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Teks -- Isaiah 36:1-22 (NET)

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Sennacherib Invades Judah
36:1 In the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah’s reign, King Sennacherib of Assyria marched up against all the fortified cities of Judah and captured them. 36:2 The king of Assyria sent his chief adviser from Lachish to King Hezekiah in Jerusalem, along with a large army. The chief adviser stood at the conduit of the upper pool which is located on the road to the field where they wash and dry cloth. 36:3 Eliakim son of Hilkiah, the palace supervisor, accompanied by Shebna the scribe and Joah son of Asaph, the secretary, went out to meet him. 36:4 The chief adviser said to them, “Tell Hezekiah: ‘This is what the great king, the king of Assyria, says: “What is your source of confidence? 36:5 Your claim to have a strategy and military strength is just empty talk. In whom are you trusting, that you would dare to rebel against me? 36:6 Look, you must be trusting in Egypt, that splintered reed staff. If someone leans on it for support, it punctures his hand and wounds him. That is what Pharaoh king of Egypt does to all who trust in him! 36:7 Perhaps you will tell me, ‘We are trusting in the Lord our God.’ But Hezekiah is the one who eliminated his high places and altars and then told the people of Judah and Jerusalem, ‘You must worship at this altar.’ 36:8 Now make a deal with my master the king of Assyria, and I will give you two thousand horses, provided you can find enough riders for them. 36:9 Certainly you will not refuse one of my master’s minor officials and trust in Egypt for chariots and horsemen. 36:10 Furthermore it was by the command of the Lord that I marched up against this land to destroy it. The Lord told me, ‘March up against this land and destroy it!’”’” 36:11 Eliakim, Shebna, and Joah said to the chief adviser, “Speak to your servants in Aramaic, for we understand it. Don’t speak with us in the Judahite dialect in the hearing of the people who are on the wall.” 36:12 But the chief adviser said, “My master did not send me to speak these words only to your master and to you. His message is also for the men who sit on the wall, for they will eat their own excrement and drink their own urine along with you!” 36:13 The chief adviser then stood there and called out loudly in the Judahite dialect, “Listen to the message of the great king, the king of Assyria. 36:14 This is what the king says: ‘Don’t let Hezekiah mislead you, for he is not able to rescue you! 36:15 Don’t let Hezekiah talk you into trusting in the Lord by saying, “The Lord will certainly rescue us; this city will not be handed over to the king of Assyria.” 36:16 Don’t listen to Hezekiah!’ For this is what the king of Assyria says, ‘Send me a token of your submission and surrender to me. Then each of you may eat from his own vine and fig tree and drink water from his own cistern, 36:17 until I come and take you to a land just like your own– a land of grain and new wine, a land of bread and vineyards. 36:18 Hezekiah is misleading you when he says, “The Lord will rescue us.” Has any of the gods of the nations rescued his land from the power of the king of Assyria? 36:19 Where are the gods of Hamath and Arpad? Where are the gods of Sepharvaim? Indeed, did any gods rescue Samaria from my power? 36:20 Who among all the gods of these lands have rescued their lands from my power? So how can the Lord rescue Jerusalem from my power?’” 36:21 They were silent and did not respond, for the king had ordered, “Don’t respond to him.” 36:22 Eliakim son of Hilkiah, the palace supervisor, accompanied by Shebna the scribe and Joah son of Asaph, the secretary, went to Hezekiah with their clothes torn in grief and reported to him what the chief adviser had said.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Aramaic an ancient Jewish language used in the Old Testament
 · Arpad a town of Syria 40 km north of Aleppo & 100 km east of the Great Sea
 · Asaph father of Joah, Hezekiah's recorder,son of Berechiah the Levite; music minister under David,father of Zichri; a Levite ancestor of some returnees,an official over the (Persian) king's forest in Judah
 · Assyria a member of the nation of Assyria
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Eliakim son of Abiud the son of Zerubbabel over 20generations from David; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Melea, only 4 generations from David; an ancester of Jesus,son of Hilkiah; head of Hezekiah's household,son of Josiah; made king of Judah by Pharaoh Neco,a priest who helped celebrate the completion of the wall
 · hamath a town of Syria on the Orontes between Aleppo and Damascus (OS)
 · Hamath a town of unknown location
 · Hezekiah the son of Ahaz who succeeded him as king of Judah; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Ahaz; king of Judah,forefather of the prophet Zephaniah,an Israelite chief who signed the covenant to obey God's law
 · Hilkiah father of Eliakim who was head of King Hezekiah's household,a high priest; son of Shalum /Meshulam,son of Amzi of Levi; forefather of returned exiles,son of Hosah; a Levite gatekeeper,priest leader of some who returned from exile with Zerubbabel,a man of Anathoth; father of the prophet Jeremiah
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Joah son of Asaph; record keeper of King Hezekiah,son of Zimmah one of the Levites of Gershon whom, along with his son Eden, King Hezekiah assigned to supervise the cleansing of the temple,son of Obed-Edom; a Levite gatekeeper whose descendants returned from exile,son of Joahaz; record keeper of King Josiah
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Lachish a town of Judah 23 km west of Hebron & 40 km north of Beersheba (SMM)
 · Pharaoh the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Abraham's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Joseph's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who refused to let Israel leave Egypt,the title of the king of Egypt whose daughter Solomon married,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in the time of Isaiah,the title Egypt's ruler just before Moses' time
 · Rabshakeh a senior official who governed provinces (IBD)
 · Samaria residents of the district of Samaria
 · Sennacherib king of Assyria; enemy of King Hezekiah of Judah
 · Sepharvaim a town in a region 200 to 400 miles north of Damascus
 · Shebna(h) a man who was secretary of Hezekiah


Topik/Tema Kamus: SENNACHERIB | Shebna | Hezekiah | Assyria | Isaiah | BIBLE, THE, IV CANONICITY | CHRONOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT | Rab-shakeh | ISAIAH, 8-9 | ISAIAH, 1-7 | CHRONICLES, BOOKS OF | HEZEKIAH (2) | Diplomacy | Rabmag | Joah | Eliakim | RABSHAKEH | Blasphemy | Hebrew Language | Asaph | selebihnya
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JFB: Isa 36:1 - fourteenth The third of Sennacherib's reign. His ultimate object was Egypt, Hezekiah's ally. Hence he, with the great body of his army (2Ch 32:9), advanced towar...

The third of Sennacherib's reign. His ultimate object was Egypt, Hezekiah's ally. Hence he, with the great body of his army (2Ch 32:9), advanced towards the Egyptian frontier, in southwest Palestine, and did not approach Jerusalem.

JFB: Isa 36:2 - Rab-shakeh In 2Ki 18:17, Tartan and Rab-saris are joined with him. Rab-shakeh was probably the chief leader; Rab is a title of authority, "chief-cup-bearer."

In 2Ki 18:17, Tartan and Rab-saris are joined with him. Rab-shakeh was probably the chief leader; Rab is a title of authority, "chief-cup-bearer."

JFB: Isa 36:2 - Lachish A frontier town southwest of Jerusalem, in Judah; represented as a great fortified city in a hilly and fruitful country in the Koyunjik bas-reliefs, n...

A frontier town southwest of Jerusalem, in Judah; represented as a great fortified city in a hilly and fruitful country in the Koyunjik bas-reliefs, now in the British Museum; also, its name is found on a slab over a figure of Sennacherib on his throne.

JFB: Isa 36:2 - upper pool The side on which the Assyrians would approach Jerusalem coming from the southwest (see on Isa 7:3).

The side on which the Assyrians would approach Jerusalem coming from the southwest (see on Isa 7:3).

JFB: Isa 36:3 - Eliakim Successor to Shebna, who had been "over the household," that is, chief minister of the king; in Isa 22:15-20, this was foretold.

Successor to Shebna, who had been "over the household," that is, chief minister of the king; in Isa 22:15-20, this was foretold.

JFB: Isa 36:3 - scribe Secretary, recorder--literally, "one who reminds"; a remembrancer to keep the king informed on important facts, and to act as historiographer. In 2Ki ...

Secretary, recorder--literally, "one who reminds"; a remembrancer to keep the king informed on important facts, and to act as historiographer. In 2Ki 18:18, the additional fact is given that the Assyrian envoys "called to the king," in consequence of which Eliakim, &c., "came out to them."

JFB: Isa 36:4 - great king The usual title of the Persian and Assyrian kings, as they had many subordinate princes or kings under them over provinces (Isa 10:8).

The usual title of the Persian and Assyrian kings, as they had many subordinate princes or kings under them over provinces (Isa 10:8).

JFB: Isa 36:5 - counsel Egypt was famed for its wisdom.

Egypt was famed for its wisdom.

JFB: Isa 36:6 - -- It was a similar alliance with So (that is, Sabacho, or else Sevechus), the Ethiopian king of Egypt, which provoked the Assyrian to invade and destroy...

It was a similar alliance with So (that is, Sabacho, or else Sevechus), the Ethiopian king of Egypt, which provoked the Assyrian to invade and destroy Israel, the northern kingdom, under Hoshea.

JFB: Isa 36:7 - -- The Assyrian mistakes Hezekiah's religious reforms whereby he took away the high places (2Ki 18:4) as directed against Jehovah. Some of the high place...

The Assyrian mistakes Hezekiah's religious reforms whereby he took away the high places (2Ki 18:4) as directed against Jehovah. Some of the high places may have been dedicated to Jehovah, but worshipped under the form of an image in violation of the second commandment: the "brazen serpent," also (broken in pieces by Hezekiah, and called Nehushtan, "a piece of brass," because it was worshipped by Israel) was originally set up by God's command. Hence the Assyrian's allegation has a specious color: you cannot look for help from Jehovah, for your king has "taken away His altars."

JFB: Isa 36:7 - to Jerusalem (Deu 12:5, Deu 12:11; Joh 4:20).

JFB: Isa 36:8 - give pledges A taunting challenge. Only give the guarantee that you can supply as many as two thousand riders, and I will give thee two thousand horses. But seeing...

A taunting challenge. Only give the guarantee that you can supply as many as two thousand riders, and I will give thee two thousand horses. But seeing that you have not even this small number (see on Isa 2:7), how can you stand against the hosts of Assyrian cavalry? The Jews tried to supply their weakness in this "arm" from Egypt (Isa 31:1).

JFB: Isa 36:9 - captain A governor under a satrap; even he commands more horsemen than this.

A governor under a satrap; even he commands more horsemen than this.

JFB: Isa 36:10 - -- A boastful inference from the past successes of Assyria, designed to influence the Jews to surrender; their own principles bound them to yield to Jeho...

A boastful inference from the past successes of Assyria, designed to influence the Jews to surrender; their own principles bound them to yield to Jehovah's will. He may have heard from partisans in Judah what Isaiah had foretold (Isa 10:5-6).

JFB: Isa 36:11 - Syrian Rather, "Aramean": the language spoken north and east of Palestine, and understood by the Assyrians as belonging to the same family of languages as th...

Rather, "Aramean": the language spoken north and east of Palestine, and understood by the Assyrians as belonging to the same family of languages as their own: nearly akin to Hebrew also, though not intelligible to the multitude (compare 2Ki 5:5-7). "Aram" means a "high land," and includes parts of Assyria as well as Syria.

JFB: Isa 36:11 - Jews' language The men of Judah since the disruption of Israel, claimed the Hebrew as their own peculiarly, as if they were now the only true representatives of the ...

The men of Judah since the disruption of Israel, claimed the Hebrew as their own peculiarly, as if they were now the only true representatives of the whole Hebrew twelve tribes.

JFB: Isa 36:11 - ears of . . . people on . . . wall The interview is within hearing distance of the city. The people crowd on the wall, curious to hear the Assyrian message. The Jewish rulers fear that ...

The interview is within hearing distance of the city. The people crowd on the wall, curious to hear the Assyrian message. The Jewish rulers fear that it will terrify the people and therefore beg Rab-shakeh to speak Aramean.

JFB: Isa 36:12 - -- Is it to thy master and thee that I am sent? Nay, it is to the men on the wall, to let them know (so far am I from wishing them not to hear, as you wo...

Is it to thy master and thee that I am sent? Nay, it is to the men on the wall, to let them know (so far am I from wishing them not to hear, as you would wish), that unless they surrender, they shall be reduced to the direst extremities of famine in the siege (2Ch 32:11, explains the word here), namely, to eat their own excrements: or, connecting, "that they may eat," &c., with "sit upon the wall"; who, as they hold the wall, are knowingly exposing themselves to the direst extremities [MAURER]. Isaiah, as a faithful historian, records the filthy and blasphemous language of the Assyrians to mark aright the true character of the attack on Jerusalem.

JFB: Isa 36:13 - -- Rab-shakeh speaks louder and plainer than ever to the men on the wall.

Rab-shakeh speaks louder and plainer than ever to the men on the wall.

JFB: Isa 36:15 - -- The foes of God's people cannot succeed against them, unless they can shake their trust in Him (compare Isa 36:10).

The foes of God's people cannot succeed against them, unless they can shake their trust in Him (compare Isa 36:10).

JFB: Isa 36:16 - agreement . . . by . . . present Rather, "make peace with me"; literally, "blessing" so called from the mutual congratulations attending the ratification of peace. So Chaldee. Or else...

Rather, "make peace with me"; literally, "blessing" so called from the mutual congratulations attending the ratification of peace. So Chaldee. Or else, "Do homage to me" [HORSLEY].

JFB: Isa 36:16 - come out Surrender to me; then you may remain in quiet possession of your lands till my return from Egypt, when I will lead you away to a land fruitful as your...

Surrender to me; then you may remain in quiet possession of your lands till my return from Egypt, when I will lead you away to a land fruitful as your own. Rab-shakeh tries to soften, in the eyes of the Jews, the well-known Assyrian policy of weakening the vanquished by deporting them to other lands (Gen 47:21; 2Ki 17:6).

JFB: Isa 36:19 - Hamath . . . Arphad (See on Isa 10:9).

(See on Isa 10:9).

JFB: Isa 36:19 - Sepharvaim Literally, "the two scribes"; now Sipphara, on the east of Euphrates, above Babylon. It was a just retribution (Pro 1:31; Jer 2:19). Israel worshipped...

Literally, "the two scribes"; now Sipphara, on the east of Euphrates, above Babylon. It was a just retribution (Pro 1:31; Jer 2:19). Israel worshipped the gods of Sepharvaim, and so colonists of Sepharvaim were planted in the land of Israel (thenceforth called Samaria) by the Assyrian conqueror (2Ki 17:24; compare 2Ki 18:34).

JFB: Isa 36:19 - Samaria Shalmaneser began the siege against Hoshea, because of his conspiring with So of Egypt (2Ki 17:4). Sargon finished it; and, in his palace at Khorsabad...

Shalmaneser began the siege against Hoshea, because of his conspiring with So of Egypt (2Ki 17:4). Sargon finished it; and, in his palace at Khorsabad, he has mentioned the number of Israelites carried captive--27,280 [G. V. SMITH].

JFB: Isa 36:20 - -- (Compare Isa 10:11; 2Ch 32:19). Here he contradicts his own assertion (Isa 36:10), that he had "come up against the land with the Lord." Liars need go...

(Compare Isa 10:11; 2Ch 32:19). Here he contradicts his own assertion (Isa 36:10), that he had "come up against the land with the Lord." Liars need good memories. He classes Jehovah with the idols of the other lands; nay, thinks Him inferior in proportion as Judah, under His tutelage, was less than the lands under the tutelage of the idols.

JFB: Isa 36:21 - not a word So as not to enter into a war of words with the blasphemer (Exo 14:14; Jud 1:9).

So as not to enter into a war of words with the blasphemer (Exo 14:14; Jud 1:9).

JFB: Isa 36:22 - clothes rent In grief and horror at the blasphemy (Mat 26:65).

In grief and horror at the blasphemy (Mat 26:65).

Clarke: Isa 36:3 - Then came forth unto him Then came forth unto him - Before these words the other copy, 2Ki 18:18, adds, ויקראו אל המלך vaiyikreu el hammelech , "And they demand...

Then came forth unto him - Before these words the other copy, 2Ki 18:18, adds, ויקראו אל המלך vaiyikreu el hammelech , "And they demanded audience of the king."

Clarke: Isa 36:5 - I say "Thou hast said"- Fourteen MSS. (three ancient) of Kennicott’ s and De Rossi’ s have it in the second person, אמרת amarta ; and so the other copy, 2Ki 18:20

But they are but vain words I say "Thou hast said"- Fourteen MSS. (three ancient) of Kennicott’ s and De Rossi’ s have it in the second person, אמרת amarta ; an...

I say "Thou hast said"- Fourteen MSS. (three ancient) of Kennicott’ s and De Rossi’ s have it in the second person, אמרת amarta ; and so the other copy, 2Ki 18:20

But they are but vain words - דבר שפתים debar sephathayim , a word of the lips. Thou dost talk about counsels, but thou hast none; about strength, but there is none with thee.

Clarke: Isa 36:6 - The staff of this broken reed The staff of this broken reed - A weakened, faithless ally

The staff of this broken reed - A weakened, faithless ally

Clarke: Isa 36:6 - On Egypt On Egypt - The Bodl. MS. adds מלך melech , the king of Egypt; and so perhaps the Chaldee might read

On Egypt - The Bodl. MS. adds מלך melech , the king of Egypt; and so perhaps the Chaldee might read

Clarke: Isa 36:6 - It will go into his hand, and pierce it It will go into his hand, and pierce it - Will take subsidy after subsidy, and do nothing for it.

It will go into his hand, and pierce it - Will take subsidy after subsidy, and do nothing for it.

Clarke: Isa 36:7 - -- But if thou say "But if ye say"- Two ancient MSS. have תאמרו tomeru in the plural number; so likewise the Septuagint, Chaldee, and the other...

But if thou say "But if ye say"- Two ancient MSS. have תאמרו tomeru in the plural number; so likewise the Septuagint, Chaldee, and the other copy, 2Ki 18:22

Ye shall worship before this altar "To worship only before this altar"- See 2Ch 32:12.

Clarke: Isa 36:10 - Am I now come up without the Lord Am I now come up without the Lord - Probably some apostate Israelitish priest might have encouraged the king of Assyria by telling him that Jehovah ...

Am I now come up without the Lord - Probably some apostate Israelitish priest might have encouraged the king of Assyria by telling him that Jehovah had given him a commission against Jerusalem.

Clarke: Isa 36:12 - -- That they may eat their own dung "Destined to eat their own dung"- לאכל leechol , that they may eat, as our translation literally renders it. B...

That they may eat their own dung "Destined to eat their own dung"- לאכל leechol , that they may eat, as our translation literally renders it. But the Syriac reads מאכל meechol , that they may not eat, perhaps rightly, and afterward ומשתות umishshethoth , or ושתות ushethoth , to the same purpose. Seventeen of Dr. Kennicott’ s MSS., ten of De Rossi’ s and two of my own, read מימי meymey , the water; mine have מימי שניהם meymey sheneyhem , and write in the margin מימי רגליהם meymey regaleyhem , the water of their feet, a modest way of expressing urine.

Clarke: Isa 36:15 - This city shall not be delivered This city shall not be delivered - ולא velo , And this city. Ten of Kennicott’ s MSS., and nine of De Rossi’ s, with one (ancient) of ...

This city shall not be delivered - ולא velo , And this city. Ten of Kennicott’ s MSS., and nine of De Rossi’ s, with one (ancient) of my own, add the conjunction.

Clarke: Isa 36:16 - Make an agreement Make an agreement - ברכה berachah , make a blessing with me; i.e., Give me a ransom for the city, and I will not destroy it; give me the yearly...

Make an agreement - ברכה berachah , make a blessing with me; i.e., Give me a ransom for the city, and I will not destroy it; give me the yearly tribute thou hast promised.

Clarke: Isa 36:17 - And vineyards And vineyards - The other copy, 2Ki 18:32, adds here: "A land of oil-olive, and of honey; that ye may live, and not die: and hearken not unto Hezeki...

And vineyards - The other copy, 2Ki 18:32, adds here: "A land of oil-olive, and of honey; that ye may live, and not die: and hearken not unto Hezekiah when he seduceth you."

Clarke: Isa 36:19 - Where are the gods Where are the gods - Many MSS. add the conjunction here also: And, or But, where are the gods, etc For other matters relative to this chapter, see t...

Where are the gods - Many MSS. add the conjunction here also: And, or But, where are the gods, etc

For other matters relative to this chapter, see the notes on 2Ki 18:13 (note), etc

Clarke: Isa 36:19 - Of Sepharvaim Of Sepharvaim - The other copy, 2Ki 18:34, adds, of "Henah and Ivah.

Of Sepharvaim - The other copy, 2Ki 18:34, adds, of "Henah and Ivah.

Clarke: Isa 36:19 - Have they delivered Have they delivered - וכי vechi . The copulative is not expressed here by the Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate, and three MSS.; nor is it in any oth...

Have they delivered - וכי vechi . The copulative is not expressed here by the Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate, and three MSS.; nor is it in any other copy. Ib. Houbigant reads הכי hachi , with the interrogative particle; a probable conjecture, which the ancient Versions above quoted seem to favor.

Clarke: Isa 36:21 - -- But they held their peace "But the people held their peace"- The word העם haam , the people, is supplied from the other copy, and is authorized ...

But they held their peace "But the people held their peace"- The word העם haam , the people, is supplied from the other copy, and is authorized by a MS. which inserts it after אתו otho .

Calvin: Isa 36:1 - It happened in the fourteenth year // In the fourteenth year 1.It happened in the fourteenth year In this and the following chapter the Prophet relates a remarkable history, which may be regarded as the seal of...

1.It happened in the fourteenth year In this and the following chapter the Prophet relates a remarkable history, which may be regarded as the seal of his doctrine, in which he predicted the calamities that would befall his nation, and at the same time promised that God would be merciful to them, and would drive back the Assyrians and defend Jerusalem and the Holy Land. What had already been accomplished made it evident that he had not spoken in vain; but God intended that it should also be testified to posterity. Yet to the men of that age it was not less advantageous that such a record should be preserved. He had often threatened that the vengeance of God was near at hand, and that the Assyrians were ready at his bidding to be employed by him as scourges; and st the same time he promised that he would assist Jerusalem even when matters were come to the worst. Both were accomplished, and the greater part of the nation passed by, as with closed eyes, those evident judgments of God, and not less basely despised the assistance which was offered to them. So much the more inexcusable was their gross stupidity.

But to the small number of believers it was advantageous to perceive such illustrious proofs of the hand of God, that greater credit might afterwards be given to Isaiah. The Prophet also might pursue his course more ardently and with unshaken firmness, since God had given so splendid an attestation of his doctrine from heaven. And because the truth of God scarcely obtains from us the honor due to it, unless it be supported by strong proofs, God has provided not less largely for our weakness, that we may perceive as in a mirror that the power of God accompanied the words of Isaiah, and that what he taught on earth was confirmed from heaven. More especially has calling was manifestly sealed, when God delivered Jerusalem from the grievous siege of Sennacherib, and when no hope of safety remained; so that believers saw that they had been rescued from the jaws of death by the hand of God alone. For this reason I have said that it was a seal to authenticate the prophecies which might otherwise have been called in question.

In the fourteenth year Not without reason does he specify the time when these things happened; for at that time Hezekiah had restored the worship of God throughout the whole of his dominions, (2Kg 18:4;) and, not satisfied with this, sent messengers in various directions to invite the Israelites to come with speed from every place to Jerusalem, to offer sacrifices, and, after long disunion, again to unite in holy harmony of faith, and to worship God according to the injunctions of the Law. While such was the condition of the kingdom that superstitions were removed and the Temple cleansed, and thus the true worship of God was restored, Judea is invaded by the king of Assyria, fields are pillaged, cities are taken, and the whole country is subject to his authority. Jerusalem alone, with a few inhabitants, is left; and in that city Hezekiah was shut up as in a prison.

We must now consider what thoughts might occur to the pious king and to other persons; for if we judge of this calamity according to the perception of the flesh, we shall think that God was unjust in permitting his servant to be reduced to such extremities, whose piety seemed to deserve that the Lord would preserve him in safety and free from all molestation, since his whole desire was to maintain the true worship of God. This was no small trial of the faith of Hezekiah, and ought to be continually placed before our eyes, when we are subjected to the same temptations. The Lord did not punish Hezekiah for carelessness, pleasures, or luxury, and much less for superstitions, or unholy contempt of the Law; for as soon as he began to reign, he labored with the utmost zeal and carefulness and industry to restore the purity of religion. God therefore intended to try his faith and patience.

Calvin: Isa 36:2 - Then the king of Assyria Rent Rabshakeh 2.Then the king of Assyria Rent Rabshakeh The order of the narrative may here have been altered; for he had formerly said that Sennacherib had taken ...

2.Then the king of Assyria Rent Rabshakeh The order of the narrative may here have been altered; for he had formerly said that Sennacherib had taken all the cities of Judea, and now he says that he sent Rabshakeh 28 from Lachish, implying that he was besieging it, and consequently he had not yet stormed them all. But it ought to be observed that historical connection is frequently disturbed, and that what was first in the order of time, comes last in the narrative. Besides, the Scriptures frequently make use of a figure of speech in which a part is taken for the whole, and by which it might be said that all the cities were taken, because those which had been left were few, and Hezekiah had no means of intercourse with them. It appeared, therefore, that the king of Assyria had brought the whole of Judea under his dominion, because nearly all that remained was Jerusalem alone, in which Hezekiah was shut up.

This history is more fully related in the Books of Kings, where it is shewn how eager for peace Hezekiah was; for he labored to obtain it on any terms. He had delivered up “three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold,” which that tyrant had demanded; and he found it necessary to seize the vessels of the Temple, and the golden plates which had been attached to its doors, to make up that sum, because his treasury was exhausted. (2Kg 18:14.) But as such gulfs are insatiable, when he had received that money, he next demanded more, and sought to enforce harder conditions. This was done partly, in order to provoke and torment Hezekiah, (for, having once abused the ready compliance of the pious king, he thought that he would obtain anything,) and partly because he sought an occasion of renewing the war. Yet it ought to be observed that the people were justly punished for their iniquities, as had been foretold; for although true religion flourished as to external worship, yet their life was not changed for the better, and their wickedness was not removed, nor was the inward pollution cleansed from their hearts. Accordingly, because the people did not repent, it was necessary that their obstinate depravity should be severely chastised. But because the measure of their iniquities was not yet full, God abated the fierceness of his anger, and suddenly, when matters were desperate, brought such assistance as could not have been believed.

Calvin: Isa 36:3 - And Eliakim went to him. Eliakim 3.And Eliakim went to him. Eliakim was formerly mentioned. It was he to whom the Lord promised that he would give him the chief power in the kingdom ...

3.And Eliakim went to him. Eliakim was formerly mentioned. It was he to whom the Lord promised that he would give him the chief power in the kingdom after the banishment of Shebna. (Isa 22:20.) It now appears as if that promise had failed, when he is sent to an enemy as a suppliant, and as one who is about to surrender himself and his companions, and to undergo cruel tyranny. This might also fill the hearts of believers with anxiety, and lead them to doubt the promises of God. Besides, the godly king had such a scarcity of good men, that, along with Eliakim, he was compelled to send Shebna, whom he knew well to be deceitful and treacherous.

ספר (sopher) means scribe; and accordingly it often denotes learned men or doctors, and sometimes those who took charge of writings and those who had the custody of the royal records. I have translated it chancellor, for unquestionably it does not relate to legal skill; and we may infer that this Shebna held a high rank, though he had been deprived of his office as governor. מזכיר (mazkir) denotes a secretary or recorder.

Calvin: Isa 36:4 - Say now to Hezekiah // Thus saith the great king 4.Say now to Hezekiah He relates that the three ambassadors, though they were attended by all the magnificence that yet remained in the kingdom, were...

4.Say now to Hezekiah He relates that the three ambassadors, though they were attended by all the magnificence that yet remained in the kingdom, were not only repulsed, but disdainfully treated by the tyrant’s delegate, and loaded with disgraceful reproaches; for, as if Hezekiah had been convicted of wicked revolt, Rabshakeh asks how he had dared to rebel. The particle נא ( na) is supposed by some to denote entreaty, and is rendered by them I pray; but it would be unsuitable to a proud and insolent man to entreat in this manner. He speaks in the ordinary language of those who lay conditions on the vanquished, or on those who are overwhelmed with fear, whom they wish to compel to make an unconditional surrender, or, as we commonly say, (sommer) to summon.

Thus saith the great king In order to give greater validity to the summons, that general speaks in the name of his king, whose greatness he extols to the skies, in order to terrify Hezekiah, when he learns that he has to do with a king of such vast resources. He does not only mean that the first monarch in the world was far superior to Hezekiah, who in comparison of him was but a petty prince; but he calls the king of Assyria great, because by his power he eclipsed all others, so that he stood alone in his lofty rank. By these thunderbolts of words Hezekiah might have been overthrown and subdued, especially since he was so far from being able to resist the power of that tyrant that he was shut up in the city and unable to move out of it.

Calvin: Isa 36:5 - I have said (only a word of the lips.) 5.I have said (only a word of the lips.) In the sacred history (2Kg 18:20) the word employed is, Thou hast said This may be explained as a declarat...

5.I have said (only a word of the lips.) In the sacred history (2Kg 18:20) the word employed is, Thou hast said This may be explained as a declaration what kind of courage Rabshakeh thinks that Hezekiah possesses; as if he had said, “Such are thy deliberations.” In this passage the use of the first person, “I have said,” does not alter the sense; because Rabshakeh, as if he had examined the counsels of Hezekiah and fully understood them all, ironically reproaches him; “I see what thou art thinking, but they are words of the lips.” This passage is explained in various ways. Some interpret it, “Thou sayest, that thou hast not merely words of the lips,” that is, “Thou boastest that thou excellest not only in the use of words, but likewise in courage and wisdom.” Others interpret it, “Thou hast words indeed, but wisdom and courage are necessary in war.”

Some think that by “words” are meant “prayers.” I do not approve of that exposition; for it is excessively farfetched and unnatural, and therefore I view it thus: “Hezekiah has words of lips, that is, he employs a beautiful and elegant style, to keep the people in the discharge of their duty, or, as we commonly say, He has fine speeches; 29 but it is not by these that war can be begun or carried on.” He therefore means, that he perfectly understands what Hezekiah is doing, and what it is on which he places his chief reliance, namely, on words and eloquence; 30 but these are of no use for war, in which wisdom and courage are needed. It might also be appropriately viewed as relating to the Egyptians, as if he had said that Hezekiah acts foolishly in allowing himself to be cheated by empty promises; and undoubtedly the Egyptians were liberal in promising mountains of gold, though they gave nothing in reality. But as we shall find that he speaks of the Egyptians, soon afterwards, in a particular manner, I have no doubt that here he ridicules Hezekiah, as if he fed the expectation of the people by empty boasting, while he was not provided with military preparations.

Calvin: Isa 36:6 - Behold, thou hast trusted in, that broken staff of reed 6.Behold, thou hast trusted in, that broken staff of reed This is probably separate from the former verse; for, having formerly said that the eloquen...

6.Behold, thou hast trusted in, that broken staff of reed This is probably separate from the former verse; for, having formerly said that the eloquence by which he flatters the people is all that Hezekiah possesses, and having inferred from this that his confidence is exceedingly foolish, he now comes to other particulars. He employs every method for shaking the hearts of the people, that all, being stunned, may absolutely surrender. Accordingly, after having represented Hezekiah to be contemptible as to his internal resources, he next adds, that the external resources are idle and useless, and says that they are greatly mistaken in expecting any assistance whatever from the Egyptians.

And, first, he compares the Egyptians to “a staff of reed” on account of their weakness; secondly, for the sake of amplification he calls them “a broken staff;” thirdly, he says that it is so far from supporting that it pierces the hands that lean upon it. The meaning may be thus summed up, “the hope which the Jews entertain of receiving aid from the Egyptians is not only false and unfounded, but pernicious.” And indeed with truth might Rabshakeh have said this, if it had been true that Hezekiah relied on the Egyptians; but he slanderously and falsely accuses the pious king of this vain confidence Yet God justly rewarded a rebellious and disobedient people by allowing this filthy dog to reproach them with their wicked revolt. Isaiah had formerly (Isa 30:1, and 31:1, 6) condemned this crime in severe terms, but their deaf ears refused to admit the reproof; and therefore the Jews, who had wickedly despised a Prophet that spoke to them in the name of God, deserved to have Rabshakeh for their instructor.

We are therefore warned by this example, that there is no reason to wonder if unbelievers, who do not obey the counsel of God for their salvation, and reject all prophecies, are subjeered to the jeers of their enemies, as Rabshakeh, the captain of the Assyrian king, now haughtily taunts the rebellious Jews. Yet it is of importance to consider how great a difference there is between the warnings of God and the mockeries of Satan. When God wishes to dissuade us from sinful confidence in the flesh, he declares in general terms, “Cursed be he that trusteth in man,” (Jer 17:5.) that the whole world may be reduced to nothing, and that thus we may be satisfied with himself alone; and therefore, when he has brought us low, he instantly imparts courage to us by holding out a remedy. But when Satan deceitfully blames any vain hope, he drives us to despair, and urges us to many other hopes equally bad or still worse, and tempts us to adopt unlawful methods; as Rabshakeh does not smite the hope which the Jews entertained from the Egyptians, in order that they may rely on God alone, but substitutes the king of Assyria, as if safety ought not to be expected from any other quarter, tie names Pharaoh, but likewise includes the whole nation.

Calvin: Isa 36:7 - And if thou shalt say to me 7.And if thou shalt say to me Rabshakeh employs an argument which consists of three parts. Either Hezekiah thinks that he has sufficient strength to ...

7.And if thou shalt say to me Rabshakeh employs an argument which consists of three parts. Either Hezekiah thinks that he has sufficient strength to resist, or he expects assistance from Egypt, or he trusts in God. If he trusts in himself, he is mistaken; for what is he when compared to my king? As to Egypt, it will render him no assistance, but on the contrary will inflict serious damage. It remains therefore that he expects some assistance from God. But he has thrown down his altars and curtailed his worship; will he not rather be punished on that account? In short, this Rabshakeh takes away from the pious king all assistance, both divine and human.

By this slander Satan attempted not only to wound the heart of the king, that it might sink under the weight, of affliction, but to make an impression on the light and fickle multitude; because hitherto in the hearts of many there remained an attachment to superstition, and there was a strong tendency to fall back into this imposture, because the religion which was ancient, and to which they were long accustomed, had been changed, and, in their opinion, 31 Hezekiah was about to be chastised for his own rashness. In like manner, the Papists in the present day, whenever any adverse event befalls us, maintain that we are punished by God, because we have ventured to set aside ancient ceremonies. 32

Calvin: Isa 36:8 - Now come, give a hostage 8.Now come, give a hostage 33 He concludes that there will be nothing better for Hezekiah than to lay aside the intention of carrying on war, to surr...

8.Now come, give a hostage 33 He concludes that there will be nothing better for Hezekiah than to lay aside the intention of carrying on war, to surrender himself, and to promise constant obedience to the king of Assyria. To persuade him the more, Rabshakeh again reproaches him with his poverty. “If I shall give thee two thousand horses, thou wilt not find among all thy people men to ride on them. What then is thy strength; or with what confidence dost thou dare to oppose my king?” He does not offer him horses for the sake of respect or of kindness, but in order to terrify and shake still more the heart of Hezekiah. The future tense ought therefore to be explained by the subjunctive mood, “ Although I give thee two thousand horses, yet thou wilt not find an equal number of riders.” I am aware of what is alleged by other commentators; but whoever examines the matter fully will quickly perceive that this is ironical language. 34

Calvin: Isa 36:9 - And how dost thou despise? 9.And how dost thou despise? 35 He confirms the preceding statement, and shews that ttezekiah is so far from being able to endure the presence of his...

9.And how dost thou despise? 35 He confirms the preceding statement, and shews that ttezekiah is so far from being able to endure the presence of his king, that he ought not to be compared to the very smallest of his captains. In this insolent manner does he taunt him, that the Jews may not derive courage from the absence of Sennacherib, who was still detained by the siege of Lachish. Although, therefore, Sennacherib does not yet appear before them with his whole army, Rabshakeh boasts that his lieutenants are sufficiently powerful, so that Hezekiah ought not to hesitate to make submission.

Calvin: Isa 36:10 - And now have I come up without Jehovah? 10.And now have I come up without Jehovah? He now attacks Hezekiah in another manner, by telling him that it will serve no purpose to assemble his fo...

10.And now have I come up without Jehovah? He now attacks Hezekiah in another manner, by telling him that it will serve no purpose to assemble his forces and to make other warlike preparations. For he alleges that Hezekiah has not to do or to contend with a mortal man, but with God himself, at whose suggestion, and not at his own, he camo hither to destroy the country; and therefore that they who oppose him will fight against God, and consequently all their efforts will be fruitless.

Hence we ought to learn that however earnestly we may be devoted to godliness, and however faithfully we may labor to advance the kingdom of Christ, still we must not expect to be free from every annoyance, but ought rather to be prepared for enduring very heavy afflictions. The Lord does not always recompense our piety by earthly rewards; and indeed it would be an exceedingly unsuitable recompense that we should possess abundant wealth and enjoy outward peace, and that everything should proceed to our wish; for the world reckons even wicked men to be happy on this ground, that they do not endure bad health or adversity, and are free from the pressure of poverty, and have nothing to disturb them. In this respect our condition would not differ at all from that of the reprobate.

This example of Hezekiah, who labored with all his might to restore religion and the true worship of God, and yet endured calamities so heavy and violent that he was not far from despair, ought to be constantly placed before our eyes, in order that, when we shall think float we have discharged our duty, we may nevertheless be prepared to endure conflicts and troubles of every kind, and may not be disturbed if enemies gain an advantage at the first onset, as if all at once they would swallow us up. Those proud and haughty minds will quickly fall, when the first ardor has boiled over and spent its foam, and their eagerness and pride will speedily disappear Rabshakeh boasted of the greatness and power of his king, in order to terrify Hezekiah. Such is the manner in which wicked men act towards us. By threatening words they attack us, and by various terrors they try our patience, or rather through their agency Satan labors, whom we plainly see speaking by the mouth of Rabshakeh. Nay, Satan assumes the character of God himself, and “is transformed into an angel of light.” (2Co 11:14.) Thus also the Spirit of God himself declares, that the strength of man is frail and fading, and that every one who leans on it seeks his own destruction. (Jer 17:5.) Rabshakeh says the same thing, and discourses as if he were discharging the prophetical office by the command of God.

We ought therefore to distinguish wisely when God speaks, and when, on the other hand, his name is falsely assumed by men; for Satan resorts to various artifices to make himself appear to be like God. All these reproaches were unjustly, as we have said, brought by Rabshakeh against Hezekiah, who did not place his hope in his own strength, and did not vaunt himself through reliance on the Egyptians; but godly men, even when they do well, must be exposed to evil reports. By these stratagems Satan attacks our faith, and unjustly slanders us among men. This temptation is highly dangerous, for we are desirous that our integrity should be well known; and when we are well disposed, we take it ill if other men put a different interpretation on our conduct. Thus Satan endearours by slander to overturn all that has been done out of a good conscience, or accuses us of something with which we are not at all chargeable, or loads us with unfounded slanders, or contrives what never came into our mind; but an upright conscience ought to be like a brazen wall to us, that, imitating the example of Hezekiah, we may stand unshaken against such accusations and slanders.

So far as relates to the last clause, in which Rabshakeh reproaches him with having overturned the worship of God, 36 every person must plainly see how slanderous is that charge; for Hezekiah had taken away false gods and superstitious 37 worship, which God abhors. (2Kg 18:4.) But we need not wonder that wicked men cannot distinguish between the true God and the false, between superstition, and religion. And the same thing is practiced amongst us every day; for the Papists, who are delighted with nothing but their own superstitions, accuse us of having taken away innumerable inventions of men, and complain that we have impaired and almost abolished the worship of God. They taunt us also in the same manner as that Rabshakeh, “Would God assist those who have taken away his worship, profaned the holy temples, and everything that was established in that beautiful order?” The reason is, that in Popery everything had a dazzling appearance, and drew the admiration of men; while we retain no ceremonies but those which are plain and simple, and free from all pageantry, and therefore they think that we have taken away the worship of God, which they estimate by outward appearances. If any adverse event befalls us, they exclaim that it; is richly deserved, that all the blame attaches to us, that the whole world is punished for our ungodliness, and if we ourselves suffer any calamity they taunt us still more.

Yet with resolute faith we must stand out against such ungodly speeches, by shewing that what they call the worship of God is not his worship, but that we have taken away, and have justly taken away, mere trifles, and that all the contrivances of men do not belong to the worship of God, but. are delusions of Satan, and that nothing is more destructive. We must therefore stand out with unshaken faith against reproaches of every kind, by which Satan endeavors to throw a shade over the practice of godliness. At first sight it appears to be shameful that he overthrew many altars and left but one, that he profaned many temples that one might remain. (2Kg 18:4.) But Hezekiah was fully acquitted by this single defense, that he undertook nothing but by the word of God; and therefore that he was satisfied with a single altar, because God had forbidden him to erect more, and that he had thrown down all images, because they had been unlawfully set up in opposition to the instructions of the Law. (Exo 20:4.) We have the same dispute with the Papists in the present day, because they blame us on no other ground than that we have set aside a huge mass of ceremonies, and retain only what God has enjoined. In such cases, however, we must not argue about what pleases men, but what is approved by God.

Calvin: Isa 36:11 - Then said Eliakim // Speak, I pray thee, to thy servants in the Syrian language 11.Then said Eliakim This circumstance again shews how deeply Hezekiah was depressed, when by his ambassador he entreats so humbly the servant of his...

11.Then said Eliakim This circumstance again shews how deeply Hezekiah was depressed, when by his ambassador he entreats so humbly the servant of his enemy. It shews also with what pride Rabshakeh was puffed up, when he rejected so insolently all entreaties; and the refusal was the more shameful, because what was requested was not of great value. From these matters we learn that it was not owing to Hezekiah that he did not pacify the rage of the enemy; for forgetful almost of his royal rank, Hezekiah endearours with all possible modesty to soothe him. If at any time we happen to be oppressed by unjust violence, let us not be ashamed to yield up our rights and to supplicate with humility. Now, when Hezekiah was so submissive, because he saw that he was unable to resist the king of Assyria, this tends powerfully to magnify the glory of God in preserving a nation which was nearly ruined. For that deliverance would have been less remarkable, if they had been rescued only from an ordinary danger; but when they were not far from destruction, so much the more manifest is the hand of God, who by an extraordinary miracle subdued and ruined an enemy that had already set his feet on their neck. (2Kg 19:31.)

Speak, I pray thee, to thy servants in the Syrian language 38 They request that he will not speak in this manner in the presence of the people; because it is difficult to restrain a people naturally giddy and fickle, for they are easily moved, and tremble at the smallest alarm. 39 They would have wished that Rabshakeh should not speak to them in the Jewish language, because they were desirous to enter into any moderate terms of peace. For that good king tried every method of allaying the rage of that tyrant, but without any success. 40 These ambassadors therefore gain nothing from Rabshakeh; when he is entreated, he grows worse, and (as is usually the case with haughty men) becomes moro insolent.

Calvin: Isa 36:12 - NO PHRASE 12.=== And === Rabshakeh said. Hence we see the fierceness and insolence of the enemy, and hence also it is evident that Hezekiah’s kingdom was on...

12.=== And === Rabshakeh said. Hence we see the fierceness and insolence of the enemy, and hence also it is evident that Hezekiah’s kingdom was on the brink of ruin; for here Rabshakeh speaks like a conqueror, and does not address Hezekiah as a king, but as if he had been his slave. When therefore we see Rabshakeh swelled with so much pride, we ought at the same time to recollect that Hezekiah was entirely overwhelmed and destitute of all confidence, so that he was looked upon as ruined. Hence we also infer that Rabshakeh was not sent for the purpose of offering any conditions of peace, but rather to obtain an unconditional surrender, and to strike the people with alarm; for Sennacherib had sent him for this purpose with a powerful army. Hence also he boasts that he has nothing to do with the king, that he addresses the people for their advantage, and, in order to terrify them still more, mentions the distress and calamities into which they will throw themselves if they choose to obey Hezekiah; that they will perish through hunger, and will be compelled to eat and drink what is revolting; and therefore, that their wisest course will be to surrender in good time, and to provide for their safety.

Calvin: Isa 36:13 - Therefore Rabshakeh stood, and cried with a loud voice in the Jewish language // Hear the words of the great king 13.Therefore Rabshakeh stood, and cried with a loud voice in the Jewish language The Prophet shews by what expedients Rabshakeh endeavored to shake t...

13.Therefore Rabshakeh stood, and cried with a loud voice in the Jewish language The Prophet shews by what expedients Rabshakeh endeavored to shake the heart of the people, and first relates that he spoke in the Jewish language, though the ambassadors entreared him not to do so. It was, indeed, exceedingly shocking that the holy language, which had been consecrated to the mysteries of heavenly wisdom, was profaned and prostituted to wicked blasphemies; and this must undoubtedly have been a sore temptation to weak minds. But this should lead us to remark, that no enemies are more destructive than those who speak the same language as ourselves. At the present day we find this to be true in many who learn our language, that is, our way of speaking, that they may be able to insinuate themselves into the ears of weak and ignorant persons, so as to draw them aside from the true faith. Thirty years ago, the Papists had a language which was barbarous and totally at variance with the style of the Holy Spirit; scarcely were they heard to utter a word which breathed of Christian piety; but now they have succeeded in acquiring such skill as to know how to cloak their impieties under the ordinary language of Scripture, as if they were speaking in a Christian manner. Thus we see that it was Satan who framed that style; for he is their teacher and instructor as truly as he formerly was the teacher and instructor of Rabshakeh.

When the Prophet says that he stood, he expresses the fierceness and insolence of the wicked man; for the very attitude shews how haughtily he conducted himself. Formerly he stood, but now he placed himself in such an attitude as to be better seen, and strike greater terror into the Jews.

Hear the words of the great king Having already spoken of the greatness of his king, he repeats his commands. It is customary with Satan to exaggerate in words the power of the enemies, and to represent the dangers as greater than they really are, in order to compel us to lose courage; for when our eyes are dazzled by the vain splendor of earthly objects, we faint. We ought therefore to contrast the power of God with all dangers; and if we have that power constantly placed before our eyes, there is nothing that can do us injury. With high disdain and great insolence the enemies will boast of their greatness and strength, and, on the other hand, will meek at our feebleness and our small numbers; but if the Lord is with us, we have nothing to fear.

Calvin: Isa 36:14 - Thus saith the king // Let not Hezekiah impose upon you // For he will not be able to deliver you 14.Thus saith the king While he claims for his master the name of king, he speaks of Hezekiah as a private individual, without adding any title. Le...

14.Thus saith the king While he claims for his master the name of king, he speaks of Hezekiah as a private individual, without adding any title.

Let not Hezekiah impose upon you He goes on to utter impudent calumnies against him, and at the same time vomits out his venom against God himself; for he calls it “imposture” and “deception” for Hezekiah to rely on his favor, and to exhort his subjects to cherish the same confidence. But with similar calumnies are we now assailed by the Papists, who say that we bewitch the minds of men and lead them to destruction, and who have no pretext for saying so, except that we teach them that they ought to hope in the true God. But we have no reason to wonder that the same things which were spoken against the good king are likewise brought forward against us, since they proceed from the same inventor and teacher of slander, Satan.

For he will not be able to deliver you Rabshakeh’s assertion, that they cannot be delivered by the hand of Hezekiah, is indeed true, unless God assist; and Hezekiah did not lay claim to this or rob God of the honor due to him, but, on the contrary, testified that his own safety and that of the people were in the hand of God. But the enemy found it necessary to employ some pretext, as wicked men commonly do at the present day, when they slander our doctrine; for they employ pretexts which give high plausibility to what they say, and which actually deceive men, when they are not closely examined.

Calvin: Isa 36:15 - And let not Hezekiah make you trust in Jehovah 15.And let not Hezekiah make you trust in Jehovah He quotes the exhortation by which Hezekiah encouraged the people, and speaks lightly of it as an i...

15.And let not Hezekiah make you trust in Jehovah He quotes the exhortation by which Hezekiah encouraged the people, and speaks lightly of it as an idle and unfounded speech. Hence we see plainly that wicked men, though they assert the power of God, treat it with contempt; for although he does not openly deny that God can assist, if he choose, yet, by sapping the foundations of their faith, he does all that he can to reduce the power of God to nothing. His intention is, to discourage the hearts of the people in such a manner that they may be constrained, as if in despair, to submit and receive laws from a victorious tyrant.

But in order to destroy their confidence in the assistance of God, he employs also another expedient, by flattering their hearts with the allurements of a more comfortable life; for there is nothing to which we are more prone than to revolt from God, when we are drawn away by the appearance of advantage. If the world flatter and caress, the hope of eternal salvation quickly passes away; for our senses are always fixed on the present state of things. Fortified by this resource, Rabshakeh advises, “Do not depend on an uncertain hope, but rather receive what is certain.” And this discourse is powerfully fitted to persuade; for nothing is more agreeable to men than to have in hand what they consider to be desirable; and they are so impatient of delay that they prefer an immediate advantage to what is very distant. Rabshakeh, therefore, reasons thus: “Hezekiah promises to you the assistance of God, but we do not see it; he holds you in suspense about what is uncertain; but my king proraises to you those things which are at hand, and will assuredly bestow them.” This might appear to be a strong argument; but we must observe the sophistry; for by the same stratagem does Satan frequently attack us, and lead us aside from confidence in God.

The Lord calls us to the hope of eternal life; that hope is concealed, “for we hope (Rom 8:25) for what we do not see;” he promises that he will be our deliverer, and yet allows us to languish and hint.; so that it appears that our hope is vain, if we look at the present condition of things. On this ground Satan attacks us. “Why dost thou hope in vain? What is the fruit of thy faith? What dost thou expect beyond the world?” In short, this is our daily lamentation. When Christ calls us to heaven, Satan endeavors to keep us still on the earth; and therefore we must adhere firmly to the promises, that, “hoping against hope,” (Rom 4:18,) we may trust in God, and not suffer ourselves to be drawn away from him by any allurements.

Calvin: Isa 36:16 - Do not listen to Hezekiah // Make with me a blessing 16.Do not listen to Hezekiah While he labors to turn away the hearts of the people from Hezekiah, he at the same time invites them to pleasures, that...

16.Do not listen to Hezekiah While he labors to turn away the hearts of the people from Hezekiah, he at the same time invites them to pleasures, that they may forget God and not expect anything from him. It is as if he had said, “Do not believe God, but rather believe my king.” Thus Satan deals with us; for, darkening the goodness of God by his clouds, and holding out to us the masks of false hope, he secretly and indirectly creeps into the place of God, or employs creatures to entangle us in his nets. He holds out pleasures, and some kind of more agreeable life, with this boast, “God shews it to you at a distance, I present it to you.”

Though Hezekiah is mentioned, yet the comparison is actually made between God and the king of Assyria; for Hezekiah, as he was the servant of God, made no false pretensions, and did not boast of any vain confidence, but, relying on true and most certain promises, faithfully exhorted the people to seek God; but Rabshakeh adorned his king by robbing God, and yet was the servant of Satan, to withdraw the people from confidence in God to all impiety.

Make with me a blessing 41 “To make a blessing” is to conduct themselves in a friendly manner; as if he had said, “Do not give any hostile indication, or risk a battle. Surrender, make your submission to my king.” Sennacherib does not merely demand that he shall be heard, but likewise that the people shall swear allegiance to hint; and, in order to allure them to him the more powerfully, he makes use of the word blessing as a cloak to that bondage which was in itself hateful. He bids them purchase a quiet life, and other conveniencies which they formerly enjoyed, by that miserable revolt; that is, by forsaking Hezekiah and going out to him; for to revolt from a pious king, whom God had appointed, and who was a type of Christ, was more wretched and miserable than anything else that could befall them, and could not take place without denying God himself, who had set up in Judea that token of heavenly favor.

Calvin: Isa 36:17 - Till I come and take you away // Into a land of corn and wine // Into a land like your own land 17.Till I come and take you away He now adds another condition far harder than the former; for he declares that peace cannot be made with Sennacherib...

17.Till I come and take you away He now adds another condition far harder than the former; for he declares that peace cannot be made with Sennacherib in any other way than by the people going into banishment. This was nothing else than to abandon the worship of God and degenerate into superstition, and voluntarily to quit the inheritance which God had given them. But because he addresses a people whose distressed condition and extreme danger had struck them with terror, he insolently commands them to save their lives.

Into a land of corn and wine Here we see more clearly that Rabshakeh’s speech is nothing else than an image of the temptations by which Satan daily attacks our faith; for there is nothing which Satan more constantly attempts 42 than to withdraw us from confidence in God by the allurements and pleasures of this world; that we ought to enjoy peace and quietness, and to purchase them at any price; and that happiness consists in plentiful abundance of good things. But most of all, he makes a wicked use of adversity to press upon us, and more eagerly urge us to shake off the yoke of God. Gently indeed, and by secret and unseen methods, he insinuates himself; but, after having once inveigled and caught us in his net, so as to lead us to value present advantages more highly than those which are future, he adds this condition, that he shall hold us entirely bound and devoted to him; which we certainly cannot avoid, when he holds us entangled by his plausible hopes, and by the relish of present objects.

Into a land like your own land Because the word banishment was harsh and disagreeable, and it was not easy to part with the delightfulness of their native country, in order to shew that they sustain no loss by leaving it, he says, that the country into which they are about to be conveyed is equally fertile and productive. 43 Thus he draws a veil over their eyes, that they might not think that they were losing anything. Yet he cunningly passes by what ought above all other things to be valued by them, the worship of God, the temple, the kingdom, the order of holy government, and everything else that belonged to the heavenly inheritance. Without these what happiness can there be? Let every one therefore learn diligently to apply his mind to spiritual blessings; “for to dwell in the house of God,” is justly pronounced to be a far more valuable blessing than all the luxuries and prosperity of the world. (Psa 84:4.) Thus shall we guard against being led away by the hope of present objects and deprived of true happiness; for this is a dreadful punishment by which the Lord takes vengeance on the unbelief of men, and which all godly persons ought to dread, that they may not faint or give way under any distresses and calamities.

Calvin: Isa 36:18 - Lest perhaps Hezekiah deceive you // Have any of the gods of the nations rescued their land? // Have they delivered? 18.Lest perhaps Hezekiah deceive you This is another argument different from the former, by which he endeavors to withdraw the people from Hezekiah a...

18.Lest perhaps Hezekiah deceive you This is another argument different from the former, by which he endeavors to withdraw the people from Hezekiah and from confidence in God. Formerly he boasted that he was God’s servant, and that God had sent him to destroy Judea, and on that ground he assured himself of certain victory; but now he openly insults God himself. At the first onset wicked men do not usually betray their scorn and impiety, but at length the Lord makes known their dispositions, and constrains them to discover the venom of their own heart. Now therefore the wicked Rabshakeh bursts forth with greater violence, and boasts that he will gain the victory over God himself.

Have any of the gods of the nations rescued their land? He speaks in the person of his master, that he had obtained great victories over many and powerful nations. They had their “gods,” by whose protection they thought that they were defended; and therefore Sennacherib thought that he had vanquished the “gods” themselves, because he had vanquished the nations which relied on their aid. The consequence is, that he breaks out into such insolence as not to hesitate to compare himself to the living God, and is impelled by such rage that he brings his own strength into conflict with the power of God.

Thus, although at first wicked men conceal their contempt of God, yet they afterwards shew that they claim everything for themselves, and that they are “without God.” 44 (Eph 2:12.) In words, indeed, they pretend to ascribe victories to their idols; but afterwards, as Habakkuk says, they

“sacrifice to their net, and offer incense to their drag.”
(Hab 1:16.)

We see hypocrites do this also at the present day; for they run to do honor to their idols after having obtained a victory, but immediately afterwards boast of their plans, and wisdom, and courage, and military forces; which plainly shews that they ascribe to themselves and not to their idols all that has happened.

By such insolent boasting, therefore, he shewed that it was a lie, when he said that he acknowledged God to be the author of his victories. Besides, it was impossible that these words should not give dreadful agony to the heart of the good king, when he was informed that the promises of God were condemned as false, when that wicked man openly insuited God and linked their cause with idols. And these things are related, in order that we may behold the patience of the good king, and may resolve to imitate him when anything of the same kind shall take place.

Have they delivered? When he sets himself in opposition to all the gods, and declares that he is more powerful than they are, this is so much at variance with common sense, that it is abhorred even by wicked men themselves; yet if the Lord press hard upon them, if he put them to the torture, he speedily extorts from them such language. When they make a premeditated speech, they pretend that they are worshippers of God, but afterwards God constrains them to bring out and acknowledge what was lurking within. Let us therefore learn, that superstition is always accompanied by pride; so that they who do not know God, do not scruple to rise up against everything that is called God; and let us not be astonished at the rebellion and insolence of wicked men, for nothing but the pure knowledge of God can teach us humility. And yet that wicked man cannot be excused as if he justly reproached idols with their weakness and uselessness; for we ought to observe his sentiments and the purpose of his heart, since he does not ridicule the superstition and vain confidence of the nations, but in the idols themselves he pours contempt on the power of God. In like manner, when Dionysius the tyrant ridiculed his gods, he fought with God and defied him to a contest; for he attacked, in opposition to his conscience, such a deity as his mind could comprehend. The same observation might be made on all other infidels who treated with scorn false religions which they supposed to be from God.

Here we ought also to observe another kind of blasphemy, by which the majesty of God is wickedly dishonored; which is, that Rabshakeh confounds God with idols, and represents him to be one of the multitude. For what blasphemy is it to confound the immortal God and creator of all things with what is most detestable, to confound truth with falsehood, glory with shame, heaven with earth?

“The Lord is great,” says David, “and worthy of the highest praise; he is to be feared above all gods. For all the gods of the nations are nothing; but the Lord made the heavens. Majesty and honor are before him; strength and beauty are in his sanctuary.” —
(Psa 96:4.)

Calvin: Isa 36:19 - Where are the gods of Hamath and Arpad? 19.Where are the gods of Hamath and Arpad? It is supposed that Hamath was Antioch in Syria, that Arpad was that city from which colonies were bro...

19.Where are the gods of Hamath and Arpad? It is supposed that Hamath was Antioch in Syria, that Arpad was that city from which colonies were brought to Damascus, and that Sepharvaim was a city situated in the country of Damascus. If this be true, Rabshakeh mentions the ancient names of cities, from which many nations had formerly come, and which afterwards lost not only their celebrity, but likewise their distinctive names, and aims at producing in them greater alarm, by reminding them of so great revolutions. However that may be, he mentions chiefly the neighboring cities, the destruction of which might affect them more deeply on account of their being better known to the Jews. And I have no doubt that these places belonged to Syria and Israel; as if he had said, “Look at these two kingdoms subdued, which were presided over by their gods as their guardians. Will your God resist me?”

Calvin: Isa 36:20 - That Jehovah should rescue Jerusalem out of my hand? 20.That Jehovah should rescue Jerusalem out of my hand? 45 The particle כי ( ki) is taken by commentators in both places interrogatively, “Did ...

20.That Jehovah should rescue Jerusalem out of my hand? 45 The particle כי ( ki) is taken by commentators in both places interrogatively, “Did the gods of the nations deliver? And will your God deliver?” But in order to make the meaning flow more smoothly, I have preferred to render the second clause, “that your God should deliver;” for the repetition of the same word marks a resemblance. Yet the words appear also to contain irony; as if he had said in mockery, “Yes; as the gods of the nations delivered their worshippers, so will your God assist you.”

This insolence of ungodly men arises from their not understanding that God punishes the sins of men when they suffer any adversity. And first they go wrong in this respect that they institute a wicked and absurd comparison, “I have conquered that nation, and therefore I am better or stronger.” They do not perceive that they were appointed to be the executioners of God’s anger for the punishment of iniquities; for, although they say that they have received something from God, they do it hypocritically, and do not consider his will or his justice. They afterwards rise higher, for they venture to make a comparison between them and God himself, “I have conquered those over whom God presided, and therefore I have conquered God himself.”

And here we see painted in a lively manner what was formerly expressed, —

“Ah! Assyria, the rod of my indignation; but he thought not so.” (Isa 10:5.)

In that passage God forewarned believers, that although Sennacherib, in blind madness, lifted himself up and attempted to overthrow all divine power, still they should continue to believe this doctrine, that he could do nothing more than what he was permitted by heaven to do. It is our duty to acknowledge that God inflicts punishment by the hand of wicked men, who may be regarded as the instruments of God’s anger; and therefore we ought to turn away our eyes from them, that we may look directly at God, by whom we are justly punished. If wicked men are more powerful, let us not think that the arm of God is broken, but let us consider that we do not deserve his assistance; for he arms enemies for our destruction, supplies them with vigor and with armies, drives them backwards and forwards whenever he thinks proper, and gives us up into their hands when we have turned away from him.

Accordingly, when the Turk now rises up haughtily against us, because he has already vanquished so great a multitude of Christians, we need not be alarmed on that account, as if the power of God were diminished, and as if he had not strength to deliver us. But we ought to consider in how many ways the inhabitants of Greece and of Asia provoked his anger, by the prevalence of every kind of base and shocking licentiousness in those countries, and by the dreadful superstitions and wickedness which abounded. On this account very severe chastisement was needed for restraining the crimes of those who made a false profession of the name of God. Hence came the prosperity of the Turk, and hence was it followed by a shockingly ruinous condition throughout the whole of the east. Yet we see him insolently raising his crest, laughing at our religion, and applauding his own in a strange manner; but still more does he applaud himself, and “sacrifice to his net,” (Hab 1:16,) as we have already said of other infidels.

We ought, therefore, to direct our minds towards the judgments of God, that we may not think that the Turk acquired such extensive dominion by his own strength. But the Lord allowed him greater freedom, for the purpose of punishing the ungodliness and wickedness of men, and will at length restrain his insolence at the proper time. Now, although prosperity is a token of the blessing of God, yet we must not begin with it if we wish to form right views of God himself, as Mahometans and Papists infer from the victories which they have gained, that God is in some respects subject to their control. But when we have known the true God, blessings are added in the proper order to testify his grace and power.

Yet we ought always to beware of making the smallest claim for ourselves, for as soon as foolish confidence has gained admission, we shall immediately be seized with such fury as to believe that even God is not equal to us. At first, even wicked men will be shocked at anything so grossly irreligious; but when we are maddened by such diabolical pride as to rob God and adorn ourselves with the spoils, we easily fall into the practice of open insult. Sennacherib still retained some form of piety, for we shall afterwards read (Isa 37:38) that “he was slain in the temple of his god, while he was worshipping there;” and he undoubtedly wished that God would be gracious to him; but, as in this passage he treads under his feet the Creator of heaven and earth along with the gods of the nations, so he would not have hesitated, when an opportunity occurred, to act in the same manner towards his own idol.

Calvin: Isa 36:21 - And they were silent 21.And they were silent This is added in order that we may more fully understand how deep was the affliction which prevailed throughout the whole of ...

21.And they were silent This is added in order that we may more fully understand how deep was the affliction which prevailed throughout the whole of Judea; for the good king, having hardly any strength or means of defense, is therefore struck dumb even when an enemy insults him. Ambassadors were sent to soothe the enemy; when they are unsuccessful they are enjoined to be silent, that they might not provoke that savage beast, which already was too much excited, to cruelty. Yet it is uncertain whether these words relate to the ambassador or to the people, against whom Rabshakeh threw out these reproaches; and indeed it is probable, that it rather refers to those who guarded the walls, who, though they were sharply piqued by the taunts of the enemy, yet were not provoked to quarrels or disturbance, because they obeyed the kings command. Hence, also, we infer that it arose from the peculiar kindness of God, that they were so much disposed to yield obedience when matters were desperate.

It will perhaps be objected that they ought not to have been silent when such blasphemies were uttered against God; for we ought not to conceal our sentiments when wicked men mock, and jeer, and reproach God, even though our life should be put in danger. We ought, at least, to testify that we cannot patiently endure that his honor and glory should be attacked. But it is not said that they were silent because they expressed their assent, or cared nothing about the reproaches which were cast on God, and which, though not a word was uttered by them, gave deep pain to the ambassadors, and prompted them to the attitudes and tokens of grief; for afterwards, such is the bitterness of their sorrow that they tear their garments, and by this token they shew that they hold such blasphemies in abhorrence and detestation. But as it would have been of no avail for the ambassadors to debate with Rabshakeh, they returned peaceably and without any tumult; and the people, because it was useless to make any disturbance, reckoned it enough to meet the wicked man’s impertinence by silent groans. And it is no despicable courage, even when we have it not in our power to utter a syllable, still not to shrink or flinch, but to remain quietly in our place.

Hence we are also reminded, that we ought not always to contend with wicked men when they reproach and tear in pieces the name of God; for amidst bitter strife and confused noise the truth will not be heard. And yet we must not on that account give way to cowardice, by thinking that we ought to be excused for being silent, whenever wicked men rise up against God; for our silence will have no excuse if we do not in some way testify that it is highly displeasing to us, and if we do not, as far as lies in our power, declare that nothing is more distressing to us than that the name of God should be dishonored. We must, therefore, give expression to our zeal, that wicked men may not think that we have no regard for the honor of God, and that we are not moved when they blaspheme it.

Calvin: Isa 36:22 - Then came Eliakim 22.Then came Eliakim We now see that Eliakim and the other ambassadors were not silent as if they either approved of the impiety of Rabshakeh, or thr...

22.Then came Eliakim We now see that Eliakim and the other ambassadors were not silent as if they either approved of the impiety of Rabshakeh, or through dread of danger connived at such blasphemies; for they tear their garments, and in that manner give visible display how highly they are offended at those wicked slanders. I except Shebna, who was destitute of piety, and was only driven by shame to assume the dress of mourning along with others as a matter of form. It was customary among the Jews and other eastern nations, when they viewed anything with strong abhorrence, to tear their garments; for those nations, having much greater warmth of temperament than we have who inhabit cold countries, display greater vehemence in gesture, deportment, dress, and other outward signs. Here it ought also to be observed, that they who took no notice of the insults offered to them as private individuals, whenever they hear reproaches uttered against God, “tear their garments;” for they who are ready to take offense at an insult offered to them in their private, capacity, where patience was needed, and who are unmoved when they learn that the name of God is dishonored, give evidence that they have no zeal or piety.

Defender: Isa 36:1 - King Hezekiah Chapters 36-39 of Isaiah are essentially identical to 2 Kings 18:13-20:19 (compare 2 Chronicles 32:1-33). For explanatory comments on these four chapt...

Chapters 36-39 of Isaiah are essentially identical to 2 Kings 18:13-20:19 (compare 2 Chronicles 32:1-33). For explanatory comments on these four chapters in Isaiah, refer to notes on the corresponding passages in 2 Kings and 2 Chronicles (2 Kings 18:1-20:19, notes; and 2 Chronicles 32:1-33 notes)."

TSK: Isa 36:1 - it came // that Sennacherib it came : 2Ki 18:13, 2Ki 18:17; 2Ch 32:1 that Sennacherib : Isa 1:7, Isa 1:8, Isa 7:17, Isa 8:7, Isa 8:8, Isa 10:28-32, Isa 33:7, Isa 33:8

TSK: Isa 36:2 - sent // the conduit am 3294, bc 710 sent : 2Kings 18:17-37; 2Ch 32:9-23 the conduit : Isa 7:3, Isa 22:9-11

am 3294, bc 710

sent : 2Kings 18:17-37; 2Ch 32:9-23

the conduit : Isa 7:3, Isa 22:9-11

TSK: Isa 36:3 - Eliakim // Shebna // scribe Eliakim : Isa 22:15-20 Shebna : 2Sa 8:16, 2Sa 8:17, 2Sa 20:24, 2Sa 20:25 scribe : or, secretary

Eliakim : Isa 22:15-20

Shebna : 2Sa 8:16, 2Sa 8:17, 2Sa 20:24, 2Sa 20:25

scribe : or, secretary

TSK: Isa 36:4 - Thus saith // Assyria // What Thus saith : Isa 10:8-14, Isa 37:11-15; Pro 16:18; Ezek. 31:3-18; Dan 4:30; Act 12:22, Act 12:23; Jud 1:16 Assyria : Assyria proper, now Kourdistan, w...

Thus saith : Isa 10:8-14, Isa 37:11-15; Pro 16:18; Ezek. 31:3-18; Dan 4:30; Act 12:22, Act 12:23; Jud 1:16

Assyria : Assyria proper, now Kourdistan, was bounded by Armenia on the north, Media and Persia on the east, Babylonia on the south, and the Tigris, which divides it from Mesopotamia, on the west, between 33 degrees and 38 degrees n lat. and 42 degrees and 46 degrees e long. But the Assyrian empire, the bounds of which were different at different times, in its most flourishing state, according to the descriptions of the Greek and Roman writers, comprehended all the countries and nations between the Mediterranean on the west, and the Indus on the east, and between the deserts of Scythia on the north, and the Indian ocean on the south.

What : 2Ki 18:5, 19-37, 2Ki 19:10; 2Ch 32:7-10,2Ch 32:14-16; Psa 42:3, Psa 42:10, Psa 71:10,Psa 71:11

TSK: Isa 36:5 - vain words // that vain words : Heb. a word of lips. I have counsel and strength for war. or, but counsel and strength are for the war. Pro 21:30,Pro 21:31, Pro 24:5, ...

vain words : Heb. a word of lips. I have counsel and strength for war. or, but counsel and strength are for the war. Pro 21:30,Pro 21:31, Pro 24:5, Pro 24:6

that : 2Ki 18:7, 2Ki 24:1; Neh 2:19, Neh 2:20; Jer 52:3; Eze 17:15

TSK: Isa 36:6 - -- Isa 20:5, Isa 20:6, Isa 30:1-7, Isa 31:3; 2Ki 17:4, 2Ki 18:21; Jer 37:5-8; Eze 29:6, Eze 29:7

TSK: Isa 36:7 - We trust // is it not We trust : 2Ki 18:5, 2Ki 18:22; 1Ch 5:20; 2Ch 16:7-9, 2Ch 32:7, 2Ch 32:8; Psa 22:4, Psa 22:5, Psa 42:5, Psa 42:10,Psa 42:11 is it not : Deu 12:2-6, De...

TSK: Isa 36:8 - pledges // and I pledges : or, hostages, 2Ki 14:14 and I : Isa 10:13, Isa 10:14; 1Sa 17:40-43; 1Ki 20:10,1Ki 20:18; 2Ki 18:23; Neh 4:2-5; Psa 20:7, Psa 20:8, Psa 123:3...

TSK: Isa 36:9 - the least // and put the least : Isa 10:8; 2Ki 18:24 and put : Isa 36:6, Isa 30:16, Isa 30:17; Deu 17:16; Pro 21:31; Jer 2:36

TSK: Isa 36:10 - -- Isa 10:5-7, Isa 37:28; 1Ki 13:18; 2Ki 18:25; 2Ch 35:21; Amo 3:6

TSK: Isa 36:11 - in the Syrian in the Syrian : 2Ki 18:26, 2Ki 18:27; Ezr 4:7; Dan 2:4

in the Syrian : 2Ki 18:26, 2Ki 18:27; Ezr 4:7; Dan 2:4

TSK: Isa 36:12 - that they may that they may : Isa 9:20; Lev 26:29; Deu 28:53-57; 2Ki 6:25-29, 2Ki 18:27; Jer 19:9; Lam 4:9, Lam 4:10; Eze 4:16

TSK: Isa 36:13 - cried // Hear cried : 1Sa 17:8-11; 2Ki 18:28-32; 2Ch 32:18; Psa 17:10-13, Psa 73:8, Psa 73:9, Psa 82:6, Psa 82:7 Hear : Isa 36:4, Isa 8:7, Isa 10:8-13; Eze 31:3-10;...

TSK: Isa 36:14 - -- Isa 37:10-13; 2Ki 19:10-13, 2Ki 19:22; 2Ch 32:11, 2Ch 32:13-19; Dan 3:15-17, Dan 6:20; Dan 7:25; 2Th 2:4; Rev 13:5, Rev 13:6

TSK: Isa 36:15 - -- Isa 36:7, Isa 37:23, Isa 37:24; Psa 4:2, Psa 22:7, Psa 22:8, Psa 71:9-11; Mat 27:43

TSK: Isa 36:16 - Make an agreement with me by a present // come out // eat ye Make an agreement with me by a present : or, Seek my favour by a present, Heb. Make with me a blessing, Gen 32:20, Gen 33:11; 1Sa 25:27; 2Sa 8:6; 2Ki ...

Make an agreement with me by a present : or, Seek my favour by a present, Heb. Make with me a blessing, Gen 32:20, Gen 33:11; 1Sa 25:27; 2Sa 8:6; 2Ki 5:15, 2Ki 18:31; 2Co 9:5 *marg.

come out : 1Sa 11:3; 2Ki 24:12-16

eat ye : 1Ki 4:20,1Ki 4:25; Mic 4:4; Zec 3:10

TSK: Isa 36:17 - I come // a land of corn I come : 2Kings 17:6-23, 2Ki 18:9-12, 2Ki 24:11; Pro 12:10 a land of corn : Exo 3:8; Deu 8:7-9, Deu 11:12; Job 20:17; The other copy in 2Ki 18:32, add...

I come : 2Kings 17:6-23, 2Ki 18:9-12, 2Ki 24:11; Pro 12:10

a land of corn : Exo 3:8; Deu 8:7-9, Deu 11:12; Job 20:17; The other copy in 2Ki 18:32, adds here, ""a land of oil olive, and of honey; that ye may live, and not die, and hearken not unto Hezekiah when he seduceth you.""

TSK: Isa 36:18 - lest // Hath lest : Isa 36:7, Isa 36:10,Isa 36:15, Isa 37:10; Psa 12:4, Psa 92:5-7 Hath : Isa 37:12, Isa 37:13, Isa 37:17, Isa 37:18; 2Ki 18:33-35, 2Ki 19:12, 2Ki ...

TSK: Isa 36:19 - Hamath // Arphad // Sepharvaim // and have Hamath : Num 34:8; 2Sa 8:9 Arphad : The variation of Arphad and Arpad exists only in the translation; the original being uniformly ארפד [S...

Hamath : Num 34:8; 2Sa 8:9

Arphad : The variation of Arphad and Arpad exists only in the translation; the original being uniformly ארפד [Strong’ s H774]. Isa 10:9; Jer 49:23, Arpad

Sepharvaim : Calmet is of opinion that Sepharvaim was the capital of the Saspires, who, according to Herodotus, were the only people that inhabited between the Colchians and Medes; and probably the Sarapases, whom Strabo places in Armenia. Hiller considers the name as denoting Sephar of the Parvaim, i.e., Mount Sephar adjacent to the regions of Arabia called Parvaim. But it is more probable, as Wells and others suppose, that Sepharvaim is the Σιπφαρα , Sipphara, of Ptolemy, the Σιππαρηνων πολις , the city of the Sippareni, mentioned by Abydenus, and probably the Hipparenum of Pliny, a city of Mesopotamia, situated upon the Euphrates, near where it is divided into two arms, by one of which, it is probable, it was divided into two parts. 2Ki 17:24

and have : Isa 10:10,Isa 10:11; 2Ki 17:5-7, 2Ki 18:10-12

TSK: Isa 36:20 - that the Lord that the Lord : Isa 37:18, Isa 37:19, Isa 37:23-29, Isa 45:16, Isa 45:17; Exo 5:2; 2Kings 19:22-37; 2Ch 32:15, 2Ch 32:19; Job 15:25, Job 15:26, Job 40...

TSK: Isa 36:21 - -- 2Ki 18:26, 2Ki 18:37; Psa 38:13-15, Psa 39:1; Pro 9:7, Pro 26:4; Amo 5:13; Mat 7:6

TSK: Isa 36:22 - Eliakim // with their Eliakim : Isa 36:3, Isa 36:11 with their : Isa 33:7, Isa 37:1, Isa 37:2; 2Ki 5:7; Ezr 9:3; Mat 26:65; The history of the invasion of Sennacherib, obse...

Eliakim : Isa 36:3, Isa 36:11

with their : Isa 33:7, Isa 37:1, Isa 37:2; 2Ki 5:7; Ezr 9:3; Mat 26:65; The history of the invasion of Sennacherib, observes Bp. Lowth, and the miraculous destruction of his army, which makes the subject of so many of Isaiah’ s prophecies, is very properly inserted here, as affording the best light to many parts of these prophecies; and as almost necessary to introduce the prophecy in the Isa 37:1, being the answer of God to Hezekiah’ s prayer, which could not be properly understood without it. Sennacherib succeeded his father Shalmaneser on the throne of Assyria, am 3290, bc 714, and reigned only about eight years.

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Isa 36:22 - -- The history related here, and in the three following chapters, is, for the substance of it, and almost wholly in the same words, contained 2Ki 18:1-...

The history related here, and in the three following chapters, is, for the substance of it, and almost wholly in the same words, contained 2Ki 18:1-20:21 . It is fitly inserted here, to explain and confirm some of the foregoing predictions. It may seem to have been first written by this prophet, and from him to have been taken into the Book of Kings, to complete that history.

Haydock: Isa 36:1 - And And. These four chapters are taken from 4 Kings xviii., &c., as a sort of explanation of what Isaias has been foretelling. (Calmet) --- An abridgm...

And. These four chapters are taken from 4 Kings xviii., &c., as a sort of explanation of what Isaias has been foretelling. (Calmet) ---

An abridgment also occurs, 2 Paralipomenon xxxii.

Haydock: Isa 36:7 - Altar Altar. Such is the blindness of infidels, that they confound what is done to destroy idols, with their worship. (Worthington)

Altar. Such is the blindness of infidels, that they confound what is done to destroy idols, with their worship. (Worthington)

Gill: Isa 36:1 - Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah // that Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the defenced cities of Judah // and took them Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah,.... The following piece of history is inserted from the books of Kings and Chronicles, as...

Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah,.... The following piece of history is inserted from the books of Kings and Chronicles, as an illustration of some preceding prophecies, and as a confirmation of them; see 2Ki 18:13.

that Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the defenced cities of Judah; who in the Apocrypha:

"And if the king Sennacherib had slain any, when he was come, and fled from Judea, I buried them privily; for in his wrath he killed many; but the bodies were not found, when they were sought for of the king.'' (Tobit 1:18)

is said to be the son of Shalmaneser, as he certainly was his successor, who in the sixth year of Hezekiah, eight years before this, took Samaria, and carried the ten tribes captive, 2Ki 18:10 he is called Sennacherib by Herodotus c, who says he was king of the Arabians, and the Assyrians; who yet is blamed by Josephus d, for not calling him the king of the Assyrians only of the Arabians, whereas he styles him both; and the same Josephus observes, that Berosus, a Chaldean writer, makes mention of this Sennacherib as king of Assyria; the same came up in a military way against the fortified cities of Judah, which were the frontier towns, and barriers of their country:

and took them; that is, some of them, not all of them; see Isa 37:8, he thought indeed to have took them to himself, this was his intent, 2Ch 32:1, but was prevailed upon to desist, by a payment of three hundred talents of silver, and thirty talents of gold to him, by the king of Judah, 2Ki 18:14.

Gill: Isa 36:2 - And the king of Assyria sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem unto King Hezekiah with a great army // and he stood by the conduit of the upper pool, in the highway of the fullers' field And the king of Assyria sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem unto King Hezekiah with a great army,.... Notwithstanding he had taken Hezekiah's mon...

And the king of Assyria sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem unto King Hezekiah with a great army,.... Notwithstanding he had taken Hezekiah's money to withdraw his army out of his country, yet sends it out to his very capital; along with this Rabshakeh he sent two other generals, Tartan and Rabsaris, 2Ki 18:17 though they are not mentioned, only Rabshakeh, because he was the principal person, however the chief speaker. Lachish was a city in the tribe of Judah, Jos 15:39, which Sennacherib was now besieging, 2Ch 32:9. This message was sent, Bishop Usher says, three years after the former expedition:

and he stood by the conduit of the upper pool, in the highway of the fullers' field; where they spread their clothes, as the Targum, having washed them in the pool, of which see Isa 7:3. Ben Melech thus describes the pool, conduit, and highway: the pool is a ditch, built with stone and lime, where rainwater was collected, or where they drew water from the fountain, and the waters were gathered into this pool; and there was in this pool a hole, which they stopped, until the time they pleased to fetch water, out of the pool: and the conduit was a ditch near to the pool, and they brought water out of the pool into the conduit, when they chose to drink, or wash garments: the highway was a way paved with stones, so that they could walk upon it in rainy days; and here they stood and washed their garments in the waters of the conduit, and in the field they spread them to the sun. This pool lay outside the city, yet just by the walls of it, which showed the daring insolence of Rabshakeh to come so very nigh, for he was in the hearing of the men upon the walls, Isa 36:12, this Rabshakeh is by the Jewish writers thought to be an apostate Jew, because he spoke in the Jews' language; and some of them, as Jerome says, will have him to be a son of the Prophet Isaiah's, but without any foundation, Procopius, in 2Ki 18:18, thinks it probable that he was a Hebrew, who either had fled on his own accord to the Assyrians, or was taken captive by them.

Gill: Isa 36:3 - Then came forth unto him // Eliakim, Hilkiah's son, which was over the house // and Shebna the scribe // and Joah, Asaph's son, the recorder Then came forth unto him,.... Being sent by Hezekiah; for otherwise Rabshakeh had the impudence to call to him, in order to parley, and treat with him...

Then came forth unto him,.... Being sent by Hezekiah; for otherwise Rabshakeh had the impudence to call to him, in order to parley, and treat with him about the surrender of the city; but as this was not thought either safe or honourable for the king to go in person, his following ministers went; see 2Ki 18:18,

Eliakim, Hilkiah's son, which was over the house; not over the house of the Lord, the temple, as some, but the king's house, being high steward of if, or "major domo". This is the same person as is mentioned in Isa 22:20,

and Shebna the scribe; not of the book of the law, a copier, or interpreter of that, but secretary of state; he had been treasurer, but now removed, Isa 22:15,

and Joah, Asaph's son, the recorder; the master of requests, or the "remembrancer" e; who, as the Targum, was appointed over things memorable; whose business it was to take notice of things worthy of memory, write them down, and digest them in order; perhaps the king's historiographer.

Gill: Isa 36:4 - And Rabshakeh said unto them // say ye now to Hezekiah // thus saith the great king, the king of Assyria // what confidence is this wherein thou trustest And Rabshakeh said unto them,.... The three ministers above mentioned: say ye now to Hezekiah; tell him what follows; he does not call him king, as...

And Rabshakeh said unto them,.... The three ministers above mentioned:

say ye now to Hezekiah; tell him what follows; he does not call him king, as he does his own master:

thus saith the great king, the king of Assyria; this he said boastingly of his master, and in order to terrify Hezekiah and his subjects; whom he would represent as little in comparison of him, who had subdued many kingdoms, and aimed at universal monarchy; so the eastern kings used to be called, as now the Grand Signior with the Turks, and the French call their king the great monarch; but the title of a great king suits best with God himself, Psa 95:3,

what confidence is this wherein thou trustest? meaning, what was the ground and foundation of his confidence? what was it that kept him in high spirits, that he did not at once submit to the king of Assyria, and surrender the city of Jerusalem to him?

Gill: Isa 36:5 - I say, (sayest thou,) but they are but vain words // I have counsel and strength for war // now on whom dost thou trust, that thou rebellest against me I say, (sayest thou,) but they are but vain words,.... Or, "word of lips" f; meaning the following, which he suggests were only the fruit of his lips,...

I say, (sayest thou,) but they are but vain words,.... Or, "word of lips" f; meaning the following, which he suggests were only the fruit of his lips, not of his heart; or were vain and foolish, and without effect, and stood for nothing; so the first part of the words are Hezekiah's, "I say (sayest thou)"; and the latter, Rabshakeh's note upon them; though they may be understood as Hezekiah's, or what he is made to speak by Rabshakeh, as the ground of his confidence, namely, "word of lips"; that is, prayer to God, as Kimchi explains it; or eloquence in addressing his soldiers, and encouraging them to fight, either of which Rabshakeh derides, as well as what follows:

I have counsel and strength for war; as he had; he had wise ministers to consult, and was capable of forming a good plan, and wise schemes, and of putting them in execution, and of heartening men; though he did not put his confidence in these things, as Rabshakeh suggested, 2Ch 32:3, the words may be rendered; "but counsel and strength are for war" g: what signifies words to God, or eloquence with men? this is all lip labour, and of little service; wisdom and counsel to form plans, and power to execute them, are the things which are necessary to carry on a war with success, and which, it is intimated, were wanting in Hezekiah; and therefore he had nothing to ground his confidence upon, within himself, or his people:

now on whom dost thou trust, that thou rebellest against me? which it does not appear he had, having paid the money agreed to for the withdrawment of his army; but this was a pretence for the siege of Jerusalem.

Gill: Isa 36:6 - Lo, thou trustest in the staff of this broken reed, on Egypt // whereon if a man lean, it will go into his hand, and pierce it // so is Pharaoh king of Egypt to all that trust in him Lo, thou trustest in the staff of this broken reed, on Egypt,.... His ally and auxiliary; and which is rightly called "the staff of a broken reed", if...

Lo, thou trustest in the staff of this broken reed, on Egypt,.... His ally and auxiliary; and which is rightly called "the staff of a broken reed", if trusted to, and leaned upon, being weak and frail, and an insufficient ground of confidence to depend upon; the allusion seems to be to the cane or reed which grew upon the banks of the river Nile, in Egypt:

whereon if a man lean, it will go into his hand, and pierce it; the splinters of the broken reed being leaned on, will enter into a man's hand, and do him harm, instead of being a help to him to walk with:

so is Pharaoh king of Egypt to all that trust in him; pernicious and harmful, instead of being useful and helpful.

Gill: Isa 36:7 - But if thou say to me, we trust in the Lord our God // is it not he, whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away // and said to Judah, and to Jerusalem, ye shall worship before this altar But if thou say to me, we trust in the Lord our God,.... In his promises, providence, power, and protection, and not in human counsels and strength; n...

But if thou say to me, we trust in the Lord our God,.... In his promises, providence, power, and protection, and not in human counsels and strength; not in allies and auxiliaries, as Pharaoh king of Egypt; should this be replied, Rabshakeh has something to say to that; having shown the vanity of trusting in the above things, he now proceeds to beat them off of all trust in the Lord their God:

is it not he, whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away; the question might easily be answered in the negative; no, he has not; the high places and altars which Hezekiah took away were the high places and altars of Heathen gods, of false deities, and not of the true God of Israel, and which was to his honour and glory; but Rabshakeh would make a crime of it, and, ignorantly supposing that these were the altars and high places of the God of Israel, would insinuate that the taking of these away must be displeasing to him, and consequently Hezekiah and his people could not hope for any protection from him, whom he had so highly affronted; but all this talk was the fruit of ignorance, as well as of malice:

and said to Judah, and to Jerusalem, ye shall worship before this altar? the altar of the Lord, in the temple at Jerusalem, and before that only, confining their religious worship to one place, and their sacrifices to one altar; which was so far from being displeasing to God, as he would insinuate, that it was entirely agreeable to his will: and therefore there was no weight or strength in this kind of reasoning.

Gill: Isa 36:8 - Now therefore give pledges to my master the king of Assyria // and I will give thee two thousand horses, if thou be able on thy part to set riders on them Now therefore give pledges to my master the king of Assyria,.... Or; "hostages" h; that thou wilt not rebel against him, but be faithful to him, and h...

Now therefore give pledges to my master the king of Assyria,.... Or; "hostages" h; that thou wilt not rebel against him, but be faithful to him, and he will withdraw his army; or give security for the horses after promised: "or mingle thyself with him"; agree the matter with him, give pledges for future fidelity; or join in battle with him, come out and fight him, if able:

and I will give thee two thousand horses, if thou be able on thy part to set riders on them; thus scoffing at him, as if he had not so many soldiers to bring out against him; or so many men in his kingdom as had skill enough to ride a horse; in his bravado he signifies, that if he would come out and fight him, he would lend him so many horses, if he could put men upon them, to assist him; this he said as boasting of his master's strength and power, and in scorn and derision at Hezekiah's weakness.

Gill: Isa 36:9 - How then wilt thou turn away the face of one captain of the least of my master's servants // and put thy trust on Egypt for chariots, and for horsemen How then wilt thou turn away the face of one captain of the least of my master's servants,.... Be able to resist him; or be a match for him; or cause ...

How then wilt thou turn away the face of one captain of the least of my master's servants,.... Be able to resist him; or be a match for him; or cause him to flee; the least captain or general in the army having, as Kimchi says, two thousand men under him; and therefore, if Hezekiah could not produce two thousand men, to sit upon so many horses offered, he could not be a match for, or hope to conquer, or cause to flee, the least officer in the army, who had the fewest men under him, and much less conquer, or cause to flee, the whole Assyrian army. Some think Rabshakeh means himself, but that does not seem likely, that Sennacherib should send an inferior officer, or a person of a low character, and in a low station, or that such an one should be the principal speaker; nor does it suit with the imperious and haughty disposition of Rabshakeh to speak in such a manner of himself:

and put thy trust on Egypt for chariots, and for horsemen? for to what purpose was it to seek and send to Egypt for chariots and horses, since he had not a sufficient number of men to put upon them, but must be obliged to have men, as well as horses and chariots; and which, as before observed, it was a vain thing to trust to, and was quite needless, when he might have enough from his master, the Assyrian king, would he agree with him.

Gill: Isa 36:10 - And am I now come up without the Lord against this land to destroy it // the Lord said unto me // go up against this land, and destroy it And am I now come up without the Lord against this land to destroy it?.... He would insinuate that he had a commission from the Lord God, and that it ...

And am I now come up without the Lord against this land to destroy it?.... He would insinuate that he had a commission from the Lord God, and that it was by his will and order that he came up to destroy the land; which he said to intimidate Hezekiah and his subjects, as knowing that nothing was more likely to do it than that so far it was true, that he did not come up without the knowledge of the Lord, nor without his will to chastise, but not to destroy, as the event showed:

the Lord said unto me: by the impulse of his Spirit, or by one of his prophets, as he would suggest:

go up against this land, and destroy it; which was a lie of his own making; he knew that the Lord had said no such thing to him, nor had sent him on such an errand; unless he concluded it from his success in taking the fenced cities of Judah, and from Samaria, and the ten tribes, being delivered up in time past into the hands of the king of Assyria, and so was confident this would be the fate of Judah and Jerusalem.

Gill: Isa 36:11 - Then said Eliakim and Shebah and Joah unto Rabshakeh // speak, I pray thee, unto thy servants in the Syriac language // for we understand it // and speak not to us in the Jews' language, in the ears of the people that are on the wall Then said Eliakim and Shebah and Joah unto Rabshakeh,.... That is, one of them addressed him in the name of the rest; for the verb is singular; and wh...

Then said Eliakim and Shebah and Joah unto Rabshakeh,.... That is, one of them addressed him in the name of the rest; for the verb is singular; and what follows confirms it; perhaps Eliakim was the speaker:

speak, I pray thee, unto thy servants in the Syriac language; which was somewhat different from the Hebrew, in which he spoke, and which was not understood by the common people, and for that reason desired:

for we understand it; or hear it; could hear it, so as to understand it; it being common in all courts, as the French tongue now; the Assyrian empire being very large, and so had been learned by these courtiers, for the sake of negotiation or commerce, when the common people had no concern with it:

and speak not to us in the Jews' language, in the ears of the people that are on the wall; the wall of the city, where the commissioners were, who would not venture themselves out of the city, in the hands of so perfidious an enemy: and the men on the wall were such, who either were placed there to defend the city, and so were soldiers, or people that were gathered together to see the ambassadors of the king of Assyria, and to hear, as much as they could, what passed between them and the ministers of Hezekiah; and as this speech of Eliakim's showed great submissiveness in praying and entreating Rabshakeh to speak to them in another language, and a mean abject spirit, in saying they were his servants, so a great degree of timorousness in them, and diffidence of the people, lest they should be terrified, and be for giving up the city at once into the hands of the enemy; this looks like a piece of bad policy, and some think that Shebna was the contriver of it, and the adviser to it, in order to give Rabshakeh a hint of their fears, and of the disposition of the people, and put him in higher spirits, and on railing the more, and thereby still work the more on the people's fears; however, it had this effect on him, as follows.

Gill: Isa 36:12 - But Rabshakeh said, hath my master sent me to thy master, and to thee, to speak these words // hath he not sent me to the men that sit upon the wall // that they may eat their own dung, and drink their own piss with you But Rabshakeh said, hath my master sent me to thy master, and to thee, to speak these words?.... That is, to them only, that he should use a language ...

But Rabshakeh said, hath my master sent me to thy master, and to thee, to speak these words?.... That is, to them only, that he should use a language only understood by them:

hath he not sent me to the men that sit upon the wall; and therefore it is proper to speak in a language which they understand, and to let them know that if they will not surrender up the city, but will attempt to hold out a siege, they must expect

that they may eat their own dung, and drink their own piss with you? suggesting that they must expect a close siege, which would not be broke up until the city was taken; the consequence of which would be such a famine, that they would be reduced to such extremities. The Jews have substituted other words in the margin, instead of those in the text, as more cleanly, and less offensive; for "dung" they put "excrement", and for "piss" they read "the waters of the feet"; and had we in our version put excrement and urine instead of these words, it would have been more decent.

Gill: Isa 36:13 - Then Rabshakeh stood, and cried with a loud voice in the Jews' language // and said, hear ye the words of the great king, the king of Assyria Then Rabshakeh stood, and cried with a loud voice in the Jews' language,.... In which he spoke before; but now he raised up himself, and elevated his ...

Then Rabshakeh stood, and cried with a loud voice in the Jews' language,.... In which he spoke before; but now he raised up himself, and elevated his voice, and strained himself to the utmost, that all the people might hear, and that he might strike a terror into them, and stir them up to mutiny and rebellion, and oblige their governors to give up the city into the hands of the Assyrians; this use he made of the request of Hezekiah's ministers, perceiving hereby their fears, and the disposition of the people:

and said, hear ye the words of the great king, the king of Assyria; See Gill on Isa 36:4.

Gill: Isa 36:14 - Thus saith the king // let not Hezekiah deceive you // for he shall not be able to deliver you Thus saith the king,.... The king of Assyria, whom he personated, whose general and ambassador he was; so he spake to command the greater awe of the p...

Thus saith the king,.... The king of Assyria, whom he personated, whose general and ambassador he was; so he spake to command the greater awe of the people, and the more to terrify them:

let not Hezekiah deceive you; with fair words, promising protection and safety, making preparations for the defence of the city, and to oblige the besiegers to break up the siege of it:

for he shall not be able to deliver you; but if he was not, his God, whom he served, and in whom he trusted, was able to deliver them, and did deliver them; though he endeavoured to dissuade them from trusting in him, or hearkening to Hezekiah's persuasions thereunto, as in the following verse.

Gill: Isa 36:15 - Neither let Hezekiah make you trust in the Lord // saying, the Lord will surely deliver us, this city shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria Neither let Hezekiah make you trust in the Lord,.... Hezekiah trusted in the Lord himself, and he endeavoured, both by his own example, and by argumen...

Neither let Hezekiah make you trust in the Lord,.... Hezekiah trusted in the Lord himself, and he endeavoured, both by his own example, and by arguments, to persuade his people to do so likewise; of this Rabshakeh was sensible, and was more afraid of this than of any thing else, and, therefore laboured this point more than any other; see 2Ch 32:6;

saying, the Lord will surely deliver us, this city shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria: which he might say with the greatest confidence, since the Lord had promised to defend it, Isa 31:5 and especially if his sickness, and recovery out of it, and promises then made to him, were before this, as some think; since it is expressly promised by the Lord, that he would deliver him and the city out of the hand of the king of Assyria, Isa 38:6.

Gill: Isa 36:16 - Hearken not to Hezekiah // for thus saith the king of Assyria, make an agreement with me by a present // come out to me // and eat ye everyone of his vine, and everyone of his fig tree: and drink ye everyone the waters of his own cistern Hearken not to Hezekiah,.... To his exhortations and persuasions to trust in the Lord; nor would he have them obey him in things civil, any more than ...

Hearken not to Hezekiah,.... To his exhortations and persuasions to trust in the Lord; nor would he have them obey him in things civil, any more than hearken to him in things sacred, though their liege lord and sovereign; for his view and endeavour were to stir them up to mutiny and rebellion; and so the Targum,

"do not obey Hezekiah:''

or receive any orders from him, or pay any regard to them:

for thus saith the king of Assyria, make an agreement with me by a present; or, "make a blessing with me" i; either send a large and liberal gift to secure his favour, and their happiness; a most insolent and unrighteous demand this, when he had already received three hundred talents of silver, and thirty talents of gold, to withdraw his army; or make a blessed peace with me; suggesting that it would turn more to their account to give up themselves to him, than to be in the condition they were; so the Targum,

"make peace with me:''

this sense Ben Melech gives; and the Septuagint version is, "if ye would be blessed" k, or happy,

come out to me; forsake your king, throw off your allegiance to him, surrender yourselves and city to me:

and eat ye everyone of his vine, and everyone of his fig tree: and drink ye everyone the waters of his own cistern; promising liberty and property, but does not tell them how long they should enjoy them; he signifies that they should enjoy everything that was necessary, convenient, and delightful; vines and fig trees are mentioned, because common in Judea, and all had cisterns near them for their use; unless this last clause is to be understood of everyone having their own wives; see Pro 5:15 as the other clauses may design the enjoyment of their estates and possessions, without any molestation or infringement of them; see Mic 4:4.

Gill: Isa 36:17 - Until I come and take you away to a land like your own land // a land of corn and wine, a land of bread and vineyards Until I come and take you away to a land like your own land,..... Some have thought, as Jerom observes, that the land of Media was meant, which bore s...

Until I come and take you away to a land like your own land,..... Some have thought, as Jerom observes, that the land of Media was meant, which bore some likeness to the land of Judea in situation and fruitfulness. Maimonides thinks that Africa is intended l. Rabshakeh names no land, nor could he name any like, or equal to, the land of Canaan; he could not conceal his intention to remove them from their own land to another; this having been always done by the king of Assyria to people conquered by him, and as was usual for conquerors to do, that so the conquered might have no expectation or opportunity of recovering their own land:

a land of corn and wine, a land of bread and vineyards; corn for bread, and vineyards for wine, and both for food and drink; such a land was the land of Judea. The description agrees with Deu 8:8. Rabshakeh was well acquainted with the land of Judea; and this seems to confirm the conjecture of the Jews, that he was one of their people, since he could speak their language, and describe their land so well; all this he said to sooth and persuade them to a voluntary surrender.

Gill: Isa 36:18 - Beware lest Hezekiah persuade you // saying, the Lord will deliver us // hath any of the gods of the nations delivered his land // out of the hand of the king of Assyria Beware lest Hezekiah persuade you,.... To trust in the Lord, stand up in your own defence and not listen to these proposals; or, lest he "deceive you"...

Beware lest Hezekiah persuade you,.... To trust in the Lord, stand up in your own defence and not listen to these proposals; or, lest he "deceive you" m; with vain words; whom he would represent not only as not being their lawful king, and therefore never gives him that title, but also as a deceiver and impostor, of whom they should be cautious, and guard against:

saying, the Lord will deliver us; and therefore need not fear the boasts and threats, the force and fury, of the enemy:

hath any of the gods of the nations delivered his land; over whom he presided, and to whom the people of it were devotees:

out of the hand of the king of Assyria? this reasoning would have had some weight in it had the Lord God of Israel been like the gods of the nations, but he is not; he is the Former and Maker of all things, and sits in the heavens, and does whatsoever he pleases in heaven and in earth; and therefore, though they could not deliver their nations that worshipped them, it did not follow that the God of Israel could not deliver Hezekiah and his people.

Gill: Isa 36:19 - Where are the gods of Hamath and Arphad // where are the gods of Sepharvaim // and have they delivered Samaria out of my hand // 2Ki 17:3,6 Where are the gods of Hamath and Arphad?.... What is become of them? where are they to be found? where's their power to protect and defend the people ...

Where are the gods of Hamath and Arphad?.... What is become of them? where are they to be found? where's their power to protect and defend the people they presided over? thus they might be justly derided, but not so the God at Israel; these places are mentioned in Isa 10:9. Hamath was a city in Syria, thought by some to be the same afterwards called Antiochia and Epiphania, from Antiochus Epiphanes: Arphad is joined with it in Jer 49:23 as a city of Syria; perhaps originally founded and inhabited by the Arvadite, mentioned with the Hamathite, in Gen 10:18,

where are the gods of Sepharvaim? another place in Syria, the city Sipphore; not the Sipphara of Ptolemy n, in Mesopotamia, or that, near Babylon, Abydenus o makes mention of, but a city in Syro-Phoenicia, 2Ki 17:24,

and have they delivered Samaria out of my hand? the gods of the above places, which were worshipped in Samaria, or the gods peculiar to that place; though Samaria was not taken by the present king of Assyria, Sennacherib, but by a predecessor of his, Shalmaneser,

2Ki 17:3,6, which yet is here boasted of as a conquest of the present king.

Gill: Isa 36:20 - Who are they amongst all the gods of these lands, that have delivered their land out of my hand // that the Lord should deliver Jerusalem out of my hand Who are they amongst all the gods of these lands, that have delivered their land out of my hand?.... Not one of them, it is suggested; wherefore then ...

Who are they amongst all the gods of these lands, that have delivered their land out of my hand?.... Not one of them, it is suggested; wherefore then should it be thought practicable,

that the Lord should deliver Jerusalem out of my hand? thus blasphemously setting the Lord God of Israel upon a level with the fictitious gods of the Gentiles; though these could not, the Lord could, being the Lord God Almighty. If Rabshakeh was an apostate Jew, he must have known better; but the malice of such is usually the greatest.

Gill: Isa 36:21 - But they held their peace, and answered him not a word // for the king's commandment was, saying, answer him not But they held their peace, and answered him not a word,.... The three ministers of Hezekiah; not as confounded, and unable to return an answer: they w...

But they held their peace, and answered him not a word,.... The three ministers of Hezekiah; not as confounded, and unable to return an answer: they were capable of saying many things in proof that the Lord God was greater than the gods of the nations, and in favour of their king, Hezekiah, whom he had treated in a scurrilous manner; and could have objected to him the king of Assyria's breach of faith and honour, but these things they waved, and said nothing of; no doubt they said something to him, had some conference with him, or otherwise what were they sent as commissioners about? but they made no answer to his blasphemies and menaces:

for the king's commandment was, saying, answer him not: with respect to the above things; when he sent them, he might be aware that he would behave in such a rude, insolent, and blaspheming manner, and therefore the king gave them instructions how to conduct themselves, should this be the case. Musculus thinks the king was on the wall, and heard all himself, and gave orders to his ministers to make no reply; but this does not seem likely; what is here said of the ministers is also said of the people, 2Ki 18:36.

Gill: Isa 36:22 - Then came Eliakim, that was over the household // and Shebna the Scribe, and Joah, the son of Asaph, the recorder, to Hezekiah // with their clothes rent // and told him the words of Rabshakeh Then came Eliakim, that was over the household,.... The first of the commissioners sent to Rabshakeh: and Shebna the Scribe, and Joah, the son of A...

Then came Eliakim, that was over the household,.... The first of the commissioners sent to Rabshakeh:

and Shebna the Scribe, and Joah, the son of Asaph, the recorder, to Hezekiah: by which it seems that he could not be with them on the wall, but was all the while in his own palace, whither they came to him, to report the issue of their conference with Rabshakeh:

with their clothes rent; which was done perhaps not in the presence and within the sight of Rabshakeh, but as they came along; and that partly on account of the blasphemies they had heard, Mat 26:65, and partly through the grief of heart, for the distress and calamity they might fear were coming on themselves, their king, their city, and country, Joe 2:13,

and told him the words of Rabshakeh; what he had said against him, and against the God of Israel, his menaces and his blasphemies; they made a faithful report of the whole, as messengers ought to do. What effect this had upon the king, we have an account of in the following chapter.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Isa 36:1 The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

NET Notes: Isa 36:2 Heb “the field of the washer”; traditionally “the fuller’s field” (so KJV, ASV, NAB, NASB, NRSV).

NET Notes: Isa 36:4 Heb “What is this object of trust in which you are trusting?”

NET Notes: Isa 36:5 Heb “you say only a word of lips, counsel and might for battle.” Sennacherib’s message appears to be in broken Hebrew at this point....

NET Notes: Isa 36:9 Heb “How can you turn back the face of an official [from among] the least of my master’s servants and trust in Egypt for chariots and hors...

NET Notes: Isa 36:10 In v. 10 the chief adviser develops further the argument begun in v. 7. He claims that Hezekiah has offended the Lord and that the Lord has commission...

NET Notes: Isa 36:11 Or “in Hebrew” (NIV, NCV, NLT); NAB, NASB “in Judean.”

NET Notes: Isa 36:12 The chief adviser alludes to the horrible reality of siege warfare, when the starving people in the besieged city would resort to eating and drinking ...

NET Notes: Isa 36:13 The Hebrew text includes “and he said.”

NET Notes: Isa 36:16 Heb “make with me a blessing and come out to me.”

NET Notes: Isa 36:18 Heb “Have the gods of the nations rescued, each his land, from the hand of the king of Assyria?” The rhetorical question expects the answe...

NET Notes: Isa 36:19 Heb “that they rescued Samaria from my hand?” But this gives the impression that the gods of Sepharvaim were responsible for protecting Sa...

NET Notes: Isa 36:20 Heb “that the Lord might rescue Jerusalem from my hand?” The logic runs as follows: Since no god has ever been able to withstand the Assyr...

NET Notes: Isa 36:22 Heb “with their clothes torn”; the words “in grief” have been supplied in the translation to indicate that this was done as a ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 36:1 Now it came to pass ( a ) in the ( b ) fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, [that] Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities o...

Geneva Bible: Isa 36:3 Then came forth to him Eliakim, Hilkiah's son, who was ( c ) over the house, and Shebna ( d ) the scribe, and Joah, Asaph's son, the recorder. ( c ) ...

Geneva Bible: Isa 36:4 And ( e ) Rabshakeh said to them, Say ye now to Hezekiah, Thus saith the great king, the king of Assyria, What confidence [is] this in which thou trus...

Geneva Bible: Isa 36:5 I say, ( f ) [sayest thou], (but [they are but] vain words) [I have] counsel and strength for war: now on whom dost thou trust, that thou rebellest ag...

Geneva Bible: Isa 36:6 Lo, thou trustest in the staff of this broken reed, on Egypt; on which if a man lean, it will enter his hand, and pierce it: so [is] ( g ) Pharaoh kin...

Geneva Bible: Isa 36:9 How then wilt thou turn away the face of one captain of the ( h ) least of my master's servants, and put thy trust on Egypt for chariots and for horse...

Geneva Bible: Isa 36:10 And am I now come up without the LORD against this land to destroy it? the LORD said to me, ( i ) Go up against this land, and destroy it. ( i ) Thus...

Geneva Bible: Isa 36:11 Then said Eliakim and Shebna and Joah to Rabshakeh, ( k ) Speak, I pray thee, to thy servants in the Syrian language; for we understand [it]: and spea...

Geneva Bible: Isa 36:16 Hearken not to Hezekiah: for thus saith the king of Assyria, Make ( l ) [an agreement] with me [by] a present, and come out to me: and eat ye every on...

Geneva Bible: Isa 36:19 Where [are] the gods of ( m ) Hamath and Arphad? where [are] the gods of Sepharvaim? and have they delivered Samaria out of my hand? ( m ) That is, o...

Geneva Bible: Isa 36:21 But they ( n ) held their peace, and answered him not a word: for the king's commandment was, saying, Answer him not. ( n ) Not that they did not sho...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Matthew Henry: Isa 36:1-10 - -- We shall here only observe some practical lessons. 1. A people may be in the way of their duty and yet meet with trouble and distress. Hezekiah was ...

Matthew Henry: Isa 36:11-22 - -- We may hence learn these lessons: - 1. That, while princes and counsellors have public matters under debate, it is not fair to appeal to the people....

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 36:1-2 - -- Marcus V. Niebuhr, in his History of Asshur and Babel (p. 164), says, "Why should not Hezekiah have revolted from Asshur as soon as he ascended the...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 36:3-10 - -- Hezekiah's confidential ministers go there also. Isa 36:3 (K. "And they called to the king ) , and there went out to him (K. to them ) Eliakim son...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 36:11 - -- The concluding words, in which the Assyrian boasts of having Jehovah on his side, affect the messengers of Hezekiah in the keenest manner, especiall...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 36:12 - -- The harsh reply is given in Isa 36:12. "Then Rabshakeh said (K. to them ), Has my lord sent me to (K. העל ) the men who sit upon the wall, t...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 36:13-20 - -- After Rabshakeh had refused the request of Hezekiah's representatives in this contemptuous manner, he turned in defiance of them to the people thems...

Keil-Delitzsch: Isa 36:21-22 - -- The effect of Rabshakeh's words. "But they held their peace (K. and they, the people, held their peace ) , and answered him not a word; for it was...

Constable: Isa 7:1--39:8 - --III. Israel's crisis of faith chs. 7--39 This long section of the book deals with Israel's major decision in Isa...

Constable: Isa 36:1--39:8 - --C. The tests of Israel's trust chs. 36-39 Chapters 36-39 conclude the section of the book dealing with t...

Constable: Isa 36:1--37:38 - --1. The Assyrian threat chs. 36-37 In chapters 7-8 Isaiah tried to persuade King Ahaz to trust Go...

Constable: Isa 36:1--37:8 - --The Rabshakeh's challenge 36:1-37:7 This section demonstrates Hezekiah's commitment to G...

Constable: Isa 36:1-20 - --An ultimatum 36:1-20 36:1 The fourteenth year of Hezekiah was 701 B.C.350 On an Assyrian record, Sennacherib claimed to have taken 46 cities of Judah ...

Constable: Isa 36:21--37:8 - --The response to the ultimatum 36:21-37:7 How would the Judeans respond to this blasphemous challenge? How they did determined their destiny not only a...

Guzik: Isa 36:1-22 - A Demoralizing Attack on Faith Isaiah 36 - A Demoralizing Attack on Faith A. Rabshakeh speaks to leaders in King Hezekiah's government. 1. (1-3) Officials from King Hezekiah's gov...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) ISAIAH, son of Amoz (not Amos); contemporary of Jonah, Amos, Hosea, in Israel, but younger than they; and of Micah, in Judah. His call to a higher deg...

JFB: Isaiah (Garis Besar) PARABLE OF JEHOVAH'S VINEYARD. (Isa. 5:1-30) SIX DISTINCT WOES AGAINST CRIMES. (Isa. 5:8-23) (Lev 25:13; Mic 2:2). The jubilee restoration of posses...

TSK: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Isaiah has, with singular propriety, been denominated the Evangelical Prophet, on account of the number and variety of his prophecies concerning the a...

TSK: Isaiah 36 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Isa 36:1, Sennacherib invades Judah; Isa 36:2, Rabshakeh, sent by Sennacherib, by blasphemous persuasions solicits the people to revolt; ...

Poole: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE ARGUMENT THE teachers of the ancient church were of two sorts: 1. Ordinary, the priests and Levites. 2. Extraordinary, the prophets. These we...

Poole: Isaiah 36 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 36 Sennacherib invadeth Judah, Isa 36:1 . He sendeth Rabshakeh, who by his blasphemous persuasions tempteth Hezekiah to despair, and the pe...

MHCC: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Isaiah prophesied in the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. He has been well called the evangelical prophet, on account of his numerous and...

MHCC: Isaiah 36 (Pendahuluan Pasal) See 2 Kings 18:17-37, and the commentary thereon.

Matthew Henry: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, With Practical Observations, of The Book of the Prophet Isaiah Prophet is a title that sounds very great to those that understand it, t...

Matthew Henry: Isaiah 36 (Pendahuluan Pasal) The prophet Isaiah is, in this and the three following chapters, an historian; for the scripture history, as well as the scripture prophecy, is giv...

Constable: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title and writer The title of this book of the Bible, as is true of the o...

Constable: Isaiah (Garis Besar) Outline I. Introduction chs. 1-5 A. Israel's condition and God's solution ch. 1 ...

Constable: Isaiah Isaiah Bibliography Alexander, Joseph Addison. Commentary on the Prophecies of Isaiah. 1846, 1847. Revised ed. ...

Haydock: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE PROPHECY OF ISAIAS. INTRODUCTION. This inspired writer is called by the Holy Ghost, (Ecclesiasticus xlviii. 25.) the great prophet; from t...

Gill: Isaiah (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO ISAIAH This book is called, in the New Testament, sometimes "the Book of the Words of the Prophet Esaias", Luk 3:4 sometimes only t...

Gill: Isaiah 36 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO ISAIAH 36 In this chapter we have an account of the king Assyria's invasion of Judea, and of the railing speech of Rabshakeh his ge...

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