think that in this passage סללה (solelah) denotes a balister, or some such machine for throwing darts, rather than a mound; for “mounds” are not thrown or poured.

Calvin: Isa 37:34 - By the way that he came shall he return 34.By the way that he came shall he return We have formerly explained what it is to return by the same way, that is, to depar without having accompli...

34.By the way that he came shall he return We have formerly explained what it is to return by the same way, that is, to depar without having accomplished anything, as we commonly say, ( Il s’en est retourne comme il est venu,) “he returned as he came,” when nothing has been accomplished, and the efforts are unsuccessful. To confirm this, he adds, that “thus hath the Lord spoken;” for as soon as he “who cannot lie” ( Titus 1:2) hath spoken, we ought to embrace and kiss his word, as if the result were rendered certain by the removal of every obstruction.

Calvin: Isa 37:35 - And I will be a protector // For my own sake // And for my servant David’s sake 35.And I will be a protector This is the reason of the preceding statement, why Sennacherib should not enter into the city; because the Lord will pro...

35.And I will be a protector This is the reason of the preceding statement, why Sennacherib should not enter into the city; because the Lord will protect it. The Prophet therefore bids Hezekiah and the whole nation turn their eyes towards God, because the sight of that tyrant was so alarming that they might tremble at it. In like manner, if we now contemplate the power of our enemies, we shall be overpowered by fear, and there will scarcely be any room for hope; but we ought to look directly to God, and embrace his promises, by which we are defended as by a shield; and since God is sufficiently powerful to restrain a mortal man, to him ought we to turn our eyes; for this promise must not be limited to that time, but ought to be extended to all times. Yet the expression used by the Prophet is more extensive, and conveys fuller meaning; for God affirms that he will be the guardian and protector of the city; that is, because he had pledged himself to defend it. Hence he infers that it will be preserved, because God’s protection renders its preservation certain.

For my own sake When he says that he will do this “for his own sake,” he calls on Hezekiah and all believers to remember his gracious covenant For the Jews, though often and severely chastised, had obstinately provoked the wrath of God against them, and therefore deserved not only that he should deprive them of all assistance, but that he should execute against them the highest examples of dreadful vengeance. In order therefore to prevent them from despairing, he shews that God will be their defender, not because he finds any cause in them, but rather because he looks to himself first, that he may adhere firmly to his purpose, not to cast away the posterity of Abraham which he adopted, not to abolish religious worship, not to blot out the remembrance of his name on the earth by destroying his sanctuary; and, secondly, not to expose his name to the jeers and blasphemies of the nations. And these words contain an implied reproof which that nation ought to have felt to be severe, and justly; because the good king had more difficulty in pacifying them than in repelling the enemy; for they distrusted, and stormed, and thought that no hope of safety was left for them. The Lord, therefore, did not look at the merits of the people or of any other person, but only had regard to his own glory; for the contrast which is expressed by Ezekiel must here be understood, “Not for your sakes, O house of Israel, will I do this, but for my own sake.” 70 (Eze 36:22.) Now, since we have the same argument to plead in the present day, let us not hesitate to make use of this shield against our sins, “Though we most highly deserve a thousand deaths, yet it is enough for God to look to his goodness and faithfulness, that he may fulfill what he hath promised.” Though it is of no advantage to hypocrites that God is the continual protector of his Church, yet the elect will always have this as a very safe refuge, that although they bring nothing of their own to appease the wrath of God, yet since God, moved by nothing else than his infinite goodness, built his Church and determined to defend it, he will never suffer it to perish.

And for my servant David’s sake This is highly worthy of observation; for although God needed not to seek in any one but in himself the reason why he embraced that nation with a gracious regard, yet it is not without good reason that he brings forward, as a very sure pledge of his love, David, by whose hand he had made a covenant, and to whom he, had promised to be a Father. (2Sa 7:12.) The Prophet does not speak of David as a private individual, but as a holy king whose throne was established by the hand of God, under whose guidance the Church would continue to be safe, and, in short, who would be the mediator between God and the Church; for in this capacity he surpassed even the angels themselves, so far as he represented the person of Christ. His throne was, indeed, soon afterwards cast down, and his crown torn in pieces, yet this was no unmeaning confirmation, that God intended to protect the city for a time, because he determined not to make void what he had testified to David concerning the eternity of his kingdom. And we know that the captivity of the people did not wholly set aside the kingly power in the posterity of David till at length Christ came, who on this account is called David in other passages. (Jer 30:9; Eze 37:24; Hos 3:5.)

This shews the great absurdity of the Papists in alleging that it is through the merits of the saints that God pardons us; for here the case of David is widely different from that of other saints, on account of the promise which had been made to him. He might have named Abraham, or any other person, who possessed no small authority in the Church; but since he was now speaking of the preservation of the Church, and of the eternity of the kingdom of Christ, he named in a peculiar manner him who expressly, along with others, received that promise, “This is my rest, here will I dwell.” (Psa 132:14.) Since therefore this passage has regard to the promise, and not to the person, the Papists are doubly foolish in thinking that it affords support to the intercession of the saints, which is of their own contrivance. On the contrary, what they plead in their own behalf absolutely contradicts their error; because David is here represented as the type of the only Mediator, who sets aside the intercessions which they have invented.

Calvin: Isa 37:36 - And the angel of Jehovah went out // And slew in the camp ofthe Assyrians // A hundred and eighty-five thousand // Behold, they were all dead corpses 36.And the angel of Jehovah went out The Prophet now relates what happened to the Assyrian, that we may not think that the Lord spoke in vain. He she...

36.And the angel of Jehovah went out The Prophet now relates what happened to the Assyrian, that we may not think that the Lord spoke in vain. He shews, therefore, that his prediction was proved by the event, that it might clearly appear that God had sent him, and that he had not uttered anything rashly. Yet we ought not to limit so remarkable a work of God to a single prediction; but the authority of the Prophet was sustained, and his calling sanctioned, as to the whole course of his doctrine. He has related a singular and wellknown event which had recently happened, in order to prove, by means of it, to the end of the world, that God had spoken by his mouth.

Where that slaughter was carried into effect by the angel is not very evident. The opinion generally entertained is, that it happened at the siege of Jerusalem; but it is also possible that it may have happened during the march of Sennacherib’s army; that is, while he was coming to besiege the city. I leave that matter uncertain, because it is of little importance. From the context, certainly, we may clearly learn that the tyrant did not approach so near as to be able to throw a dare into the city.

We must indeed reject that invention by which Satan, through profane historians, has attempted to obscure this extraordinary judgment of God, that, in consequence of a part of the army having been destroyed by a plague during the war in Egypt, Sennacherib returned into his own dominions. So great a number of persons dying in one night cannot be attributed to a plague; and the father of lies, with his wonted cunning, has turned aside into Egypt the blessing which God bestowed on his Church. The event itself cries aloud that Jerusalem was miraculously rescued, as it were, out of the midst of destruction; especially since Isaiah had already delivered that message by which God testified, in a manner which could not be mistaken, that God would bestow this deliverance on the Jews and not on the Egyptians.

And slew in the camp ofthe Assyrians That no one may ascribe the miracle to natural causes, it is expressly added, that so great a multitude was slain by the hand of the angel. Nor is it a new thing for the Lord to make use of the ministractions of angels to promote the safety of believers, for whose advantage he appointed all the armies of heaven; and it tends greatly to confirm our faith when we learn that an infinite number of guardians keep watch over us. (Psa 91:11.) The Lord alone, indeed, is of himself able, and undoubtedly he alone preserves us; for the angels may be regarded as his hand, and on that account they are called “principalities and powers.” (Rom 8:38; Eph 1:21.) But it contributes much to aid our weakness that he hath appointed heavenly messengers to be our defenders and guardians. Yet all the praise is due to God alone, of whom the angels are only instruments; and therefore we must beware of falling into the superstition of the Papists, who, by their absurd worship of angels, ascribe to them that power which belongs to God; an error with which we know that some very learned men in all ages have been chargeable. Whether it was done by the hand of one angel or of many angels, we cannot absolutely ascertain, nor is it a matter of great importance; for the Lord can do it as easily by one angel as by a thousand, and does not make use of their agency as if he needed the assistance of others, but. rather, as we have formerly said, in order to support our weakness. Yet it is more probable, and agrees better with the words of the Prophet, that a single angel was commissioned to execute this judgment, as in the ancient redemption an angel passed through the whole of Egypt to slay the firstborn. (Exo 12:29.) Although God sometimes executes his vengeance by means of evil angels, yet he chose one of his willing servants, that by means of him he might provide for the safety of the Church.

A hundred and eighty-five thousand That the army was so vast need not make us wonder, as ignorant people do, who reckon it to be incredible and fabulous when they are told that so great a multitude went into the field of battle, because we are accustomed to carry on war with much smaller troops. But that the case was very different with eastern nations, is fully testified by historians and by wellknown transactions of the present day. Nor ought we to be astonished at the vast forces which they led into battle, for they are much more capable of enduring heat, and toil, and hunger, and are satisfied with a much smaller portion of food, and do not care about those luxuries by which our soldiers in the present day are corrupted.

As to the way and manner of the slaughter, this passage gives no definite statement. The Jews conjecture that the soldiers were struck by thunder, but they do so without any authority or probable evidence; for, being bold in contriving fables, they unwarrantably affirm as certain whatever comes into their mind, as if it were supported by some history.

Behold, they were all dead corpses That the slaughter was not done so openly as the Jews allege is very evident from this narrative, which states that they were lying dead. Now, if they had been struck by a thunderbolt, every person must have known it, and it would not have been omitted by the Prophet. This might serve to refute the conjecture of the Jews, but I choose rather to leave the matter doubtful. It is enough that the Lord, having determined to save Jerusalem from the hand of the Assyrian, cut off his army by a sudden death, without any agency of man.

Calvin: Isa 37:37 - Then Sennacherib, king of Assyria, went away and returned // And dwelt in Nineveh 37.Then Sennacherib, king of Assyria, went away and returned He now shows how disgraceful was the retreat of this haughty tyrant, who in the wishes o...

37.Then Sennacherib, king of Assyria, went away and returned He now shows how disgraceful was the retreat of this haughty tyrant, who in the wishes of his heart had already devoured the whole of Judea, and formerly dared to pretend to be more powerful than God himself. By employing a variety of words to express his departure, the Prophet indirectly censures the shameful flight; for the repetition is not superfluous, “He set out, he went away, he returned.” The title of king is added for the sake of greater disgrace. “Lo, this is the great king of whose power Rabshakeh boasted so highly.”

And dwelt in Nineveh He did not come into Judea, that: he might depart from it in that disgraceful manner; and therefore the hand of God throws him back, even as straw is driven by the wind. The circumstance of his dwelling in Nineveh reminds us also that he had lost his courage as well as his forces; for he would not willingly have remained at rest, if despair had not held him like a chain. This means, therefore, that he was satisfied with his ancient domains, of which Nineveh was the chief city and royal residence. At a later period, when the Assyrians were conquered by the Chaldeans, the seat of government was removed to Babylon, that is, ten years after the death of Sennacherib, and during the reign of Esarhaddon, his successor, who is here mentioned, for since parricides did not want defenders, a nation torn by factions was easily subdued and conquered by foreign enemies. Availing himself of this opportunity, Merodach invaded the Assyrians, and subjected them to his power.

Calvin: Isa 37:38 - While he was worshipping 38.While he was worshipping Here the Jews allow themselves that liberty of conjecture in which they are always accustomed to indulge. They contrive a...

38.While he was worshipping Here the Jews allow themselves that liberty of conjecture in which they are always accustomed to indulge. They contrive a stow, that Sennacherib consulted an oracle, and asked why he could not conquer the Jews; that the answer was, that Abraham wished to sacrifice his son to God; that the tyrant, following that example, then determined to slay his son, in order to appease his god; and that his sons, enraged at the cruel design of their father, slew him in the temple of his idol. But it is unnecessary to spend time in such conjectures, in which the Jews display excessive impudence.

Here it is highly important to behold, as in a picture, the unhappy death of tyrants, whom the Lord destroys without the agency of men, when everything appears about to be overthrown by their violence, and whom he exposes with all their power to universal scorn. Sennacherib, who had come into Judea with a vast army, returns home with few soldiers, and is led in triumph, as it were, by God as a conqueror. But the matter does riot end here; for in the very heart of his empire, in the metropolis, in the temple itself, the reverence for which defended the meanest persons from the mob, he is slain, not by a foreign enemy, not by a people in a state of sedition, not by traitors, and in a word, not by servants, but by his own sons, that the murder may be more disgraceful. It ought to be observed, that those insatiable gluttons, who freely wallow in the blood of others, are slain by their own followers, and are punished by those from whom above all others they ought to have been safe. This is more shocking than if they had been put to death by strangers; but God thus punishes the cruelty of those who, in their eagerness to enjoy power, did not even spare the innocent. Even in profane historians we find various examples of this kind, in which we may easily behold the judgments of the Lord.

Besides, the insatiable ambition of Sennacherib receives its just reward, because, while he is intent on the wide extension of his territories, he cannot secure the peace of his own family, by leading his children to live at peace; for out of his neglect of some, and undue attachment to others, the conspiracy arose. And not only was this tyrant slain, but his kingdom also was soon afterwards overthrown, as we have already said; and, in the meantime, that his successor might not dare to make any attempt against the Jews, God kept him also within the country by internal broils.

TSK: Isa 37:1 - it came // he rent // and went it came : 2Kings 19:1-19 he rent : Isa 36:22; 2Ki 22:11; Jer 36:24; Jon 3:5, Jon 3:6; Mat 11:21 and went : Ezr 9:5; Job 1:20,Job 1:21

it came : 2Kings 19:1-19

he rent : Isa 36:22; 2Ki 22:11; Jer 36:24; Jon 3:5, Jon 3:6; Mat 11:21

and went : Ezr 9:5; Job 1:20,Job 1:21

TSK: Isa 37:2 - -- Isa 37:14, Isa 36:3; 2Ki 18:18, 2Ki 19:2, 2Ki 22:12-14; 2Ch 20:20; Joe 1:13

TSK: Isa 37:3 - blasphemy // for the his day, Isa 25:8, Isa 33:2; 2Ki 19:3; 2Ch 15:4; Psa 50:15, Psa 91:15, Psa 116:3, Psa 116:4; Jer 30:7; Hos 5:15, Hos 6:1; Rev 3:19 blasphemy : or, pro...

TSK: Isa 37:4 - It may // to reproach // and will // lift up // for the // left It may : Jos 14:12; 1Sa 14:6; 2Sa 16:12; Amo 5:15 to reproach : Isa 37:23, Isa 37:24, Isa 36:20, Isa 51:7, Isa 51:8; 1Sa 17:26, 1Sa 17:36; 2Ki 19:4, 2...

TSK: Isa 37:6 - Thus shall // Be not Thus shall : 2Ki 19:5-7, 2Ki 22:15-20 Be not : Isa 7:4, Isa 10:24, Isa 10:25, Isa 35:4, Isa 41:10-14, Isa 43:1, Isa 43:2, Isa 51:12, Isa 51:13; Exo 14...

TSK: Isa 37:7 - I will // send a blast upon him // I will cause I will : Isa 10:16-18, Isa 10:33, Isa 10:34, Isa 17:13, Isa 17:14, Isa 29:5-8, Isa 30:28-33, Isa 31:8, Isa 31:9, Isa 33:10-12; 2Ki 7:6; Job 4:9, Job 1...

I will : Isa 10:16-18, Isa 10:33, Isa 10:34, Isa 17:13, Isa 17:14, Isa 29:5-8, Isa 30:28-33, Isa 31:8, Isa 31:9, Isa 33:10-12; 2Ki 7:6; Job 4:9, Job 15:21; Psa 58:9

send a blast upon him : or, put a spirit into him

I will cause : Isa 37:36-38; 2Ch 32:21

TSK: Isa 37:8 - Rabshakeh // Libnah // Lachish Rabshakeh : 2Ki 19:8, 2Ki 19:9; Num 33:20,Num 33:21 Libnah : Jos 10:29, Jos 10:31-34, Jos 21:13; 2Ki 8:22; 2Ch 21:10 Lachish : Jos 12:11, Jos 15:39

TSK: Isa 37:9 - he heard // Ethiopia he heard : 1Sa 23:27, 1Sa 23:28 Ethiopia : Cush, which is generally rendered Ethiopia, is applied in Scripture to at least three distinct and differen...

he heard : 1Sa 23:27, 1Sa 23:28

Ethiopia : Cush, which is generally rendered Ethiopia, is applied in Scripture to at least three distinct and different countries.

1.    The country watered by the Gihon or Araxes (Gen 2:13), also called Cuth, 2Ki 17:30.

2.    A country of Arabia Petrea, bordering upon Egypt, which extended from the northern extremity of the Red sea along its eastern shore. (Compare Exo 3:1 with Num 12:1 and Hab 3:7).

3.    Ethiopia Proper, an extensive country of Africa, comprehending Nubia and Abyssinia; being bounded on the north by Egypt, on the east by the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, and on the south and west by various nations of Africa, and extending from about 6 degrees to 24 degrees n lat. and 25 degrees to 45 degrees e long. It is probable that it was this latter Cush, or Ethiopia, of which Tirhakah was king; he being in league with his kinsman Sevechus, son of So, or Sabacon, king of Egypt, against Sennacherib, the king of Assyria.

TSK: Isa 37:10 - Let not Let not : Isa 36:4, Isa 36:15, Isa 36:20; 2Ki 18:5, 2Ki 19:10-13; 2Ch 32:7, 2Ch 32:8, 2Ch 32:15-19; Psa 22:8; Mat 27:43

TSK: Isa 37:11 - -- Isa 37:18, Isa 37:19, Isa 10:7-14, Isa 14:17, Isa 36:18-20; 2Ki 17:4-6, 2Ki 18:33-35

TSK: Isa 37:12 - the gods // Gozan // Haran // Eden // Telassar the gods : Isa 36:20, Isa 46:5-7 Gozan : 2Ki 17:6, 2Ki 18:11, 2Ki 19:12 Haran : Haran, the Carrhe of the Greeks and Romans, is situated in the north-w...

the gods : Isa 36:20, Isa 46:5-7

Gozan : 2Ki 17:6, 2Ki 18:11, 2Ki 19:12

Haran : Haran, the Carrhe of the Greeks and Romans, is situated in the north-west part of Mesopotamia, between the Euphrates and the river Chebar; about 110 miles west of Nisibis, 90 east of Bir, 100 south of Diarbekir, and 170 north of Palmyra. Gen 11:31, Gen 12:14, Gen 28:10, Gen 29:4; Act 7:2

Eden : It is probable that this Eden is the country near Diarbekir, on the Tigris, called Madon, according to Asseman. Gen 2:8; Eze 27:23, Eze 28:13; Amo 1:5

Telassar : Telassar is probably the same as Ellasar, Gen 14:1, as the Jerusalem Targum reads; for both of which the Syriac has Dolassar; and perhaps, as Doederlein supposes, the same as Sharra, a city of Mesopotamia, half a mile from the Euphrates. 2Ki 19:12, Thelasar

TSK: Isa 37:13 - Hamath // Hena // Ivah Hamath : Isa 10:9, Isa 36:19; Jer 49:23 Hena : Hena is probably the same as Anah, a city of Mesopotamia, situated on an island in the Euphrates. Ivah ...

Hamath : Isa 10:9, Isa 36:19; Jer 49:23

Hena : Hena is probably the same as Anah, a city of Mesopotamia, situated on an island in the Euphrates.

Ivah : 2Ki 17:24, 2Ki 17:30,2Ki 17:31, Ava, Avites, 2Ki 18:34, 2Ki 19:13

TSK: Isa 37:14 - received // and Hezekiah went received : 2Ki 19:14 and Hezekiah went : Isa 37:1; 1Ki 8:28-30,1Ki 8:38, 1Ki 9:3; 2Chr. 6:20-42; Psa 27:5, Psa 62:1-3, Psa 74:10, Psa 76:1-3; Psa 123:...

TSK: Isa 37:15 - -- 1Sa 7:8, 1Sa 7:9; 2Sa 7:18-29; 2Ki 19:15-19; 2Ch 14:11, 2Ch 20:6-12; Dan 9:3, Dan 9:4; Phi 4:6, Phi 4:7; Jam 5:13

TSK: Isa 37:16 - Lord // dwellest // thou art // thou hast Lord : Isa 6:3, Isa 8:13; 2Sa 7:26; Psa 46:7, Psa 46:11 dwellest : Exo 25:22; 1Sa 4:4; Psa 80:1, Psa 99:1; Heb 4:16 thou art : Isa 37:20, Isa 43:10,Is...

TSK: Isa 37:17 - Incline // hear Incline : 2Ch 6:40; Job 36:7; Psa 17:6, Psa 71:2, Psa 130:1, Psa 130:2; Dan 9:17-19; 1Pe 3:12 hear : Isa 37:4; 2Sa 16:12; Psa 10:14, Psa 10:15, Psa 74...

TSK: Isa 37:18 - the kings // nations the kings : 2Ki 15:29, 2Ki 16:9, 2Ki 17:6, 2Ki 17:24; 1Ch 5:26; Nah 2:11, Nah 2:12 nations : Heb. lands

the kings : 2Ki 15:29, 2Ki 16:9, 2Ki 17:6, 2Ki 17:24; 1Ch 5:26; Nah 2:11, Nah 2:12

nations : Heb. lands

TSK: Isa 37:19 - And have // cast // no gods And have : Isa 10:9-11, Isa 36:18-20, Isa 46:1, Isa 46:2; Exo 32:20; 2Sa 5:21 cast : Heb. given no gods : Isa 40:19-21, Isa 41:7, Isa 44:9, Isa 44:10,...

TSK: Isa 37:20 - that all // even that all : Isa 42:8; Exo 9:15, Exo 9:16; Jos 7:8, Jos 7:9; 1Sa 17:45-47; 1Ki 8:43, 1Ki 18:36, 1Ki 18:37; Psa 46:10, Psa 59:13, Psa 67:1, Psa 67:2, Psa...

TSK: Isa 37:21 - Whereas Whereas : Isa 38:3-6, Isa 58:9, Isa 65:24; 2Sa 15:31, 2Sa 17:23; 2Ki 19:20,2Ki 19:21; Job 22:27; Psa 91:15; Dan 9:20-23; Act 4:31

TSK: Isa 37:22 - The virgin // the daughter // hath despised // shaken The virgin : Isa 23:12; Jer 14:17; Lam 1:15, Lam 2:13; Amo 5:2 the daughter : Isa 1:8, Isa 10:32, Isa 62:11; Psa 9:14; Zep 3:14; Zec 2:10, Zec 9:9; Ma...

TSK: Isa 37:23 - Whom hast // against whom // the Holy One Whom hast : Isa 37:10-13; Exo 5:2; 2Ki 19:4, 2Ki 19:22; 2Ch 32:17; Psa 44:16, Psa 73:9, Psa 74:18, Psa 74:23; Rev 13:1-6 against whom : Isa 10:13-15, ...

TSK: Isa 37:24 - thy servants // By the // tall cedars thereof, and the choice fir trees thereof // of his Carmel thy servants : Heb. the hand of they servants, Isa 37:4, Isa 36:15-20; 2Ki 19:22, 2Ki 19:23 By the : Isa 10:13, Isa 10:14, Isa 36:9; Exo 15:9; Psa 20:...

thy servants : Heb. the hand of they servants, Isa 37:4, Isa 36:15-20; 2Ki 19:22, 2Ki 19:23

By the : Isa 10:13, Isa 10:14, Isa 36:9; Exo 15:9; Psa 20:7; Dan 4:30

tall cedars thereof, and the choice fir trees thereof : Heb. tallness of the cedars thereof and the choice of the fir trees thereof. Isa 10:18, Isa 14:8; Ezek. 31:3-18; Dan 4:8-14, Dan 4:20-22; Zec 11:1, Zec 11:2

of his Carmel : or, and his fruitful field, Isa 29:17

TSK: Isa 37:25 - with the sole // besieged with the sole : Isa 36:12; 1Ki 20:10; 2Ki 19:23, 2Ki 19:24 besieged : or, fenced and closed

with the sole : Isa 36:12; 1Ki 20:10; 2Ki 19:23, 2Ki 19:24

besieged : or, fenced and closed

TSK: Isa 37:26 - long ago // how I long ago : etc. or, how I have made it long ago, and formed it of ancient times, Should I now bring it to be laid waste, and defenced cities to be rui...

long ago : etc. or, how I have made it long ago, and formed it of ancient times, Should I now bring it to be laid waste, and defenced cities to be ruinous heaps?.

how I : Isa 10:5, Isa 10:6, Isa 10:15, Isa 45:7, Isa 46:10,Isa 46:11; Gen 50:20; Psa 17:13, Psa 76:10; Amo 3:6; Act 2:23, Act 4:27, Act 4:28; 1Pe 2:8; Jud 1:4

TSK: Isa 37:27 - their inhabitants // of small power // as the grass of their inhabitants : Isa 19:16; Num 14:9; 2Ki 19:26; Psa 127:1, Psa 127:2; Jer 5:10, Jer 37:10 of small power : Heb. short of hand as the grass of : Is...

their inhabitants : Isa 19:16; Num 14:9; 2Ki 19:26; Psa 127:1, Psa 127:2; Jer 5:10, Jer 37:10

of small power : Heb. short of hand

as the grass of : Isa 40:6-8; Psa 37:2, Psa 90:5, Psa 90:6, Psa 92:7, Psa 103:15, Psa 129:6; Jam 1:10,Jam 1:11; 1Pe 1:24

TSK: Isa 37:28 - I know // abode I know : Psa 139:2-11; Pro 5:21, Pro 15:3; Jer 23:23, Jer 23:24; Rev 2:13 abode : or sitting

I know : Psa 139:2-11; Pro 5:21, Pro 15:3; Jer 23:23, Jer 23:24; Rev 2:13

abode : or sitting

TSK: Isa 37:29 - rage // tumult // will I rage : Isa 37:10, Isa 36:4, Isa 36:10; 2Ki 19:27, 2Ki 19:28; Job 15:25, Job 15:26; Psa 2:1-3, Psa 46:6, Psa 93:3, Psa 93:4; Nah 1:9-11; Joh 15:22, Joh...

TSK: Isa 37:30 - this shall // Ye shall this shall : Isa 7:14, Isa 38:7; Exo 3:12; 1Ki 13:3-5; 2Ki 19:29, 2Ki 20:9 Ye shall : Isa 7:21-25; Lev 25:4, Lev 25:5, Lev 25:20-22

TSK: Isa 37:31 - remnant that is escaped of the house of Judah // take remnant that is escaped of the house of Judah : Heb. escaping of the house of Judah that remaineth, Isa 1:9, Isa 6:13, Isa 10:20-22; Jer 44:28 take : ...

remnant that is escaped of the house of Judah : Heb. escaping of the house of Judah that remaineth, Isa 1:9, Isa 6:13, Isa 10:20-22; Jer 44:28

take : Isa 27:6, Isa 65:9; 2Ki 19:30,2Ki 19:31; Psa 80:9; Jer 30:19; Rom 9:27, Rom 11:5; Gal 3:29

TSK: Isa 37:32 - they that escape // the zeal they that escape : Heb. the escaping the zeal : Isa 37:20, Isa 9:7, Isa 59:17; 2Ki 19:31; Joe 2:18; Zec 1:14

they that escape : Heb. the escaping

the zeal : Isa 37:20, Isa 9:7, Isa 59:17; 2Ki 19:31; Joe 2:18; Zec 1:14

TSK: Isa 37:33 - He // shields // cast He : Isa 8:7-10, Isa 10:32-34, Isa 17:12, Isa 17:14, Isa 33:20; 2Ki 19:32-35 shields : Heb. shield cast : Eze 21:22; Luk 19:43, Luk 19:44

TSK: Isa 37:34 - -- Isa 37:29; Pro 21:30

TSK: Isa 37:35 - I will // for mine // and for I will : Isa 31:5, Isa 38:6; 2Ki 20:6 for mine : Isa 43:25, Isa 48:9-11; Deu 32:27; Eze 20:9, Eze 36:22; Eph 1:6, Eph 1:14 and for : 1Ki 11:12, 1Ki 11...

TSK: Isa 37:36 - the angel // and when the angel : Isa 10:12, Isa 10:16-19, Isa 10:33, Isa 10:34, Isa 30:30-33, Isa 31:8, Isa 33:10-12; Exo 12:23; 2Sa 24:16; 2Ki 19:35; 1Ch 21:12, 1Ch 21:16...

TSK: Isa 37:37 - Sennacherib // Nineveh Sennacherib : Isa 37:7, Isa 37:29, Isa 31:9 Nineveh : Gen 10:11, Gen 10:12; Jon 1:2, Jon 3:3; Nah 1:1; Mat 12:41

TSK: Isa 37:38 - his god // Armenia // Esarhaddon his god : Isa 37:10, Isa 14:9, Isa 14:12, Isa 36:15, Isa 36:18; 2Ki 19:36, 2Ki 19:37; 2Ch 32:14, 2Ch 32:19, 2Ch 32:21 Armenia : Heb. Ararat, Gen 8:4; ...

his god : Isa 37:10, Isa 14:9, Isa 14:12, Isa 36:15, Isa 36:18; 2Ki 19:36, 2Ki 19:37; 2Ch 32:14, 2Ch 32:19, 2Ch 32:21

Armenia : Heb. Ararat, Gen 8:4; Jer 51:27

Esarhaddon : Esar-haddon, called Asar-addinus in the Canon of Ptolemy, was the third son of Sennacherib; and having reigned twenty-nine years over the Assyrians, he took advantage of the anarchy and confusion which followed the death of Mesessimordacus, and seized upon Babylon; which he added to his former empire, and reigned over both for thirteen years; when he was succeeded by his son Saosduchinus, am 3336, bc 668. Ezr 4:2

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Isa 37:38 - -- For the understanding of this, and the foregoing chapter, the reader is desired to consult my notes upon 2Ki 18:1-20:21 .

For the understanding of this, and the foregoing chapter, the reader is desired to consult my notes upon 2Ki 18:1-20:21 .

Haydock: Isa 37:1 - Spirit Spirit. Angel, or a different design, 2 Thessalonians ii. 8. (Calmet)

Spirit. Angel, or a different design, 2 Thessalonians ii. 8. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 37:1 - Sackcloth Sackcloth. Emblems of repentance. Sennacherib's boasting (ver. 13.) was chastised, ver. 36. (Worthington)

Sackcloth. Emblems of repentance. Sennacherib's boasting (ver. 13.) was chastised, ver. 36. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 37:18 - Lands Lands. Hebrew, "all the lands and their land." The parallel text is more correct, "the nations and their land." (Kennicott)

Lands. Hebrew, "all the lands and their land." The parallel text is more correct, "the nations and their land." (Kennicott)

Haydock: Isa 37:24 - Carmel Carmel. See 4 Kings xix. (Challoner)

Carmel. See 4 Kings xix. (Challoner)

Haydock: Isa 37:25 - Shut Shut, &c. Hebrew matsor, (Haydock) "of Egypt," where Sennacherib had been. (Calmet)

Shut, &c. Hebrew matsor, (Haydock) "of Egypt," where Sennacherib had been. (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 37:29 - Lips Lips, and treat thee like some ungovernable beast. (Haydock) (Ezechiel xxix. 4., and xxxviii. 4.) (Calmet)

Lips, and treat thee like some ungovernable beast. (Haydock) (Ezechiel xxix. 4., and xxxviii. 4.) (Calmet)

Haydock: Isa 37:30 - Thee Thee. He directeth his speech to Ezechias.

Thee. He directeth his speech to Ezechias.

Haydock: Isa 37:35 - Servant Servant. Hence it plainly appears that God protects the living for the sake of the saints departed. To evade this proof, Protestants (Bible 1603) e...

Servant. Hence it plainly appears that God protects the living for the sake of the saints departed. To evade this proof, Protestants (Bible 1603) explain, "for God's promise sake made to David." But God never made any such promise to him; otherwise the city would never have been destroyed. (Worthington)

Haydock: Isa 37:36 - They They. The people of Jerusalem, or rather the soldiers of Ezechias, who saw those who had been slain, near Pelusium. (Calmet)

They. The people of Jerusalem, or rather the soldiers of Ezechias, who saw those who had been slain, near Pelusium. (Calmet)

Gill: Isa 37:1 - And it came to pass, when King Hezekiah heard it // that he rent his clothes, and covered himself with sackcloth // and went into the house of the Lord // 1Ki 8:29,30 And it came to pass, when King Hezekiah heard it,.... The report that his ministers made to him of the blasphemies and threatenings of Rabshakeh, the ...

And it came to pass, when King Hezekiah heard it,.... The report that his ministers made to him of the blasphemies and threatenings of Rabshakeh, the general of the Assyrian army:

that he rent his clothes, and covered himself with sackcloth; the one because of the blasphemies he heard; the other cause of the destruction he and his people were threatened with:

and went into the house of the Lord; the temple, to pray to him there: he could have prayed in his own house, but he chose rather to go to the house of God, not so much on account of the holiness of the place, but because there the Lord promised, and was used to hear the prayers of his people,

1Ki 8:29,30 as also because it was more public, and would be known to the people, and set them an example to follow him in. Trouble should not keep persons from, but bring them to, the house of God; here the Lord is to be inquired of, here he is to be found; and from hence he sends deliverance and salvation to his people. Nothing is more proper than prayer in times of affliction; it is no ways unbecoming nor lessening the greatest king on earth to lay aside his royal robes, to humble himself before God, in a time of distress, and pray unto him. Hezekiah does not sit down to consider Rabshakeh's speech, to take it in pieces, and give an answer to it, but he applies unto God.

Gill: Isa 37:2 - And he sent Eliakim, who was over the household, and Shebna the scribe // and the elders of the priests // covered with sackcloth // unto Isaiah the prophet, the son of Amoz And he sent Eliakim, who was over the household, and Shebna the scribe,.... Two of the commissioners sent to Rabshakeh, and who heard his insolence an...

And he sent Eliakim, who was over the household, and Shebna the scribe,.... Two of the commissioners sent to Rabshakeh, and who heard his insolence and blasphemy, and were capable of giving a full account of it, to Isaiah the prophet:

and the elders of the priests; as the chief of those that were concerned in civil affairs, so the chief of those that were employed in sacred things, were sent: this was a very honourable embassy; and it was showing great respect to the prophet, to send such personages to him:

covered with sackcloth; as the king himself was, following his example; and this is to be understood not of the elders of the priests only, but of Eliakim and Shebna also. These, so clad, were sent by the king

unto Isaiah the prophet, the son of Amoz; to give him an account of the present situation of affairs, of the distress he was in, and to desire his prayers: a very proper person to apply to, a prophet, one highly dear to God, and honoured by him, had near access unto him, and knew much of his mind.

Gill: Isa 37:3 - And they said unto him // thus saith Hezekiah // this day is a day of trouble, and of rebuke, and of blasphemy // for the children are come to the birth, and there is not strength to bring forth And they said unto him,.... The messengers to the prophet: thus saith Hezekiah; this is the message he has sent us with; this is what he would have...

And they said unto him,.... The messengers to the prophet:

thus saith Hezekiah; this is the message he has sent us with; this is what he would have us lay before thee, and has given us in charge to say unto thee:

this day is a day of trouble, and of rebuke, and of blasphemy; it was a "day of trouble" to Hezekiah and his people, because it was a "day of rebuke", in which God rebuked them for their sins; or of "reproach and reviling", as the Targum and Septuagint, in which the Assyrians reviled and reproached both God and them; and especially because it was a "day of blasphemy" against God:

for the children are come to the birth, and there is not strength to bring forth; which is to be understood not of the reformation within themselves, happily begun and carried on, but now hindered from being brought to perfection, by the Assyrian army being so near them; nor of their attempt to cast off the Assyrian yoke, which was thought to be just upon finishing, but now despaired of, unless divine assistance be given; nor of their inability to punish the blasphemy that so much affected them; but of the deplorable condition they were now in. Hezekiah compares himself and his people to a woman in travail, that has been some time in it, and the child is fallen down to the place of the breaking forth of children, as the word p used signifies, but unable to make its way, and she having neither strength to bear it, nor to bring it forth, nature being quite exhausted, and strength gone, through the many pains and throes endured: and just so it was even with him and his people, they were in the utmost pain and distress; they could not help themselves, nor could he help them; and therefore must perish, unless they had immediate assistance and relief. Jarchi interprets the children of the children of Israel, the children of God.

Gill: Isa 37:4 - It may be the Lord thy God will hear the words of Rabshakeh // whom the king of Assyria his master hath sent to reproach the living God // and will reprove the words which the Lord thy God hath heard // wherefore lift up thy prayer for the remnant that is left It may be the Lord thy God will hear the words of Rabshakeh,.... He had heard them; but the sense is, that it might be that he would take notice of th...

It may be the Lord thy God will hear the words of Rabshakeh,.... He had heard them; but the sense is, that it might be that he would take notice of them, and resent them in a public manner, and punish for them; and this is said, not as doubting and questioning whether he would or not, but as hoping and encouraging himself that he would: and it may be observed, that Hezekiah does not call the Lord "my God", or "our God", because he and his people were under the chastening hand of God for their sins, and were undeserving of such a relation; but "thy God", whose prophet he was, whom he served, and to whom he was dear, and with whom he had an interest; and therefore it might be hoped his prayer to him would be heard and accepted, and that through his interposition God would be prevailed upon to take notice of the railing speech of Rabshakeh:

whom the king of Assyria his master hath sent to reproach the living God; who has life in and of himself, and is the fountain, author, and giver of life to all others; him he reproached by setting him on a level with the lifeless idols of the Gentiles:

and will reprove the words which the Lord thy God hath heard; reprove him for his words, take vengeance upon him, or punish him for the blasphemous words spoken by him against the Lord and in his hearing: to this sense is the Targum; and so the Syriac and Arabic versions:

wherefore lift up thy prayer for the remnant that is left; lift up thy voice, thy hands, and thine heart, in prayer to God in heaven; pray earnestly and fervently for those that are left; the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin, the other ten having been carried captive some time ago; or the inhabitants of Jerusalem particularly, the defenced cities of Judah having been already taken by the Assyrian king. The fewness of the number that remained seems to be made use of as an argument for prayer in their favour. In times of distress, men should not only pray for themselves, but get others to pray for them, and especially men of eminence in religion, who have nearness of access to God, and interest in him.

Gill: Isa 37:5 - So the servants of King Hezekiah came to Isaiah. So the servants of King Hezekiah came to Isaiah. And delivered the above message to him from the king: these servants are mentioned Isa 37:2. Musculus...

So the servants of King Hezekiah came to Isaiah. And delivered the above message to him from the king: these servants are mentioned Isa 37:2. Musculus thinks that the third and fourth verses are the words of the king to the messengers, and not of the messengers to the prophet; and that the first clause of the "third" verse should be rendered, "that they might say unto him", &c.; and having received their instructions, here is an account of their going to the prophet with them, which they delivered to him, and which it was not necessary to repeat. The Arabic version reads this verse in connection with the following, thus, "when the servants of King Hezekiah, came to Isaiah, Isaiah said to them", &c.

Gill: Isa 37:6 - And Isaiah said unto them, thus shall you say unto your master // thus saith the Lord, be not afraid of the words thou hast heard // wherewith the servants of the king of Assyria have blasphemed me And Isaiah said unto them, thus shall you say unto your master,.... Or, "your lord" q; King Hezekiah, whose ministers and messengers they were: thu...

And Isaiah said unto them, thus shall you say unto your master,.... Or, "your lord" q; King Hezekiah, whose ministers and messengers they were:

thus saith the Lord, be not afraid of the words thou hast heard; be not not terrified by them, they are but words, and no more, and will never become facts:

wherewith the servants of the king of Assyria have blasphemed me; by representing him as no better than the gods of the Gentiles, and as unable to deliver out of the hands of the king of Assyria the city of Jerusalem, when he had said he would. The word r for "servants" signifies boys, lads, young men; so Rabshakeh and his two companions, Rabsaris and Tartan, are called, by way of contempt, they acting a weak and childish part as well as a wicked one.

Gill: Isa 37:7 - Behold, I will send a blast upon him // I will put a spirit into him // and he shall hear a rumour // and return to his own land // and I will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land Behold, I will send a blast upon him,.... The king of Assyria; a pestilential one, as he afterwards did, which destroyed his army: or, I will put a...

Behold, I will send a blast upon him,.... The king of Assyria; a pestilential one, as he afterwards did, which destroyed his army: or,

I will put a spirit into him s; a spirit of fear and dread, which will oblige him to desist from his purposes, and flee; though some interpret it only of an inclination, a will t in him, to return: it may be understood of an angel, a ministering spirit, and be rendered "I will send a spirit against him"; an angelic spirit, as he did, which cut off his army in one night:

and he shall hear a rumour; of the sudden and total destruction of his army; though some refer this to the rumour of the king of Ethiopia coming out to make war against him, Isa 37:9, but upon this he did not return to his own land, nor was he slain with the sword, as follows:

and return to his own land; as he did, immediately upon the slaughter of his army by the angel:

and I will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land: as he did, being slain by his own sons, Isa 37:37.

Gill: Isa 37:8 - So Rabshakeh returned // and found the king of Assyria warring against Libnah // for he had heard that he was departed from Lachish So Rabshakeh returned,.... To the king of Assyria his master, to give him an account how things went at Jerusalem, and that he could get no direct ans...

So Rabshakeh returned,.... To the king of Assyria his master, to give him an account how things went at Jerusalem, and that he could get no direct answer from the king of Judah, and to consult with him what was proper to be done in the present situation of things; leaving the army before Jerusalem, under the command of the other two generals. For that he should take the army with him does not seem reasonable, when Hezekiah and his people were in such a panic on account of it; besides, the king of Assyria's letters to Hezekiah clearly suppose the army to be still at Jerusalem, or his menacing letters would have signified nothing; and after this the destruction of the Assyrian army before Jerusalem is related:

and found the king of Assyria warring against Libnah; a city in the tribe of Judah, Jos 10:29, and lay nearer to Jerusalem than Lachish, where Rabshakeh left him; so that he seemed to be drawing his army towards that city, on which his heart was set. Josephus u makes him to be at this time besieging Pelusium, a city in Egypt, but wrongly; which has led some into a mistake that Libnah and Pelusium are the same:

for he had heard that he was departed from Lachish; where he was, when he sent him to Jerusalem, Isa 36:2, having very probably taken it.

Gill: Isa 37:9 - And he heard say concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia // he is come forth to make war with thee // and when he heard it, he sent messengers to Hezekiah And he heard say concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia,.... Not Rabshakeh, but the king of Assyria heard a rumour of this Ethiopian king coming out to ...

And he heard say concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia,.... Not Rabshakeh, but the king of Assyria heard a rumour of this Ethiopian king coming out to war against him: his name, in Josephus w, is Tharsices; in the Septuagint version it is Tharaca; and by Africanus x he is called Taracus; and is the same, who, by Strabo y, out of Megasthenes, is named Tearcon the Ethiopian: the Ethiopia of which he was king was either the upper Ethiopia or that beyond Egypt; to which agrees the Arabic version, which calls him Tharatha king of the Abyssines; but others take it for Cush, or rather Ethiopia in the land of Midian, or Arabia, as Bochart; which lay nearer to Judea than the other Ethiopia. Now the report that was brought to the king of Assyria of him was,

he is come forth to make war with thee; not by assisting the Egyptians, as Josephus, but rather the Jews; or by making an irruption into the king of Assyria's country in his absence: this some think to be the rumour predicted, Isa 37:7.

and when he heard it, he sent messengers to Hezekiah; with terrifying letters, to frighten him into an immediate surrender of the city, that he might withdraw his army, and meet the king of Ethiopia with the greater force; and the rather he dispatched these messengers in all haste to Hezekiah, that his letters might reach him before he had knowledge of the king of Ethiopia, asking a diversion in his favour, which would encourage him to hold out the siege the longer: saying; as follows:

Gill: Isa 37:10 - Thus shall ye speak to Hezekiah king of Judah, saying // let not thy God, in whom thou trustest, deceive thee // saying, Jerusalem shall not be given into the hand of the king of Assyria Thus shall ye speak to Hezekiah king of Judah, saying,.... This was the direction, and these the instructions he gave to his messengers, in which he g...

Thus shall ye speak to Hezekiah king of Judah, saying,.... This was the direction, and these the instructions he gave to his messengers, in which he gives Hezekiah the title of king, and owns him to be king of Judah; which was more than Rabshakeh his servant would do:

let not thy God, in whom thou trustest, deceive thee; than which, nothing could be more devilish and satanical, to represent the God of truth, that cannot lie, as a liar and deceiver: in this the king of Assyria outdid Rabshakeh himself; he had represented Hezekiah as an impostor and a deceiver of the people, and warns them against him as such; and here Sennacherib represents God himself as a deceiver, and cautions Hezekiah against trusting in him: nothing is more opposite to Satan and his instruments, than faith in God, and therefore they labour with all their might and main to weaken it; however, this testimony Hezekiah had from his enemy, that he was one that trusted in the Lord; and a greater character a man cannot well have:

saying, Jerusalem shall not be given into the hand of the king of Assyria; and so the Lord had said it; see Isa 38:6 and by some means or another Sennacherib had heard of it; and there was nothing he dreaded more than that Hezekiah should believe it, which would encourage him, he feared, to hold out the siege.

Gill: Isa 37:11 - Behold, thou hast heard what the kings of Assyria have done to all lands, by destroying them utterly // and shalt thou be delivered Behold, thou hast heard what the kings of Assyria have done to all lands, by destroying them utterly,.... He boasts of the achievements of himself and...

Behold, thou hast heard what the kings of Assyria have done to all lands, by destroying them utterly,.... He boasts of the achievements of himself and his ancestors, and of more than was true; and which, if it had been true, was more to their disgrace than honour, namely, utterly to destroy kingdoms, and their inhabitants, to gratify their lusts; but though many had been destroyed by them, yet not all; not Ethiopia, whose king was come out to make war with him, and of whom he seems to be afraid; nor Egypt, which was in confederacy with Ethiopia; nor Judea, he was now invading; but this he said in a taunting way, to terrify Hezekiah:

and shalt thou be delivered? canst thou expect it? surely thou canst not. Is it probable? yea, is it possible thou shouldest be delivered? it is not; as sure as other lands have been destroyed, so sure shall thine.

Gill: Isa 37:12 - Have the gods of the nations delivered them which my fathers have destroyed // as Gozan, and Haran, and Rezeph, and the children of Eden, which were in Telassar Have the gods of the nations delivered them which my fathers have destroyed,.... They have not. But what then? is the God of Israel to be put upon a l...

Have the gods of the nations delivered them which my fathers have destroyed,.... They have not. But what then? is the God of Israel to be put upon a level with such dunghill gods? so Sennacherib reckoned him, as Rabshakeh before, in his name, Isa 36:18,

as Gozan, and Haran, and Rezeph, and the children of Eden, which were in Telassar. Gozan was the same, it may be, with the Gausanitis of Ptolemy z which he makes mention of in his description of Mesopotamia; and the rather, since Haran or Chapman was a city of Mesopotamia, Gen 11:31 called by Ptolemy by the name of Carrae a; and who also, in the same place, makes mention of Rezeph, under the name of Rhescipha; though he likewise speaks of another place in Palmyrene in Syria, called Rhaesapha b, which some think to be the place here intended. Eden was also in Mesopotamia, in the eastern part of which was the garden of Eden; and this Telassar, inhabited by the children of Eden, was a city in that country, which is by Ptolemy c called Thelda; though Hillerus d is of opinion that the city Thalatha is meant, which is placed e near the river Tigris, a river of paradise. A very learned f men is of opinion, that the Eden, Isaiah here speaks of, belongs either to Syria of Damascus, and to the Lebanon and Paneas from whence Jordan arose; or to Syro-Phoenicia, and the Mediterranean sea, which the name Thalassar shows, as if it was θαλασσα, the Syrians being used to derive not a few of their words from the Greeks: and certain it is, that there is now a village called Eden on Mount Lebanon, which Thevenot g mentions; and another, near Damascus, Mr. Maundrell h speaks of; see Amo 1:5 and Tyre in Phoenicia is called Eden, Eze 28:13.

Gill: Isa 37:13 - Where is the king of Hamath, and the king of Arphad, and the king of the city of Sepharvaim // Henah and Ivah Where is the king of Hamath, and the king of Arphad, and the king of the city of Sepharvaim,.... The same, as some think, with the gods or idols of th...

Where is the king of Hamath, and the king of Arphad, and the king of the city of Sepharvaim,.... The same, as some think, with the gods or idols of those places; see Gill on Isa 36:19; though it may be the princes that ruled over those cities are meant, who were either slain, or become tributary to the king of Assyria. It is added,

Henah and Ivah: which some take to be the names of the gods or kings of Sepharvaim; but rather, since Sepharvaim is of the dual number, it was a double city, the river Euphrates passing between them; and these, as Musculus conjectures, were the names of them; or it may be, these were distinct cities from that, but what or where they were is not certain. Ptolemy makes mention of a place called Ingine, near Gausanitis or Gozan, supposed to be Henah; though others rather think it to be Ange, which he places in Arabia i, which I think is not so probable. Ivah perhaps is the same with Avah, in 2Ki 17:24. The Targum does not take them for names or places, but translates them,

"hath he not removed them, and carried them captive?''

and so Jarchi's note is,

"the king of Assyria hath moved and overthrown them, and destroyed them, and removed them out of their place;''

referring to the other cities.

Gill: Isa 37:14 - And Hezekiah received the letter from the hand of the messengers, and read it // and Hezekiah went up unto the house of God // and spread it before the Lord And Hezekiah received the letter from the hand of the messengers, and read it,.... Or books k, in which the above things were written; and everyone of...

And Hezekiah received the letter from the hand of the messengers, and read it,.... Or books k, in which the above things were written; and everyone of these he read, as Kimchi interprets it; though the Targum is,

"he took the letters from the hand of the messengers, and read one of them;''

that is, as Kimchi's father explains it, in which was the blasphemy against God; this he read over carefully to himself, observed the contents of it, and then did with it as follows:

and Hezekiah went up unto the house of God; the temple, the outward court of it, further than that he could not go:

and spread it before the Lord; not to read it, as he had done, or to acquaint him with the contents of it, which he fully knew; but, as it chiefly regarded him, and affected his honour and glory, he laid it before him, that he might take notice of it, and vindicate himself, and avenge his own cause; he brought it as a proof of what he had to say to him in prayer, and to support him in his allegations, and as a means to quicken himself in the discharge of that duty.

Gill: Isa 37:15 - And Hezekiah prayed unto the Lord, saying. And Hezekiah prayed unto the Lord, saying. He did not return railing for railing, but committed himself and his cause to him that judgeth righteously;...

And Hezekiah prayed unto the Lord, saying. He did not return railing for railing, but committed himself and his cause to him that judgeth righteously; he did not write an answer to the letter himself, but lays it before the Lord, and prays him to answer it, who was most principally reflected on in it.

Gill: Isa 37:16 - O Lord of hosts, God of Israel, that dwellest between the cherubim // thou art the God, even thou alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth // thou hast made heaven and earth O Lord of hosts, God of Israel, that dwellest between the cherubim,.... Or, "the inhabitant of the cherubim" l; which were over the mercy seat, the re...

O Lord of hosts, God of Israel, that dwellest between the cherubim,.... Or, "the inhabitant of the cherubim" l; which were over the mercy seat, the residence of the Shechinah, or Majesty of God, the symbol of the divine Presence in the holy of holies; a title which the God of Israel, the Lord of armies in heaven, and earth bears, and distinguishes him from all other gods, and which several titles carry in them arguments to strengthen faith in prayer; being "the Lord of hosts", he was able to do whatsoever was desired, and more abundantly; being "the God of Israel", their covenant God, it might be hoped and expected he would protect and defend them; and sitting "between the cherubim", on the mercy seat, great encouragement might be had that he would be gracious and merciful, and hear and help:

thou art the God, even thou alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth; this is opposed to the conceit of Sennacherib, that he was only the God of the Jews, and had no concern with other kingdoms and nations; whereas all belong to him, and him only; they are all under his jurisdiction and dominion, and at his will and control:

thou hast made heaven and earth; and so has an indisputable right to the government of the whole world, and to the disposal of all things in it.

Gill: Isa 37:17 - Incline thine ear, O Lord, and hear // open thine eyes, O Lord, and see // and hear all the words of Sennacherib, which he hath sent to reproach the living God Incline thine ear, O Lord, and hear,.... The prayer which Hezekiah was now presenting to him, as also the reproach of the enemy: open thine eyes, O...

Incline thine ear, O Lord, and hear,.... The prayer which Hezekiah was now presenting to him, as also the reproach of the enemy:

open thine eyes, O Lord, and see; the letter he spread before him, and take notice of the blasphemies in it; and punish for them. Both these clauses are to be understood after the manner of men, and in a way becoming the being and perfections of God, to whom ears and eyes are not properly to be ascribed, and so likewise the bowing of the one, and the opening of the other; but both denote the gracious condescension of God, to take notice of things on earth, and vindicate the cause of his people, which is his own:

and hear all the words of Sennacherib, which he hath sent to reproach the living God; the Septuagint, Vulgate Latin, and Arabic versions, understand it of the words which Sennacherib sent in the letter to reproach the Lord; but in 2Ki 19:16, it is, "which hath sent him"; the messenger, Rabshakeh, or whoever was the person that brought the letter to Hezekiah. The Targum paraphrases the latter part thus,

"to reproach the people of the living God;''

both God and his people were reproached, and both carry in them arguments with the Lord to hear and avenge himself and them; and the king prays that he would "hear", take notice of and observe all the words and give a proper answer, by inflicting just punishment.

Gill: Isa 37:18 - Of a truth Lord // the kings of Assyria have laid waste all the nations, and their countries Of a truth Lord,.... This is a truth and will be readily owned what the king of Assyria has said that his ancestors have destroyed all lands, or at le...

Of a truth Lord,.... This is a truth and will be readily owned what the king of Assyria has said that his ancestors have destroyed all lands, or at least have endeavoured to do it, and have had it in their hearts to do it:

the kings of Assyria have laid waste all the nations, and their countries: or "all the lands and their land" m; the Targum is,

"all provinces and their lands;''

the countries and town and villages in them, or the chief cities and villages round about them.

Gill: Isa 37:19 - And, have cast their gods into the fire // for they were no gods, but the works of men's hands, wood and stone // therefore they have destroyed them And, have cast their gods into the fire..... And burnt them; and it may well be asked, where are they? Isa 36:19, for they were no gods, but the wo...

And, have cast their gods into the fire..... And burnt them; and it may well be asked, where are they? Isa 36:19,

for they were no gods, but the works of men's hands, wood and stone; they were made of wood or of stone, and therefore could not be called gods; nor could they save the nations that worshipped them, nor themselves, from the fire:

therefore they have destroyed them; the Assyrian kings were able to do it, and did do it, because they were idols of wood or stone; but it did not therefore follow, that they were a match for the God of Israel, the true, and living God.

Gill: Isa 37:20 - Now therefore, O Lord our God, save us from his hand // that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that thou art the Lord, even thou only Now therefore, O Lord our God, save us from his hand,.... The hand of the king of Assyria. The Lord had promised that he would and Hezekiah believed h...

Now therefore, O Lord our God, save us from his hand,.... The hand of the king of Assyria. The Lord had promised that he would and Hezekiah believed he would; but he knew that for this he would be inquired of by him, and he pleads covenant interest, in him, and entreats for salvation upon that account, as well as for the reason following:

that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that thou art the Lord, even thou only; by doing that which other gods could not do; they could not save the nations that worshipped them from the hand of the Assyrians; if therefore the God of Israel saved his people from them, this would be a proof to all the world that he is God and there is none besides him.

Gill: Isa 37:21 - Then Isaiah the son of Amoz sent unto Hezekiah, saying // thus saith the Lord God of Israel // whereas thou hast prayed to me against Sennacherib king of Assyria Then Isaiah the son of Amoz sent unto Hezekiah, saying,.... Isaiah, by a spirit of prophecy, was made acquainted by the Lord both with the prayer of H...

Then Isaiah the son of Amoz sent unto Hezekiah, saying,.... Isaiah, by a spirit of prophecy, was made acquainted by the Lord both with the prayer of Hezekiah, and the Lord's answer to it; and therefore immediately sent to the king, who was either at the temple praying, or was returned to the palace, to let him know, the mind of the Lord in this matter. The Septuagint and Syriac versions render it, "and Isaiah the son of Amoz was sent to Hezekiah"; but this does not agree with the Hebrew text; Isaiah sent messengers to the king, and by them informed him what the Lord had said in answer to his prayer. Why he went not himself cannot be said:

thus saith the Lord God of Israel; Hezekiah had been praying to him under that title and character, Isa 37:16,

whereas thou hast prayed to me against Sennacherib king of Assyria: or, "what thou hast prayed", &c. n; the Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic versions, supply, "I have heard". It is bad for any to have the prayers of good men against them.

Gill: Isa 37:22 - This is the word which the Lord hath spoken concerning him // the virgin, the daughter of Zion; hath despised thee; and laughed thee to scorn // the daughter of Jerusalem hath shaken her head at thee This is the word which the Lord hath spoken concerning him,.... The sentence he has pronounced upon him, the punishment he has determined to inflict o...

This is the word which the Lord hath spoken concerning him,.... The sentence he has pronounced upon him, the punishment he has determined to inflict on him, in answer to Hezekiah's prayer against him:

the virgin, the daughter of Zion; hath despised thee; and laughed thee to scorn; that, is the inhabitants of Zion, particularly of the fort of Zion, called a "virgin", because it had never been forced, or taken and to show that it was a vain thing in Sennacherib to attempt it, as well as it would have been an injurious one, could he have accomplished it; since God, the Father of this virgin, would carefully keep her from such a rape; and he who was her husband to whom she was espoused as a chaste virgin, would defend and protect her; and the whole is designed to show the impotent malice of the king of Assyria; otherwise, at the time when these words were spoken, the daughter of Zion was in a fearful and trembling condition, and not in a laughing frame; but this declares what she might do now, and would do hereafter, for anything that he could do against her. The Targum paraphrases it,

"the kingdom of the congregation of Zion;''

the whole nation. Some restrain this to the inhabitants of the upper part of the city of Jerusalem, as what follows to those of the lower part:

the daughter of Jerusalem hath shaken her head at thee; or "after thee o"; by way of scorn and derision; that is when he fled; which shows, that though these things are spoken as if they were past, after the manner of the prophets, yet were to come, and would be when Sennacherib fled, upon the destruction of his army. Of this phrase, as expressive of scorn, see Psa 22:7. The Targum is, "the people that dwell in Jerusalem", &c.

Gill: Isa 37:23 - Whom hast thou reproached and blasphemed // and against whom hast thou exalted thy voice // and lifted up thine eyes on high // even against the Holy One of Israel Whom hast thou reproached and blasphemed?.... A creature like thyself? no, but a God, and not one like the gods of the nations, the idols of wood and ...

Whom hast thou reproached and blasphemed?.... A creature like thyself? no, but a God, and not one like the gods of the nations, the idols of wood and stone, but the living God:

and against whom hast thou exalted thy voice? alluding to Rabshakeh's crying with a loud voice, Isa 36:13,

and lifted up thine eyes on high? as proud and haughty persons do, disdaining to look upon those they treat with contempt:

even against the Holy One of Israel; that is, Israel's God, and will protect him; "a Holy One", and of purer eyes than to behold with pleasure such a proud blaspheming creature, and cannot look upon him but with indignation; for against such he sets himself; these he resists, pulls down, and destroys.

Gill: Isa 37:24 - By thy servants hast thou reproached the Lord // and hast said, by the multitude of my chariots am I come up to the height of the mountains // to the sides of Lebanon // and I will cut down the tall cedars thereof, and the choice fir trees thereof // and I will enter into the height of his border // and I will subdue the city of their strength // and the forest of his Carmel By thy servants hast thou reproached the Lord,.... Particularly by Rabshakeh, and the other two that were with him, who, no doubt, assented to what he...

By thy servants hast thou reproached the Lord,.... Particularly by Rabshakeh, and the other two that were with him, who, no doubt, assented to what he said; not content to reproach him himself, he set his servants to do it likewise; he made use of them as instruments, and even set them, as well as himself, above the Lord:

and hast said, by the multitude of my chariots am I come up to the height of the mountains; not only with his foot soldiers, but with his chariots, and a great number of them, he had travelled over hills and mountains, as Hannibal over the Alps, and was now upon the high mountains which were round about Jerusalem, and very near the mountain of the Lord's house; of which Jarchi interprets the words:

to the sides of Lebanon; meaning either the mountain of Lebanon, which was on the borders of the land of Israel, famous for cedars and fir trees, later mentioned; or, the temple made of the wood of Lebanon, near which his army now lay; so the Targum and Jarchi understand it:

and I will cut down the tall cedars thereof, and the choice fir trees thereof; to make way for his army, and to support himself with materials for the siege; to make tents with for his soldiers to lie in, or wooden fortresses from whence to annoy the city. The cedars of Lebanon were very large and tall. Mr. Maundrell p says he measured one of the largest, and

"found it six and thirty feet and six inches thick; its branches spread a hundred and eleven feet; its trunk from the ground was about fifteen or sixteen feet, and then divided into five branches, each of which would make a large tree.''

Monsieur Thevenot q says, now there are no more nor less that, twenty three cedars on Mount Lebanon, great and small: or it may be, these metaphorically intend the princes, and nobles, and chief men of the Jewish nation, he threatens to destroy; so the Targum,

"and I will kill the most beautiful of their mighty ones, and the choicest of their princes:''

and I will enter into the height of his border; some think the tower of Lebanon, which stood on the east part of it towards Syria, is meant; but it seems rather to design Jerusalem, the metropolis of the nation, which he thought himself sure of entering into, and taking possession of; and this was what his heart was set upon; so the Targum,

and I will subdue the city of their strength; their strong city Jerusalem, in which they placed their strength:

and the forest of his Carmel: or "the forest and his fruitful field" r; the same city, which, for the number of its houses and inhabitants, was like a forest, and was Hezekiah's fruitful field, where all his riches and treasure were. The Targum interprets it of his army,

"and I will consume the multitude of their army.''

Gill: Isa 37:25 - I have digged, and drunk water // and with the sole of my feet have I dried up all the rivers of the besieged places I have digged, and drunk water,.... In places where he came, and found no water for his army, he set his soldiers to work, to dig cisterns, as the Tar...

I have digged, and drunk water,.... In places where he came, and found no water for his army, he set his soldiers to work, to dig cisterns, as the Targum, or wells, so that they had water sufficient to drink; in 2Ki 19:24, it is "strange waters", which were never known before:

and with the sole of my feet have I dried up all the rivers of the besieged places; or, as the Targum,

"with the soles of the feet of the people that are with me;''

the Syriac version, "with the hoofs of my horses": with which he trampled down banks of rivers, and pools, and cisterns of water; signifying the vast numbers of his soldiers, who could drink up a river, or carry it away with them, or could turn the streams of rivers that ran by the sides, or round about, cities besieged, and so hindered the carrying on of a siege, and the taking of the place; but he had ways and means very easily to drain them, and ford them; or to cut off all communication of the water from the besieged. Some render it, "I have dried up all the rivers of Egypt" s, as Kimchi, on 2Ki 19:24, observes, and to be understood hyperbolically; see Isa 19:6, so Ben Melech observes.

Gill: Isa 37:26 - Hast thou not heard long ago // how I have done it; and of ancient times that I have formed it // now have I brought it to pass, that thou shouldest be to lay waste defenced cities into ruinous heaps // now should I bring, it to be laid waste, and fenced cities to be ruinous heaps Hast thou not heard long ago?.... By report, by reading the history of ancient times, or by means of the prophets; these are the words of the Lord to ...

Hast thou not heard long ago?.... By report, by reading the history of ancient times, or by means of the prophets; these are the words of the Lord to Sennacherib. The Targum adds,

"what I did to Pharaoh king of Egypt;''

it follows:

how I have done it; and of ancient times that I have formed it? meaning either the decree in his own breast from all eternity, and which he had published by his prophets, of raising up him, this wicked prince, to be the scourge of nations; or by the "it" are meant the people of the Jews, God's Israel, whom he had made, formed into a body politic, and into a church state, and had done great things for, in bringing them out of Egypt, leading them through the Red sea, providing for them, and protecting them in the wilderness, subduing nations under them, and settling them in the land of Canaan;

now have I brought it to pass, that thou shouldest be to lay waste defenced cities into ruinous heaps t; which some render interrogatively,

now should I bring, it to be laid waste, and fenced cities to be ruinous heaps? that is, the people of the Jews, the city of Jerusalem, and other fenced cities? no, I will not: or the meaning is, that that decree, which he had framed and formed in his own mind from all eternity, he was now bringing to pass; which was, that this king of Babylon should be a waster and destroyer of fortified cities, which he should reduce to heaps of ruin; wherefore he had no reason to vaunt as he had done, for he was only an instrument of executing the purposes and designs of God, though it was not in his heart, nor did he so mean.

Gill: Isa 37:27 - Therefore their inhabitants were of small power // they were dismayed and confounded // they were as the grass of the field // and as the green herb // as the grass on the housetops // and as corn blasted before it be grown up Therefore their inhabitants were of small power,.... Or, "short of hand" u; it was not in the power of their hands to help themselves, because the Lor...

Therefore their inhabitants were of small power,.... Or, "short of hand" u; it was not in the power of their hands to help themselves, because the Lord took away their strength, having determined that they should be destroyed for their sins; otherwise it would not have been in the power of Sennacherib to have subdued them; this takes off greatly from the king of Assyria's triumph, that they were a weak people, whom he had conquered, and were given up into his hands by the Lord, according to his purposes, or he had never been lord over them:

they were dismayed and confounded; not so much at the sight of Sennacherib's army, but because the Lord had dispirited them, and took away their natural courage from them, so that they became an easy prey to him:

they were as the grass of the field: which has no strength to stand before the mower:

and as the green herb; which is easily cropped with the hand of man, or eaten by the beasts of the field:

as the grass on the housetops: which has no matter of root, and is dried up with the heat of the sun:

and as corn blasted before it be grown up; before it rises up into anything of a stalk, and much less into ears; so the Targum,

"which is blasted before it comes to be ears;''

all which represent the feeble condition of the people overcome by him; so that he had not so much to glory of, as having done mighty things.

Gill: Isa 37:28 - But I know thy abode, and thy going out, and thy coming in // and thy rage against me But I know thy abode, and thy going out, and thy coming in,.... Where he dwelt, what he did at home, his secret councils, cabals, contrivances, scheme...

But I know thy abode, and thy going out, and thy coming in,.... Where he dwelt, what he did at home, his secret councils, cabals, contrivances, schemes and plans for the compassing of his ends, the subduing of kingdoms, and setting up an universal monarchy; and his going out of Babylon, his marches, and counter marches, and his entrance into the land of Judea; there was not a motion made, or a step taken in the cabinet or camp, but what were known to the Lord; so the Targum,

"thy sitting in council, and thy going out abroad to make war, and thy coming into the land of Israel, are manifest before me:''

and thy rage against me; against his people, against the city that was called by his name, against the temple where he was worshipped, particularly against his servant Hezekiah, because he would not immediately deliver up the city to him. The Targum and Syriac versions render it, "before me"; and then the meaning is, "thy rage", wrath and fury, "is before me": or manifest to me; and which he could restrain at pleasure, as he promises to do in the next verse.

Gill: Isa 37:29 - Because thy rage against me, and thy tumult is come up into mine ears // therefore will I put my hook in thy nose, and my bridle in thy lips // and I will turn thee back by the way by which thou camest Because thy rage against me, and thy tumult is come up into mine ears,..... The rage which Sennacherib expressed both by Rabshakeh, and in his letter ...

Because thy rage against me, and thy tumult is come up into mine ears,..... The rage which Sennacherib expressed both by Rabshakeh, and in his letter against Hezekiah and his people, is taken by the Lord as against himself; so great was his care of them, and concern for them; and indeed there was a great deal of blasphemy belched out against himself; and so the Syriac version renders the next word, translated "tumult", "thy blasphemy"; though that may rather intend the blustering noise that Rabshakeh made, or the noise of the Assyrian army, the chariots and horsemen, and the multitude of the soldiers, which was not only heard by the Jews, and was terrible to them, but was taken notice of by the Lord, who had it in derision; hence he adds:

therefore will I put my hook in thy nose, and my bridle in thy lips; comparing Sennacherib to leviathan, or the great whale, or to some very large and unruly fish, not easily caught and managed; see Job 41:1, or to a bear, or buffalo, in whose noses men put iron rings, and lead them about at pleasure; and also to a horse or mule, which are managed by the bit and bridle; signifying hereby the strength, fierceness, and fury of the Assyrian monarch, and the power of God to restrain him, which he could easily do:

and I will turn thee back by the way by which thou camest; from Jerusalem, the same way he came to it, to his own land again, and so he did, Isa 37:37.

Gill: Isa 37:30 - And this shall be a sign unto thee // ye shall eat this year such as groweth of itself: and the second year that which springeth of the same: and in the third year sow ye, and reap and plant vineyards, and eat the fruit thereof And this shall be a sign unto thee,.... Not to Sennacherib, but to Hezekiah; for here the Lord turns himself from the former, and directs his speech t...

And this shall be a sign unto thee,.... Not to Sennacherib, but to Hezekiah; for here the Lord turns himself from the former, and directs his speech to the latter, in order to comfort him under the dreadful apprehensions he had of the Assyrian monarch, and his army; assuring him of deliverance; giving him a sign or token of it, and which was a wonder, as the word sometimes signifies, and was no less marvellous than the deliverance itself:

ye shall eat this year such as groweth of itself: and the second year that which springeth of the same: and in the third year sow ye, and reap and plant vineyards, and eat the fruit thereof: all which was very wonderful; for whereas, either through the invasion of the land, and the siege of the city, they could not till their land as they had used to do, or what was upon it was destroyed or eaten up by the Assyrian army; and yet, through the wonderful providence of God, the earth of its own accord yielded that very year a sufficiency for them; and though the second year was, as it is thought, a sabbatical year, when the land had rest, and by the law was not to be tilled, yet it also produced of itself what was sufficient for their support; and then the third year being entirely free from the enemy, and all fears of his return, they go about their business as formerly, to sowing and reaping corn, and planting vineyards, and enjoying the fruit of their labours; all which falling out according to this prediction, must greatly confirm the mind of Hezekiah, and make him easy as to any future attempt upon him he might fear. The Vulgate Latin version renders the second clause, "ye shall eat apples the second year"; and so Symmachus, but without foundation.

Gill: Isa 37:31 - And the remnant that is escaped of the house of Judah // shall again take root downward, and bear fruit upward And the remnant that is escaped of the house of Judah,.... The few that escaped out of the cities of Judah, upon Sennacherib's invasion of the land, a...

And the remnant that is escaped of the house of Judah,.... The few that escaped out of the cities of Judah, upon Sennacherib's invasion of the land, and besieging and taking the fenced cities thereof, who fled to Jerusalem for safety; these were a type of the remnant, according to the election of grace, the few that are chosen of God, the special people redeemed by Christ, the little flock of his, the small number that enter in at the strait gate, and are saved; and who escape, not the fall of Adam, nor the imputation of his sin, nor the corruption of nature, nor the pollutions of the world in a state of nature; but who escape the vengeance of divine justice, the curse of a righteous law, wrath to come, and the damnation of hell; which is owing to the love of God, the covenant of his grace, the suretyship engagements of Christ, and his performance of them; these are the household of faith, God's confessing and professing people, who are Jews inwardly, of whom there are but a few; of these it is said, they

shall again take root downward, and bear fruit upward. The Targum is,

"as a tree which sends forth its roots below, and lifts up its branches above.''

The sense is, that those people that fled from their own habitations to Jerusalem should return thither again upon the breaking up of the siege, and be firmly settled, and live peaceably and prosperously, abounding with all good things, which may be applied, mystically, to true believers taking root again in the love of God, which is a hidden root, and is the source of salvation, and all the blessings of it, and is in itself immovable; and though the saints are secured in it, and by it, and nothing can root them out of it, yet they are sometimes shaken with doubts and fears about their interest in it; when there is again a fresh taking root in it, and that is, when they have a strong and lively persuasion of it, which produces fruitfulness in the exercise of faith, hope, and love, and in Gospel obedience; and also to their taking root in Christ, who is as a root unto them, hidden, and out of sight to the world, mean and abject, yet the source of all happiness to the saints, who have a being in him, are born by him, and receive sap and nourishment from him; and though their faith of interest in him may be sometimes shaken, yet there is a fresh taking root by new acts of faith upon him, which produce fruitfulness; the fruits brought forth by such are good works, which spring from the seed of grace, are owing to divine goodness, to the dews of grace, are pleasant and acceptable to God through Christ, and profitable unto men; these are called the fruits of the Spirit, and of righteousness, and are meet for repentance, and are brought forth openly and publicly, which may be signified by being bore upwards.

Gill: Isa 37:32 - For out of Jerusalem shall go forth a remnant // and they that escape out of Mount Zion // the zeal of the Lord of hosts shall do this For out of Jerusalem shall go forth a remnant,.... The Targum is, "the rest of the righteous;'' the same as before; who, when the city should be...

For out of Jerusalem shall go forth a remnant,.... The Targum is,

"the rest of the righteous;''

the same as before; who, when the city should be free from the enemy, would go out of it, and return to their former settlements, in the several parts of Judea; a type of those who went out of Jerusalem with the Gospel of Christ, and spread it not only in Judea, but in the Gentile world:

and they that escape out of Mount Zion; the same persons, differently described; some of whom were in the city of Jerusalem, and others in the fort of Zion, but departed from hence when the siege was broke up. The Targum is,

"and the escaped of them that confirm the law out of Mount Zion;''

see Isa 2:3,

the zeal of the Lord of hosts shall do this: his concern for his own honour and glory, and his great love to his people, shall engage him to perform all that is here promised and foretold. The Targum is,

"by the word of the Lord of hosts this shall be done.''

Gill: Isa 37:33 - Therefore thus saith the Lord concerning the king of Assyria // he shall not come into this city // nor shoot an arrow there // nor come before it with shields // nor cast a bank against it Therefore thus saith the Lord concerning the king of Assyria,.... The issue of his expedition, and the fruitfulness of it; how vain his attempts would...

Therefore thus saith the Lord concerning the king of Assyria,.... The issue of his expedition, and the fruitfulness of it; how vain his attempts would be, and how successless in this undertaking:

he shall not come into this city; shall not enter into it, and take possession of it, though so sure of it; or, "shall not come unto it w"; for some think he never was any nearer it than Libnah, from whence he sent his letters to Hezekiah, Isa 37:8,

nor shoot an arrow there; neither he nor his archers, so as to annoy or kill anyone person in it:

nor come before it with shields; or, "with a shield"; that is, he himself with one; otherwise his army under Rabshakeh was before it with men armed with shields; or the sense is, he shall not prevent it, or seize upon it, with his shielded men:

nor cast a bank against it; raise a mount, in order to fix his batteries upon, and play his artillery from, and shoot his arrows in to greater advantage.

Gill: Isa 37:34 - By the way that he came, by the same shall he return // and shall not come into this city, saith the Lord By the way that he came, by the same shall he return,.... Without executing his designs on Jerusalem, or other places; he shall lose his labour, and m...

By the way that he came, by the same shall he return,.... Without executing his designs on Jerusalem, or other places; he shall lose his labour, and make the best of his way to his own country, without turning to the right or left, in order to disturb other nations, and enlarge his kingdom, being quite dispirited and confounded by what he shall meet with:

and shall not come into this city, saith the Lord; or, unto this city, as before; which is repeated to confirm it, and to show the certainty of it.

Gill: Isa 37:35 - For I will defend this city to save it // For my own sake, and for my servant David's sake For I will defend this city to save it,.... Or, "shield it"; and if God will be the shield and protection of any place or people, they must needs be s...

For I will defend this city to save it,.... Or, "shield it"; and if God will be the shield and protection of any place or people, they must needs be safe; who can hurt them?

For my own sake, and for my servant David's sake; not for the merits of the inhabitants of it, but for the sake of his own name and glory, who had been blasphemed by the Assyrian monarch, and his general; and for the sake of his servant David, in whose seed he had promised the kingdom should be established; see 2Sa 7:12 and chiefly for the sake of the Messiah, David's son, and the Lord's servant, who was to spring from Hezekiah's race, and therefore must not be cut off.

Gill: Isa 37:36 - Then the angel of the Lord went forth // and smote in the camp of the Assyrians an hundred and fourscore and five thousand men // and when they arose early in the morning // behold, they were all dead corpses Then the angel of the Lord went forth,.... From heaven, at the command of the Lord, being one of his ministering spirits, sent forth by him, as for th...

Then the angel of the Lord went forth,.... From heaven, at the command of the Lord, being one of his ministering spirits, sent forth by him, as for the protection of his people, so for the destruction of their enemies; this was the same night, either in which the Assyrian army sat down before Jerusalem, as say the Jews x; or, however the same night in which the message was sent to Hezekiah; see 2Ki 19:35,

and smote in the camp of the Assyrians an hundred and fourscore and five thousand men: a prodigious slaughter indeed! which shows the power and strength of an angel. Josephus y says they were smitten with a pestilential disease; but other Jewish writers say it was by fire from heaven, which took away their lives, but did not consume their bodies, nor burn their clothes; but, be that as it will, destroyed they were:

and when they arose early in the morning: those of the army that survived; Sennacherib, and his servants about him; or Hezekiah, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, that were besieged:

behold, they were all dead corpses; the whole army, excepting a few; this may well be expressed with a note of admiration, "behold!" for a very wonderful thing it was.

Gill: Isa 37:37 - So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went, and returned // and dwelt at Nineveh So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went, and returned,.... Being informed of the destruction of his army in this miraculous manner, he depar...

So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went, and returned,.... Being informed of the destruction of his army in this miraculous manner, he departed from the place where he was in all haste, fearing lest he himself should be destroyed in like manner; and having no forces to pursue his designs, or wherewith to make an attempt elsewhere, he made the best of his way at once into his own country, whither he returned with great shame and confusion:

and dwelt at Nineveh; the metropolis of his kingdom; see Gen 10:11.

Gill: Isa 37:38 - And it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god // that Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with the sword // and they escaped into the land of Armenia // and Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead And it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god,.... Josephus says z, in his temple, called Arasce; but Nisroch was the nam...

And it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god,.... Josephus says z, in his temple, called Arasce; but Nisroch was the name of his deity he worshipped; though who he was is not certain. Jarchi says, in one of their expositions it is said to be נסר, "neser", a plank of the ark of Noah; in Tobit 1:24 a it is called his idol Dagon; according to Hillerus, the word signifies a prince; and with Vitringa, a king lifted up, or glorious, and whom he takes to be the Assyrian Belus, worshipped in the form and habit of Mars:

that Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with the sword; the former of these had his name from an idol so called, 2Ki 17:31, which signifies a glorious king; and the other may signify a prince of treasure. Josephus says they were his eldest sons; what should move them to be guilty of this parricide is not known. Jarchi says that he prayed to his god, and vowed, if he would deliver him, that he might not be slain, he would offer up his two sons to him, who standing by, and hearing him, therefore slew him; the reason given for it in the Apocrypha:

"And there passed not five and fifty days, before two of his sons killed him, and they fled into the mountains of Ararath; and Sarchedonus his son reigned in his stead; who appointed over his father's accounts, and over all his affairs, Achiacharus my brother Anael's son.'' (Tobit 1:21)

According to Munster's edition, is, that Sennacherib asked his counsellors and senators why the holy blessed God was so zealous for Israel and Jerusalem, that an angel destroyed the host of Pharaoh, and all the firstborn of Egypt, but the young men the Lord gave them, salvation was continually by their hands; and his wise men and counsellors answered him, that Abraham the father of Israel led forth his son to slay him, that the Lord his God might be propitious to him, and hence it is he is so zealous for his children, and has executed vengeance on thy servants; then, said the king, I will slay my sons; by this means, perhaps, he may be propitious to me, and help me; which word, when it came to Adrammelech and Sharezer, they laid in wait for him, and killed him with the sword at the time he went to pray before Dagon his god:

and they escaped into the land of Armenia; or "Ararat;" on the mountains of which the ark rested, Gen 8:4. Both the Septuagint version and Josephus say it was Armenia into which he escaped; and Jerom observes, that Ararat is a champaign country in Armenia, through which the river Araxes flows, at the foot of Mount Taurus, whither it is extended. The Targum calls it the land of Kardu; and the Syriac version the land of the Keredeans, which also belonged to Armenia; in these mountainous places they might think themselves most safe:

and Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead; whom Josephus calls Assarachoddas; and in Ptolemy's Caron he is named Assaradinus; the same, as some think, whom the Greeks call Sardanapalus; in the Apocrypha:

"And Achiacharus intreating for me, I returned to Nineve. Now Achiacharus was cupbearer, and keeper of the signet, and steward, and overseer of the accounts: and Sarchedonus appointed him next unto him: and he was my brother's son.'' (Tobit 1:22)

he is called Sarchedon, which some take to be the same with Sargon, Isa 20:1.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Isa 37:1 The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

NET Notes: Isa 37:2 Heb “elders of the priests” (so KJV, NAB, NASB); NCV “the older priests”; NRSV, TEV, CEV “the senior priests.”

NET Notes: Isa 37:3 Heb “when sons come to the cervical opening and there is no strength to give birth.”

NET Notes: Isa 37:4 Heb “and lift up a prayer on behalf of the remnant that is found.”

NET Notes: Isa 37:6 Heb “by which the servants of the king of Assyria have insulted me.”

NET Notes: Isa 37:7 Heb “cause him to fall” (so KJV, ASV, NAB), that is, “kill him.”

NET Notes: Isa 37:8 Heb “and the chief adviser returned and he found the king of Assyria fighting against Libnah, for he heard that he had departed from Lachish....

NET Notes: Isa 37:9 The Hebrew text has, “and he heard and he sent,” but the parallel in 2 Kgs 19:9 has וַיָּשׁ’...

NET Notes: Isa 37:11 Heb “and will you be rescued?” The rhetorical question expects the answer, “No, of course not!”

NET Notes: Isa 37:12 Heb “Did the gods of the nations whom my fathers destroyed rescue them – Gozan and Haran, and Rezeph and the sons of Eden who are in Telas...

NET Notes: Isa 37:13 Lair was a city located in northeastern Babylon. See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 235.

NET Notes: Isa 37:14 In the parallel text in 2 Kgs 19:14 the verb has the plural suffix, “them,” but this probably reflects a later harmonization to the preced...

NET Notes: Isa 37:16 Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavensR...

NET Notes: Isa 37:17 Heb “Hear all the words of Sennacherib which he sent to taunt the living God.”

NET Notes: Isa 37:18 The Hebrew text here has “all the lands,” but the parallel text in 2 Kgs 19:17 has “the nations.”

NET Notes: Isa 37:19 Heb “so they destroyed them” (NASB similar).

NET Notes: Isa 37:20 The parallel text in 2 Kgs 19:19 reads, “that you, Lord, are the only God.”

NET Notes: Isa 37:21 The parallel text in 2 Kgs 19:20 reads, “That which you prayed to me concerning Sennacherib king of Assyria I have heard.” The verb “...

NET Notes: Isa 37:22 Shaking the head was a mocking gesture of derision.

NET Notes: Isa 37:23 See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

NET Notes: Isa 37:24 Heb “the height of its extremity”; ASV “its farthest height.”

NET Notes: Isa 37:25 The Hebrew text has simply, “I dug and drank water.” But the parallel text in 2 Kgs 19:24 has “foreign waters.” זָ...

NET Notes: Isa 37:26 Heb “and it is to cause to crash into heaps of ruins fortified cities.” The subject of the third feminine singular verb תְ...

NET Notes: Isa 37:27 The Hebrew text has “scorched before the standing grain” (perhaps meaning “before it reaches maturity”), but it is preferable ...

NET Notes: Isa 37:28 Heb “your going out and your coming in and how you have raged against me.” Several scholars have suggested that this line is probably ditt...

NET Notes: Isa 37:29 The word-picture has a parallel in Assyrian sculpture. See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 238.

NET Notes: Isa 37:30 The four plural imperatival verb forms in v. 30b are used rhetorically. The Lord commands the people to plant, harvest, etc. to emphasize the certaint...

NET Notes: Isa 37:31 Heb “The remnant of the house of Judah that is left will add roots below and produce fruit above.”

NET Notes: Isa 37:32 Heb “the zeal of the Lord who commands armies [traditionally, the Lord of hosts].” In this context the Lord’s “zeal” ref...

NET Notes: Isa 37:33 Heb “[with] a shield” (so ASV, NASB, NRSV).

NET Notes: Isa 37:35 Heb “for my sake and for the sake of David my servant.”

NET Notes: Isa 37:36 Heb “look, all of them were dead bodies”; NLT “they found corpses everywhere.”

NET Notes: Isa 37:37 Heb “and Sennacherib king of Assyria departed and went and returned and lived in Nineveh.”

NET Notes: Isa 37:38 Extra-biblical sources also mention the assassination of Sennacherib, though they refer to only one assassin. See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:1 And it came to pass, when king Hezekiah heard [it], that he ( a ) tore his clothes, and covered himself with sackcloth, and went into the house of the...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:2 And he sent Eliakim, who [was] over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and the elders of the priests covered with sackcloth, to ( b ) Isaiah the pr...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:3 And they said to him, Thus saith Hezekiah, This day [is] a day of trouble, and of rebuke, and of blasphemy: for the children are come to the ( c ) bir...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:4 It may be the LORD thy God will ( d ) hear the words of Rabshakeh, whom the king of Assyria his master hath sent to reproach the living God, and will ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:7 Behold, I will send a wind upon him, and he shall hear a ( f ) rumour, and return to his own land; and I will cause him to fall by the sword in his ow...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:8 So Rabshakeh returned, and found the king of Assyria warring against ( g ) Libnah: for he had heard that he had departed from Lachish. ( g ) Which wa...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:10 Thus shall ye speak to Hezekiah king of Judah, saying, Let not thy God, in whom thou trustest, ( h ) deceive thee, saying, Jerusalem shall not be give...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:12 Have the gods of the nations delivered them which my fathers have destroyed, [as] ( i ) Gozan, and ( k ) Haran, and Rezeph, and the children of Eden w...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:16 O LORD of hosts, God of Israel, that ( l ) dwellest [between] the cherubim, thou [art] the God, [even] thou alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth: t...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:18 Of a truth, LORD, the kings of Assyria have laid waste all the nations, and ( m ) their countries, ( m ) Meaning, the ten tribes.

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:20 Now therefore, O LORD our God, save us from his hand, that ( n ) all the kingdoms of the earth may know that thou [art] the LORD, [even] thou only. (...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:22 This [is] the word which the LORD hath spoken concerning him; The ( o ) virgin, the daughter of Zion, hath despised, [and] derided thee; the daughter ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:23 Whom hast thou reproached and blasphemed? and against whom hast thou exalted [thy] voice, and lifted thy eyes on high? [even] against the ( p ) Holy O...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:25 I have dug, ( q ) and drank water; and with the sole of my feet have I dried up all the rivers of the besieged places. ( q ) He boasts of his policy ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:26 Hast thou not heard long ago, [how] I have done it; [and] of ancient times, ( r ) that I have formed it? now have I brought it to pass, that thou shou...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:27 Therefore their inhabitants [were] of small power, they were dismayed and confounded: they were [as] the grass of the field, and [as] the green herb, ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:28 But I know thy abode, and thy ( t ) going out, and thy coming in, and thy rage against me. ( t ) Meaning, his counsels and enterprises.

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:29 Because thy rage against me, and thy tumult, is come up into my ears, therefore I will put my ( u ) hook in thy nose, and my bridle in thy lips, and I...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:30 And this [shall be] a ( y ) sign to thee, Ye shall eat [this] year such as groweth of itself; and the ( z ) second year that which springeth of the s...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:31 And ( a ) the remnant that hath escaped of the house of Judah shall again take root downward, and bear fruit upward: ( a ) They whom God has delivere...

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:35 For I will defend this city to save it for my own sake, and for my servant ( b ) David's sake. ( b ) For my promise sake made to David.

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:37 So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went and returned, and dwelt at ( c ) Nineveh. ( c ) Which was the chiefest city of the Assyrians.

Geneva Bible: Isa 37:38 And it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god, that Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with the sword; and they ...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Isa 37:14-21 - A Libation To Jehovah The Triumph Of Faith And Hezekiah received the letter from the hand of the messengers, and read it: and Hezekiah went up unto the house of the Lord, ...

Matthew Henry: Isa 37:1-7 - -- We may observe here, 1. That the best way to baffle the malicious designs of our enemies against us is to be driven by them to God and to our duty a...

Matthew Henry: Isa 37:8-20 - -- We may observe here, 1. That, if God give us inward satisfaction in his promise, this may confirm us in our silently bearing reproaches. God answere...

Matthew Henry: Isa 37:21-38 - -- We may here observe, 1. That those who receive messages of terror from men with patience, and send messages of faith to God by prayer, may expect me...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 37:1-4 - -- The king and the deputation apply to Isaiah. "And it came to pass, when king Hizkiyahu had heard, he rent his clothes, and wrapped himself in mourn...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 37:5-7 - -- Isaiah's reply. "And the servants of king Hizkiyahu came to Isaiah. And Isaiah said to them ( אליהם , K. להם ), Speak thus to your lord, ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 37:8-9 - -- Rabshakeh, who is mentioned alone in both texts as the leading person engaged, returns to Sennacherib, who is induced to make a second attempt to ob...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 37:10-13 - -- The message. "Thus shall ye say to Hizkiyahu king of Judah, saying, Let not thy God in whom thou trustest deceive thee, saying, Jerusalem will not ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 37:14-20 - -- This intimidating message, which declared the God of Israel to be utterly powerless, was conveyed by the messengers of Sennacherib in the form of a ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 37:21-23 - -- The prophet's reply. "And Isaiah the son of Amoz sent to Hizkiyahu, saying, Thus saith Jehovah the God of Israel, That which thou hast prayed to me...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 37:24 - -- Second turn, "By thy servants (K. thy messengers ) hast thou reviled the Lord, in that thou sayest, With the multitude (K. chethib ברכב ) o...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 37:25 - -- Third turn, "I, I have digged and drunk (K. foreign ) waters, and will make dry with the sole of my feet all the Nile-arms ( יארי , K. יא...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 37:26-27 - -- And yet what he was able to do was not the result of his own power, but of the counsel of God, which he subserved. Fourth turn, "Hast thou not hear...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 37:28-29 - -- Asshur is Jehovah's chosen instrument while thus casting down the nations, which are "short-handed against him,"i.e., incapable of resisting him. Bu...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 37:30 - -- The prophet now turns to Hezekiah. "And let this be a sign to thee, Men eat this year what is self-sown; and in the second year what springs from t...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 37:31-32 - -- Seventh turn, "And that which is escaped of the house of Judah, that which remains will again take root downward, and bear fruit upward. For from J...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 37:33-35 - -- The prophecy concerning the protection of Jerusalem becomes more definite in the last turn than it ever has been before. "Therefore thus saith Jeho...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 37:36-38 - -- To this culminating prophecy there is now appended an account of the catastrophe itself. "Then (K. And it came to pass that night, that ) the ange...

Constable: Isa 7:1--39:8 - --III. Israel's crisis of faith chs. 7--39 This long section of the book deals with Israel's major decision in Isa...

Constable: Isa 36:1--39:8 - --C. The tests of Israel's trust chs. 36-39 Chapters 36-39 conclude the section of the book dealing with t...

Constable: Isa 36:1--37:38 - --1. The Assyrian threat chs. 36-37 In chapters 7-8 Isaiah tried to persuade King Ahaz to trust Go...

Constable: Isa 36:1--37:8 - --The Rabshakeh's challenge 36:1-37:7 This section demonstrates Hezekiah's commitment to G...

Constable: Isa 36:21--37:8 - --The response to the ultimatum 36:21-37:7 How would the Judeans respond to this blasphemous challenge? How they did determined their destiny not only a...

Constable: Isa 37:8-13 - --The royal letter 37:8-13 37:8-9a The Rabshakeh returned to his master having learned that Hezekiah would not surrender. He found him five miles closer...

Constable: Isa 37:14-35 - --The response to the letter 37:14-35 37:14-15 When Hezekiah received Sennacherib's letter, he took it with him into the temple and laid all the enemy's...

Constable: Isa 37:36-38 - --The Lord's deliverance 37:36-38 Isaiah had predicted that God would break Assyria's power in the Promised Land (14:24-27). This short section records ...

Guzik: Isa 37:1-38 - Assyria Destroyed, God Glorified Isaiah 37 - Assyria Destroyed, God Glorified A. King Hezekiah seeks the LORD. 1. (1-5) Hezekiah's immediate reaction upon hearing the words of Rabsh...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) ISAIAH, son of Amoz (not Amos); contemporary of Jonah, Amos, Hosea, in Israel, but younger than they; and of Micah, in Judah. His call to a higher deg...

JFB: Isaiah (Garis Besar) PARABLE OF JEHOVAH'S VINEYARD. (Isa. 5:1-30) SIX DISTINCT WOES AGAINST CRIMES. (Isa. 5:8-23) (Lev 25:13; Mic 2:2). The jubilee restoration of posses...

TSK: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Isaiah has, with singular propriety, been denominated the Evangelical Prophet, on account of the number and variety of his prophecies concerning the a...