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Teks -- Ezekiel 8:1-18 (NET)

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Konteks
A Desecrated Temple
8:1 In the sixth year, in the sixth month, on the fifth of the month, as I was sitting in my house with the elders of Judah sitting in front of me, the hand of the sovereign Lord seized me. 8:2 As I watched, I noticed a form that appeared to be a man. From his waist downward was something like fire, and from his waist upward something like a brightness, like an amber glow. 8:3 He stretched out the form of a hand and grabbed me by a lock of hair on my head. Then a wind lifted me up between the earth and sky and brought me to Jerusalem by means of divine visions, to the door of the inner gate which faces north where the statue which provokes to jealousy was located. 8:4 Then I perceived that the glory of the God of Israel was there, as in the vision I had seen earlier in the valley. 8:5 He said to me, “Son of man, look up toward the north.” So I looked up toward the north, and I noticed to the north of the altar gate was this statue of jealousy at the entrance. 8:6 He said to me, “Son of man, do you see what they are doing– the great abominations that the people of Israel are practicing here, to drive me far from my sanctuary? But you will see greater abominations than these!” 8:7 He brought me to the entrance of the court, and as I watched, I noticed a hole in the wall. 8:8 He said to me, “Son of man, dig into the wall.” So I dug into the wall and discovered a doorway. 8:9 He said to me, “Go in and see the evil abominations they are practicing here.” 8:10 So I went in and looked. I noticed every figure of creeping thing and beast– detestable images– and every idol of the house of Israel, engraved on the wall all around. 8:11 Seventy men from the elders of the house of Israel (with Jaazaniah son of Shaphan standing among them) were standing in front of them, each with a censer in his hand, and fragrant vapors from a cloud of incense were swirling upward. 8:12 He said to me, “Do you see, son of man, what the elders of the house of Israel are doing in the dark, each in the chamber of his idolatrous images? For they think, ‘The Lord does not see us! The Lord has abandoned the land!’” 8:13 He said to me, “You will see them practicing even greater abominations!” 8:14 Then he brought me to the entrance of the north gate of the Lord’s house. I noticed women sitting there weeping for Tammuz. 8:15 He said to me, “Do you see this, son of man? You will see even greater abominations than these!” 8:16 Then he brought me to the inner court of the Lord’s house. Right there at the entrance to the Lord’s temple, between the porch and the altar, were about twenty-five men with their backs to the Lord’s temple, facing east– they were worshiping the sun toward the east! 8:17 He said to me, “Do you see, son of man? Is it a trivial thing that the house of Judah commits these abominations they are practicing here? For they have filled the land with violence and provoked me to anger still further. Look, they are putting the branch to their nose! 8:18 Therefore I will act with fury! My eye will not pity them nor will I spare them. When they have shouted in my ears, I will not listen to them.”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jaazaniah son of "the Maacathite"; a militia leader under Gedaliah,the son of Jeremiah son of Habazziniah of the Rechabites,son of Shaphan; uncle to Gedaliah; an elder under Zedekiah,son of Azzur; leader of Jerusalem in Zedekiah's time
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Shaphan son of Azaliah; father of Gemariah;, a prince of Judah in the time of Jehoiakim,son of Azaliah son of Meshullam (OS); secretary to King Josiah,father of Jaazaniah, an idolatrous elder under Zedekiah
 · Tammuz a pagan deity


Topik/Tema Kamus: Ezekiel | Vision | Idolatry | TEMPLE, A1 | JEHOIAKIM | IMAGES | Tammuz | Amber | Government | Jealousy | Jaazaniah | Idol | Censer | Image | Shaphan | IMAGERY | House | Jealousy, Image of | ABOMINATION | TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Eze 8:1 - Sixth year Of Jeconiah's captivity.

Of Jeconiah's captivity.

Wesley: Eze 8:1 - Sixth month Elul or our August.

Elul or our August.

Wesley: Eze 8:1 - The elders The chief of those that were now in captivity. They were come either to spend the sabbath in religious exercises, or to enquire what would become of t...

The chief of those that were now in captivity. They were come either to spend the sabbath in religious exercises, or to enquire what would become of their brethren in Jerusalem.

Wesley: Eze 8:1 - The hand The spirit of prophecy.

The spirit of prophecy.

Wesley: Eze 8:2 - A likeness Of a man; the man whom he had seen upon the throne.

Of a man; the man whom he had seen upon the throne.

Wesley: Eze 8:2 - Fire This fire might denote the wrath of God against Jerusalem.

This fire might denote the wrath of God against Jerusalem.

Wesley: Eze 8:3 - And This, and all the passages to the end of the 16th verse, was done in vision only.

This, and all the passages to the end of the 16th verse, was done in vision only.

Wesley: Eze 8:3 - Inner gate To the door of the gate of the inner court.

To the door of the gate of the inner court.

Wesley: Eze 8:3 - The north The temple courts had four gates towards the four quarters, and this was the north gate, which opened into the great court where Ahaz had set up his D...

The temple courts had four gates towards the four quarters, and this was the north gate, which opened into the great court where Ahaz had set up his Damascen altar, and where the idols were set up.

Wesley: Eze 8:3 - The image Baal, which Manasseh had set up, Josiah had destroyed, but succeeding kings had again set it up.

Baal, which Manasseh had set up, Josiah had destroyed, but succeeding kings had again set it up.

Wesley: Eze 8:3 - Jealousy Because it was so notorious an affront to God, who had married Israel to himself.

Because it was so notorious an affront to God, who had married Israel to himself.

Wesley: Eze 8:5 - Northward Ahaz had removed it from the middle of the court and set it near this north gate, to which it gave name.

Ahaz had removed it from the middle of the court and set it near this north gate, to which it gave name.

Wesley: Eze 8:5 - Entry In the very passage to the temple, to affront the worship of God.

In the very passage to the temple, to affront the worship of God.

Wesley: Eze 8:6 - They The generality of the Jews.

The generality of the Jews.

Wesley: Eze 8:6 - Great abominations The notorious idolatries.

The notorious idolatries.

Wesley: Eze 8:6 - Here In this court, in view of my temple.

In this court, in view of my temple.

Wesley: Eze 8:6 - Far off Not that they designed this, but no other could be expected.

Not that they designed this, but no other could be expected.

Wesley: Eze 8:7 - The door The second door, for there were two in the north side.

The second door, for there were two in the north side.

Wesley: Eze 8:8 - A door A private door, by which the priests entered into the chamber of their imagery, to perform idolatrous worship to their images.

A private door, by which the priests entered into the chamber of their imagery, to perform idolatrous worship to their images.

Wesley: Eze 8:9 - Are doing Under the approach of judgments, in this very place, under the walls of my temple.

Under the approach of judgments, in this very place, under the walls of my temple.

Wesley: Eze 8:10 - Every form Of such creatures as the Egyptians, or any others with whom the Jews had acquaintance, worshipped.

Of such creatures as the Egyptians, or any others with whom the Jews had acquaintance, worshipped.

Wesley: Eze 8:11 - Seventy Heads of the tribes or families, who should have been examples of true religion, not ringleaders in idolatry.

Heads of the tribes or families, who should have been examples of true religion, not ringleaders in idolatry.

Wesley: Eze 8:11 - Shaphan Mentioned 2Ki 22:9. Shaphan was forward in reforming under Josiah and his son is as forward in corrupting the worship of God.

Mentioned 2Ki 22:9. Shaphan was forward in reforming under Josiah and his son is as forward in corrupting the worship of God.

Wesley: Eze 8:12 - Seeth not They deny God's care of them and their affairs, and therefore they must chuse some other god.

They deny God's care of them and their affairs, and therefore they must chuse some other god.

Wesley: Eze 8:13 - Greater Either because added to all the rest: or, because some circumstances in these make them more abominable.

Either because added to all the rest: or, because some circumstances in these make them more abominable.

Wesley: Eze 8:14 - The door Of the outer court, or court of the women, so called, because they were allowed to come into it.

Of the outer court, or court of the women, so called, because they were allowed to come into it.

Wesley: Eze 8:14 - Weeping Performing all the lewd and beastly rites of that idol, called by the Greeks, Adonis.

Performing all the lewd and beastly rites of that idol, called by the Greeks, Adonis.

Wesley: Eze 8:15 - Greater These later wickednesses may be accounted greater, because acted in a more sacred place.

These later wickednesses may be accounted greater, because acted in a more sacred place.

Wesley: Eze 8:16 - Inner court The innermost, that which was next the temple, called here the Lord's house.

The innermost, that which was next the temple, called here the Lord's house.

Wesley: Eze 8:16 - At the door Before he saw abominations in the gates of the courts, now he is come to the very house itself.

Before he saw abominations in the gates of the courts, now he is come to the very house itself.

Wesley: Eze 8:16 - The porch That stately porch, beautified with the curious and mighty brass pillars, Jachin and Boaz.

That stately porch, beautified with the curious and mighty brass pillars, Jachin and Boaz.

Wesley: Eze 8:16 - Altar The brazen altar for burnt-offerings, which was placed in the court before the front of the temple, and is here represented in its proper place.

The brazen altar for burnt-offerings, which was placed in the court before the front of the temple, and is here represented in its proper place.

Wesley: Eze 8:16 - Their backs In contempt of God, and his worship.

In contempt of God, and his worship.

Wesley: Eze 8:16 - The sun In imitation of the Persians, Egyptians, and other eastern idolaters; these Jews turn their back on God who created the sun, and worship the creature ...

In imitation of the Persians, Egyptians, and other eastern idolaters; these Jews turn their back on God who created the sun, and worship the creature in contempt of the Creator.

Wesley: Eze 8:17 - Violence All injustice is here meant towards all sorts of men, whom they first despise and next destroy.

All injustice is here meant towards all sorts of men, whom they first despise and next destroy.

Wesley: Eze 8:17 - Returned From injustice against man they return to impiety against God.

From injustice against man they return to impiety against God.

Wesley: Eze 8:17 - The branch As the worshippers of Bacchus waved their Thyrsus, the stalk wreathed with ivy, and bowed their bodies and often kissed the branches, so did these ido...

As the worshippers of Bacchus waved their Thyrsus, the stalk wreathed with ivy, and bowed their bodies and often kissed the branches, so did these idolatrous Jews.

Wesley: Eze 8:18 - Will not hear The time was, when God was ready to have heard, even before they cried: but now they cry aloud, and yet cry in vain. It is the upright heart which God...

The time was, when God was ready to have heard, even before they cried: but now they cry aloud, and yet cry in vain. It is the upright heart which God regards, and not the loud voice.

JFB: Eze 8:1 - -- (Eze. 8:1-18)

(Eze. 8:1-18)

JFB: Eze 8:1 - sixth year Namely, of the captivity of Jehoiachin, as in Eze 1:2, the "fifth year" is specified. The lying on his sides three hundred ninety and forty days (Eze ...

Namely, of the captivity of Jehoiachin, as in Eze 1:2, the "fifth year" is specified. The lying on his sides three hundred ninety and forty days (Eze 4:5-6) had by this time been completed, at least in vision. That event was naturally a memorable epoch to the exiles; and the computation of years from it was to humble the Jews, as well as to show their perversity in not having repented, though so long and severely chastised.

JFB: Eze 8:1 - elders Namely, those carried away with Jehoiachin, and now at the Chebar.

Namely, those carried away with Jehoiachin, and now at the Chebar.

JFB: Eze 8:1 - sat before me To hear the word of God from me, in the absence of the temple and other public places of Sabbath worship, during the exile (Eze 33:30-31). It was so o...

To hear the word of God from me, in the absence of the temple and other public places of Sabbath worship, during the exile (Eze 33:30-31). It was so ordered that they were present at the giving of the prophecy, and so left without excuse.

JFB: Eze 8:1 - hand of . . . Lord God fell . . . upon me God's mighty operation fell, like a thunderbolt, upon me (in Eze 1:3, it is less forcible, "was upon him"); whatever, therefore, he is to utter is not...

God's mighty operation fell, like a thunderbolt, upon me (in Eze 1:3, it is less forcible, "was upon him"); whatever, therefore, he is to utter is not his own, for he has put off the mere man, while the power of God reigns in him [CALVIN].

JFB: Eze 8:2 - likeness Understand, "of a man," that is, of Messiah, the Angel of the covenant, in the person of whom alone God manifests Himself (Eze 1:26; Joh 1:18). The "f...

Understand, "of a man," that is, of Messiah, the Angel of the covenant, in the person of whom alone God manifests Himself (Eze 1:26; Joh 1:18). The "fire," from "His loins downward," betokens the vengeance of God kindled against the wicked Jews, while searching and purifying the remnant to be spared. The "brightness . . . upward" betokens His unapproachable majesty (1Ti 6:16). For Hebrew, eesh, "fire," the Septuagint, &c., read ish, "a man."

JFB: Eze 8:2 - colour of amber The glitter of chasmal [FAIRBAIRN], (see on Eze 1:4, "polished brass").

The glitter of chasmal [FAIRBAIRN], (see on Eze 1:4, "polished brass").

JFB: Eze 8:3 - -- Instead of prompting him to address directly the elders before him, the Spirit carried him away in vision (not in person bodily) to the temple at Jeru...

Instead of prompting him to address directly the elders before him, the Spirit carried him away in vision (not in person bodily) to the temple at Jerusalem; he proceeds to report to them what he witnessed: his message thus falls into two parts: (1) The abominations reported in Eze. 8:1-18. (2) The dealings of judgment and mercy to be adopted towards the impenitent and penitent Israelites respectively (Eze. 9:1-11:25). The exiles looked hopefully towards Jerusalem and, so far from believing things there to be on the verge of ruin, expected a return in peace; while those left in Jerusalem eyed the exiles with contempt, as if cast away from the Lord, whereas they themselves were near God and ensured in the possessions of the land (Eze 11:15). Hence the vision here of what affected those in Jerusalem immediately was a seasonable communication to the exiles away from it.

JFB: Eze 8:3 - door of the inner gate Facing the north, the direction in which he came from Chebar, called the "altar-gate" (Eze 8:5); it opened into the inner court, wherein stood the alt...

Facing the north, the direction in which he came from Chebar, called the "altar-gate" (Eze 8:5); it opened into the inner court, wherein stood the altar of burnt offering; the inner court (1Ki 6:36) was that of the priests; the outer court (Eze 10:5), that of the people, where they assembled.

JFB: Eze 8:3 - seat The pedestal of the image.

The pedestal of the image.

JFB: Eze 8:3 - image of jealousy Astarte, or Asheera (as the Hebrew for "grove" ought to be translated, 2Ki 21:3, 2Ki 21:7; 2Ki 23:4, 2Ki 23:7), set up by Manasseh as a rival to Jehov...

Astarte, or Asheera (as the Hebrew for "grove" ought to be translated, 2Ki 21:3, 2Ki 21:7; 2Ki 23:4, 2Ki 23:7), set up by Manasseh as a rival to Jehovah in His temple, and arresting the attention of all worshippers as they entered; it was the Syrian Venus, worshipped with licentious rites; the "queen of heaven," wife of Phœnician Baal. HAVERNICK thinks all the scenes of idolatry in the chapter are successive portions of the festival held in honor of Tammuz or Adonis (Eze 8:14). Probably, however, the scenes are separate proofs of Jewish idolatry, rather than restricted to one idol.

JFB: Eze 8:3 - provoketh to jealousy Calleth for a visitation in wrath of the "jealous God," who will not give His honor to another (compare the second commandment, Exo 20:5). JEROME refe...

Calleth for a visitation in wrath of the "jealous God," who will not give His honor to another (compare the second commandment, Exo 20:5). JEROME refers this verse to a statue of Baal, which Josiah had overthrown and his successors had replaced.

JFB: Eze 8:4 - -- The Shekinah cloud of Jehovah's glory, notwithstanding the provocation of the idol, still remains in the temple, like that which Ezekiel saw "in the p...

The Shekinah cloud of Jehovah's glory, notwithstanding the provocation of the idol, still remains in the temple, like that which Ezekiel saw "in the plain" (Eze 3:22-23); not till Eze 10:4, Eze 10:18 did it leave the temple at Jerusalem, showing the long-suffering of God, which ought to move the Jews to repentance.

JFB: Eze 8:5 - gate of . . . altar The principal avenue to the altar of burnt offering; as to the northern position, see 2Ki 16:14. Ahaz had removed the brazen altar from the front of t...

The principal avenue to the altar of burnt offering; as to the northern position, see 2Ki 16:14. Ahaz had removed the brazen altar from the front of the Lord's house to the north of the altar which he had himself erected. The locality of the idol before God's own altar enhances the heinousness of the sin.

JFB: Eze 8:6 - that I should go far off from my sanctuary "that I should (be compelled by their sin to) go far off from my sanctuary"-- (Eze 10:18); the sure precursor of its destruction.

"that I should (be compelled by their sin to) go far off from my sanctuary"-- (Eze 10:18); the sure precursor of its destruction.

JFB: Eze 8:7 - door of the court That is, of the inner court (Eze 8:3); the court of the priests and Levites, into which now others were admitted in violation of the law [GROTIUS].

That is, of the inner court (Eze 8:3); the court of the priests and Levites, into which now others were admitted in violation of the law [GROTIUS].

JFB: Eze 8:7 - hole in . . . wall That is, an aperture or window in the wall of the priests' chambers, through which he could see into the various apartments, wherein was the idolatrou...

That is, an aperture or window in the wall of the priests' chambers, through which he could see into the various apartments, wherein was the idolatrous shrine.

JFB: Eze 8:8 - dig For it had been blocked up during Josiah's reformation. Or rather, the vision is not of an actual scene, but an ideal pictorial representation of the ...

For it had been blocked up during Josiah's reformation. Or rather, the vision is not of an actual scene, but an ideal pictorial representation of the Egyptian idolatries into which the covenant-people had relapsed, practising them in secret places where they shrank from the light of day [FAIRBAIRN], (Joh 3:20). But compare, as to the literal introduction of idolatries into the temple, Eze 5:11; Jer 7:30; Jer 32:34.

JFB: Eze 8:10 - creeping things . . . beasts Worshipped in Egypt; still found portrayed on their chamber walls; so among the Troglodytæ.

Worshipped in Egypt; still found portrayed on their chamber walls; so among the Troglodytæ.

JFB: Eze 8:10 - round about On every side they surrounded themselves with incentives to superstition.

On every side they surrounded themselves with incentives to superstition.

JFB: Eze 8:11 - seventy men The seventy members composing the Sanhedrim, or great council of the nation, the origination of which we find in the seventy elders, representatives o...

The seventy members composing the Sanhedrim, or great council of the nation, the origination of which we find in the seventy elders, representatives of the congregation, who went up with Moses to the mount to behold the glory of Jehovah, and to witness the secret transactions relating to the establishment of the covenant; also, in the seventy elders appointed to share the burden of the people with Moses. How awfully it aggravates the national sin, that the seventy, once admitted to the Lord's secret council (Psa 25:14), should now, "in the dark," enter "the secret" of the wicked (Gen 49:6), those judicially bound to suppress idolatry being the ringleaders of it!

JFB: Eze 8:11 - Jaazaniah Perhaps chief of the seventy: son of Shaphan, the scribe who read to Josiah the book of the law; the spiritual privileges of the son (2Ki 22:10-14) in...

Perhaps chief of the seventy: son of Shaphan, the scribe who read to Josiah the book of the law; the spiritual privileges of the son (2Ki 22:10-14) increased his guilt. The very name means, "Jehovah hears," giving the lie to the unbelief which virtually said (Eze 9:9), "The Lord seeth us not," &c. (compare Psa 10:11, Psa 10:14; Psa 50:21; Psa 94:7, Psa 94:9). The offering of incense belonged not to the elders, but to the priests; this usurpation added to the guilt of the former.

JFB: Eze 8:11 - cloud of incense They spared no expense for their idols. Oh, that there were the same liberality toward the cause of God!

They spared no expense for their idols. Oh, that there were the same liberality toward the cause of God!

JFB: Eze 8:12 - every man in . . . chambers of . . . imagery The elders ("ancients") are here the representatives of the people, rather than to be regarded literally. Mostly, the leaders of heathen superstitions...

The elders ("ancients") are here the representatives of the people, rather than to be regarded literally. Mostly, the leaders of heathen superstitions laughed at them secretly, while publicly professing them in order to keep the people in subjection. Here what is meant is that the people generally addicted themselves to secret idolatry, led on by their elders; there is no doubt, also, allusion to the mysteries, as in the worship of Isis in Egypt, the Eleusinian in Greece, &c., to which the initiated alone were admitted. "The chambers of imagery" are their own perverse imaginations, answering to the priests' chambers in the vision, whereon the pictures were portrayed (Eze 8:10).

JFB: Eze 8:12 - Lord . . . forsaken . . . earth They infer this because God has left them to their miseries, without succoring them, so that they seek help from other gods. Instead of repenting, as ...

They infer this because God has left them to their miseries, without succoring them, so that they seek help from other gods. Instead of repenting, as they ought, they bite the curb [CALVIN].

JFB: Eze 8:14 - -- From the secret abominations of the chambers of imagery, the prophet's eye is turned to the outer court at the north door; within the outer court wome...

From the secret abominations of the chambers of imagery, the prophet's eye is turned to the outer court at the north door; within the outer court women were not admitted, but only to the door.

JFB: Eze 8:14 - sat The attitude of mourners (Job 2:13; Isa 3:26).

The attitude of mourners (Job 2:13; Isa 3:26).

JFB: Eze 8:14 - Tammuz From a Hebrew root, "to melt down." Instead of weeping for the national sins, they wept for the idol. Tammuz (the Syrian for Adonis), the paramour of ...

From a Hebrew root, "to melt down." Instead of weeping for the national sins, they wept for the idol. Tammuz (the Syrian for Adonis), the paramour of Venus, and of the same name as the river flowing from Lebanon; killed by a wild boar, and, according to the fable, permitted to spend half the year on earth, and obliged to spend the other half in the lower world. An annual feast was celebrated to him in June (hence called Tammuz in the Jewish calendar) at Byblos, when the Syrian women, in wild grief, tore off their hair and yielded their persons to prostitution, consecrating the hire of their infamy to Venus; next followed days of rejoicing for his return to the earth; the former feast being called "the disappearance of Adonis," the latter, "the finding of Adonis." This Phœnician feast answered to the similar Egyptian one in honor of Osiris. The idea thus fabled was that of the waters of the river and the beauties of spring destroyed by the summer during the half year when the sun is in the upper heat. Or else, the earth being clothed with beauty, hemisphere, and losing it when he departs to the lower. The name Adonis is not here used, as Adon is the appropriated title of Jehovah.

JFB: Eze 8:15-16 - -- The next are "greater abominations," not in respect to the idolatry, but in respect to the place and persons committing it. In "the inner court," imme...

The next are "greater abominations," not in respect to the idolatry, but in respect to the place and persons committing it. In "the inner court," immediately before the door of the temple of Jehovah, between the porch and the altar, where the priests advanced only on extraordinary occasions (Joe 2:17), twenty-five men (the leaders of the twenty-four courses or orders of the priests, 1Ch 24:18-19, with the high priest, "the princes of the sanctuary," Isa 43:28), representing the whole priesthood, as the seventy elders represented the people, stood with their backs turned on the temple, and their faces towards the east, making obeisance to the rising sun (contrast 1Ki 8:44). Sun-worship came from the Persians, who made the sun the eye of their god Ormuzd. It existed as early as Job (Job 31:26; compare Deu 4:19). Josiah could only suspend it for the time of his reign (2Ki 23:5, 2Ki 23:11); it revived under his successors.

JFB: Eze 8:16 - worshipped In the Hebrew a corrupt form is used to express Ezekiel's sense of the foul corruption of such worship.

In the Hebrew a corrupt form is used to express Ezekiel's sense of the foul corruption of such worship.

JFB: Eze 8:17 - put . . . branch to . . . nose Proverbial, for "they turn up the nose in scorn," expressing their insolent security [Septuagint]. Not content with outraging "with their violence" th...

Proverbial, for "they turn up the nose in scorn," expressing their insolent security [Septuagint]. Not content with outraging "with their violence" the second table of the law, namely, that of duty towards one's neighbor, "they have returned" (that is, they turn back afresh) to provoke Me by violations of the first table [CALVIN]. Rather, they held up a branch or bundle of tamarisk (called barsom) to their nose at daybreak, while singing hymns to the rising sun [STRABO, 1.15, p. 733]. Sacred trees were frequent symbols in idol-worship. CALVIN translates, "to their own ruin," literally, "to their nose," that is, with the effect of rousing My anger (of which the Hebrew is "nose") to their ruin.

JFB: Eze 8:18 - though they cry . . . yet will I not hear (Pro 1:28; Isa 1:15).

Clarke: Eze 8:1 - In the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month In the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month - This, according to Abp. Usher, was the sixth year of Ezekiel’ s captivit...

In the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month - This, according to Abp. Usher, was the sixth year of Ezekiel’ s captivity. The sixth day of the fifth month of the ecclesiastical year, which answers to August A.M. 3410

This chapter and the three following contain but one vision, of which I judge it necessary, with Calmet, to give a general idea, that the attention of the reader may not be too much divided

The prophet, in the visions of God, is carried to Jerusalem, to the northern gate of the temple, which leads by the north side to the court of the priests. There he sees the glory of the Lord in the same manner as he did by the river Chebar. At one side he sees the image of jealousy. Going thence to the court of the people, he sees through an opening in the wall seventy elders of the people, who were worshipping all sorts of beasts and reptiles, which were painted on the wall. Being brought thence to the gate of the door of the house, he saw women weeping for Tammuz or Adonis. As he returned to the court of the priests, between the porch and the altar, he saw twenty-five men with their backs to the sanctuary and their faces towards the east, worshipping the rising sun. This is the substance of the vision contained in the eighth chapter

About the same time he saw six men come from the higher gate with swords in their hands; and among them, one with an ink-horn. Then the Divine Presence left the cherubim, and took post at the entrance of the temple, and gave orders to the man with the ink-horn to put a mark on the foreheads of those who sighed and prayed because of the abominations of the land; and then commanded the men with the swords to go forward, and slay every person who had not this mark. The prophet, being left alone among the dead, fell on his face, and made intercession for the people. The Lord gives him the reason of his conduct; and the man with the ink-horn returns, and reports to the Lord what was done. These are the general contents of the ninth chapter

The Lord commands the same person to go in between the wheels of the cherubim, and take his hand full of live coals, and scatter them over the city. He went as commanded, and one of the cherubim gave him the coals; at the same time the glory of the Lord, that had removed to the threshold of the house, now returned, and stood over the cherubim. The cherubim, wheels, wings, etc., are here described as in the first chapter. This is the substance of the tenth chapter

The prophet then finds himself transported to the east gate of the temple, where he saw twenty-five men, and among them Jaazaniah the son of Azur, and Pelatiah the son of Benaiah, princes of the people, against whom the Lord commands him to prophesy, and to threaten them with the utmost calamities, because of their crimes. Afterwards God himself speaks, and shows that the Jews who should be left in the land should be driven out because of their iniquities, and that those who had been led captive, and who acknowledged their sins and repented of them, should be restored to their own land. Then the glory of the Lord arose out of the city, and rested for a time on one of the mountains on the east of Jerusalem, and the prophet being carried in vision by the Spirit to Chaldea, lost sight of the chariot of the Divine glory, and began to show to the captivity what the Lord had shown to him. This is the substance of the eleventh chapter

We may see from all this what induced the Lord to abandon his people, his city, and his temple; the abominations of the people in public and in private. But because those carried away captives with Jeconiah acknowledged their sins, and their hearts turned to the Lord, God informs them that they shall be brought back and restored to a happy state both in temporal and spiritual matters, while the others, who had filled up the measure of their iniquities, should be speedily brought into a state of desolation and ruin. This is the sum and intent of the vision in these four chapters.

Clarke: Eze 8:2 - The appearance of fire The appearance of fire - See the note on Eze 1:27.

The appearance of fire - See the note on Eze 1:27.

Clarke: Eze 8:3 - The image of jealousy The image of jealousy - סמל הקנאה semel hakkinah . We do not know certainly of what form this image was, nor what god it represented. Some...

The image of jealousy - סמל הקנאה semel hakkinah . We do not know certainly of what form this image was, nor what god it represented. Some say it was the image of Baal, which was placed in the temple by Manasses; others, that it was the image of Mars; and others, that it was the image of Tammuz or Adonis. Calmet supports this opinion by the following reasons: -

1.    The name agrees perfectly with him. He was represented as a beautiful youth, beloved by Venus; at which Mars, her paramour, being incensed and filled with jealousy, sent a large boar against Adonis, which killed him with his tusks. Hence it was the image of him who fell a victim to jealousy

2.    The prophet being returned towards the northern gate, where he had seen the image of jealousy, Eze 8:14, there saw the women lamenting for Tammuz. Now Tammuz, all agree, signifies Adonis; it was that therefore which was called the image of jealousy

3.    The Scripture often gives to the heathen idols names of degradation; as Baal-zebub, god of flies; Baal-zebul; god of dung

It is likely that it was Adonis who is called The dead, Lev 19:27, Lev 19:28; Deu 14:9, because he was worshipped as one dead. And the women represented as worshipping him were probably adulteresses, and had suffered through the jealousy of their husbands. And this worship of the image of jealousy provoked God to jealousy, to destroy this bad people.

Clarke: Eze 8:4 - The vision that I saw in the plain The vision that I saw in the plain - see the note on Eze 3:23 (note); see also Eze 1:3 (note).

The vision that I saw in the plain - see the note on Eze 3:23 (note); see also Eze 1:3 (note).

Clarke: Eze 8:7 - A hole in the wall A hole in the wall - This we find was not large enough to see what was doing within; and the prophet is directed to dig, and make it larger, Eze 8:8...

A hole in the wall - This we find was not large enough to see what was doing within; and the prophet is directed to dig, and make it larger, Eze 8:8; and when he had done so and entered, he says: -

Clarke: Eze 8:10 - And saw - every form of creeping things And saw - every form of creeping things - It is very likely that these images pourtrayed on the wall were the objects of Egyptian adoration: the ox,...

And saw - every form of creeping things - It is very likely that these images pourtrayed on the wall were the objects of Egyptian adoration: the ox, the ape, the dog, the crocodile, the ibis, the scarabaeus or beetle, and various other things. It appears that these were privately worshipped by the sanhedrin or great Jewish council, consisting of seventy or seventy-two persons, six chosen out of every tribe, as representatives of the people. The images were pourtrayed upon the wall, as we find those ancient idols are on the walls of the tombs of the kings and nobles of Egypt. See the plates to Belzoni’ s Travels, the Isaic Tomb in the Bodleian Library, and the Egyptian hieroglyphics in general. Virgil speaks of these, Aen. lib. viii.: -

Omnigenumque Deum monstra, et latrator Anubis

"All kinds of gods, monsters, and barking dogs."

Clarke: Eze 8:11 - Jaazaniah the son of Shaphan Jaazaniah the son of Shaphan - Shaphan was a scribe, or what some call comptroller of the temple, in the days of Josiah; and Jaazaniah his son proba...

Jaazaniah the son of Shaphan - Shaphan was a scribe, or what some call comptroller of the temple, in the days of Josiah; and Jaazaniah his son probably succeeded him in this office. He was at the head of this band of idolaters.

Clarke: Eze 8:14 - There sat women weeping for Tammuz There sat women weeping for Tammuz - This was Adonis, as we have already seen; and so the Vulgate here translates. My old MS. Bible reads, There sat...

There sat women weeping for Tammuz - This was Adonis, as we have already seen; and so the Vulgate here translates. My old MS. Bible reads, There saten women, mornynge a mawmete of lecherye that is cleped Adonrdes. He is fabled to have been a beautiful youth beloved by Venus, and killed by a wild boar in Mount Lebanon, whence springs the river Adonis, which was fabled to run blood at his festival in August. The women of Phoenicia, Assyria, and Judea worshipped him as dead, with deep lamentation, wearing priapi and other obscene images all the while, and they prostituted themselves in honor of this idol. Having for some time mourned him as dead, they then supposed him revivified and broke out into the most extravagant rejoicings. Of the appearance of the river at this season, Mr. Maundrell thus speaks: "We had the good fortune to see what is the foundation of the opinion which Lucian relates, viz., that this stream at certain seasons of the year, especially about the feast of Adonis, is of a bloody color, proceeding from a kind of sympathy, as the heathens imagined, for the death of Adonis, who was killed by a wild boar in the mountain out of which this stream issues. Something like this we saw actually come to pass, for the water was stained to a surprising redness; and, as we observed in travelling, had stained the sea a great way into a reddish hue."This was no doubt occasioned by a red ochre, over which the river ran with violence at this time of its increase. Milton works all this up in these fine lines: -

"Thammuz came next behind

Whose annual wound in Lebanon allure

The Syrian damsels to lament his fate

In amorous ditties all a summer’ s day

While smooth Adonis, from his native rock

Ran purple to the sea, suffused with bloo

Of Thammuz, yearly wounded. The love tal

Infected Sion’ s daughters with like heat

Whose wanton passions in the sacred porc

Ezekiel saw, when by the vision led

His eye surveyed the dark idolatrie

Of alienated Judah.

Par. Lost, b. 1:446

Tammuz signifies hidden or obscure, and hence the worship of his image was in some secret place.

Clarke: Eze 8:16 - Five and twenty men Five and twenty men - These most probably represented the twenty-four courses of the priests, with the high priest for the twenty-fifth. This was th...

Five and twenty men - These most probably represented the twenty-four courses of the priests, with the high priest for the twenty-fifth. This was the Persian worship, as their turning their faces to the east plainly shows they were worshipping the rising sun.

Clarke: Eze 8:17 - They put the branch to their nose They put the branch to their nose - This is supposed to mean some branch or branches, which they carried in succession in honor of the idol, and wit...

They put the branch to their nose - This is supposed to mean some branch or branches, which they carried in succession in honor of the idol, and with which they covered their faces, or from which they inhaled a pleasant smell, the branches being odoriferous. That the heathens carried branches of trees in their sacred ceremonies is well known to all persons acquainted with classic antiquity; and it is probable that the heathen borrowed those from the use of such branches in the Jewish feast of tabernacles. There are many strange, and some filthy, interpretations given of this clause; but the former are not worth repeating, and I abominate the latter too much to submit to defile my paper with them. Probably the Brahminic Linga is here intended

It really seems that at this time the Jews had incorporated every species of idolatry in their impure worship, - Phoenician, Egyptian, and Persian. I might add that some imagine the image of jealousy to be a personification of idolatry itself.

Calvin: Eze 8:1 - NO PHRASE There is no doubt that a prophetic vision is here narrated; for the Prophet was not carried to Jerusalem, nor had he changed his place, nor were the ...

There is no doubt that a prophetic vision is here narrated; for the Prophet was not carried to Jerusalem, nor had he changed his place, nor were the elders of Judah before him, but he seemed to himself to be seized by the Spirit of God, that he might perceive the pollutions by which the Jews had profaned the temple. For he says, that he was at home when this vision occurred to him, and yet it was possible for him to be walking in the field. He does not, therefore, relate the thing as done, but simply teaches how God appeared, and adds the circumstances. By elders of Judah I do not understand captives, but those who were then dwelling at Jerusalem, that they should be witnesses of this prophecy, and so all excuse and pretense of mistake was taken away from them. He also expresses the time at which this vision happened, namely the sixth year, which he numbers from the exile of Jechoniah, as we saw in the first chapter. Hence an interval of a year and two months has elapsed since the first vision which was then unfolded, and the present which is now to be treated. Since, therefore, fourteen months had elapsed, God appeared again to his Prophet. This circumstance of the time is by no means superfluous, for this shows the great obstinacy of the people. The Prophet, as I have said, numbers the years from the exile of the king. But they were accustomed to count from the jubilee year; but he now renews the grief for that slaughter, when the king was treated ignominiously as a vile captive, and was harassed as a slave by the enemy. Since, therefore, the Prophet humbles the Jews by this computation of years, hence it appears how hardened was their obstinacy, as they did not grow wise though so severely chastened. But we shall see that they were seized with a prodigious madness, so that they cast aside the worship of God, they heaped together on every side new idolatries, and infected the temple with their abominations. We saw in Jeremiah (Jer 7:17, and Jer 44:17) that the worship of God was overthrown in the city Jerusalem, and in the temple itself; for they poured out libations to the workmanship of heaven — others translate, the queen of heaven, but we have shown that those places ought to be understood of all the stars — since, therefore, they offered incense to the workmanship of heaven, then they afterwards took to themselves idols and polluted themselves with the superstitions of all the nations. Our Prophet shows that they were not touched with any sense of their punishment, but that they became worse from the time when God began to raise his hand against them; for it was just as if he had begun to show himself from heaven the avenger of their superstitions. Hence we have a reason why the Prophet here mentions years and months, and even the fifth day of the month, namely, that the Jews may be held more convicted of their obstinacy, since no punishments recalled them into the way, but they wrestled with diabolical obstinacy against God. He says, the hand of God fell; by hand I do not simply understand prophecy as some do, but strength; for the sense seems too restricted to say, God’s prophecy fell — the phrase is too cold. But this is properly said of the power of God. It is just as if he professed that he did not bring forward anything of his own, because he put off, as it were, the man whilst Gods power reigned in him. Thus the power of God is opposed to all human faculties. It follows —

Calvin: Eze 8:2 - NO PHRASE Some translate the last word angel, but in my opinion erroneously: for עין , gnin, properly signifies color, and I have already refuted that er...

Some translate the last word angel, but in my opinion erroneously: for עין , gnin, properly signifies color, and I have already refuted that error in the first chapter. I am not clear as to what color it was, hence I follow the received opinion that, it was like amber. Now the Prophet says, he saw a likeness, or image composed of two parts; for from the loins downward it was like fire, but upwards it was brightness. By the word דמות , demoth, I do not doubt that he means the image of a man. God, therefore, appeared to his servant under some image; nor is the human figure out of place, because if it had been any other figure without doubt the Prophet had been silent. But we have already seen that God had put on the human form, and so represented himself in the person of his only begotten Son, as we have said, and shall see again in the tenth chapter. This, therefore, is the likeness of which the Prophet speaks, but he uses this word on purpose, that we may know that it was not a true and solid and substantial thing called body. As to the Prophet’s beholding a figure or likeness, this took place only in a bare vision, not that God then put on a body; and concerning this point also I have treated at length in the first chapter, and shortly I shall glance at it again. Now as to his saying, one part of the figure was fiery, but in another, the aspect of splendor, he seems here to express what the Jews ought to hope for, when at length they perceived God to be near, from whom they thought themselves very far off, since they so boldly despised his law and all the prophecies. As to the splendor, God’s majesty and incomprehensible glory is signified. For if brightness blinds our eyes, what would happen if we endeavor to penetrate to that immense light of which the sun is only a little spark? Since, therefore, Ezekiel says, there was the likeness of splendor above his loins, he doubtless shows how formidable the majesty of God ought to be to us. For God dwells in light, but inaccessible, as the Apostle says: but below, says he, was the appearance of fire, namely, because he must not. wait till the Jews received any joy from the presence of God. (1Ti 6:16.) We know, indeed, that hypocrites always boast rashly in the name of God, as Amos reproves them, What is to you the day of the Lord? it is a day of darkness and not light. (Amo 5:18.) For they boast that God would be entreated in their miseries, and that he must assist them, because he had taken them under his protection. The Prophet refutes this arrogance, and says, that the day of the Lord would be darkness. So also in this place, God appeared in the form of fire towards the earth, that the Jews should tremble when they saw the vengeance of God lighted up to consume them. Therefore in the splendor God’s majesty was shown, which humbled the Prophet and all the pious, that they should receive the vision reverently; for in the fire God’s vengeance was shown, lest the Jews should make for themselves too wide a shield of the name of God, which they extended falsely and fallaciously.

Calvin: Eze 8:3 - NO PHRASE The Prophet here relates that he was carried to Jerusalem that he might behold the foul superstitions by which the Jews had defiled the temple. But f...

The Prophet here relates that he was carried to Jerusalem that he might behold the foul superstitions by which the Jews had defiled the temple. But first he says, that the form of a hand was put forth Whence again we collect that the body was not solid or substantial which the Prophet had seen; but was only a visible figure as a symbol of God’s presence. This explains the word likeness or figure, for it was not a real hand which seized the Prophet by the locks or hair of the head, but it was the likeness of a hand, and therefore he adds, in the visions of God it was done. He says indeed that he was carried up between heaven and earth, but let no one imagine that this was really done, for he explains himself and says, in the visions of God By visions of God he understands a revelation free from all doubt: for there is a silent opposition between these divine revelations and the spectres which often deceive men’s senses. Those who interpret “visions of God” simply as prophecy weaken what the Prophet wished to express emphatically; and those who think God’s name used here as an epithet, (as the Hebrews call anything remarkable, divine,) also depart from the genuine sense of the Prophet. There is no doubt, therefore, that he opposes the visions of God to all spectres: for Satan as we know deludes men’s senses with his prodigies and his wonderful arts of fascination: for it happens that the children of God are sometimes deluded: hence the Prophet, to take away all doubt from his teaching, says that he was carried to Jerusalem in visions of God, and adds, that he was carried to the northern gate. We know that there were many gates of the large area, so that the people’s entrance should be more commodious. For if there had been only one gate open, they would have been more tumultuous, as a multitude usually is. The area of the temple then had an eastern and a northern gate: then it had other gates, which gave an easy entrance to the people as well as to the priests. The priests indeed had an inner area which was distinct, but when they offered victims on the altar, they mingled with the people. This therefore was the reason why the floor of the temple had different gates. Now the Prophet says, that he was carried to the porch of the gate, so that he did not penetrate directly into the secret part of the temple, but seemed to himself to be standing before the doors, till God informed him of what was doing within. He says, there was the seat of the idol. We know not what the idol was, except that the Prophet says it was abominable. He first calls it the idol of jealousy, and then adds the participle, provoking God to jealousy But although the noun as well as the verb is often taken in a bad sense, yet God transfers the affection of jealousy to himself, and in this sense he says in Deuteronomy,

“They provoked me: they made me jealous with what is not God: therefore will I make them jealous,” (Deu 32:21.)

He alludes to the jealousy of husband and wife, for if the woman prostitutes herself, the husband burns with indignation, and that outbreak of his anger is most flagrant, So also when the wife in her turn knows that her husband is an adulterer, she is carried away with intemperance and excess. Hence God, when he shows how he esteems his glory and worship, compares himself to a jealous man, when we turn aside to idolatrous and adulterous worship. In this sense the idol which was in the porch or entrance of the temple is called the idol of jealousy, and the idol which causes jealousy. Although we may also translate, it was the seat of the idol causing jealousy, since the noun, קנאה , kenah, is taken in the ablative case. It is said that this idol provoked to jealousy, because the Jews by erecting this idol trod under foot their God, or at least endeavored to prostrate his glory. Now it follows —

Calvin: Eze 8:4 - NO PHRASE Now he only says that he saw God’s glory as he had formerly beheld it near the bank of the river. This was as it were the seal of his prophecy: for...

Now he only says that he saw God’s glory as he had formerly beheld it near the bank of the river. This was as it were the seal of his prophecy: for the holy man ought to be so strengthened, that he should boldly restrain the furious audacity and obstinacy of the people. Hence he had to strive with hard heads, and God did not arm him in vain; and to this end again a new vision was offered. He knew that to be the glory of God. Hence he was again made more certain that the whole action was under divine direction, and that it was neither human nor fictitious, nor deceptive nor doubtful. It follows —

Calvin: Eze 8:5 - NO PHRASE Here one profanation of the temple, is shown to the Prophet, namely, the idol erected at the entrance of the area near the altar. It may happen that ...

Here one profanation of the temple, is shown to the Prophet, namely, the idol erected at the entrance of the area near the altar. It may happen that the worship of God is but slightly vitiated, so that the corruption is scarcely apparent. But while the Prophet repeats that the idol was that of jealousy, lie points out the gross and shameful disgrace of that spectacle, so that they could not gloss over their impiety by any pretense, after they had so openly and confessedly revolted from the law of God. But when he is ordered to raise his eyes to the way of the north, this also avails for the confirmation of his teaching. For if the Prophet had turned his eyes that way of his own accord, his looking that way would have been of less moment, but when God directs his eyes by express command, the reproach which afterwards follows has more weight. This, therefore, is the reason why the Prophet did not cast his eyes of his own accord towards the idol, as he might have done, but was admonished by God to do so. Meanwhile it appears with what docility he obeyed God’s commands. He puts these two things together, that he was ordered to raise his eyes, and that he immediately did so We see here that he was so obedient to God’s command, that he did not delay but instantly obeyed it. He says, the idol was near the gate of the altar, which circumstance exaggerates the crime. If the idol had been erected in any remote corner it would have been an intolerable sacrilege, though the modesty of the Jews had been greater: but when they erected the idol before the altar they flew as it were in the very face of God. If an immodest woman runs after an adulterer, her husband is justly enraged; but if she brings him before her husband, and wantons with him before his eyes, and prostitutes herself to all crimes, then certainly such wanton lust cannot be endured. But such was the audacity of the people, that when the idol was erected before the gate of the altar it seemed like wishing to dethrone the Almighty, and to contaminate his altar by the sight of the idol. It follows —

Calvin: Eze 8:6 - NO PHRASE Now God complains with his Prophet; and we must always mark the object and consider God’s design, because at the end of the chapter we shall see ho...

Now God complains with his Prophet; and we must always mark the object and consider God’s design, because at the end of the chapter we shall see how severe a vengeance God was about to take on the people. Hence the Prophet prevents those obstreperous reproaches with which the people loaded him through envy, when he chastised them according to their deserts. Hence he doubtless wished the exiles to be persuaded of what they could scarcely conceive, namely, that the destruction of Jerusalem was near. For we have said that those who had been drawn into captivity had displeased him, and wished to return to their country. Since therefore their condition was too grievous and severe, for this reason God wished to testify to them that the last overthrow of Jerusalem was at hand. He does this while he shows the great abominations which reigned in the very temple, whence the Almighty must of necessity appear as the avenger of his glory and worship. The rest to-morrow.

Calvin: Eze 8:7 - NO PHRASE Here now the Prophet is brought to another place, where another kind of abomination is shown. If an idol had been erected in some recess of the tem...

Here now the Prophet is brought to another place, where another kind of abomination is shown. If an idol had been erected in some recess of the temple only, even that impiety when joined with sacrilege could not have been borne. But when all parts of the temple were contaminated with such filth, hence we collect that the people was utterly desperate. For the Prophet says, that he was led into a more secret place, and since there was a hole there, he dug it by God’s command, so that it became a door by which he could enter. This only ought to be understood of a vision. For the Prophet had brought nothing with him with which he could so dig a wall, but when he could only behold that hidden abomination through a chink, God opened the wall. But the Prophet seems to himself to make a door of entrance by his own hand. But he says, there were painted birds, reptiles, and animals: then he adds, an abomination and all the idols of the house of Israel We see that there was not only one idol, but a great number. And in truth as soon as the true worship of God is neglected, men place no bounds to themselves: they are not content with one or two errors, but they heap to themselves numberless delusions. So the children of Israel fell away from one idol to a great multitude. Meanwhile it must be remarked, that the idol which he has mentioned was detestable beyond all others. For it was not called a provocative of jealousy without reason, since it inflamed God to jealousy. It is therefore probable that this idol was more noble than others, and held in greater price and veneration, since the unbelievers had greater and lesser deities. But now the Prophet refers to common idols, of which there was a great abundance, but not such great honor. For he says, that part of the temple was full of pictures all around It is indeed certain, that the use of painting was always plentiful, but God wished his temple to be pure from images, lest men, being taken with such enticements, should turn aside directly to superstition. For if we see a man or an animal painted in a profane place, a religious feeling does not creep into our minds: for all acknowledge it as a painting: nay idols themselves as long as they are in taverns or workshops, are not worshipped. If the painter’s workshop is full of pictures, all pass them by, and if they are delighted with the view of them they do not show any sign of reverence to the paintings. But as soon as the picture is carried to another place, its sacredness blinds men and so stupifies them, that they do not remember that they had already seen that picture in a profane dwelling. This therefore is the reason why God did not admit any pictures into his temple, and surely when the place is consecrated, it must happen that the painting will astonish men just as if some secret divinity belonged to it. Although the Prophet here does not say simply that the walls were full of pictures, yet he says, that an abomination and the idols of the house of Israel were there We see therefore not only that the walls were so decorated for the sake of ornament, but because the people desired to celebrate all the deities whose names it knew to be famous among the profane nations.

Now as to the Prophet’s being ordered to dig through the wall, we gather from this that superstitions are sometimes so hidden in secret places, that they escape our eyes even while we look at them. For such is the weakness of the human mind, that it does not easily perceive how abominable it is to vitiate the worship of God. Thus the Prophet only looked through a chink, so that he could not form a correct judgment concerning those pollutions; hence he is ordered to dig through the wall, just as if God assured him that a thin and obscure view was not sufficient, but that a door must be opened by which he should look in and thoroughly consider what would otherwise be concealed beneath those coverings. Now he says that he entered and saw the likeness of everything, and we must remember what I have lately touched upon, that the Jews are here condemned for heaping to themselves a multitude of gods: for it was very disgraceful to worship reptiles and brutes. The worship of a human figure has a specious pretext, for the Greeks, who always seemed to themselves wise above others, and thought the rest of the world barbarians, were deceived in idols referring to the human figure, but it was too base and gross for them to worship an ox, a dog, or an ass, as a god. We see therefore how basely the Jews were blinded who mingled brutes and reptiles for gods. But it is no wonder that they were so deluded, because Egypt was near, where we know that dogs and oxen, and even cats, were considered deities: nay they worshipped all kinds of herbs. Since therefore the Egyptians imagined that the deity resided in reptiles and unclean animals, as well as in herbs, it is no wonder that the Jews were drawn into these delusions through neighborhood. But since heavenly teaching had shown them the way, such blindness was inexcusable, because they could not err so basely without suffocating and so extinguishing the light which had been set before their eyes. But we see how men’s audacity breaks forth, when they do not restrain themselves within obedience to God’s teaching. He says that pictures were painted all round on the wall, which again confirms our observation, that the Jews were inflamed with such desires that they left no space empty, because they wished their eyes to fall upon those figures, which more and more inflamed their superstition.

Calvin: Eze 8:11 - NO PHRASE He says also, that seventy elders of the house of Israel made incense for their idols I do not think that the seventy who were chosen for ruling th...

He says also, that seventy elders of the house of Israel made incense for their idols I do not think that the seventy who were chosen for ruling the people are referred to here, though I suppose the Prophet to allude to this number. For we know that from the beginning seventy were set over the people, and were chosen from each tribe, and were united together. But with regard to this place, I think the number seventy is used of those whom, although they were not prefects, they called seniors in respect to their office, not through their age only. Meanwhile we must remember that the Prophet looks to that order, because from the beginning God had wished the seventy to bear rule and hold the government. (Num 11:16.) Thus the Prophet signifies that the leaders of the people, who ought to rule others by their counsel, were remarkable for corrupting the worship of God. He puts Jezaniah, the son of Saphah, who was probably a man of great repute. Since therefore he excelled in the reputation for prudence and piety, the Prophet wished to exaggerate his crime, because he also, among others, offered incense to idols. What then could remain pure among the people, when he who was esteemed a holy man, so profaned himself among the rest! Hence we see that the Prophet means, that the whole people, from the least to the greatest, was so corrupt, that those who were superior to the rest prostituted themselves to idolatry. He says, then, that he stood before them, and each had a censer in his hand Incense was the sign of the greatest veneration, and even this was retained for common use. Hence at the outset of Christianity, when the impious wished to seduce the Christians to idolatry, they only gave two or three grains of frankincense: 181 that was a sign of apostasy: they did not order them to bend the knee before idols, nor to offer sacrifices, but only to smell to a few grains of incense. In sign, therefore, of veneration, the seventy men are said to bear censers or incense dishes. The Prophet adds, and the incense ascended in a thick cloud. Here understand the particle of likeness. The incense ascended as a thick cloud. I do not doubt that they were profuse, or rather prodigal, in their madness, so as to spare no expense: since idolaters rashly squander all things, when the intemperance of their zeal seizes upon them. And this was not considered with sufficient prudence. The Prophet therefore says that it was not common incense, but was dense like a cloud, since they threw it forth in great abundance, so that the offering might be fatter and richer: just as if he had said, that they were so intemperate in their superstitions, that they threw away an abundance of incense, and had all their expense for nothing, and only to satisfy their idols. Now it follows —

Calvin: Eze 8:12 - NO PHRASE Again God questions his servant: we have explained the reason — that he may pass sentence as a judge on his own people, whence it may be more clear...

Again God questions his servant: we have explained the reason — that he may pass sentence as a judge on his own people, whence it may be more clearly evident that those who had provoked God were unworthy of any pardon. Thou seest, says he, what the elders do? Through a feeling of honor he does not here name these elders of the house of Israel, but rather reproves their ingratitude, because they so drive others with them into alliance with their impiety. For elders ought to show the way to others. Since, therefore, the profanation of the worship of God took its origin from them, hence their disgrace is increased, and they were worthy of greater reproach. Seest thou, says he, what they do in darkness? From this word I gather that the place was remote from public observation; for there were near the floor of the Temple many cells and many chambers, as we see in Jeremiah. (Jer 20:2; 1Kg 6:5.) Since, then, the ciders had their apartments there, it is not surprising that a place was shown to the Prophet which they had so stained with their paintings. But he says that they did it in darkness, because they kept secret their sacred rites; as also there were mysteries among profane nations, which were not open to any but the initiated. Since therefore the multitude was not thought worthy of those mysteries, it is therefore probable that the place among the Jews of which the Prophet speaks was like a small chapel, which the elders, and those who had authority among the people, retained to themselves. he adds, each within the recesses Some translate — in the chambers of their painting; but I take the word משכית , meshkith, for imagination, as it is also taken in other places. It properly signifies painting, but it is also transferred to the thoughts of men. Therefore when he speaks of recesses or hidden places, I do not understand chambers, though I do not deny that he alludes to those recesses by which men separate themselves from the multitude, by way of honor. In the meantime he equally reproves those tortuous and perverse counsels which the ciders of the people inwardly cherished. For those who think themselves wiser than the vulgar, have some hidden pride, and swell with concealed haughtiness; and therefore they are said by Isaiah to dig for themselves hiding-places to escape from God, while they seem to themselves cunning. (Isa 29:15.)

Now, therefore, we see in what sense the Prophet mentions hiding-places of their imagination, namely, because they reckon such pictures the mark of the greatest and rarest prudence. This was again prodigious, that the elders so gave themselves up to foul defilements. For among profane nations no religion held the leaders and heads of the people. We shall not find, either among the Greeks or the Latins, any of the higher classes, and of the chief governors, involved in the errors of the common people, but they pretended religion, that they might hold others in obedience. They instituted, indeed, great pomp; they pretended no small degree of reverence; but when they passed their time as friends at home, they laughed at all these trifles. Since, therefore, all the ceremonies of the Gentiles were a laughing-stock to sensible men, this was indeed a detestable prodigy that the elders of the people of Israel, in a secret place, in the very recesses of their thoughts, fabricated idols for themselves. Now the cause is expressed why they heaped to themselves that multitude of gods, namely, because they thought that God no longer regarded them This passage is badly explained when interpreters think that the elders were epicureans, who dreamt that God enjoyed case and indulgence in heaven. They bring forward other passages, which seem similar but in words only, as where, in the book of Job, the impiety of the multitude is described, he says they think that God walks upon the hinges of heaven. (Job 22:14.) But the Prophet speaks more within bounds. Hence those who take this passage generally, extenuate the force of the doctrine which ought to be elicited from these words. Why, then, had the Jews fabricated so many idols for themselves? because they thought that God no longer regarded them, as I have already explained it; and this was the sign of their gross depravity; for God had chastised them in various ways: they ought to have returned into the way, yet they were so far from repenting, that they rather champed the bit, and thus persuaded themselves to seek other deities. And this impiety has occurred in all ages. At this time it clearly appears in the Papacy; nay, even the blind may even feel it with their hands. For when God afflicts these wretched ones, at first they suppliantly ask pardon; but. when he presses upon them more severely, then they begin to rage and look hither and thither, and have a common proverb — “I know not to what saint I ought to pay my vows.” Boys learn this proverb in the Papacy, and old men always have it on their lips in perplexity. Hence Ezekiel reproves this fault, when he gives this as a reason for the aged heaping up this multitude of deities — that they thought themselves overlooked by God — Jehovah, they say, does not see us here: they do not speak simply of God’s providence, but indignantly complain of his disregard, because he did not relieve their miseries, and had deserted the land, as they afterwards explain themselves; for they immediately assert that God had deserted the land We see, therefore, that they did not speak simply against God’s providence, as if he despised human things, but that they were inflamed with fury, because God’s hand pressed them heavily, and they did not feel any help in him. Hence they descended to brutes, reptiles, various painting’s, and all kinds of abomination, because they thought that they were worshipping in vain the one true God. It follows —

Calvin: Eze 8:13 - NO PHRASE He now mentions the third kind of idolatry by which the Jews polluted the temple; for this was a kind of sin peculiar to females; and we know that th...

He now mentions the third kind of idolatry by which the Jews polluted the temple; for this was a kind of sin peculiar to females; and we know that they were always more addicted to such wickedness. Satan, indeed, fascinates men always more than enough, but in women recklessness reigned more than superstition. They had therefore a female worship in bewailing Thammuz. Who Thammuz was is uncertain. Jerome translates it Adonis, and Adonis was beloved by Venus, as the poets trifle; and when torn to pieces by a boar, he was turned into a flower of sweetest odor; and in honor of Venus women yearly solemnized by lamentations the death of that beautiful youth; but it is not probable that this rite prevailed in Judaea, because we do not read that this lamentation was practiced in the neighboring regions, but in Greece and Asia Minor I refer it rather to Osiris, for, as we said before, the Jews were neighbors to the Egyptians — hence they adopted various rites from them; but we know that Osiris was yearly wept for by the Egyptians, and that great pollution occurred; for they carried the virile member on a pole in procession, and called it Phallus; 185 and women also showed their parts to the idol, as if offering themselves to debauchery. This was a most disgraceful spectacle. But I conjecture that the Jews had adopted this rite when the women bewailed Thammuz. Here also we perceive, that when once Satan has prevailed, and cast men into deep depravity, they despise all moderation, nay, are reduced to more than brutal stupor. Who would think this could occur, that women should be reduced to such a pitch of defilement, when they had been taught in the doctrine of the law from their early childhood. But when God’s temple was open to such pollutions, we see the Jews so blinded by madness, that God already was showing signs of his extreme vengeance, since he had endured them up to this point.

Calvin: Eze 8:15 - NO PHRASE Here the Prophet refers to another profanation of the temple, since the chief citizens of Jerusalem and those who ought to point out the way to other...

Here the Prophet refers to another profanation of the temple, since the chief citizens of Jerusalem and those who ought to point out the way to others, prostituted themselves to impious worship, lie says, therefore, that he saw about five and twenty men, and it is probable, that there were as many as this among the first rank of citizens. But a certain number is put for an uncertain, and I think that the Prophet. was not so scrupulous on this point, or rather the Spirit of God, who showed that number in the vision; whatever it was, they not only worshipped the sun in private houses, but in the temple itself, and that not without gross and pointed contempt of God. For when they turned their back upon the sanctuary, they made a laughing-stock of God. It hence appears, that they were of so daring a front, that they openly boasted in their superstitions, and purposely polluted God’s temple. This, indeed, was monstrous, to see the elders of the city, and those practiced in the teaching and worship of the law, so alienated from all piety as to worship the sun. For this could not happen through either error or ignorance. For God in his law when he forbids the worship of the sun and stars, adds as a reason, that the whole celestial host was created for our use. (Deu 17:3.) Since, therefore, the sun is our servant and the moon our handmaid, and the stars also were created to serve us, it is preposterous to depart from the divinely ordained order, that the sun which was given us to spend his time in our service should be to us a god. Since, therefore, God has borne witness to this in his law, there was no excuse for error when the Jews adored towards the east.

Now he adds also another grosser dishonor done to God, when they turned their backs upon his sanctuary. They could, as I have said, pollute themselves at home and in conceal-merit with such defilements. But while they came of their own accord into the temple, it is just as if they provoked God by open daring, Now, when they turn their back, this is not only a foul denial but a contempt of God, as if they had said, that he was unworthy of their respect. Now, therefore, we see the whole force of the passage. But he says, turn yet again, and thou shalt see great abominations: some translate greater, as I have formerly mentioned, but I do not think it suitable. I do not contend for it, but if a reason is asked why this abomination is greater than others, it is not clear to me; hence I prefer to take it more simply in the positive degree. Nor is it an objection to this that מאלה , maleh, is added, for מ is not always taken comparatively; but as I think it means only, as if God had said, you will see other abominations besides those of which mention has been already made. But he points out the place of the temple where they worshipped the sun, namely, between the porch and the altar. This was the sign of great impiety to break into the holy place, and from thence to despise God. Now we know this to be a sign of lawful adoration, when the faithful turned their eyes to the sanctuary and the ark of the covenant, but when they turned their backs upon it, there is no doubt that they professedly wished to boast in a contempt of God and the law. It already appears, that they had adopted various and numberless forms of superstition. In Egypt they had not seen the worship of the sun, nor do we read that such worship was in use in Chaldea; but because they heard that the Persians and other Orientals worshipped the sun as a god, they imitated their custom. Therefore we see, that from these people they heaped up rites for themselves, so as to make an immense assemblage. It follows —

Calvin: Eze 8:17 - NO PHRASE God complains as formerly of the wickedness of the people, especially of their perfidious and wicked revolt, because they so defiled the temple which...

God complains as formerly of the wickedness of the people, especially of their perfidious and wicked revolt, because they so defiled the temple which ought to be sacred to God alone. He adds besides another complaint, that they were not content in their wickedness, which tended to violate human society and common rights, and the pursuit of mutual equity, unless even religion should be weakened by them. For under the word חמס , chemes, is comprehended whatever is contrary to the second table of the law. There is, therefore, a use of the figure a part for the whole, in this word חמס , chemes, violence, as if he had said, they were addicted to frauds, rapine, slaughter, cruelty, perjuries, spoliations. Since, therefore, they abstained from no injustice, says God, they manifestly provoke me also: as if he had said, after being unjust towards men, they now dare to erect their horns against me. We know that God’s law was comprehended in the two tables. As to the former table, it prescribes what the true and pure worship of God is. The Jews had violated the second table, since they neglected all the duties of charity, and neither equity nor uprightness flourished among them. After they had filled the land with iniquity; this was their intolerable ungodliness, that after despising men they attacked God himself. We see now the reason of the context, Is this a light thing? says he. Thereafter he had spoken of the wickedness simply and by itself, as they say, he now amplifies by comparison when he says, before this they had filled the earth with violence, but now they have turned themselves to provoke me behold these, he says, etc. The adverb of place must be noticed here, as I have before advised. For their impiety is the more detestable, since they broke into the temple to defile themselves with their idols. That place at least ought to remain pure and unpolluted, though the whole land had been infected with many defilements; but when not even the temple is spared, this is a sign of desperate and almost furious audacity. He, therefore, repeats the adverb which he had used before, and in the same sense.

As to the latter part of the verse, some, as I have said, take הזמורה , hez-moreh, for foulness: I know not why, for I am not aware that this noun is used elsewhere in this sense. But because nothing better occurred to them, they think it probable, and some have invented a foolish fable that they broke wind in honor of the sun, as if the noise of the belly was a grateful offering to the idol, since by this means they openly despised God. But these are conjectures. Others think more correctly who suppose this to be used metaphorically: for they were accustomed to burn incense to their idols; and so, according to them, God alludes to a pleasing and sweet odor when he names it a foul smell, as if he had said, even if the Jews pleased themselves in their superstitions, yet the incense sent forth a foetid odor and they should perceive it: for if he speaks of the nostrils it ought to be considered as a punishment. Some suppose that the relative of the third person is put for that of the first, as if God would say, to my nose or to my wrath: and they fabricate an insipid comment, that this place was changed by the Rabbins through reverence for God, as if forsooth there were not numberless passages where God pronounces in clearer words that he was disgracefully despised. But first, because this noun properly signifies a branch, and is taken in that sense in many places; then since the noun אפ , aph, may be explained as well passively as actively, the context will flow best if we say, they put forth a branch to their wrath — that is, to their destruction, because they provoked God. For what is the meaning of putting forth a branch, but that they heaped evil upon evil. They had violated, as I have said, the second table of the law, they were thieves, robbers, perjurers, and violent. Now at length their rage was directed against the former table of the law, so as to overthrow the whole worship of God. So therefore it will make good sense to say, that boughs were put forth — for the singular number is taken for the plural, as often happens. Since, therefore, they so put forth boughs or budded, God says, that this should be for their destruction, because at length when he had spared them a long time, after a fit time for their punishment arrived, he would consume them. Now, therefore, we understand what the Prophet means. But if any other conjecture pleases, every one may form his own opinion; I do not contest the point, but I show what I think most probable. It follows —

Calvin: Eze 8:18 - NO PHRASE This seems to me a confirmation of the last clause. For he had said, that they sent forth their boughs or east them forth, but yet to their destructi...

This seems to me a confirmation of the last clause. For he had said, that they sent forth their boughs or east them forth, but yet to their destruction. He now repeats the same thing in other words. Therefore I will also act in, my turn — that is, as they now boldly increase their superstitions, and so continually provoke me, at length I will act, says he. There is a tacit contrast, since God forsooth had ceased for a long time, because there is a certain form of rest when he ceases from his judgments: God seems to rest when he does not take vengeance on man’s wickedness, when he indulges them and passes them by for a time. Since, therefore, he had so suspended his judgments against the Jews, he seemed to cultivate ease in heaven: with this view he says, that he would do it in his anger, and he adds, that his vengeance would be so dreadful that there would be no place for pity. This ought indeed to strike us when God pronounces himself implacable. For what is more formidable than to have God hostile, and to be verily without any hope of pardon? As often as God withdraws his mercy he shows us material for trembling, nor is it wonderful that he threatened the Jews so harshly, because he had proved by all methods that they were desperate in their wickedness. For truly nothing had been omitted towards curing them, unless they had been of an abandoned disposition and of most obstinate manners. Since, therefore, they were such, it is not surprising that God was extremely enraged against them, so that he left them no hope of pardon. But this ought to be referred generally to the whole body of the people: meanwhile it is by no means doubtful, as we shall afterwards see, that God excepts his elect from the ordinary multitude. If any one object, that God always hears prayers, I reply that he never rejects prayers which spring from faith: but here that tumultuous clamor is alluded to which necessity occasions to unbelievers. For although they fly to God as their natural sense impels them, yet they do not this with composed minds, nor even relying upon the promises of God: but because the torture of their minds does not suffer them to rest, so that by a natural impulse they are carried to God and cry to him without any faith or sincere affection. He speaks, therefore, concerning that kind of ejaculation which is described to us in the case of Esau, and hence he says with a loud voice, (Gen 27:34; Psa 3:4; Psa 22:2; and Psa 32:3, and elsewhere often.) Although the faithful also raise their voice: nay even cry out loudly, as David testifies of himself, yet it is peculiar to the incredulous to utter their clamor with full cheeks though the mind is void of faith, and is even obstinate in its wickedness. Hence they do not open the heart when they thus cry to God. Hence it is not wonderful if God rejects them and is deaf to their complaints. Now it follows —

Defender: Eze 8:3 - to Jerusalem Ezekiel 8-11 describes the remarkable visions of Ezekiel as he was translated by the Holy Spirit back to Jerusalem to see for himself the wickedness o...

Ezekiel 8-11 describes the remarkable visions of Ezekiel as he was translated by the Holy Spirit back to Jerusalem to see for himself the wickedness of the priests and the people still in the land. It is possible that he was even translated back in time to see their former sins."

Defender: Eze 8:10 - abominable beasts Compare Rom 1:24, where the primeval descent of the Gentile world into evolutionary pantheistic idolatry is described, so God "gave them up." Here Isr...

Compare Rom 1:24, where the primeval descent of the Gentile world into evolutionary pantheistic idolatry is described, so God "gave them up." Here Israel is seen to have done the same, even though they had received the written Word of God condemning it."

Defender: Eze 8:14 - weeping for Tammuz Even Jewish women were participating in the phallic cult of Tammuz, a Babylonian nature god who supposedly died and rose again every year, correspondi...

Even Jewish women were participating in the phallic cult of Tammuz, a Babylonian nature god who supposedly died and rose again every year, corresponding to the emergence of spring out of winter."

Defender: Eze 8:16 - worshipped the sun In effect, these worshipers had chosen to worship Satan, under the figure of the sun god, turning their backs on the temple of the true God."

In effect, these worshipers had chosen to worship Satan, under the figure of the sun god, turning their backs on the temple of the true God."

TSK: Eze 8:1 - in the sixth year // and the // that the in the sixth year : Eze 1:2, Eze 20:1, Eze 24:1, Eze 26:1, Eze 29:1, Eze 29:17, Eze 31:1, Eze 32:17, Eze 40:1 and the : Eze 14:1, Eze 14:4, Eze 20:1, ...

TSK: Eze 8:2 - I beheld // amber I beheld : Eze 1:4, Eze 1:26, Eze 1:27; Dan 7:9, Dan 7:10; Rev 1:14, Rev 1:15 amber : Amber is a hard, inflammable, bituminous substance, of a beautif...

I beheld : Eze 1:4, Eze 1:26, Eze 1:27; Dan 7:9, Dan 7:10; Rev 1:14, Rev 1:15

amber : Amber is a hard, inflammable, bituminous substance, of a beautiful yellow colour, very transparent, and susceptible of an exquisite polish. When rubbed it is highly endowed with electricity; a name which the moderns have formed from its Greek name ηλεκτρον . But, as amber becomes dim as soon as it feels the fire, and is speedily consumed, it is probable that the original chashmal which Bochart derives from the Chaldee nechash copper, and melala gold, was a mixed metal, similar to that which the Greeks called ηλεκτρον , electrum , as the LXX and Vulgate render, from its resemblance to amber in colour.

TSK: Eze 8:3 - he put // the spirit // to the door // the image // provoketh he put : Eze 2:9; Dan 5:5, Dan 10:10,Dan 10:18 the spirit : Eze 3:14, Eze 11:1, Eze 11:24, Eze 40:2; 1Ki 18:12; 2Ki 2:16; Act 8:39; 2Co 12:2-4; Rev 1:...

TSK: Eze 8:4 - -- Eze 1:26-28, Eze 3:22, Eze 3:23, Eze 9:3, Eze 10:1-4, Eze 11:22, Eze 11:23, Eze 43:2-4; Exo 25:22, Exo 40:34, Exo 40:35; 2Co 3:18, 2Co 4:4-6; Heb 1:3

TSK: Eze 8:5 - lift // at the lift : Jer 3:2; Zec 5:5-11 at the : Eze 8:3; Psa 48:2

lift : Jer 3:2; Zec 5:5-11

at the : Eze 8:3; Psa 48:2

TSK: Eze 8:6 - seest // even // that I // greater seest : Eze 8:12, Eze 8:17; Jer 3:6, Jer 7:17 even : Eze 8:9, Eze 8:17, Eze 5:11, Eze 7:20-22, Eze 23:38, Eze 23:39; 2Ki 23:4-6; Pro 5:14; Jer 7:30, J...

TSK: Eze 8:7 - -- 1Ki 7:12; 2Ki 21:5

TSK: Eze 8:8 - -- Job 34:22; Isa 29:15; Jer 2:34 *marg. Jer 23:24; Amo 9:2, Amo 9:3

TSK: Eze 8:9 - that they that they : Eze 20:8

that they : Eze 20:8

TSK: Eze 8:10 - and behold // every and behold : These images portrayed on the wall were no doubt the objects of Egyptian idolatry, the ox, ape, crocodile, ibis, beetle, etc., as we find...

and behold : These images portrayed on the wall were no doubt the objects of Egyptian idolatry, the ox, ape, crocodile, ibis, beetle, etc., as we find those idols were painted on the walls of the tombs of kings and nobles.

every : Exo 20:4; Lev 11:10-12, Lev 11:29-31, Lev 11:42-44; Deu 4:18, Deu 14:3, Deu 14:7, Deu 14:8; Isa 57:6-10; Jer 2:26, Jer 2:27, Jer 3:9, Jer 16:18; Rom 1:23

TSK: Eze 8:11 - seventy // Shaphan // every seventy : Exo 24:1, Exo 24:9; Num 11:16, Num 11:25; Jer 5:5, Jer 19:1; Dan 9:8 Shaphan : 2Ki 22:3, 2Ki 22:8, 2Ki 22:12, 2Ki 22:14, 2Ki 25:22; 2Ch 34:2...

TSK: Eze 8:12 - hast // ancients // in the // The Lord seeth hast : Eze 8:6, Eze 8:15, Eze 8:17 ancients : Eze 8:11, Eze 14:1, Eze 20:1; Eph 5:12 in the : Eze 8:7, Eze 8:8; Job 24:13-17; Joh 3:19, Joh 3:20 The L...

TSK: Eze 8:13 - greater greater : Eze 8:6, Eze 8:15; Jer 9:3; 2Ti 3:13

TSK: Eze 8:14 - toward toward : Eze 44:4, Eze 46:9

toward : Eze 44:4, Eze 46:9

TSK: Eze 8:15 - Hast // greater Hast : Eze 8:6, Eze 8:12; 2Ti 3:13 greater : Eze 8:9, Eze 8:13

Hast : Eze 8:6, Eze 8:12; 2Ti 3:13

greater : Eze 8:9, Eze 8:13

TSK: Eze 8:16 - the inner // at the door // about // with their // their faces // and they the inner : Eze 10:3, Eze 40:28, Eze 43:5, Eze 45:19 at the door : 2Ki 16:14; 2Ch 7:7; Joe 2:17 about : Eze 11:1 with their : Eze 23:35; 1Ki 8:29; 2Ch...

the inner : Eze 10:3, Eze 40:28, Eze 43:5, Eze 45:19

at the door : 2Ki 16:14; 2Ch 7:7; Joe 2:17

about : Eze 11:1

with their : Eze 23:35; 1Ki 8:29; 2Ch 29:6; Jer 2:27, Jer 32:33

their faces : Deu 4:19, Deu 17:3; 2Ki 23:5, 2Ki 23:11; Job 31:26-28; Jer 44:17; Act 7:42, Act 7:43

and they : It seems that the Jews had incorporated every species of idolatry into their worship, Egyptian, Phoenician, and Persian; for this evidently was the Magian worship of the sun.

TSK: Eze 8:17 - Is it a light // for // they put Is it a light : etc. or, Is there anything lighter than to commit, etc for : Eze 7:23, Eze 9:9, Eze 11:6; Gen 6:13; 2Ki 21:16, 2Ki 24:4; Jer 6:7, Jer ...

Is it a light : etc. or, Is there anything lighter than to commit, etc

for : Eze 7:23, Eze 9:9, Eze 11:6; Gen 6:13; 2Ki 21:16, 2Ki 24:4; Jer 6:7, Jer 19:4, Jer 20:8; Amo 3:10, Amo 6:3; Mic 2:2, Mic 6:12; Zep 1:9

they put : So the Vulgate has, applicant ramum ad nares suas ""they apply the branch to their nose;""which Jerome explains by ""a branch of the palm tree with which they adored the idols;""and it seems plainly to allude to the Magian fire-worshippers, who, Strabo tells us, held a little bunch of twigs in their hand, when praying before the fire.

TSK: Eze 8:18 - will I also // and though will I also : Eze 5:11-13, Eze 7:4-9, Eze 9:5, Eze 9:10, Eze 16:42, Eze 24:13; Nah 1:2 and though : Jdg 10:13, Jdg 10:14; Pro 1:28; Isa 1:15, Isa 59:2...

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Poole: Eze 8:1 - In the sixth year of Jeconiah’ s captivity. In the sixth month // In the fifth day of the month // As I sat in my house // The elders of Judah // The hand of the Lord In the sixth year of Jeconiah’ s captivity. In the sixth month they had been almost seven years in captivity, it was Elul, or our August. In t...

In the sixth year of Jeconiah’ s captivity. In the sixth month they had been almost seven years in captivity, it was Elul, or our August.

In the fifth day of the month the sabbath day, as Eze 1:2 .

As I sat in my house abode in my house, probably he lay on his side, the three hundred and ninety days not yet expired.

The elders of Judah the chief of those that were now in captivity, sat before me; they were come either to spend the sabbath in religious exercises, such as the present state of affairs permitted, to hear somewhat from the prophet’ s mouth, expounding the law or declaring their duty, or to inquire what would become of their brethren in Jerusalem, whether they should be subdued and captivated, or whether there were any good news for them from heaven, and how they should behave themselves in these sad times.

The hand of the Lord the Spirit of prophecy exerted itself with a mighty Divine power, which enlightened me at that very time, and in that very place: see Eze 1:8 .

Poole: Eze 8:2 - A likeness // The appearance of fire // The appearance of brightness A likeness of a man; that man whom he had seen upon the throne, i.e. of Christ. The appearance of fire: see Eze 1:26-28 . This fire denotes the wra...

A likeness of a man; that man whom he had seen upon the throne, i.e. of Christ.

The appearance of fire: see Eze 1:26-28 . This fire denotes the wrath of God against Jerusalem, and it is observed it was fire downward, wrath already coming down upon the Jews.

The appearance of brightness to signify the majesty and glory of Christ. See more Eze 1:27 .

Poole: Eze 8:3 - He put forth a hand // The spirit // Lifted me up // Between the earth and the heaven // Brought me in the visions of God to Jerusalem // To the door of the inner gate // The image // Of jealousy He put forth a hand Christ. This was acted visionally, not corporally or actually, and so all that is here spoken of to the end of the 16th verse. T...

He put forth a hand Christ. This was acted visionally, not corporally or actually, and so all that is here spoken of to the end of the 16th verse.

The spirit which indeed is the hand which took him by the head, gently, but with mighty strength.

Lifted me up very probably in the sight of the elders who were with him.

Between the earth and the heaven he seemed to fly as a swift bird through the air.

Brought me in the visions of God to Jerusalem carried me to see Jerusalem, where in visions strange and glorious I beheld what was done there. This was no delusion, but a revelation from heaven; though all was done in an ecstasy, yet he was fully assured of every particular he saw done in the temple, whither he was carried in his spirit, not body, by the hand or Spirit of Christ.

To the door of the inner gate to the door of the gate of the inner court, or court of the priests, 2Ch 4:9 . The temple courts had four gates towards the four quarters of the world, and this was the north gate, which opened into the great court, where Ahaz had set up his Damascene altar, 2Ki 16:11 , and where the idols were set up too.

The image Baal, which Manasseh had set up, 2Ki 21:7 , and Josiah had destroyed, and succeeding kings had again set up.

Of jealousy because it was so notorious an affront to God, who had married Israel to himself, that above all other it provoked him to anger against this people.

Poole: Eze 8:4 - The glory of God // Was there // According to the vision that I saw The glory of God: see Eze 1:28 3:23 . Was there whither he carried me, and there it showed me what I saw. According to the vision that I saw like...

The glory of God: see Eze 1:28 3:23 .

Was there whither he carried me, and there it showed me what I saw.

According to the vision that I saw like that; which gave further confirmation to the prophet, and encouraged him in his work and call.

Poole: Eze 8:5 - Then // Lift up thine eyes // The gate of the altar // Image of jealousy // In the entry Then when he had in vision brought me hither. Lift up thine eyes observe diligently and exactly every thing which thou mayst see northward first. ...

Then when he had in vision brought me hither.

Lift up thine eyes observe diligently and exactly every thing which thou mayst see northward first.

The gate of the altar so called, because Ahaz had removed it from the middle of the court, where by God’ s command it was placed by Solomon; but now Ahaz setting it near this north gate, it gave name to the gate or possibly because of an altar erected there to some idol by Manasseh.

Image of jealousy: see Eze 8:3 , &c.

In the entry in the very midst of the court, in the very passage to the temple, to affront the worship of God.

Poole: Eze 8:6 - Seest thou? // What they do // The great abominations // Here // That I should go // From my sanctuary Seest thou? dost thou observe? What they do the inhabitants, the generality of the Jews. The great abominations the notorious idolatries. Here ...

Seest thou? dost thou observe?

What they do the inhabitants, the generality of the Jews.

The great abominations the notorious idolatries.

Here in this court, in view of my temple, and where all that come, as most did, this way to worship me see it, so shameless is it!

That I should go not that they designed this, but eventually it was so, and in all reason could be no otherwise expected.

From my sanctuary that I chose, but am not confined to. That I shall leave not by local distance, but by rejecting and casting it off, and laying it desolate.

Poole: Eze 8:7 - The door // The court // When I looked // A hole in the wall The door the second door, for there were two in the north side. The court Eze 8:3 . Some say it was the court into which the Levites only, not the p...

The door the second door, for there were two in the north side.

The court Eze 8:3 . Some say it was the court into which the Levites only, not the people, might enter, and round about which were the chambers of the priests.

When I looked probably being at the door of the court, he might espy such a hole in the opposite wall that was toward the temple, whereon were built the treasury chamber, and chambers for tithes, and for other necessaries about the temple worship, and for the priests’ lodgings, in which these abominations were acted.

A hole in the wall or little blind window, through which he might see somewhat, though not much, of what was done within.

Poole: Eze 8:8 - A door The hole he saw in the wall was not quite through, it was not great enough for him to go through, therefore he is commanded to dig one large enough ...

The hole he saw in the wall was not quite through, it was not great enough for him to go through, therefore he is commanded to dig one large enough to come at the door mentioned in this verse.

A door some very private door by which the idolatrous priests entered into the chamber of their imagery, to perform idolatrous worship to their images; the door of the treasury.

Poole: Eze 8:9 - Go in // Behold // The wicked abominations // Do here Go in: this was to secure him; he need fear neither the violence which idolaters usually show against those that discover them, nor yet any legal imp...

Go in: this was to secure him; he need fear neither the violence which idolaters usually show against those that discover them, nor yet any legal impurity by coming so near these abominable things.

Behold look diligently, that thou mayst particularly reprove these, and denounce my just judgments against them.

The wicked abominations the most abominable wickednesses; these are loathsome in their nature, and multiplied in number before me.

Do here Heb. are doing here : before the evil day appeared so near, they did, and under the approach of judgments they are still doing at this day, in this very place, under the walls of my temple.

Poole: Eze 8:10 - So I went in // Of creeping things // Abominable beasts // The idols of the house of Israel // the idols of the house of Israel // Portrayed upon the wall So I went in according to the vision. Of creeping things of such creatures as the Egyptians, or any others with whom the Jews had acquaintance, did...

So I went in according to the vision.

Of creeping things of such creatures as the Egyptians, or any others with whom the Jews had acquaintance, did worship.

Abominable beasts the beasts are here called abominable, because idolaters had abused them to unlawful uses, making idols of them.

The idols of the house of Israel the Jews had multiplied to themselves idols of their own, besides those borrowed from their neighbours. Or they are called

the idols of the house of Israel because they had adopted them, and because Israel’ s idolatry was so much more brutish and provoking than that of the other nations, who had not the law of God given to them as to the Jews.

Portrayed upon the wall: possibly they did thus picture their idols on the wall, vainly thinking. this was not a breach of the law, which forbade graven images, and molten images; but every likeness of any thing made for to worship is forbidden, and such pictures are to be destroyed, Num 33:52 . Possibly they had the same set of idols, by different givers, and by different painters, drawn on the walls of the chamber or house of idols.

Poole: Eze 8:11 - There stood // Seventy men // Ancients // In the midst of them // Shaphan // Every man // A thick cloud // Incense There stood offering incense before the idols. Seventy men either the sanhedrim, or council of seventy, who should have preserved religion pure and...

There stood offering incense before the idols.

Seventy men either the sanhedrim, or council of seventy, who should have preserved religion pure and untainted, to which their office bound them; or else seventy of the more aged heads of the tribes or families, who should have been examples by their pure and constant affection to true religion; but these are ringleaders in this idolatry.

Ancients by age or office, or both.

In the midst of them either accompanying them in their idolatry, or rather as chief of the council or sanhedrim; in the chair, the seat of the chief, prefect, or principal next to the high priest.

Shaphan mentioned 2Ki 22:9 , as most likely; a person that seems forward in reforming under Josiah, and his son as forward now in corrupting the worship of God.

Every man all were actors in this idolatry, and either priests to these idols, or very bigots in the service.

A thick cloud or abundance of a cloud, or rich (as the word among rabbinical senses) cloud; or, since the word whence this comes signifies to pray or supplicate, a cloud of incense offered with the prayers of these deluded idolaters, who were used to put both together.

Incense whether simple and uncompounded, or compound, it was always of sweets, and very costly too; indeed idolatry, as adultery, will be lavish.

Poole: Eze 8:12 - Hast thou seen? // The ancients // Do in the dark // Every man // In the chambers // They say // The Lord // The Lord hath forsaken the earth // he seeth us not Hast thou seen? observed and thoroughly considered. The ancients: see Eze 8:11 . Do in the dark whether ashamed to act openly what was most absur...

Hast thou seen? observed and thoroughly considered.

The ancients: see Eze 8:11 .

Do in the dark whether ashamed to act openly what was most absurd, or whether out of blindness doting in secret on what heathens secretly derided, though for interest they acted it openly; owning that religion which awed the people among them, and deriding it at home. But idolatrous Jews blush in public, and retire into corners to be idolaters, as thou seest in this chamber.

Every man every one of those ancients, for still God had his remnant that kept close to God.

In the chambers secret closet, or bed-chamber.

They say the most shameless would give a reason for their unreasonable practices.

The Lord Jehovah, the everlasting and almighty God,

seeth us not: either they deny his providence, and act what they durst not if they thought the Lord knew and noted it, as if they accounted Jehovah no better than idols, that have eyes but see not; or else they deny God’ s care of them and their affairs, traduce him, as if he minded them not, and therefore they must choose some or other god for patron who would better help them than he had done.

The Lord hath forsaken the earth: this seems to explain the meaning of that,

he seeth us not and so with atheism more than ordinary they would cast the blame of choosing other gods on God himself.

Poole: Eze 8:13 - Thou shalt see // greater abominations // They do Thou shalt see represented in this vision, greater abominations either because added to all the rest, or because some circumstances in these make t...

Thou shalt see represented in this vision,

greater abominations either because added to all the rest, or because some circumstances in these make them more abominable than what before was represented. Or it may be taken for very great, as when the word is applied to cities, Deu 1:28 6 10 9:1 ; to stones, Jos 10:11,27 1Ki 7:10 ; David’ s wars, 1Ch 22:8 ; kingdoms, Jer 28:8 ; and to the marvellous works of God, Job 5:9 9:10 Psa 136:4 ; and generally our version keeps to the positive degree, though here they render it by the comparative, and in the 6th verse of this chapter the very selfsame expression is rendered great (not greater) abominations. We need not then perplex our reader with a long discourse, to show wherein these latter sins are greater than the former mentioned; they are all very great.

They do now they are doing these things; instead of worshipping the true God on the sabbath, as he required all his people, the leaders of the people are on the sabbath of the Lord offering incense to their detestable idols.

Poole: Eze 8:14 - He brought me // Of the gate // Towards the north // There sat women // Tammuz He brought me not by real and corporal change of place, but in vision and by representation. Of the gate of the outer court, or court of the women,...

He brought me not by real and corporal change of place, but in vision and by representation.

Of the gate of the outer court, or court of the women, so called because they were allowed to come into it, as were all the laity of the Jews: but it is more likely the gate of the inner court, the court of the priests, next to the house of God, whither none save priests might come; but in this very great corruption of the state others were admitted into it, which makes this sin the greater.

Towards the north he enters at first by the north gate, and so passeth on to what places were next to the temple on that side.

There sat women: contrary to the law were they come thither, led by their blindest, because the vilest and most impudent, superstition, and waiting (expressed by

sitting ) ready to commit most lewd wickednesses, as part of their obscene and beastly rites. Weeping: this is the only part which is specified of their irreligious religion, commemorating with tears an infamously lustful and unclean whoremonger, or votary of Venus, snatched from her by an unhappy wound of a boar, say some; this weeping implieth all the beastly rites of that idol.

Tammuz a magician, say some; a handsome young man, but notorious for love of women, say others; an adulterer (say some) slain by his brother, king of Egypt, and mangled in pieces, whose torn members were thrown into the river, but gathered up by the fond adulteresses, and rites of worship fitted to so lewd an idol; whose adulteries, lascivious practices, and immodest gestures these she priests acted over before the idol with men of like lewdness, of whom what they received, as rewards of their prostituting themselves, was offered to Venus. By this means God’ s temple was turned into a lewd stews.

Poole: Eze 8:15 - -- Besides these thou hast seen, thou shalt again see great abominations. Or if the expression be strictly comparative, then these latter wickednesses ...

Besides these thou hast seen, thou shalt again see great abominations. Or if the expression be strictly comparative, then these latter wickednesses may be accounted greater, because acted in a more sacred place.

Poole: Eze 8:16 - The inner court // At the door of the temple // The porch // The altar // About five and twenty // Five and twenty men // With their backs toward the temple // Worshipped the sun The inner court the inmost, that which was next to the temple, called here the Lord’ s house. At the door of the temple: before he saw abomina...

The inner court the inmost, that which was next to the temple, called here the Lord’ s house.

At the door of the temple: before he saw abominations in the gates of the courts, now he is come to the very house itself.

The porch that stately, large porch, beautified with the high, curious, and mighty brass pillars, Jachin and Boaz, of which see 1Ki 6:3 7:15,21 .

The altar the brazen altar for burnt-offerings, which was placed in the court before the front of the temple, and is here represented in its proper place, 2Ki 16:14 . This is not contradictory to Eze 8:5 , which speaks of the place where Ahaz had wickedly placed the altar, but this, Eze 8:16 , speaks of the same altar, as supposing it to be where it ought, as God commanded it should be, and Solomon placed it, 2Ch 8:12 .

About five and twenty an indefinite and undetermined number.

Five and twenty men either some principal men, or else some priests. If these, the greater sin in them to turn idolaters; if the other, the idolatry committed by them in a place they should not have entered appears presumptuous and greatly wicked.

With their backs toward the temple in contempt of God, with an open and designed abrenunciation of God and his worship.

Worshipped the sun: though God had prohibited this, Deu 17:3 , with Deu 4:17-19 ; yet, in imitation of’ the Chaldees, Persians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, and the Eastern idolaters, these Jews turn their back on God, who created the sun, and worship the creature in contempt of the Creator.

Poole: Eze 8:17 - Then // He said unto me // Violence // Have returned // They put the branch to their nose Then after the prophet had seen all, and had time to consider all he saw. He said unto me God appeals to the prophet. Doth the house of Judah think...

Then after the prophet had seen all, and had time to consider all he saw.

He said unto me God appeals to the prophet. Doth the house of Judah think these no sins, or but little sins, or that I account not those provocations to anger? Do they so sottishly undervalue me and my law and ordinances, &c.? These idolaters, as others of the same stamp, are great oppressors; every where their oppressions may be found in great and high degrees.

Violence all injustice is here meant towards all sorts of men, whom they first despise, and next destroy.

Have returned from injustice against man, they return to impiety against God.

They put the branch to their nose consecrate first these branches in the sun, and then next prize them, as what had touched the idol, and was bettered by it. Or, perhaps, took some branches out of the garland, wherewith they decked the idol, the altar, the victim, or themselves; and as the Orgyasts, i.e. worshippers of Bacchus, did wave their Thyrsus, the stalk or stem wreathed with ivy about it, carrying it in their hands whilst they danced, bowed their bodies, and often kissed the branches, so did these idolatrous Jews.

Poole: Eze 8:18 - Mine eye shall not spare // Though they cry // I will not hear them What I will do is greater than to be expressed; they with a furious heat for their idols provoked me, and I will with a just indignation provoke the...

What I will do is greater than to be expressed; they with a furious heat for their idols provoked me, and I will with a just indignation provoke them, nay, destroy them.

Mine eye shall not spare: see Eze 7:4,8,9 .

Though they cry: the prophet doth not give it the name of praying, but it is a cry, a loud cry, after the manner of other idolaters, who think to be heard for the noise they make.

I will not hear them yet doth not this at all prejudice the truth or the mercy of God to those that pray, nor may it discourage from the duty, but it should awaken us that we pray with heart, and not only cry loud with voice.

Haydock: Eze 8:1 - Sixth Sixth of the prophet's captivity, (Calmet) in August, the year of the world 3411. (Usher) --- He had rested on his left or right side, whenever...

Sixth of the prophet's captivity, (Calmet) in August, the year of the world 3411. (Usher) ---

He had rested on his left or right side, whenever he slept during 430 days, and on the following had this vision. (Worthington) ---

He was stationed in spirit at the northern gate leading to the court of the priests, and beheld the glory of God and the idol of jealousy. He saw the people, men and women, adoring idols, and priests worshipping the sun, chap. ix. God rests on the gate of the temple, and orders a man to sign those who were to live, and six others to destroy the rest. The prophet prays, chap. x. God orders the man clothed in linen to take coals from the cherubim, and sprinkle them through the city. The throne goes to receive the Lord, chap. xi. Ezechiel prophesies against many, at the eastern gate; and God informs him that the former captives shall return, but that the wicked at Jerusalem shall perish. His chariot then rests on the mountain to the east of the city. Thus his reasons for punishing the people become evident.

Haydock: Eze 8:2 - Likeness Likeness. Septuagint add, "of a man," as it had appeared [in] chap. i. 27.

Likeness. Septuagint add, "of a man," as it had appeared [in] chap. i. 27.

Haydock: Eze 8:3 - Lock // Of jealousy Lock, like Habacuc; (Daniel xiv. 35.) or by a bandage, on which parts of the law were written. (Hebrew) (Calmet) --- Of jealousy; Baal, (St. Jero...

Lock, like Habacuc; (Daniel xiv. 35.) or by a bandage, on which parts of the law were written. (Hebrew) (Calmet) ---

Of jealousy; Baal, (St. Jerome) or any other idol, (Haydock) particularly Adonis, ver. 14. He fell a victim to the jealousy of Mars.

Haydock: Eze 8:10 - About About. This was the council chamber, Jeremias xxvi. 10. They durst not publicly adore the Egyptian, &c., idols. (Calmet) --- They denied Providen...

About. This was the council chamber, Jeremias xxvi. 10. They durst not publicly adore the Egyptian, &c., idols. (Calmet) ---

They denied Providence, ver. 12. (Haydock) ---

The wicked do not regard it, and hence fall into idolatry. (Worthington)

Haydock: Eze 8:11 - Jezonias Jezonias. He probably was over the temple, as his father had been, 4 Kings xxii. 3. (Calmet)

Jezonias. He probably was over the temple, as his father had been, 4 Kings xxii. 3. (Calmet)

Haydock: Eze 8:14 - Adonis Adonis, the favourite of Venus, slain by a wild boar, as feigned by the heathen poets, and which being here represented by an idol, is lamented by th...

Adonis, the favourite of Venus, slain by a wild boar, as feigned by the heathen poets, and which being here represented by an idol, is lamented by the female worshippers of that goddess. In Hebrew the name is Tammuz, (Challoner) which means "concealed," as Adonis signifies "my lord." This idol, which the Egyptians called Osiris, was placed in a coffin, and bewailed till it was pretended he was come to life, when rejoicings took place. Obscene pictures were carried about; and the more honest pagans were ashamed of these practices, which began in Egypt, and became almost general. Moses alludes to them, Leviticus xix. 27., and Deuteronomy xiv. 1. (Calmet) ---

David and Solomon say that the image was made of brass, with eyes of lead, which seemed to weep, melting when it was hot. (Worthington) ---

But this is destitute of proof.

Haydock: Eze 8:16 - Men // Sun Men. Twelve priests and as many Levites officiated daily. The high priest made the twenty fifth, 1 Paralipomenon xxiv. --- Sun. They prayed to G...

Men. Twelve priests and as many Levites officiated daily. The high priest made the twenty fifth, 1 Paralipomenon xxiv. ---

Sun. They prayed to God, turning their faces to the west: but here they despised him, and adored the sun, Job xxxi. 26. (Calmet) ---

This posture was common. Illi ad surgentem conversi lumina solum. (Virgil, ֶneid xii.) (Serv.) ---

Christians did the like, though the reason is not ascertained. (Calmet) ---

It might be because Christ is the orient, and not to resemble the Jews. There was no danger of their being taken for idolaters. (Haydock)

Haydock: Eze 8:17 - Nose Nose, to hide their faces respectfully, (Calmet) when they look at the sun rising. (Haydock) --- A thyrsus was used in honour of Bacchus, who is ...

Nose, to hide their faces respectfully, (Calmet) when they look at the sun rising. (Haydock) ---

A thyrsus was used in honour of Bacchus, who is often confounded with the sun. Various improbable versions of this text are given. It may signify Hebrew, "they threw their instruments down before their faces," like the twenty-four elders, Apocalypse v. 8. (Calmet)

Gill: Eze 8:1 - And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month // as I sat in mine house // and the elders of Judah sat before me // that the hand of the Lord fell there upon me And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month,.... This was the sixth year of the captivity of Jehoiachin...

And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month,.... This was the sixth year of the captivity of Jehoiachin; the sixth month was the month Elul, which answers to part of August, and part of September. The Septuagint and Arabic versions wrongly render it, the fifth month. The fifth day of the month is thought to have been the sabbath day, which seems probable by what follows; this was just a year and two months from the first vision, Eze 1:1;

as I sat in mine house; in Chaldea, by the river Chebar; he was now sitting, the time of lying on his side, both right and left, being now up, even four hundred and thirty days. It was in the fifth year, and on the fifth of Tammuz, that the first vision was; seven days the prophet sat with them of the captivity at Telabib; at the end of which he was ordered to lie on his side; first on his left side three hundred ninety days, and then on his right side forty days: now reckoning from the middle of Tammuz, to the fifth of Elul in the sixth year, were but, as Kimchi observes, four hundred days; but this being, as another Jewish writer says r, an intercalated year, by the intercalation of a month, which consisted of thirty days, the whole number was completed, and the prophet was now sitting: or it may be this position is observed, because he was now teaching and instructing the people, which was frequently done sitting; See Gill on Mat 5:1; and this in his own private house, being now in captivity, and having neither temple nor synagogue to teach in;

and the elders of Judah sat before me; to hear the word of the Lord from his mouth, the law explained, or any fresh prophecy delivered by him; or to have his advice and counsel in their present circumstances. These were the elders of Judah that were carried captive along with Jehoiachin; though some think they were those that were at Jerusalem, and that all this was only in a visionary way; but the former sense seems most agreeable; seeing this was previous to the vision, and with what goes before describes the time, place, and witnesses of the vision;

that the hand of the Lord fell there upon me; which the Targum interprets of the spirit of prophecy, which came with power upon him: it denotes the energy and efficacy of the Spirit of God in throwing him into an ecstasy, and acting upon him, and revealing to him the things he did; which are related in the following verses.

Gill: Eze 8:2 - And then one beheld, and lo a likeness as the appearance of fire // from the appearance of his loins, even downward, fire // and from his loins, even upward, as the appearance of brightness // as the colour of amber And then one beheld, and lo a likeness as the appearance of fire,.... The Septuagint and Arabic versions render it, "behold the likeness of a man"; re...

And then one beheld, and lo a likeness as the appearance of fire,.... The Septuagint and Arabic versions render it, "behold the likeness of a man"; reading איש, "a man", for אש, "fire"; but without supposing such a reading, for which there is no foundation, this likeness may very well be understood of the likeness of a man; since mention is made of his joins in the next clause, and of his hand in Eze 8:3; and the description agrees with the appearance of a man in Eze 1:26; it was usual for the Son of God, who doubtless is here meant, to appear in a human form; and so Junius and Tremellius supply the words,

"and lo a likeness "of a man", as in the appearance of fire:''

it was the form of a fiery man that was seen, as he is further described:

from the appearance of his loins, even downward, fire; his lower parts, thighs, legs, and feet; expressive either of the light of grace communicated from Christ to his people; or of his fervent love towards them, or flaming zeal for God and his house; or rather of his wrath against an idolatrous people; see Rev 1:15; a like description is in Eze 1:27;

and from his loins, even upward, as the appearance of brightness; his upper parts, back, belly, breast, shoulders, arms, head, &c. which may denote his incomprehensible majesty and glory; his glory being the glory of the only begotten, the brightness of his Father's glory, and the express image of his person. The Targum renders both the one and the other part of the description thus,

"and I saw, and twelve a likeness as the look of fire, the look of glory, which the eye cannot see, nor is it possible to look upon it; and beneath the look of fire, and the look of glory, which the eye cannot behold, nor is it possible to contemplate it; and above, as the look of brightness:''

as the colour of amber: or "chasmal": which some take to be the name of an angel. The Syriac version is, "as the look of God"; See Gill on Eze 1:4; and See Gill on Eze 1:27.

Gill: Eze 8:3 - And he put forth the form of an hand // and took me by a lock of mine head // and the spirit lifted me up between the earth and heaven // and brought me in the visions of God to Jerusalem // to the door of the inner gate // that looketh toward the north // where was the seat of the image of jealousy, which provoketh to jealousy And he put forth the form of an hand,.... That is, he that appeared in the likeness of a man, and with so much glory and splendour, out of the midst o...

And he put forth the form of an hand,.... That is, he that appeared in the likeness of a man, and with so much glory and splendour, out of the midst of the fire and brightness which were about him, put forth the form of a hand, that looked like a man's hand; for this appearance was not real, only visionary; and this seems to design the Spirit of God sent forth by Christ, sometimes called the finger of God, Luk 11:20; as appears by what follows:

and took me by a lock of mine head; without hurting him, showing his power over him; and by this means raising him from his seat, as it seemed to the prophet:

and the spirit lifted me up between the earth and heaven; took him off of his seat, and out of his house, lifted him up in the air, and carried him through it, as he thought; for this was not real and local; in like manner as the spirit caught away Philip, Act 8:39; but in vision, as follows:

and brought me in the visions of God to Jerusalem; so it was represented to him in a true vision, which was of God, and not of Satan, that he was carried from Chaldea to Jerusalem; not that he really was, for he was still in Chaldea; and here in vision was he brought again, and found himself to be when that vision was over, Eze 11:24; but things so appeared to him, as if he was actually brought to Jerusalem by the power of the Spirit of God:

to the door of the inner gate: not of Jerusalem, but the temple, or rather the court, the inner court; see Eze 10:3; and so it should be rendered "to the door of the gate of the inner court" s; and thus it is explained by Jarchi, Kimchi, and Ben Melech:

that looketh toward the north; for there were gates on every side:

where was the seat of the image of jealousy, which provoketh to jealousy; some graven image, perhaps the image of Baal; so called, because it provoked the Lord to jealousy, Deu 32:21. Gussetius t suggests, that סמל, "Semel", here may be the same with Semele; who, in the opinion of the Heathens, made Juno jealous.

Gill: Eze 8:4 - And, behold, the glory of the God of Israel was there // according to the vision that I saw in the plain And, behold, the glory of the God of Israel was there,.... In the temple, between the cherubim, where the Shechinah or the glory of the divine Majest...

And, behold, the glory of the God of Israel was there,.... In the temple, between the cherubim, where the Shechinah or the glory of the divine Majesty dwelt; for as yet he had not removed, though provoked to it, and as he afterwards did; or he was here to destroy the idols, and both city and temple, for the idolatry of the people; or this is here mentioned, to show the baseness and wickedness of the people, that they should place an idol where the Lord himself was:

according to the vision that I saw in the plain; it was the same glorious Person he saw in the temple whom he had before seen in the plain, Eze 3:22; and that was the same he had seen in the vision by the river Chebar, Eze 1:3.

Gill: Eze 8:5 - Then said he unto me, son of man // lift up thine eyes now toward the north // so I lifted up mine eyes the way toward the north // and behold northward at the gate of the altar // this image of jealousy in the entry Then said he unto me, son of man,.... That is, the glorious Person described above in this vision, the glorious God of Israel, seen by the prophet in ...

Then said he unto me, son of man,.... That is, the glorious Person described above in this vision, the glorious God of Israel, seen by the prophet in the temple, he spoke unto him, calling him son of man; a name by which he often goes in this prophecy:

lift up thine eyes now toward the north; of the mountain of the house without the court, as Jarchi interprets it:

so I lifted up mine eyes the way toward the north: being obedient to the heavenly vision:

and behold northward at the gate of the altar; at the northern gate of the inner court, where was the altar of burnt offering, brought by Ahaz; to the north of the altar he built in imitation of that at Damascus, 2Ki 16:10; and here stood

this image of jealousy in the entry; or the image of this jealousy; the image before mentioned, which provoked the Lord to jealousy; this stood at the entry of the northern gate, which led into the inner court, and to the altar.

Gill: Eze 8:6 - He said furthermore unto me, son of man // seest thou what they do // even the great abominations that the house of Israel committeth here // that I should go far from my sanctuary // but turn thee yet again // and thou shalt see greater abominations He said furthermore unto me, son of man,.... He continued his speech to the prophet, saying seest thou what they do? the idolatrous Jews, who had s...

He said furthermore unto me, son of man,.... He continued his speech to the prophet, saying

seest thou what they do? the idolatrous Jews, who had set up a graven image at the northern gate of the court, where the altar was, and were sacrificing to it:

even the great abominations that the house of Israel committeth here; for to set up an idol where he was, and an altar by his altar, and to sacrifice to Baal, and not to him, or to Baal along with him, or besides him, or to any other idol, were very abominable to the Lord: even to such a degree,

that I should go far from my sanctuary? be obliged to leave it, not being able to bear such abominable idolatries: or, "that they should go far from my sanctuary" u; depart from the true worship and service of it, and fall into idolatry:

but turn thee yet again; from the north to the south it may be; however, to some other part of the temple:

and thou shalt see greater abominations; or, "great abominations" w; for there is no necessity of rendering it "greater": but the meaning is, that he should see other great abominations besides what he had seen, than which there could not be anything well greater.

Gill: Eze 8:7 - And he brought me to the door of the court // and when I looked, behold a hole in the wall And he brought me to the door of the court,.... Of the inner court, the court of the priests and Levites. Dr. Lightfoot x says this was the east gate,...

And he brought me to the door of the court,.... Of the inner court, the court of the priests and Levites. Dr. Lightfoot x says this was the east gate, and most common way of entrance; and in that gate the sanhedrim used to sit in these times; and there the prophet sees their council chamber painted about with imagery:

and when I looked, behold a hole in the wall; of one of the chambers of the priests and Levites, where they lay.

Gill: Eze 8:8 - Then said he unto me, son of man, dig now in the wall // and when I had digged in the wall, behold a door Then said he unto me, son of man, dig now in the wall,.... And so make the hole larger; that he might have a fuller view of what was to be seen within...

Then said he unto me, son of man, dig now in the wall,.... And so make the hole larger; that he might have a fuller view of what was to be seen within the wall:

and when I had digged in the wall, behold a door; an opening, by which he could go into the cell or chamber, and take a full view of what was to be seen there. All this was visionary, for in reality the prophet did not dig, nor could he, not having anything to dig with; but so things appeared to his mind in the vision: first a little hole, by which he could discern there was a room; then, by making use of some means, a large door appeared, at which there was an entrance into it.

Gill: Eze 8:9 - And he said unto me, go in // and behold the wicked abominations they do here And he said unto me, go in,.... Into the room or chamber the door opened into: and behold the wicked abominations they do here; the idolatries ther...

And he said unto me, go in,.... Into the room or chamber the door opened into:

and behold the wicked abominations they do here; the idolatries there committed, wicked in themselves, and abominable to God.

Gill: Eze 8:10 - So I went in and saw; and behold every form of creeping things // and abominable beasts // and all the idols of the house of Israel // portrayed upon the wall round about So I went in and saw; and behold every form of creeping things,.... As beetles and others, worshipped for gods: and abominable beasts; unclean ones...

So I went in and saw; and behold every form of creeping things,.... As beetles and others, worshipped for gods:

and abominable beasts; unclean ones; not only oxen, but dogs and cats, and other impure creatures; for such were the gods of the Egyptians, from whom the Jews took their deities:

and all the idols of the house of Israel; which were many, even as numerous as their cities:

portrayed upon the wall round about; the pictures of them were drawn and placed around the wall of the room or chamber; and where they were worshipped by the priests and Levites, and members of the sanhedrim; and this was not in one chamber only, but in many, as appears from Eze 8:12.

Gill: Eze 8:11 - And there stood before them // seventy men of the ancients of the house of Israel // and in the midst of them stood Jaazaniah the son of Shaphan // with every man his censer in his hand // and a thick cloud of incense went up And there stood before them,.... Before the pictures, as the Vulgate Latin version expresses it, praying, sacrificing, and offering incense unto them:...

And there stood before them,.... Before the pictures, as the Vulgate Latin version expresses it, praying, sacrificing, and offering incense unto them:

seventy men of the ancients of the house of Israel; the whole sanhedrim, or great court of judicature among the Jews, as Kimchi; or at least there is an allusion to that number, which were appointed in Moses' time to be officers over the people, and govern and direct them, Num 11:16; which shows how sadly depraved and corrupted the state was, that not the common people only, but the civil magistrates, the chief rulers and governors, were given to idolatry; and those that should have taught the people the right way led them wrong; and it is still a further aggravation of their crime that they should do this in the chambers of the priests and Levites, where they ought not to have been:

and in the midst of them stood Jaazaniah the son of Shaphan; who was either the prince of the sanhedrim, or at least a person of great note and esteem; and shows the corruption to be general, from the least to the greatest: Shaphan was a scribe in Josiah's time, who had a son named Ahikam, perhaps the father of this, 2Ki 22:3; in Eze 11:2; he is said to be the son of Azur, and one of the princes of the people:

with every man his censer in his hand; to offer incense to the idols portrayed on the wall; and which they did, for it follows:

and a thick cloud of incense went up; there were many that offered; and perhaps they offered a large quantity, being very liberal and profuse in this kind of devotion to their idols.

Gill: Eze 8:12 - Then said he unto me, son of man, hast thou seen // what the ancients of the house of Israel do in the dark // every man in the chambers of his imagery // for they say, the Lord seeth not, the Lord hath forsaken the earth Then said he unto me, son of man, hast thou seen,.... Here should be a stop, as the accent "segolta" shows; hast thou taken notice of, hast thou consi...

Then said he unto me, son of man, hast thou seen,.... Here should be a stop, as the accent "segolta" shows; hast thou taken notice of, hast thou considered, what thou hast seen, the amazing shocking abominations committed by these men? it follows, and the question is to be repeated, "hast thou seen"

what the ancients of the house of Israel do in the dark? their deeds being evil, such as will not bear the light, of which they had reason to be ashamed before men; and which they imagined would not be seen by the Lord, though the darkness and the light are both alike to him:

every man in the chambers of his imagery? the Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic versions, render it, "in his hidden" or "secret chamber"; and the Vulgate Latin version, "in the hidden place of his bedchamber". The Targum is,

"in the chamber of the house of his bed;''

in his bedchamber; that is, in those chambers of the temple, which belonged to the priests and Levites, on the walls of which were portrayed the images and pictures of their gods. Here they had their secret rites or mysteries performed, in imitation of the Heathens; who had the several mysteries of their religion privately observed; to which none were admitted but those that were initiated into them; as those of Osiris among the Egyptians; of Ceres with the Grecians; and of Bona Dea among the Romans; as Junius observes. Though some interpret this of the imaginations of their minds, according to which they framed to themselves deities, and a form of worship;

for they say, the Lord seeth not, the Lord hath forsaken the earth; this they gave as a reason of their idolatry, because the Lord took no notice of them, did not help them when in distress; but, as they concluded, had forsaken them; therefore they betook themselves to the gods of the Egyptians, Syrians, and other nations, for their assistance and protection: for these words are not the language of Epicureans, or such who deny the providence of God in general; who think that God takes no notice of the lower world, only of the upper one, as Kimchi and others interpret them; for these elders of Israel were not so ignorant and stupid as to deny the general providence of God, only distrusted his particular care of them.

Gill: Eze 8:13 - He said also unto me, turn thee yet again // and thou shall see greater abominations that they do He said also unto me, turn thee yet again,.... Towards the north, as before; See Gill on Eze 8:6; and thou shall see greater abominations that the...

He said also unto me, turn thee yet again,.... Towards the north, as before; See Gill on Eze 8:6;

and thou shall see greater abominations that they do; or: "the great abominations"; for so the words may be strictly rendered; nor does it appear that what follows, though great abominations, were greater than the creeping things, four footed beasts, and other idols, or dunghill gods, portrayed upon the walls, which the elders of Israel burnt incense to.

Gill: Eze 8:14 - Then he brought me to the door of the gate of the Lord's house, which was towards the north // and, behold, there sat women weeping for Tammuz Then he brought me to the door of the gate of the Lord's house, which was towards the north,.... By "the Lord's house" no doubt is meant the temple, ...

Then he brought me to the door of the gate of the Lord's house, which was towards the north,.... By "the Lord's house" no doubt is meant the temple, which the Targum here calls the house of the sanctuary of the Lord; that gate of the temple (for the temple had several gates) which was to the north was the gate called Teri or Tedi, and was very little used y. In this part of the temple were the sacrifices offered; and therefore it was the greater abomination to commit idolatry where the Lord was more solemnly worshipped:

and, behold, there sat women weeping for Tammuz: they were not in the court of the women, where they should have been; but at the northern gate, near the place of sacrifice; and they were sitting there, which none but the kings of the house of Judah, and of the family of David, were allowed in the temple z; but, what was the greatest abomination, they were weeping for Tammuz. Jarchi says this was an image, which they heated inwardly, and its eyes were of lead; and these being melted with the heat, it seemed to weep; wherefore (the women) said, it asks for an offering: but not the idol, but the women, wept. Kimchi relates various interpretations of it;

"some (he says) expound it by an antiphrasis, "making Tammuz glad"; in the month of Tammuz they made a feast to the idol, and the women came to make him glad: others say, that with great diligence they brought water to the eyes of the idol called Tammuz, and it wept; signifying that it desired they would worship it: others interpret the word Tammuz as signifying "burnt"; (from the words in Dan 3:19; למזא לאתונא, "to heat the furnace";) as if should say, they wept for him, because he was for they burnt their sons and daughters in the fire, and the women wept for them. He further observes, that Maimonides a writes, that he found written in one of the books of the ancient idolaters, that there was a man of the idolatrous prophets, whose name was Tammuz; who called to a certain king, and commanded him to worship the seven stars, and the twelve signs of the zodiac, for which the king put him to a violent death; and, the same night he died, all the images from the ends of the earth gathered together to the temple of Babylon, to a golden image which was the image of the sun; and this image was hanging between the heavens and the earth, and it fell into the midst of the temple, and so all the images round about it; and it declared unto them what had happened to Tammuz the prophet; and all the images wept and lamented all that night; and when it was morning, they all fled to their temples at the ends of the earth; and this became an everlasting statute to them, that at the beginning of the first day of the month Tammuz, every year, they lament and weeps for Tammuz; and there are others that expound Tammuz the name of a beast which they worship;''

but, leaving these interpretations, Tammuz was either the Adonis of the Grecians; and so the Vulgate Latin version renders it Adonis; who was a young man beloved by Venus, and, being killed by a boar, his death was lamented by her; and, in respect to the goddess, an anniversary solemnity was kept by men and women lamenting his death, especially by women. So Pausanias, speaking of a certain place, there (says he) the women of the Argives (a people in Greece) mourn for Adonis b. Lucian c gives a particular account of this ceremony, as performed at Byblus, a city in Phoenicia, not far from Judea; from whence the Jews might have borrowed this custom.

"I have seen (says he), in Byblus, a large temple of Venus Byblia, where they performed the rites unto Adonis, and I was a spectator of them. The Byblians say the affair relating to Adonis (or his death) by a boar happened in their country; and, in memory of it, every year they beat themselves, lament and offer sacrifice, and great mourning goes through the whole country; and when they beat themselves and mourn, they sacrifice to Adonis as dead; but the day following they pretend he is alive; and they shave their heads, as the Egyptians do at the death of Apis;''

and indeed it is thought by some that this Tammuz is the Osiris of the Egyptians; the same with Mizraim, the first king of Egypt, who, being slain in battle, his wife his ordered that he should be worshipped as a god, and a yearly lamentation made for him; and indeed Osiris and Adonis seem to be one and the same, only in different nations called by different names. Mention is made in Plato d of Thamus, a king that reigned at Thebes over all Egypt, and was the god called Ammon; no doubt the same with this Tammuz; and who is here called, in the Syriac and Arabic versions, Thamuz or Tamuz; he seems to be the same with Ham; and Egypt was called, the land of Ham, Psa 105:27; and it is most probable the Jews borrowed this piece of idolatry from the Egyptians their neighbours; with whom they were now very familiar, and from whom they expected help against the Chaldeans; but as there were such shocking obscenities used in this idolatrous service, it is most amazing that the Jewish women, who had been instructed in the law and worship of God, should ever go into it. Gussetius e thinks that Bacchus, the god of wine, is meant; and gives several reasons for it; and among the rest observes, that in the fourth month, called Tammuz from him, the vine was forming in ripe grapes; near the beginning of a fifth month, it was pressed out, and tunned up; and by the next month, having done fermenting, it was stopped up, which represented him buried; and for which the weeping was in this month.

Gill: Eze 8:15 - Then said he unto me, hast thou seen this, O son of man // turn thee yet again, and thou shalt see greater abominations than these Then said he unto me, hast thou seen this, O son of man?.... This shocking piece of idolatry, women weeping for Tammuz: turn thee yet again, and ...

Then said he unto me, hast thou seen this, O son of man?.... This shocking piece of idolatry, women weeping for Tammuz:

turn thee yet again, and thou shalt see greater abominations than these; or, "great abominations besides these" f.

Gill: Eze 8:16 - And he brought me into the inner court of the Lord's house // and, behold, at the door of the temple of the Lord, between the porch and the altar // were about five and twenty men // with their backs towards the temple of the Lord // and their faces towards the east // and they worshipped the sun towards the east And he brought me into the inner court of the Lord's house,.... The court of the priests, where they offered sacrifice, and into which none might come...

And he brought me into the inner court of the Lord's house,.... The court of the priests, where they offered sacrifice, and into which none might come but themselves:

and, behold, at the door of the temple of the Lord, between the porch and the altar; the porch that led into the temple, and the brasen altar, the altar of burnt offerings, which was a very sacred place, and reckoned more holy than the court of the priests g.

were about five and twenty men; the number, more or less, not being exactly known; who they were, whether the priests or princes of the people, is not certain; probably some of both:

with their backs towards the temple of the Lord; that is, the most holy place, which they were obliged to, in order to do what is afterwards affirmed of them; for the sanctuary was built to the west, that in their worship the Jews might not look to the east, as the Gentiles did; wherefore these men, that they might imitate the Gentiles in their idolatry, turned their backs to the most holy place; which is an aggravation of their impiety; casting the utmost contempt on God, his worship, and the place of it:

and their faces towards the east: when the sun rises:

and they worshipped the sun towards the east; as many nations did, though forbidden the Jews by an express law of God, Deu 4:19; yet this they fell into, and had horses and chariots devoted to this idolatry; see 2Ki 21:3. The word rendered "worshipped" is compounded of two words; one signifying to "corrupt", the other to "worship": showing that, by worshipping the sun, they corrupted themselves, and the house of God; and so the Targum renders it,

"and, lo, they corrupted themselves, worshipping in the east the sun;''

and so it is explained in the Jerusalem Talmud,

"they corrupted the temple, and worshipped the sun;''

but Kimchi thinks the word h consists of the verb in the past tense, and of the participle; and that the sense is, when the prophet saw the men worshipping the sun to the east, as amazed at it, put this question to those that went in, "do ye worship also?" i so Ben Melech.

Gill: Eze 8:17 - Then he said unto me, hast thou seen this, O son of man // is it a light thing to the house of Judah that they commit the abominations which they commit here // for they have filled the land with violence // and have returned to provoke me to anger // and, lo, they put the branch to their nose Then he said unto me, hast thou seen this, O son of man?.... Took notice of and considered this piece of idolatry, worshipping the sun toward the eas...

Then he said unto me, hast thou seen this, O son of man?.... Took notice of and considered this piece of idolatry, worshipping the sun toward the east:

is it a light thing to the house of Judah that they commit the abominations which they commit here? could these things, which are such dreadful abominations, committed here in the temple, be reckoned light things by them, as surely they cannot? yet these are not all that they have done:

for they have filled the land with violence; with rapine and oppression; doing injury to the poor and needy, the widow and the fatherless, in all places:

and have returned to provoke me to anger; by other instances of idolatry:

and, lo, they put the branch to their nose; a laurel, or olive, or vine branch, which idolaters carried in their hands, and put to their nose, in honour of the idol they worshipped; in like manner as they kissed their hand at the sight of the sun, Job 31:26; and which the Jews did in imitation of the Heathen. This is one of the eighteen places in which there is "tikkun sopherim", or a "correction of the scribes"; who, instead of "my nose", direct to read "their nose"; hence the words are differently interpreted by the Jewish commentators; who, by זמורה, rendered "branch", think an ill smell is meant; arising either from their posteriors, their back being towards the temple; or from the incense which they offered up to their idols; so Kimchi and Menachem in Jarchi; agreeably to which Fortunatus Scacchus k understands this, not of any branch used by idolaters, which they put to the nose of their idol, or their own, for the honour of that; but of the censer which the Israelites used, contrary to the command of God, and which they put to their nose to enjoy a forbidden smell; see Eze 16:18; but Gussetius l gives another sense of the words, rendering them, "they send forth a branch to their anger"; the Israelites are compared to a vine, as in Isa 5:1; sending forth bad branches, idolatrous actions, as here in this chapter; and to these bad branches they sent forth or added another, even anger against God, the prophets, true believers, and right worshippers of God; and therefore he also would deal in fury and wrath, as in Eze 8:18; so Dr. Lightfoot m renders it,

""they send the branch to my wrath", or "to their own wrath"; that is, to what they have deserved; as if it was said, in the same manner that anyone puts wood to the fire, the branch of the wild vine, that it may the more quickly be burnt; so do these put the branch to my wrath, that it may burn the more fiercely; hence it follows, "therefore will I also deal in fury", &c.''

The Targum is,

"and, lo, they bring shame (or confusion) to their faces;''

what they do turns to their own ruin and destruction; as follows:

Gill: Eze 8:18 - Therefore will I also deal in fury // mine eye shall not spare: neither will I have pity // and though they cry in mine ears with a loud voice // yet will I not hear them Therefore will I also deal in fury,.... Being provoked by such abominable idolatries, and such horrid insolence, and most contemptuous treatment: m...

Therefore will I also deal in fury,.... Being provoked by such abominable idolatries, and such horrid insolence, and most contemptuous treatment:

mine eye shall not spare: neither will I have pity: see Eze 5:11;

and though they cry in mine ears with a loud voice; very pressingly and earnestly for help, being in great distress:

yet will I not hear them; as they turned their backs on him, he will turn a deaf ear to them, and not regard their cries. The Targum is,

"they shall pray before me, with a great voice, and I will not receive their prayer.''

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Eze 8:1 Heb “fell upon me there,” that is, God’s influence came over him.

NET Notes: Eze 8:2 See Ezek 1:4.

NET Notes: Eze 8:3 Or “image.”

NET Notes: Eze 8:5 Heb “lift your eyes (to) the way of.”

NET Notes: Eze 8:6 Heb “house.”

NET Notes: Eze 8:10 These engravings were prohibited in the Mosaic law (Deut 4:16-18).

NET Notes: Eze 8:11 The Hebrew word occurs only here in the OT.

NET Notes: Eze 8:12 This type of image is explicitly prohibited in the Mosaic law (Lev 26:1).

NET Notes: Eze 8:14 The worship of Tammuz included the observation of the annual death and descent into the netherworld of the god Dumuzi. The practice was observed by wo...

NET Notes: Eze 8:16 The worship of astral entities may have begun during the reign of Manasseh (2 Kgs 21:5).

NET Notes: Eze 8:17 It is not clear what the practice of “holding a branch to the nose” indicates. A possible parallel is the Syrian relief of a king holding ...

NET Notes: Eze 8:18 The meaning of the Hebrew term is primarily emotional: “to pity,” which in context implies an action, as in being moved by pity in order t...

Geneva Bible: Eze 8:1 And it came to pass in the ( a ) sixth year, in the ( b ) sixth [month], in the fifth [day] of the month, [as] I sat in my house, and the elders of Ju...

Geneva Bible: Eze 8:2 Then I beheld, and lo a likeness as the appearance of ( c ) fire: from the appearance of his loins even downward, fire; and from his loins even upward...

Geneva Bible: Eze 8:3 And he put forth the form of an hand, and took me by a lock of my head; and the spirit lifted me up between the earth and the heaven, and brought me i...

Geneva Bible: Eze 8:4 And, behold, the glory of the God of Israel [was] there, according to the vision that I saw ( g ) in the plain. ( g ) Read (Eze 3:22).

Geneva Bible: Eze 8:5 Then said he to me, Son of man, lift up thy eyes now the way toward the north. So I lifted up my eyes the way toward the north, and behold northward a...

Geneva Bible: Eze 8:6 He said furthermore to me, Son of man, seest thou what they do? [even] the great abominations that the house of Israel committeth here, that I should ...

Geneva Bible: Eze 8:10 So I went in and saw; and behold every form of creeping animals, and ( k ) abominable beasts, and all the idols of the house of Israel, portrayed arou...

Geneva Bible: Eze 8:11 And there stood before them seventy ( l ) men of the elders of the house of Israel, and in the midst of them stood Jaazaniah the son of Shaphan, with ...

Geneva Bible: Eze 8:12 Then said he to me, Son of man, hast thou seen what the elders of the house of Israel ( n ) do in the dark, every man in the chambers of his imagery? ...

Geneva Bible: Eze 8:14 Then he brought me to the door of the gate of the LORD'S house which [was] toward the north; and, behold, there sat women weeping for ( o ) Tammuz. (...

Geneva Bible: Eze 8:17 Then he said to me, Hast thou seen [this], O son of man? Is it a light thing to the house of Judah that they commit the abominations which they commit...

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Eze 8:12 - A Libation To Jehovah Chambers Of Imagery Then said He unto me, Son of man, hast thou seen what the ancients of the house of Israel do in the dark, every man in the chambe...

MHCC: Eze 8:1-6 - --The glorious personage Ezekiel beheld in vision, seemed to take hold upon him, and he was conveyed in spirit to Jerusalem. There, in the inner court o...

MHCC: Eze 8:7-12 - --A secret place was, as it were, opened, where the prophet saw creatures painted on the walls, and a number of the elders of Israel worshipped before t...

MHCC: Eze 8:13-18 - --The yearly lamenting for Tammuz was attended with infamous practices; and the worshippers of the sun here described, are supposed to have been priests...

Matthew Henry: Eze 8:1-6 - -- Ezekiel was now in Babylon; but the messages of wrath he had delivered in the foregoing chapters related to Jerusalem, for in the peace or trouble t...

Matthew Henry: Eze 8:7-12 - -- We have here a further discovery of the abominations that were committed at Jerusalem, and within the confines of the temple, too. Now observe, I. H...

Matthew Henry: Eze 8:13-18 - -- Here we have, I. More and greater abominations discovered to the prophet. He thought that what he had seen was bad enough and yet (Eze 8:13): Turn ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Eze 8:1-4 - -- Abominations of the Idolatry of the House of Israel Time and place of the divine revelation. - Eze 8:1. And it came to pass in the sixth year, in ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Eze 8:5-6 - -- First Abomination-Picture Eze 8:5. And He said to me, Son of man, lift up thine eyes now towards the north. And I lifted up my eyes towards the ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Eze 8:7-12 - -- Second Abomination: Worship of Beasts Eze 8:7. And He brought me to the entrance of the court, and I saw, and behold there was a hole in the wall....

Keil-Delitzsch: Eze 8:13-15 - -- Third Abomination: Worship of Thammuz Eze 8:13. And He said to me, Thou shalt yet again see still greater abominations which they do. Eze 8:14....

Keil-Delitzsch: Eze 8:16-18 - -- Fourth Abomination: Worship of the Sun by the Priests Eze 8:16. And He took me into the inner court of the house of Jehovah, and behold, at the en...

Constable: Eze 4:1--24:27 - --II. Oracles of judgment on Judah and Jerusalem for sin chs. 4-24 This section of the book contains prophecies th...

Constable: Eze 8:1--11:25 - --B. The vision of the departure of Yahweh's glory chs. 8-11 These chapters all concern one vision that Ez...

Constable: Eze 8:1-18 - --1. The idolatry of the house of Israel ch. 8 This chapter contrasts the glory of God with the id...

Constable: Eze 8:1-6 - --The image of jealousy 8:1-6 8:1 The following prophecy came to Ezekiel during September of 592 B.C. as he was sitting in his house with the elders of ...

Constable: Eze 8:7-13 - --The idolatry of the elders 8:7-13 8:7-8 The Lord then brought Ezekiel, in his vision, to some entrance to the temple courtyard. There Ezekiel saw a ho...

Constable: Eze 8:14-15 - --The idolatry of the women 8:14-15 8:14 The Lord then brought Ezekiel to the north entrance to the inner temple courtyard, in his vision (cf. vv. 3, 5)...

Constable: Eze 8:16-18 - --The idolatry of the priests 8:16-18 8:16 The Lord next took Ezekiel to the main entrance into the temple, to a place between the altar of burnt offeri...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Ezekiel (Pendahuluan Kitab) The name Ezekiel means "(whom) God will strengthen" [GESENIUS]; or, "God will prevail" [ROSENMULLER]. His father was Buzi (Eze 1:3), a priest, and he ...

JFB: Ezekiel (Garis Besar) EZEKIEL'S VISION BY THE CHEBAR. FOUR CHERUBIM AND WHEELS. (Eze. 1:1-28) EZEKIEL'S COMMISSION. (Eze 2:1-10) EZEKIEL EATS THE ROLL. IS COMMISSIONED TO ...

TSK: Ezekiel (Pendahuluan Kitab) The character of Ezekiel, as a Writer and Poet, is thus admirably drawn by the masterly hand of Bishop Lowth: " Ezekiel is much inferior to Jeremiah ...

TSK: Ezekiel 8 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Eze 8:1, Ezekiel, in a vision of God at Jerusalem, Eze 8:5, is shewn the image of jealousy; Eze 8:7, the chambers of imagery; Eze 8:13, t...

Poole: Ezekiel (Pendahuluan Kitab) BOOK OF THE PROPHET EZEKIEL THE ARGUMENT EZEKIEL was by descent a priest, and by commission a prophet, and received it from heaven, as will appea...

Poole: Ezekiel 8 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 8 Ezekiel is brought in a vision of God to Jerusalem, Eze 8:1-4 , and showed the image of jealousy set up in the temple, Eze 8:5,6 , the wo...

MHCC: Ezekiel (Pendahuluan Kitab) Ezekiel was one of the priests; he was carried captive to Chaldea with Jehoiachin. All his prophecies appear to have been delivered in that country, a...

MHCC: Ezekiel 8 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Eze 8:1-6) The idolatries committed by the Jewish rulers. (Eze 8:7-12) The superstitions to which the Jews were then devoted, the Egyptian. (Eze 8:...

Matthew Henry: Ezekiel (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Book of the Prophet Ezekiel When we entered upon the writings of the prophets, which speak of the ...

Matthew Henry: Ezekiel 8 (Pendahuluan Pasal) God, having given the prophet a clear foresight of the people's miseries that were hastening on, here gives him a clear insight into the people's w...

Constable: Ezekiel (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title and Writer The title of this book comes from its writer, Ezekiel, t...

Constable: Ezekiel (Garis Besar) Outline I. Ezekiel's calling and commission chs. 1-3 A. The vision of God's glory ch. 1 ...

Constable: Ezekiel Ezekiel Bibliography Ackroyd, Peter R. Exile and Restoration. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1968. ...

Haydock: Ezekiel (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE PROPHECY OF EZECHIEL. INTRODUCTION. Ezechiel, whose name signifies the strength of God, was of the priestly race, and of the number of t...

Gill: Ezekiel (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO EZEKIEL This book is rightly placed after Jeremiah; since Ezekiel was among the captives in Chaldea, when prophesied; whereas Jerem...

Gill: Ezekiel 8 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO EZEKIEL 8 This chapter contains a vision the prophet had of the idolatry of the Jews, which was the cause of their destruction. The...

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