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Teks -- Revelation 3:1-22 (NET)

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To the Church in Sardis
3:1 “To the angel of the church in Sardis write the following: “This is the solemn pronouncement of the one who holds the seven spirits of God and the seven stars: ‘I know your deeds, that you have a reputation that you are alive, but in reality you are dead. 3:2 Wake up then, and strengthen what remains that was about to die, because I have not found your deeds complete in the sight of my God. 3:3 Therefore, remember what you received and heard, and obey it, and repent. If you do not wake up, I will come like a thief, and you will never know at what hour I will come against you. 3:4 But you have a few individuals in Sardis who have not stained their clothes, and they will walk with me dressed in white, because they are worthy. 3:5 The one who conquers will be dressed like them in white clothing, and I will never erase his name from the book of life, but will declare his name before my Father and before his angels. 3:6 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’
To the Church in Philadelphia
3:7 “To the angel of the church in Philadelphia write the following: “This is the solemn pronouncement of the Holy One, the True One, who holds the key of David, who opens doors no one can shut, and shuts doors no one can open: 3:8 ‘I know your deeds. (Look! I have put in front of you an open door that no one can shut.) I know that you have little strength, but you have obeyed my word and have not denied my name. 3:9 Listen! I am going to make those people from the synagogue of Satan– who say they are Jews yet are not, but are lying– Look, I will make them come and bow down at your feet and acknowledge that I have loved you. 3:10 Because you have kept my admonition to endure steadfastly, I will also keep you from the hour of testing that is about to come on the whole world to test those who live on the earth. 3:11 I am coming soon. Hold on to what you have so that no one can take away your crown. 3:12 The one who conquers I will make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will never depart from it. I will write on him the name of my God and the name of the city of my God (the new Jerusalem that comes down out of heaven from my God), and my new name as well. 3:13 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’
To the Church in Laodicea
3:14 “To the angel of the church in Laodicea write the following: “This is the solemn pronouncement of the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the originator of God’s creation: 3:15 ‘I know your deeds, that you are neither cold nor hot. I wish you were either cold or hot! 3:16 So because you are lukewarm, and neither hot nor cold, I am going to vomit you out of my mouth! 3:17 Because you say, “I am rich and have acquired great wealth, and need nothing,” but do not realize that you are wretched, pitiful, poor, blind, and naked, 3:18 take my advice and buy gold from me refined by fire so you can become rich! Buy from me white clothing so you can be clothed and your shameful nakedness will not be exposed, and buy eye salve to put on your eyes so you can see! 3:19 All those I love, I rebuke and discipline. So be earnest and repent! 3:20 Listen! I am standing at the door and knocking! If anyone hears my voice and opens the door I will come into his home and share a meal with him, and he with me. 3:21 I will grant the one who conquers permission to sit with me on my throne, just as I too conquered and sat down with my Father on his throne. 3:22 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Jews the people descended from Israel
 · Laodicea residents of the town of Laodicea
 · Philadelphia a town in Lydia in the western part of Asia Minor
 · Sardis the capital city of the province of Lydia in Asia Minor
 · Satan a person, male (evil angelic),an angel that has rebelled against God


Topik/Tema Kamus: Jesus, The Christ | REVELATION OF JOHN | Laodicea | Philadelphia | Sardis | Church | Backsliders | COLOSSIANS, EPISTLE TO THE | Decision | Wicked | Lukewarmness | Righteous | PAROUSIA | Door | Perseverance | War | God | Salvation | Repentance | Key | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Rev 3:1 - In Sardis In Sardis ( en Sardesin ). Some thirty miles south-east of Thyatira, old capital of Lydia, wealthy and the home of Croesus, conquered by Cyrus and th...

In Sardis ( en Sardesin ).

Some thirty miles south-east of Thyatira, old capital of Lydia, wealthy and the home of Croesus, conquered by Cyrus and then by Alexander the Great, in b.c. 214 by Antiochus the Great, at the crossing of Roman roads, in a plain watered by the river Pactolus, according to Pliny the place where the dyeing of wool was discovered, seat of the licentious worship of Cybele and the ruins of the temple still there, called by Ramsay ( op. cit. , p. 354) "the city of Death,"city of softness and luxury, of apathy and immorality, "a contrast of past splendour and present unresting decline"(Charles). Along with Laodicea it was blamed most of all the seven churches.

Robertson: Rev 3:1 - That hath the seven Spirits of God That hath the seven Spirits of God ( ho echōn ta hepta pneumata tou theou ). For which picture of the Holy Spirit see Rev 1:4.

That hath the seven Spirits of God ( ho echōn ta hepta pneumata tou theou ).

For which picture of the Holy Spirit see Rev 1:4.

Robertson: Rev 3:1 - And the seven stars And the seven stars ( kai tous hepta asteras ). As in Rev 1:16, Rev 1:20.

And the seven stars ( kai tous hepta asteras ).

As in Rev 1:16, Rev 1:20.

Robertson: Rev 3:1 - A name that thou livest A name that thou livest ( onoma hoti zēis ). A name in contrast with reality. The hoti clause in apposition with onoma .

A name that thou livest ( onoma hoti zēis ).

A name in contrast with reality. The hoti clause in apposition with onoma .

Robertson: Rev 3:1 - And thou art dead And thou art dead ( kai nekros ei ). "The paradox of death under the name of life"(Swete). Not complete (a nucleus of life) death (Rev 3:2), but rapi...

And thou art dead ( kai nekros ei ).

"The paradox of death under the name of life"(Swete). Not complete (a nucleus of life) death (Rev 3:2), but rapidly dying. See the picture in Jam 2:17; 2Co 6:9; 2Ti 3:5.

Robertson: Rev 3:2 - Be thou watchful Be thou watchful ( ginou grēgorōn ). Periphrastic imperative with present middle of ginomai (keep on becoming) and present active participle of...

Be thou watchful ( ginou grēgorōn ).

Periphrastic imperative with present middle of ginomai (keep on becoming) and present active participle of grēgoreō (late present from perfect egrēgora and that from egeirō , as in Mat 24:42) and see Rev 16:15 for grēgoreō also. He does not say "Arise from the dead"(Eph 5:14), for there are vestiges of life. Those still alive are addressed through the angel of the church.

Robertson: Rev 3:2 - Stablish the things that remain Stablish the things that remain ( stērison ta loipa ). First aorist active imperative of stērizō , to make stable. Those not actually dead, but...

Stablish the things that remain ( stērison ta loipa ).

First aorist active imperative of stērizō , to make stable. Those not actually dead, but in grave peril. See a like command to Titus in Crete (Tit 1:5). Every new pastor faces such a problem.

Robertson: Rev 3:2 - Which were ready to die Which were ready to die ( ha emellon apothanein ). Imperfect active plural because the individuals, though neuter plural, are regarded as living real...

Which were ready to die ( ha emellon apothanein ).

Imperfect active plural because the individuals, though neuter plural, are regarded as living realities. The imperfect looking on the situation "with a delicate optimism"(Swete) as having passed the crisis, a sort of epistolary imperfect.

Robertson: Rev 3:2 - For I have found no works of thine For I have found no works of thine ( ou gar heurēka sou erga ). "For I have not found any works of thine."Perfect active indicative of heuriskō ....

For I have found no works of thine ( ou gar heurēka sou erga ).

"For I have not found any works of thine."Perfect active indicative of heuriskō . The church as a whole represented by sou (thy).

Robertson: Rev 3:2 - Fulfilled Fulfilled ( peplērōmena ). Perfect passive predicate participle of plēroō . Their works have not measured up to God’ s standard (enōpi...

Fulfilled ( peplērōmena ).

Perfect passive predicate participle of plēroō . Their works have not measured up to God’ s standard (enōpion tou theou mou ).

Robertson: Rev 3:3 - Remember Remember ( mnēmoneue ). "Keep in mind,"as in Rev 2:5.

Remember ( mnēmoneue ).

"Keep in mind,"as in Rev 2:5.

Robertson: Rev 3:3 - Therefore Therefore ( oun ). Resumptive and coordinating as in Rev 1:19; Rev 2:5.

Therefore ( oun ).

Resumptive and coordinating as in Rev 1:19; Rev 2:5.

Robertson: Rev 3:3 - Thou hast received Thou hast received ( eilēphas ). Perfect active indicative of lambanō , "as a permanent deposit"(Vincent).

Thou hast received ( eilēphas ).

Perfect active indicative of lambanō , "as a permanent deposit"(Vincent).

Robertson: Rev 3:3 - Didst hear Didst hear ( ēkousas ). First aorist active indicative, the act of hearing at the time.

Didst hear ( ēkousas ).

First aorist active indicative, the act of hearing at the time.

Robertson: Rev 3:3 - And keep it And keep it ( kai tērei ). Present active imperative of tēreō , "hold on to what thou hast."

And keep it ( kai tērei ).

Present active imperative of tēreō , "hold on to what thou hast."

Robertson: Rev 3:3 - And repent And repent ( kai metanoēson ). First aorist active imperative of metanoeō , "Turn at once."

And repent ( kai metanoēson ).

First aorist active imperative of metanoeō , "Turn at once."

Robertson: Rev 3:3 - If therefore thou shalt not watch If therefore thou shalt not watch ( ean oun mē grēgorēsēis ). Condition of third class with ean mē and the first aorist (ingressive) acti...

If therefore thou shalt not watch ( ean oun mē grēgorēsēis ).

Condition of third class with ean mē and the first aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive of grēgoreō , "if then thou do not wake up."

Robertson: Rev 3:3 - I will come I will come ( hēxō ). Certainly future active here, though probably aorist subjunctive in Rev 2:25.

I will come ( hēxō ).

Certainly future active here, though probably aorist subjunctive in Rev 2:25.

Robertson: Rev 3:3 - As a thief As a thief ( hōs kleptēs ). As Jesus had already said (Mat 24:43; Luk 12:39), as Paul had said (1Th 5:2), as Peter had said (2Pe 3:10), as Jesus ...

As a thief ( hōs kleptēs ).

As Jesus had already said (Mat 24:43; Luk 12:39), as Paul had said (1Th 5:2), as Peter had said (2Pe 3:10), as Jesus will say again (Rev 16:15).

Robertson: Rev 3:3 - Thou shalt not know Thou shalt not know ( ou mē gnōis ). Strong double negative ou mē with second aorist active subjunctive of ginōskō , though some MSS. hav...

Thou shalt not know ( ou mē gnōis ).

Strong double negative ou mē with second aorist active subjunctive of ginōskō , though some MSS. have the future middle indicative gnōsēi .

Robertson: Rev 3:3 - What hour What hour ( poian hōran ). A rare classical idiom (accusative) surviving in the Koiné rather than the genitive of time, somewhat like Joh 4:52; ...

What hour ( poian hōran ).

A rare classical idiom (accusative) surviving in the Koiné rather than the genitive of time, somewhat like Joh 4:52; Act 20:16 (Robertson, Grammar , p. 470f.). Indirect question with poian .

Robertson: Rev 3:4 - A few names A few names ( oliga onomata ). This use of onoma for persons is seen in the Koiné (Deissmann, Bible Studies , p. 196f.) as in Act 1:15; Rev 11:...

A few names ( oliga onomata ).

This use of onoma for persons is seen in the Koiné (Deissmann, Bible Studies , p. 196f.) as in Act 1:15; Rev 11:13.

Robertson: Rev 3:4 - Did not defile Did not defile ( ouk emolunan ). First aorist active indicative of molunō (1Co 8:7; 1Pe 1:4), pollution.

Did not defile ( ouk emolunan ).

First aorist active indicative of molunō (1Co 8:7; 1Pe 1:4), pollution.

Robertson: Rev 3:4 - They shall walk They shall walk ( peripatēsousin ). Future active of peripateō , promise of fellowship with Christ (met' emou , with me) "in white"(en leukois )...

They shall walk ( peripatēsousin ).

Future active of peripateō , promise of fellowship with Christ (met' emou , with me) "in white"(en leukois ), as symbols of purity (Rev 7:9, Rev 7:13) like the angel (Mat 28:3), with possibly a reference to Enoch (Gen 5:22). For they are worthy (hoti axioi eisin ). To walk with Christ, not worthy in the same sense as God and Christ (Rev 4:11; Rev 5:9), but in a relative sense. See Rev 16:6 for bad sense of axios .

Robertson: Rev 3:5 - Shall be arrayed Shall be arrayed ( peribaleitai ). Future middle indicative of periballō , to fling around one, here and in Rev 4:4 with en and the locative, but...

Shall be arrayed ( peribaleitai ).

Future middle indicative of periballō , to fling around one, here and in Rev 4:4 with en and the locative, but usually in this book with the accusative of the thing, retained in the passive or with the middle (Rev 7:9, Rev 7:13; Rev 10:1; Rev 11:3; Rev 12:1; Rev 17:4; Rev 18:16; Rev 19:8, Rev 19:13).

Robertson: Rev 3:5 - In white garments In white garments ( en himatiois leukois ). Apparently the spiritual bodies in the risen life as in 2Co 5:1, 2Co 5:4 and often in Revelation (Rev 3:4...

In white garments ( en himatiois leukois ).

Apparently the spiritual bodies in the risen life as in 2Co 5:1, 2Co 5:4 and often in Revelation (Rev 3:4, Rev 3:5; Rev 6:11; Rev 7:9, Rev 7:13.; Rev 19:8).

Robertson: Rev 3:5 - I will in no wise blot out I will in no wise blot out ( ou mē exaleipsō ). Strong double negative ou mē and the first aorist active (or future) of exaleiphō , old wor...

I will in no wise blot out ( ou mē exaleipsō ).

Strong double negative ou mē and the first aorist active (or future) of exaleiphō , old word, to wipe out (Act 3:19).

Robertson: Rev 3:5 - Of the book of life Of the book of life ( ek tēs biblou tēs zōēs ). Ablative case with ek . This divine register first occurs in Exo 32:32. and often in the O.T....

Of the book of life ( ek tēs biblou tēs zōēs ).

Ablative case with ek . This divine register first occurs in Exo 32:32. and often in the O.T. See Luk 10:20; Phi 4:3; Rev 13:8; Rev 20:15; Rev 21:27. The book is in Christ’ s hands (Rev 13:8; Rev 21:27).

Robertson: Rev 3:5 - His name His name ( to onoma autou ). The name of the one who overcomes (ho nikōn ). Clear reminiscence of the words of Christ about confessing to the Fath...

His name ( to onoma autou ).

The name of the one who overcomes (ho nikōn ). Clear reminiscence of the words of Christ about confessing to the Father those who confess him here (Mat 10:32; Mar 8:38; Luk 9:26; Luk 12:8). Whether John knew the Synoptic Gospels (and why not?) he certainly knew such sayings of Jesus.

Robertson: Rev 3:7 - In Philadelphia In Philadelphia ( en Philadelphiāi ). Some twenty-eight miles south-east of Sardis, in Lydia, subject to earthquakes, rebuilt by Tiberius after the...

In Philadelphia ( en Philadelphiāi ).

Some twenty-eight miles south-east of Sardis, in Lydia, subject to earthquakes, rebuilt by Tiberius after the great earthquake of a.d. 17, for a time called in coins Neo-Caesarea, in wine-growing district with Bacchus (Dionysos) as the chief deity, on fine Roman roads and of commercial importance, though not a large city, called by Ramsay ( op. cit. , p. 392) "the Missionary City"to promote the spread of the Graeco-Roman civilization and then of Christianity, later offering stubborn resistance to the Turks (1379-90 a.d.) and now called Ala-Sheher (reddish city, Charles, from the red hills behind it). The chief opposition to the faithful little church is from the Jews (cf. Rom 9-11). There are some 1,000 Christians there today.

Robertson: Rev 3:7 - The holy, he that is true The holy, he that is true ( ho hagios , ho alēthinos ). Separate articles (four in all) for each item in this description. "The holy, the genuine....

The holy, he that is true ( ho hagios , ho alēthinos ).

Separate articles (four in all) for each item in this description. "The holy, the genuine."Asyndeton in the Greek. Latin Vulgate, Sanctus et Verus . Hosea hagios is ascribed to God in Rev 4:8; Rev 6:10 (both hagios and alēthinos as here), but to Christ in Mar 1:24; Luk 4:34; Joh 6:69; Act 4:27, Act 4:30; 1Jo 2:20, a recognized title of the Messiah as the consecrated one set apart. Swete notes that alēthinos is verus as distinguished from verax (alēthēs ). So it is applied to God in Rev 6:10 and to Christ in Rev 3:14; Rev 19:11 as in Joh 1:9; Joh 6:32; Joh 15:1.

Robertson: Rev 3:7 - He that hath the key of David He that hath the key of David ( ho echōn tēn klein Daueid ). This epithet comes from Isa 22:22, where Eliakim as the chief steward of the royal h...

He that hath the key of David ( ho echōn tēn klein Daueid ).

This epithet comes from Isa 22:22, where Eliakim as the chief steward of the royal household holds the keys of power. Christ as the Messiah (Rev 5:5; Rev 22:16) has exclusive power in heaven, on earth, and in Hades (Mat 16:19; Mat 28:18; Rom 14:9; Phi 2:9.; Rev 1:18). Christ has power to admit and exclude of his own will (Mat 25:10.; Eph 1:22; Rev 3:21; Rev 19:11-16; Rev 20:4; Rev 22:16).

Robertson: Rev 3:7 - And none shall shut And none shall shut ( kai oudeis kleisei ). Charles calls the structure Hebrew (future active indicative of kleiō ), and not Greek because it does...

And none shall shut ( kai oudeis kleisei ).

Charles calls the structure Hebrew (future active indicative of kleiō ), and not Greek because it does not correspond to the present articular participle just before ho anoigōn (the one opening), but it occurs often in this book as in the very next clause, "and none openeth"(kai oudeis anoigei ) over against kleiōn (present active participle, opening) though here some MSS. read kleiei (present active indicative, open).

Robertson: Rev 3:8 - I have set I have set ( dedōka ). Perfect active indicative of didōmi , "I have given"(a gift of Christ, this open door). See Luk 12:51 for a like use of di...

I have set ( dedōka ).

Perfect active indicative of didōmi , "I have given"(a gift of Christ, this open door). See Luk 12:51 for a like use of didōmi .

Robertson: Rev 3:8 - A door opened A door opened ( thuran ēneōigmenēn ). Perfect (triple reduplication) passive predicate participle of anoigō (Rev 3:7) accusative feminine s...

A door opened ( thuran ēneōigmenēn ).

Perfect (triple reduplication) passive predicate participle of anoigō (Rev 3:7) accusative feminine singular. The metaphor of the open door was a common one (Joh 10:7-9; Act 14:27; 1Co 16:9; 2Co 2:12; Col 4:3; Rev 3:20; Rev 4:1). Probably it means here a good opportunity for missionary effort in spite of the Jewish hostility.

Robertson: Rev 3:8 - Which Which ( hēn - autēn ). Pleonastic vernacular and Hebrew repetition of the personal pronoun autēn (it) after the relative hēn (which). Di...

Which ( hēn - autēn ).

Pleonastic vernacular and Hebrew repetition of the personal pronoun autēn (it) after the relative hēn (which). Direct reference to the statement in Rev 3:7.

Robertson: Rev 3:8 - That That ( hoti ). This conjunction resumes the construction of oida sou ta erga (I know thy works) after the parenthesis (idou - autēn , Behold - s...

That ( hoti ).

This conjunction resumes the construction of oida sou ta erga (I know thy works) after the parenthesis (idou - autēn , Behold - shut).

Robertson: Rev 3:8 - A little power A little power ( mikran dunamin ). Probably "little power,"little influence or weight in Philadelphia, the members probably from the lower classes (1...

A little power ( mikran dunamin ).

Probably "little power,"little influence or weight in Philadelphia, the members probably from the lower classes (1Co 1:26.).

Robertson: Rev 3:8 - And didst keep And didst keep ( kai etērēsas ). "And yet (adversative use of kai ) didst keep"(first aorist active indicative of tēreō ) my word in some c...

And didst keep ( kai etērēsas ).

"And yet (adversative use of kai ) didst keep"(first aorist active indicative of tēreō ) my word in some crisis of trial. See Joh 17:6 for the phrase "keeping the word."

Robertson: Rev 3:8 - Didst not deny Didst not deny ( ouk ērnēsō ). First aorist middle indicative second person singular of arneomai . The issue was probably forced by the Jews (c...

Didst not deny ( ouk ērnēsō ).

First aorist middle indicative second person singular of arneomai . The issue was probably forced by the Jews (cf. Rev 2:9), but they stood true.

Robertson: Rev 3:9 - I give I give ( didō ). Late omega form for didōmi , but the ̇mi form in Rev 17:13 (didoasin ). These Jewish converts are a gift from Christ. For th...

I give ( didō ).

Late omega form for didōmi , but the ̇mi form in Rev 17:13 (didoasin ). These Jewish converts are a gift from Christ. For this use of didōmi see Act 2:27; Act 10:40; Act 14:3. There is ellipse of tinas before ek as in Rev 2:10 (ex humōn ) and see Rev 2:9 for "the synagogue of Satan."

Robertson: Rev 3:9 - Of them which say Of them which say ( tōn legontōn ). Ablative plural in apposition with sunagōgēs . On the construction of heautous Ioudaious einai see note...

Of them which say ( tōn legontōn ).

Ablative plural in apposition with sunagōgēs . On the construction of heautous Ioudaious einai see note on Rev 2:9 (Ioudaious einai heautous , the order of words being immaterial).

Robertson: Rev 3:9 - But do lie But do lie ( alla pseudontai ). Present middle indicative of pseudomai , explanatory positive, addition here to kai ouk eisin of Rev 2:9, in contra...

But do lie ( alla pseudontai ).

Present middle indicative of pseudomai , explanatory positive, addition here to kai ouk eisin of Rev 2:9, in contrast also with ho alēthinos of Rev 3:7 and in Johannine style (Joh 8:44; 1Jo 1:10; 1Jo 2:4).

Robertson: Rev 3:9 - I will make them I will make them ( poiēsō autous ). Future active indicative of poieō , resuming the prophecy after the parenthesis (tōn - pseudontai , whic...

I will make them ( poiēsō autous ).

Future active indicative of poieō , resuming the prophecy after the parenthesis (tōn - pseudontai , which say - but do lie).

Robertson: Rev 3:9 - To come and worship To come and worship ( hina hēxousin kai proskunēsousin ). "That they come and worship"(final clause, like facio ut in Latin, with hina and t...

To come and worship ( hina hēxousin kai proskunēsousin ).

"That they come and worship"(final clause, like facio ut in Latin, with hina and the future active of hēkō and proskuneō ). The language is based on Isa 45:14; Isa 60:14. The Jews expected homage (not worship in the strict sense) from the Gentiles, but it will come to the Christians at last (1Co 14:24). Later Ignatius ( Philad. 6) warns this church against Judaizing Christians, perhaps one result of an influx of Jews.

Robertson: Rev 3:9 - And to know And to know ( kai gnōsin ). Continuation of the purpose clause with hina , but with the second aorist active subjunctive rather than the less usual...

And to know ( kai gnōsin ).

Continuation of the purpose clause with hina , but with the second aorist active subjunctive rather than the less usual future indicative. See both constructions also with hina in Rev 22:14. Probably a reminiscence of Isa 43:4 in egō ēgapēsa se (I loved thee), first aorist active indicative.

Robertson: Rev 3:10 - Patience Patience ( hupomenēs ). "Endurance"as in Rev 13:10; Rev 14:12 as also in 2Th 3:5.

Patience ( hupomenēs ).

"Endurance"as in Rev 13:10; Rev 14:12 as also in 2Th 3:5.

Robertson: Rev 3:10 - Thou didst keep Thou didst keep ( etērēsas ) - I also will keep (kagō tērēsō ). Aorist active indicative and future active corresponding to each othe...

Thou didst keep ( etērēsas )

- I also will keep (kagō tērēsō ). Aorist active indicative and future active corresponding to each other. For a like play on the tenses of this verb by Christ see Joh 17:6 (tetērēkan ), Joh 17:11 (tērēson ), Joh 17:12 (etēroun ).

Robertson: Rev 3:10 - From the hour of trial From the hour of trial ( ek tēs hōras tou peirasmou ). This use of ek after tēreō in Joh 17:15, apo in Jam 1:27. Trial brings temptatio...

From the hour of trial ( ek tēs hōras tou peirasmou ).

This use of ek after tēreō in Joh 17:15, apo in Jam 1:27. Trial brings temptation often (Jam 1:2, Jam 1:13). Jesus endured (Heb 12:1.) and he will help them. There is still a church in Philadelphia in spite of the Turks.

Robertson: Rev 3:10 - Which is to come Which is to come ( tēs mellousēs erchesthai ). Agreeing with hōras (feminine), not with peirasmou (masculine).

Which is to come ( tēs mellousēs erchesthai ).

Agreeing with hōras (feminine), not with peirasmou (masculine).

Robertson: Rev 3:10 - Upon the whole world Upon the whole world ( epi tēs epoikoumenēs holēs ). The inhabited earth (gēs ) as in Rev 12:9; Luk 2:1; Act 16:6, etc.), not the physical e...

Upon the whole world ( epi tēs epoikoumenēs holēs ).

The inhabited earth (gēs ) as in Rev 12:9; Luk 2:1; Act 16:6, etc.), not the physical earth, but the world of men as explained by the next clause.

Robertson: Rev 3:10 - To try To try ( peirasai ). First aorist active infinitive of purpose from peirazō , probably to tempt (cf. the demons in 9:1-21), not merely to afflict (...

To try ( peirasai ).

First aorist active infinitive of purpose from peirazō , probably to tempt (cf. the demons in 9:1-21), not merely to afflict (Rev 2:10).

Robertson: Rev 3:10 - That dwell upon the earth That dwell upon the earth ( tous katoikountas epi tēs gēs ). Present active articular participle of katoikeō , explaining "the whole world"just...

That dwell upon the earth ( tous katoikountas epi tēs gēs ).

Present active articular participle of katoikeō , explaining "the whole world"just before.

Robertson: Rev 3:11 - I come quickly I come quickly ( erchomai tachu ). As in Rev 2:16; Rev 22:7, Rev 22:12, Rev 22:20. "The keynote of the book"(Beckwith). But allow the author’ s ...

I come quickly ( erchomai tachu ).

As in Rev 2:16; Rev 22:7, Rev 22:12, Rev 22:20. "The keynote of the book"(Beckwith). But allow the author’ s own meaning of "quickly."

Robertson: Rev 3:11 - Hold fast that which thou hast Hold fast that which thou hast ( kratei ho echeis ). Sort of motto for each church (Rev 2:25).

Hold fast that which thou hast ( kratei ho echeis ).

Sort of motto for each church (Rev 2:25).

Robertson: Rev 3:11 - That no one take That no one take ( hina mēdeis labēi ). Purpose clause with hina and second aorist active subjunctive of lambanō . Here to take away "thy cro...

That no one take ( hina mēdeis labēi ).

Purpose clause with hina and second aorist active subjunctive of lambanō . Here to take away "thy crown"(Rev 2:10) which will be thine if really won and not forfeited by failure (2Ti 4:8). In that case it will go to another (Mat 25:28; Rom 11:17.).

Robertson: Rev 3:12 - He that overcometh He that overcometh ( ho nikōn ). Nominative absolute as in Rev 2:26, resumed by the accusative auton (him).

He that overcometh ( ho nikōn ).

Nominative absolute as in Rev 2:26, resumed by the accusative auton (him).

Robertson: Rev 3:12 - A pillar A pillar ( stulon ). Old word for column, in N.T. only here, Rev 10:1; Gal 2:9; 1Ti 3:15. Metaphorical and personal use with a double significance of...

A pillar ( stulon ).

Old word for column, in N.T. only here, Rev 10:1; Gal 2:9; 1Ti 3:15. Metaphorical and personal use with a double significance of being firmly fixed and giving stability to the building. Philadelphia was a city of earthquakes. "Temple"(naos ) here is also metaphorical (Rev 7:15), as in 1Ti 3:15 for the people of God. In Rev 21:22 we read that there is no temple in the heavenly Jerusalem (21:10-22:5) descending as the new Jerusalem with God himself as the temple, though the metaphorical temple is mentioned in Rev 7:15.

Robertson: Rev 3:12 - He shall go out thence no more He shall go out thence no more ( exō ou mē elthēi ). Strong double negative ou mē with the second aorist active subjunctive of erchomai . T...

He shall go out thence no more ( exō ou mē elthēi ).

Strong double negative ou mē with the second aorist active subjunctive of erchomai . The subject is ho nikōn (the one overcoming). "Fixity of character is at last achieved"(Charles). He, like the stulos (pillar), remains in place.

Robertson: Rev 3:12 - Upon him Upon him ( ep' auton ). Upon ho nikōn (the victor), not upon the pillar (stulos ). He receives this triple name (of God, of the city of God, of ...

Upon him ( ep' auton ).

Upon ho nikōn (the victor), not upon the pillar (stulos ). He receives this triple name (of God, of the city of God, of Christ) on his forehead (Rev 14:1; Rev 7:3; Rev 17:5; Rev 22:4) just as the high-priest wore the name of Jehovah upon his forehead (Exo 28:36, Exo 28:38), the new name (Rev 2:17), without any magical or talismanic power, but as proof of ownership by God, as a citizen of the New Jerusalem, with the new symbol of the glorious personality of Christ (Rev 19:12), in contrast with the mark of the beast on others (Rev 13:17; Rev 14:17). For citizenship in God’ s city see Gal 4:26; Phi 3:20; Heb 11:10; Heb 12:22; Heb 13:14.

Robertson: Rev 3:12 - The new Jerusalem The new Jerusalem ( tēs kainēs Ierousalēm ). Not neas (young), but kainēs (fresh). See also Rev 21:2, Rev 21:10 and already Gal 4:26; Heb...

The new Jerusalem ( tēs kainēs Ierousalēm ).

Not neas (young), but kainēs (fresh). See also Rev 21:2, Rev 21:10 and already Gal 4:26; Heb 12:22. Charles distinguishes between the Jerusalem before the final judgment and this new Jerusalem after that event. Perhaps so! In the Apocalypse always this form Ierousalēm (Rev 3:12; Rev 21:2, Rev 21:10), but in John’ s Gospel Hierosoluma (Rev 1:19, etc.).

Robertson: Rev 3:12 - Which cometh down Which cometh down ( hē katabainousa ). Nominative case in apposition with the preceding genitive poleōs as in Rev 1:5; Rev 2:20, etc.

Which cometh down ( hē katabainousa ).

Nominative case in apposition with the preceding genitive poleōs as in Rev 1:5; Rev 2:20, etc.

Robertson: Rev 3:12 - Mine own new name Mine own new name ( to onoma mou to kainon ). For which see Rev 2:17; Rev 19:12, Rev 19:16. Christ himself will receive a new name along with all els...

Mine own new name ( to onoma mou to kainon ).

For which see Rev 2:17; Rev 19:12, Rev 19:16. Christ himself will receive a new name along with all else in the future world (Gressmann).

Robertson: Rev 3:14 - In Laodicea In Laodicea ( en Laodikiāi ). Forty miles south-east of Philadelphia and some forty miles east of Ephesus, the last of the seven churches addressed...

In Laodicea ( en Laodikiāi ).

Forty miles south-east of Philadelphia and some forty miles east of Ephesus, the last of the seven churches addressed with special messages, on the river Lycus on the border of Phrygia, near Colossae and Hierapolis, recipient of two letters by Paul (Col 4:16), on the great trade-route from Ephesus to the east and seat of large manufacturing and banking operations (especially of woollen carpets and clothing, Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia , p. 40ff.), centre of the worship of Asklepios and seat of a medical school and also of a provincial court where Cicero lived and wrote many of his letters, home of many Jews, called by Ramsay ( op. cit. , p. 413) "the City of Compromise,"the church here founded apparently by Epaphras (Col 1:7; Col 4:12.), now a deserted ruin, one of six cities with this name (meaning justice of the people). No praise is bestowed on this church, but only blame for its lukewarmness.

Robertson: Rev 3:14 - The Amen The Amen ( ho Amēn ). Personal (masculine article) name here alone, though in Isa 65:16 we have "the God of Amen"understood in the lxx as "the God ...

The Amen ( ho Amēn ).

Personal (masculine article) name here alone, though in Isa 65:16 we have "the God of Amen"understood in the lxx as "the God of truth"(ton theon ton alēthinon ). Here applied to Christ. See Rev 1:5 for ho martus ho pistos (the faithful witness) and Rev 3:7 for ho alēthinos (the genuine), "whose testimony never falls short of the truth"(Swete).

Robertson: Rev 3:14 - The beginning of the creation of God The beginning of the creation of God ( hē archē tēs ktiseōs tou theou ). Not the first of creatures as the Arians held and Unitarians do now,...

The beginning of the creation of God ( hē archē tēs ktiseōs tou theou ).

Not the first of creatures as the Arians held and Unitarians do now, but the originating source of creation through whom God works (Col 1:15, Col 1:18, a passage probably known to the Laodiceans, Joh 1:3; Heb 1:2, as is made clear by Rev 1:18; Rev 2:8; Rev 3:21; Rev 5:13).

Robertson: Rev 3:15 - Neither cold Neither cold ( oute psuchros ). Old word from psuchō , to grow cold (Mat 24:12), in N.T. only Mat 10:42 and this passage.

Neither cold ( oute psuchros ).

Old word from psuchō , to grow cold (Mat 24:12), in N.T. only Mat 10:42 and this passage.

Robertson: Rev 3:15 - Nor hot Nor hot ( oute zestos ). Late verbal from zeō , to boil, (Rom 12:11), boiling hot, here only in N.T.

Nor hot ( oute zestos ).

Late verbal from zeō , to boil, (Rom 12:11), boiling hot, here only in N.T.

Robertson: Rev 3:15 - I would thou wert I would thou wert ( ophelon ēs ). Wish about the present with ophelon (really ōphelon , second aorist active indicative of opheilō , without ...

I would thou wert ( ophelon ēs ).

Wish about the present with ophelon (really ōphelon , second aorist active indicative of opheilō , without augment) with the imperfect ēs (instead of the infinitive) as in 2Co 11:1, when the old Greek used eithe or ei gar . See 1Co 4:8 for the aorist indicative and Gal 5:12 for the future.

Robertson: Rev 3:16 - Lukewarm Lukewarm ( chliaros ). Tepid. Old adjective from chliō , to liquefy, to melt, here alone in N.T.

Lukewarm ( chliaros ).

Tepid. Old adjective from chliō , to liquefy, to melt, here alone in N.T.

Robertson: Rev 3:16 - I will I will ( mellō ). "I am about to,"on the point of.

I will ( mellō ).

"I am about to,"on the point of.

Robertson: Rev 3:16 - Spew thee Spew thee ( se emesai ). First aorist active infinitive of emeō , old verb to vomit, to reject with extreme disgust, here alone in N.T.

Spew thee ( se emesai ).

First aorist active infinitive of emeō , old verb to vomit, to reject with extreme disgust, here alone in N.T.

Robertson: Rev 3:17 - I am rich I am rich ( hoti plousios eimi ). Recitative hoti like quotation marks before direct quotation. Old adjective from ploutos , riches, wealth. Laodic...

I am rich ( hoti plousios eimi ).

Recitative hoti like quotation marks before direct quotation. Old adjective from ploutos , riches, wealth. Laodicea was a wealthy city and the church "carried the pride of wealth into its spiritual life"(Swete).

Robertson: Rev 3:17 - Have gotten riches Have gotten riches ( peploutēka ). Perfect active indicative of plouteō , old verb from ploutos , used here of imagined spiritual riches which th...

Have gotten riches ( peploutēka ).

Perfect active indicative of plouteō , old verb from ploutos , used here of imagined spiritual riches which the church did not possess, just the opposite of church in Smyrna (poor in wealth, rich in grace). This church was in a rich city and was rich in pride and conceit, but poor in grace and ignorant of its spiritual poverty (ouk oidas , knowest not).

Robertson: Rev 3:17 - The wretched one The wretched one ( ho talaipōros ). Old adjective from tlaō , to endure, and pōros , a callus, afflicted, in N.T. only here and Rom 7:24. Note ...

The wretched one ( ho talaipōros ).

Old adjective from tlaō , to endure, and pōros , a callus, afflicted, in N.T. only here and Rom 7:24. Note the one article in the predicate with all these five adjectives unifying the picture of sharp emphasis on "thou"(su ), "thou that boastest."

Robertson: Rev 3:17 - Miserable Miserable ( eleeinos ). Pitiable as in 1Co 15:19.

Miserable ( eleeinos ).

Pitiable as in 1Co 15:19.

Robertson: Rev 3:17 - Poor Poor ( ptōchos ). See Rev 2:9 for spiritual poverty. Perhaps some local example of self-complacency is in mind.

Poor ( ptōchos ).

See Rev 2:9 for spiritual poverty. Perhaps some local example of self-complacency is in mind.

Robertson: Rev 3:17 - Blind Blind ( tuphlos ). Spiritual blindness as often (Mat 23:17), and note "eye-salve"in Rev 3:18.

Blind ( tuphlos ).

Spiritual blindness as often (Mat 23:17), and note "eye-salve"in Rev 3:18.

Robertson: Rev 3:17 - Naked Naked ( gumnos ). "The figure completes the picture of actual poverty"(Beckwith). See Rev 3:15, Rev 3:16.

Naked ( gumnos ).

"The figure completes the picture of actual poverty"(Beckwith). See Rev 3:15, Rev 3:16.

Robertson: Rev 3:18 - I counsel I counsel ( sumbouleuō ). Present active indicative, old compound from sumboulos , counsellor (Rom 11:34), as in Joh 18:14. Almost ironical in tone...

I counsel ( sumbouleuō ).

Present active indicative, old compound from sumboulos , counsellor (Rom 11:34), as in Joh 18:14. Almost ironical in tone.

Robertson: Rev 3:18 - To buy To buy ( agorasai ). First aorist active infinitive of agorazō (from agora , market-place), rich as they think themselves to be.

To buy ( agorasai ).

First aorist active infinitive of agorazō (from agora , market-place), rich as they think themselves to be.

Robertson: Rev 3:18 - From me From me ( par' emou ). From my side, emphatic.

From me ( par' emou ).

From my side, emphatic.

Robertson: Rev 3:18 - Refined by fire Refined by fire ( pepurōmenon ek puros ). Perfect passive participle of puroō (as in Rev 1:15) and the metaphor carried on by ek puros , "fired...

Refined by fire ( pepurōmenon ek puros ).

Perfect passive participle of puroō (as in Rev 1:15) and the metaphor carried on by ek puros , "fired by fire."Purity by removing dross (Psa 66:10) like 1Pe 1:7.

Robertson: Rev 3:18 - That thou mayest become rich That thou mayest become rich ( hina ploutēsēis ). Purpose clause with hina and the ingressive first aorist active of plouteō , spiritual rich...

That thou mayest become rich ( hina ploutēsēis ).

Purpose clause with hina and the ingressive first aorist active of plouteō , spiritual riches.

Robertson: Rev 3:18 - That thou mayest clothe thyself That thou mayest clothe thyself ( hina peribalēi ). Purpose clause with hina and second aorist middle (direct) subjunctive of periballō , to fl...

That thou mayest clothe thyself ( hina peribalēi ).

Purpose clause with hina and second aorist middle (direct) subjunctive of periballō , to fling round one as in Rev 3:5.

Robertson: Rev 3:18 - Be not made manifest Be not made manifest ( mē phanerōthēi ). Continued purpose clause with negative mē and first aorist passive subjunctive of phaneroō .

Be not made manifest ( mē phanerōthēi ).

Continued purpose clause with negative mē and first aorist passive subjunctive of phaneroō .

Robertson: Rev 3:18 - Nakedness Nakedness ( gumnotētos ). Late and rare word from gumnos , naked, in N.T. only here, 2Co 11:27; Rom 8:35. Cf. Rev 16:15; Rev 20:13; 2Co 5:2.

Nakedness ( gumnotētos ).

Late and rare word from gumnos , naked, in N.T. only here, 2Co 11:27; Rom 8:35. Cf. Rev 16:15; Rev 20:13; 2Co 5:2.

Robertson: Rev 3:18 - Eye-salve Eye-salve ( kollourion ). Diminutive of kollura (coarse bread of cylindrical shape), object of agorasai , name for a famous Phrygian powder for the...

Eye-salve ( kollourion ).

Diminutive of kollura (coarse bread of cylindrical shape), object of agorasai , name for a famous Phrygian powder for the eyes made in Laodicea (Charles), Latin collyrium (used for eye-salve by Horace and Juvenal).

Robertson: Rev 3:18 - To anoint To anoint ( egchrisai ). First aorist active infinitive (epexegetic) of egchriō , late compound (en , chriō , Strabo, Epictetus), to rub in, her...

To anoint ( egchrisai ).

First aorist active infinitive (epexegetic) of egchriō , late compound (en , chriō , Strabo, Epictetus), to rub in, here only in N.T.

Robertson: Rev 3:18 - That thou mayest see That thou mayest see ( hina blepēis ). Another purpose clause with hina and the present active subjunctive (keep on seeing).

That thou mayest see ( hina blepēis ).

Another purpose clause with hina and the present active subjunctive (keep on seeing).

Robertson: Rev 3:19 - Free rendering of Pro 3:12 (in Heb 12:6), but with hous ean (indefinite relative plural) for hon (definite relative singular), with philō instead of agapāi and with the first person paideuō for paideuei (the Lord chastens, from pais , child, training a child) and with elegchō (reprove) added. @@Be zealous Free rendering of Pro 3:12 (in Heb 12:6), but with hous ean (indefinite relative plural) for hon (definite relative singular), with philō inst...

Free rendering of Pro 3:12 (in Heb 12:6), but with hous ean (indefinite relative plural) for hon (definite relative singular), with philō instead of agapāi and with the first person paideuō for paideuei (the Lord chastens, from pais , child, training a child) and with elegchō (reprove) added. @@Be zealous ( zēleue ).

Present active imperative of zēleuō , in good sense (from zēlos , zeō , to boil), in opposition to their lukewarmness, here only in N.T. (elsewhere zēloō ), "keep on being zealous."

Robertson: Rev 3:19 - Repent Repent ( metanoēson ). Ingressive first aorist active imperative of metanoeō .

Repent ( metanoēson ).

Ingressive first aorist active imperative of metanoeō .

Robertson: Rev 3:20 - I stand at the door I stand at the door ( hestēka epi tēn thuran ). Perfect active of histēmi (intransitive). Picture of the Lord’ s advent as in Mat 24:33;...

I stand at the door ( hestēka epi tēn thuran ).

Perfect active of histēmi (intransitive). Picture of the Lord’ s advent as in Mat 24:33; Jam 5:9, but true also of the individual response to Christ’ s call (Luk 12:36) as shown in Holman Hunt’ s great picture. Some see a use also of So Jam 5:2.

Robertson: Rev 3:20 - If any man hear - and open If any man hear - and open ( ean tis akousēi kai anoixēi ). Condition of third class with ean and first aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive ...

If any man hear - and open ( ean tis akousēi kai anoixēi ).

Condition of third class with ean and first aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive of akouō and anoigō . See Joh 10:3; Joh 18:37. See the picture reversed (Swete) in Luk 13:25; Mat 25:10.

Robertson: Rev 3:20 - I will come in to him I will come in to him ( eiseleusomai ). Future middle of eiserchomai . See Mar 15:43; Act 11:3 for eiserchomai pros , to go into a man’ s house....

I will come in to him ( eiseleusomai ).

Future middle of eiserchomai . See Mar 15:43; Act 11:3 for eiserchomai pros , to go into a man’ s house. Cf. Joh 14:23.

Robertson: Rev 3:20 - Will sup Will sup ( deipnēsō ). Future active of deipneō , old verb, from deipnon (supper), as in Luk 17:8. Fellowship in the Messianic kingdom (Luk 2...

Will sup ( deipnēsō ).

Future active of deipneō , old verb, from deipnon (supper), as in Luk 17:8. Fellowship in the Messianic kingdom (Luk 22:30; Mar 14:25; Mat 26:29). Purely metaphorical, as is plain from 1Co 6:13.

Robertson: Rev 3:21 - He that overcometh He that overcometh ( ho nikōn ). Absolute nominative again as in Rev 3:12, but resumed this time by the dative autōi as in Rev 2:26.

He that overcometh ( ho nikōn ).

Absolute nominative again as in Rev 3:12, but resumed this time by the dative autōi as in Rev 2:26.

Robertson: Rev 3:21 - To sit To sit ( kathisai ). First aorist active infinitive of kathizō . This promise grows out of the prophecy that the saints will share in the Messiah&#...

To sit ( kathisai ).

First aorist active infinitive of kathizō . This promise grows out of the prophecy that the saints will share in the Messiah’ s rule, made to the twelve (Mat 19:28; Luk 22:29.), repeated by Paul (1Co 6:2.), enlarged in Rev 22:1-5 (to last forever, 2Ti 2:11.). James and John took this hope and promise literally (Mar 10:40) not metaphorically.

Robertson: Rev 3:21 - As I also overcame As I also overcame ( hōs kagō enikēsa ). First aorist active indicative of nikaō , looking back on the victory as over in the past. In Joh 16...

As I also overcame ( hōs kagō enikēsa ).

First aorist active indicative of nikaō , looking back on the victory as over in the past. In Joh 16:33 before the Cross Jesus says Egō nenikēka ton kosmon (perfect active), emphasizing the abiding effect of the victory.

Robertson: Rev 3:21 - Sat down Sat down ( ekathisa ). "I took my seat"(Heb 1:3) where Christ is now (Rev 22:3; Col 3:1). Cf. 1Jo 5:4; Rev 2:27. Each of these seven messages begins ...

Sat down ( ekathisa ).

"I took my seat"(Heb 1:3) where Christ is now (Rev 22:3; Col 3:1). Cf. 1Jo 5:4; Rev 2:27. Each of these seven messages begins alike and ends alike. Each is the message of the Christ and of the Holy Spirit to the angel of the church. Each has a special message suited to the actual condition of each church. In each case the individual who overcomes has a promise of blessing. Christ the Shepherd knows his sheep and lays bare the particular peril in each case.

Vincent: Rev 3:1 - Sardis Sardis The capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia. It was situated in a plain watered by the river Pactolus. The city was of very ancient origin...

Sardis

The capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia. It was situated in a plain watered by the river Pactolus. The city was of very ancient origin. Herodotus (i., 84) gives the account of its siege and capture by Cyrus, and of its previous fortification by an old king, Meles. It was ruled by a series of able princes, the last of whom was Croesus, celebrated for his wealth and his misfortunes. In the earlier part of his reign he extended his dominion over the whole of Asia Minor, with the exception of Lycia and Cilicia. The Lydian rule was terminated by the conquest of Cyrus. From the Persians it passed into the hands of Alexander the Great, after which, for the next three hundred years, its fortunes are obscure. In b.c. 214 it was taken and sacked by Antiochus the Great after a siege of two years. The kings of Pergamus next succeeded to the dominion, and from them it passed into the hands of the Romans.

In the time of Tiberius it was desolated by an earthquake, together with eleven or twelve other important cities of Asia, and the calamity was increased by a pestilence.

Sardis was in very early times an important commercial city. Pliny says that the art of dyeing wool was invented there, and it was the entrepôt of the dyed woolen manufactures, carpets, etc., the raw material for which was furnished by the flocks of Phrygia. It was also the place where the metal electrum was procured. Gold was found in the bed of the Pactolus. Silver and gold coins are said to have been first minted there, and it was at one time known as a slave-mart. The impure worship of the goddess Cybele was celebrated there, and the massive ruins of her temple are still to be seen. The city is now a heap of ruins. In 1850 no human being found a dwelling there.

Vincent: Rev 3:1 - The seven Spirits of God The seven Spirits of God See on Rev 1:4.

The seven Spirits of God

See on Rev 1:4.

Vincent: Rev 3:2 - Be watchful Be watchful ( γίνου γρηγορῶν ) Lit., become awake and on the watch . See on Mar 13:35; see on 1Pe 5:8. Become what ...

Be watchful ( γίνου γρηγορῶν )

Lit., become awake and on the watch . See on Mar 13:35; see on 1Pe 5:8. Become what thou art not.

Vincent: Rev 3:2 - Strengthen Strengthen ( στήριξον ) See on 1Pe 5:10, and compare Luk 22:32; Rom 1:11; 2Th 3:3.

Strengthen ( στήριξον )

See on 1Pe 5:10, and compare Luk 22:32; Rom 1:11; 2Th 3:3.

Vincent: Rev 3:2 - That are ready to die That are ready to die ( ἃ μέλλει ἀποθανεῖν ) Read ἔμελλον were ready or about (to die).

That are ready to die ( ἃ μέλλει ἀποθανεῖν )

Read ἔμελλον were ready or about (to die).

Vincent: Rev 3:2 - I have not found thy works I have not found thy works ( οὐ εὕρηκά σου τὰ ἔργα ) Some texts omit the article before works , in which case we ...

I have not found thy works ( οὐ εὕρηκά σου τὰ ἔργα )

Some texts omit the article before works , in which case we should render, I have found no works of thine . So Rev.

Vincent: Rev 3:2 - Perfect Perfect ( πεπληρωμένα ) Lit., fulfilled . So Rev.

Perfect ( πεπληρωμένα )

Lit., fulfilled . So Rev.

Vincent: Rev 3:2 - God God The best texts insert μου , " my God."

God

The best texts insert μου , " my God."

Vincent: Rev 3:3 - Thou hast received and heard Thou hast received and heard ( εἴληφας καὶ ἤκουσας ) The former of these verbs is in the perfect tense: thou hast rece...

Thou hast received and heard ( εἴληφας καὶ ἤκουσας )

The former of these verbs is in the perfect tense: thou hast received the truth as a permanent deposit. It remains with thee whether thou regardest it or not. The latter verb is ill the aorist tense, didst hear (so Rev.), denoting merely the act of hearing when it took place.

Vincent: Rev 3:3 - Watch Watch See on Rev 3:2.

Watch

See on Rev 3:2.

Vincent: Rev 3:3 - On thee On thee Omit.

On thee

Omit.

Vincent: Rev 3:3 - As a thief As a thief ( ὡς κλέπτης ) Thief , as distinguished from hp λῃστής robber , a plunderer on a larger scale, who secures hi...

As a thief ( ὡς κλέπτης )

Thief , as distinguished from hp λῃστής robber , a plunderer on a larger scale, who secures his booty not by stealth, but by violence. Hence the word is appropriate here to mark the unexpected and stealthy coming of the Lord. Compare 1Th 5:2, 1Th 5:4; 2Pe 3:10.

Vincent: Rev 3:3 - Thou shalt not know what hour l will come upon thee Thou shalt not know what hour l will come upon thee The Greek proverb says that the feet of the avenging deities are shod with wool. The sentimen...

Thou shalt not know what hour l will come upon thee

The Greek proverb says that the feet of the avenging deities are shod with wool. The sentiment is voiced in the two following fragments from Aeschylus:

" Whether one sleep or walk or sit at ease,

Unseen and voiceless Justice dogs his steps,

Striking athwart his path from right or left;

Nor what is foully done will night conceal:

Whate'er thou doest some God beholdeth thee."

" And dost thou deem that thou shalt e'er o'ercome

Wisdom divine? That retribution lies

Somewhere remote from mortals? Close at hand,

Unseen itself, it sees and knows full well

Whom it befits to smite. But thou know'st not

The hour when, swift and sudden, it shall come

And sweep away the wicked from the earth."

Vincent: Rev 3:4 - Thou hast a few names Thou hast a few names The best texts insert ἀλλὰ but between these words and the close of the preceding verse. So Rev. But , notwithst...

Thou hast a few names

The best texts insert ἀλλὰ but between these words and the close of the preceding verse. So Rev. But , notwithstanding the general apathy of the Church, thou hast a few, etc. Compare Rev 3:1, thou hast a name , and see on Rev 11:13. Names is equivalent to persons , a few who may be rightly named as exceptions to the general conception.

Vincent: Rev 3:4 - Even in Sardis Even in Sardis Omit καὶ even .

Even in Sardis

Omit καὶ even .

Vincent: Rev 3:4 - Defiled Defiled ( ἐμόλυναν ) See on 1Pe 1:4.

Defiled ( ἐμόλυναν )

See on 1Pe 1:4.

Vincent: Rev 3:4 - Garments Garments See the same figure, Jud 1:23. The meaning is, have not sullied the purity of their Christian life.

Garments

See the same figure, Jud 1:23. The meaning is, have not sullied the purity of their Christian life.

Vincent: Rev 3:4 - In white In white ( ἐν λευκοῖς ) With ἱματίοις garments understood. See on Rev 2:17, and compare Zec 3:3, Zec 3:5. " White colo...

In white ( ἐν λευκοῖς )

With ἱματίοις garments understood. See on Rev 2:17, and compare Zec 3:3, Zec 3:5. " White colors are suitable to the gods" (Plato, " Laws," xii., 956). So Virgil, of the tenants of Elysium:

" Lo, priests of holy life and chaste while they in life had part;

Lo, god-loved poets, men who spake things worthy Phoebus' heart:

And they who bettered life on earth by new-found mastery;

And they whose good deeds left a tale for men to name them by:

And all they had their brows about with snowy fillets bound."

" Aeneid ," vi ., 661-665

Vincent: Rev 3:4 - The same shall be clothed The same shall be clothed ( οὗτος περιβαλεῖται ) For οὗτος this , or the same , read οὕτως thus : "...

The same shall be clothed ( οὗτος περιβαλεῖται )

For οὗτος this , or the same , read οὕτως thus : " shall thus be arrayed." so Rev. The verb denotes a solemn investiture, and means literally to throw or put around .

Vincent: Rev 3:5 - Book of life Book of life Lit., the book of the life . For the figure, see Exo 32:32; Psa 69:28; Dan 12:1; Phi 4:3. Compare Luk 10:20; Heb 12:23.

Book of life

Lit., the book of the life . For the figure, see Exo 32:32; Psa 69:28; Dan 12:1; Phi 4:3. Compare Luk 10:20; Heb 12:23.

Vincent: Rev 3:5 - I will confess I will confess ( ἐξομλογήσομαι ) Openly confess (ἐξ ). See on Mat 11:25; see on Act 19:18; see on Jam 5:16.

I will confess ( ἐξομλογήσομαι )

Openly confess (ἐξ ). See on Mat 11:25; see on Act 19:18; see on Jam 5:16.

Vincent: Rev 3:7 - Philadelphia Philadelphia Seventy-five miles southeast of Sardis. The second city in Lydia. The adjacent region was celebrated as a wine-growing district, and...

Philadelphia

Seventy-five miles southeast of Sardis. The second city in Lydia. The adjacent region was celebrated as a wine-growing district, and its coins bore the head of Bacchus and the figure of a Bacchante. The population included Jews, Jewish Christians, and converts from heathenism. It suffered from frequent earthquakes. Of all the seven churches it had the longest duration of prosperity as a Christian city. It still exists as a Turkish town under the name of Allah Shehr , City of God . The situation is picturesque, the town being built on four or five hills, and well supplied with trees, and the climate is healthful. One of the mosques is believed by the native Christians to have been the gathering-place of the church addressed in Revelation. " One solitary pillar of high antiquity has been often noticed as reminding beholders of the words in Rev 3:12 : 'Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God.'"

Vincent: Rev 3:7 - He that is holy He that is holy ( ὁ ἅγιος ) See on Act 26:10. Christ is called holy , Act 2:27; Act 13:35; Heb 7:26; in all which passages the word,...

He that is holy ( ὁ ἅγιος )

See on Act 26:10. Christ is called holy , Act 2:27; Act 13:35; Heb 7:26; in all which passages the word, however, is ὅσιος , which is holy by sanction , applied to one who diligently observes all the sanctities of religion. It is appropriate to Christ, therefore, as being the one in whom these eternal sanctities are grounded and reside. Ἅγιος , the word used here, refers rather to separation from evil.

Vincent: Rev 3:7 - He that is true He that is true ( ὁ ἀληθινὸς ) See on Joh 1:9. Αληθινὸς is not merely, genuine as contrasted with the absolutely fals...

He that is true ( ὁ ἀληθινὸς )

See on Joh 1:9. Αληθινὸς is not merely, genuine as contrasted with the absolutely false, but as contrasted with that which is only subordinately or typically true. It expresses the perfect realization of an idea as contrasted with its partial realization. Thus, Moses gave bread, but the Father giveth the true bread (τὸν ἄρτον τὸν ἀληθινόν ). Israel was a vine of God's planting (Psa 80:8), Christ is the true (ἡ ἀληθινὴ ) vine (Joh 15:1). The word is so characteristic of John that, while found only once in the Synoptic Gospels, once in a Pauline Epistle, and four times in the Epistle to the Hebrews, it occurs nine times in the fourth Gospel, four times in John's First Epistle, and ten times in Revelation, and in every instance in these three latter books in its own distinctive signification.

Vincent: Rev 3:7 - The key of David The key of David See on Rev 1:18, and compare Isa 22:22. David is the type of Christ, the supreme ruler of the kingdom of heaven. See Jer 30:9; E...

The key of David

See on Rev 1:18, and compare Isa 22:22. David is the type of Christ, the supreme ruler of the kingdom of heaven. See Jer 30:9; Eze 34:23; Eze 37:24. The house of David is the typical designation of the kingdom of Jesus Christ (Psa 122:5). The holding of the keys, the symbols of power, thus belongs to Christ as Lord of the kingdom and Church of God. See on Mat 16:19 : He admits and excludes at His pleasure.

Vincent: Rev 3:7 - No man shutteth No man shutteth ( οὐδεὶς κλείει ) Read κλείσει shall shut So Rev.

No man shutteth ( οὐδεὶς κλείει )

Read κλείσει shall shut So Rev.

Vincent: Rev 3:8 - I have set I have set ( δέδωκα ) Lit., I have given . For a similar phrase see Luk 12:51.

I have set ( δέδωκα )

Lit., I have given . For a similar phrase see Luk 12:51.

Vincent: Rev 3:8 - An open door An open door ( θύραν ἀνεῳγμένην ) Rev., more literally, a door opened. This is variously explained. Some refer it to the e...

An open door ( θύραν ἀνεῳγμένην )

Rev., more literally, a door opened. This is variously explained. Some refer it to the entrance into the joy of the Lord; others to the initiation into the meaning of scripture; others again to the opportunity for the mission-work of the Church. In this last sense the phrase is often used by Paul. See 1Co 16:9; 2Co 2:12; Col 4:3. Compare Act 14:27. I have given is appropriate, since all opportunities of service are gifts of God. See on Rev 2:7.

Vincent: Rev 3:8 - For thou hast For thou hast ( ὅτι ἔχεις ) Some texts make behold-shut parenthetical, and render ὅτι that , defining thy works , et...

For thou hast ( ὅτι ἔχεις )

Some texts make behold-shut parenthetical, and render ὅτι that , defining thy works , etc. So Rev.

Vincent: Rev 3:8 - A little strength A little strength ( μικρὰν δύναμιν ) This would mean, thou hast some power, though small. Many, however, omit the indefinite a...

A little strength ( μικρὰν δύναμιν )

This would mean, thou hast some power, though small. Many, however, omit the indefinite article in translating, and render thou hast little strength ; i.e., thou art poor in numbers and worldly resources . So Alford, Trench, and Düsterdieck.

Vincent: Rev 3:8 - And And ( καὶ ) John's single copula instead of a particle of logical connection. See on Joh 1:10; see on Joh 6:46; see on 1Jo 1:5; see on Joh 8...

And ( καὶ )

John's single copula instead of a particle of logical connection. See on Joh 1:10; see on Joh 6:46; see on 1Jo 1:5; see on Joh 8:20.

Vincent: Rev 3:8 - Hast kept my word Hast kept my word ( ἐτήρησάς μου τὸν λόγον ) Rev., rendering the aorist more strictly, didst keep . For the phras...

Hast kept my word ( ἐτήρησάς μου τὸν λόγον )

Rev., rendering the aorist more strictly, didst keep . For the phrase, see Joh 17:6, Joh 17:8.

Vincent: Rev 3:9 - I will make I will make ( δίδωμι ) Rev., rightly, I give . See on Rev 3:8. The sense is broken off there and resumed here.

I will make ( δίδωμι )

Rev., rightly, I give . See on Rev 3:8. The sense is broken off there and resumed here.

Vincent: Rev 3:9 - Of the synagogue Of the synagogue ( ἐκ τῆς συναγωγῆς ) Certain ones of the synagogue. Most interpreters refer to the Jews. Others explain more...

Of the synagogue ( ἐκ τῆς συναγωγῆς )

Certain ones of the synagogue. Most interpreters refer to the Jews. Others explain more generally, of the bowing down of the Church's enemies at her feet. Trench refers to a passage in the Epistle of Ignatius to this Philadelphian church, implying the actual presence in the midst of it of converts from Judaism, who preached the faith which they once persecuted.

Vincent: Rev 3:9 - Of Satan Of Satan See on Rev 2:9.

Of Satan

See on Rev 2:9.

Vincent: Rev 3:9 - I will make them to come I will make them to come ( ποιήσω αὐτοὺς ἵνα ἥξωσιν ) Lit., I will make them that they shall co...

I will make them to come ( ποιήσω αὐτοὺς ἵνα ἥξωσιν )

Lit., I will make them that they shall come .

Vincent: Rev 3:9 - Worship before thy feet Worship before thy feet Compare Isa 60:14; Isa 49:23.

Worship before thy feet

Compare Isa 60:14; Isa 49:23.

Vincent: Rev 3:10 - The word of my patience The word of my patience ( τὸν λόγον τῆς ὑπομονῆς μου ) Not the words which Christ has spoken concerning patience,...

The word of my patience ( τὸν λόγον τῆς ὑπομονῆς μου )

Not the words which Christ has spoken concerning patience, but the word of Christ which requires patience to keep it; the gospel which teaches the need o£ a patient waiting for Christ. On patience , see on 2Pe 1:6; see on Jam 5:7.

Vincent: Rev 3:10 - From the hour From the hour ( ἐκ ) The preposition implies, not a keeping from temptation, but a keeping in temptation, as the result of which they sha...

From the hour ( ἐκ )

The preposition implies, not a keeping from temptation, but a keeping in temptation, as the result of which they shall be delivered out of its power. Compare Joh 17:15.

Vincent: Rev 3:10 - Of temptation Of temptation ( τοῦ πειρασμοῦ ) Lit., " of the trial" See on Mat 6:13; see on 1Pe 1:7. Rev., trial .

Of temptation ( τοῦ πειρασμοῦ )

Lit., " of the trial" See on Mat 6:13; see on 1Pe 1:7. Rev., trial .

Vincent: Rev 3:10 - World World ( οἰκουμένης ) See on Luk 2:1

World ( οἰκουμένης )

See on Luk 2:1

Vincent: Rev 3:11 - Behold Behold Omit.

Behold

Omit.

Vincent: Rev 3:11 - That no one take thy crown That no one take thy crown ( ἵνα μηδεὶς λάβῃ τὸν στέφανον ) Take it away. The idea is not that of one belie...

That no one take thy crown ( ἵνα μηδεὶς λάβῃ τὸν στέφανον )

Take it away. The idea is not that of one believer stepping into the place which was designed for another, but of an enemy taking away from another the reward which he himself has forfeited. The expression is explained by Col 2:18. It is related by Mahomet that, after having attempted, in vain, to convert one Abdallah to the faith, and having been told by him to go about his business and to preach only to those who should come to him - he went, downcast, to a friend's house. His friend, perceiving that he was sad, asked him the reason; and on being told of Abdallah's insult, said, " Treat him gently; for I swear that when God sent thee to us, we had already strung pearls to crown him, and he seeth that thou hast snatched the kingdom out of his grasp." For crown, see on Rev 2:10. Thy crown is not the crown which thou hast , but the crown which thou shalt have if thou shalt prove faithful.

Vincent: Rev 3:12 - Pillar Pillar ( στύλον ) The word occurs, Gal 2:9; 1Ti 3:15; Rev 10:1. The reference here is not to any prominence in the earthly church, as Gal...

Pillar ( στύλον )

The word occurs, Gal 2:9; 1Ti 3:15; Rev 10:1. The reference here is not to any prominence in the earthly church, as Gal 2:9, but to blessedness in the future state. The exact meaning is doubtful. Some explain, he shall have a fixed and important place in the glorified church . Compare Mat 19:28. Others emphasize the idea of stability , and find a possible local reference to the frequent earthquakes from which Philadelphia had suffered, and which had shaken its temples. Strabo says: " And Philadelphia has not even its walls unimpaired, but daily they are shaken in some way, and gaps are made in them. But the inhabitants continue to occupy the land notwithstanding their sufferings, and to build new houses." Others again emphasize the idea of beauty . Compare 1Pe 2:5, where the saints are described living stones .

Vincent: Rev 3:12 - Temple Temple ( ναῷ ) See on Mat 4:5.

Temple ( ναῷ )

See on Mat 4:5.

Vincent: Rev 3:12 - Upon him Upon him The conqueror , not the pillar . Compare Rev 7:3; Rev 9:4; Rev 14:1; Rev 22:4. Probably with reference to the golden plate inscrib...

Upon him

The conqueror , not the pillar . Compare Rev 7:3; Rev 9:4; Rev 14:1; Rev 22:4. Probably with reference to the golden plate inscribed with the name of Jehovah, and worn by the High-Priest upon his forehead (Exo 28:36, Exo 28:38). See on Rev 2:17.

Vincent: Rev 3:12 - New Jerusalem New Jerusalem See Eze 48:35. The believer whose brow is adorned with this name has the freedom of the heavenly city. Even on earth his commonweal...

New Jerusalem

See Eze 48:35. The believer whose brow is adorned with this name has the freedom of the heavenly city. Even on earth his commonwealth is in heaven (Phi 3:20). " Still, his citizenship was latent: he was one of God's hidden ones; but now he is openly avouched, and has a right to enter in by the gates to the city" (Trench). The city is called by John, the great and holy (Rev 21:10); by Matthew, the holy city (Mat 4:5); by Paul, Jerusalem which is above (Gal 4:6); by the writer to the Hebrews, the city of the living God , the heavenly Jerusalem (Heb 12:22). Plato calls his ideal city Callipolis , the fair city (" Republic," vii., 527), and the name Ouranopolis , heavenly city , was applied to Rome and Byzantium. For new (καινῆς ), see on Mat 26:29. The new Jerusalem is not a city freshly built (νέα ), but is new (καινὴ ) in contrast with the old, outworn, sinful city. In the Gospel John habitually uses the Greek and civil form of the name, Ἰεροσόλυμα ; in Revelation, the Hebrew and more holy appellation, ἱερουσάλημ .

Vincent: Rev 3:14 - Of the Laodiceans Of the Laodiceans ( Ααοδικέων ) Read ἐν Ααοδικείᾳ in Laodicea . Laodicea means justice of the people . As L...

Of the Laodiceans ( Ααοδικέων )

Read ἐν Ααοδικείᾳ in Laodicea . Laodicea means justice of the people . As Laodice was a common name among the ladies of the royal house of the Seleucidae, the name was given to several cities in Syria and Asia Minor. The one here addressed was on the confines of Phrygia and Lydia, about forty miles east of Ephesus, and was known as Laodicea on the Lycus. It had born successively the names of Diospolis and Rhoas, and was named Laodicea when refounded by Antiochus Theos, b.c. 261-246. It was situated on a group of hills between two tributaries of the Lycus - the Asopus and the Caprus. Towards the end of the Roman Republic, and under the first emperors, it became one of the most important and flourishing cities of Asia Minor. One of its citizens, Hiero, bequeathed all his enormous property to the people, and adorned the city with costly gifts. It was the seat of large money transactions and of an extensive trade in wood. The citizens developed a taste for Greek art, and were distinguished in science and literature. Laodicea was the seat of a great medical school. During the Roman period it was the chief city of a Roman conventus or political district, in which courts were held by the proconsul of the province, and where the taxes from the subordinate towns were collected. Cicero held his court there, and many of his letters were written thence. The conventus represented by Laodicea comprised not less than twenty-five towns, and inscriptions refer to the city as " the metropolis." The Greek word διοίκηδις , corresponding to the Latin conventus was subsequently applied to an ecclesiastical district, and appears in diocese . The tutelary deity of the city was Zeus (Jupiter). Hence its earlier name, Diospolis , or City of Zeus . Many of its inhabitants were Jews. It was subject to frequent earthquakes, which eventually resulted in its abandonment. It is now a deserted place, but its ruins indicate by their magnitude its former importance. Among these are a racecourse, and three theatres, one of which is four hundred and fifty feet in diameter. An important church council was held there in the fourth century.

Vincent: Rev 3:14 - The Amen The Amen Used only here as a proper name. See Isa 65:16, where the correct rendering is the God of the Amen , instead of A.V. God of ...

The Amen

Used only here as a proper name. See Isa 65:16, where the correct rendering is the God of the Amen , instead of A.V. God of truth . The term applied to the Lord signifies that He Himself is the fulfilment of all that God has spoken to the churches.

Vincent: Rev 3:14 - Faithful Faithful ( πιστός ) The word occurs in the New Testament in two senses: trusty , faithful Mat 24:45; Mat 25:21, Mat 25:23; Luk 12:42);...

Faithful ( πιστός )

The word occurs in the New Testament in two senses: trusty , faithful Mat 24:45; Mat 25:21, Mat 25:23; Luk 12:42); and believing , confiding (Joh 20:27; Gal 3:9; Act 16:1). Of God, necessarily only in the former sense.

Vincent: Rev 3:14 - True True ( ἀληθινὸς ) See on Rev 3:7. The veracity of Christ is thus asserted in the word faithful , true being not true as disting...

True ( ἀληθινὸς )

See on Rev 3:7. The veracity of Christ is thus asserted in the word faithful , true being not true as distinguished from false , but true to the normal idea of a witness .

Vincent: Rev 3:14 - The beginning The beginning ( ἡ ἀρχή ) The beginner , or author ; not as Col 1:15, the first and most excellent creature of God's...

The beginning ( ἡ ἀρχή )

The beginner , or author ; not as Col 1:15, the first and most excellent creature of God's hands . " The stress laid in the Epistle to the Colossians on the inferiority of those to whom the self-same name of ἀρχαὶ , beginnings principalities was given... to the One who was the true beginning, or, if we might venture on an unfamiliar use of a familiar word, the true Principality of God's creation, may account for the prominence which the name had gained, and therefore for its use here in a message addressed to a church exposed, like that of Colossae, to the risks of angelolatry, of the substitution of lower principalities and created mediators for Him who was the Head over all things to His Church" (Plumptre). Compare Heb 12:2, ἀρχηγὸν leader .

Vincent: Rev 3:15 - Cold Cold ( ψυχρός ) Attached to the world and actively opposed to the Church. " This," as Alford remarks, " as well as the opposite state of...

Cold ( ψυχρός )

Attached to the world and actively opposed to the Church. " This," as Alford remarks, " as well as the opposite state of spiritual fervor, would be an intelligible and plainly-marked condition; at all events free from the danger of mixed motive and disregarded principle which belongs to the lukewarm state: inasmuch as a man in earnest, be he right or wrong, is ever a better man than one professing what he does not feel."

Vincent: Rev 3:15 - Hot Hot ( ζεστός ) From ζέω to boil or seethe . See on fervent , Act 18:25.

Hot ( ζεστός )

From ζέω to boil or seethe . See on fervent , Act 18:25.

Vincent: Rev 3:16 - Lukewarm Lukewarm ( χλιαρός ) Only here in the New Testament. Foremost and most numerous among the lost, Dante places those who had been content...

Lukewarm ( χλιαρός )

Only here in the New Testament.

Foremost and most numerous among the lost, Dante places those who had been content to remain neutral in the great contest between good and evil.

" Master, what is this which now I hear?

What folk is this, which seems by pain so vanquished?

And he to me: " This miserable mode

Maintain the melancholy souls of those

Who lived withouten infamy or praise.

Commingled are they with that caitiff choir.

Of angels, who have not rebellious been,

Nor faithful were to God, but were for self.

The heavens expelled them, not to be less fair;

Nor them the nethermore abyss receives,

For glory none the damned would have from them."

" Inferno ," iii ., 33-42 .

Vincent: Rev 3:16 - I will I will ( μέλλω ) I am about or have in mind . Not a declaration of immediate and inexorable doom, but implying a possibility ...

I will ( μέλλω )

I am about or have in mind . Not a declaration of immediate and inexorable doom, but implying a possibility of the determination being changed.

Vincent: Rev 3:16 - Spue Spue ( ἐμέσαι ) Only here in the New Testament. Compare Lev 18:28; Lev 20:22.

Spue ( ἐμέσαι )

Only here in the New Testament. Compare Lev 18:28; Lev 20:22.

Vincent: Rev 3:17 - Because thou sayest Because thou sayest Connect, as A.V. and Rev., with what follows, not with what precedes. Some interpret I will spue thee out of my ...

Because thou sayest

Connect, as A.V. and Rev., with what follows, not with what precedes. Some interpret I will spue thee out of my mouth because thou sayest , etc.

Vincent: Rev 3:17 - Increased with goods Increased with goods ( πεπλούτηκα ) Rev., have gotten riches . The reference is to imagined spiritual riches, not to worldly p...

Increased with goods ( πεπλούτηκα )

Rev., have gotten riches . The reference is to imagined spiritual riches, not to worldly possessions.

Vincent: Rev 3:17 - Thou Thou Emphatic.

Thou

Emphatic.

Vincent: Rev 3:17 - Wretched Wretched ( ὁ ταλαίπωρος ) Rev., better, giving the force of the article, the wretched one . From τλάω to endure , an...

Wretched ( ὁ ταλαίπωρος )

Rev., better, giving the force of the article, the wretched one . From τλάω to endure , and πειρά a trial .

Vincent: Rev 3:17 - Miserable Miserable ( ἐλεεινός ) Only here and 1Co 15:19. An object of pity (ἔλεος ).

Miserable ( ἐλεεινός )

Only here and 1Co 15:19. An object of pity (ἔλεος ).

Vincent: Rev 3:17 - Poor Poor ( πτωχός ) See on Mat 5:3.

Poor ( πτωχός )

See on Mat 5:3.

Vincent: Rev 3:18 - I counsel I counsel ( συμβουλεύω ) With a certain irony. Though He might command, yet He advises those who are, in their own estimation, suppli...

I counsel ( συμβουλεύω )

With a certain irony. Though He might command, yet He advises those who are, in their own estimation, supplied with everything.

Vincent: Rev 3:18 - To buy To buy Compare Isa 4:1; Mat 13:44, Mat 13:46. Those who think themselves rich, and yet have just been called beggars by the Lord, are advised b...

To buy

Compare Isa 4:1; Mat 13:44, Mat 13:46. Those who think themselves rich, and yet have just been called beggars by the Lord, are advised by Him to buy. The irony, however, covers a sincere and gracious invitation. The goods of Christ are freely given, yet they have their price - renunciation of self and of the world.

Vincent: Rev 3:18 - Gold Gold ( χρυσίον ) Often of gold money or ornaments . So 1Pe 1:18; Act 3:6; 1Pe 3:3. Also of native gold and gold which has been smel...

Gold ( χρυσίον )

Often of gold money or ornaments . So 1Pe 1:18; Act 3:6; 1Pe 3:3. Also of native gold and gold which has been smelted and wrought (Heb 9:4). There may very properly be a reference to the extensive money transactions of Laodicea.

Vincent: Rev 3:18 - Tried in the fire Tried in the fire ( πεπυρωμένον ἐκ πορὸς ) The verb means to burn , to be on fire: in the perfect passive, as ...

Tried in the fire ( πεπυρωμένον ἐκ πορὸς )

The verb means to burn , to be on fire: in the perfect passive, as here, kindled , made to glow ; thence melted by fire , and so refined . Rev., refined by , fire . By fire is, literally, out of the fire (ἐκ ; see on Rev 2:7).

Vincent: Rev 3:18 - White raiment White raiment Rev., garments . See on Rev 3:4.

White raiment

Rev., garments . See on Rev 3:4.

Vincent: Rev 3:18 - Mayest be clothed Mayest be clothed ( περιβάλῃ ) Rev., more literally, mayest clothe thyself . See on Rev 3:5.

Mayest be clothed ( περιβάλῃ )

Rev., more literally, mayest clothe thyself . See on Rev 3:5.

Vincent: Rev 3:18 - Do not appear Do not appear ( μὴ φανερωθῇ ) Rev., more literally, be not made manifest . See on Joh 21:1. Stripping and exposure is a fr...

Do not appear ( μὴ φανερωθῇ )

Rev., more literally, be not made manifest . See on Joh 21:1. Stripping and exposure is a frequent method of putting to open shame. See 2Sa 10:4; Isa 20:4; Isa 47:2-3; Eze 16:37. Compare also Mat 22:11-13; Col 3:10-14.

Vincent: Rev 3:18 - Anoint thine eyes with eye-salve Anoint thine eyes with eye-salve ( κολλούριον ἔγχρισον τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς σου ) The correct reading is ...

Anoint thine eyes with eye-salve ( κολλούριον ἔγχρισον τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς σου )

The correct reading is ἔγχρισαι , the infinitive, to anoint , instead of the imperative. So Rev., eye-salve to anoint thine eyes . Κολλούριον , of which the Latin collyrium is a transcript, is a diminutive of κολλύρα a roll of coarse bread . See 1Ki 14:3, Sept.; A.V., cracknels . Here applied to a roll or stick of ointment for the eyes. Horace, describing his Brundisian journey, relates how, at one point, he was troubled with inflamed eyes, and anointed them with black eye-salve ( nigra collyria . Sat., i., v., 30). Juvenal, describing a superstitious woman, says: " If the corner of her eye itches when rubbed, she consults her horoscope before calling for salve " ( collyria ; vi., 577). The figure sets forth the spiritual anointing by which the spiritual vision is purged. Compare Augustine, " Confessions," vii., 7, 8. " Through my own swelling was I separated from Thee; yea, my pride-swollen face closed up mine eyes.... It was pleasing in Thy sight to reform my deformities; and by inward goads didst Thou rouse me, that I should be ill at ease until Thou wert manifested to my inward sight. Thus, by the secret hand of Thy medicining, was my swelling abated, and the troubled and bedimmed eyesight of my mind, by the smarting anointings of healthful sorrows, was from day to day healed." Compare 1Jo 2:20, 1Jo 2:27.

Vincent: Rev 3:19 - As many as I love As many as I love In the Greek order I stands first as emphatic.

As many as I love

In the Greek order I stands first as emphatic.

Vincent: Rev 3:19 - Rebuke Rebuke ( ἐλέγχω ) See on Joh 3:20. Rev., reprove .

Rebuke ( ἐλέγχω )

See on Joh 3:20. Rev., reprove .

Vincent: Rev 3:19 - Chasten Chasten ( παιδεύω ) See on Luk 23:16.

Chasten ( παιδεύω )

See on Luk 23:16.

Vincent: Rev 3:19 - Be zealous Be zealous ( ζήλευε ) The verb is akin to ζεστός hot in Rev 3:16, on which see note.

Be zealous ( ζήλευε )

The verb is akin to ζεστός hot in Rev 3:16, on which see note.

Vincent: Rev 3:19 - Repent Repent See on Mat 3:2; see on Mat 20:29.

Repent

See on Mat 3:2; see on Mat 20:29.

Vincent: Rev 3:20 - I stand at the door and knock I stand at the door and knock Compare Son 5:2, Κρούω I knock was regarded as a less classical word than κόπτω . Κρούω i...

I stand at the door and knock

Compare Son 5:2, Κρούω I knock was regarded as a less classical word than κόπτω . Κρούω is to knock with the knuckles , to rap ; κόπτω , with a heavy blow ; ψοφεῖν of the knocking of some one within the door, warning one without to withdraw when the door is opened. Compare Jam 5:9. " He at whose door we ought to stand (for He is the Door, who, as such, has bidden us to knock), is content that the whole relation between Him and us should be reversed, and, instead of our standing at His door, condescends Himself to stand at ours" (Trench). The Greeks had a word θυραυλεῖν for a lover waiting at the door of his beloved. Trench cites a passage from Nicolaus Cabasilas, a Greek divine of the fourteenth century: " Love for men emptied God (Phi 2:7). For He doth not abide in His place and summon to Himself the servant whom He loved; but goes Himself and seeks him; and He who is rich comes to the dwelling of the poor, and discloses His love, and seeks an equal return; nor does He withdraw from him who repels Him, nor is He disgusted at his insolence; but, pursuing him, remains sitting at his doors, and that He may show him the one who loves him, He does all things, and sorrowing, bears and dies."

Vincent: Rev 3:20 - My voice My voice Christ not only knocks but speaks. " The voice very often will interpret and make intelligible the purpose of the knock" (Trench).

My voice

Christ not only knocks but speaks. " The voice very often will interpret and make intelligible the purpose of the knock" (Trench).

Vincent: Rev 3:20 - Hear - open the door Hear - open the door No irresistible grace.

Hear - open the door

No irresistible grace.

Vincent: Rev 3:20 - Will sup Will sup ( δειπνήσω ) See on Luk 14:12. For the image, compare Son 5:2-6; Son 4:16; Son 2:3. Christ is the Bread of Life, and invites t...

Will sup ( δειπνήσω )

See on Luk 14:12. For the image, compare Son 5:2-6; Son 4:16; Son 2:3. Christ is the Bread of Life, and invites to the great feast. See Mat 8:11; Mat 25:1 sqq. The consummation will be at the marriage-supper of the Lamb (Mar 14:25; Rev 19:7-9).

Vincent: Rev 3:20 - He with me He with me It is characteristic of John to note the sayings of Christ which express the reciprocal relations of Himself and His followers. See ...

He with me

It is characteristic of John to note the sayings of Christ which express the reciprocal relations of Himself and His followers. See Joh 6:56; Joh 10:38; Joh 14:20; Joh 15:4, Joh 15:5; Joh 17:21, Joh 17:26. Compare Joh 14:23.

Vincent: Rev 3:21 - He that overcometh He that overcometh See on Rev 2:7.

He that overcometh

See on Rev 2:7.

Wesley: Rev 3:1 - The seven spirits of God The Holy Spirit, from whom alone all spiritual life and strength proceed.

The Holy Spirit, from whom alone all spiritual life and strength proceed.

Wesley: Rev 3:1 - And the seven stars which are subordinate to him.

which are subordinate to him.

Wesley: Rev 3:1 - Thou hast a name that thou livest A fair reputation, a goodly outside appearance. But that Spirit seeth through all things, and every empty appearance vanishes before him.

A fair reputation, a goodly outside appearance. But that Spirit seeth through all things, and every empty appearance vanishes before him.

Wesley: Rev 3:2 - The things which remain In thy soul; knowledge of the truth, good desires, and convictions.

In thy soul; knowledge of the truth, good desires, and convictions.

Wesley: Rev 3:2 - Which were ready to die Wherever pride, indolence, or levity revives, all the fruits of the Spirit are ready to die.

Wherever pride, indolence, or levity revives, all the fruits of the Spirit are ready to die.

Wesley: Rev 3:3 - Remember how Humbly, zealously, seriously. Thou didst receive the grace of God once, and hear - His word.

Humbly, zealously, seriously. Thou didst receive the grace of God once, and hear - His word.

Wesley: Rev 3:3 - And hold fast The grace thou hast received.

The grace thou hast received.

Wesley: Rev 3:3 - And repent According to the word thou hast heard.

According to the word thou hast heard.

Wesley: Rev 3:4 - Yet thou hast a few names That is, persons. But though few, they had not separated themselves from the rest; otherwise, the angel of Sardis would not have had them. Yet it was ...

That is, persons. But though few, they had not separated themselves from the rest; otherwise, the angel of Sardis would not have had them. Yet it was no virtue of his, that they were unspotted; whereas it was his fault that they were but few.

Wesley: Rev 3:4 - Who have not defiled their garments Either by spotting themselves, or by partaking of other men's sins.

Either by spotting themselves, or by partaking of other men's sins.

Wesley: Rev 3:4 - They shall walk with me in white in joy; in perfect holiness; in glory.

in joy; in perfect holiness; in glory.

Wesley: Rev 3:4 - They are worthy A few good among many bad are doubly acceptable to God. O how much happier is this worthiness than that mentioned, Rev 16:6.

A few good among many bad are doubly acceptable to God. O how much happier is this worthiness than that mentioned, Rev 16:6.

Wesley: Rev 3:5 - He shall be clothed in white raiment The colour of victory, joy, and triumph.

The colour of victory, joy, and triumph.

Wesley: Rev 3:5 - And I will not blot his name out of the book of life Like that of the angel of the church at Sardis: but he shall live for ever.

Like that of the angel of the church at Sardis: but he shall live for ever.

Wesley: Rev 3:5 - I will confess his name As one of my faithful servants and soldiers.

As one of my faithful servants and soldiers.

Wesley: Rev 3:7 - The holy one, the true one Two great and glorious names He that hath the key of David - A master of a family, or a prince, has one or more keys, wherewith he can open and shut a...

Two great and glorious names He that hath the key of David - A master of a family, or a prince, has one or more keys, wherewith he can open and shut all the doors of his house or palace. So had David a key, a token of right and sovereignty, which was afterward adjudged to Eliakim, Isa 22:22. Much more has Christ, the Son of David, the key of the spiritual city of David, the New Jerusalem; the supreme right, power, and authority, as in his own house. He openeth this to all that overcome, and none shutteth: he shutteth it against all the fearful, and none openeth. Likewise when he openeth a door on earth for his works or his servants, none can shut; and when he shutteth against whatever would hurt or defile, none can open.

Wesley: Rev 3:8 - I have given before thee an opened door To enter into the joy of thy Lord; and, meantime, to go on unhindered in every good work.

To enter into the joy of thy Lord; and, meantime, to go on unhindered in every good work.

Wesley: Rev 3:8 - Thou hast a little strength But little outward human strength; a little, poor, mean, despicable company.

But little outward human strength; a little, poor, mean, despicable company.

Wesley: Rev 3:8 - Yet thou hast kept my word Both in judgment and practice.

Both in judgment and practice.

Wesley: Rev 3:9 - Behold, I who have all power; and they must then comply.

who have all power; and they must then comply.

Wesley: Rev 3:9 - I will make them come and bow down before thy feet Pay thee the lowest homage.

Pay thee the lowest homage.

Wesley: Rev 3:9 - And know At length, that all depends on my love, and that thou hast a place therein. O how often does the judgment of the people turn quite round, when the Lor...

At length, that all depends on my love, and that thou hast a place therein. O how often does the judgment of the people turn quite round, when the Lord looketh upon them! Job 42:7, &c.

Wesley: Rev 3:10 - Because thou hast kept the word of my patience The word of Christ is indeed a word of patience.

The word of Christ is indeed a word of patience.

Wesley: Rev 3:10 - I also will keep thee O happy exemption from that spreading calamity! From the hour of temptation - So that thou shalt not enter into temptation; but it shall pass over the...

O happy exemption from that spreading calamity! From the hour of temptation - So that thou shalt not enter into temptation; but it shall pass over thee. The hour denotes the short time of its continuance; that is, at any one place. At every one it was very sharp, though short; wherein the great tempter was not idle, Rev 2:10.

Wesley: Rev 3:10 - Which hour shall come upon the whole earth The whole Roman empire. It went over the Christians, and over the Jews and heathens; though in a very different manner. This was the time of the perse...

The whole Roman empire. It went over the Christians, and over the Jews and heathens; though in a very different manner. This was the time of the persecution under the seemingly virtuous emperor Trajan. The two preceding persecutions were under those monsters, Nero and Domitian; but Trajan was so admired for his goodness, and his persecution was of such a nature, that it was a temptation indeed, and did throughly try them that dwelt upon the earth.

Wesley: Rev 3:11 - Thy crown Which is ready for thee, if thou endure to the end.

Which is ready for thee, if thou endure to the end.

Wesley: Rev 3:12 - I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God I will fix him as beautiful, as useful, and as immovable as a pillar in the church of God.

I will fix him as beautiful, as useful, and as immovable as a pillar in the church of God.

Wesley: Rev 3:12 - And he shall go out no more But shall be holy and happy for ever.

But shall be holy and happy for ever.

Wesley: Rev 3:12 - And I will write upon him the name of my God So that the nature and image of God shall appear visibly upon him.

So that the nature and image of God shall appear visibly upon him.

Wesley: Rev 3:12 - And the name of the city of my God Giving him a title to dwell in the New Jerusalem.

Giving him a title to dwell in the New Jerusalem.

Wesley: Rev 3:12 - And my new name A share in that joy which I entered into, after overcoming all my enemies.

A share in that joy which I entered into, after overcoming all my enemies.

Wesley: Rev 3:14 - To the angel of the church at Laodicea For these St. Paul had had a great concern, Col 2:1.

For these St. Paul had had a great concern, Col 2:1.

Wesley: Rev 3:14 - These things saith the Amen That is, the True One, the God of truth.

That is, the True One, the God of truth.

Wesley: Rev 3:14 - The beginning The Author, Prince, and Ruler.

The Author, Prince, and Ruler.

Wesley: Rev 3:14 - Of the creation of God Of all creatures; the beginning, or Author, by whom God made them all.

Of all creatures; the beginning, or Author, by whom God made them all.

Wesley: Rev 3:15 - I know thy works Thy disposition and behaviour, though thou knowest it not thyself.

Thy disposition and behaviour, though thou knowest it not thyself.

Wesley: Rev 3:15 - That thou art neither cold An utter stranger to the things of God, having no care or thought about them.

An utter stranger to the things of God, having no care or thought about them.

Wesley: Rev 3:15 - Nor hot As boiling water: so ought we to be penetrated and heated by the fire of love.

As boiling water: so ought we to be penetrated and heated by the fire of love.

Wesley: Rev 3:15 - O that thou wert This wish of our Lord plainly implies that he does not work on us irresistibly, as the fire does on the water which it heats.

This wish of our Lord plainly implies that he does not work on us irresistibly, as the fire does on the water which it heats.

Wesley: Rev 3:15 - Cold or hot Even if thou wert cold, without any thought or profession of religion, there would be more hope of thy recovery.

Even if thou wert cold, without any thought or profession of religion, there would be more hope of thy recovery.

Wesley: Rev 3:16 - So because thou art lukewarm The effect of lukewarm water is well known.

The effect of lukewarm water is well known.

Wesley: Rev 3:16 - I am about to spue thee out of my mouth I will utterly cast thee from me; that is, unless thou repent.

I will utterly cast thee from me; that is, unless thou repent.

Wesley: Rev 3:17 - Because thou sayest Therefore "I counsel thee," &c.

Therefore "I counsel thee," &c.

Wesley: Rev 3:17 - I am rich In gifts and grace, as well as worldly goods.

In gifts and grace, as well as worldly goods.

Wesley: Rev 3:17 - And knowest not that thou art In God's account, wretched and pitiable.

In God's account, wretched and pitiable.

Wesley: Rev 3:18 - I counsel thee who art poor, and blind, and naked.

who art poor, and blind, and naked.

Wesley: Rev 3:18 - To buy of me Without money or price.

Without money or price.

Wesley: Rev 3:18 - Gold purified in the fire True, living faith, which is purified in the furnace of affliction.

True, living faith, which is purified in the furnace of affliction.

Wesley: Rev 3:18 - And white raiment True holiness.

True holiness.

Wesley: Rev 3:18 - And eyesalve Spiritual illumination; the "unction of the Holy One," which teacheth all things.

Spiritual illumination; the "unction of the Holy One," which teacheth all things.

Wesley: Rev 3:19 - Whomsoever I love Even thee, thou poor Laodicean! O how much has his unwearied love to do! I rebuke - For what is past.

Even thee, thou poor Laodicean! O how much has his unwearied love to do! I rebuke - For what is past.

Wesley: Rev 3:19 - And chasten That they may amend for the time to come.

That they may amend for the time to come.

Wesley: Rev 3:20 - I stand at the door, and knock Even at this instant; while he is speaking this word.

Even at this instant; while he is speaking this word.

Wesley: Rev 3:20 - If any man open Willingly receive me.

Willingly receive me.

Wesley: Rev 3:20 - I will sup with him Refreshing him with my graces and gifts, and delighting myself in what I have given.

Refreshing him with my graces and gifts, and delighting myself in what I have given.

Wesley: Rev 3:20 - And he with me In life everlasting.

In life everlasting.

Wesley: Rev 3:21 - I will give him to sit with me on my throne In unspeakable happiness and glory. Elsewhere, heaven itself is termed the throne of God: but this throne is in heaven.

In unspeakable happiness and glory. Elsewhere, heaven itself is termed the throne of God: but this throne is in heaven.

Wesley: Rev 3:22 - He that hath an ear, let him hear, &c. _This stands in the three former letters before the promise; in the four latter, after it; clearly dividing the seven into two parts; the first contai...

_This stands in the three former letters before the promise; in the four latter, after it; clearly dividing the seven into two parts; the first containing three, the last, four letters. The titles given our Lord in the three former letters peculiarly respect his power after his resurrection and ascension, particularly over his church; those in the four latter, his divine glory, and unity with the Father and the Holy Spirit. Again, this word being placed before the promises in the three former letters, excludes the false apostles at Ephesus, the false Jews at Smyrna, and the partakers with the heathens at Pergamos, from having any share therein. In the four latter, being placed after them, it leaves the promises immediately joined with Christ's address to the angel of the church, to show that the fulfilling of these was near; whereas the others reach beyond the end of the world. It should be observed, that the overcoming, or victory, (to which alone these peculiar promises are annexed,) is not the ordinary victory obtained by every believer; but a special victory over great and peculiar temptations, by those that are strong in faith.

JFB: Rev 3:1 - Sardis The ancient capital of Lydia, the kingdom of wealthy Croesus, on the river Pactolus. The address to this Church is full of rebuke. It does not seem to...

The ancient capital of Lydia, the kingdom of wealthy Croesus, on the river Pactolus. The address to this Church is full of rebuke. It does not seem to have been in vain; for MELITO, bishop of Sardis in the second century, was eminent for piety and learning. He visited Palestine to assure himself and his flock as to the Old Testament canon and wrote an epistle on the subject [EUSEBIUS Ecclesiastical History, 4.26]; he also wrote a commentary on the Apocalypse [EUSEBIUS, Ecclesiastical History, 4.26; JEROME, On Illustrious Men, 24].

JFB: Rev 3:1 - he that hath the seven Spirits of God That is, He who hath all the fulness of the Spirit (Rev 1:4; Rev 4:5; Rev 5:6, with which compare Zec 3:9; Zec 4:10, proving His Godhead). This attrib...

That is, He who hath all the fulness of the Spirit (Rev 1:4; Rev 4:5; Rev 5:6, with which compare Zec 3:9; Zec 4:10, proving His Godhead). This attribute implies His infinite power by the Spirit to convict of sin and of a hollow profession.

JFB: Rev 3:1 - and the seven stars (Rev 1:16, Rev 1:20). His having the seven stars, or presiding ministers, flows, as a consequence, from His having the seven Spirits, or the fulness ...

(Rev 1:16, Rev 1:20). His having the seven stars, or presiding ministers, flows, as a consequence, from His having the seven Spirits, or the fulness of the Holy Spirit. The human ministry is the fruit of Christ's sending down the gifts of the Spirit. Stars imply brilliancy and glory; the fulness of the Spirit, and the fulness of brilliant light in Him, form a designed contrast to the formality which He reproves.

JFB: Rev 3:1 - name . . . livest . . . dead (1Ti 5:6; 2Ti 3:5; Tit 1:16; compare Eph 2:1, Eph 2:5; Eph 5:14). "A name," that is, a reputation. Sardis was famed among the churches for spiritual ...

(1Ti 5:6; 2Ti 3:5; Tit 1:16; compare Eph 2:1, Eph 2:5; Eph 5:14). "A name," that is, a reputation. Sardis was famed among the churches for spiritual vitality; yet the Heart-searcher, who seeth not as man seeth, pronounces her dead; how great searchings of heart should her case create among even the best of us! Laodicea deceived herself as to her true state (Rev 3:17), but it is not written that she had a high name among the other churches, as Sardis had.

JFB: Rev 3:2 - Be Greek. "Become," what thou art not, "watchful," or "wakeful," literally, "waking."

Greek. "Become," what thou art not, "watchful," or "wakeful," literally, "waking."

JFB: Rev 3:2 - the things which remain Strengthen those thy remaining few graces, which, in thy spiritual deadly slumber, are not yet quite extinct [ALFORD]. "The things that remain" can ha...

Strengthen those thy remaining few graces, which, in thy spiritual deadly slumber, are not yet quite extinct [ALFORD]. "The things that remain" can hardly mean "the PERSONS that are not yet dead, but are ready to die"; for Rev 3:4 implies that the "few" faithful ones at Sardis were not "ready to die," but were full of life.

JFB: Rev 3:2 - are The two oldest manuscripts read, "were ready," literally, "were about to die," namely, at the time when you "strengthen" them. This implies that "thou...

The two oldest manuscripts read, "were ready," literally, "were about to die," namely, at the time when you "strengthen" them. This implies that "thou art dead," Rev 3:1, is to be taken with limitation; for those must have some life who are told to strengthen the things that remain.

JFB: Rev 3:2 - perfect Literally, "filled up in full complement"; Translate, "complete." Weighed in the balance of Him who requires living faith as the motive of works, and ...

Literally, "filled up in full complement"; Translate, "complete." Weighed in the balance of Him who requires living faith as the motive of works, and found wanting.

JFB: Rev 3:2 - before God Greek, "in the sight of God." The three oldest manuscripts, Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic, read, "before (in the sight of) MY God"; Christ's judgment is...

Greek, "in the sight of God." The three oldest manuscripts, Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic, read, "before (in the sight of) MY God"; Christ's judgment is God the Father's judgment. In the sight of men, Sardis had "a name of living": "so many and so great are the obligations of pastors, that he who would in reality fulfil even a third of them, would be esteemed holy by men, whereas, if content with that alone, he would be sure not to escape hell" [JUAN D'AVILA]. Note: in Sardis and Laodicea alone of the seven we read of no conflict with foes within or without the Church. Not that either had renounced the appearance of opposition to the world; but neither had the faithfulness to witness for God by word and example, so as to "torment them that dwelt on the earth" (Rev 11:10).

JFB: Rev 3:3 - how thou hast received (Col 2:6; 1Th 4:1; 1Ti 6:20). What Sardis is to "remember" is, not how joyfully she had received originally the Gospel message, but how the precious ...

(Col 2:6; 1Th 4:1; 1Ti 6:20). What Sardis is to "remember" is, not how joyfully she had received originally the Gospel message, but how the precious deposit was committed to her originally, so that she could not say, she had not "received and heard" it. The Greek is not aorist (as in Rev 2:4, as to Ephesus, "Thou didst leave thy first love"), but "thou hast received" (perfect), and still hast the permanent deposit of doctrine committed to thee. The word "keep" (so the Greek is for English Version, "hold fast") which follows, accords with this sense. "Keep" or observe the commandment which thou hast received and didst hear.

JFB: Rev 3:3 - heard Greek aorist, "didst hear," namely, when the Gospel doctrine was committed to thee. TRENCH explains "how," with what demonstration of the Spirit and p...

Greek aorist, "didst hear," namely, when the Gospel doctrine was committed to thee. TRENCH explains "how," with what demonstration of the Spirit and power from Christ's ambassadors the truth came to you, and how heartily and zealously you at first received it. Similarly BENGEL, "Regard to her former character (how it once stood) ought to guard Sardis against the future hour, whatsoever it shall be, proving fatal to her." But it is not likely that the Spirit repeats the same exhortation virtually to Sardis as to Ephesus.

JFB: Rev 3:3 - If therefore Seeing thou art so warned, if, nevertheless, &c.

Seeing thou art so warned, if, nevertheless, &c.

JFB: Rev 3:3 - come on thee as a thief In special judgment on thee as a Church, with the same stealthiness and as unexpectedly as shall be My visible second coming. As the thief gives no no...

In special judgment on thee as a Church, with the same stealthiness and as unexpectedly as shall be My visible second coming. As the thief gives no notice of his approach. Christ applies the language which in its fullest sense describes His second coming, to describe His coming in special judgments on churches and states (as Jerusalem, Mat. 24:4-28) these special judgments being anticipatory earnests of that great last coming. "The last day is hidden from us, that every day may be observed by us" [AUGUSTINE]. Twice Christ in the days of His flesh spake the same words (Mat 24:42-43; Luk 12:39-40); and so deeply had His words been engraven on the minds of the apostles that they are often repeated in their writings (Rev 16:15; 1Th 5:2, 1Th 5:4, 1Th 5:6; 2Pe 3:10). The Greek proverb was that "the feet of the avenging deities are shod with wool," expressing the noiseless approach of the divine judgments, and their possible nearness at the moment when they were supposed the farthest off [TRENCH].

JFB: Rev 3:4 - -- The three oldest manuscripts prefix "but," or "nevertheless" (notwithstanding thy spiritual deadness), and omit "even."

The three oldest manuscripts prefix "but," or "nevertheless" (notwithstanding thy spiritual deadness), and omit "even."

JFB: Rev 3:4 - names Persons named in the book of life (Rev 3:5) known by name by the Lord as His own. These had the reality corresponding to their name; not a mere name a...

Persons named in the book of life (Rev 3:5) known by name by the Lord as His own. These had the reality corresponding to their name; not a mere name among men as living, while really dead (Rev 3:1). The gracious Lord does not overlook any exceptional cases of real saints in the midst of unreal professors.

JFB: Rev 3:4 - not defiled their garments Namely, the garments of their Christian profession, of which baptism is the initiatory seal, whence the candidates for baptism used in the ancient Chu...

Namely, the garments of their Christian profession, of which baptism is the initiatory seal, whence the candidates for baptism used in the ancient Church to be arrayed in white. Compare also Eph 5:27, as to the spotlessness of the Church when she shall be presented to Christ; and Rev 19:8, as to the "fine linen, clean and white, the righteousness of the saints," in which it shall be granted to her to be arrayed; and "the wedding garment." Meanwhile she is not to sully her Christian profession with any defilement of flesh or spirit, but to "keep her garments." For no defilement shall enter the heavenly city. Not that any keep themselves here wholly free from defilement; but, as compared with hollow professors, the godly keep themselves unspotted from the world; and when they do contract it, they wash it away, so as to have their "robes white in the blood of the Lamb" (Rev 7:14). The Greek is not "to stain" (Greek, "miainein"), but to "defile," or besmear (Greek, "molunein"), Son 5:3.

JFB: Rev 3:4 - they shall walk with me in white The promised reward accords with the character of those to be rewarded: keeping their garments undefiled and white through the blood of the Lamb now, ...

The promised reward accords with the character of those to be rewarded: keeping their garments undefiled and white through the blood of the Lamb now, they shall walk with Him in while hereafter. On "with me," compare the very same words, Luk 23:43; Joh 17:24. "Walk" implies spiritual life, for only the living walk; also liberty, for it is only the free who walk at large. The grace and dignity of flowing long garments is seen to best advantage when the person "walks": so the graces of the saint's manifested character shall appear fully when he shall serve the Lord perfectly hereafter (Rev 22:3).

JFB: Rev 3:4 - they are worthy With the worthiness (not their own, but that) which Christ has put on them (Rev 7:14). Eze 16:14, "perfect through MY comeliness which I had put upon ...

With the worthiness (not their own, but that) which Christ has put on them (Rev 7:14). Eze 16:14, "perfect through MY comeliness which I had put upon thee." Grace is glory in the bud. "The worthiness here denotes a congruity between the saint's state of grace on earth, and that of glory, which the Lord has appointed for them, about to be estimated by the law itself of grace" [VITRINGA]. Contrast Act 13:46.

JFB: Rev 3:5 - white Not a dull white, but glittering, dazzling white [GROTIUS]. Compare Mat 13:43. The body transfigured into the likeness of Christ's body, and emitting ...

Not a dull white, but glittering, dazzling white [GROTIUS]. Compare Mat 13:43. The body transfigured into the likeness of Christ's body, and emitting beams of light reflected from Him, is probably the "white raiment" promised here.

JFB: Rev 3:5 - the same Greek, "THIS man"; he and he alone. So one oldest manuscript reads. But two oldest manuscripts, and most of the ancient versions, "shall THUS be cloth...

Greek, "THIS man"; he and he alone. So one oldest manuscript reads. But two oldest manuscripts, and most of the ancient versions, "shall THUS be clothed," &c.

JFB: Rev 3:5 - raiment Greek, "garments." "He that overcometh" shall receive the same reward as they who "have not defiled their garments" (Rev 3:4); therefore the two are i...

Greek, "garments." "He that overcometh" shall receive the same reward as they who "have not defiled their garments" (Rev 3:4); therefore the two are identical.

JFB: Rev 3:5 - I will not Greek, "I will not by any means."

Greek, "I will not by any means."

JFB: Rev 3:5 - blot out . . . name out of . . . book of life Of the heavenly city. A register was kept in ancient cities of their citizens: the names of the dead were of course erased. So those who have a name t...

Of the heavenly city. A register was kept in ancient cities of their citizens: the names of the dead were of course erased. So those who have a name that they live and are dead (Rev 3:1), are blotted out of God's roll of the heavenly citizens and heirs of eternal life; not that in God's electing decree they ever were in His book of life. But, according to human conceptions, those who had a high name for piety would be supposed to be in it, and were, in respect to privileges, actually among those in the way of salvation; but these privileges, and the fact that they once might have been saved, shall be of no avail to them. As to the book of life, compare Rev 13:8; Rev 17:8; Rev 20:12, Rev 20:15; Rev 21:27; Exo 32:32; Psa 69:28; Dan 12:1. In the sense of the "call," many are enrolled among the called to salvation, who shall not be found among the chosen at last. The pale of salvation is wider than that of election. Election is fixed. Salvation is open to all and is pending (humanly speaking) in the case of those mentioned here. But Rev 20:15; Rev 21:27, exhibit the book of the elect alone in the narrower sense, after the erasure of the others.

JFB: Rev 3:5 - before . . . before Greek, "in the presence of." Compare the same promise of Christ's confessing before His Father those who confessed Him, Mat 10:32-33; Luk 12:8-9. He o...

Greek, "in the presence of." Compare the same promise of Christ's confessing before His Father those who confessed Him, Mat 10:32-33; Luk 12:8-9. He omits "in heaven" after "My Father," because there is, now that He is in heaven, no contrast between the Father in heaven and the Son on earth. He now sets His seal from heaven upon many of His words uttered on earth [TRENCH]. An undesigned coincidence, proving that these epistles are, as they profess, in their words, as well as substance, Christ's own addresses; not even tinged with the color of John's style, such as it appears in his Gospel and Epistles. The coincidence is mainly with the three other Gospels, and not with John's, which makes the coincidence more markedly undesigned. So also the clause, "He that hath an ear, let him hear," is not repeated from John's Gospel, but from the Lord's own words in the three synoptic Gospels (Mat 11:15; Mat 13:9; Mar 4:9, Mar 4:23; Mar 7:16; Luk 8:8; Luk 14:35).

JFB: Rev 3:6 - -- (See on Rev 2:7.)

(See on Rev 2:7.)

JFB: Rev 3:7 - Philadelphia In Lydia, twenty-eight miles southeast of Sardis, built by Attalus Philadelphus, king of Pergamos, who died A.D. 138. It was nearly destroyed by an ea...

In Lydia, twenty-eight miles southeast of Sardis, built by Attalus Philadelphus, king of Pergamos, who died A.D. 138. It was nearly destroyed by an earthquake in the reign of Tiberius [TACITUS, Annals, 2.47]. The connection of this Church with Jews there causes the address to it to have an Old Testament coloring in the images employed. It and Smyrna alone of the seven receive unmixed praise.

JFB: Rev 3:7 - he that is holy As in the Old Testament, "the Holy One of Israel." Thus Jesus and the God of the Old Testament are one. None but God is absolutely holy (Greek, "hagio...

As in the Old Testament, "the Holy One of Israel." Thus Jesus and the God of the Old Testament are one. None but God is absolutely holy (Greek, "hagios," separate from evil and perfectly hating it). In contrast to "the synagogue of Satan" (Rev 3:9).

JFB: Rev 3:7 - true Greek, "alethinos": "VERY God," as distinguished from the false gods and from all those who say that they are what they are not (Rev 3:9): real, genui...

Greek, "alethinos": "VERY God," as distinguished from the false gods and from all those who say that they are what they are not (Rev 3:9): real, genuine. Furthermore, He perfectly realizes all that is involved in the names, GOD, Light (Joh 1:9; 1Jo 2:8), Bread (Joh 6:32), the Vine (Joh 15:1); as distinguished from all typical, partial, and imperfect realizations of the idea. His nature answers to His name (Joh 17:3; 1Th 1:9). The Greek, "alethes," on the other hand, is "truth-speaking," "truth-loving" (Joh 3:33; Tit 1:2).

JFB: Rev 3:7 - he that hath the key of David The antitype of Eliakim, to whom the "key," the emblem of authority "over the house of David," was transferred from Shebna, who was removed from the o...

The antitype of Eliakim, to whom the "key," the emblem of authority "over the house of David," was transferred from Shebna, who was removed from the office of chamberlain or treasurer, as unworthy of it. Christ, the Heir of the throne of David, shall supplant all the less worthy stewards who have abused their trust in God's spiritual house, and "shall reign over the house of Jacob," literal and spiritual (Luk 1:32-33), "for ever," "as a Son over His own house" (Heb 3:2-6). It rests with Christ to open or shut the heavenly palace, deciding who is, and who is not, to be admitted: as He also opens, or shuts, the prison, having the keys of hell (the grave) and death (Rev 1:18). The power of the keys was given to Peter and the other apostles, only when, and in so far as, Christ made him and them infallible. Whatever degrees of this power may have been committed to ministers, the supreme power belongs to Christ alone. Thus Peter rightly opened the Gospel door to the Gentiles (Acts 10:1-48; Act 11:17-18; especially Act 14:27, end). But he wrongly tried to shut the door in part again (Gal 2:11-18). Eliakim had "the key of the house of David laid upon his shoulder": Christ, as the antitypical David, Himself has the key of the supreme "government upon His shoulder." His attribute here, as in the former addresses, accords with His promise. Though "the synagogue of Satan," false "Jews" (Rev 3:9) try to "shut" the "door" which I "set open before thee"; "no man can shut it" (Rev 3:8).

JFB: Rev 3:7 - shutteth So Vulgate and Syriac Versions read. But the four oldest manuscripts read, "shall shut"; so Coptic Version and ORIGEN.

So Vulgate and Syriac Versions read. But the four oldest manuscripts read, "shall shut"; so Coptic Version and ORIGEN.

JFB: Rev 3:7 - and no man openeth Two oldest manuscripts, B, Aleph, Coptic Version, and ORIGEN read, "shall open." Two oldest manuscripts, A, C, and Vulgate Version support English Ver...

Two oldest manuscripts, B, Aleph, Coptic Version, and ORIGEN read, "shall open." Two oldest manuscripts, A, C, and Vulgate Version support English Version reading.

JFB: Rev 3:8 - I have set Greek, "given": it is My gracious gift to thee.

Greek, "given": it is My gracious gift to thee.

JFB: Rev 3:8 - open door For evangelization; a door of spiritual usefulness. The opening of a door by Him to the Philadelphian Church accords with the previous assignation to ...

For evangelization; a door of spiritual usefulness. The opening of a door by Him to the Philadelphian Church accords with the previous assignation to Him of "the key of David."

JFB: Rev 3:8 - and The three oldest manuscripts, A, B, C, and ORIGEN read, "which no man can shut."

The three oldest manuscripts, A, B, C, and ORIGEN read, "which no man can shut."

JFB: Rev 3:8 - for "because."

"because."

JFB: Rev 3:8 - a little This gives the idea that Christ says, He sets before Philadelphia an open door because she has some little strength; whereas the sense rather is, He d...

This gives the idea that Christ says, He sets before Philadelphia an open door because she has some little strength; whereas the sense rather is, He does so because she has "but little strength": being consciously weak herself, she is the fitter object for God's power to rest on [so AQUINAS], that so the Lord Christ may have all the glory.

JFB: Rev 3:8 - and hast kept And so, the littleness of thy strength becoming the source of Almighty power to thee, as leading thee to rest wholly on My great power, thou hast kept...

And so, the littleness of thy strength becoming the source of Almighty power to thee, as leading thee to rest wholly on My great power, thou hast kept My word. GROTIUS makes "little strength" to mean that she had a Church small in numbers and external resources: "a little flock poor in worldly goods, and of small account in the eyes of men" [TRENCH]. So ALFORD. I prefer the view given above. The Greek verbs are in the aorist tense: "Thou didst keep . . . didst not deny My name": alluding to some particular occasion when her faithfulness was put to the test.

JFB: Rev 3:9 - I will make Greek present, "I make," literally, "I give" (see on Rev 3:8). The promise to Philadelphia is larger than that to Smyrna. To Smyrna the promise was th...

Greek present, "I make," literally, "I give" (see on Rev 3:8). The promise to Philadelphia is larger than that to Smyrna. To Smyrna the promise was that "the synagogue of Satan" should not prevail against the faithful in her: to Philadelphia, that she should even win over some of "the synagogue of Satan" to fall on their faces and confess God is in her of a truth. Translate, "(some) of the synagogue." For until Christ shall come, and all Israel then be saved, there is but "a remnant" being gathered out of the Jews "according to the election of grace." This is an instance of how Christ set before her an "open door," some of her greatest adversaries, the Jews, being brought to the obedience of the faith. Their worshipping before her feet expresses the convert's willingness to take the very lowest place in the Church, doing servile honor to those whom once they persecuted, rather than dwell with the ungodly. So the Philippian jailer before Paul.

JFB: Rev 3:10 - patience "endurance." "The word of My endurance" is My Gospel word, which teaches patient endurance in expectation of my coming (Rev 1:9). My endurance is the ...

"endurance." "The word of My endurance" is My Gospel word, which teaches patient endurance in expectation of my coming (Rev 1:9). My endurance is the endurance which I require, and which I practice. Christ Himself now endures, patiently waiting until the usurper be cast out, and all "His enemies be made His footstool." So, too, His Church, for the joy before her of sharing His coming kingdom, endures patiently. Hence, in Rev 3:11, follows, "Behold, I come quickly."

JFB: Rev 3:10 - I also The reward is in kind: "because thou didst keep," &c. "I also (on My side) will keep thee," &c.

The reward is in kind: "because thou didst keep," &c. "I also (on My side) will keep thee," &c.

JFB: Rev 3:10 - from Greek, "(so as to deliver thee) out of," not to exempt from temptation.

Greek, "(so as to deliver thee) out of," not to exempt from temptation.

JFB: Rev 3:10 - the hour of temptation The appointed season of affliction and temptation (so in Deu 4:34 the plagues are called "the temptations of Egypt"), literally, "the temptation": the...

The appointed season of affliction and temptation (so in Deu 4:34 the plagues are called "the temptations of Egypt"), literally, "the temptation": the sore temptation which is coming on: the time of great tribulation before Christ's second coming.

JFB: Rev 3:10 - to try them that dwell upon the earth Those who are of earth, earthy (Rev 8:13). "Dwell" implies that their home is earth, not heaven. All mankind, except the elect (Rev 13:8, Rev 13:14). ...

Those who are of earth, earthy (Rev 8:13). "Dwell" implies that their home is earth, not heaven. All mankind, except the elect (Rev 13:8, Rev 13:14). The temptation brings out the fidelity of those kept by Christ and hardens the unbelieving reprobates (Rev 9:20-21; Rev 16:11, Rev 16:21). The particular persecutions which befell Philadelphia shortly after, were the earnest of the great last tribulation before Christ's coming, to which the Church's attention in all ages is directed.

JFB: Rev 3:11 - Behold Omitted by the three oldest manuscripts and most ancient versions.

Omitted by the three oldest manuscripts and most ancient versions.

JFB: Rev 3:11 - I come quickly The great incentive to persevering faithfulness, and the consolation under present trials.

The great incentive to persevering faithfulness, and the consolation under present trials.

JFB: Rev 3:11 - that . . . which thou hast "The word of my patience," or "endurance" (Rev 3:10), which He had just commended them for keeping, and which involved with it the attaining of the ki...

"The word of my patience," or "endurance" (Rev 3:10), which He had just commended them for keeping, and which involved with it the attaining of the kingdom; this they would lose if they yielded to the temptation of exchanging consistency and suffering for compromise and ease.

JFB: Rev 3:11 - that no man take thy crown Which otherwise thou wouldst receive: that no tempter cause thee to lose it: not that the tempter would thus secure it for himself (Col 2:18).

Which otherwise thou wouldst receive: that no tempter cause thee to lose it: not that the tempter would thus secure it for himself (Col 2:18).

JFB: Rev 3:12 - pillar in the temple In one sense there shall be "no temple" in the heavenly city because there shall be no distinction of things into sacred and secular, for all things a...

In one sense there shall be "no temple" in the heavenly city because there shall be no distinction of things into sacred and secular, for all things and persons shall be holy to the Lord. The city shall be all one great temple, in which the saints shall be not merely stones, as m the spiritual temple now on earth, but all eminent as pillars: immovably firm (unlike Philadelphia, the city which was so often shaken by earthquakes, STRABO [12 and 13]), like the colossal pillars before Solomon's temple, Boaz (that is, "In it is strength") and Jachin ("It shall be established"): only that those pillars were outside, these shall be within the temple.

JFB: Rev 3:12 - my God (See on Rev 2:7).

(See on Rev 2:7).

JFB: Rev 3:12 - go no more out The Greek is stronger, never more at all. As the elect angels are beyond the possibility of falling, being now under (as the Schoolmen say) "the bless...

The Greek is stronger, never more at all. As the elect angels are beyond the possibility of falling, being now under (as the Schoolmen say) "the blessed necessity of goodness," so shall the saints be. The door shall be once for all shut, as well to shut safely in for ever the elect, as to shut out the lost (Mat 25:10; Joh 8:35; compare Isa 22:23, the type, Eliakim). They shall be priests for ever unto God (Rev 1:6). "Who would not yearn for that city out of which no friend departs, and into which no enemy enters?" [AUGUSTINE in TRENCH].

JFB: Rev 3:12 - write upon him the name of my God As belonging to God in a peculiar sense (Rev 7:3; Rev 9:4; Rev 14:1; and especially Rev 22:4), therefore secure. As the name of Jehovah ("Holiness to ...

As belonging to God in a peculiar sense (Rev 7:3; Rev 9:4; Rev 14:1; and especially Rev 22:4), therefore secure. As the name of Jehovah ("Holiness to the Lord") was on the golden plate on the high priest's forehead (Exo 28:36-38); so the saints in their heavenly royal priesthood shall bear His name openly, as consecrated to Him. Compare the caricature of this in the brand on the forehead of the beast's followers (Rev 13:16-17), and on the harlot (Rev 17:5; compare Rev 20:4).

JFB: Rev 3:12 - name of the city of my God As one of its citizens (Rev 21:2-3, Rev 21:10, which is briefly alluded to by anticipation here). The full description of the city forms the appropria...

As one of its citizens (Rev 21:2-3, Rev 21:10, which is briefly alluded to by anticipation here). The full description of the city forms the appropriate close of the book. The saint's citizenship is now hidden, but then it shall be manifested: he shall have the right to enter in through the gates into the city (Rev 22:14). This was the city which Abraham looked for.

JFB: Rev 3:12 - new Greek, "kaine." Not the old Jerusalem, once called "the holy city," but having forfeited the name. Greek, "nea," would express that it had recently co...

Greek, "kaine." Not the old Jerusalem, once called "the holy city," but having forfeited the name. Greek, "nea," would express that it had recently come into existence; but Greek, "kaine," that which is new and different, superseding the worn-out old Jerusalem and its polity. "John, in the Gospel, applies to the old city the Greek name Hierosolyma. But in the Apocalypse, always, to the heavenly city the Hebrew name, Hierousalem. The Hebrew name is the original and holier one: the Greek, the recent and more secular and political one" [BENGEL].

JFB: Rev 3:12 - my new name At present incommunicable and only known to God: to be hereafter revealed and made the believer's own in union with God in Christ. Christ's name writt...

At present incommunicable and only known to God: to be hereafter revealed and made the believer's own in union with God in Christ. Christ's name written on him denotes he shall be wholly Christ's. New also relates to Christ, who shall assume a new character (answering to His "new name") entering with His saints on a kingdom--not that which He had with the Father before the worlds, but that earned by His humiliation as Son of man. GIBBON, the infidel [Decline and Fall, ch. 64], gives an unwilling testimony to the fulfilment of the prophecy as to Philadelphia from a temporal point of view, Among the Greek colonies and churches of Asia, Philadelphia is still erect,--a column in a scene of ruins--a pleasing example that the paths of honor and safety may sometimes be the same."

JFB: Rev 3:13 - -- (See on Rev 2:7).

(See on Rev 2:7).

JFB: Rev 3:14 - Laodiceans The city was in the southwest of Phrygia, on the river Lycus, not far from Colosse, and lying between it and Philadelphia. It was destroyed by an eart...

The city was in the southwest of Phrygia, on the river Lycus, not far from Colosse, and lying between it and Philadelphia. It was destroyed by an earthquake, A.D. 62, and rebuilt by its wealthy citizens without the help of the state [TACITUS, Annals, 14.27]. This wealth (arising from the excellence of its wools) led to a self-satisfied, lukewarm state in spiritual things, as Rev 3:17 describes. See on Col 4:16, on the Epistle which is thought to have been written to the Laodicean Church by Paul. The Church in latter times was apparently flourishing; for one of the councils at which the canon of Scripture was determined was held in Laodicea in A.D. 361. Hardly a Christian is now to be found on or near its site.

JFB: Rev 3:14 - the Amen (Isa 65:16, Hebrew, "Bless Himself in the God of Amen . . . swear by the God of Amen," 2Co 1:20). He who not only says, but is, the Truth. The saints...

(Isa 65:16, Hebrew, "Bless Himself in the God of Amen . . . swear by the God of Amen," 2Co 1:20). He who not only says, but is, the Truth. The saints used Amen at the end of prayer, or in assenting to the word of God; but none, save the Son of God, ever said, "Amen, I say unto you," for it is the language peculiar to God, who avers by Himself. The New Testament formula, "Amen. I say unto you," is equivalent to the Old Testament formula, "as I live, saith Jehovah." In John's Gospel alone He uses (in the Greek) the double "Amen," Joh 1:51; Joh 3:3, &c.; in English Version," Verily, verily." The title happily harmonizes with the address. His unchanging faithfulness as "the Amen" contrasts with Laodicea's wavering of purpose, "neither hot nor cold" (Rev 3:16). The angel of Laodicea has with some probability been conjectured to be Archippus, to whom, thirty years previously, Paul had already given a monition, as needing to be stirred up to diligence in his ministry. So the Apostolic Constitutions, [8.46], name him as the first bishop of Laodicea: supposed to be the son of Philemon (Phm 1:2).

JFB: Rev 3:14 - faithful and true witness As "the Amen" expresses the unchangeable truth of His promises; so "the faithful the true witness," the truth of His revelations as to the heavenly th...

As "the Amen" expresses the unchangeable truth of His promises; so "the faithful the true witness," the truth of His revelations as to the heavenly things which He has seen and testifies. "Faithful," that is, trustworthy (2Ti 2:11, 2Ti 2:13). "True" is here (Greek, "alethinos") not truth-speaking (Greek, "alethes"), but "perfectly realizing all that is comprehended in the name Witness" (1Ti 6:13). Three things are necessary for this: (1) to have seen with His own eyes what He attests; (2) to be competent to relate it for others; (3) to be willing truthfully to do so. In Christ all these conditions meet [TRENCH].

JFB: Rev 3:14 - beginning of the creation of God Not he whom God created first, but as in Col 1:15-18 (see on Col 1:15-18), the Beginner of all creation, its originating instrument. All creation woul...

Not he whom God created first, but as in Col 1:15-18 (see on Col 1:15-18), the Beginner of all creation, its originating instrument. All creation would not be represented adoring Him, if He were but one of themselves. His being the Creator is a strong guarantee for His faithfulness as "the Witness and Amen."

JFB: Rev 3:15 - neither cold The antithesis to "hot," literally, "boiling" ("fervent," Act 18:25; Rom 12:11; compare Son 8:6; Luk 24:32), requires that "cold" should here mean mor...

The antithesis to "hot," literally, "boiling" ("fervent," Act 18:25; Rom 12:11; compare Son 8:6; Luk 24:32), requires that "cold" should here mean more than negatively cold; it is rather, positively icy cold: having never yet been warmed. The Laodiceans were in spiritual things cold comparatively, but not cold as the world outside, and as those who had never belonged to the Church. The lukewarm state, if it be the transitional stage to a warmer, is a desirable state (for a little religion, if real, is better than none); but most fatal when, as here, an abiding condition, for it is mistaken for a safe state (Rev 3:17). This accounts for Christ's desiring that they were cold rather than lukewarm. For then there would not be the same "danger of mixed motive and disregarded principle" [ALFORD]. Also, there is more hope of the "cold," that is, those who are of the world, and not yet warmed by the Gospel call; for, when called, they may become hot and fervent Christians: such did the once-cold publicans, Zaccheus and Matthew, become. But the lukewarm has been brought within reach of the holy fire, without being heated by it into fervor: having religion enough to lull the conscience in false security, but not religion enough to save the soul: as Demas, 2Ti 4:10. Such were the halters between two opinions in Israel (1Ki 18:21; compare 2Ki 17:41; Mat 6:24).

JFB: Rev 3:16 - neither cold nor hot So one oldest manuscript, B, and Vulgate read. But two oldest manuscripts, Syriac, and Coptic transpose thus, "hot nor cold." It is remarkable that th...

So one oldest manuscript, B, and Vulgate read. But two oldest manuscripts, Syriac, and Coptic transpose thus, "hot nor cold." It is remarkable that the Greek adjectives are in the masculine, agreeing with the angel, not feminine, agreeing with the Church. The Lord addresses the angel as the embodiment and representative of the Church. The chief minister is answerable for his flock if he have not faithfully warned the members of it.

JFB: Rev 3:16 - I will Greek, "I am about to," "I am ready to": I have it in my mind: implying graciously the possibility of the threat not being executed, if only they repe...

Greek, "I am about to," "I am ready to": I have it in my mind: implying graciously the possibility of the threat not being executed, if only they repent at once. His dealings towards them will depend on theirs towards Him.

JFB: Rev 3:16 - spue thee out of my month Reject with righteous loathing, as Canaan spued out its inhabitants for their abominations. Physicians used lukewarm water to cause vomiting. Cold and...

Reject with righteous loathing, as Canaan spued out its inhabitants for their abominations. Physicians used lukewarm water to cause vomiting. Cold and hot drinks were common at feasts, but never lukewarm. There were hot and cold springs near Laodicea.

JFB: Rev 3:17 - -- Self-sufficiency is the fatal danger of a lukewarm state (see on Rev 3:15).

Self-sufficiency is the fatal danger of a lukewarm state (see on Rev 3:15).

JFB: Rev 3:17 - thou sayest Virtually and mentally, if not in so many words.

Virtually and mentally, if not in so many words.

JFB: Rev 3:17 - increased with goods Greek, "have become enriched," implying self-praise in self-acquired riches. The Lord alludes to Hos 12:8. The riches on which they prided themselves ...

Greek, "have become enriched," implying self-praise in self-acquired riches. The Lord alludes to Hos 12:8. The riches on which they prided themselves were spiritual riches; though, doubtless, their spiritual self-sufficiency ("I have need of nothing") was much fostered by their worldly wealth; as, on the other hand, poverty of spirit is fostered by poverty in respect to worldly riches.

JFB: Rev 3:17 - knowest not that thou In particular above all others. The "THOU" in the Greek is emphatic.

In particular above all others. The "THOU" in the Greek is emphatic.

JFB: Rev 3:17 - art wretched Greek, "art the wretched one."

Greek, "art the wretched one."

JFB: Rev 3:17 - miserable So one oldest manuscripts reads. But two oldest manuscripts prefix "the." Translate, "the pitiable"; "the one especially to be pitied." How different ...

So one oldest manuscripts reads. But two oldest manuscripts prefix "the." Translate, "the pitiable"; "the one especially to be pitied." How different Christ's estimate of men, from their own estimate of themselves, "I have need of nothing!"

JFB: Rev 3:17 - blind Whereas Laodicea boasted of a deeper than common insight into divine things. They were not absolutely blind, else eye-salve would have been of no avai...

Whereas Laodicea boasted of a deeper than common insight into divine things. They were not absolutely blind, else eye-salve would have been of no avail to them; but short-sighted.

JFB: Rev 3:18 - -- Gentle and loving irony. Take My advice, thou who fanciest thyself in need of nothing. Not only art thou not in need of nothing, but art in need of th...

Gentle and loving irony. Take My advice, thou who fanciest thyself in need of nothing. Not only art thou not in need of nothing, but art in need of the commonest necessaries of existence. He graciously stoops to their modes of thought and speech: Thou art a people ready to listen to any counsel as to how to buy to advantage; then, listen to My counsel (for I am "Counsellor," Isa 9:6), buy of ME" (in whom, according to Paul's Epistle written to the neighboring Colosse and intended for the Laodicean Church also, Col 2:1, Col 2:3; Col 4:16, are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge). "Buy" does not imply that we can, by any work or merit of ours, purchase God's free gift; nay the very purchase money consists in the renunciation of all self-righteousness, such as Laodicea had (Rev 3:17). "Buy" at the cost of thine own self-sufficiency (so Paul, Phi 3:7-8); and the giving up of all things, however dear to us, that would prevent our receiving Christ's salvation as a free gift, for example, self and worldly desires. Compare Isa 55:1, "Buy . . . without money and price."

JFB: Rev 3:18 - of me The source of "unsearchable riches" (Eph 3:8). Laodicea was a city of extensive money transactions [CICERO].

The source of "unsearchable riches" (Eph 3:8). Laodicea was a city of extensive money transactions [CICERO].

JFB: Rev 3:18 - gold tried in, &c. Literally, "fired (and fresh) from the fire," that is, just fresh from the furnace which has proved its purity, and retaining its bright gloss. Sterli...

Literally, "fired (and fresh) from the fire," that is, just fresh from the furnace which has proved its purity, and retaining its bright gloss. Sterling spiritual wealth, as contrasted with its counterfeit, in which Laodicea boasted itself. Having bought this gold she will be no longer poor (Rev 3:17).

JFB: Rev 3:18 - mayest be rich Greek, "mayest be enriched."

Greek, "mayest be enriched."

JFB: Rev 3:18 - white raiment "garments." Laodicea's wools were famous. Christ offers infinitely whiter raiment. As "gold tried in the fire" expresses faith tested by fiery trials:...

"garments." Laodicea's wools were famous. Christ offers infinitely whiter raiment. As "gold tried in the fire" expresses faith tested by fiery trials: so "white raiment," Christ's righteousness imputed to the believer in justification and imparted in sanctification.

JFB: Rev 3:18 - appear Greek, "be manifested," namely, at the last day, when everyone without the wedding garment shall be discovered. To strip one, is in the East the image...

Greek, "be manifested," namely, at the last day, when everyone without the wedding garment shall be discovered. To strip one, is in the East the image of putting to open shame. So also to clothe one with fine apparel is the image of doing him honor. Man can discover his shame, God alone can cover it, so that his nakedness shall not be manifested at last (Col 3:10-14). Blessed is he whose sin is so covered. The hypocrite's shame may be manifested now; it must be so at last.

JFB: Rev 3:18 - anoint . . . with eye-salve The oldest manuscripts read, "(buy of Me) eye-salve (collyrium, a roll of ointment), to anoint thine eyes." Christ has for Laodicea an ointment far mo...

The oldest manuscripts read, "(buy of Me) eye-salve (collyrium, a roll of ointment), to anoint thine eyes." Christ has for Laodicea an ointment far more precious than all the costly unguents of the East. The eye is here the conscience or inner light of the mind. According as it is sound and "single" (Greek, "haplous," "simple"), or otherwise, the man sees aright spiritually, or does not. The Holy Spirit's unction, like the ancient eye-salve's, first smarts with conviction of sin, then heals. He opens our eyes first to ourselves in our wretchedness, then to the Saviour in His preciousness. TRENCH notices that the most sunken churches of the seven, namely, Sardis and Laodicea, are the ones in which alone are specified no opponents from without, nor heresies from within. The Church owes much to God's overruling Providence which has made so often internal and external foes, in spite of themselves, to promote His cause by calling forth her energies in contending for the faith once delivered to the saints. Peace is dearly bought at the cost of spiritual stagnation, where there is not interest enough felt in religion to contend about it at all.

JFB: Rev 3:19 - -- (Job 5:17; Pro 3:11-12; Heb 12:5-6.) So in the case of Manasseh (2Ch 33:11-13).

(Job 5:17; Pro 3:11-12; Heb 12:5-6.) So in the case of Manasseh (2Ch 33:11-13).

JFB: Rev 3:19 - As many All. "He scourgeth every son whom He receiveth. And shalt thou be an exception? If excepted from suffering the scourge, thou art excepted from the num...

All. "He scourgeth every son whom He receiveth. And shalt thou be an exception? If excepted from suffering the scourge, thou art excepted from the number of the sons" [AUGUSTINE]. This is an encouragement to Laodicea not to despair, but to regard the rebuke as a token for good, if she profit by it.

JFB: Rev 3:19 - I love Greek, "philo," the love of gratuitous affection, independent of any grounds for esteem in the object loved. But in the case of Philadelphia (Rev 3:9)...

Greek, "philo," the love of gratuitous affection, independent of any grounds for esteem in the object loved. But in the case of Philadelphia (Rev 3:9), "I have loved thee" (Greek, "egapesa") with the love of esteem, founded on the judgment. Compare the note in my English Gnomon of BENGEL, Joh 21:15-17.

JFB: Rev 3:19 - I rebuke The "I" in the Greek stands first in the sentence emphatically. I in My dealings, so altogether unlike man's, in the case of all whom I love, rebuke. ...

The "I" in the Greek stands first in the sentence emphatically. I in My dealings, so altogether unlike man's, in the case of all whom I love, rebuke. The Greek, "elencho," is the same verb as in Joh 16:8, "(the Holy Ghost) will convince (rebuke unto conviction) the world of sin."

JFB: Rev 3:19 - chasten "chastise." The Greek, "paideu," which in classical Greek means to instruct, in the New Testament means to instruct by chastisement (Heb 12:5-6). Davi...

"chastise." The Greek, "paideu," which in classical Greek means to instruct, in the New Testament means to instruct by chastisement (Heb 12:5-6). David was rebuked unto conviction, when he cried, "I have sinned against the Lord"; the chastening followed when his child was taken from him (2Sa 12:13-14). In the divine chastening, the sinner at one and the same time winces under the rod and learns righteousness.

JFB: Rev 3:19 - be zealous Habitually. Present tense in the Greek, of a lifelong course of zeal. The opposite of "lukewarm." The Greek by alliteration marks this: Laodicea had n...

Habitually. Present tense in the Greek, of a lifelong course of zeal. The opposite of "lukewarm." The Greek by alliteration marks this: Laodicea had not been "hot" (Greek, "zestos"), she is therefore urged to "be zealous" (Greek, "zeleue"): both are derived from the same verb, Greek, "zeo," "to boil."

JFB: Rev 3:19 - repent Greek aorist: of an act to be once for all done, and done at once.

Greek aorist: of an act to be once for all done, and done at once.

JFB: Rev 3:20 - stand Waiting in wonderful condescension and long-suffering.

Waiting in wonderful condescension and long-suffering.

JFB: Rev 3:20 - knock (Son 5:2). This is a further manifestation of His loving desire for the sinner's salvation. He who is Himself "the Door," and who bids us "knock" tha...

(Son 5:2). This is a further manifestation of His loving desire for the sinner's salvation. He who is Himself "the Door," and who bids us "knock" that it may be "opened unto" us, is first Himself to knock at the door of our hearts. If He did not knock first, we should never come to knock at His door. Compare Son 5:4-6, which is plainly alluded to here; the Spirit thus in Revelation sealing the canonicity of that mystical book. The spiritual state of the bride there, between waking and sleeping, slow to open the door to her divine lover, answers to that of the lukewarm Laodicea here. "Love in regard to men emptied (humbled) God; for He does not remain in His place and call to Himself the servant whom He loved, but He comes down Himself to seek him, and He who is all-rich arrives at the lodging of the pauper, and with His own voice intimates His yearning love, and seeks a similar return, and withdraws not when disowned, and is not impatient at insult, and when persecuted still waits at the doors" [NICOLAUS CABASILAS in TRENCH].

JFB: Rev 3:20 - my voice He appeals to the sinner not only with His hand (His providences) knocking, but with His voice (His word read or heard; or rather, His Spirit inwardly...

He appeals to the sinner not only with His hand (His providences) knocking, but with His voice (His word read or heard; or rather, His Spirit inwardly applying to man's spirit the lessons to be drawn from His providence and His word). If we refuse to answer to His knocking at our door now, He will refuse to hear our knocking at His door hereafter. In respect to His second coming also, He is even now at the door, and we know not how soon He may knock: therefore we should always be ready to open to Him immediately.

JFB: Rev 3:20 - if any man hear For man is not compelled by irresistible force: Christ knocks, but does not break open the door, though the violent take heaven by the force of prayer...

For man is not compelled by irresistible force: Christ knocks, but does not break open the door, though the violent take heaven by the force of prayer (Mat 11:12): whosoever does hear, does so not of himself, but by the drawings of God's grace (Joh 6:44): repentance is Christ's gift (Act 5:31). He draws, not drags. The Sun of righteousness, like the natural sun, the moment that the door is opened, pours in His light, which could not previously find an entrance. Compare HILARY on Psa 118:19.

JFB: Rev 3:20 - I will come in to him As I did to Zaccheus.

As I did to Zaccheus.

JFB: Rev 3:20 - sup with him, and he with me Delightful reciprocity! Compare "dwelleth in me, and I in Him," Joh 6:56. Whereas, ordinarily, the admitted guest sups with the admitter, here the div...

Delightful reciprocity! Compare "dwelleth in me, and I in Him," Joh 6:56. Whereas, ordinarily, the admitted guest sups with the admitter, here the divine guest becomes Himself the host, for He is the bread of life, and the Giver of the marriage feast. Here again He alludes to the imagery of Son 4:16, where the Bride invites Him to eat pleasant fruits, even as He had first prepared a feast for her, "His fruit was sweet to my taste." Compare the same interchange, Joh 21:9-13, the feast being made up of the viands that Jesus brought, and those which the disciples brought. The consummation of this blessed intercommunion shall be at the Marriage Supper of the Lamb, of which the Lord's Supper is the earnest and foretaste.

JFB: Rev 3:21 - sit with me in my throne (Rev 2:26-27; Rev 20:6; Mat 19:28; Mat 20:23; Joh 17:22, Joh 17:24; 2Ti 2:12). The same whom Christ had just before threatened to spue out of His mou...

(Rev 2:26-27; Rev 20:6; Mat 19:28; Mat 20:23; Joh 17:22, Joh 17:24; 2Ti 2:12). The same whom Christ had just before threatened to spue out of His mouth, is now offered a seat with Him on His throne! "The highest place is within reach of the lowest; the faintest spark of grace may be fanned into the mightiest flame of love" [TRENCH].

JFB: Rev 3:21 - even as I also Two thrones are here mentioned: (1) His Father's, upon which He now sits, and has sat since His ascension, after His victory over death, sin, the worl...

Two thrones are here mentioned: (1) His Father's, upon which He now sits, and has sat since His ascension, after His victory over death, sin, the world; upon this none can sit save God, and the God-man Christ Jesus, for it is the incommunicable prerogative of God alone; (2) the throne which shall be peculiarly His as the once humbled and then glorified Son of man, to be set up over the whole earth (heretofore usurped by Satan) at His coming again; in this the victorious saints shall share (1Co 6:2). The transfigured elect Church shall with Christ judge and reign over the nations in the flesh, and Israel the foremost of them; ministering blessings to them as angels were the Lord's mediators of blessing and administrators of His government in setting up His throne in Israel at Sinai. This privilege of our high calling belongs exclusively to the present time while Satan reigns, when alone there is scope for conflict and for victory (2Ti 2:11-12). When Satan shall be bound (Rev 20:4), there shall be no longer scope for it, for all on earth shall know the Lord from the least to the greatest. This, the grandest and crowning promise, is placed at the end of all the seven addresses, to gather all in one. It also forms the link to the next part of the book, where the Lamb is introduced seated on His Father's throne (Rev 4:2-3; Rev 5:5-6). The Eastern throne is broad, admitting others besides him who, as chief, occupies the center. TRENCH notices; The order of the promises in the seven epistles corresponds to that of the unfolding of the kingdom of God its first beginnings on earth to its consummation in heaven. To the faithful at Ephesus: (1) The tree of life in the Paradise of God is promised (Rev 2:7), answering to Gen 2:9. (2) Sin entered the world and death by sin; but to the faithful at Smyrna it is promised, they shall not be hurt by the second death (Rev 2:11). (3) The promise of the hidden manna (Rev 2:17) to Pergamos brings us to the Mosaic period, the Church in the wilderness. (4) That to Thyatira, namely, triumph over the nations (Rev 2:26-27), forms the consummation of the kingdom in prophetic type, the period of David and Solomon characterized by this power of the nations. Here there is a division, the seven falling into two groups, four and three, as often, for example, the Lord's Prayer, three and four. The scenery of the last three passes from earth to heaven, the Church contemplated as triumphant, with its steps from glory to glory. (5) Christ promises to the believer of Sardis not to blot his name out of the book of life but to confess him before His Father and the angels at the judgment-day, and clothe him with a glorified body of dazzling whiteness (Rev 3:4-5). (6) To the faithful at Philadelphia Christ promises they shall be citizens of the new Jerusalem, fixed as immovable pillars there, where city and temple are one (Rev 3:12); here not only individual salvation is promised to the believer, as in the case of Sardis, but also privileges in the blessed communion of the Church triumphant. (7) Lastly, to the faithful of Laodicea is given the crowning promise, not only the two former blessings, but a seat with Christ on His throne, even as He has sat with His Father on His Father's throne (Rev 3:21).

Clarke: Rev 3:1 - The seven Spirits, of God The seven Spirits, of God - See the note on Rev 1:4, Rev 1:16 (note), etc

The seven Spirits, of God - See the note on Rev 1:4, Rev 1:16 (note), etc

Clarke: Rev 3:1 - Thou hast a name that thou livest Thou hast a name that thou livest - Ye have the reputation of Christians, and consequently of being alive to God, through the quickening influence o...

Thou hast a name that thou livest - Ye have the reputation of Christians, and consequently of being alive to God, through the quickening influence of the Divine Spirit; but ye are dead - ye have not the life of God in your souls, ye have not walked consistently and steadily before God, and his Spirit has been grieved with you, and he has withdrawn much of his light and power.

Clarke: Rev 3:2 - Be watchful Be watchful - Ye have lost ground by carelessness and inattention. Awake, and keep awake

Be watchful - Ye have lost ground by carelessness and inattention. Awake, and keep awake

Clarke: Rev 3:2 - Strengthen the things which remain Strengthen the things which remain - The convictions and good desires, with any measure of the fear of God and of a tender conscience, which, althou...

Strengthen the things which remain - The convictions and good desires, with any measure of the fear of God and of a tender conscience, which, although still subsisting, are about to perish, because the Holy Spirit, who is the author of them, being repeatedly grieved, is about finally to depart

Clarke: Rev 3:2 - Thy works perfect Thy works perfect - Πεπληρωμενα· Filled up. They performed duties of all kinds, but no duty completely. They were constantly beginning...

Thy works perfect - Πεπληρωμενα· Filled up. They performed duties of all kinds, but no duty completely. They were constantly beginning, but never brought any thing to a proper end. Their resolutions were languid, their strength feeble, and their light dim. They probably maintained their reputation before men, but their works were not perfect before God.

Clarke: Rev 3:3 - Remember Remember - Enter into a serious consideration of your state

Remember - Enter into a serious consideration of your state

Clarke: Rev 3:3 - How thou hast received How thou hast received - With what joy, zeal, and gladness ye heard the Gospel of Christ when first preached to you

How thou hast received - With what joy, zeal, and gladness ye heard the Gospel of Christ when first preached to you

Clarke: Rev 3:3 - Hold fast Hold fast - Those good desires and heavenly influences which still remain

Hold fast - Those good desires and heavenly influences which still remain

Clarke: Rev 3:3 - And repent And repent - Be humbled before God, because ye have not been workers together with him, but have received much of his grace in vain

And repent - Be humbled before God, because ye have not been workers together with him, but have received much of his grace in vain

Clarke: Rev 3:3 - If therefore thou shalt not watch If therefore thou shalt not watch - If you do not consider your ways, watching against sin, and for opportunities to receive and do good

If therefore thou shalt not watch - If you do not consider your ways, watching against sin, and for opportunities to receive and do good

Clarke: Rev 3:3 - I will come on thee as a thief I will come on thee as a thief - As the thief comes when he is not expected, so will I come upon you if ye be not watchful, and cut you off from lif...

I will come on thee as a thief - As the thief comes when he is not expected, so will I come upon you if ye be not watchful, and cut you off from life and hope.

Clarke: Rev 3:4 - Thou hast a few names even in Sardis Thou hast a few names even in Sardis - A few persons, names being put for those who bore them. And as the members of the Church were all enrolled, o...

Thou hast a few names even in Sardis - A few persons, names being put for those who bore them. And as the members of the Church were all enrolled, or their names entered in a book, when admitted into the Church or when baptized, names are here put for the people themselves. See Rev 3:5

Clarke: Rev 3:4 - Have not defiled their garments Have not defiled their garments - Their souls. The Hebrews considered holiness as the garb of the soul, and evil actions as stains or spots on this ...

Have not defiled their garments - Their souls. The Hebrews considered holiness as the garb of the soul, and evil actions as stains or spots on this garb. So in Shabbath, fol. 152, 2: "A certain king gave royal garments to his servants: those who were prudent folded them up, and laid them by in a chest; those who were foolish put them on, and performed their daily labor in them. After some time the king asked for those royal robes; the wise brought theirs white and clean, the foolish brought theirs spotted with dirt. With the former the king was well pleased; with the latter he was angry. Concerning the former he said: Let those garments be laid up in my wardrobe, and let the persons go home in peace. Of the latter he said: Let the garments be put into the hands of the fuller, and cast those who wore them into prison."This parable is spoken on these words of Ecclesiastes, Ecc 12:7 : The spirit shall return to God who gave it

Clarke: Rev 3:4 - They shall walk with me in white They shall walk with me in white - They shall be raised to a state of eternal glory, and shall be for ever with their Lord.

They shall walk with me in white - They shall be raised to a state of eternal glory, and shall be for ever with their Lord.

Clarke: Rev 3:5 - I will not blot out his name I will not blot out his name - This may be an allusion to the custom of registering the names of those who were admitted into the Church in a book k...

I will not blot out his name - This may be an allusion to the custom of registering the names of those who were admitted into the Church in a book kept for that purpose, from which custom our baptismal registers in Churches are derived. These are properly books of life, as there those who were born unto God were registered; as in the latter those who were born in that parish were enrolled. Or there may be allusions to the white raiment worn by the priests, and the erasing of the name of any priest out of the sacerdotal list who had either sinned, or was found not to be of the seed of Aaron. In Middoth, fol. 37, 2: "The great council of Israel sat and judged the priests. If in a priest any vice was found they stripped of his white garments and clothed him in black, in which he wrapped himself, went out, and departed. Him in whom no vice was found they clothed in white, and he went and took his part in the ministry among his brother priests.

Clarke: Rev 3:5 - I will confess his name I will confess his name - I will acknowledge that this person is my true disciple, and a member of my mystical body. In all this there may also be a...

I will confess his name - I will acknowledge that this person is my true disciple, and a member of my mystical body. In all this there may also be an allusion to the custom of registering citizens. Their names were entered into books, according to their condition, tribes, family, etc.; and when they were dead, or had by unconstitutional acts forfeited their right of citizenship, the name was blotted out, or erased from the registers. See the note on Exo 32:32.

Clarke: Rev 3:6 - He that hath an ear He that hath an ear - The usual caution and counsel carefully to attend to the things spoken to the members of that Church, in which every reader is...

He that hath an ear - The usual caution and counsel carefully to attend to the things spoken to the members of that Church, in which every reader is more or less interested

Epistle to the Church at Philadelphia

Clarke: Rev 3:7 - He that is holy He that is holy - In whom holiness essentially dwells, and from whom all holiness is derived

He that is holy - In whom holiness essentially dwells, and from whom all holiness is derived

Clarke: Rev 3:7 - He that is true He that is true - He who is the fountain of truth; who cannot lie nor be imposed on; from whom all truth proceeds; and whose veracity in his Revelat...

He that is true - He who is the fountain of truth; who cannot lie nor be imposed on; from whom all truth proceeds; and whose veracity in his Revelation is unimpeachable

Clarke: Rev 3:7 - He that hath the key of David He that hath the key of David - See this metaphor explained, Mat 16:19. Key is the emblem of authority and knowledge; the key of David is the regal ...

He that hath the key of David - See this metaphor explained, Mat 16:19. Key is the emblem of authority and knowledge; the key of David is the regal right or authority of David. David could shut or open the kingdom of Israel to whom he pleased. He was not bound to leave the kingdom even to his eldest son. He could choose whom he pleased to succeed him. The kingdom of the Gospel, and the kingdom of heaven, are at the disposal of Christ. He can shut against whom he will; he can open to whom he pleases. If he shuts, no man can open; if he opens, no man can shut. His determinations all stand fast, and none can reverse them. This expression is an allusion to Isa 22:22, where the prophet promises to Eliakim, under the symbol of the key of the house of David, the government of the whole nation; i.e., all the power of the king, to be executed by him as his deputy; but the words, as here applied to Christ, show that He is absolute.

Clarke: Rev 3:8 - I have set before thee an open door I have set before thee an open door - I have opened to thee a door to proclaim and diffuse my word; and, notwithstanding there are many adversaries ...

I have set before thee an open door - I have opened to thee a door to proclaim and diffuse my word; and, notwithstanding there are many adversaries to the spread of my Gospel, yet none of them shall be able to prevent it

Clarke: Rev 3:8 - Thou hast a little strength Thou hast a little strength - Very little political authority or influence; yet thou hast kept my word - hast kept the true doctrine; and hast not d...

Thou hast a little strength - Very little political authority or influence; yet thou hast kept my word - hast kept the true doctrine; and hast not denied my name, by taking shelter in heathenism when Christianity was persecuted. The little strength may refer either to the smallness of the numbers, or to the littleness of their grace.

Clarke: Rev 3:9 - I will make them I will make them - Show them to be, of the synagogue of Satan, who say they are Jews, pretending thereby to be of the synagogue of God, and conseque...

I will make them - Show them to be, of the synagogue of Satan, who say they are Jews, pretending thereby to be of the synagogue of God, and consequently his true and peculiar children

Clarke: Rev 3:9 - I will make them to come and worship I will make them to come and worship - I will so dispose of matters in the course of my providence, that the Jews shall be obliged to seek unto the ...

I will make them to come and worship - I will so dispose of matters in the course of my providence, that the Jews shall be obliged to seek unto the Christians for toleration, support, and protection, which they shall be obliged to sue for in the most humble and abject manner

Clarke: Rev 3:9 - To know that I have loved thee To know that I have loved thee - That the love which was formerly fixed on the Jews is now removed, and transferred to the Gentiles.

To know that I have loved thee - That the love which was formerly fixed on the Jews is now removed, and transferred to the Gentiles.

Clarke: Rev 3:10 - The word of my patience The word of my patience - The doctrine which has exposed you to so much trouble and persecution, and required so much patience and magnanimity to be...

The word of my patience - The doctrine which has exposed you to so much trouble and persecution, and required so much patience and magnanimity to bear up under its attendant trials

Clarke: Rev 3:10 - The hour of temptation The hour of temptation - A time of sore and peculiar trial which might have proved too much for their strength. He who is faithful to the grace of G...

The hour of temptation - A time of sore and peculiar trial which might have proved too much for their strength. He who is faithful to the grace of God is often hidden from trials and difficulties which fall without mitigation on those who have been unfaithful in his covenant. Many understand by the hour of temptation the persecution under Trajan, which was greater and more extensive than the preceding ones under Nero and Domitian

Clarke: Rev 3:10 - To try them To try them - That is, such persecutions will be the means of trying and proving those who profess Christianity, and showing who were sound and thor...

To try them - That is, such persecutions will be the means of trying and proving those who profess Christianity, and showing who were sound and thorough Christians and who were not.

Clarke: Rev 3:11 - Behold, I come quickly Behold, I come quickly - These things will shortly take place; and I am coming with consolations and rewards to my faithful followers, and with judg...

Behold, I come quickly - These things will shortly take place; and I am coming with consolations and rewards to my faithful followers, and with judgments to my adversaries

Clarke: Rev 3:11 - Take thy crown Take thy crown - God has provided mansions for you; let none through your fall occupy those seats of blessedness.

Take thy crown - God has provided mansions for you; let none through your fall occupy those seats of blessedness.

Clarke: Rev 3:12 - A pillar in the temple A pillar in the temple - There is probably all allusion here to the two pillars in the temple of Jerusalem, called Jachin and Boaz, stability and st...

A pillar in the temple - There is probably all allusion here to the two pillars in the temple of Jerusalem, called Jachin and Boaz, stability and strength. The Church is the temple; Christ is the foundation on which it is built; and his ministers are the Pillars by which, under him, it is adorned and supported. St. Paul has the same allusions, Gal 2:9

Clarke: Rev 3:12 - I will write upon him the name of my God I will write upon him the name of my God - That is, I will make him a priest unto myself. The priest had written on his forehead קודש ליהו...

I will write upon him the name of my God - That is, I will make him a priest unto myself. The priest had written on his forehead קודש ליהוה kodesh laihovah , "Holiness to the Lord.

Clarke: Rev 3:12 - And the name of the city of my God And the name of the city of my God - As the high priest had on his breastplate the names of the twelve tribes engraved, and these constituted the ci...

And the name of the city of my God - As the high priest had on his breastplate the names of the twelve tribes engraved, and these constituted the city or Church of God; Christ here promises that in place of them the twelve apostles, representing the Christian Church, shall be written, which is called the New Jerusalem, and which God has adopted in place of the twelve Jewish tribes

Clarke: Rev 3:12 - My new name My new name - The Savior of All; the light that lightens the Gentiles; the Christ; the Anointed One; the only Governor of his Church; and the Redeem...

My new name - The Savior of All; the light that lightens the Gentiles; the Christ; the Anointed One; the only Governor of his Church; and the Redeemer of All mankind

There is here an intimation that the Christian Church is to endure for ever; and the Christian ministry to last as long as time endures: He shall go no more out for ever

Epistle to the Church of the Laodiceans

Clarke: Rev 3:14 - These things saith the Amen These things saith the Amen - That is, He who is true or faithful; from אמן aman , he was tree; immediately interpreted, The faithful and true w...

These things saith the Amen - That is, He who is true or faithful; from אמן aman , he was tree; immediately interpreted, The faithful and true witness. See Rev 1:5

Clarke: Rev 3:14 - The beginning of the creation of God The beginning of the creation of God - That is, the head and governor of all creatures: the king of the creation. See on Col 1:15 (note). By his tit...

The beginning of the creation of God - That is, the head and governor of all creatures: the king of the creation. See on Col 1:15 (note). By his titles, here, he prepares them for the humiliating and awful truths which he was about to declare, and the authority on which the declaration was founded.

Clarke: Rev 3:15 - Thou art neither cold nor hot Thou art neither cold nor hot - Ye are neither heathens nor Christians - neither good nor evil - neither led away by false doctrine, nor thoroughly ...

Thou art neither cold nor hot - Ye are neither heathens nor Christians - neither good nor evil - neither led away by false doctrine, nor thoroughly addicted to that which is true. In a word, they were listless and indifferent, and seemed to care little whether heathenism or Christianity prevailed. Though they felt little zeal either for the salvation of their own souls or that of others, yet they had such a general conviction of the truth and importance of Christianity, that they could not readily give it up

Clarke: Rev 3:15 - I would thou wert cold or hot I would thou wert cold or hot - That is, ye should be decided; adopt some part or other, and be in earnest in your attachment to it. If ever the wor...

I would thou wert cold or hot - That is, ye should be decided; adopt some part or other, and be in earnest in your attachment to it. If ever the words of Mr. Erskine, in his Gospel Sonnets, were true, they were true of this Church: -

"To good and evil equal bent

I’ m both a devil and a saint.

They were too good to go to hell, too bad to go to heaven. Like Ephraim and Judah, Hos 6:4 : O Ephraim, what shall I do unto thee? O Judah, what shall I do unto thee? for your goodness is as a morning cloud, and as the early dew it passeth away. They had good dispositions which were captivated by evil ones, and they had evil dispositions which in their turn yielded to those that were good; and the Divine justice and mercy seem puzzled to know what to do to or with them. This was the state of the Laodicean Church; and our Lord expresses here in this apparent wish, the same that is expressed by Epictetus, Ench., chap. 36. Ἑνα σε δει ανθρωπον, η αγαθον, η κακον, ειναι . "Thou oughtest to be one kind of man, either a good man or a bad man."

Clarke: Rev 3:16 - Because thou art lukewarm Because thou art lukewarm - Irresolute and undecided

Because thou art lukewarm - Irresolute and undecided

Clarke: Rev 3:16 - I will spue thee out of my mouth I will spue thee out of my mouth - He alludes here to the known effect of tepid water upon the stomach; it generally produces a nausea. I wilt cast ...

I will spue thee out of my mouth - He alludes here to the known effect of tepid water upon the stomach; it generally produces a nausea. I wilt cast thee off. Thou shalt have no interest in me. Though thou hast been near to my heart, yet now I must pluck thee thence, because slothful, careless, and indolent; thou art not in earnest for thy soul.

Clarke: Rev 3:17 - I am rich I am rich - Thou supposest thyself to be in a safe state, perfectly sure of final salvation, because thou hast begun well, and laid the right founda...

I am rich - Thou supposest thyself to be in a safe state, perfectly sure of final salvation, because thou hast begun well, and laid the right foundation. It was this most deceitful conviction that cut the nerves of their spiritual diligence; they rested in what they had already received, and seemed to think that once in grace must be still in grace

Clarke: Rev 3:17 - Thou art wretched Thou art wretched - Ταλαιπωρος· Most wretched. "The word signifies,"according to Mintert, "being worn out and fatigued with grievous la...

Thou art wretched - Ταλαιπωρος· Most wretched. "The word signifies,"according to Mintert, "being worn out and fatigued with grievous labors, as they who labor in a stone quarry, or are condemned to the mines."So, instead of being children of God, as they supposed, and infallible heirs of the kingdom, they were, in the sight of God, in the condition of the most abject slaves

Clarke: Rev 3:17 - And miserable And miserable - Ὁ ελεεινος· Most deplorable, to be pitied by all men

And miserable - Ὁ ελεεινος· Most deplorable, to be pitied by all men

Clarke: Rev 3:17 - And poor And poor - Having no spiritual riches, no holiness of heart. Rich and poor are sometimes used by the rabbins to express the righteous and the wicked

And poor - Having no spiritual riches, no holiness of heart. Rich and poor are sometimes used by the rabbins to express the righteous and the wicked

Clarke: Rev 3:17 - And blind And blind - The eyes of thy understanding being darkened, so that thou dost not see thy state

And blind - The eyes of thy understanding being darkened, so that thou dost not see thy state

Clarke: Rev 3:17 - And naked And naked - Without the image of God, not clothed with holiness and purity. A more deplorable state in spiritual things can scarcely be imagined tha...

And naked - Without the image of God, not clothed with holiness and purity. A more deplorable state in spiritual things can scarcely be imagined than that of this Church. And it is the true picture of many Churches, and of innumerable individuals.

Clarke: Rev 3:18 - I counsel thee I counsel thee - O fallen and deceived soul, hear Jesus! Thy case is not hopeless. Buy of me

I counsel thee - O fallen and deceived soul, hear Jesus! Thy case is not hopeless. Buy of me

Clarke: Rev 3:18 - Gold tried in the fire Gold tried in the fire - Come and receive from me, without money and without price, faith that shall stand in every trial: so gold tried in the fire...

Gold tried in the fire - Come and receive from me, without money and without price, faith that shall stand in every trial: so gold tried in the fire is here understood. But it may mean pure and undefiled religion, or that grace or Divine influence which produces it, which is more valuable to the soul than the purest gold to the body. They had before imaginary riches; this alone can make them truly rich

Clarke: Rev 3:18 - White raiment White raiment - Holiness of heart and life

White raiment - Holiness of heart and life

Clarke: Rev 3:18 - Anoint thine eyes Anoint thine eyes - Pray for, that ye may receive, the enlightening influences of my Spirit, that ye may be convinced of your true state, and see wh...

Anoint thine eyes - Pray for, that ye may receive, the enlightening influences of my Spirit, that ye may be convinced of your true state, and see where your help lies.

Clarke: Rev 3:19 - As many as I love As many as I love - So it was the love he still had to them that induced him thus to reprehend and thus to counsel them

As many as I love - So it was the love he still had to them that induced him thus to reprehend and thus to counsel them

Clarke: Rev 3:19 - Be zealous Be zealous - Be in earnest, to get your souls saved, They had no zeal; this was their bane. He now stirs them up to diligence in the use of the mean...

Be zealous - Be in earnest, to get your souls saved, They had no zeal; this was their bane. He now stirs them up to diligence in the use of the means of grace and repentance for their past sins and remissness.

Clarke: Rev 3:20 - Behold, I stand at the door and knock Behold, I stand at the door and knock - There are many sayings of this kind among the ancient rabbins; thus in Shir Hashirim Rabba, fol. 25, 1: "God...

Behold, I stand at the door and knock - There are many sayings of this kind among the ancient rabbins; thus in Shir Hashirim Rabba, fol. 25, 1: "God said to the Israelites, My children, open to me one door of repentance, even so wide as the eye of a needle, and I will open to you doors through which calves and horned cattle may pass.

In Sohar Levit, fol. 8, col. 32, it is said: "If a man conceal his sin, and do not open it before the holy King, although he ask mercy, yet the door of repentance shall not be opened to him. But if he open it before the holy blessed God, God spares him, and mercy prevails over wrath; and when he laments, although all the doors were shut, yet they shall be opened to him, and his prayer shall be heard.

Christ stands - waits long, at the door of the sinner’ s heart; he knocks - uses judgments, mercies, reproofs, exhortations, etc., to induce sinners to repent and turn to him; he lifts up his voice - calls loudly by his word, ministers, and Spirit

Clarke: Rev 3:20 - If any man hear If any man hear - If the sinner will seriously consider his state, and attend to the voice of his Lord

If any man hear - If the sinner will seriously consider his state, and attend to the voice of his Lord

Clarke: Rev 3:20 - And open the door And open the door - This must be his own act, receiving power for this purpose from his offended Lord, who will not break open the door; he will mak...

And open the door - This must be his own act, receiving power for this purpose from his offended Lord, who will not break open the door; he will make no forcible entry

Clarke: Rev 3:20 - I will come in to him I will come in to him - I will manifest myself to him, heal all his backslidings, pardon all his iniquities, and love him freely

I will come in to him - I will manifest myself to him, heal all his backslidings, pardon all his iniquities, and love him freely

Clarke: Rev 3:20 - Will sup with him Will sup with him - Hold communion with him, feed him with the bread of life

Will sup with him - Hold communion with him, feed him with the bread of life

Clarke: Rev 3:20 - And he with me And he with me - I will bring him at last to dwell with me in everlasting glory.

And he with me - I will bring him at last to dwell with me in everlasting glory.

Clarke: Rev 3:21 - To sit with me in my throne To sit with me in my throne - In every case it is to him that overcometh, to the conqueror, that the final promise is made. He that conquers not is ...

To sit with me in my throne - In every case it is to him that overcometh, to the conqueror, that the final promise is made. He that conquers not is not crowned, therefore every promise is here made to him that is faithful unto death. Here is a most remarkable expression: Jesus has conquered, and is set down with the Father upon the Father’ s throne; he who conquers through Christ sits down with Christ upon his throne: but Christ’ s throne and the throne of the Father is the same; and it is on this same throne that those who are faithful unto death are finally to sit! How astonishing is this state of exaltation! The dignity and grandeur of it who can conceive

This is the worst of the seven Churches, and yet the most eminent of all the promises are made to it, showing that the worst may repent, finally conquer, and attain even to the highest state of glory.

Clarke: Rev 3:22 - He that hath an ear, let him hear He that hath an ear, let him hear - Mr. Wesley has a very judicious note on the conclusion of this chapter, and particularly on this last verse, He ...

He that hath an ear, let him hear - Mr. Wesley has a very judicious note on the conclusion of this chapter, and particularly on this last verse, He that hath an ear, etc. "This (counsel) stands in three former letters before the promise, in the four latter after it; clearly dividing the seven into two parts, the first containing three, the last four letters. The titles given our Lord in the three former letters peculiarly respect his power after his resurrection and ascension, particularly over his Church; those in the four latter, his Divine glory and unity with the Father and the Holy Spirit. Again, this word being placed before the promises in the three former letters excludes the false apostles at Ephesus, the false Jews at Smyrna, and the partakers with the heathens at Pergamos, from having any share therein. In the four latter, being placed after them, it leaves the promises immediately joined with Christ’ s address to the angel of the Church, to show that the fulfilling of these was near; whereas the others reach beyond the end of the world. It should be observed that the overcoming or victory (to which alone these peculiar promises are annexed) is not the ordinary victory obtained by every believer, but a special victory obtained over great and peculiar temptations, by those that are strong in faith.

The latest account we have of the state of the seven Asiatic Churches is in a letter from the Rev. Henry Lindsay, chaplain to the British embassy at Constantinople, to a member of the British and Foreign Bible Society, by which society Mr. Lindsay had been solicited to distribute some copies of the New Testament in modern Greek among the Christians in Asia Minor

The following is his communication, dated: - "Constantinople, January 10, 1816

"When I last wrote to you, I was on the point of setting out on a short excursion into Asia Minor. Travelling hastily, as I was constrained to do from the circumstances of my situation, the information I could procure was necessarily superficial and unsatisfactory. As, however, I distributed the few books of the society which I was able to carry with me, I think it necessary to give some account of the course I took

"1.    The regular intercourse of England with Smyrna will enable you to procure as accurate intelligence of its present state as any I can pretend to offer. From the conversations I had with the Greek bishop and his clergy, as well as various well-informed individuals, I am led to suppose that, if the population of Smyrna be estimated at one hundred and forty thousand inhabitants, there are from fifteen to twenty thousand Greeks, six thousand Armenians, five thousand Catholics, one hundred and forty Protestants, and eleven thousand Jews

"2.    After Smyrna, the first place I visited was Ephesus, or rather (as the site is not quite the same) Aiasalick, which consists of about fifteen poor cottages. I found there but three Christians, two brothers who keep a small shop, and a gardener. They are all three Greeks, and their ignorance is lamentable indeed. In that place, which was blessed so long with an apostle’ s labors, and those of his zealous assistants are Christians who have not so much as heard of that apostle, or seem only to recognize the name of Paul as one in the calendar of their saints. One of them I found able to read a little, and left with him the New Testament, in ancient and modern Greek, which he expressed a strong desire to read, and promised me he would not only study it himself, but lend it to his friends in the neighboring villages

"3.    My next object was to see Laodicea; in the road to this is Guzel-hisar, a large town, with one church, and about seven hundred Christians. In conversing with the priests here, I found them so little acquainted with the Bible, or even the New Testament in an entire form, that they had no distinct knowledge of the books it contained beyond the four gospels, but mentioned them indiscriminately with various idle legends and lives of saints. I have sent thither three copies of the modern Greek Testament since my return. About three miles from Laodicea is Denizli, which has been styled (but I am inclined to think erroneously) the ancient Colosse; it is a considerable town, with about four hundred Christians, Greeks, and Armenians, each of whom has a church. I regret however to say that here also the most extravagant tales of miracles, and fabulous accounts of angels, saints, and relics, had so usurped the place of the Scriptures as to render it very difficult to separate in their minds Divine truths from human inventions. I felt that here that unhappy time was come when men should ‘ turn away their ears from the truth, and be turned unto fables.’ I had with me some copies of the gospels in ancient Greek which I distributed here, as in some other places through which I had passed. Eski-hisar, close to which are the remains of ancient Laodicea, contains about fifty poor inhabitants, in which number are but two Christians, who live together in a small mill; unhappily neither could read at all; the copy therefore of the New Testament, which I intended for this Church, I left with that of Denizli, the offspring and poor remains of Laodicea and Colosse. The prayers of the mosque are the only prayers which are heard near the ruins of Laodicea, on which the threat seems to have been fully executed in its utter rejection as a Church

"4.    I left it for Philadelphia, now Alah-shehr. It was gratifying to find at last some surviving fruits of early zeal; and here, at least, whatever may be the loss of the spirit of Christianity, there is still the form of a Christian Church; this has been kept from the ‘ hour of temptation,’ which came upon all the Christian world. There are here about one thousand Christians, chiefly Greeks, who for the most part speak only Turkish; there are twenty-five places of public worship, five of which are large regular churches; to these there is a resident bishop, with twenty inferior clergy. A copy of the modern Greek Testament was received by the bishop with great thankfulness

"5.    I quitted Alah-shehr, deeply disappointed at the statement I received there of the Church of Sardis. I trusted that in its utmost trials it would not have been suffered to perish utterly, and I heard with surprise that not a vestige of it remained. With what satisfaction then did I find on the plains of Sardis a small Church establishment; the few Christians who dwell around modern Sart were anxious to settle there and erect a church, as they were in the habit of meeting at each other’ s houses for the exercise of religion. From this design they were prohibited by Kar Osman Oglu, the Turkish governor of the district; and in consequence, about five years ago they built a church upon the plain, within view of ancient Sardis, and there they maintain a priest. The place has gradually risen into a little village, now called Tatar-keny; thither the few Christians of Sart, who amount to seven, and those in its immediate vicinity, resort for public worship, and form together a congregation of about forty. There appears then still a remnant, ‘ a few names even in Sardis,’ which have been preserved. I cannot repeat the expressions of gratitude with which they received a copy of the New Testament in a language with which they were familiar. Several crowded about the priest to hear it on the spot, and I left them thus engaged

"6.    Ak-hisar, the ancient Thyatira, is said to contain about thirty thousand inhabitants, of whom three thousand are Christians, all Greeks except about two hundred Armenians. There is, however, but one Greek church and one Armenian. The superior of the Greek Church to whom I presented the Romaic Testament esteemed it so great a treasure that he earnestly pressed me, if possible, to spare another, that one might be secured to the Church and free from accidents, while the other went round among the people for their private reading. I have, therefore, since my return hither, sent him four copies

"7.    The Church of Pergamos, in respect to numbers, may be said to flourish still in Bergamo. The town is less than Ak-hisar, but the number of Christians is about as great, the proportion of Armenians to Greeks nearly the same, and each nation also has one church. The bishop of the district, who occasionally resides there, was at that time absent, and I experienced with deep regret that the resident clergy were totally incapable of estimating the gift I intended them; I therefore delivered the Testament to the lay vicar of the bishop at his urgent request, he having assured me that the bishop would highly prize so valuable an acquisition to the Church. He seemed much pleased that the benighted state of his nation had excited the attention of strangers

"Thus, sir, I have left at least one copy of the unadulterated word of God at each of the seven Asiatic Churches of the Apocalypse, and I trust they are not utterly thrown away; but whoever may plant, it is God only who can give the increase, and from his goodness we may hope they will in due time bring forth fruit, ‘ some thirty, some sixty, and some a hundred fold.’ "Henry Lindsay.

In my note on Act 19:24 (note), I have given an account of the celebrated temple of Diana at Ephesus, to which building, called one of the seven wonders of the world, St. Paul is supposed to allude in his epistle to this Church, particularly at Eph 3:18 (note), where I have again given the measurement of this temple.

Defender: Rev 3:1 - Sardis Sardis, once the capital of ancient Lydia, was a wealthy city about thirty miles southeast of Thyatira.

Sardis, once the capital of ancient Lydia, was a wealthy city about thirty miles southeast of Thyatira.

Defender: Rev 3:1 - name that thou livest The church at Sardis had many members who were not truly born again, possibly second or third generation members who were only nominal Christians with...

The church at Sardis had many members who were not truly born again, possibly second or third generation members who were only nominal Christians without the zeal or commitment of their forebears. This is typical of many churches today."

Defender: Rev 3:3 - as a thief Every believer, in every age of church history, should be watching for the coming of the Lord (Mar 13:37), for "the day of the Lord so cometh as a thi...

Every believer, in every age of church history, should be watching for the coming of the Lord (Mar 13:37), for "the day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night" (1Th 5:2). Each of the last four of the seven epistles has a reference to the imminent return of Christ."

Defender: Rev 3:5 - book of life All whose names are not in the book of life will be cast into the lake of fire (Rev 20:15), and all who reject the words of Scripture will have their ...

All whose names are not in the book of life will be cast into the lake of fire (Rev 20:15), and all who reject the words of Scripture will have their names blotted out (see note on Rev 22:19). On the other hand, those who overcome will never compromise their faith in Christ, even at the risk of their lives (Rev 13:8). It seems probable that all who enter the world have their names in the Lamb's book of life and are safe in Him until they reach an age of accountability and become conscious sinners. At that point they are spiritually dead and need salvation, but their names are not actually blotted out of the book of life until they have irrevocably rejected Christ."

Defender: Rev 3:7 - Philadelphia Philadelphia means "brotherly love," and was named by King Attalus of Pergamos, its founder, in honor of his brother. Philadelphia still survives as t...

Philadelphia means "brotherly love," and was named by King Attalus of Pergamos, its founder, in honor of his brother. Philadelphia still survives as the modern town Alashehir, located about twenty-eight miles southeast of Sardis.

Defender: Rev 3:7 - no man openeth The Lord here claims to have "the key of David," referring to Isa 22:22 : "And the key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder; so he shall...

The Lord here claims to have "the key of David," referring to Isa 22:22 : "And the key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder; so he shall open, and none shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open." In Isaiah's context, this promise was made to Eliakim, a servant of King Hezekiah. The "key" was the key to the national treasury and figuratively to the control of the government. Eliakim thus was a type of the Messiah; Christ here asserts in effect that He controls the governmental economy of the whole world and all that happens therein."

Defender: Rev 3:8 - little strength Literally, "a little strength" simply reads "little strength" since the article is not present in the Greek. The Lord's promise of a continuing open d...

Literally, "a little strength" simply reads "little strength" since the article is not present in the Greek. The Lord's promise of a continuing open door, therefore, is conditioned on the premise that the church (or any Christian ministry, for that matter) have little strength of its own, and thus relies wholly on the strength of the Lord. Worldly marketing methods may seem to yield large numerical results for a time but will also produce gradual spiritual compromise and eventual disintegration.

In addition to the "little strength" criterion, the church or other ministry must keep ("guard") the absolute integrity of God's Word and uphold the name of the Lord Jesus Christ."

Defender: Rev 3:9 - not See note on Rev 2:9.

See note on Rev 2:9.

Defender: Rev 3:9 - worship before thy feet These Jews who were of the synagogue of Satan would not worship the Philadelphia believers themselves (not even angels will accept such worship - Rev ...

These Jews who were of the synagogue of Satan would not worship the Philadelphia believers themselves (not even angels will accept such worship - Rev 22:8, Rev 22:9); but in the presence of these believers, they will bow down to the Lord they had rejected on earth (Phi 2:10)."

Defender: Rev 3:10 - hour of temptation This "hour of temptation" was yet to "come upon all the world," so this statement could not have referred to any of the events of the first century. I...

This "hour of temptation" was yet to "come upon all the world," so this statement could not have referred to any of the events of the first century. Its purpose will be "to try them that dwell upon the earth." It is a time of judgment on unbelievers, not on believers. This testing will be "the great day of his wrath" (Rev 6:17), the seven-year period of tribulation at the end of the age (Dan 9:27; Mat 24:15-21). God has promised to deliver all true believers from this testing, for "God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ" (1Th 5:9; see also 1Th 4:16, 1Th 4:17 and notes on 2Th 2:3)."

Defender: Rev 3:11 - come quickly Even though they have "little strength" (Rev 3:8), there will indeed be Philadelphia-type churches bearing their testimony on earth when the Lord come...

Even though they have "little strength" (Rev 3:8), there will indeed be Philadelphia-type churches bearing their testimony on earth when the Lord comes."

Defender: Rev 3:14 - Laodiceans Laodicea was near Colosse (Col 4:16), about forty-five miles southeast of Philadelphia and almost one hundred miles east of Ephesus. It was a wealthy ...

Laodicea was near Colosse (Col 4:16), about forty-five miles southeast of Philadelphia and almost one hundred miles east of Ephesus. It was a wealthy city, with its wealth shared by the Christians in the church there. Instead of having "little strength," as at Philadelphia, its members boasted of their riches (Rev 3:17).

Defender: Rev 3:14 - beginning of the creation The Laodicean church was not an apostate church, for its candlestick had not been removed, but it was a neutral church, agreeing with the Scriptures a...

The Laodicean church was not an apostate church, for its candlestick had not been removed, but it was a neutral church, agreeing with the Scriptures and Christian doctrine in general, but so enamored of its worldly eminence that it would not stand firmly on such controversial doctrines as true creationism, full Biblical inerrancy, perspicuity and authority. It was "lukewarm" (Rev 3:16). Thus the Lord introduced Himself as "the faithful and true witness," whose Word therefore must be inviolable. He is the one who had created the universe itself, "the beginning of the creation of God," allowing no doctrinal position that could accommodate the pagan evolutionism. Furthermore, He is the "Amen" as well as the Creator, the Omega as well as the Alpha, so they should have been looking toward His imminent coming, rather than trying to impress the world."

Defender: Rev 3:16 - out of my mouth Note that Christ would prefer not only a hot church like Philadelphia but also a cold church like Sardis to a lukewarm, neutral, accommodationist, com...

Note that Christ would prefer not only a hot church like Philadelphia but also a cold church like Sardis to a lukewarm, neutral, accommodationist, comfortable church like Laodicea. At least Sardis was not harming anyone because it was not influencing anyone."

Defender: Rev 3:17 - have need of nothing There are multitudes of large and affluent churches today that are evangelical and nominally Biblical. They have become so comfortable with evolutioni...

There are multitudes of large and affluent churches today that are evangelical and nominally Biblical. They have become so comfortable with evolutionism and modern life styles that they are spiritually impoverished, filled with half-converted babes in Christ who are easy prey for the world, the flesh and the devil. The Lord is calling them to repentance (Rev 3:19), for they are still His churches, and therefore He must rebuke and chasten them."

Defender: Rev 3:20 - at the door When we see the signs of His imminent coming all around us, including many neutralist Laodicean-type churches, we know that He is at the door, soon to...

When we see the signs of His imminent coming all around us, including many neutralist Laodicean-type churches, we know that He is at the door, soon to sit down with all His saints at the great marriage supper of the Lamb (compare Mat 24:33; Rev 19:9).

Defender: Rev 3:20 - come in to him Although it is often used as such, this verse is not a gospel verse, appealing to the unsaved to accept Christ. It does not contain gospel essentials ...

Although it is often used as such, this verse is not a gospel verse, appealing to the unsaved to accept Christ. It does not contain gospel essentials such as reporting Christ's sacrificial death for sinners or discussing believing on Him for salvation. It is addressed directly to the neutralist, self-satisfied Laodicean church, calling them to repentance. In context then, the Lord is calling worldly, compromising believers to allow Him back into their lives."

Defender: Rev 3:21 - in my throne Here is a marvelous testimony to God's grace. Those whom the Lord had just threatened to "spue"(Rev 3:16) out of His mouth, He now invites to share Hi...

Here is a marvelous testimony to God's grace. Those whom the Lord had just threatened to "spue"(Rev 3:16) out of His mouth, He now invites to share His throne."

Defender: Rev 3:22 - unto the churches This is the last reference to churches in Revelation until the very last chapter (Rev 22:16). This fact strongly reinforces the inference that Revelat...

This is the last reference to churches in Revelation until the very last chapter (Rev 22:16). This fact strongly reinforces the inference that Revelation 2 and 3 reflect the entire church age, with the rest of the book dealing with the period after all true churches have been raptured and taken to be with the Lord."

TSK: Rev 3:1 - unto // he that // and the // I know // and art unto : Rev 1:11, Rev 1:20 he that : Rev 1:4, Rev 4:5, Rev 5:6; Joh 1:16, Joh 1:33, Joh 3:34, Joh 7:37-39, Joh 15:26, Joh 15:27, Joh 20:22; Act 2:33; 1...

TSK: Rev 3:2 - watchful // strengthen // thy works watchful : Rev 16:15; Isa 56:10, Isa 62:6, Isa 62:7; Eze 34:8-10,Eze 34:16; Zec 11:16; Mat 24:42-51; Mat 25:13; Mar 13:33-37; Act 20:28-31; 2Ti 4:1-4;...

TSK: Rev 3:3 - Remember // and hold // repent // I will // know Remember : Rev 2:5; Eze 16:61-63, Eze 20:43, Eze 36:31; Heb 2:1; 2Pe 1:13, 2Pe 3:1 and hold : Rev 3:11, Rev 2:25; 1Ti 6:20; 2Ti 1:13 repent : Rev 3:19...

TSK: Rev 3:4 - names // even // which // walk // for names : Rev 11:13 *Gr: Act 1:15 even : 1Ki 19:18; Isa 1:9; Rom 11:4-6 which : Rev 7:14, Rev 19:8; Isa 52:1, Isa 59:6, Isa 61:3, Isa 61:10, Isa 64:6; Z...

TSK: Rev 3:5 - that // the same // blot // the book // confess that : Rev 2:7; 1Sa 17:25 the same : Rev 3:4, Rev 19:8 blot : Exo 32:32, Exo 32:33; Deu 9:14; Psa 69:28, Psa 109:13 the book : Rev 13:8, Rev 17:8, Rev...

TSK: Rev 3:6 - -- Rev 2:7

TSK: Rev 3:7 - to the // Philadelphia // he that is holy // he that is true // the key // he that openeth to the : Rev 1:11, Rev 2:1 Philadelphia : Philadelphia, so called for its founder, Attalus Philadelphus, still exists in the town called Allahshehr, "...

to the : Rev 1:11, Rev 2:1

Philadelphia : Philadelphia, so called for its founder, Attalus Philadelphus, still exists in the town called Allahshehr, ""the city of God,""""a column in a scene of ruins.""It is situated on the slopes of three or four hills, the roots of mount Tmolus, by the river Cogamus, twenty seven miles ese from Sardis, about long. 28 degrees 40 minutes, lat. 38 degrees 23 minutes. The number of houses is said to be about 3,000, of which 250 are Greek, the rest Turkish; and the Christians have twenty-five places of worship, five of them large and regular churches, a resident bishop, and twenty inferior clergy.

he that is holy : Rev 4:8, Rev 6:10; Psa 16:10, Psa 89:18, Psa 145:17; Isa 6:3, Isa 30:11, Isa 41:14, Isa 41:16, Isa 41:20, Isa 47:4; Isa 48:17, Isa 49:7, Isa 54:5, Isa 55:5; Mar 1:24; Luk 4:34; Act 3:14

he that is true : Rev 3:14, Rev 1:5, Rev 6:10, Rev 15:3, Rev 16:7, Rev 19:2, Rev 19:11, Rev 21:5; Mat 24:35; Joh 14:6; 1Jo 5:20

the key : Rev 1:18; Isa 22:22; Luk 1:32

he that openeth : Rev 5:3-5, Rev 5:9; Job 11:10, Job 12:14; Mat 16:19

TSK: Rev 3:8 - I know // an open // a little // and hast kept // and hast not I know : Rev 3:1, Rev 3:15, Rev 2:2 an open : Rev 3:7; 1Co 16:9; 2Co 2:12; Col 4:3 a little : Dan 11:34; 2Co 12:8-10; Phi 4:13 and hast kept : Rev 3:1...

TSK: Rev 3:9 - the synagogue // I will make them to the synagogue : Rev 2:9 I will make them to : Exo 11:8, Exo 12:30-32; 1Sa 2:36; Est 8:17; Job 42:8-10; Isa 49:23, Isa 60:14; Zec 8:20-23; Act 16:37-39

TSK: Rev 3:10 - the word // I also // all // to try the word : Rev 1:9, Rev 13:10, Rev 14:12 I also : Mat 6:13, Mat 26:41; 1Co 10:13; Eph 6:13; 2Pe 2:9 all : Mat 24:14; Mar 14:9; Luk 2:1; Rom 1:8 to try...

TSK: Rev 3:11 - I come // hold // thy I come : Rev 1:3, Rev 22:7, Rev 22:12, Rev 22:20; Zep 1:14; Phi 4:5; Jam 5:9 hold : Rev 3:3, Rev 2:13, Rev 2:25 thy : Rev 2:10, Rev 4:4, Rev 4:10; 1Co...

TSK: Rev 3:12 - overcometh // pillar // I will // the city // my new overcometh : Rev 2:7, Rev 17:14; 1Jo 2:13, 1Jo 2:14, 1Jo 4:4 pillar : 1Ki 7:21; Jer 1:18; Gal 2:9 I will : Rev 2:17, Rev 14:1, Rev 22:4 the city : Rev...

TSK: Rev 3:13 - -- Rev 2:7

TSK: Rev 3:14 - the angel // of the Laodiceans // the Amen // the faithful // the beginning the angel : Rev 1:11, Rev 2:1 of the Laodiceans : or, in Laodicea, Col 2:1, Col 4:16 the Amen : Isa 65:16; 2Co 1:20 the faithful : Rev 3:7, Rev 1:5, R...

the angel : Rev 1:11, Rev 2:1

of the Laodiceans : or, in Laodicea, Col 2:1, Col 4:16

the Amen : Isa 65:16; 2Co 1:20

the faithful : Rev 3:7, Rev 1:5, Rev 19:11, Rev 22:6; Isa 55:4; Jer 42:5

the beginning : Col 1:15

TSK: Rev 3:15 - I know // that // I would // thou I know : Rev 3:1, Rev 2:2 that : Rev 2:4; Mat 24:12; Phi 1:9; 2Th 1:3; 1Pe 1:22 I would : Deu 5:29; Psa 81:11-13; 2Co 12:20 thou : Jos 24:15-24; 1Ki 1...

TSK: Rev 3:16 - I will spue thee out I will spue thee out : Rev 2:5; Jer 14:19, Jer 15:1-4; Zec 11:8, Zec 11:9

I will spue thee out : Rev 2:5; Jer 14:19, Jer 15:1-4; Zec 11:8, Zec 11:9

TSK: Rev 3:17 - I am // have need // knowest // wretched // blind // naked I am : Rev 2:9; Pro 13:7; Hos 12:8; Zec 11:5; Luk 1:53, Luk 6:24, Luk 18:11, Luk 18:12; Rom 11:20,Rom 11:25; Rom 12:3; 1Co 4:8-10 have need : Deu 8:12...

TSK: Rev 3:18 - counsel // buy // gold // that thou // white // the shame // anoint counsel : Psa 16:7, Psa 32:8, Psa 73:24, Psa 107:11; Pro 1:25, Pro 1:30, Pro 19:20; Ecc 8:2 buy : Pro 23:23; Isa 55:1; Mat 13:44, Mat 25:9 gold : Mal ...

TSK: Rev 3:19 - many // be // repent many : Deu 8:5; 2Sa 7:14; Job 5:17; Psa 6:1, Psa 39:11, Psa 94:10; Pro 3:11, Pro 3:12, Pro 15:10; Pro 15:32, Pro 22:15; Isa 26:16; Jer 2:30, Jer 7:28,...

TSK: Rev 3:20 - I stand // I will // will sup I stand : Son 5:2-4; Luk 12:36 I will : Joh 14:21-23 will sup : Rev 19:9; Luk 12:37, Luk 17:8

I stand : Son 5:2-4; Luk 12:36

I will : Joh 14:21-23

will sup : Rev 19:9; Luk 12:37, Luk 17:8

TSK: Rev 3:21 - him // to sit // even // and am him : Rev 2:7, Rev 12:11; 1Jo 5:4, 1Jo 5:5 to sit : Rev 1:6, Rev 2:26, Rev 2:27; Mat 19:28; Luk 22:30; 1Co 6:2, 1Co 6:3; 2Ti 2:12 even : Joh 16:33 and...

TSK: Rev 3:22 - -- Rev 3:6, Rev 3:13, Rev 2:7, Rev 2:11, Rev 2:17

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Rev 3:1 - The angel of the church // Write // The seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars // I know thy works // That thou hast a name that thou livest // And art dead Rev 2:1-6 What John was commanded to write in commendation or reproof to the angels of the churches of Sardis, Rev 2:7-13 Philadelphia, Rev 2:14-...

Rev 2:1-6 What John was commanded to write in commendation or

reproof to the angels of the churches of Sardis,

Rev 2:7-13 Philadelphia,

Rev 2:14-22 and Laodicea.

The angel of the church: See Poole on "Rev 2:12".

Write: See Poole on "Rev 1:11".

The seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars: See Poole on "Rev 1:3", See Poole on "Rev 1:20" .

I know thy works: this phrase here (as appears from what follows) can signify nothing but Christ’ s comprehension of the works of this church in his understanding, not his approbation of them.

That thou hast a name that thou livest the ministry of this church had a name, that is, were reported as famous for their faith, diligence, and holiness; but their faith, without suitable works, was dead, and they were no better than hypocrites.

And art dead spiritually dead.

Poole: Rev 3:2 - Be watchful // And strengthen the things which remain, that are ready to die // For I have not found thy works perfect before God Be watchful against sin, and unto thy duty, to perform it in a better manner than formerly. And strengthen the things which remain, that are ready t...

Be watchful against sin, and unto thy duty, to perform it in a better manner than formerly.

And strengthen the things which remain, that are ready to die improve those gifts and good habits which are left thee as yet, but are faint and ready to die, if thou dost not look after the improvement and strengthening of them.

For I have not found thy works perfect before God for I have not found thy works before God (whether thy works in thy ministry, or in thy conversation) such as they ought to be; thou mightest have done me more service, and thou mightest have done what thou hast done with more uprightness and sincerity.

Poole: Rev 3:3 - Remember therefore how thou hast received and heard // And hold fast, and repent // If therefore thou shalt not watch, I will come on thee as a thief // And thou shalt not know what hour I will come upon thee Remember therefore how thou hast received and heard to wit, from the apostles of the Lord Jesus Christ. All true reformation, either of doctrine or m...

Remember therefore how thou hast received and heard to wit, from the apostles of the Lord Jesus Christ. All true reformation, either of doctrine or manners, lies in the reduction of it to the doctrine delivered, and the rules of life given by them.

And hold fast, and repent: wherein our judgment or practice is conformable to theirs, it is to be held fast; wherein it hath varied, it is to be repented of.

If therefore thou shalt not watch, I will come on thee as a thief if thou shalt not keep thyself free from gross sins or errors, and give diligence to do it, I will come to thee, not as a friend to comfort and refresh thee, but as a thief to rob and destroy thee, and that suddenly.

And thou shalt not know what hour I will come upon thee I will surprise thee with my judgments, and thou shalt not know when my judgments shall overtake thee.

Poole: Rev 3:4 - Thou hast a few names even in Sardis // which have not defiled their garments // And they shall walk with me in white Thou hast a few names even in Sardis a few persons even in that polluted place, which have not defiled their garments who have kept their integrity...

Thou hast a few names even in Sardis a few persons even in that polluted place,

which have not defiled their garments who have kept their integrity and innocency. There is a garment of Christ’ s righteousness, which, once put on, is never lost, nor can be defiled; but there are garments of holiness also: hence the apostle calls to Christians to be clothed with humility. As sin is expressed under the notion of nakedness, so holiness is expressed under the notion of a garment, Eze 16:10 1Pe 5:5 . Those who have not defiled their garments, are those that have kept a pure conscience.

And they shall walk with me in white: the Romans used to clothe their nobles, and such as were competitors for honours, in white garments; the priests and Levites also amongst the Jews, when they ministered, were clothed in white, 2Ch 5:12 . God and his holy angels are in Scripture set out to us as clothed in white, Dan 7:9 Mat 17:2 28:3 . Those that triumphed upon victories obtained, were clothed in white amongst the Romans. To these usages, or some of them, the allusion is, and the meaning is, they shall be to me as kings, and priests, and nobles, they shall be made partakers of my glory:

for they are worthy though they have not merited it, yet I have judged them worthy; they are worthy, though not with respect to their merit, yet with respect to my promise.

Poole: Rev 3:5 - He that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white raiment // And I will not blot out his name out of the book of life // But I will confess his name before my Father, and before his angels He that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white raiment he that overcometh in the spiritual fight, shall be honoured as a triumpher. And I wi...

He that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white raiment he that overcometh in the spiritual fight, shall be honoured as a triumpher.

And I will not blot out his name out of the book of life that is, I will give him everlasting life: the phrase is an allusion to men who use to keep books, and in them the names of persons to whom they will show kindness. The book of life; applied to God, signifieth his eternal predestination, or purpose to bring some to heaven; out of which book, though none can be blotted out whose name is once wrote in, yet those whose names are in this book may be under some fears and apprehensions to the contrary. Christ assures them to the contrary, that they shall certainly be saved, but lets them know that this assurance depends upon their perseverance; of which also some make this phrase a promise.

But I will confess his name before my Father, and before his angels in the day of judgment I will own them, and acknowledge them as mine before my Father and all the angels, Mat 10:32 Luk 12:8 .

Poole: Rev 3:6 - -- The common conclusion of all the epistles: See Poole on "Rev 2:7" , See Poole on "Rev 2:11" , See Poole on "Rev 2:17" , See Poole on "Rev 2:29" ...

The common conclusion of all the epistles: See Poole on "Rev 2:7" , See Poole on "Rev 2:11" , See Poole on "Rev 2:17" , See Poole on "Rev 2:29" .

Those who make these churches typical, and the epistles prophetical of the complexion of all the churches of Christ which shall be to the end of the world, say the church of Sardis typifieth those reformed churches after the year 1560, that should cast off antichrist, but continue in a more imperfect state, contenting themselves with a bare disclaiming antichrist, but not rising up to a perfect reformation.

Poole: Rev 3:7 - And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write // See Poole on "Rev 1:20" // These things saith he that is holy // He that is true // He that hath the key of David // He that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: See Poole on "Rev 1:20" , See Poole on "Rev 2:1" . Of this Philadelphia we read no more in h...

And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write:

See Poole on "Rev 1:20" , See Poole on "Rev 2:1" . Of this Philadelphia we read no more in holy writ. We are told there were three cities of that name, one in Egypt, one in Syria, another in Phrygia, or in Mysia or Lydia, which is that here intended.

These things saith he that is holy that is, the Holy One, Act 3:14 .

He that is true true to his word of promise or threatening.

He that hath the key of David that is, the key of the house of David, mentioned Isa 22:22 ; the key of the church, which answered the temple, the house David designed for God: the use of the key is to open and shut, or make fast.

He that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth who admits into the kingdom of heaven whom he pleaseth, and none can hinder him, and shutteth out of heaven whom he pleaseth. The house of David typified the church, the church containeth the number of those that shall be saved; Christ is here described as he who hath the sole and absolute power of saving and condemning whom he pleaseth.

Poole: Rev 3:8 - I know thy works // an open door // And no man can shut it // For thou hast a little strength // And hast kept my word // And hast not denied my name I know thy works: it is very probable, that our Lord, by these ministers’ works, understands the works proper to them in their function, their ...

I know thy works: it is very probable, that our Lord, by these ministers’ works, understands the works proper to them in their function, their labour in preaching and propagating the gospel, which Christ did not only know and observe, but also approve of, and promiseth them a liberty to go on, and success in their labours, under the notion of

an open door: see 1Co 16:9 2Co 2:12 Col 4:3 .

And no man can shut it so as it should not be in the power of adversaries to hinder his success.

For thou hast a little strength both inward strength, and outward helps and advantages.

And hast kept my word the doctrine of faith is by thee kept pure, as also my precepts for a holy life.

And hast not denied my name and thou hast not been by any temptation prevailed upon to apostatize from the profession of the gospel.

Poole: Rev 3:9 - Them of the synagogue of Satan // Which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie // Behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet // And to know that I have loved thee Them of the synagogue of Satan so he calleth all Jews that opposed Christianity, or all pretended but not real professors. Which say they are Jews, ...

Them of the synagogue of Satan so he calleth all Jews that opposed Christianity, or all pretended but not real professors.

Which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie : For he is not a Jew, which is one outwardly; neither is that circumcision which is of the flesh; but he is a Jew, which is one inwardly, & c., Rom 2:28,29 . By this term also he may mean all false and hypocritical professors, who would make themselves the church, the only church of God, but are far enough from it, hating, maligning, and opposing those who would keep stricter to the rule of the gospel.

Behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet I will by my providence so order it, that these men shall come and honour thee, paying a civil respect and homage to thee.

And to know that I have loved thee and to know that I have a greater kindness for thee than for them.

Poole: Rev 3:10 - Because thou hast kept the word of my patience // I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world // To try them that dwell upon the earth Because thou hast kept the word of my patience: the doctrine of the gospel is, unquestionably, the word here called the word of the Lord’ s pati...

Because thou hast kept the word of my patience: the doctrine of the gospel is, unquestionably, the word here called the word of the Lord’ s patience, because it was that word, that doctrine, which (as those times went) could not he adhered to and observed without much patience in those that adhered to it; both actively, waiting for the promises revealed in it, and passively, enduring all manner of trials and crosses. To keep this word, was to keep close not only to the matters of faith revealed in it, but to the duty imposed by it upon ministers and others in the preaching and propagating of the gospel, and all the duties of a holy life.

I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world for this faithfulness God promises to keep the ministers of this church from those persecutions which raged elsewhere, and were further, in Trajan’ s time, to come upon all Christians living under the Roman empire.

To try them that dwell upon the earth to try those Christians that lived within that empire, how well they would adhere to Christ, and the profession of the gospel. This I take to be a more proper sense, than theirs who would interpret this hour of temptation of the day of judgment, which is never so called.

Poole: Rev 3:11 - Behold, I come quickly // Hold that fast which thou hast // That no man take thy crown Behold, I come quicklytacu , which certainly is the same with en tacei ; and it might be as well concluded, that the day of judgment should come by th...

Behold, I come quicklytacu , which certainly is the same with en tacei ; and it might be as well concluded, that the day of judgment should come by that time Rome pagan should cease, as that all things written in this book had their accomplishment in that time, because Christ told John they should come to pass en tacei , Rev 1:1 22:6 . No other coming of Christ, but his coming to the last judgment, can be here meant.

Hold that fast which thou hastkratei , hold with a strong hand the doctrine of faith, which thou yet hast, pure, and thy pure worship, and discipline, and a pure conscience.

That no man take thy crown that thou mayest not lose that reward which shall be the portion of those that persevere to the end, and of those only.

Poole: Rev 3:12 - Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God // And he shall go no more out // And I will write upon him the name of my God // And the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem // And I will write upon him my new name Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God: though by the temple of God in this place some understand the church of Christ on...

Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God: though by the temple of God in this place some understand the church of Christ on earth, where those always were, and are, and always shall be, most famous, who have overcome temptations best, from the world, the flesh, and the devil; yet, considering that all the promises before made to those who overcome are of another life, it seems best rather to interpret this so, that God would make such a one of fame and renown in heaven, great in the kingdom of heaven, Mat 5:19 , to sit upon a throne there, Mat 19:28 . He shall have a higher degree in glory, (for stars differ from one another in glory, 1Co 15:41 ), pillars being not only for support, but ornament, and principal parts in buildings.

And he shall go no more out he shall have an eternal inheritance, of which he shall not be dispossessed.

And I will write upon him the name of my God as men use, upon pillars and monuments erected for their own use and honour, to write their names; so I will peculiarly own, and challenge such a one for myself.

And the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem and I will write upon him: This man is an inhabitant of the new Jerusalem.

And I will write upon him my new name I will glorify him with that glory of which myself was made partaker, upon my ascension after my resurrection, Joh 17:22,24 .

Poole: Rev 3:13 - -- This we have met with at the close of every epistle: See Poole on "Rev 3:7" . Those who think these churches were typical, and the matter of the e...

This we have met with at the close of every epistle: See Poole on "Rev 3:7" .

Those who think these churches were typical, and the matter of the epistles not only didactic and corrective, but prophetical, say, this church of Philadelphia was a type of all gospel churches which were to be in the world upon the Reformation; which more perfectly cast off antichrist, and would allow no key but that of the house of David, reforming themselves strictly according to the rule of the word, not according to state policy, and prudence.

Poole: Rev 3:14 - Laodicea // These things saith the Amen // the faithful and true witness // The beginning of the creation of God We read of this church, Col 4:16 . Laodicea was a city in Lydia, by the river Lycus: see Rev 1:11 . These things saith the Amen: Amen, as we hav...

We read of this church, Col 4:16 .

Laodicea was a city in Lydia, by the river Lycus: see Rev 1:11 .

These things saith the Amen: Amen, as we have oft noted, is a particle used in asserting, and in wishing, or praying; here it hath the use of a noun, and is assertive, he that is true, as it followeth. He may be conceived thus to preface his epistle, to ascertain to the ministers of this church the truth of what he blames in them; or of the threatenings or promises contained in it; to which purpose he also calls himself

the faithful and true witness: see the notes on Rev 1:5 .

The beginning of the creation of God: those that deny the Divinity of Christ, are deceived in their thoughts that this text will afford them any defence for their error; for arch , the word here used, doth not only signify the cause, but principality, or the chief, or prince, Eph 3:10 Col 1:16 . Hence Christ is said to be arch , which we translate the beginning, because he was the Creator, the efficient cause of the creation, or hath a lordship over the whole creation; all power both in heaven and earth being committed to him, and all knees both in heaven and earth bowing down to him, Phi 2:10 . Unless we had rather interpret it of the new creation, either in the world, so he was the beginning of the gospel; or in particular souls, so he is the beginning of regeneration and sanctification. But though this be a truth, and consistent enough with the Greek phrase, Gal 6:15 , yet I see no reason why we should fly to it against the Arians, or their spurious offspring; for taking the creation, as ordinarily it signifies, the giving all creatures their first being, Christ was the efficient cause of it, and so the beginning of it, without him was nothing made; and he hath a lordship and dominion over it.

Poole: Rev 3:15 - I know thy works // That thou art neither cold nor hot // I would thou wert cold or hot I know thy works I know and observe thy behaviour, thy ministerial function. That thou art neither cold nor hot thou art neither openly profane and...

I know thy works I know and observe thy behaviour, thy ministerial function.

That thou art neither cold nor hot thou art neither openly profane and grossly scandalous, like heathens, or such as make no profession; nor yet hast thou any true zeal or warmth, either for the faith once delivered to the saints, or in love to God, seen in keeping his commandments, having the power and efficacy of godliness, teaching thee to deny all ungodliness and worldly lusts, Tit 2:12 . Thou hast a form of godliness, but deniest the life and power thereof.

I would thou wert cold or hot: we must not think Christ wisheth any persons cold absolutely, but comparatively, intimating to us, that the condition of a downright atheist, or profane person, is more hopeful than that of a close, formal hypocrite: the latter is in the road to hell as well as the other, and no more pleaseth God than the other. It is better not to have known the truth, than knowing it, to live contrary to it, Luk 12:48 2Pe 2:21 . Commonly such men also are proud, and self-conceited, having something to stop the mouth of their natural conscience, harder to be convinced of their evil state, Mat 21:32,33 .

Poole: Rev 3:16 - Neither cold nor hot // I will spue thee out of my mouth Neither cold nor hot partly good, partly bad, having something of profession, nothing of the life and power of religion; contenting thyself that thou...

Neither cold nor hot partly good, partly bad, having something of profession, nothing of the life and power of religion; contenting thyself that thou art not a Jew, nor a pagan; not a superstitious, idolatrous person; but a Christian, a protestant, a minister, or member of the Reformed church; yet neglecting thy duty both as a minister, and as a Christian, living in a sensual satisfaction of thy lusts.

I will spue thee out of my mouth I will cast thee off, as men vomit up lukewarm things.

Poole: Rev 3:17 - Because thou sayest, I am rich // And increased with goods // And have need of nothing // And knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked Because thou sayest, I am rich: it was said before, that one reason why the condition of a formalist is worse than that of an atheist, or more openly...

Because thou sayest, I am rich: it was said before, that one reason why the condition of a formalist is worse than that of an atheist, or more openly profane person, is, because the former is ordinarily proud and self-conceited, and hath something to stop the mouth of his natural conscience with, which the other wanteth. This is made good in the instance of this lukewarm angel; he said he was rich in a spiritual sense, in his state as a Christian, in spiritual gifts and endowments.

And increased with goods and every day increasing and growing richer.

And have need of nothing and needed nothing to make him happy and blessed.

And knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked in the mean time he was as miserable as one could be. These words used, are several words signifying persons under various bodily afflictions, and applied to signify this angel’ s forlorn spiritual state, which, in the general, was wretched and miserable, and such as had need of mercy, wanting the true righteousness, wherein any could appear before God not naked, and wanting all true riches; and to complete his misery, he was spiritually blind, and knew not the sad circumstances he was under.

Poole: Rev 3:18 - -- Buying being the usual way amongst men to procure what they want, it is not to be wondered at, that the procuring of that spiritual blessing here me...

Buying being the usual way amongst men to procure what they want, it is not to be wondered at, that the procuring of that spiritual blessing here mentioned is expressed under this notion; though our buying of God spiritual good things be (as the prophet expresseth it, Isa 55:1 ) without money and without price. It is not to be doubted, but that which is here propounded to be bought (that is, obtained, and procured by such ways and means as God hath directed) is Christ himself, with all his benefits, in whom there is a sufficient spiritual supply for all our spiritual wants; that which to the soul will answer whatever gold serveth the body for; and which to the soul answereth what clothing is to the body, viz. righteousness, wherein a soul may stand before God; and that which will answer what salves are to the body for the cure of its wounds, viz. consolation, and healing of all spiritual wounds and infirmities; in short, whatever thou hast need of, considered either as poor, wretched, and miserable, or as blind and naked.

Poole: Rev 3:19 - I rebuke and chasten // Be zealous therefore, and repent I rebuke and chastenelegcw kai paideuw the words may be translated, I convince and instruct, or deal with them as children; but it also signifies to ...

I rebuke and chastenelegcw kai paideuw the words may be translated, I convince and instruct, or deal with them as children; but it also signifies to chasten, and is so translated, 1Co 11:32 Heb 12:7 ; we translate it learn, 1Ti 1:20 . By these words Christ lets this angel know, that although he had in this epistle dealt smartly with him, yet he had done it from a principle of love, as a father to a child, Heb 12:7 .

Be zealous therefore, and repent he adviseth him therefore to quit himself of his luke warmness, and to recover a warmth and zeal for God, repenting of his former coldness and negligence in his duty.

Poole: Rev 3:20 - I stand at the door // And knock // If any man hear my voice, and open the door // I will come in to him // And will sup with him, and he with me There is a double interpretation of this text, each of them claiming under very valuable interpreters; some making it a declaration of Christ’ ...

There is a double interpretation of this text, each of them claiming under very valuable interpreters; some making it a declaration of Christ’ s readiness to come in to souls, and to give them a spiritual fellowship and communion with himself; others interpreting it of Christ’ s readiness to come to the last judgment, and to take his saints into an eternal joyful fellowship and communion with himself: hence there is a different interpretation of every sentence in the text.

I stand at the door either, in my gospel dispensations, I stand at the door of sinners’ hearts; or, I am ready to come to judge the world.

And knock by the inward monitions and impressions of my Spirit, or my ministers more externally; or, I am about to knock, that is, I am ready to have the last trump sounded.

If any man hear my voice, and open the door that is, if any man will hearken to the counsels and exhortations of my ministers, and to the monitions of my Spirit, and not resist my Holy Spirit; or, if any man hath heard my voice, and opened his heart to me.

I will come in to him I will come in by my Spirit, and all the saving influences of my grace; or, I will come to him as a Judge to acquit him.

And will sup with him, and he with me and I will have a communion with him in this life, he shall eat my flesh, and drink my blood; or, I will have an eternal fellowship and communion with him in my glory. The phrase seems rather to favour the first sense; the so frequent mention before of Christ’ s coming to judgment, and the reward of another life, as arguments to persuade the angels of the churches to their duty, favours the latter sense.

Poole: Rev 3:21 - To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne // Even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne I will give him great honour, dignity, and power; he shall judge the world in the day...

To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne I will give him great honour, dignity, and power; he shall judge the world in the day of judgment, 1Co 6:3 , the twelve, tribes of Israel, Mat 19:28 ; he shall be made partaker of my glory, Joh 17:22,24 .

Even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne but they must come to my throne as I came to it. I overcame the world, sin, death, the devil, and then ascended, and sat down with my Father in his throne: so they that will sit down with me in my throne of glory, must fight the same fight, and overcome, and then be crowned, sitting with me in my throne.

Poole: Rev 3:22 - -- We have had this in the conclusion of every epistle before: see Rev 2:7,11,17,29 , and in Rev 3:6,13 . Those who make these churches typical of all...

We have had this in the conclusion of every epistle before: see Rev 2:7,11,17,29 , and in Rev 3:6,13 .

Those who make these churches typical of all Christian churches, from the time John had this Revelation, and prophetical of the complexion of the Christian churches in all ages, say, that the church of Laodicea typifieth the churches towards the end of the world till Christ cometh; but this necessitateth them to think there shall be no such pure and glorious state of the church just before the end of the world, as many believe there shall be, but that the state thereof shall grow yet worse and worse, of a Laodicean temper, so as when Christ cometh he shall hardly find faith on the earth.

For my part, I could allow the seven epistles to be typical and prophetical, but can by no means judge them to be purely prophetical; believing there were such churches when John wrote, and that their complexion is in the first place described in these epistles; though possibly, as face answers face in a glass, so succeeding churches have answered, and shall answer, the face of these churches, even to the last day.

This chapter concludes John’ s first vision. In the following chapters we have a representation in visions of what was to happen in the world more remarkably, with reference to the church of God, from the year 95, to the end of the world.

There are very different opinions about the epocha, or the time, when the visions began to be fulfilled. My opinion is, it began soon after John had the vision; for it is twice said, Rev 1:1 22:6 , that the visions were to be about things that shall come to pass, (not that were come to pass), and that shortly; but we cannot fix the certain year, which maketh the interpretation difficult.

There are also divers opinions how far in this book the revelations go that concern the state of the church under Rome pagan, and where they begin that foretell the state of the church under antichrist. But of these we shall speak more particularly as we go along with the several chapters.

PBC: Rev 3:1 - -- Letter to the Church at Sardis {Re 3:1-6|} Sardis was the chief city of Lydia and was situated under a fortified spur of Mount Tmolus in the Hermus v...

Letter to the Church at Sardis {Re 3:1-6|}

Sardis was the chief city of Lydia and was situated under a fortified spur of Mount Tmolus in the Hermus valley. Her location was near the junction of the roads from central Asia Minor, Ephesus, Smyrna, and Pergamum. Sardis was the capital of Lydia under Croesus, and seat of the governor after the Persian conquest. Sardis was famous for arts and crafts, and was the first center to mint gold and silver coinage. The Lydian kings were so wealthy that Croesus became a legend for riches, and it was said that the sands of the Pactolus were golden. Croesus also became a legend for pride and presumptuous arrogance, when his attack on Persia led to the fall of Sardis and the eclipse of his kingdom. The surprise attack by Cyrus and his Persians in 549 B.C. led to the capture of the great citadel, and three centuries later by the Romans, may have provided the imagery for John’s warning. The great earthquake of A.D. 17 ruined Sardis physically and financially. The Romans contributed 10,000,000 sesterces in relief, an indication of the damage done, but the city never recovered. [1]

Due to many circumstances, some of which have already been mentioned above, the church at Sardis must have become overwhelmed by platitudes which gave them a false sense of spiritual security. While in this condition, it was very easy for them to substitute temporal things in their everyday lives. These may even have been morally correct. This would account for the statement " that thou hast a name that thou livest." Morality cannot replace Spirituality in the lives of God’s people. It can supplement Spirituality, but should never be allowed to take preference. The Law was holy, but it could not give life. So by the knowledge and authority of Him " that hath the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars, " this church at Sardis was dead.— Eld. Charles Taylor

[1] Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary shows a picture of standing pillars of the ruins of the great temple of Artemis at Sardis, standing alongside a small Christian Church.

PBC: Rev 3:2 - -- Some things pertaining to their beginning remained, but were ready to die. These things needed strengthening or total removal of the candlestick would...

Some things pertaining to their beginning remained, but were ready to die. These things needed strengthening or total removal of the candlestick would take place.

Jesus gave some very important advice concerning being watchful while here on earth, " Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come. But know this, that if the goodman of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken up." {Mt 24:42} Also, " For the Son of man is as a man taking a far journey, who left his house, and gave authority to his servants, and to every man his work, and commanded the porter to watch. Watch ye therefore: for ye know not when the master of the house cometh, at even, or at midnight, or at the cockcrowing, or in the morning: Lest coming suddenly he find you sleeping. And what I say unto you I say unto all, Watch." {Mr 13:35-37} The apostle Paul admonished the churches not to sleep, but to watch and be sober. {1Th 5:6} When the church becomes filled with apathy, the enemy devours. In the midst of all the wealth which commerce and false gods gave, the church at Sardis was toppling toward extinction. He who holds the stars in His hand will not share His glory with another regardless of how much He loves His People. Rather, it is because of this great love that He chastens and rebukes and requires repentance and turning.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 3:3 - -- Sardis had a goodly foundation. Lydia, the woman who had so wondrously received the things of God from the preaching of Paul at Philippi must have con...

Sardis had a goodly foundation. Lydia, the woman who had so wondrously received the things of God from the preaching of Paul at Philippi must have conveyed to her friends at Sardis (her home) the wonderful experience which she received. They must have had other teaching also and had received that which they had heard. It was the same good tidings of God’s love for His people in giving them life. They had been called out of darkness into His marvelous light in the same way as others of God’s elect. Now the message is " Remember and hold fast, and repent." If not, at such a time as they think not He will come as a thief. Sudden destruction awaits God’s people who allow themselves to be overcome with the cares of this world. They will not know at what hour He will come upon them. Therefore, watch!— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 3:4 - -- In all places where apathy is the rule among God’s people there are those few who have not defiled their garments with sin and forgetfulness. The wo...

In all places where apathy is the rule among God’s people there are those few who have not defiled their garments with sin and forgetfulness. The word " white" is used in other places describing those who praise and glorify God. " After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands." {Re 7:9} " And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb." {Re 7:14} To these who have kept their garments unspotted from the world, there is great promise. " They shall walk with me in white: for they are worthy."— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 3:5 - -- These are the same as those referred to in Re 3:4. They have continued fast in their belief that Jesus is the Christ the Son of God. Even though the c...

These are the same as those referred to in Re 3:4. They have continued fast in their belief that Jesus is the Christ the Son of God. Even though the candlestick is removed, these shall be remembered that their names are in the book of life.[1]  They have not been ashamed of Him and He shall not be ashamed of them before the Father while interceding for them at the mediatorial Throne in Heaven.— Eld. Charles Taylor

[1] Then they that feared the LORD spake often one to another: and the LORD hearkened, and heard it, and a book of remembrance was written before him for them that feared the LORD, and that thought upon his name." {Mal 3:16}

PBC: Rev 3:6 - -- Again, the admonition given is to those who have been born of the Spirit of God and have been given Spiritual ears to hear the things of God. They are...

Again, the admonition given is to those who have been born of the Spirit of God and have been given Spiritual ears to hear the things of God. They are to use these ears. Some in Sardis had closed their ears to the things spoken. Others were watching and still walking with Him in white. May we today learn and be admonished fruitfully in these things lest we be found wearing spotted garments.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 3:7 - -- Letter to the Church at Philadelphia {Re 3:7-13} -Elder Charles Taylor Philadelphia was located approximately twenty-eight miles southeast from Sardi...

Letter to the Church at Philadelphia {Re 3:7-13} -Elder Charles Taylor

Philadelphia was located approximately twenty-eight miles southeast from Sardis in a region noted for agriculture and earthquakes. Earthquakes actually destroyed the city several times, the latest around 37 A. D. Some form of Christian testimony and presence continued into the twentieth century. We find no direct criticism of this church. One wonders at the repeated reference to open and shut doors and the open door set before them. Did they need a nudge to sense the open door of providential opportunity and walk through it? Don’t we all need an occasional nudge to act as faithful witnesses in the dark world around us?

With each letter we have seen unique relevance in the Lord’s self-description to the conditions of the church. We should then expect relevance in this description as well. "Holy and true" establishes the Lord’s authority and ability to judge his churches, Philadelphia included. Every generation of believers seem to face the question of who and what determines truth and holiness, as if no one prior to them ever faced such a question. Will we ever learn? The Lord Jesus Christ remains the unquestioned head of his church. He alone declares his holiness as the model for our personal conduct and for our mission as a church. And he alone declares what is true-and what is truth. Truth never comes up for a popular vote in God’s church. When people lose their vision that God alone is head of the church, exemplifies holiness in conduct and declares truth-is truth—they have lost their vision of the New Testament church. They become a benevolent society, not a bad institution as human institutions go, but they do not have a church. The spiritual health of the Lord’s churches may face greater danger from the self-absorbed me-generation than they ever faced from bloody persecutions in remote history. We live in a culture that boasts its title, the me-generation. Wherever you look, you will find examples of how this, "What’s in it for me?" mindset permeates every area of human activity. Why should we be surprised when we look it squarely in the eye of our members in church on Sunday? They live in it six days of the week. And for many of them it has become a habit, a lifestyle that they bring with them into church. God declares what is holy and what is sin? God declares what is true and what is error? Who does he think he is anyway-God? Yes! He is God! That is the point!

It is more vital than ever for authentic Christians to live out Biblical Christ-centric faith in their lives. Whenever a me-generation person objects that all Christians are self-centered, prove them wrong by selfless living on the job, in the neighborhood and in your family.

The me-generation Christian devalues Scripture. Somewhere in the past it was the Word of God, but translations and interpretations have obscured its true meaning. Today meaning resides in the eye and heart of the believer. So, if your interpretation comes up with one truth, with one standard for holiness, and mine comes up with another, neither is absolutely right. No one can possibly approach absolute truth, if there is such a thing. Therefore my interpretation is just as good as yours because no one can really understand the Bible anyway. What is wrong with this reaction? Don’t you see it? Authority has been removed from Scripture and deposited in each person’s esoteric perspective. Meaning that resides in the passage and communicates its truth alike to all has been denied. Meaning no longer resides in the passage at all but in each believer’s private opinion! This self-centric religion has in large part replaced the God-centric revelation of Scripture for Western Christianity. And we wonder why we cannot impact the world around us! How could it be otherwise?

This generation has rejected the existence of a holy and true God in favor of private interpretations and esoteric meaning whose authority resides in the sentimentality of each believer’s private views. From their perspective it is preferable to reject God and retain personal control than to submit self to God and the clear authority of Scripture as it reflects God’s dazzling holiness and undeniable truth. True religion for the Western mind today resides in feelings and emotional impressions, not in Scripture and the revealed holiness of God. Whether we agree with the Christian influence in Philadelphia today or not, it has survived across the centuries in this city. Given the self-centricity of our religion today, can we offer anyone the slightest assurance that our church will survive into the next generation, much less for centuries to come? Would we like such an assurance? If so, are we willing to pay the price it requires? That price takes self and personal, emotional, sentimental feelings out of the controlling power over our faith and reinstalls the Lord Jesus Christ alone as head of his church. We joyfully submit to Scripture and to each other in the fear of God to demonstrate our supreme loyalty to Christ. And we live consistently with this authority model in every aspect of our existence. That is the price we pay to purchase the true Christian witness for the next generation! We can no longer cast ourselves in the role of judging Christ. If we hope to survive, we must submit to him and acknowledge his sovereign and communicable holiness and truth to his people. Instead of championing the inscrutable mystery and confusion of Scripture, we must become champions in our theology and our lifestyle of the clear revelation of Scripture and of the God of Scripture. This requires submitting every theological point we believe and every life-choice and action we take to the sovereign lordship of Christ as clearly revealed in Scripture. Will we pay the price? The next generation will testify to our answer!

Elder Joe Holder

Philadelphia, a Lydian city founded by Attalus II Philadelphus (159-138B.C.). The king was so named from his devotion to his brother Eumenes, and the city perpetuated his title. Philadelphia was an outpost of Hellenism in native Anatolia. It lies under Mount Tmolus, in a wide vale which opens into the Hermus Valley, and along which the postroad ran. It is on a broad, low, easily defended hill, which explains Philadelphia’s long stand against the Turks. The district is disastrously seismic, and the great earthquake of A.D. 17 ruined it completely. Placed right above the fault, Philadelphia was tormented by 20 years of recurrent quakes after the disaster of A.D. 17. The district was vine-growing, and a center in consequence, of Dionysaic worship. A Christian witness, in spite of Moslem invasion and pressure, was maintained in Philadelphia through medieval and into modern times.— Eld. Charles Taylor

The word Philadelphia as used in other places in Scripture mean the city of brotherly love. Peter uses this meaning in Ro 12:10 as affectionate love as toward one’s kindred.

The Apostle Paul uses two words: "But as touching brotherly love ye need not that I write unto you: for ye yourselves are taught of God to love one another." {1Th 4:9} He uses brotherly love in the same sense as does Peter. He goes a bit further using the word yeodidaktov, theh-od-id’-ak-tos; which means divinely instructed: taught of God. In Heb 13:1, the writer uses Philadelphia (fraternal love) "Let brotherly love continue." There is one other interesting usage in 2Pe 1:7 "And to godliness brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness charity." The word used for godliness is eusebeia, yoo-seb’-I-ah; and means according to the gospel scheme: godliness, holiness.

These Greek meanings as used in Scripture add strength to the statement in the remainder of Re 3:7 "These things saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth;" He who sits upon the throne has the only key which will preserve this great love as a strength to all people of God.

Elder Charles Taylor

He that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth.

The key of David apparently refers to Isa 22:22 where God planted the key of David with Eliakim, along with all the riches and privileges of the house of David. We already saw Christ with the keys of death and hell. {Re 1:18} This reference seems more appropriate to spiritual treasures than to the natural treasures of David’s national throne or of death and hell. Who has the power and the authority to open and to shut? Who presents opportunities before one group of believers and shuts another group out from the open door? Does he open and shut doors capriciously based on his mood at the moment or on some other mystical and inscrutable reason? Or does he open and shut doors based on his sovereign will and based on his omniscience, thus knowing that one group or person will accept the door of opportunity and bless others with it while he equally knows the selfish hearts of the other group, that they would not bless others with their open door? You see, God’s sovereignty does not mean that he is capricious or unpredictable. It means that he makes the final decision and that he has the power to bring it to pass. Nothing in his sovereignty compromises his holiness or any other essential trait in his divine attributes. The sentimental mystical view of New Age Christianity makes God’s emotions as unpredictable and as fickle as we have allowed our own emotions to become. We make a god who looks and acts exactly as we. Such a god is too insignificant to be the God of the Bible or the God of historical Christianity. Will we perpetuate this idolatrous submission to our private god or will we return to the God of Scripture and to the Scripture of God? How will we know the answer? Look at doors around you! Are they opened or closed?

Elder Joe Holder

PBC: Rev 3:8 - -- With an open door, even a little strength will prevail to go in and out. God, who is omnipotent, keeps this door against the winds of adversity. Keepi...

With an open door, even a little strength will prevail to go in and out. God, who is omnipotent, keeps this door against the winds of adversity. Keeping the word of God is essential to the safety He provides. Thou hast not denied my name. We are aware of the words of Jesus; " But whosoever shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my Father which is in heaven."{Mt 10:33} There are many times when we approach our High Priest, Jesus Christ, with petitions which are very important to us when He remains silent. These may be times that our testimony for Him has been silent. It is very important that we own Him as our God and Saviour. He sits making intercession for us to the Father. What would our action be toward a friend if they had denied us before others? Jesus keeps this door open to those who have maintained a godly (eusebia) life as we walk here on earth.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 3:9 - -- Again we find some mentioned who are called them of the synagogue of Satan. We found this mentioned in Re 2:9, " I know thy works, and tribulation, an...

Again we find some mentioned who are called them of the synagogue of Satan. We found this mentioned in Re 2:9, " I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich) and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan." Evidently these people were striving for the good will of the Romans. They were actually anti-christ in their persecutions of the sect who worshiped according to godliness. Paul mentioned the anti-christ as being present during his day. John must have also experienced this movement. Jesus gave great consolation in the words " behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee." The Church at Philadelphia would be exalted in due time. " Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over." {Ps 23:5}— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 3:10 - -- What a wonderful promise is given to these brethren (and us) because of the keeping of His words in the hour of temptation (trial, provocation, advers...

What a wonderful promise is given to these brethren (and us) because of the keeping of His words in the hour of temptation (trial, provocation, adversity) which shall come to them that dwell upon all the earth.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 3:11 - -- The hour will come quickly when they must withstand trials and tribulation. When that hour comes, He who walks among the candlesticks will fight for t...

The hour will come quickly when they must withstand trials and tribulation. When that hour comes, He who walks among the candlesticks will fight for them. The open door which is set will be entered into by those who have a little strength. That little bit is enough! Hold it fast! Defend the crown which is yours against false teaching by false prophets. The time is at hand. They were encouraged by knowing the battle was not theirs. It was the Lord’s battle and He would fight for them.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 3:12 - Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God? " Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God?" {1Jo 5:5} He that sits as King upon the throne of His ki...

" Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God?" {1Jo 5:5} He that sits as King upon the throne of His kingdom is the strength of those who are believers, the children of Abraham by faith. He never leaves us or forsakes us. He is Omnipresent! Paul wrote to the young man Timothy, " Which in his times he shall show, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords." {1Ti 6:15} We view Him in Re 19:16, " And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS." This One has overcome for us! He has been made a Pillar in the house of our God and in the city of our God. We being " in Him" are also pillars (supports) in this great city of our God. This city is not the " Old Jerusalem, " but it is called the " New Jerusalem." Those who dwell in the " New Jerusalem" have also a " New Name." They do not have the circumcision in the flesh made by hands; they have that circumcision which is of heart. " Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: and I will dwell in the house of the LORD for ever." {Ps 23:6} It has been said truthfully that those who are faithful in the church are the supports of the church. Those who wander in and out cannot be depended upon to hold up the cause of Christ when the test comes.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 3:13 - -- May spiritual ears ever be turned toward Him who walks among the candlesticks. In the epistle of James we are told, " But be ye doers of the word, and...

May spiritual ears ever be turned toward Him who walks among the candlesticks. In the epistle of James we are told, " But be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving your own selves. For if any be a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he is like unto a man beholding his natural face in a glass: For he beholdeth himself, and goeth his way, and straightway forgetteth what manner of man he was. But whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed." {Jas 1:22-25} The church at Philadelphia was encouraged because their works had strengthened their spiritual muscles.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 3:14 - --  Letter to Laodicea Re 3:14-22 14  And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true wi...

 Letter to Laodicea

Re 3:14-22

14  And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God;

15  I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot: I would thou wert cold or hot.

16  So then because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee out of my mouth.

17  Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with goods, and have need of nothing; and knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked:

18  I counsel thee to buy of me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich; and white raiment, that thou mayest be clothed, and that the shame of thy nakedness do not appear; and anoint thine eyes with eyesalve, that thou mayest see.

19  As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten: be zealous therefore, and repent.

20  Behold, I stand at the door, and knock: if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me.

21  To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne.

22  He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.

Laodicea lay on one of the great Asian trade routes, and was the head of the Circuit of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor. Laodicea was founded by Antiochus II (261-246 B.C.). She was a leading banking center and this brought great commercial prosperity. In 51 B.C. Cicero, en route for his Cilician province, cashed drafts there. It said the rich banking firms which financed the reconstruction of the city after the great earthquake in A.D. 60 which prostrated it. She was " rich and increased with goods and had need of nothing." {Re 3:17} The Lycus valley produced a glossy black wool, the source of black cloaks and carpets, for which the city was famous.

Laodicea was also the home of a medical school, and the manufacture of collyrium, a famous eye salve. The scornful imagery of the apocalyptic letter to Laodicea is obviously based on these activities. It also has reference to the emetic qualities of the soda-laden warm water from nearby Hierapolis, whose thermal springs ran into the Maeander. Laodicea’s water supply also came from Hierapolis. Sir William Ramsay observes that the city is vunerable due to its position and its easy wealth. This caused the growth in the community of that spirit of compromise and worldly-mindedness which is rebuked in Revelation. Laodicea, still prosperous was made the chief city of the Province of Phrygia under Diocletian.[1] Laodicea is described by one writer as the worst of the Seven Churches.[2] —Eld. Charles Taylor

Re 3:14 And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God;

Authority for the proclamation to follow is pronounced in the very beginning of this admonition (warning). The source of authority is identified as that Power which created the universe with all of its splendor: The amen, firm, i.e., (figuratively) trustworthy; adv. surely, so be it:—amen, verily. None can change the determinate counsel of God.— Eld. Charles Taylor

[1] Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary

[2] Some commentators believe these " Seven Churches" represent the Church in different ages. However, it is my belief that the apocalyptic type shows forth error which could infest any church, and which should continually be " watched" to keep them from becoming rampant in the body.

PBC: Rev 3:15 - -- Their condition was described as putrid, and distasteful, with sin-infested works which God cannot tolerate. He will not be persuaded to alter His ete...

Their condition was described as putrid, and distasteful, with sin-infested works which God cannot tolerate. He will not be persuaded to alter His eternal decrees. The works of the Laodiceans are manifest by their condition. All of the in between conditions are deceiving. Cold conditions are easily detected. So are hot conditions. Lukewarm conditions in God’s people will lead others astray. The one who has set His counsel in the highest determinate cannot tolerate this.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 3:16 - I will spue "I will spue" [1] As the footnote indicates, there is such a sickening condition in the Church that vomiting takes place. When something is taken int...

"I will spue" [1]

As the footnote indicates, there is such a sickening condition in the Church that vomiting takes place. When something is taken into the mouth for taste, it consists of a body, or mass. Whether liquid or otherwise it is more or less compacted. But if it is spued out, it becomes misted, or broken up- no longer a compact body. There is no strength because of the divided condition. When the works of God’s people are rejected (spued out) by Him, they are no longer of any strength. They appear as a mist which soon becomes unseen by even the worldly element which might accept the works of a compact body of people. Their works are useless. This lukewarm condition soon becomes extinct to all who follow. Their light is no longer seen!— Eld. Charles Taylor

[1] emeo, em-eh’-o; emew (SGreek: 1692. emeo) of uncert. affin.; to vomit—(will) spue.

PBC: Rev 3:17 - -- Riches may suffice in time of natural catastrophes such as the great earthquake which struck this city. Buildings may be rebuilt and damage repaired, ...

Riches may suffice in time of natural catastrophes such as the great earthquake which struck this city. Buildings may be rebuilt and damage repaired, yet there are other things riches cannot buy. Because the church at Laodicea had become so embedded in the riches of the city, they evidently considered themselves able to overcome all things with their possessions. Spirituality mixed with the pleasures of the world will soon become distasteful to God. There is a great danger when the body of God’s people get entangled in conditions such as these. When our goods become our dependence, we are wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked. It is not until we find the need to approach the Throne of Grace that we realize our terrible condition. Evidently the church at Laodicia was close to passing the last visible landmark. That landmark spoke to them with Godly counsel.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 3:18 - And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the LORD an offering in righteousness. Then shall the offering of Judah and Jerusalem be pleasant unto the LORD, as in the days of old, and as in former years. This gold tried (purified) in the fire is not like their worldly riches. " And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: and he shall purify...

This gold tried (purified) in the fire is not like their worldly riches.

" And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer unto the LORD an offering in righteousness. Then shall the offering of Judah and Jerusalem be pleasant unto the LORD, as in the days of old, and as in former years." {Mal 3:3-4} The offerings of Laodicea are tainted with greed and full of impurities. The Refiner has carefully tended the fires so the gold has been pulled from the flame when the impurities have been burned. The tainted riches of the Laodicians must be sold (purged) and replaced with the fine gold which is righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost. Their raiment has become dirty from dragging in the worldly dredging which their tainted gold has bought. Their nakedness is visible to all who will be Godly, but they are blinded and cannot see afar off. They have forgotten that the blood of the Lamb has purged them from their old sinfulness. Their eyesalve will not cure this blinded condition. Their eyes have need of being anointed with the eyesalve which only Christ provides. Not only do they need the touch of Jesus: they need the clay {See Joh 9:1-7} made spittle which will cause them to see all things clearly. Men will only see things clearly when they see their nakedness, which sin has caused in their lives.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 3:19 - -- Repentance is a fruit of the Spirit. The Spirit of God is given only to those whom He loves. These are the same ones whom Christ is rebuking and chast...

Repentance is a fruit of the Spirit. The Spirit of God is given only to those whom He loves. These are the same ones whom Christ is rebuking and chastening. The remainder of the message on that last visible landmark (sign) calls for repentance in the lives of the church at Laodicea. Not just a paltry repentance! But repentance with zeal. Possibly the same degree of zeal they used in obtaining the riches of the world. However, the zeal which is now required must be well tempered with righteousness. Only the love of a father requires such a stringent degree of repentance. " As many as I love" Special repentance is coupled with special love. " If ye endure chastening, God dealeth with you as with sons; for what son is he whom the father chasteneth not?" {Heb 12:7} —Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 3:20 - -- Here is a clear-cut passage which presents Christ as one who is asking entrance. It is also one of the most misrepresented passages we hear being ofte...

Here is a clear-cut passage which presents Christ as one who is asking entrance. It is also one of the most misrepresented passages we hear being often presented in preaching. We need to apply this in a proper contextual application. It is coupled with the message of Re 3:19, " As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten:..." We often hear it explained as if Christ is knocking at the door of the dead sinner seeking his consent in eternal salvation. One who has not already been born of the Spirit of God cannot hear because of being in a dead state of sin. Reason teaches us that only those ears which are spiritually alive can hear this One who is asking entrance. " He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches."

Here is a church which is capable of hearing because it is spoken of as once being lively. Its members are admonished to repent. I believe that a man has an option to act only within the scope of his position. The Apostle Paul writes concerning the sins of the children of Israel committed in the wilderness. " Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: a