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Teks -- Revelation 16:1-21 (NET)

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The Bowls of God’s Wrath
16:1 Then I heard a loud voice from the temple declaring to the seven angels: “Go and pour out on the earth the seven bowls containing God’s wrath.” 16:2 So the first angel went and poured out his bowl on the earth. Then ugly and painful sores appeared on the people who had the mark of the beast and who worshiped his image. 16:3 Next, the second angel poured out his bowl on the sea and it turned into blood, like that of a corpse, and every living creature that was in the sea died. 16:4 Then the third angel poured out his bowl on the rivers and the springs of water, and they turned into blood. 16:5 Now I heard the angel of the waters saying: “You are just– the one who is and who was, the Holy One– because you have passed these judgments, 16:6 because they poured out the blood of your saints and prophets, so you have given them blood to drink. They got what they deserved!” 16:7 Then I heard the altar reply, “Yes, Lord God, the All-Powerful, your judgments are true and just!” 16:8 Then the fourth angel poured out his bowl on the sun, and it was permitted to scorch people with fire. 16:9 Thus people were scorched by the terrible heat, yet they blasphemed the name of God, who has ruling authority over these plagues, and they would not repent and give him glory. 16:10 Then the fifth angel poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast so that darkness covered his kingdom, and people began to bite their tongues because of their pain. 16:11 They blasphemed the God of heaven because of their sufferings and because of their sores, but nevertheless they still refused to repent of their deeds. 16:12 Then the sixth angel poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates and dried up its water to prepare the way for the kings from the east. 16:13 Then I saw three unclean spirits that looked like frogs coming out of the mouth of the dragon, out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet. 16:14 For they are the spirits of the demons performing signs who go out to the kings of the earth to bring them together for the battle that will take place on the great day of God, the All-Powerful. 16:15 (Look! I will come like a thief! Blessed is the one who stays alert and does not lose his clothes so that he will not have to walk around naked and his shameful condition be seen.) 16:16 Now the spirits gathered the kings and their armies to the place that is called Armageddon in Hebrew. 16:17 Finally the seventh angel poured out his bowl into the air and a loud voice came out of the temple from the throne, saying: “It is done!” 16:18 Then there were flashes of lightning, roaring, and crashes of thunder, and there was a tremendous earthquake– an earthquake unequaled since humanity has been on the earth, so tremendous was that earthquake. 16:19 The great city was split into three parts and the cities of the nations collapsed. So Babylon the great was remembered before God, and was given the cup filled with the wine made of God’s furious wrath. 16:20 Every island fled away and no mountains could be found. 16:21 And gigantic hailstones, weighing about a hundred pounds each, fell from heaven on people, but they blasphemed God because of the plague of hail, since it was so horrendous.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Armageddon a large plain overlooked on the south west by the Carmel Mountain Range which has the town of Megiddo in its foot hills.
 · Babylon a country of Babylon in lower Mesopotamia
 · Euphrates a large river which joins the Tigris river before flowing into the Persian Gulf,a river flowing from eastern Turkey to the Persian Gulf
 · Hebrew Language an ancient Jewish language used in the Old Testament


Topik/Tema Kamus: Angel | Jesus, The Christ | Vision | REVELATION OF JOHN | Plague | Wicked | RETRIBUTION | Temple | SORE | Blasphemy | Good and Evil | Bowls of Wrath | Meteorology and Celestial Phenomena | Animals | Armageddon | Afflictions and Adversities | God | FROG | Water | WAR; WARFARE | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Rev 16:1 - A great voice A great voice ( megalēs phōnēs ). Not an angel as in Rev 5:2; Rev 7:2; Rev 10:3; Rev 14:7, Rev 14:9, Rev 14:15, Rev 14:18, but of God as Rev 15...

A great voice ( megalēs phōnēs ).

Not an angel as in Rev 5:2; Rev 7:2; Rev 10:3; Rev 14:7, Rev 14:9, Rev 14:15, Rev 14:18, but of God as Rev 15:8 shows, since no one could enter the naos .

Robertson: Rev 16:1 - Pour out Pour out ( ekcheete ). Second aorist active imperative of ekcheō (same form as present active imperative). Blass would change to ekcheate (clea...

Pour out ( ekcheete ).

Second aorist active imperative of ekcheō (same form as present active imperative). Blass would change to ekcheate (clearly aorist) as in Rev 16:6.

Robertson: Rev 16:1 - The seven bowls The seven bowls ( tas hepta phialas ). The article points to Rev 16:7.

The seven bowls ( tas hepta phialas ).

The article points to Rev 16:7.

Robertson: Rev 16:2 - Went and poured out Went and poured out ( apēlthen kai execheen ). Second aorist active indicative of aperchomai (redundant use like hupagete with ekcheete , "go a...

Went and poured out ( apēlthen kai execheen ).

Second aorist active indicative of aperchomai (redundant use like hupagete with ekcheete , "go and pour out,"in Rev 16:1) and of ekcheō . Each angel "went off"to perform his task. For execheen see it repeated in Rev 16:3, Rev 16:4, Rev 16:8, Rev 16:10, Rev 16:12, Rev 16:17.

Robertson: Rev 16:2 - Into the earth Into the earth ( eis tēn gēn ). This same use of eis after execheen in Rev 16:3, Rev 16:4.

Into the earth ( eis tēn gēn ).

This same use of eis after execheen in Rev 16:3, Rev 16:4.

Robertson: Rev 16:2 - It became It became ( egeneto ). "There came"(second aorist middle indicative of ginomai ).

It became ( egeneto ).

"There came"(second aorist middle indicative of ginomai ).

Robertson: Rev 16:2 - A noisome and grievous sore A noisome and grievous sore ( helkos kakon kai ponēron ). "Bad and malignant sore."Helkos is old word for a suppurated wound (Latin ulcus ), he...

A noisome and grievous sore ( helkos kakon kai ponēron ).

"Bad and malignant sore."Helkos is old word for a suppurated wound (Latin ulcus ), here, Rev 16:11; Luk 16:21. See the sixth Egyptian plague (Exo 9:10; Deu 28:27, Deu 28:35) and Job 2:7. The magicians were attacked in Egypt and the worshippers of Caesar here (Rev 13:17; Rev 14:9, Rev 14:11; Rev 19:20).

Robertson: Rev 16:3 - Into the sea Into the sea ( eis tēn thalassan ). Like the first Egyptian plague (Exo 7:12 -41) though only the Nile affected then.

Into the sea ( eis tēn thalassan ).

Like the first Egyptian plague (Exo 7:12 -41) though only the Nile affected then.

Robertson: Rev 16:3 - Blood as of a dead man Blood as of a dead man ( haima hōs nekrou ). At the trumpet (Rev 8:11) the water becomes wormwood. Here hōs nekrou is added to Exo 7:14-24, "th...

Blood as of a dead man ( haima hōs nekrou ).

At the trumpet (Rev 8:11) the water becomes wormwood. Here hōs nekrou is added to Exo 7:14-24, "the picture of a murdered man weltering in his blood"(Swete). "Coagulated blood, fatal to animal life"(Moffatt).

Robertson: Rev 16:3 - Every living soul Every living soul ( pāsa psuchē zōēs ). "Every soul of life"(Hebraism, Gen 1:21, marked by life).

Every living soul ( pāsa psuchē zōēs ).

"Every soul of life"(Hebraism, Gen 1:21, marked by life).

Robertson: Rev 16:3 - Even the things that were in the sea Even the things that were in the sea ( ta en tēi thalassēi ). "The things in the sea,"in apposition with psuchē . Complete destruction, not par...

Even the things that were in the sea ( ta en tēi thalassēi ).

"The things in the sea,"in apposition with psuchē . Complete destruction, not partial as in Rev 8:9.

Robertson: Rev 16:4 - Into the rivers and the fountains of waters Into the rivers and the fountains of waters ( eis tous potamous kai tas pēgas tōn hudatōn ). See Rev 8:10 for this phrase. Contamination of the...

Into the rivers and the fountains of waters ( eis tous potamous kai tas pēgas tōn hudatōn ).

See Rev 8:10 for this phrase. Contamination of the fresh-water supply by blood follows that of the sea. Complete again.

Robertson: Rev 16:5 - The angel of the waters The angel of the waters ( tou aggelou ton hudatōn ). Genitive case object of ēkousa . See Rev 7:1 for the four angels in control of the winds and...

The angel of the waters ( tou aggelou ton hudatōn ).

Genitive case object of ēkousa . See Rev 7:1 for the four angels in control of the winds and Rev 14:18 for the angel with power over fire. The rabbis spoke also of an angel with power over the earth and another over the sea.

Robertson: Rev 16:5 - Which art and which wast Which art and which wast ( ho ōn kai ho ēn ). See this peculiar idiom for God’ s eternity with ho as relative before ēn in Rev 1:4, Re...

Which art and which wast ( ho ōn kai ho ēn ).

See this peculiar idiom for God’ s eternity with ho as relative before ēn in Rev 1:4, Rev 1:8; Rev 4:8, but without ho erchomenos (the coming on, the one who is to be) there for the future as in Rev 11:17.

Robertson: Rev 16:5 - Thou Holy One Thou Holy One ( ho hosios ). Nominative form, but vocative case, as often. Note both dikaios and hosios applied to God as in Rev 3:1; Rev 15:3.

Thou Holy One ( ho hosios ).

Nominative form, but vocative case, as often. Note both dikaios and hosios applied to God as in Rev 3:1; Rev 15:3.

Robertson: Rev 16:5 - Because thou didst thus judge Because thou didst thus judge ( hoti tauta ekrinas ). Reason for calling God dikaios and hosios . The punishment on the waters is deserved. First a...

Because thou didst thus judge ( hoti tauta ekrinas ).

Reason for calling God dikaios and hosios . The punishment on the waters is deserved. First aorist active indicative of krinō , to judge.

Robertson: Rev 16:6 - For For ( hoti ). Second causal conjunction (hoti ) explanatory of the first hoti , like the two cases of hoti in Rev 15:4.

For ( hoti ).

Second causal conjunction (hoti ) explanatory of the first hoti , like the two cases of hoti in Rev 15:4.

Robertson: Rev 16:6 - They poured out They poured out ( exechean ). Second aorist active indicative of ekcheō with ̇an instead of ̇on .

They poured out ( exechean ).

Second aorist active indicative of ekcheō with ̇an instead of ̇on .

Robertson: Rev 16:6 - Blood hast thou given them to drink Blood hast thou given them to drink ( haima autois dedōkas pein ). Haima (blood) is the emphatic word, measure for measure for shedding the blood...

Blood hast thou given them to drink ( haima autois dedōkas pein ).

Haima (blood) is the emphatic word, measure for measure for shedding the blood of saints and prophets (Rev 11:18; Rev 18:24). Perfect active indicative of didōmi , and so a permanent and just punishment. Pein is the abbreviated second aorist active infinitive of pinō for piein (epion ). It is the epexegetical infinitive after dedōkas . There was no more drinking-water, but only this coagulated blood.

Robertson: Rev 16:6 - They are worthy They are worthy ( axioi eisin ). "Terrible antithesis"(Swete) to Rev 3:4. The asyndeton adds to it (Alford).

They are worthy ( axioi eisin ).

"Terrible antithesis"(Swete) to Rev 3:4. The asyndeton adds to it (Alford).

Robertson: Rev 16:7 - O Lord God, the Almighty O Lord God, the Almighty ( Kurie ho theos ho pantokratōr ). Just as in Rev 15:3 in the Song of Moses and of the Lamb, vocative with the article ho ...

O Lord God, the Almighty ( Kurie ho theos ho pantokratōr ).

Just as in Rev 15:3 in the Song of Moses and of the Lamb, vocative with the article ho . "Judgments"(kriseis ) here instead of "ways"(hodoi ) there, and with the order of the adjectives reversed (alēthinai kai dikaiai , true and righteous).

Robertson: Rev 16:8 - Upon the sun Upon the sun ( epi ton hēlion ). Not eis (into) as in Rev 16:2, Rev 16:3, Rev 16:4. The fourth trumpet (Rev 8:12) affected a third of the sun, mo...

Upon the sun ( epi ton hēlion ).

Not eis (into) as in Rev 16:2, Rev 16:3, Rev 16:4. The fourth trumpet (Rev 8:12) affected a third of the sun, moon, and stars with a plague of darkness, but here it is a plague of extreme heat.

Robertson: Rev 16:8 - To scorch with fire To scorch with fire ( kaumatisai en puri ). First aorist active infinitive of kaumatizō , late (Plutarch, Epictetus) causative verb (from kauma , h...

To scorch with fire ( kaumatisai en puri ).

First aorist active infinitive of kaumatizō , late (Plutarch, Epictetus) causative verb (from kauma , heat), in N.T. only here and Rev 16:9; Mat 13:6; Mar 4:6. The addition of en puri (in fire, with fire) intensifies the picture.

Robertson: Rev 16:9 - Were scorched Were scorched ( ekaumatisthēsan ). First aorist passive indicative of same verb.

Were scorched ( ekaumatisthēsan ).

First aorist passive indicative of same verb.

Robertson: Rev 16:9 - With great heat With great heat ( kauma mega ). Cognate accusative retained with the passive verb. Old word (from kaiō to burn), in N.T. only Rev 7:16 and here. ...

With great heat ( kauma mega ).

Cognate accusative retained with the passive verb. Old word (from kaiō to burn), in N.T. only Rev 7:16 and here. For blaspheming the name of God see Rev 13:6; Jam 2:7; Rom 2:24; 1Ti 6:1. They blamed God for the plagues.

Robertson: Rev 16:9 - They repented not They repented not ( ou metenoēsan ). This solemn negative aorist of metanoeō is a refrain like a funeral dirge (Rev 9:20.; Rev 16:11). In Rev 1...

They repented not ( ou metenoēsan ).

This solemn negative aorist of metanoeō is a refrain like a funeral dirge (Rev 9:20.; Rev 16:11). In Rev 11:13 some did repent because of the earthquake. Even deserved punishment may harden the heart.

Robertson: Rev 16:9 - To give him glory To give him glory ( dounai autōi doxan ). Second aorist active infinitive of didōmi , almost result. For the phrase see Rev 11:13; Rev 14:7; Rev ...

To give him glory ( dounai autōi doxan ).

Second aorist active infinitive of didōmi , almost result. For the phrase see Rev 11:13; Rev 14:7; Rev 19:7.

Robertson: Rev 16:10 - Upon the throne of the beast Upon the throne of the beast ( epi ton thronon tou thēriou ). That is Rome (Rev 13:2). The dragon gave the beast his throne (Rev 2:13).

Upon the throne of the beast ( epi ton thronon tou thēriou ).

That is Rome (Rev 13:2). The dragon gave the beast his throne (Rev 2:13).

Robertson: Rev 16:10 - Was darkened Was darkened ( egeneto eskotōmenē ). Periphrastic past perfect passive with ginomai and skotoō (Rev 9:2). Like the darkness of the Egyptian...

Was darkened ( egeneto eskotōmenē ).

Periphrastic past perfect passive with ginomai and skotoō (Rev 9:2). Like the darkness of the Egyptian plague (Exo 10:22) and worse, for the effects of the previous plagues continue.

Robertson: Rev 16:10 - They gnawed their tongues They gnawed their tongues ( emasōnto tas glōssas autōn ). Imperfect middle of masaomai , old verb (to chew), from maō (to knead), only here...

They gnawed their tongues ( emasōnto tas glōssas autōn ).

Imperfect middle of masaomai , old verb (to chew), from maō (to knead), only here in N.T.

Robertson: Rev 16:10 - For pain For pain ( ek tou ponou ). "Out of distress"(cf. ek in Rev 8:13), rare sense of old word (from penomai to work for one’ s living), in N.T. o...

For pain ( ek tou ponou ).

"Out of distress"(cf. ek in Rev 8:13), rare sense of old word (from penomai to work for one’ s living), in N.T. only here, Rev 21:4; Col 4:13. See Mat 8:12.

Robertson: Rev 16:11 - They blasphemed They blasphemed ( eblasphēmēsan ) and they repented not (kai ou metenoēsan ). Precisely as in Rev 16:9, which see. Not just because of the s...

They blasphemed ( eblasphēmēsan )

and they repented not (kai ou metenoēsan ). Precisely as in Rev 16:9, which see. Not just because of the supernatural darkness, but also "because of their pains"(ek tōn ponōn autōn , plural here and same use of ek ) and their sores (kai ek tōn helkōn autōn , as in Rev 16:2, only plural, and same use of ek ).

Robertson: Rev 16:11 - Of their works Of their works ( ek tōn ergōn autōn ). "Out of their deeds,"and addition to Rev 16:9.

Of their works ( ek tōn ergōn autōn ).

"Out of their deeds,"and addition to Rev 16:9.

Robertson: Rev 16:11 - The God of heaven The God of heaven ( ton theon tou ouranou ). As in Dan 2:44. Like the pride of Nebuchadrezzar against Jehovah.

The God of heaven ( ton theon tou ouranou ).

As in Dan 2:44. Like the pride of Nebuchadrezzar against Jehovah.

Robertson: Rev 16:12 - Upon the great river, the river Euphrates Upon the great river, the river Euphrates ( epi ton potamon ton megan ton Euphratēn ). The sixth trumpet brings up the river Euphrates also (Rev 9:...

Upon the great river, the river Euphrates ( epi ton potamon ton megan ton Euphratēn ).

The sixth trumpet brings up the river Euphrates also (Rev 9:14), only there epi with the locative, while here epi with the accusative. Note triple use of the article ton here.

Robertson: Rev 16:12 - Was dried up Was dried up ( exēranthē ). First aorist (prophetic) passive of xērainō (Rev 14:15). Cf. Zec 10:11.

Was dried up ( exēranthē ).

First aorist (prophetic) passive of xērainō (Rev 14:15). Cf. Zec 10:11.

Robertson: Rev 16:12 - That may be made ready That may be made ready ( hina hetoimasthēi ). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist passive of hetoimazō . Common verb in Rev (Rev 8:6;...

That may be made ready ( hina hetoimasthēi ).

Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist passive of hetoimazō . Common verb in Rev (Rev 8:6; Rev 9:7, Rev 9:15; Rev 12:6; Rev 19:7; Rev 21:2).

Robertson: Rev 16:12 - The way for the kings The way for the kings ( hē hodos tōn basileōn ). Objective genitive basileōn .

The way for the kings ( hē hodos tōn basileōn ).

Objective genitive basileōn .

Robertson: Rev 16:12 - That come from the sunrising That come from the sunrising ( tōn apo anatolēs heliou ). "Those from the rising of the sun,"the kings from the east (cf. Mat 2:2) in their march...

That come from the sunrising ( tōn apo anatolēs heliou ).

"Those from the rising of the sun,"the kings from the east (cf. Mat 2:2) in their march against Rome. Parthia in particular resisted Rome before Trajan’ s day.

Robertson: Rev 16:13 - Coming out of Coming out of ( ek alone, no participle erchomena ).

Coming out of ( ek alone, no participle erchomena ).

Robertson: Rev 16:13 - Of the dragon Of the dragon ( tou drakontos ). That is Satan (Rev 12:3, Rev 12:9).

Of the dragon ( tou drakontos ).

That is Satan (Rev 12:3, Rev 12:9).

Robertson: Rev 16:13 - Of the beast Of the beast ( tou thēriou ). The first beast (Rev 13:1, Rev 13:12) and then just the beast (Rev 13:14.; Rev 14:9, Rev 14:11; Rev 15:2; Rev 16:2, R...

Of the beast ( tou thēriou ).

The first beast (Rev 13:1, Rev 13:12) and then just the beast (Rev 13:14.; Rev 14:9, Rev 14:11; Rev 15:2; Rev 16:2, Rev 16:10), the brute force of the World-power represented by the Roman Empire"(Swete).

Robertson: Rev 16:13 - Of the false prophet Of the false prophet ( tou pseudoprophētou ). Cf. Mat 7:15; Act 13:6; 1Jo 2:22; 1Jo 4:3; 2Jo 1:7. Identified with the second beast (Rev 13:11-14) i...

Of the false prophet ( tou pseudoprophētou ).

Cf. Mat 7:15; Act 13:6; 1Jo 2:22; 1Jo 4:3; 2Jo 1:7. Identified with the second beast (Rev 13:11-14) in Rev 19:20; Rev 20:10. So the sixth bowl introduces the dragon and his two subalterns of chapters Rev 12; 13 (the two beasts).

Robertson: Rev 16:13 - Three unclean spirits Three unclean spirits ( pneumata tria akatharta ). Out of the mouths of each of the three evil powers (the dragon and the two beasts) comes an evil s...

Three unclean spirits ( pneumata tria akatharta ).

Out of the mouths of each of the three evil powers (the dragon and the two beasts) comes an evil spirit. See the use of mouth in Rev 1:16 (Rev 9:17.; Rev 11:5; Rev 12:15; Rev 19:15, Rev 19:21) as a chief seat of influence. In 2Th 2:8 we have "the breath of his mouth"(the other sense of pneuma ). For akatharton (unclean) with pneuma see Mar 1:23.; Mar 3:11; Mar 5:2.; Act 5:16; Act 8:7. Christ expelled unclean spirits, but His enemies send them forth"(Swete). See Zec 13:2 "the false prophets and the unclean spirits."

Robertson: Rev 16:13 - As it were frogs As it were frogs ( hōs batrachoi ). Cf. Exo 8:5; Lev 11:10. Old word, here alone in N.T. Like loathsome frogs in form.

As it were frogs ( hōs batrachoi ).

Cf. Exo 8:5; Lev 11:10. Old word, here alone in N.T. Like loathsome frogs in form.

Robertson: Rev 16:14 - Spirits of devils Spirits of devils ( pneumata daimoniōn ). "Spirits of demons."Explanation of the simile hōs batrachoi . See 1Ti 4:1 about "deceiving spirits and ...

Spirits of devils ( pneumata daimoniōn ).

"Spirits of demons."Explanation of the simile hōs batrachoi . See 1Ti 4:1 about "deceiving spirits and teachings of demons."

Robertson: Rev 16:14 - Working signs Working signs ( poiounta sēmeia ). "Doing signs"(present active participle of poieō ). The Egyptian magicians wrought "signs"(tricks), as did Si...

Working signs ( poiounta sēmeia ).

"Doing signs"(present active participle of poieō ). The Egyptian magicians wrought "signs"(tricks), as did Simon Magus and later Apollonius of Tyana. Houdini claimed that he could reproduce every trick of the spiritualistic mediums.

Robertson: Rev 16:14 - Which go forth Which go forth ( ha ekporeuetai ). Singular verb with neuter plural (collective) subject.

Which go forth ( ha ekporeuetai ).

Singular verb with neuter plural (collective) subject.

Robertson: Rev 16:14 - Unto the kings Unto the kings ( epi tous basileis ). The three evil spirits (dragon and the two beasts) spur on the kings of the whole world to a real world war. "T...

Unto the kings ( epi tous basileis ).

The three evil spirits (dragon and the two beasts) spur on the kings of the whole world to a real world war. "There have been times when nations have been seized by a passion for war which the historian can but imperfectly explain"(Swete).

Robertson: Rev 16:14 - To gather them together To gather them together ( sunagagein ). Second aorist active infinitive of sunagō , to express purpose (that of the unclean spirits).

To gather them together ( sunagagein ).

Second aorist active infinitive of sunagō , to express purpose (that of the unclean spirits).

Robertson: Rev 16:14 - Unto the war of the great day of God, the Almighty Unto the war of the great day of God, the Almighty ( eis ton polemon tēs hēmeras tēs megalēs tou theou tou pantokratoros ). Some take this to...

Unto the war of the great day of God, the Almighty ( eis ton polemon tēs hēmeras tēs megalēs tou theou tou pantokratoros ).

Some take this to be war between nations, like Mar 13:8, but it is more likely war against God (Psa 2:2) and probably the battle pictured in Rev 17:14; Rev 19:19. Cf. 2Pe 3:12, "the day of God,"his reckoning with the nations. See Joe 2:11; Joe 3:4. Paul uses "that day"for the day of the Lord Jesus (the Parousia) as in 1Th 5:2; 2Th 1:10; 2Th 2:2; 1Co 1:8; 2Co 1:14; Phi 1:6; Phi 2:16; 2Ti 1:12, 2Ti 1:18; 2Ti 4:8.

Robertson: Rev 16:15 - Behold, I come as a thief Behold, I come as a thief ( idou erchomai hōs kleptēs ). The voice of Christ breaks in with the same metaphor as in Rev 3:3, which see. There com...

Behold, I come as a thief ( idou erchomai hōs kleptēs ).

The voice of Christ breaks in with the same metaphor as in Rev 3:3, which see. There comes one of seven beatitudes in Rev (Rev 1:3; Rev 14:13; Rev 16:15; Rev 19:9; Rev 20:6; Rev 22:7, Rev 22:14). For grēgorōn (watching) see Rev 3:2, and for tērōn (keeping), Rev 1:3.

Robertson: Rev 16:15 - Lest he walk naked Lest he walk naked ( hina mē gumnos peripatēi ). Negative purpose clause with hina mē and the present active subjunctive of peripateō , and...

Lest he walk naked ( hina mē gumnos peripatēi ).

Negative purpose clause with hina mē and the present active subjunctive of peripateō , and note predicate nominative gumnos (naked).

Robertson: Rev 16:15 - And they see his shame And they see his shame ( kai blepōsin tēn aschēmosunēn autou ). Continuation of the final clause with present active subjunctive of blepō ....

And they see his shame ( kai blepōsin tēn aschēmosunēn autou ).

Continuation of the final clause with present active subjunctive of blepō . Aschēmosunēn is old word (from aschēmōn , indecent, 1Co 12:23), in N.T. only here and Rom 1:27, a euphemism for tēn aischunēn (Rev 3:18).

Robertson: Rev 16:16 - They gathered They gathered ( sunēgagen ). Second aorist active indicative of sunagō , singular (the three unclean spirits), like ekporeuetai in Rev 16:14.

They gathered ( sunēgagen ).

Second aorist active indicative of sunagō , singular (the three unclean spirits), like ekporeuetai in Rev 16:14.

Robertson: Rev 16:16 - Har-Magedon Har-Magedon ( HaṙMagedōn ). John proceeds now after the interruption in Rev 16:15. Perhaps "the mountains of Megiddo"though not certain. Megiddo ...

Har-Magedon ( HaṙMagedōn ).

John proceeds now after the interruption in Rev 16:15. Perhaps "the mountains of Megiddo"though not certain. Megiddo is in the valley of Esdraelon, and by the waters of Megiddo (the Kishon) Israel gained a decisive victory over Sisera (Jdg 5:19), celebrated in Deborah’ s song. See also Rev 20:8. and Eze 39:2, Eze 39:4.

Robertson: Rev 16:17 - Upon the air Upon the air ( epi ton aera ). All men breathe the air and this is worse than the smiting of the earth (Rev 16:2), the sea (Rev 16:3), the fresh wate...

Upon the air ( epi ton aera ).

All men breathe the air and this is worse than the smiting of the earth (Rev 16:2), the sea (Rev 16:3), the fresh waters (Rev 16:4), the sun (Rev 16:8).

Robertson: Rev 16:17 - A great voice A great voice ( phōnē megalē ). The voice of God as in Rev 16:1.

A great voice ( phōnē megalē ).

The voice of God as in Rev 16:1.

Robertson: Rev 16:17 - It is done It is done ( Gegonen ). Perfect active indicative of ginomai . Like Gegonan in Rev 21:6. The whole series of plagues is now complete.

It is done ( Gegonen ).

Perfect active indicative of ginomai . Like Gegonan in Rev 21:6. The whole series of plagues is now complete.

Robertson: Rev 16:18 - And there were And there were ( kai egenonto ). "And there came"(same verb ginomai ). See Rev 8:5; Rev 11:19 for this list of terrible sounds and lightnings, and f...

And there were ( kai egenonto ).

"And there came"(same verb ginomai ). See Rev 8:5; Rev 11:19 for this list of terrible sounds and lightnings, and for the great earthquake (seismos megas ) see Rev 6:12; Rev 11:13 (cf. Luk 21:11).

Robertson: Rev 16:18 - Such as was not Such as was not ( hoios ouk egeneto ). Qualitative relative with ginomai again, "such as came not."

Such as was not ( hoios ouk egeneto ).

Qualitative relative with ginomai again, "such as came not."

Robertson: Rev 16:18 - Since there were men Since there were men ( aph' hou anthrōpoi egenonto ). "Since which time (chronou understood) men came."

Since there were men ( aph' hou anthrōpoi egenonto ).

"Since which time (chronou understood) men came."

Robertson: Rev 16:18 - So great an earthquake, so mighty So great an earthquake, so mighty ( tēlikoutos seismos houtō megas ). Quantitative correlative tēlikoutos rather than the qualitative toiouto...

So great an earthquake, so mighty ( tēlikoutos seismos houtō megas ).

Quantitative correlative tēlikoutos rather than the qualitative toioutos , to correspond with hoios (not hosos ). And then houtō megas repeats (redundant) tēlikoutos . Cf. Mar 13:19 for hoia - toiautē about like tribulation (thlipsis ).

Robertson: Rev 16:19 - Was divided into three parts Was divided into three parts ( egeneto eis tria merē ). "Came into three parts"(ginomai again). In Rev 11:3 a tenth part of the city fell. Babylo...

Was divided into three parts ( egeneto eis tria merē ).

"Came into three parts"(ginomai again). In Rev 11:3 a tenth part of the city fell. Babylon (Rome) is meant (Rev 17:18).

Robertson: Rev 16:19 - Fell Fell ( epesan ). Second aorist active indicative of piptō (̇an form in place of ̇on ).

Fell ( epesan ).

Second aorist active indicative of piptō (̇an form in place of ̇on ).

Robertson: Rev 16:19 - Was remembered Was remembered ( emnēsthē ). First aorist (prophetic) passive indicative of mimnēskō . Babylon (Rome) had not been overlooked. God was simply...

Was remembered ( emnēsthē ).

First aorist (prophetic) passive indicative of mimnēskō . Babylon (Rome) had not been overlooked. God was simply biding his time with Rome.

Robertson: Rev 16:19 - To give unto her To give unto her ( dounai autēi ). Second aorist active infinitive of didōmi , epexegetic use as in Rev 11:18; Rev 16:9.

To give unto her ( dounai autēi ).

Second aorist active infinitive of didōmi , epexegetic use as in Rev 11:18; Rev 16:9.

Robertson: Rev 16:19 - The cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath The cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath ( to potērion tou oinou tou thumou tēs orgēs autou ). "The cup of the wine of the wrath of h...

The cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath ( to potērion tou oinou tou thumou tēs orgēs autou ).

"The cup of the wine of the wrath of his anger,"using both thumos (boiling rage) and orgē (settled anger). See both in Jer 30:24.

Robertson: Rev 16:20 - Fled Fled ( ephugen ). Second aorist active indicative of pheugō . Islands sometimes sink in the sea in earthquakes (Rev 6:14).

Fled ( ephugen ).

Second aorist active indicative of pheugō . Islands sometimes sink in the sea in earthquakes (Rev 6:14).

Robertson: Rev 16:20 - Were not found Were not found ( ouch heurethēsan ). First aorist passive indicative of heuriskō . See Rev 20:11 for the same idea.

Were not found ( ouch heurethēsan ).

First aorist passive indicative of heuriskō . See Rev 20:11 for the same idea.

Robertson: Rev 16:21 - Hail Hail ( chalaza ). As in Rev 8:7; Rev 11:19.

Hail ( chalaza ).

As in Rev 8:7; Rev 11:19.

Robertson: Rev 16:21 - Every stone about the weight of a talent Every stone about the weight of a talent ( hōs talantiaia ). Old adjective (from talanton ), here only in N.T., but in Polybius and Josephus. See ...

Every stone about the weight of a talent ( hōs talantiaia ).

Old adjective (from talanton ), here only in N.T., but in Polybius and Josephus. See Exo 9:24 for the great hail in Egypt and also Jos 10:11; Isa 28:2; Eze 38:22 for hail as the symbol of God’ s wrath. In the lxx a talanton ranged in weight from 108 to 130 pounds.

Robertson: Rev 16:21 - Because of the plague of hail Because of the plague of hail ( ek tēs plēgēs tēs chalazēs ). "As a result of the plague of hail."This punishment had the same effect as in...

Because of the plague of hail ( ek tēs plēgēs tēs chalazēs ).

"As a result of the plague of hail."This punishment had the same effect as in Rev 16:9, Rev 16:11.

Robertson: Rev 16:21 - Exceeding great Exceeding great ( Megalē - sphrodra ). Emphatic positions at ends of the clause (great - exceedingly).

Exceeding great ( Megalē - sphrodra ).

Emphatic positions at ends of the clause (great - exceedingly).

Vincent: Rev 16:1 - The vials The vials Add seven .

The vials

Add seven .

Vincent: Rev 16:2 - And the first went And the first went Each angel, as his turn comes, with draws (ὑπάγετε , see on Joh 6:21; see on Joh 8:21) from the heavenly scene.

And the first went

Each angel, as his turn comes, with draws (ὑπάγετε , see on Joh 6:21; see on Joh 8:21) from the heavenly scene.

Vincent: Rev 16:2 - There fell There fell ( ἐγένετο ) Lit., there came to pass . Rev., it became . Elliott, very aptly, there broke out .

There fell ( ἐγένετο )

Lit., there came to pass . Rev., it became . Elliott, very aptly, there broke out .

Vincent: Rev 16:2 - Noisome and grievous Noisome and grievous ( κακὸν καὶ πονηρὸν ) Similarly the two cognate nouns κακία and πονρία malice and wi...

Noisome and grievous ( κακὸν καὶ πονηρὸν )

Similarly the two cognate nouns κακία and πονρία malice and wickedness occur together in 1Co 5:8. Πονηρός emphasizes the activity of evil. See on Luk 3:19.

Vincent: Rev 16:2 - Sore Sore ( ἕλκος ) See on Luk 16:20. Compare the sixth Egyptian plague, Exo 9:8-12, where the Septuagint uses this word ἕλκος boil...

Sore ( ἕλκος )

See on Luk 16:20. Compare the sixth Egyptian plague, Exo 9:8-12, where the Septuagint uses this word ἕλκος boil . Also of the boil or scab of leprosy, Lev 13:18; king Hezekiah's boil , 2Ki 20:7; the botch of Egypt , Deu 28:27, Deu 28:35. In Job 2:7 (Sept.) the boils are described as here by πονηρός sore .

Vincent: Rev 16:3 - It became It became ( ἐγένετο ) Or there came .

It became ( ἐγένετο )

Or there came .

Vincent: Rev 16:3 - Blood Blood Compare Exo 7:19.

Blood

Compare Exo 7:19.

Vincent: Rev 16:3 - As of a dead man As of a dead man Thick, corrupt, and noisome.

As of a dead man

Thick, corrupt, and noisome.

Vincent: Rev 16:3 - Living soul Living soul ( ψυχὴ ζῶσα ) The best texts read ψυχὴ ζωῆς soul of life .

Living soul ( ψυχὴ ζῶσα )

The best texts read ψυχὴ ζωῆς soul of life .

Vincent: Rev 16:4 - The third angel The third angel Omit angel .

The third angel

Omit angel .

Vincent: Rev 16:4 - They became They became ( ἐγένετο ) There is no necessity for rendering the singular verb in the plural. We may say either it became or there...

They became ( ἐγένετο )

There is no necessity for rendering the singular verb in the plural. We may say either it became or there came .

Vincent: Rev 16:5 - The angel of the waters The angel of the waters Set over the waters as other angels over the winds (Rev 7:1) and over the fire (Rev 14:18).

The angel of the waters

Set over the waters as other angels over the winds (Rev 7:1) and over the fire (Rev 14:18).

Vincent: Rev 16:5 - O Lord O Lord Omit.

O Lord

Omit.

Vincent: Rev 16:5 - And shalt be And shalt be Following the reading ὁ ἐσόμενος . Read ὁ ὅσιος Thou Holy One .

And shalt be

Following the reading ὁ ἐσόμενος . Read ὁ ὅσιος Thou Holy One .

Vincent: Rev 16:5 - Thou didst thus judge Thou didst thus judge ( παῦτα ἔκρινας ) Lit., Thou didst judge these things .

Thou didst thus judge ( παῦτα ἔκρινας )

Lit., Thou didst judge these things .

Vincent: Rev 16:6 - For they are worthy For they are worthy Omit for .

For they are worthy

Omit for .

Vincent: Rev 16:7 - Another out of the altar Another out of the altar Omit another out of , and read, as Rev., I heard the altar . The altar personified. Compare Rev 6:9, where t...

Another out of the altar

Omit another out of , and read, as Rev., I heard the altar . The altar personified. Compare Rev 6:9, where the souls of the martyrs are seen under the altar and cry how long .

Vincent: Rev 16:7 - Almighty Almighty Add the article: the Almighty .

Almighty

Add the article: the Almighty .

Vincent: Rev 16:8 - The fourth angel The fourth angel Omit angel .

The fourth angel

Omit angel .

Vincent: Rev 16:8 - Power was given Power was given ( ἐδόθη ) Rev., it was given .

Power was given ( ἐδόθη )

Rev., it was given .

Vincent: Rev 16:8 - With fire With fire ( ἐν πυρί ) Lit., " in fire." The element in which the scorching takes place.

With fire ( ἐν πυρί )

Lit., " in fire." The element in which the scorching takes place.

Vincent: Rev 16:9 - Repent to give Him glory Repent to give Him glory Glorify Him by repentance.

Repent to give Him glory

Glorify Him by repentance.

Vincent: Rev 16:9 - His kingdom was darkened His kingdom was darkened Compare Exo 10:21, Exo 10:22.

His kingdom was darkened

Compare Exo 10:21, Exo 10:22.

Vincent: Rev 16:9 - They gnawed They gnawed ( ἐμασσῶντο ) Only here in the New Testament.

They gnawed ( ἐμασσῶντο )

Only here in the New Testament.

Vincent: Rev 16:9 - For pain For pain ( ἐκ τοῦ πόνου ) Strictly, from their pain . Their , the force of the article τοῦ .

For pain ( ἐκ τοῦ πόνου )

Strictly, from their pain . Their , the force of the article τοῦ .

Vincent: Rev 16:12 - Euphrates Euphrates See on Rev 9:14.

Euphrates

See on Rev 9:14.

Vincent: Rev 16:12 - Of the east Of the east ( ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνατολῶν ἡλίου ) Lit., as Rev., from the sunrising . See on Mat 2:2; and see on days...

Of the east ( ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνατολῶν ἡλίου )

Lit., as Rev., from the sunrising . See on Mat 2:2; and see on dayspring , Luk 1:78.

Vincent: Rev 16:13 - Frogs Frogs Possibly with reference to Exo 8:1-14.

Frogs

Possibly with reference to Exo 8:1-14.

Vincent: Rev 16:14 - Of the earth and of the whole world Of the earth and of the whole world Omit of the earth and .

Of the earth and of the whole world

Omit of the earth and .

Vincent: Rev 16:14 - World World ( οἰκουμέης ) See on Luk 2:1.

World ( οἰκουμέης )

See on Luk 2:1.

Vincent: Rev 16:14 - The battle The battle ( πόλεμον ) Rev., more literally, war . Battle is μάχη .

The battle ( πόλεμον )

Rev., more literally, war . Battle is μάχη .

Vincent: Rev 16:14 - That great day That great day ( ἐκείνης ) Omit. Read, as Rev., " the great day."

That great day ( ἐκείνης )

Omit. Read, as Rev., " the great day."

Vincent: Rev 16:15 - Behold - shame Behold - shame These words are parenthetical.

Behold - shame

These words are parenthetical.

Vincent: Rev 16:15 - As a thief As a thief Compare Mat 24:43; Luk 12:39; 1Th 5:2, 1Th 5:4; 2Pe 3:10.

As a thief

Compare Mat 24:43; Luk 12:39; 1Th 5:2, 1Th 5:4; 2Pe 3:10.

Vincent: Rev 16:15 - Watcheth Watcheth ( γρηρορῶν ) See on Mar 13:35; see on 1Pe 5:8.

Watcheth ( γρηρορῶν )

See on Mar 13:35; see on 1Pe 5:8.

Vincent: Rev 16:15 - Keepeth his garments Keepeth his garments " During the night the captain of the Temple made his rounds. On his approach the guards had to rise and salute him in a par...

Keepeth his garments

" During the night the captain of the Temple made his rounds. On his approach the guards had to rise and salute him in a particular manner. Any guard found asleep when on duty was beaten, or his garments were set on fire. The confession of one of the Rabbins is on record that, on a certain occasion, his own maternal uncle had actually undergone the punishment of having his clothes set on fire by the captain of the Temple" (Edersheim, " The Temple," etc.).

Vincent: Rev 16:15 - Shame Shame ( ἀσχημοσύνην ) Only here and Rom 1:27. From ἀ not and σχῆμα fashion . Deformity , unseemliness ; nearly answ...

Shame ( ἀσχημοσύνην )

Only here and Rom 1:27. From ἀ not and σχῆμα fashion . Deformity , unseemliness ; nearly answering to the phrase not in good form .

Vincent: Rev 16:16 - Armageddon Armageddon The proper Greek form Ἃρ Μαγεδών . The word is compounded of the Hebrew Har mountain , and Megiddon or Megiddo : ...

Armageddon

The proper Greek form Ἃρ Μαγεδών . The word is compounded of the Hebrew Har mountain , and Megiddon or Megiddo : the mountain of Megiddo . On Megiddo standing alone see Jdg 1:27; 1Ki 4:12; 1Ki 9:15; 2Ki 9:27. See also Jdg 5:19; Zec 12:11; 2Ch 35:22; 2Ki 23:30. " Bounded as it is by the hills of Palestine on both north and south, it would naturally become the arena of war between the lowlanders who trusted in their chariots, and the Israelite highlanders of the neighboring heights. To this cause mainly it owes its celebrity, as the battle-field of the world, which has, through its adoption into the language of Revelation, passed into an universal proverb. If that mysterious book proceeded from the hand of a Galilean fisherman, it is the more easy to understand why, with the scene of those many battles constantly before him, he should have drawn the figurative name of the final conflict between the hosts of good and evil, from the 'place which is called in the Hebrew tongue Harmagedon'" (Stanley, " Sinai and Palestine" ).

Megiddo was in the plain of Esdraelon, " which has been a chosen place for encampment in every contest carried on in Palestine from the days of Nabuchodonozor king of Assyria, unto the disastrous march of Napoleon Buonaparte from Egypt into Syria. Jews, Gentiles, Saracens, Christian crusaders, and anti Christian Frenchmen; Egyptians, Persians, Druses, Turks, and Arabs, warriors of every nation that is under heaven, have pitched their tents on the plain of Esdraelon, and have beheld the banners of their nation wet with the dews of Tabor and Hermon" (" Clarke's Travels," cit. by Lee). See Thomson's " Land and Book" (Central Palestine and Phoenicia), p. 208 sqq.; and Stanley, " Sinai and Palestine," ch. ix.

Two great slaughters at Megiddo are mentioned in the Old Testament; the first celebrated in the Song of Deborah (Jdg 5:19), and the second, that in which king Josiah fell (2Ki 23:29). Both these may have been present to the seer's mind; but the allusion is not to any particular place or event. " The word, like Euphrates, is the expression of an idea; the idea that swift and overwhelming destruction shall overtake all who gather themselves together against the Lord" (Milligan).

Vincent: Rev 16:17 - Temple of heaven Temple of heaven Omit of heaven .

Temple of heaven

Omit of heaven .

Vincent: Rev 16:21 - Hail Hail See Exo 9:18.

Hail

See Exo 9:18.

Vincent: Rev 16:21 - Every stone about the weight of a talent Every stone about the weight of a talent ( ὡς ταλαντίαια ) The adjective, meaning of a talent's weight , agrees with hail...

Every stone about the weight of a talent ( ὡς ταλαντίαια )

The adjective, meaning of a talent's weight , agrees with hail ; hail of a talent's weight ; i.e., having each stone of that weight. Every stone is therefore explanatory, and not in the text. Hailstones are a symbol of divine wrath. See Isa 30:30; Eze 13:11. Compare Jos 10:11.

Wesley: Rev 16:1 - Pour out the seven phials The epistles to the seven churches are divided into three and four: the seven seals, and so the trumpets and phials, into four and three. The trumpets...

The epistles to the seven churches are divided into three and four: the seven seals, and so the trumpets and phials, into four and three. The trumpets gradually, and in a long tract of time, overthrow the kingdom of the world: the phials destroy chiefly the beast and his followers, with a swift and impetuous force. The four first affect the earth, the sea, the rivers, the sun; the rest fall elsewhere, and are much more terrible.

Wesley: Rev 16:2 - And the first went So the second, third, &c., without adding angel, to denote the utmost swiftness; of which this also is a token, that there is no period of time mentio...

So the second, third, &c., without adding angel, to denote the utmost swiftness; of which this also is a token, that there is no period of time mentioned in the pouring out of each phial. They have a great resemblance to the plagues of Egypt, which the Hebrews generally suppose to have been a month distant from each other. Perhaps so may the phials; but they are all yet to come.

Wesley: Rev 16:2 - And poured out his phial upon the earth Literally taken.

Literally taken.

Wesley: Rev 16:2 - And there came a grievous ulcer As in Egypt, Exo 9:10-11.

As in Egypt, Exo 9:10-11.

Wesley: Rev 16:2 - On the men who had the mark of the wild beast All of them, and them only. All those plagues seem to be described in proper, not figurative, words.

All of them, and them only. All those plagues seem to be described in proper, not figurative, words.

Wesley: Rev 16:3 - The second poured out his phial upon the sea As opposed to the dry land. And it become blood, as of a dead man - Thick, congealed, and putrid.

As opposed to the dry land. And it become blood, as of a dead man - Thick, congealed, and putrid.

Wesley: Rev 16:3 - And every living soul Men, beasts, and fishes, whether on or in the sea, died.

Men, beasts, and fishes, whether on or in the sea, died.

Wesley: Rev 16:4 - The third poured out his phial on the rivers and fountains of water Which were over all the earth.

Which were over all the earth.

Wesley: Rev 16:4 - And they became blood So that none could drink thereof.

So that none could drink thereof.

Wesley: Rev 16:5 - The Gracious one So he is styled when his judgments are abroad, and that with a peculiar propriety. In the beginning of the book he is termed "The Almighty." In the ti...

So he is styled when his judgments are abroad, and that with a peculiar propriety. In the beginning of the book he is termed "The Almighty." In the time of his patience, he is praised for his power, which otherwise might then be less regarded. In the time of his taking vengeance, for his mercy. Of his power there could then be no doubt.

Wesley: Rev 16:6 - Thou host given then, blood to drink Men do not drink out of the sea, but out of fountains and rivers. Therefore this is fitly added here.

Men do not drink out of the sea, but out of fountains and rivers. Therefore this is fitly added here.

Wesley: Rev 16:6 - They are worthy Is subjoined with a beautiful abruptness.

Is subjoined with a beautiful abruptness.

Wesley: Rev 16:7 - Yea Answering the angel of the waters, and affirming of God's judgments in general, what he had said of one particular judgment.

Answering the angel of the waters, and affirming of God's judgments in general, what he had said of one particular judgment.

Wesley: Rev 16:8 - The fourth poured out his phial upon the sun Which was likewise affected by the fourth trumpet. There is also a plain resemblance between the first, second, and third phials, and the first, secon...

Which was likewise affected by the fourth trumpet. There is also a plain resemblance between the first, second, and third phials, and the first, second, and third trumpet.

Wesley: Rev 16:8 - And it was given him The angel.

The angel.

Wesley: Rev 16:8 - To scorch the men Who had the mark of the beast.

Who had the mark of the beast.

Wesley: Rev 16:8 - With fire As well as with the beams of the sun. So these four phials affected earth, water, fire, and air.

As well as with the beams of the sun. So these four phials affected earth, water, fire, and air.

Wesley: Rev 16:9 - And the men blasphemed God, who had power over these plagues They could not but acknowledge the hand of God, yet did they harden themselves against him.

They could not but acknowledge the hand of God, yet did they harden themselves against him.

Wesley: Rev 16:10 - -- The four first phials are closely connected together; the fifth concerns the throne of the beast, the sixth the Mahometans, the seventh chiefly the he...

The four first phials are closely connected together; the fifth concerns the throne of the beast, the sixth the Mahometans, the seventh chiefly the heathens. The four first phials and the four first trumpets go round the whole earth; the three last phials and the three last trumpets go lengthways over the earth in a straight line.

Wesley: Rev 16:10 - The fifth poured out his phial upon the throne of the wild beast It is not said, "on the beast and his throne." Perhaps the sea will then be vacant.

It is not said, "on the beast and his throne." Perhaps the sea will then be vacant.

Wesley: Rev 16:10 - And his kingdom was darkened With a lasting, not a transient, darkness. However the beast as yet has his kingdom. Afterward the woman sits upon the beast. and then it is said, "Th...

With a lasting, not a transient, darkness. However the beast as yet has his kingdom. Afterward the woman sits upon the beast. and then it is said, "The wild beast is not," Rev 17:3, Rev 17:7-8.

Wesley: Rev 16:11 - And they His followers.

His followers.

Wesley: Rev 16:11 - Gnawed their tongues Out of furious impatience.

Out of furious impatience.

Wesley: Rev 16:11 - Because of their pains and because of their ulcers Now mentioned together, and in the plural number, to signify that they were greatly heightened and multiplied.

Now mentioned together, and in the plural number, to signify that they were greatly heightened and multiplied.

Wesley: Rev 16:12 - And the sixth poured out his phial upon the great river Euphrates Affected also by the sixth trumpet.

Affected also by the sixth trumpet.

Wesley: Rev 16:12 - And the water of it And of all the rivers that flow into it.

And of all the rivers that flow into it.

Wesley: Rev 16:12 - Was dried up The far greater part of the Turkish empire lies on this side the Euphrates. The Romish and Mahometan affairs ran nearly parallel to each other for sev...

The far greater part of the Turkish empire lies on this side the Euphrates. The Romish and Mahometan affairs ran nearly parallel to each other for several ages. In the seventh century was Mahomet himself; and, a little before him, Boniface III., with his universal bishopric. In the eleventh, both the Turks and Gregory VII. carried all before them. In the year 1300, Boniface appeared with his two swords at the newly - erected jubilee.

Wesley: Rev 16:12 - In the self same year arose the Ottoman Porte; yea, and on the same day. And here the phial, poured out on the throne of the beast, is immediately followed by tha...

same year arose the Ottoman Porte; yea, and on the same day. And here the phial, poured out on the throne of the beast, is immediately followed by that poured out on the Euphrates; that the way of the kings from the east might be prepared - Those who lie east from the Euphrates, in Persia, India, &c., who will rush blindfold upon the plagues which are ready for them, toward the Holy Land, which lies west of the Euphrates.

Wesley: Rev 16:13 - Out of the mouth of the dragon, the wild beast, and the false prophet It seems, the dragon fights chiefly against God; the beast, against Christ; the false prophet, against the Spirit of truth; and that the three unclean...

It seems, the dragon fights chiefly against God; the beast, against Christ; the false prophet, against the Spirit of truth; and that the three unclean spirits which come from them, and exactly resemble them, endeavour to blacken the works of creation, of redemption, and of sanctification.

Wesley: Rev 16:13 - The false prophet So is the second beast frequently named, after the kingdom of the first is darkened; for he can then no longer prevail by main strength, and so works ...

So is the second beast frequently named, after the kingdom of the first is darkened; for he can then no longer prevail by main strength, and so works by lies and deceit. Mahomet was first a false prophet, and afterwards a powerful prince: but this beast was first powerful as a prince; afterwards a false prophet, a teacher of lies.

Wesley: Rev 16:13 - Like frogs Whose abode is in fens, marshes, and other unclean places.

Whose abode is in fens, marshes, and other unclean places.

Wesley: Rev 16:13 - To the kings of the whole world Both Mahometan and pagan.

Both Mahometan and pagan.

Wesley: Rev 16:13 - To gather them To the assistance of their three principals.

To the assistance of their three principals.

Wesley: Rev 16:15 - Behold, I come as a thief Suddenly, unexpectedly. Observe the beautiful abruptness.

Suddenly, unexpectedly. Observe the beautiful abruptness.

Wesley: Rev 16:15 - I Jesus Christ. Hear him. Happy is he that watcheth.

Jesus Christ. Hear him. Happy is he that watcheth.

Wesley: Rev 16:15 - -- Looking continually for him that "cometh quickly." And keepeth on his garments - Which men use to put off when they sleep. Lest he walk naked, and the...

Looking continually for him that "cometh quickly." And keepeth on his garments - Which men use to put off when they sleep. Lest he walk naked, and they see his shame - Lest he lose the graces which he takes no care to keep, and others see his sin and punishment.

Wesley: Rev 16:16 - And they gathered them together to Armageddon Mageddon, or Megiddo, is frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. Armageddon signifies the city or the mountain of Megiddo; to which the valley of M...

Mageddon, or Megiddo, is frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. Armageddon signifies the city or the mountain of Megiddo; to which the valley of Megiddo adjoined. This was a place well known in ancient times for many memorable occurrences; in particular, the slaughter of the kings of Canaan, related, Jdg 5:19. Here the narrative breaks off. It is resumed, Rev 19:19.

Wesley: Rev 16:17 - And the seventh poured out his phial upon the air Which encompasses the whole earth. This is the most weighty phial of all, and seems to take up more time than any of the preceding.

Which encompasses the whole earth. This is the most weighty phial of all, and seems to take up more time than any of the preceding.

Wesley: Rev 16:17 - It is done What was commanded, Rev 16:1. The phials are poured out.

What was commanded, Rev 16:1. The phials are poured out.

Wesley: Rev 16:18 - A great earthquake, such as had not been since men were upon the earth It was therefore a literal, not figurative, earthquake.

It was therefore a literal, not figurative, earthquake.

Wesley: Rev 16:19 - And the great city Namely, Jerusalem, here opposed to the heathen cities in general, and in particular to Rome.

Namely, Jerusalem, here opposed to the heathen cities in general, and in particular to Rome.

Wesley: Rev 16:19 - And the cities of the nations fell Were utterly overthrown.

Were utterly overthrown.

Wesley: Rev 16:19 - And Babylon was remembered before God He did not forget the vengeance which was due to her, though the execution of it was delayed.

He did not forget the vengeance which was due to her, though the execution of it was delayed.

Wesley: Rev 16:20 - -- Every island and mountain was "moved out of its place," Rev 6:14; but here they all flee away. What a change must this make in the face of the terraqu...

Every island and mountain was "moved out of its place," Rev 6:14; but here they all flee away. What a change must this make in the face of the terraqueous globe! And yet the end of the world is not come.

Wesley: Rev 16:21 - And a great hail falleth out of heaven From which there was no defence. From the earthquake men would fly into the fields; but here also they are met by the hail: nor were they secure if th...

From which there was no defence. From the earthquake men would fly into the fields; but here also they are met by the hail: nor were they secure if they returned into the houses, when each hail - stone weighed sixty pounds.

JFB: Rev 16:1 - a great voice Namely, God's. These seven vials (the detailed expansion of the vintage, Rev 14:18-20) being called "the last," must belong to the period just when th...

Namely, God's. These seven vials (the detailed expansion of the vintage, Rev 14:18-20) being called "the last," must belong to the period just when the term of the beast's power has expired (whence reference is made in them all to the worshippers of the beast as the objects of the judgments), close to the end or coming of the Son of man. The first four are distinguished from the last three, just as in the case of the seven seals and the seven trumpets. The first four are more general, affecting the earth, the sea, springs, and the sun, not merely a portion of these natural bodies, as in the case of the trumpets, but the whole of them; the last three are more particular, affecting the throne of the beast, the Euphrates, and the grand consummation. Some of these particular judgments are set forth in detail in the seventeenth through twentieth chapters.

JFB: Rev 16:1 - out of the temple B and Syriac omit. But A, C, Vulgate, and ANDREAS support the words.

B and Syriac omit. But A, C, Vulgate, and ANDREAS support the words.

JFB: Rev 16:1 - the vials So Syriac and Coptic. But A, B, C, Vulgate, and ANDREAS read, "the seven vials."

So Syriac and Coptic. But A, B, C, Vulgate, and ANDREAS read, "the seven vials."

JFB: Rev 16:1 - upon Greek, "into."

Greek, "into."

JFB: Rev 16:2 - went Greek, "went away."

Greek, "went away."

JFB: Rev 16:2 - poured out So the angel cast fire into the earth previous to the series of trumpets (Rev 8:5).

So the angel cast fire into the earth previous to the series of trumpets (Rev 8:5).

JFB: Rev 16:2 - upon So Coptic. But A, B, C, Vulgate, and Syriac read, "into."

So Coptic. But A, B, C, Vulgate, and Syriac read, "into."

JFB: Rev 16:2 - noisome Literally, "evil" (compare Deu 28:27, Deu 28:35). The very same Greek word is used in the Septuagint as here, Greek, "helkos." The reason why the sixt...

Literally, "evil" (compare Deu 28:27, Deu 28:35). The very same Greek word is used in the Septuagint as here, Greek, "helkos." The reason why the sixth Egyptian plague is the first here is because it was directed against the Egyptian magicians, Jannes and Jambres, so that they could not stand before Moses; and so here the plague is sent upon those who in the beast worship had practiced sorcery. As they submitted to the mark of the beast, so they must bear the mark of the avenging God. Contrast Rev 7:3; Eze 9:4, Eze 9:6.

JFB: Rev 16:2 - grievous Distressing to the sufferers.

Distressing to the sufferers.

JFB: Rev 16:2 - sore upon the men Antitype to the sixth Egyptian plague.

Antitype to the sixth Egyptian plague.

JFB: Rev 16:2 - which had the mark of the beast Therefore this first vial is subsequent to the period of the beast's rule.

Therefore this first vial is subsequent to the period of the beast's rule.

JFB: Rev 16:3 - angel So B and ANDREAS. But A, C, and Vulgate omit it.

So B and ANDREAS. But A, C, and Vulgate omit it.

JFB: Rev 16:3 - upon Greek, "into."

Greek, "into."

JFB: Rev 16:3 - became as . . . blood Answering to another Egyptian plague.

Answering to another Egyptian plague.

JFB: Rev 16:3 - of a dead man Putrefying.

Putrefying.

JFB: Rev 16:3 - living soul So B and ANDREAS. But A, C, and Syriac, "soul of life" (compare Gen 1:30; Gen 7:21-22).

So B and ANDREAS. But A, C, and Syriac, "soul of life" (compare Gen 1:30; Gen 7:21-22).

JFB: Rev 16:3 - in the sea So B and ANDREAS. But A, C, and Syriac read, "(as respects) the things in the sea."

So B and ANDREAS. But A, C, and Syriac read, "(as respects) the things in the sea."

JFB: Rev 16:4 - -- (Exo 7:20.)

JFB: Rev 16:4 - angel So Syriac, Coptic, and ANDREAS. But A, B, C, and Vulgate omit it.

So Syriac, Coptic, and ANDREAS. But A, B, C, and Vulgate omit it.

JFB: Rev 16:5 - angel of the waters That is, presiding over the waters.

That is, presiding over the waters.

JFB: Rev 16:5 - O Lord Omitted by A, B, C, Vulgate, Syriac, Coptic, and ANDREAS.

Omitted by A, B, C, Vulgate, Syriac, Coptic, and ANDREAS.

JFB: Rev 16:5 - and shalt be A, B, C, Vulgate, and ANDREAS for this clause read, "(which art and wast) holy." The Lord is now no longer He that shall come, for He is come in venge...

A, B, C, Vulgate, and ANDREAS for this clause read, "(which art and wast) holy." The Lord is now no longer He that shall come, for He is come in vengeance and therefore the third of the three clauses found in Rev 1:4, Rev 1:8; Rev 4:8 is here and in Rev 11:17 omitted.

JFB: Rev 16:5 - judged thus Literally, "these things." "Thou didst inflict this judgment."

Literally, "these things." "Thou didst inflict this judgment."

JFB: Rev 16:6 - -- (Rev 11:18, end; Gen 9:6; Isa 49:26.) An anticipation of Rev 18:20, Rev 18:24; compare Rev 13:15.

(Rev 11:18, end; Gen 9:6; Isa 49:26.) An anticipation of Rev 18:20, Rev 18:24; compare Rev 13:15.

JFB: Rev 16:6 - For A, B, C, and ANDREAS omit.

A, B, C, and ANDREAS omit.

JFB: Rev 16:7 - another out of Omitted in A, C, Syriac, and Coptic. Translate then, "I heard the altar [personified] saying." On it the prayers of saints are presented before God: b...

Omitted in A, C, Syriac, and Coptic. Translate then, "I heard the altar [personified] saying." On it the prayers of saints are presented before God: beneath it are the souls of the martyrs crying for vengeance on the foes of God.

JFB: Rev 16:8 - angel So Coptic and ANDREAS. But A, B, C, Vulgate, and Syriac omit it.

So Coptic and ANDREAS. But A, B, C, Vulgate, and Syriac omit it.

JFB: Rev 16:8 - upon Not as in Rev 16:2-3, "into."

Not as in Rev 16:2-3, "into."

JFB: Rev 16:8 - sun Whereas by the fourth trumpet the sun is darkened (Rev 8:12) in a third part, here by the fourth vial the sun's bright scorching power is intensified.

Whereas by the fourth trumpet the sun is darkened (Rev 8:12) in a third part, here by the fourth vial the sun's bright scorching power is intensified.

JFB: Rev 16:8 - power was given unto him Rather, "unto it," the sun.

Rather, "unto it," the sun.

JFB: Rev 16:8 - men Greek, "the men," namely, those who had the mark of the beast (Rev 16:2).

Greek, "the men," namely, those who had the mark of the beast (Rev 16:2).

JFB: Rev 16:9 - men Greek, "the men."

Greek, "the men."

JFB: Rev 16:9 - repented not to give him glory (Rev 9:20). Affliction, if it does not melt, hardens the sinner. Compare the better result on others, Rev 11:13; Rev 14:7; Rev 15:4.

(Rev 9:20). Affliction, if it does not melt, hardens the sinner. Compare the better result on others, Rev 11:13; Rev 14:7; Rev 15:4.

JFB: Rev 16:10 - angel Omitted by A, B, C, Vulgate, and Syriac. But Coptic and ANDREAS support it.

Omitted by A, B, C, Vulgate, and Syriac. But Coptic and ANDREAS support it.

JFB: Rev 16:10 - seat Greek, "throne of the beast": set up in arrogant mimicry of God's throne; the dragon gave his throne to the beast (Rev 13:2).

Greek, "throne of the beast": set up in arrogant mimicry of God's throne; the dragon gave his throne to the beast (Rev 13:2).

JFB: Rev 16:10 - darkness Parallel to the Egyptian plague of darkness, Pharaoh being the type of Antichrist (compare Notes, see on Rev 15:2-3; compare the fifth trumpet, Rev 9:...

Parallel to the Egyptian plague of darkness, Pharaoh being the type of Antichrist (compare Notes, see on Rev 15:2-3; compare the fifth trumpet, Rev 9:2).

JFB: Rev 16:10 - gnawed their tongues for pain Greek, "owing to the pain" occasioned by the previous plagues, rendered more appalling by the darkness. Or, as "gnashing of teeth" is one of the accom...

Greek, "owing to the pain" occasioned by the previous plagues, rendered more appalling by the darkness. Or, as "gnashing of teeth" is one of the accompaniments of hell, so this "gnawing of their tongues" is through rage at the baffling of their hopes and the overthrow of their kingdom. They meditate revenge and are unable to effect it; hence their frenzy [GROTIUS]. Those in anguish, mental and bodily, bite their lips and tongues.

JFB: Rev 16:11 - sores This shows that each fresh plague was accompanied with the continuance of the preceding plagues: there was an accumulation, not a mere succession, of ...

This shows that each fresh plague was accompanied with the continuance of the preceding plagues: there was an accumulation, not a mere succession, of plagues.

JFB: Rev 16:11 - repented not (Compare Rev 16:9).

(Compare Rev 16:9).

JFB: Rev 16:12 - angel So Coptic and ANDREAS. A, B, C, Vulgate, and Syriac omit.

So Coptic and ANDREAS. A, B, C, Vulgate, and Syriac omit.

JFB: Rev 16:12 - kings of the east Greek, "the kings who are from the rising of the sun." Reference to the Euphrates similarly occurs in the sixth trumpet. The drying up of the Euphrate...

Greek, "the kings who are from the rising of the sun." Reference to the Euphrates similarly occurs in the sixth trumpet. The drying up of the Euphrates, I think, is to be taken figuratively, as Babylon itself, which is situated on it, is undoubtedly so, Rev 17:5. The waters of the Euphrates (compare Isa 8:7-8) are spiritual Babylon's, that is, the apostate Church's (of which Rome is the chief, though not exclusive representative) spiritual and temporal powers. The drying up of the waters of Babylon expresses the same thing as the ten kings stripping, eating, and burning the whore. The phrase, "way may be prepared for," is that applied to the Lord's coming (Isa 40:3; Mat 3:3; Luk 1:76). He shall come from the East (Mat 24:27; Eze 43:2, "the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the East"): not alone, for His elect transfigured saints of Israel and the Gentiles shall accompany Him, who are "kings and priests unto God" (Rev 1:6). As the Antichristian ten kings accompany the beast, so the saints accompany as kings the King of kings to the last decisive conflict. DE BURGH and others take it of the Jews, who also were designed to be a kingdom of priests to God on earth. They shall, doubtless, become priest-kings in the flesh to the nations in the flesh at His coming. Abraham from the East (if Isa 41:2, Isa 41:8-9, refers to him, and not Cyrus) conquering the Chaldean kings is a type of Israel's victorious restoration to the priest-kingdom. Israel's exodus after the last Egyptian plagues typifies Israel's restoration after the spiritual Babylon, the apostate Church, has been smitten. Israel's promotion to the priest-kingdom after Pharaoh's downfall, and at the Lord's descent at Sinai to establish the theocracy, typifies the restored kingdom of Israel at the Lord's more glorious descent, when Antichrist shall be destroyed utterly. Thus, besides the transfigured saints, Israel secondarily may be meant by "the kings from the East" who shall accompany the "King of kings" returning "from the way of the East" to reign over His ancient people. As to the drying up again of the waters opposing His people's assuming the kingdom, compare Isa 10:26; Isa 11:11, Isa 11:15; Zec 10:9-11. The name Israel (Gen 32:28) implies a prince with God. Compare Mic 4:8 as to the return of the kingdom to Jerusalem. DURHAM, several centuries ago, interpreted the drying up of the Euphrates to mean the wasting away of the Turkish power, which has heretofore held Palestine, and so the way being prepared for Israel's restoration. But as Babylon refers to the apostate Church, not to Mohammedanism, the drying up of the Euphrates (answering to Cyrus' overthrow of literal Babylon by marching into it through the dry channel of the Euphrates) must answer to the draining off of the apostate Church's resources, the Roman and Greek corrupt Church having been heretofore one of the greatest barriers by its idolatries and persecutions in the way of Israel's restoration and conversion. The kings of the earth who are earthly (Rev 16:14), stand in contrast to the kings from the East who are heavenly.

JFB: Rev 16:13 - unclean spirits like frogs The antitype to the plague of frogs sent on Egypt. The presence of the "unclean spirit" in the land (Palestine) is foretold, Zec 13:2, in connection w...

The antitype to the plague of frogs sent on Egypt. The presence of the "unclean spirit" in the land (Palestine) is foretold, Zec 13:2, in connection with idolatrous prophets. Beginning with infidelity as to Jesus Christ's coming in the flesh, men shall end in the grossest idolatry of the beast, the incarnation of all that is self-deifying and God-opposed in the world powers of all ages; having rejected Him that came in the Father's name, they shall worship one that comes in his own, though really the devil's representative; as frogs croak by night in marshes and quagmires, so these unclean spirits in the darkness of error teach lies amidst the mire of filthy lusts. They talk of liberty, but it is not Gospel liberty, but license for lust. There being three, as also seven, in the description of the last and worst state of the Jewish nation, implies a parody of the two divine numbers, three of the Trinity, and seven of the Holy Spirit (Rev 1:4). Some observe that three frogs were the original arms of France, a country which has been the center of infidelity, socialism, and false spiritualism. A and B read, "as it were frogs," instead of "like frogs," which is not supported by manuscripts. The unclean spirit out of the mouth of the dragon symbolizes the proud infidelity which opposes God and Christ. That out of the beast's mouth is the spirit of the world, which in the politics of men, whether lawless democracy or despotism, sets man above God. That out of the mouth of the false prophet is lying spiritualism and religious delusion, which shall take the place of the harlot when she shall have been destroyed.

JFB: Rev 16:13 - the dragon Satan, who gives his power and throne (Rev 13:2) to the beast.

Satan, who gives his power and throne (Rev 13:2) to the beast.

JFB: Rev 16:13 - false prophet Distinct from the harlot, the apostate Church (of which Rome is the chief, though not sole, representative), Rev 17:1-3, Rev 17:16; and identical with...

Distinct from the harlot, the apostate Church (of which Rome is the chief, though not sole, representative), Rev 17:1-3, Rev 17:16; and identical with the second beast, Rev 13:11-15, as appears by comparing Rev 19:20 with Rev 13:13; ultimately consigned to the lake of fire with the first beast; as is also the dragon a little later (Rev 20:10). The dragon, the beast, and the false prophet, "the mystery of iniquity," form a blasphemous Antitrinity, the counterfeit of "the mystery of godliness" God manifests in Christ, witnessed to by the Spirit. The dragon acts the part of God the Father, assigning his authority to his representative the beast, as the Father assigns His to the Son. They are accordingly jointly worshipped; compare as to the Father and Son, Joh 5:23; as the ten-horned beast has its ten horns crowned with diadems (Greek, Rev 13:1), so Christ has on His head many diadems. While the false prophet, like the Holy Ghost, speaks not of himself, but tells all men to worship the beast, and confirms his testimony to the beast by miracles, as the Holy Ghost attested similarly to Christ's divine mission.

JFB: Rev 16:14 - devils Greek, "demons."

Greek, "demons."

JFB: Rev 16:14 - working miracles Greek, "signs."

Greek, "signs."

JFB: Rev 16:14 - go forth unto Or "for," that is, to tempt them to the battle with Christ.

Or "for," that is, to tempt them to the battle with Christ.

JFB: Rev 16:14 - the kings of the earth and, &c. A, B, Syriac, and ANDREAS omit "of the earth and," which clause is not in any manuscript. Translate, "kings of the whole habitable world," who are "of...

A, B, Syriac, and ANDREAS omit "of the earth and," which clause is not in any manuscript. Translate, "kings of the whole habitable world," who are "of this world," in contrast to "the kings of (from) the East" (the sun-rising), Rev 16:12, namely, the saints to whom Christ has appointed a kingdom, and who are "children of light." God, in permitting Satan's miracles, as in the case of the Egyptian magicians who were His instruments in hardening Pharaoh's heart, gives the reprobate up to judicial delusion preparatory to their destruction. As Aaron's rod was changed into a serpent, so were those of the Egyptian magicians. Aaron turned the water into blood; so did the magicians. Aaron brought up frogs; so did the magicians. With the frogs their power ceased. So this, or whatever is antitypical to it, will be the last effort of the dragon, beast, and false prophet.

JFB: Rev 16:14 - battle Greek, "war"; the final conflict for the kingship of the world described in Rev 19:17-21.

Greek, "war"; the final conflict for the kingship of the world described in Rev 19:17-21.

JFB: Rev 16:15 - -- The gathering of the world kings with the beast against the Lamb is the signal for Christ's coming; therefore He here gives the charge to be watching ...

The gathering of the world kings with the beast against the Lamb is the signal for Christ's coming; therefore He here gives the charge to be watching for His coming and clothed in the garments of justification and sanctification, so as to be accepted.

JFB: Rev 16:15 - thief (Mat 24:43; 2Pe 3:10).

JFB: Rev 16:15 - they Saints and angels.

Saints and angels.

JFB: Rev 16:15 - shame Literally, "unseemliness" (Greek, "aschemosunee"): Greek, 1Co 13:5 : a different word from the Greek in Rev 3:18 (Greek, "aischunee").

Literally, "unseemliness" (Greek, "aschemosunee"): Greek, 1Co 13:5 : a different word from the Greek in Rev 3:18 (Greek, "aischunee").

JFB: Rev 16:16 - he Rather, "they (the three unclean spirits) gathered them together." If English Version be retained, "He" will refer to God who gives them over to the d...

Rather, "they (the three unclean spirits) gathered them together." If English Version be retained, "He" will refer to God who gives them over to the delusion of the three unclean spirits; or else the sixth angel (Rev 16:12).

JFB: Rev 16:16 - Armageddon Hebrew, "Har," a mountain, and "Megiddo" in Manasseh in Galilee, the scene of the overthrow of the Canaanite kings by God's miraculous interposition u...

Hebrew, "Har," a mountain, and "Megiddo" in Manasseh in Galilee, the scene of the overthrow of the Canaanite kings by God's miraculous interposition under Deborah and Barak; the same as the great plain of Esdraelon. Josiah, too, as the ally of Babylon, was defeated and slain at Megiddo; and the mourning of the Jews at the time just before God shall interpose for them against all the nations confederate against Jerusalem, is compared to the mourning for Josiah at Megiddo. Megiddo comes from a root, gadad, "cut off," and means slaughter. Compare Joe 3:2, Joe 3:12, Joe 3:14, where "the valley of Jehoshaphat" (meaning in Hebrew, "judgment of God") is mentioned as the scene of God's final vengeance on the God-opposing foe. Probably some great plain, antitypical to the valleys of Megiddo and Jehoshaphat, will be the scene.

JFB: Rev 16:17 - angel So ANDREAS. But A, B, Vulgate, and Syriac omit it.

So ANDREAS. But A, B, Vulgate, and Syriac omit it.

JFB: Rev 16:17 - into So ANDREAS (Greek, "eis"). But A and B, "upon" (Greek, "epi").

So ANDREAS (Greek, "eis"). But A and B, "upon" (Greek, "epi").

JFB: Rev 16:17 - great So B, Vulgate, Syriac, Coptic, and ANDREAS. But A omits.

So B, Vulgate, Syriac, Coptic, and ANDREAS. But A omits.

JFB: Rev 16:17 - of heaven So B and ANDREAS But A, Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic omit.

So B and ANDREAS But A, Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic omit.

JFB: Rev 16:17 - It is done "It is come to pass." God's voice as to the final consummation, as Jesus' voice on the cross when the work of expiation was completed, "It is finished...

"It is come to pass." God's voice as to the final consummation, as Jesus' voice on the cross when the work of expiation was completed, "It is finished."

JFB: Rev 16:18 - voice . . . thunders . . . lightnings A has the order, "lightnings . . . voices . . . thunders." This is the same close as that of the seven seals and the seven thunders; but with the diff...

A has the order, "lightnings . . . voices . . . thunders." This is the same close as that of the seven seals and the seven thunders; but with the difference that they do not merely form the conclusion, but introduce the consequence, of the last vial, namely, the utter destruction of Babylon and then of the Antichristian armies.

JFB: Rev 16:18 - earthquake Which is often preceded by a lurid state of air, such as would result from the vial poured upon it.

Which is often preceded by a lurid state of air, such as would result from the vial poured upon it.

JFB: Rev 16:18 - men were So B, Vulgate, Syriac, and ANDREAS. But A and Coptic read, "A man was."

So B, Vulgate, Syriac, and ANDREAS. But A and Coptic read, "A man was."

JFB: Rev 16:18 - so mighty Greek, "such."

Greek, "such."

JFB: Rev 16:19 - the great city The capital and seat of the apostate Church, spiritual Babylon (of which Rome is the representative, if one literal city be meant). The city in Rev 11...

The capital and seat of the apostate Church, spiritual Babylon (of which Rome is the representative, if one literal city be meant). The city in Rev 11:8 (see on Rev 11:8), is probably distinct, namely, Jerusalem under Antichrist (the beast, who is distinct from the harlot or apostate Church). In Rev 11:13 only a tenth of Jerusalem falls whereas here the city (Babylon) "became (Greek) into three parts" by the earthquake.

JFB: Rev 16:19 - cities of the nations Other great cities in league with spiritual Babylon.

Other great cities in league with spiritual Babylon.

JFB: Rev 16:19 - great . . . came in remembrance Greek, "Babylon the great was remembered" (Rev 18:5). It is now that the last call to escape from Babylon is given to God's people in her (Rev 18:4).

Greek, "Babylon the great was remembered" (Rev 18:5). It is now that the last call to escape from Babylon is given to God's people in her (Rev 18:4).

JFB: Rev 16:19 - fierceness The boiling over outburst of His wrath (Greek, "thumou orgees"), compare Note, see on Rev 14:10.

The boiling over outburst of His wrath (Greek, "thumou orgees"), compare Note, see on Rev 14:10.

JFB: Rev 16:20 - -- Plainly parallel to Rev 6:14-17, and by anticipation descriptive of the last judgment.

Plainly parallel to Rev 6:14-17, and by anticipation descriptive of the last judgment.

JFB: Rev 16:20 - the mountains Rather as Greek, "there were found no mountains."

Rather as Greek, "there were found no mountains."

JFB: Rev 16:21 - fell Greek, "descends."

Greek, "descends."

JFB: Rev 16:21 - upon men Greek, "the men."

Greek, "the men."

JFB: Rev 16:21 - and men blasphemed God Not those struck who died, but the rest. Unlike the result in the case of Jerusalem (Rev 11:13), where "the remnant . . . affrighted . . . gave glory ...

Not those struck who died, but the rest. Unlike the result in the case of Jerusalem (Rev 11:13), where "the remnant . . . affrighted . . . gave glory to the God of heaven."

JFB: Rev 16:21 - was Greek, "is."

Greek, "is."

Clarke: Rev 16:1 - Go your ways, and pour out Go your ways, and pour out - These ministers of the Divine justice were ready to execute vengeance upon transgressors, having full power; but could ...

Go your ways, and pour out - These ministers of the Divine justice were ready to execute vengeance upon transgressors, having full power; but could do nothing in this way till they received especial commission. Nothing can be done without the permission of God; and in the manifestation of justice or mercy by Divine agency, there must be positive command.

Clarke: Rev 16:2 - A noisome and grievous sore A noisome and grievous sore - This is a reference to the sixth Egyptian plague, boils and blains, Exo 9:8, Exo 9:9, etc.

A noisome and grievous sore - This is a reference to the sixth Egyptian plague, boils and blains, Exo 9:8, Exo 9:9, etc.

Clarke: Rev 16:3 - As the blood of a dead man As the blood of a dead man - Either meaning blood in a state of putrescency, or an effusion of blood in naval conflicts; even the sea was tinged wit...

As the blood of a dead man - Either meaning blood in a state of putrescency, or an effusion of blood in naval conflicts; even the sea was tinged with the blood of those who were slain in these wars. This is most probably the meaning of this vial. These engagements were so sanguinary that both the conquerors and the conquered were nearly destroyed; every living soul died in the sea.

Clarke: Rev 16:4 - Upon the rivers and fountains of waters Upon the rivers and fountains of waters - This is an allusion to the first Egyptian plague, Exo 7:20; and to those plagues in general there are allu...

Upon the rivers and fountains of waters - This is an allusion to the first Egyptian plague, Exo 7:20; and to those plagues in general there are allusions throughout this chapter. It is a sentiment of the rabbins that "whatever plagues God inflicted on the Egyptians in former times, he will inflict on the enemies of his people in all later times."See a long quotation on this subject from Rabbi Tanchum in Schoettgen.

Clarke: Rev 16:5 - The angel of the waters The angel of the waters - The rabbins attribute angels, not only to the four elements so called, but to almost every thing besides. We have already ...

The angel of the waters - The rabbins attribute angels, not only to the four elements so called, but to almost every thing besides. We have already seen the angel of the bottomless pit, Rev 9:11, and the angel of the fire, Rev 14:18. The angel of the earth is spoken of in Yalcut Rubeni, fol. 13, 2, and is called Admael. They have also an angel that presides over the grass; another that presides over the cattle which feed upon the grass

They say that God employed the angel of the sea to swallow up the waters at the creation, that the dry land might appear. He disobeyed, and God slew him; the name of the angel of the sea is Rahab. See Baba bathra, fol. 74, 2. It is plain from several places that the writer of the Apocalypse keeps these notions distinctly in view.

Clarke: Rev 16:6 - Thou hast given them blood to drink Thou hast given them blood to drink - They thirsted after blood and massacred the saints of God; and now they have got blood to drink! It is said th...

Thou hast given them blood to drink - They thirsted after blood and massacred the saints of God; and now they have got blood to drink! It is said that when Tomyris, queen of the Scythians, had vanquished Cyrus, she cut off his head and threw it into a vessel of blood, saying these words: Satia te sanguine, quem sitisti, cujusque insatiabilis semper fuisti ; "Satisfy thyself with blood, for which thou hast thirsted, and for which thy desire has been insatiable."See Justin. Hist., lib. i. c. 8. This figure of speech is called sarcasm in rhetoric

"Sarcasmus with this biting taunt doth kill

Cyrus, thy thirst was blood; now drink thy fill."

Clarke: Rev 16:8 - Poured out his vial upon the sun Poured out his vial upon the sun - Mr. Robert Fleming, more than one hundred years ago, in his View of Scripture Prophecy, supposed that the sun her...

Poured out his vial upon the sun - Mr. Robert Fleming, more than one hundred years ago, in his View of Scripture Prophecy, supposed that the sun here meant the French empire, and conjectured that this vial would be poured out on that empire about the year 1794. And it is remarkable that in 1793 the French king was beheaded by the National Assembly; and great and unparalleled miseries fell upon the French nation, which nearly extinguished all their nobility, and brought about a war that lasted twenty-three years, and nearly ruined that country and all the nations of Europe.

Clarke: Rev 16:9 - They repented not They repented not - No moral national amendment has taken place in consequence of the above calamities in that unhappy country, nor indeed any of th...

They repented not - No moral national amendment has taken place in consequence of the above calamities in that unhappy country, nor indeed any of those nations engaged against her in that long and ruinous contest, which has now terminated, (1817), without producing one political, moral, or religious advantage to herself or to Europe.

Clarke: Rev 16:10 - The seat of the beast The seat of the beast - Επι τον θρονον του θηριου· Upon the throne of the wild beast. The regal family was smitten by the fo...

The seat of the beast - Επι τον θρονον του θηριου· Upon the throne of the wild beast. The regal family was smitten by the fourth vial; they did not repent: then the fifth angel pours out his vial on the throne of the wild beast, or antichristian idolatrous power

Clarke: Rev 16:10 - Was full of darkness Was full of darkness - Confusion, dismay, and distress.

Was full of darkness - Confusion, dismay, and distress.

Clarke: Rev 16:11 - Blasphemed the God of heaven Blasphemed the God of heaven - Neither did they repent; therefore other judgments must follow. Some think that the sun was Vitellius, the Roman empe...

Blasphemed the God of heaven - Neither did they repent; therefore other judgments must follow. Some think that the sun was Vitellius, the Roman emperor, and that his throne means Rome; and the darkening refers to the injuries she sustained in her political consequence by the civil wars which then took place, from which she never entirely recovered. Others apply it all to papal Rome, and in this respect make out a very clear case! Thus have men conjectured, but how much nearer are we to the truth?

Clarke: Rev 16:12 - Upon the great river Euphrates Upon the great river Euphrates - Probably meaning the people in the vicinity of this river; though some think that the Tiber is intended

Upon the great river Euphrates - Probably meaning the people in the vicinity of this river; though some think that the Tiber is intended

Clarke: Rev 16:12 - The water thereof was dried up The water thereof was dried up - The people discomfited, and all impediments removed

The water thereof was dried up - The people discomfited, and all impediments removed

Clarke: Rev 16:12 - The kings of the east The kings of the east - There seems to be an allusion here to the ruin of Babylon by Cyrus, predicted by the Prophet Jeremiah, Jeremiah 50:1-51:64. ...

The kings of the east - There seems to be an allusion here to the ruin of Babylon by Cyrus, predicted by the Prophet Jeremiah, Jeremiah 50:1-51:64. But what city or people is pointed out by this Babylon it is in vain to conjecture.

Clarke: Rev 16:13 - Three unclean spirits Three unclean spirits - Perhaps false teachers, called afterwards spirits of devils, which persuade the kings of the earth by lying miracles to come...

Three unclean spirits - Perhaps false teachers, called afterwards spirits of devils, which persuade the kings of the earth by lying miracles to come forth to the place of general slaughter, Rev 16:14, Rev 16:16

Some good critics apply this to Vespasian, and his pretended miracles. See the account in Tacitus, lib. iv. c. 81.

Clarke: Rev 16:15 - Behold, I come as a thief Behold, I come as a thief - Here is a sudden but timely warning to put every man on his guard, when this sudden and generally unexpected tribulation...

Behold, I come as a thief - Here is a sudden but timely warning to put every man on his guard, when this sudden and generally unexpected tribulation should take place

Clarke: Rev 16:15 - Keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked Keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked - Here is a plain allusion to the office of him who was called the prefect or overseer, of the mountain of ...

Keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked - Here is a plain allusion to the office of him who was called the prefect or overseer, of the mountain of the temple. His custom was to go his rounds during the watches of the night; and if he found any of the Levites sleeping on his watch, he had authority to beat him with a stick, and burn his vestments. See Middoth, fol. 34, 1, and Tamid. fol. 27, 2; 28, 1. Such a person being found on his return home naked, it was at once known that he had been found asleep at his post, had been beaten, and his clothes burnt; thus his shame was seen - he was reproached for his infidelity and irreligion.

Clarke: Rev 16:16 - Armageddon Armageddon - The original of this word has been variously formed, and variously translated. It is הר־מגדון har -megiddon , "the mount of th...

Armageddon - The original of this word has been variously formed, and variously translated. It is הר־מגדון har -megiddon , "the mount of the assembly;"or חרמה גדהון chormah gedehon , "the destruction of their army;"or it is הר־מגדו har -megiddo , "Mount Megiddo,"the valley of which was remarkable for two great slaughters: one of the Israelites, 2Ki 23:29, the other of the Canaanites, Jdg 4:16; Jdg 5:19. But Mount Megiddo, that is Carmel, is the place, according to some, where these armies should be collected

But what is the battle of Armageddon? How ridiculous have been the conjectures of men relative to this point! Within the last twenty years this battle has been fought at various places, according to our purblind seers and self-inspired prophets! At one time it was Austerlitz, at another Moscow, at another Leipsic, and now Waterloo! And thus they have gone on, and will go on, confounding and being confounded.

Clarke: Rev 16:17 - Poured out his vial into the air Poured out his vial into the air - To signify that this plague was to be widely diffused, and perhaps to intimate that pestilences and various death...

Poured out his vial into the air - To signify that this plague was to be widely diffused, and perhaps to intimate that pestilences and various deaths would be the effect of this vial. But possibly air in this place may have some emblematical meaning

Clarke: Rev 16:17 - It is done It is done - It is said, Rev 10:7, that in the days of the seventh trumpet the mystery of God should be finished; so here we find it completed. Γ...

It is done - It is said, Rev 10:7, that in the days of the seventh trumpet the mystery of God should be finished; so here we find it completed. Γεγονε· All’ s over! Fuimus Troes ! Ilium fuit ! Once there were Trojans, and they had a city; but now all are extinct.

Clarke: Rev 16:18 - A great earthquake A great earthquake - Most terrible commotions, both civil and religious. Or a convulsion, shaking, or revolution.

A great earthquake - Most terrible commotions, both civil and religious. Or a convulsion, shaking, or revolution.

Clarke: Rev 16:19 - The great city The great city - Some say Jerusalem, others Rome pagan, others Rome papal

The great city - Some say Jerusalem, others Rome pagan, others Rome papal

Clarke: Rev 16:19 - The cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath The cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath - Alluding to the mode of putting certain criminals to death, by making them drink a cup of poiso...

The cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath - Alluding to the mode of putting certain criminals to death, by making them drink a cup of poison. See on Heb 2:9 (note).

Clarke: Rev 16:20 - Every island fled away Every island fled away - Probably meaning the capture of seaport towns, and fortified places.

Every island fled away - Probably meaning the capture of seaport towns, and fortified places.

Clarke: Rev 16:21 - A great hail - about the weight of a talent A great hail - about the weight of a talent - Has this any reference to cannon balls and bombs? It is very doubtful; we are all in the dark in these...

A great hail - about the weight of a talent - Has this any reference to cannon balls and bombs? It is very doubtful; we are all in the dark in these matters

The words ὡς ταλαντιαια, as a talent, are used to express something great, excessively oppressive; as νοσηματων ταλαντιαιων, terrible diseases, not diseases of the weight of a talent. See Rosenmuller.

Defender: Rev 16:1 - seven angels These seven vial judgments all are a part of the seventh trumpet judgment and the third woe (Rev 10:7; Rev 11:14, Rev 11:15; Rev 15:6-8)."

These seven vial judgments all are a part of the seventh trumpet judgment and the third woe (Rev 10:7; Rev 11:14, Rev 11:15; Rev 15:6-8)."

Defender: Rev 16:2 - had the mark This judgment will not be on just the third part of men this time (compare Rev 9:15), but upon all the men destined for hell (Rev 14:9-11). They had p...

This judgment will not be on just the third part of men this time (compare Rev 9:15), but upon all the men destined for hell (Rev 14:9-11). They had preferred the mark of the beast to suffering for Christ, but they will suffer now. The grievous sore may have some connection with the nature of the "mark" (perhaps achieved through chemical or electronic means) which they will have received on their skins; whatever substance the angel pours out on the earth will perhaps react with the mark and infect it with incurable pain."

Defender: Rev 16:3 - the sea Not just a third part of the sea will become blood, as it had once before (Rev 8:8), but all of it. Sea water has an almost identical composition to t...

Not just a third part of the sea will become blood, as it had once before (Rev 8:8), but all of it. Sea water has an almost identical composition to that of human blood, so some small ingredient added to it by the angel will make it have the appearance of blood - not blood which would maintain life, however, but "as the blood of a dead man." The sea will have completely fulfilled God's purpose in the creation (in the new earth, there will be "no more sea" - Rev 21:1), and all sea creatures will die in the noxious waters."

Defender: Rev 16:6 - blood to drink Evidently the 3 1/2 year drought will have been partly lifted with the death of the two witnesses who had called for it (Rev 11:6, Rev 11:19). There i...

Evidently the 3 1/2 year drought will have been partly lifted with the death of the two witnesses who had called for it (Rev 11:6, Rev 11:19). There is still fresh water in the rivers and springs, but now these will also be turned into blood. Men will still be able to drink this water (Rev 16:6), but it will be bitter and nauseous, no matter what treatments can be applied to it."

Defender: Rev 16:7 - heard another out of the altar say This is probably the unified voice of all "the souls of them that were slain," including the tribulation martyrs still resting "under the altar" (Rev ...

This is probably the unified voice of all "the souls of them that were slain," including the tribulation martyrs still resting "under the altar" (Rev 16:9).

Defender: Rev 16:7 - true and righteous are thy judgments The saints will agree with the angel that "they are worthy" (Rev 16:6), since all the ungodly of the world had rejoiced vicariously in the slaying of ...

The saints will agree with the angel that "they are worthy" (Rev 16:6), since all the ungodly of the world had rejoiced vicariously in the slaying of the two witnesses (Rev 11:8-10), and, no doubt, in the execution of all those who had not compromised as they had."

Defender: Rev 16:8 - upon the sun See Isa 24:6; Isa 30:26; Mal 4:1. The angel responsible for the sun's energy conversion processes, and understanding their real nature, will be able t...

See Isa 24:6; Isa 30:26; Mal 4:1. The angel responsible for the sun's energy conversion processes, and understanding their real nature, will be able to intensify them perhaps sevenfold (Isa 30:26). The intense heat and light, little relieved even at night, will exacerbate their sores. Furthermore, the high temperatures will likely melt the polar ice caps, causing a rapid rise in sea level which will inundate and destroy most of the great and wicked cities of the world, situated as they are almost at sea level (New York, Tokyo, Los Angeles, Rome, Amsterdam, etc.). Such Scriptures as Job 38:22, Job 38:23 seem to suggest such a thing as well: "... the treasures [literally 'storehouses'] of the snow ... which I have reserved against the time of trouble [or 'tribulation']." (Note also Amo 9:5, Amo 9:6 and Psa 147:17, Psa 147:18 in this connection)."

Defender: Rev 16:10 - seat of the beast The first four vials of wrath will have affected the whole earth. The fifth, however, will be applied only to the "seat" ("throne") of the beast and h...

The first four vials of wrath will have affected the whole earth. The fifth, however, will be applied only to the "seat" ("throne") of the beast and his kingdom (presumably his capital). This will likely be at a restored Babylon (see Revelation 17, note; and Rev 18:1, note). The contrast between the intense light from God all over the world with the Satanic darkness in its capitol should be a profound spiritual parable."

Defender: Rev 16:11 - repented not Despite all these evidences of God's power, the men will continue to reject and blaspheme God (Rev 9:20, Rev 9:21)."

Despite all these evidences of God's power, the men will continue to reject and blaspheme God (Rev 9:20, Rev 9:21)."

Defender: Rev 16:12 - the great river Euphrates Although the ocean level will rise because of the melting of the ice caps, the great rivers of the world will tend to dry up because of the intense he...

Although the ocean level will rise because of the melting of the ice caps, the great rivers of the world will tend to dry up because of the intense heat of the sun. This will especially affect the key river Euphrates, flowing by Babylon and providing the main water supply for its industries and inhabitants. Much of its water comes from its source high in the permanent ice-cap on Mount Ararat, which also now conceals the remains of Noah's ark. By this time, the drought of the first 3 1/2 years will probably have melted this ice cap, and will have revealed the ark as a final convincing testimony to the worldwide flood of Noah's day and the folly of evolutionary geology. Then, the intense heat of this plague will contribute to the more rapid depletion of the Euphrates compared to the other great rivers.

Defender: Rev 16:12 - kings of the east The great populations of Asia (Japan, China, India, etc.) have long followed the ancient religions of occult pantheistic evolutionism. They will be ea...

The great populations of Asia (Japan, China, India, etc.) have long followed the ancient religions of occult pantheistic evolutionism. They will be easily influenced by demonic spirits to oppose the soon-returning Christ, especially when they see the Euphrates wither away, signifying to them that the ancient boundary between east and west has been removed. They will recall all too well the terrible suffering inflicted on them by the demon horsemen from the Euphrates just four years previously (Rev 9:14-19), but now that these are gone, they will remember that the plagues had been called down by the two witnesses last seen in Jerusalem, and that the land promised by God to Israel had extended to the Euphrates (Gen 15:18). Even though they may have resisted the beast for a time (Dan 11:44), they will willingly hasten to the land of Israel to fight against Christ and His people, when the beast summons them this time."

Defender: Rev 16:13 - false prophet This infernal trio (that of the dragon, the beast and the false prophet), perhaps thinking to emulate the Holy Trinity and still hoping to defeat the ...

This infernal trio (that of the dragon, the beast and the false prophet), perhaps thinking to emulate the Holy Trinity and still hoping to defeat the Triune God, will meet here in an urgent council, knowing their time is short. The devil's angels will already have been defeated by the heavenly angels (Rev 12:7-9), so they will know these demonic hosts cannot prevail alone. Their one desperate hope is to augment these spirit-armies with the remaining human hosts. All these demons of hell, evidently directed by three chief angels in the Satanic hierarchy, will soon be sent out to persuade the nations to send their armies (and all the conscripted civilians they can muster) off to Israel to do battle with the Lord Jesus when He returns."

Defender: Rev 16:14 - gather them The Satan-controlled beast and false prophet will think they are gathering all the nations together, but, actually, it is God. "I will also gather all...

The Satan-controlled beast and false prophet will think they are gathering all the nations together, but, actually, it is God. "I will also gather all nations, and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat" (Rev 16:16; Joe 3:2). "For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle" (Zec 14:2). The great conflict of the ages is about to be decided, and there will be "multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision: for the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision" (Joe 3:14). All are desperately hoping they will eventually free themselves from God and His control over their lives, but they are really being drawn into His great winepress (Rev 14:19)."

Defender: Rev 16:16 - Armageddon "Armageddon" is, more precisely, "Har-Megiddo," or "Mount of Megiddo." Megiddo itself is a small and very ancient town about sixty miles north of Jeru...

"Armageddon" is, more precisely, "Har-Megiddo," or "Mount of Megiddo." Megiddo itself is a small and very ancient town about sixty miles north of Jerusalem, overlooking the plain of Megiddo on the west and the plain of Esdraelon (or valley of Jezreel) on the northeast. This vast plains area is the obvious location for large armies to bivouac in preparation for an attack on Jerusalem. However, by the time all the armies arrive there, even this large plain will not be able to contain them all. Many must be deployed down the Jordan valley and the valley of Jehoshaphat (near Jerusalem), down past the Dead Sea into Idumea and even beyond Bozrah (see notes on Rev 14:20). They will come from all over the world by any means of transportation they can obtain. With the world's resources already severely depleted by the plagues and the oil probably in short supply in most nations, many will have to commandeer horses or camels or donkeys. But come they will, in multitudes."

Defender: Rev 16:18 - so mighty an earthquake There have been many devastating earthquakes on earth since the eruption of the primeval subterranean water channels that initiated the Great Flood an...

There have been many devastating earthquakes on earth since the eruption of the primeval subterranean water channels that initiated the Great Flood and the tectonic uplifts that terminated it (Gen 7:11; Psa 104:6-9). The global earthquake at the judgment of the sixth seal (Rev 6:12-17) had been so severe that "every mountain and island were moved out of their places." This earthquake, however, is far worse - in fact, so terrible that "every island fled away, and the mountains were not found" (Rev 16:20)."

Defender: Rev 16:19 - cities of the nations fell The destructive force of this global earthquake will be so great that "the cities of the nations fell," meaning that all their structures collapsed. J...

The destructive force of this global earthquake will be so great that "the cities of the nations fell," meaning that all their structures collapsed. Jerusalem, however, will not fall, but God will divide it through the midst of the Mount of Olives when the Lord returns to stand on the Mount of Olives. Other Old Testament prophets also foresaw this mighty earthquake (Isa 24:19, Isa 24:20; Joe 3:16; Hag 2:6, Hag 2:7).

Defender: Rev 16:19 - Babylon The destruction of Babylon had also been noted in Rev 14:8, but this particular theme is so important that John will interrupt the chronological accou...

The destruction of Babylon had also been noted in Rev 14:8, but this particular theme is so important that John will interrupt the chronological account at this point in order to devote two entire chapters (Revelation 17 and 18) to it."

Defender: Rev 16:20 - mountains were not found The smoothing of the topography of the world in this way is in preparation for the millennial earth as well as fulfilling Isa 40:4, Isa 40:5."

The smoothing of the topography of the world in this way is in preparation for the millennial earth as well as fulfilling Isa 40:4, Isa 40:5."

Defender: Rev 16:21 - weight of a talent These stones are not ice, but boulders of rock (Greek lithinos), each weighing 100 pounds or more, and probably spread across the sky by global volcan...

These stones are not ice, but boulders of rock (Greek lithinos), each weighing 100 pounds or more, and probably spread across the sky by global volcanic eruptions accompanying the global earthquake. It is possible that these are the feet in God's great winepress, trampling the multitudes at Armageddon (Rev 14:20)."

TSK: Rev 16:1 - I heard // the seven // and pour I heard : Rev 14:15, Rev 14:18, Rev 15:5-8 the seven : Rev 15:1, Rev 15:6 and pour : Rev 16:2-12, Rev 16:17, Rev 14:9-11, Rev 15:7; 1Sa 15:3, 1Sa 15:1...

TSK: Rev 16:2 - upon the earth // a noisome // had upon the earth : Rev 8:7, Rev 14:16 a noisome : Exo 9:8-11; Deu 7:15, Deu 28:27; 1Sa 5:6, 1Sa 5:9; 2Ch 21:15, 2Ch 21:18; Job 2:7, Job 2:8; Psa 78:26; ...

TSK: Rev 16:3 - upon // it became // and every upon : Rev 8:8, Rev 10:2, Rev 13:1 it became : Rev 11:6; Exo 7:17-21; Psa 78:44, Psa 105:29; Eze 16:38 and every : Rev 8:9; Gen 7:22

TSK: Rev 16:4 - upon // and they upon : Rev 8:10,Rev 8:11 and they : Rev 16:5, Rev 14:7; Exo 7:20, Exo 8:5; Isa 50:2; Eze 35:8; Hos 13:15

TSK: Rev 16:5 - the angel // Thou art // which art the angel : Rev 16:4 Thou art : Rev 16:7, Rev 15:3, Rev 19:2; Gen 18:25; Psa 129:4, Psa 145:17; Lam 1:18; Dan 9:14; Rom 2:5; Rom 3:5; 2Th 1:5, 2Th 1:6...

TSK: Rev 16:6 - they have // for they are they have : Rev 6:10,Rev 6:11, Rev 13:10,Rev 13:15, Rev 17:6, Rev 17:7, Rev 18:24, Rev 19:2; Deu 32:42, Deu 32:43; 2Ki 24:4; Isa 49:26, Isa 51:22, Isa...

TSK: Rev 16:7 - out // Even // true out : Rev 6:9, Rev 8:3-5, Rev 14:18; Isa 6:6; Eze 10:2, Eze 10:7 Even : Rev 15:3, Rev 15:4 true : Rev 13:10, Rev 14:10, Rev 19:2

TSK: Rev 16:8 - upon // and power upon : Rev 6:12, Rev 8:12, Rev 9:2; Isa 24:23; Luk 21:25; Act 2:20 and power : Rev 7:16, Rev 9:17, Rev 9:18, Rev 14:18; Jon 4:8; Mat 13:6

TSK: Rev 16:9 - scorched // blasphemed // and they // to give scorched : or, burned blasphemed : Rev 16:10,Rev 16:11, Rev 16:21; 2Ki 6:33; 2Ch 28:22; Isa 1:5, Isa 8:21; Jer 5:3, Jer 6:29, Jer 6:30; Eze 24:13 and ...

TSK: Rev 16:10 - upon // full // they upon : Rev 11:2, Rev 11:8, Rev 13:2-4, Rev 17:9, Rev 17:17, Rev 18:2, Rev 18:21, Rev 18:23 full : Rev 9:2, Rev 18:11-19; Exo 10:21-23; Psa 78:49; Isa ...

TSK: Rev 16:11 - blasphemed // the God // because // and repented not blasphemed : Rev 16:9, Rev 16:21 the God : 2Ch 36:23; Ezr 1:2, Ezr 5:11, Ezr 5:12, Ezr 6:10, Ezr 7:12, Ezr 7:21, Ezr 7:23; Neh 1:4, Neh 2:4; Psa 136:2...

TSK: Rev 16:12 - upon // and the water // that the upon : Rev 9:14, Rev 11:14; Isa 8:7 and the water : Rev 17:15; Isa 11:15, Isa 42:15, Isa 44:27; Jer 50:38-40, Jer 51:36 that the : Isa 41:2, Isa 41:3,...

TSK: Rev 16:13 - three // like // come out of // the false three : Rev 16:14; 2Th 2:9-11; 1Ti 4:1-3; 2Ti 3:1-6; 2Pe 2:1-3; 1Jo 4:1-3 like : Exo 8:2-7; Psa 78:45, Psa 105:30 come out of : Rev 12:3, Rev 12:4, Re...

TSK: Rev 16:14 - the spirits // working // which // the whole // to gather // God Almighty the spirits : Rev 12:9; 1Ki 22:19-23; 2Ch 18:18-22; Eze 14:9; Joh 8:44; 2Co 11:13-15; 1Ti 4:1; Jam 3:15 working : Rev 13:13, Rev 13:14, Rev 19:20; Deu...

TSK: Rev 16:15 - I come // Blessed // lest I come : Rev 3:3; Mat 24:43; 1Th 5:2, 1Th 5:3; 2Pe 3:10 Blessed : Mat 24:42, Mat 25:13, Mat 26:41; Mar 13:33-37, Mar 14:38; Luk 12:37-43, Luk 21:36; A...

TSK: Rev 16:16 - he // the Hebrew // Armageddon he : Rev 17:14, Rev 19:17-21; Jdg 4:7; Joe 3:9-14; Zec 14:2, Zec 14:3 the Hebrew : Rev 9:11; Joh 5:2, Joh 19:13, Joh 19:17; Act 26:14 Armageddon : Jdg...

TSK: Rev 16:17 - into // there // It is into : Rev 20:1-3; Eph 2:2, Eph 6:12 there : Rev 16:1, Rev 11:19, Rev 14:17, Rev 15:5, Rev 15:6 It is : Rev 10:6, Rev 10:7, Rev 21:6; Dan 12:7-13; Joh...

TSK: Rev 16:18 - were // a were : Rev 4:5, Rev 8:5, Rev 11:19 a : Rev 11:13; Dan 12:1

TSK: Rev 16:19 - the great // great // in the great : Rev 14:8, Rev 17:18, Rev 18:2, Rev 18:10,Rev 18:16-19, Rev 18:21 great : Rev 17:5; Dan 4:30 in : Rev 14:8-10, Rev 18:5; Isa 49:26, Isa 51:...

TSK: Rev 16:20 - -- Rev 6:14, Rev 20:11; Isa 2:14-17; Jer 4:23-25

TSK: Rev 16:21 - there fell // blasphemed there fell : Rev 8:7, Rev 11:19; Exo 9:23-26; Jos 10:11; Isa 30:30; Eze 13:11, Eze 13:13, Eze 38:21, Eze 38:22 blasphemed : Rev 16:9, Rev 16:11; Isa 8...

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Poole: Rev 16:1 - Chapter Summary // And I heard a great voice out of the temple Rev 16:1 The seven angels are commanded to pour out their vials on the earth. Rev 16:2-14 Great plagues follow thereupon. Rev 16:15-21 Christ ...

Rev 16:1 The seven angels are commanded to pour out their

vials on the earth.

Rev 16:2-14 Great plagues follow thereupon.

Rev 16:15-21 Christ cometh suddenly as a thief: blessed are they

that watch.

Chapter Summary

God having showed unto his servant John in the vision of the first six seals, the fate of the church under the pagan emperors of Rome, Rev 5:1-6:17 , and its fate under antichrist, in the vision of the six first trumpets, under the seventh seal, Rev 8:1-9:21 , and diverted him by the vision of the little book opened, Rev 10:1-11 , and by the contents of it, Rev 12:1-14:20 , and instructed him concerning the affairs of the church during all the time of the reign of the dragon, and antichrist, who was the image of the dragon, comes now to instruct him particularly how and by what means he would ruin antichrist, and restore peace to his church.

And I heard a great voice out of the temple either out of the church triumphant, Christ, the Head of it, commanding the executioners of his justice to go and do their office; or out of the church militant, by their prayers soliciting God to execute vengeance upon the beast. All the beast’ s territories, or the several parts of his kingdom, are expressed in this chapter, under the notions of the earth, the sea, the rivers and fountains, the sun, and the seat of the beast. The first command to the executioners of God’ s justice, is, to pour out his wrath on the earth. By the earth; Pareus understands some parts of the earth; others, the common people; others, the Roman empire; but others, considering the earth as the firmest part of the universe, say, that by the earth is meant the popish clergy, the basis of the papacy; and I am very much inclined to judge that the most probable sense of it, not only because there is little of heaven in them, and their whole frame and model is the product of earthly policy, but because experience hath told us that the pope here received his first wound, in the diminution of their power and authority, and a contempt of them. God hath used many instruments to pour out this vial, even so many (whether princes or ministers) as he hath made use of to root out monasteries and abbeys, and to expose mass priests to scorn and contempt. Mr. Mede seemeth to be of another mind, thinking, that by earth is meant the commonalty of the people, whose defection from the pope was his first plague: but that which is to be understood by the earth, being the affected part of antichrist, I cannot agree with that learned man; for though the beast suffered by the defection of the commonalty, yet I cannot see how those that made the defection suffered at all by it.

Poole: Rev 16:2 - grievous sore Here is a plain allusion to the plagues which God brought upon Pharaoh king of Egypt for his oppression of his ancient Israel; God hereby showing us...

Here is a plain allusion to the plagues which God brought upon Pharaoh king of Egypt for his oppression of his ancient Israel; God hereby showing us, that he would deal by this Romish beast for his persecutions of his gospel churches, as he dealt by Pharaoh: as he turned the Egyptian rivers into blood, so as the fish died, and the waters stunk, Exo 7:20,21 , and as he plagued the Egyptians with boils and blains, Exo 9:9 ; so he would plague the papacy by proportionable judgments, until, as Pharaoh with his whole party was at last drowned in the Red Sea, so all the antichristian party shall be rooted out. Here are two of the Egyptian plagues mentioned, but this vision begins with the sixth of the Egyptian plagues, viz. that of boils breaking out in blains. What is meant by this

grievous sore I must profess myself not to understand, but think Dr. More speaks very probably, interpreting it of trouble and vexation, which the popish party should have upon the first prospect of their kingdom’ s going down; it being of the nature of sores to vex and disturb those that are affected with them, so as they are very uneasy so long as they are affected with them. And, indeed, I find many interpreters agree in this notion.

Poole: Rev 16:3 - -- This answered the first plague upon Pharaoh, Exo 7:20 , All the waters that were in the river were turned to blood; and the fish that was in the ri...

This answered the first plague upon Pharaoh, Exo 7:20 , All the waters that were in the river were turned to blood; and the fish that was in the river died. By the sea here Dr. More understands the jurisdiction and dominion of the papacy, wherein he agrees with Mr. Mede. I rather agree with those who understand the whole system of the popish religion; their rites and ceremonies, their doctrines of indulgences and purgatory, &c. God showeth his prophet, and instructeth us, that he will bring the papacy to ruin:

1. By bringing his clergy (which are the earth upon which he stands) into scorn and contempt; discovering their frauds and cheats.

2. By discovering the folly and vanity of their pompous and theatrical religion, consisting only in vain shows, and idle rites and ceremonies, without any regard to that religion which is spiritual, and pure, and undefiled before God; discovering the cheats of their confessions and absolutions, their masses, pardons, and indulgences; making them appear to be not only idle, but pernicious and damnable; so as Christians could not live in the communion of their church, but it must be damnable to those who keep in the communion of it.

Poole: Rev 16:4 - -- Mr. Mede and Dr. More both agree in interpreting this of the Jesuits and other popish emissaries, and the laws made for the execution of them in Eng...

Mr. Mede and Dr. More both agree in interpreting this of the Jesuits and other popish emissaries, and the laws made for the execution of them in England in the time of Queen Elizabeth, not excluding those civil powers which are the upholders and maintainers of antichrist, as the Spaniard, who also within these last hundred years hath had blood enough given him to drink, both in 1588, and in the Low Countries. It seemeth a little hard to interpret a prophecy relating to the whole church, by what is done in so small a part of it. We know in what credit these emissaries are at this day, both in the empire, and in Spain, and in France, and Venice, from whence they sometime were expelled. We have, indeed, laws against them in England, but principally relating to those of them who, being native subjects of England, have apostatized. So as I had rather think this vial is not yet poured out, or that interpreters mistake the meaning of these

rivers and fountains than agree with them in that interpretation of this prophecy. I am much disposed to believe that we are not further than the pouring out of the second vial. God, indeed, hath made the Romish clergy contemptible enough, and hath vexed and enraged them sufficiently. He hath also made their scenical religion as contemptible to, and justly abhorred by, a great part of the Christian world; but how far he hath proceeded further to the ruin of antichrist, I do not understand.

Poole: Rev 16:5 - the angel of the waters // Thou art righteous. O Lord, which art, and wast, and shalt be, because thou hast judged thus This and the two following verses do but express the honour and glory that shall be given unto God, when he shall have accomplished his great work i...

This and the two following verses do but express the honour and glory that shall be given unto God, when he shall have accomplished his great work in destroying those who feed, and uphold, and maintain the beast, partly by those instruments he shall use in that work, expressed here by

the angel of the waters partly from others.

Thou art righteous. O Lord, which art, and wast, and shalt be, because thou hast judged thus acknowledging the Lord’ s justice and righteousness in such destruction.

Poole: Rev 16:6 - -- Because of their persecutions of, and cruelty towards, God’ s faithful ministers and people, which rendered the spilling of their blood but a c...

Because of their persecutions of, and cruelty towards, God’ s faithful ministers and people, which rendered the spilling of their blood but a condign punishment suited to their sin.

Poole: Rev 16:7 - -- Others also, either members of the church triumphant or militant, or both, shall in that day give glory to God, as a God of power, able to do such t...

Others also, either members of the church triumphant or militant, or both, shall in that day give glory to God, as a God of power, able to do such things; of righteousness, thus giving these bloody men their due; and of truth, thus fulfilling both his promises to his people and his threatenings against his enemies. But it is easier to determine who shall thus rejoice, than the time when this joy shall be. This certainly is God’ s work, but in fieri, now doing, but not yet done.

Poole: Rev 16:8 - the sun Here we have no history to guide us in the government of our fancies and judgments, but their opinion seems most probable to me, who, by the sun u...

Here we have no history to guide us in the government of our fancies and judgments, but their opinion seems most probable to me, who, by

the sun understand some great prince or potentate, or the whole civil power in the antichristian heaven; suppose the Spaniard, or the emperor. It seems to signify either some destruction of such civil powers, or some defection of them from the papacy, which will vex and enrage antichrist and his party, as if they were scorched with fire. This I look upon as much more probable than theirs who interpret it of the natural sun, or the word of God.

Poole: Rev 16:9 - -- What the damned do in hell, where the wrath of God is poured out upon men to the utmost, that reprobates do upon earth, they are scorched with grea...

What the damned do in hell, where the wrath of God is poured out upon men to the utmost, that reprobates do upon earth, they are

scorched with great heat the vengeance of God cometh upon them; they are mad and enraged, and speak evil of a just and righteous God, who bringeth such plagues on them; but they have no sense of their sins, nor any thoughts of turning to God, confessing their sins, and giving him glory. This will be the upshot of God’ s lesser judgments upon the papacy: they will be mad at them, and rage, and reproach God’ s justice, but prove a hardened generation, given over to ruin, that will never be sensible that these judgments come upon them for their idolatries and superstitions, and for their persecutions, and the shedding the blood of God’ s holy ones. Not that all adhering to that church will be so, (many, probably, will convert, and be brought to acknowledge the truth), but there will be a great party of them, whom nothing but the wrath of God come upon them in the bottomless pit to the utmost, will ever make sensible that they have done amiss, being given up to strong delusions, to a blind mind, and a hard heart, and a reprobate judgment.

Poole: Rev 16:10 - And the fifth angel // Poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast // And his kingdom was full of darkness // And they gnawed their tongues for pain And the fifth angel the fifth of the seven angels mentioned Rev 16:1 : by which, as was said, is to be understood the instruments which God will use ...

And the fifth angel the fifth of the seven angels mentioned Rev 16:1 : by which, as was said, is to be understood the instruments which God will use gradually to destroy the papacy; the fifth rank of persons, whom God will employ in the execution of this his purpose, by his acts of providence.

Poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast shall execute God’ s wrath upon the city of Rome itself, wholly destroying the papacy in their power.

And his kingdom was full of darkness upon which his whole kingdom shall be full of the darkness of misery, trouble, and affliction. (Darkness was one of the plagues of Egypt).

And they gnawed their tongues for pain and they shall be full of calamities, like men in so much pain that they bite their own tongues for pain. When this shall be God alone knows. I think, and experience hath proved, that they were much too hasty in their speculations, that prophesied it should be in the year 1656, or 1660, or 1666. For my own part, I do not believe it will be before 1866, or between that and the year 1900. The determination of it depends upon the right fixing of the epocha, or beginning of the forty-two months, or one thousand two hundred and sixty prophetical days, which I think most probably fixed upon the year 606, or (according to Mr. Stephens’ s notion) 666, which, according to the Julian account, is the same: See Poole on "Rev 13:18" .

Poole: Rev 16:11 - -- This is the same that was said, Rev 16:9 , of a former party belonging to the beast, and doth but signify, that there will be found the same vein of...

This is the same that was said, Rev 16:9 , of a former party belonging to the beast, and doth but signify, that there will be found the same vein of blindness of mind, hardness of heart, and reprobacy of sense, running through that whole party, until they be wholly ruined.

Poole: Rev 16:12 - Upon the great river Euphrates // And the water thereof was dried up // That the way of the kings of the east might be prepared Upon the great river Euphrates upon the Turkish empire: See Poole on "Rev 9:14" . And the water thereof was dried up their force, power, and stren...

Upon the great river Euphrates upon the Turkish empire: See Poole on "Rev 9:14" .

And the water thereof was dried up their force, power, and strength shall be destroyed.

That the way of the kings of the east might be prepared that a way may be prepared for the conversion of the Jews. This I find to be the sense of the most learned and judicious interpreters of this mysterious book, amongst whom I count Mr. Mede, Dr. More, Pareus, Mr. Durham; &c. But it will be reasonable to say something further to show the probability of this sense. Euphrates was a great river that ran by Babylon, the depth of it was (as historians tell us) about two men’ s height. When Cyrus and Darius came to conquer Babylon, they diverted this river, Jer 51:32,36 . Here is an allusion to that history. The Turks first took up their habitation about this great river, as was said in our notes on Rev 9:14 , where the providence of God restrained them for many years, till the sixth trumpet sounded. The Jews, who are observed to be in greatest numbers in the Eastern countries, having had a promise, Exo 19:6 , to be a kingdom of priests, may well be called here the kings of the east. Two things hinder their embracing the Christian faith:

1. The image worship and idolatry of the papists.

2. The power of the Turks, with the success they have had against Christians.

But both these being taken away, by the fall of Babylon and the ruin of the Turks, the way seems to be prepared for the Jews’ receiving of the Christian faith. In a case where nothing can be certainly determined, this seemeth a very probable opinion. To which it contributes a little, that it is probable, that the sixth vial answereth the sixth trumpet; and that as they were the people first let loose by Euphrates, where they were bound, so they are the people to be destroyed under the notion of drying up the waters of Euphrates: and this seemeth to be a work of providence brought forth after the ruin of Rome, and the total breaking of the power and dominion of the papacy. Thus we have foretold the breaking both of pope and Turk, and all their upholders; but we must not imagine them so ruined, but that parties of both should be left in the world, which combining, made up the army to fight the devil’ s last battle in Armageddon, of which we shall read, Rev 16:16 .

Poole: Rev 16:13 - the beast // the false prophet God here showeth John, that after the power and strength both of the pope and Turks should be broken, the devil would yet make one push more; to whi...

God here showeth John, that after the power and strength both of the pope and Turks should be broken, the devil would yet make one push more; to which purpose he would influence some on the behalf of the antichristian secular power, others on the behalf of

the beast with two horns, or

the false prophet

Poole: Rev 16:14 - -- Which, from the influence of the devil, should solicit the kings of the earth to join together in a battle against the church. This is, undoubtedly,...

Which, from the influence of the devil, should solicit the kings of the earth to join together in a battle against the church. This is, undoubtedly, the battle in Armageddon, Rev 16:16 .

Poole: Rev 16:15 - I come as a thief // Blessed is he that watcheth // and keepeth his garments // lest he walk naked, and they see his shame I come as a thief that is, I come suddenly and unexpectedly: see Mat 24:43,44 Lu 12:39 1Th 5:2 Rev 3:3 . It may be understood either of Christ’ ...

I come as a thief that is, I come suddenly and unexpectedly: see Mat 24:43,44 Lu 12:39 1Th 5:2 Rev 3:3 . It may be understood either of Christ’ s coming to the last judgment, or of his coming in his vindicative providence to be revenged on his enemies.

Blessed is he that watcheth he is a happy man that maketh it his business to keep himself from sin, in prospect of any such coming,

and keepeth his garments and that persevereth in my ways and truth;

lest he walk naked, and they see his shame for if he doth not, he will be found one of those that are not clothed with my righteousness, and his hypocrisy will appear to all men.

Poole: Rev 16:16 - Armageddon Either the devil brought them together, or God by his providence ordered that they should be gathered together, into the place where God designed to...

Either the devil brought them together, or God by his providence ordered that they should be gathered together, into the place where God designed to destroy them and their armies, for so the word

Armageddon signifieth, say some; but others make it to signify the mountain of the gospel, or the mountain of apples, or fruits; but the first etymology in this place seems best. The word doth not signify any particular place; but here is an allusion, as some think, to that Megiddo, mentioned Jud 5:19 , where Barak overcame Sisera with his great army, and where Josiah was slain, 2Ki 23:30 . Of the issue of this last battle with the enemies of the church of Christ we shall read more, Rev 19:1-21 .

Poole: Rev 16:17 - And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air // It is done And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air: I take this to be best interpreted (as Mr. Mede doth it) by the power of the air, of which...

And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air: I take this to be best interpreted (as Mr. Mede doth it) by the power of the air, of which Satan is called the prince, Eph 2:2 , that is, upon all the children of the devil, that had so long given disturbance to the church of Christ.

It is done that is, the work of God is done, his counsels for the destruction of his enemies, and the deliverance of his people, are brought forth in the issue of his providence, not fully yet brought to an issue, but accomplishing.

Poole: Rev 16:18 - -- See Rev 4:5 6:12 11:13,19 . Either declarative of the majesty and power of God, as Exo 19:16 , when God came forth to give his lawthe violation of w...

See Rev 4:5 6:12 11:13,19 . Either declarative of the majesty and power of God, as Exo 19:16 , when God came forth to give his lawthe violation of which God here was coming out to punish; or of the great stirs and confusions in that part of the world where the beast’ s greatest interest lay. Or, the

voices, thunders, and lightnings may be understood as declarative of the former, and the great earthquake of the latter.

Poole: Rev 16:19 - The great city // Was divided into three parts // And great Babylon came in remembrance, &c The great city Rome, afterwards called great Babylon in this verse. Was divided into three parts the pagan part, the evangelical part, and the an...

The great city Rome, afterwards called great Babylon in this verse.

Was divided into three parts the pagan part, the evangelical part, and the antichristian part, (saith Dr. More), the three parties that made up the armies that fought in Armageddon: or else this is added as the effect of the great earthquake.

And great Babylon came in remembrance, &c. God now took vengeance on the papacy, and all their adherents, though he had for twelve hundred and sixty years spared them, notwithstanding their idolatries and persecutions, and behaved himself toward them as if he had forgot them.

Poole: Rev 16:20 - These are the effects of great earthquakes These are the effects of great earthquakes: see Rev 6:14 . Some, by islands and mountians, understand the inhabitants of both. I know not whethe...

These are the effects of great earthquakes: see Rev 6:14 . Some, by islands and mountians, understand the inhabitants of both. I know not whether those reverend authors, who by this term understand their idol worship and superstition, or ecclesiastical dignities, (I suppose because the heathens, and Jews, in imitation of them, committed idolatry on mountains and high hills), be not here too critical.

Poole: Rev 16:21 - -- The hail was another of the Egyptian plagues, Exo 9:22-25 . The allusion also may be to the hailstones by which God fought against the five Canaanit...

The hail was another of the Egyptian plagues, Exo 9:22-25 . The allusion also may be to the hailstones by which God fought against the five Canaanitish kings, Jos 10:11 . It signifies only further great judgments with which God will pursue the beast and his party, until they all be destroyed. The latter words only show the continued hardness of heart of the beast, and all his party; wherein also they answered Pharaoh and the Egyptians, (their type), who would relent with no steadiness and certainty, until they were all ruined by the waters of the Red Sea. In all this prediction of the final ruin of the papacy, Pharaoh and the Egyptians are apparently made the type of the pope and all his party:

1. As to their sins, which were idolatry, and the oppression of God’ s Israel.

2. In the plagues by which they were destroyed gradually; turning waters into blood, boils and blains, darkness, hail.

3. In their impenitency, and hardness of heart; only with these two differences, by which the antitype exceeded the type in wickedness:

(1.) We read of Pharaoh oft relenting, though his goodness was like a morning dew, and he returned to his former stubbornness.

(2.) We read nothing of the Egyptians blaspheming God, because of their plagues, which is often said of these Egyptians.

PBC: Rev 16:1 - -- Since the glory of God filled the temple until none could enter, this must be the voice of God who is the only one in the temple. He gave the order fo...

Since the glory of God filled the temple until none could enter, this must be the voice of God who is the only one in the temple. He gave the order for the seven angels to pour out the vials of wrath of God upon the earth.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 16:2 - -- Re 16:2 And the first went, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and there fell a noisome and grievous sore upon the men which had the mark of the ...

Re 16:2 And the first went, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and there fell a noisome and grievous sore upon the men which had the mark of the beast, and upon them which worshipped his image.

In Re 14:1-20, we interpreted the mark of the beast as being those Jews whose minds had been captured by the works of Satan. We learned of their torment, " And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb: And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name." {Re 14:9-11} We interpreted the image of the beast as being in direct conflict to the image of Christ. The mark of identification was received in the forehead (mind) and in the hand (works). As the first angel poured out his vial upon these men, " there fell a noisome[1] and grievous sore" upon them.

We are again faced with language which is very figurative. Instead of repenting of their evil deeds, they became more and more corrupt and vile both in mannerism and thinking. Truly the mark of the beast was taking over their lives.— Eld. Charles Taylor

[1] kakos, apparently a primary word; worthless.

PBC: Rev 16:3 - -- Re 16:3 And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea; and it became as the blood of a dead man: and every living soul died in the sea. This ...

Re 16:3 And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea; and it became as the blood of a dead man: and every living soul died in the sea.

This verse is the second cycle of Re 8:8. In that passage a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea: and the third part of the sea became blood. We find the source of that blood is that of a dead man. The mountain of the Law of Re 8:8 brings about the death of these rebellious Jews. The waters of that sea cast up its dirt and mire. God’s wrath is being poured out on these who had rejected their Messiah (husband). God rejects now these who had rejected Him. Their kingdom was desolate around them.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 16:4 - -- Re 16:4 And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters; and they became blood. Here we find the same language as fou...

Re 16:4 And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters; and they became blood.

Here we find the same language as found in Exodus, " I will smite with the rod that is in mine hand upon the waters which are in the river, and they shall be turned to blood... and the Egyptians shall loathe to drink of the water of the river." {Ex 7:17-18}

We have already spoken of the aqueduct[1] at Re 8:1-13 which brought water into Jerusalem being stopped. We also spoke of the great slaughter which took place as the armies of Rome, led by Titus, slew such great numbers that their blood ran like water. This certainly polluted the water until there was great drought and many more died because of famine and drought. Re 8:8-9, has shown us the first cycle of this vision. The Bible speaks often of seas as people. {Isa 57:20; 60:5; Da 7:2-3; Zec 14:8-9} Quote from chapter 8, "There were three parts of the temple: the outer area where the people gathered, the central section where the animals were sacrificed, and the inner part which was the Holy of Holies. The Roman army fought and gained ground to the innermost part, this was the point to which the people inside had retreated. Here utter destruction took place and the people in this third part[2] died. This figurative language used in Re 8:1-13, and in this chapter 16 applies to the lives lost in this part of the temple."— Eld. Charles Taylor

[1] Please see explanation of Re 8:11 See PB: Re 8:10

[2] Re 8:9. Again, remember this is written in figurative language. It refers to the great bloodshed which was in Jerusalem.

PBC: Rev 16:5 - -- This angel over the waters could only declare the judgment of God to be righteous. We are reminded of Paul’s remarks in the Roman letter, " Nay but,...

This angel over the waters could only declare the judgment of God to be righteous. We are reminded of Paul’s remarks in the Roman letter, " Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God?" {Ro 9:20} —Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 16:6 - -- The blood[1] of the saints and prophets was required of Jerusalem.— Eld. Charles Taylor [1] Mt 23:35 That upon you may come all the righteous blood...

The blood[1] of the saints and prophets was required of Jerusalem.— Eld. Charles Taylor

[1] Mt 23:35 That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. (These are the words of Jesus to Jerusalem.)

PBC: Rev 16:7 - -- Here is a second witness testifying of the righteousness of the judgments of God. " In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be establi...

Here is a second witness testifying of the righteousness of the judgments of God. " In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established." {2Co 13:1} —Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 16:8 - -- Re 16:8 And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun; and power was given unto him to scorch men with fire. Here again we find a reference w...

Re 16:8 And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun; and power was given unto him to scorch men with fire.

Here again we find a reference which leads us back to the first cycle of this great destruction. " And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea." {Re 8:8} This mountain (Sinai) which had smoked with fire now was about to be cast into the sea. The people had once been able to remove themselves from this terror of God. Now this mountain of the law in which they trusted to save them would be cast into their midst and prove to be their destruction because of their whoredoms and murderous acts.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 16:9 - -- This verse is self-explanatory. The law could not give life. It could only speak of death. God’s righteous anger could not be set aside by the works...

This verse is self-explanatory. The law could not give life. It could only speak of death. God’s righteous anger could not be set aside by the works of the law. Non repentance only brings greater suffering.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 16:10 - -- Re 16:10 And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast; and his kingdom was full of darkness; and they gnawed their tongues for p...

Re 16:10 And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast; and his kingdom was full of darkness; and they gnawed their tongues for pain,

Jesus spoke to the church at Pergamos, " I know thy works and where thou dwellest, even where Satan’s seat is: and thou holdest fast my name, and hast not denied my faith, even in those days wherein Antipas was my faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth." {Re 2:13} Jesus continued with the accusation by saying, " because thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balac to cast a stumblingblock before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to commit fornication." {Re 2:14} This also was the sin of the Jews who were defending Jerusalem against the messengers of death.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 16:11 - -- Repeatedly we learn of the unrepentant hearts of these Pharisees, hypocrites, who continued in their course. Only suffering remains to those who fail ...

Repeatedly we learn of the unrepentant hearts of these Pharisees, hypocrites, who continued in their course. Only suffering remains to those who fail to repent of their evil deeds.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 16:12 - -- Re 16:12 And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings of the ...

Re 16:12 And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared.

God made it possible for those legions who had been in Egypt to join Titus in this fight against Jerusalem. Let us review some passages already used in the command to the sixth angel: " Saying to the sixth angel which had the trumpet, Loose the four angels which are bound in the great river Euphrates." {Re 9:14} The four angels [messengers] were loosed to carry on the assault against Jerusalem. Their work was to slay [destroy] the inhabitants of Jerusalem. This corresponds with the four different groups which Titus assembled at Caesarea to begin the march on Jerusalem:

1) Those who came out of Egypt with Titus. This was the core of the army of Titus which he would gather to go into Caesarea. These had formerly fought with Titus’ father when he laid Judaea waste. Along with these were those who had been formerly beaten with Cestius.[1]  These were eager to avenge themselves against the Jews because of the defeat they had formerly suffered from the Jews. There are others who Josephus refers to as auxiliaries that come from the kings.

2) Those who came to the assistance of Titus from Syria.

3) When Vespasian was declared to be emperor, Mucianus, a Roman general had been sent to Rome with four legions to keep peace there. These also returned to fight with Titus.

4) Three thousand drawn from those that guarded the river Euphrates.

When God’s wrath was loosed it was as though the Euphrates River had dried up. Nothing could stop these hordes because God was using them to do His work in destroying the wicked city of Jerusalem.— Eld. Charles Taylor

[1] Cestius was the leader of Syrian legions which had invaded Judaea (66 A.D.) prior to the campaign led by Vespasian. Cestius was defeated by the Jews and retreated to Syria.

PBC: Rev 16:13 - -- The identification of this passage is difficult in that there are types of evil which must be identified. First of all, Satan tries to duplicate the t...

The identification of this passage is difficult in that there are types of evil which must be identified. First of all, Satan tries to duplicate the trinity of God in the three which are mentioned: The dragon which is Satan, The beast which is Rome, and the false prophet. This last is the one which may be difficult to identify. Let us see what God says about false prophets. " If there arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and giveth thee a sign or a wonder, And the sign or the wonder come to pass, whereof he spake unto thee, saying, Let us go after other gods, which thou hast not known, and let us serve them; Thou shalt not hearken unto the words of that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams: for the LORD your God proveth you, to know whether ye love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul." {De 13:1-3} " And that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams, shall be put to death; because he hath spoken to turn you away from the LORD your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, to thrust thee out of the way which the LORD thy God commanded thee to walk in. So shalt thou put the evil away from the midst of thee." {De 13:5}

The Christian Church was warned that false Christs and false prophets would arise, and would work impressive signs to deceive, delude and seduce Christ’s people. {Mr 13:22} The false prophet was one who both the old and new testament writers expected to appear. We shall see the end of this false prophet later. " And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshiped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone." {Re 19:20} " And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever." {Re 20:10}

The second beast of Re 13:1-18 and the false prophet can be identified as the same. Thus, being identified with the provincial organization and administration, the whole apparatus of priests and magistrates and officials, the false prophet stands for the whole organization which seeks to make men worship the emperor. This evil organization eventually advocates abandonment of worship of God and of Jesus Christ, His Son. A false prophet is any man, or organization, who tries to introduce the worship of other gods. Also any man or organization which preaches another gospel than that which the early Church and Apostles preached can be classified as a false prophet.

The three unclean spirits which were seen coming out of the mouth of this ungodly trinity appeared as frogs. Frogs are identified as one of the plagues of Egypt. " And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and the frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt." {Ex 8:6} Ex 8:7 informs us the magicians did so with their enchantments, and brought up frogs upon the land of Egypt. We gather from this that certain miracles are allowed to be demonstrated by Satan, the beast and the false prophet. The significance of typifying these spirits as frogs is that frogs multiply quickly and abundantly. They can jump from place to place. Therefore, the identification of these spirits with frogs seems to be made to show both the evil destruction and the speed with which they spread their carnage.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 16:14 - -- The word Armageddon[1] is taken from two Hebrew words: (1) har; a mountain or range of hills. (2) meged, means to be eminent; a distinguished thing; h...

The word Armageddon[1] is taken from two Hebrew words: (1) har; a mountain or range of hills. (2) meged, means to be eminent; a distinguished thing; hence something valuable, as a product or fruit: pleasant, precious fruit (thing).

Could this mountain or range of hills (sometimes used figuratively), plus eminent, distinguished, valuable, pleasant, precious fruit (thing) be the place where the victory was won by Jesus Christ on Mount Calvary and the Cross? (Armageddon). Now the aftermath of all this is seen by John as the destruction of Jerusalem (Babylon, the great whore) situated on a range of hills (Har), Jerusalem was an eminent, distinguished, valuable, pleasant place (meged) known by the whole world as the place where God had visited His people in time past. When these two are put the two together, we have Armageddon, The place where the battle of our salvation was fought and won!— Eld. Charles Taylor

[1] Strong’s Greek-Hebrew concordance.

PBC: Rev 16:17 - -- Re 16:17 And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, It...

Re 16:17 And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, saying, It is done.

Seventh denotes the final angel and biblical number to show perfection. As this angel poured out his vial into the air, there came a triumphant voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne. The battle of Armageddon had been fought and it was done, Jesus uttered these final words from the Cross, " It is finished." The temple was now in the heavenlies. This throne was the place where Jesus sat down after finishing the work given Him to do. This was the voice of Jesus, the Victor over death, hell, and the grave.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 16:18 - -- The voices which spoke were those, such that no man could number, who made their robes white in the blood of the Lamb. We saw the same scene at the en...

The voices which spoke were those, such that no man could number, who made their robes white in the blood of the Lamb. We saw the same scene at the ending of the first cycle, " And the angel took the censer, and filled it with fire of the altar, and cast it into the earth: and there were voices, and thunderings, and lightnings, and an earthquake." {Re 8:5} At the end of the second cycle, " And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever." {Re 11:15} Now at the ending of the third cycle, the wrath of God is poured out on Jerusalem and her sin.— Eld. Charles Taylor

PBC: Rev 16:19 - -- Man had never before felt the wrath of God as it was felt at this time. Neither shall that wrath be felt again in such fulness. Every island over whic...

Man had never before felt the wrath of God as it was felt at this time. Neither shall that wrath be felt again in such fulness. Every island over which Jerusalem’s power had reigned would no longer be seen. The mountains upon which her old temple sat were not found. God reigns supremely through Christ Jesus our King.— Eld. Charles Taylor

Haydock: Rev 16:1 - I heard a great voice // Go and pour out the seven vials I heard a great voice. Bossuet explains the pouring out of the seven vials in this manner. The five first he supposes to have taken place under the...

I heard a great voice. Bossuet explains the pouring out of the seven vials in this manner. The five first he supposes to have taken place under the reign of Valerian and Gallien; the sixth he supposes to have been poured out during the reigns of Valerian, Dioclesian, and Julian; and the seventh under Honorius and the Alani. (Bossuet) ---

All commentators, however, seem to agree that the great city mentioned in the 19th verse, is to be understood of Rome, and that the plagues which are here foretold, are denounced against her. (Calmet, Pastorini, &c.) ---

Go and pour out the seven vials, &c. According to the exposition followed by the bishop of Meaux, all these seven vials are already past, being punishments and judgments exercised against the heathen emperors, from the time of Valerian even to the time of Julian, at whose death it might be said, (ver. 17) it is done. Idolatry is destroyed, as to its public worship. Here in particular, by the drying up of the Euphrates, and by the armies of the East, these interpreters understand those of the Persians, who first gave the great shock to the empire in Valerian's time, and by whom afterwards Julian the apostate was defeated, and killed. By the great Babylon they also understand idolatrous Rome; and by the islands and mountains sunk by earthquakes, they understand the destruction of divers kingdoms. According to another interpretation, (which is very common) all these judgments are to come before the end of the world; and will be in a manner literally executed about antichrist's time. At the first vial, men shall be struck with ulcers and wounds, not unlike to the sixth plague of Egypt. At the second and third vial, the sea and fountains shall be turned into blood, as in Egypt. At the fourth vial shall be excessive scorching heats, tormenting men, and burning every thing for their use. At the fifth vial darkness, like that of Egypt. At the sixth vial, (ver. 12.) the Euphrates dried up, to open a passage for the armies from the East, to come and join the forces of antichrist. And the three unclean spirits like frogs, may signify devils sent by the dragon, or chief of the devils, to excite the wicked to all manner of unclean abominations. They are here said to be gathered together in a place called Armagedon, perhaps with an allusion to Mageddon, in the tribe of Manasses, where the two kings of Israel, Ochozias and Josias, perished. (4 Kings ix. 21.) And they are brought in only to signify a place of great destruction. See also Zacharias xii. 11. At the seventh vial, a voice, it is done, i.e. the reign of the wicked in general, and of antichrist, is at an end. (Witham)

Haydock: Rev 16:2 - And the first And the first. From hence it appears that the first vial was poured out indiscriminately upon the good equally with the wicked. But behold the diff...

And the first. From hence it appears that the first vial was poured out indiscriminately upon the good equally with the wicked. But behold the different consequences that follow: those that have the mark of the beast are afflicted with a sore and grievous wound, which is said in allusion to the madness, fury, and despair with which the wicked were afflicted, whilst St. John's omitting to say any thing of the just, shews that they bore it with resignation and joy. (Calmet)

Haydock: Rev 16:3 - And the second And the second. On pouring out the vial follows the divine judgment. There appears blood, like that of a dead man. This passage, Pastorini is of o...

And the second. On pouring out the vial follows the divine judgment. There appears blood, like that of a dead man. This passage, Pastorini is of opinion alludes to the Arian heresy, which, like blood, flowed in vigorous circulation whilst in health and strength, gradually retarded its motion, as in a dying man, and was at last totally lost and stopped, like the circulation in a dead man. Hence every living soul died in the sea. (Pastorini) ---

Calmet interprets it as a prediction of the calamities which befell the Roman empire, during the invasion of the Persians on the east, and the Goths and other barbarous nations on the west.

Haydock: Rev 16:4 - Upon the rivers Upon the rivers. That is, on the Roman provinces in Italy, and Rome itself. This is the last stroke employed by the Almighty for the total destruct...

Upon the rivers. That is, on the Roman provinces in Italy, and Rome itself. This is the last stroke employed by the Almighty for the total destruction of Rome. The divine judgment being executed, the Angel of the waters, that is, the Angel that presided over the Roman states, cries out, (ver. 5. 6.) thou art just, &c. (Pastorini)

Haydock: Rev 16:8 - And the fourth Angel And the fourth Angel . Here is the punishment of the Greeks during the siege of Constantinople by the Turks, where the fire engines, that were then m...

And the fourth Angel . Here is the punishment of the Greeks during the siege of Constantinople by the Turks, where the fire engines, that were then made use of for the first time, so reduced the Grecian army, that the walls of the city were reduced to ashes, and the whole town to flames. Hence it appears how the Greeks were scorched with great heat; and how they blaspheme the name of God, appears too evident from the history of Notaros, admiral of the Constantinopolitan fleet. (Pastorini)

Haydock: Rev 16:10 - -- Calmet explains this passage of Rome the seat of idolatry, which was given up to the pillage of the barbarians under Alaric. (Calmet)

Calmet explains this passage of Rome the seat of idolatry, which was given up to the pillage of the barbarians under Alaric. (Calmet)

Haydock: Rev 16:12 - River Euphrates River Euphrates. That is, a passage is laid open for the potentates of the East to lay their destructive hands upon the countries on this side the E...

River Euphrates. That is, a passage is laid open for the potentates of the East to lay their destructive hands upon the countries on this side the Euphrates. For they are the spirits of devils working signs, which are sent forth by the eastern princes, to oblige all to unite in arms against the great day of the Almighty God. (Pastorini)

Haydock: Rev 16:16 - Armagedon Armagedon. That is, the hill of robbers. (Challoner)

Armagedon. That is, the hill of robbers. (Challoner)

Haydock: Rev 16:18 - -- The seventh vial is poured out upon the air which lies between the earth and the heavens, to indicate that the judgments of God are going to fall upon...

The seventh vial is poured out upon the air which lies between the earth and the heavens, to indicate that the judgments of God are going to fall upon the whole creation. After which follow these words, it is done. All is over, time is no more; upon which immediately follow lightnings, &c.

Haydock: Rev 16:19 - Great Babylon came in remembrance before God Great Babylon came in remembrance before God. The time of God's punishing the wicked world is approaching: for by a third interpretation, Babylon ma...

Great Babylon came in remembrance before God. The time of God's punishing the wicked world is approaching: for by a third interpretation, Babylon may signify metaphorically all the wicked in general. (Witham)

Haydock: Rev 16:21 - And great hail like a talent came down And great hail like a talent came down, &c.[1] Which need not be taken literally, but only metaphorically, to signify the heavy weight of God's judg...

And great hail like a talent came down, &c.[1] Which need not be taken literally, but only metaphorically, to signify the heavy weight of God's judgments upon sinners. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Et grando magna sicut talentum, Greek: os talantiaia, quasi talentaris. The Protestant and Mr. N. translate hail about the weight of a talent, as if every hailstone were of that weight.

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Gill: Rev 16:1 - And I heard a great voice out of the temple // Saying to the seven angels, go your ways and pour out the vials of the wrath of God upon the earth And I heard a great voice out of the temple,.... The church, which in the preceding chapter is said to be opened; this was either the voice of God, wh...

And I heard a great voice out of the temple,.... The church, which in the preceding chapter is said to be opened; this was either the voice of God, whose temple the church is, and where he dwells, and who, has power over these plagues, Rev 16:9 and who, when he is about to bring judgments on the earth, is said to roar out of Zion, Rev 16:16 or of Christ, who is always in the midst of his church and people, and whose voice is as the voice of many waters; see Rev 16:15 or it may be of one of the four living creatures, the ministers of the word, in and by whom Christ often speaks; and the rather, since one of these gave the seven angels the golden vials of the wrath of God, they are now bid to pour out.

Saying to the seven angels, go your ways and pour out the vials of the wrath of God upon the earth; for though these angels had the seven last plagues to inflict, and the seven vials of God's wrath to pour out, and were in a readiness to do it, yet they did not move without an order, which is here given them; and they are bid to go their ways, from the temple, the church, where they were, and of which they were members, to the several parts of the antichristian empire; and there pour out all the wrath and vengeance of God upon his enemies, and theirs, and leave nothing behind, but give them the dregs of every cup of his fury: the earth here is to be taken in a larger sense than in the following verse, and includes the land and sea, the fountains and rivers, and even the ambient air, and also the sun in the firmament, as the pouring out of these vials upon them show; and designs the whole apostate church, consisting of earthly men, all the inhabitants of the earth, that worship the beast. The Alexandrian copy, the Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Arabic versions, and the Complutensian edition, read, "the seven vials of the wrath of God"; these seven vials are not contemporary, much less the same with the seven trumpets; there is indeed a likeness between them in some things, especially in the first four; for as the first four trumpets affect the earth, the sea, the fountains, and rivers of water, and the sun, so the first four vials are poured out on the same, and that in the same order; first on the earth, and then on the sea, &c. and which will give some light, and be a direction to observe the several parts of the antichristian empire, which will suffer by these vials, and the in which their ruin will proceed; and as the trumpets were so many gradual steps to the ruin of the Roman empire, eastern and western, when become Christian, so these vials are so many gradual steps to, and which issue in the ruin of, both the eastern and western antichrist; though they do not respect the same things, nor the same times: the trumpets respect the Roman empire as Christian, under the government of emperors, after the downfall of Paganism in it; and the vials respect the antichristian powers in their several branches, under the pope and Turk. Antichrist did not appear until the fifth trumpet sounded, whereas the first vial is poured out upon his followers and worshippers, Rev 16:2 from whence it is a clear point, that the first trumpet and the first vial cannot be contemporary; and the same judgment may be made of the rest: and it may be further observed, that these vials are only poured out on the enemies of God and of Christ, and of his church and people; for no wrath can be poured out upon the saints, not the least drop of it can fall upon them; this would not be consistent with God's everlasting love to them, with the satisfaction of Christ made for them, nor with the blessings of justification, pardon, adoption, &c. bestowed on them; not but that they may meet with trouble in the of these vials, through the wars that will be in the world, and through the struggles of the beast of Rome, especially its last, which will be the hour of temptation, and that time of trouble than which never was the like; yet all will work for, and issue in their good, and they will rejoice in God's righteous judgments; the blow will be upon antichrist, the vengeance of God will fall upon those that have the mark of the beast, and the worshippers of his image, upon the seat of the beast, even upon Babylon, and the whole Romish jurisdiction, as appears from Rev 16:2 and also upon the Turkish empire, and all the nations engaged in the interest of both pope and Turk, Rev 16:12 and it is easy to observe, that there is in many of these vials an allusion to the plagues of Egypt; in the first, Rev 16:2 to the plague of boils, Exo 9:8 in the second and third, Rev 16:3 to that of turning the waters of Egypt into blood, Exo 7:19 in the fourth, Rev 16:10 to the darkness that was over all the land of Egypt, Exo 10:21 and in the fifth there is a manifest reference to the frogs that distressed the Egyptians, Exo 8:5 and in the seventh, to the plague of hail, Exo 9:23 and they have much the same effect, even the hardening of those on whom they fall, being far from being brought to repentance by them, Rev 16:9 and this confirms the application of the vials to the destruction of Rome, which is spiritually called Egypt, Rev 11:8 and may assure that they will issue in the ruin of antichrist, and in the salvation of God's people, as the plagues of Egypt did in the destruction of Pharaoh, and in the deliverance of the children of Israel; and may also lead us to conclude, that there will be a like quick execution of the one as of the other; for as the plagues of Egypt came very quick one after another, so it seems as if the pouring out of these vials would be in like manner; the angels receive them together, and have their orders at the same time; and they go forth immediately, one after another, if not together, to the respective parts where they are to pour them forth, and which they do directly; see Rev 16:8. Moreover, these vials will affect antichrist both with respect to his civil and ecclesiastic capacity, or both in temporals and spirituals, and, both antichrists, eastern and western: whether they are begun to be poured out or not, is a question. I am ready to think they are not, because they seem to me to refer to the seventh trumpet, which as yet has not sounded, and are the same with the wrath of God, and the time of the judging the dead, or avenging the blood of the saints, which will be come when that sounds, Rev 11:18. Besides, the outer court is not entirely given to the Gentiles, nor the witnesses slain, which must be before this time of wrath upon antichrist; not but that there has been some manifest marks of the divine displeasure upon the whore of Rome, and she has been sinking ever since the Reformation, at which time some begin these vials, or before; and she is reduced to a low estate; yet I think not to such a degree as these vials express.

Gill: Rev 16:2 - And the first went // and poured out his vial upon the earth // and there fell a noisome and grievous sore upon the men which had the mark of the beast And the first went,.... The Arabic and Ethiopic versions read, "the first angel", and who undoubtedly is meant, who readily and cheerfully obeyed the ...

And the first went,.... The Arabic and Ethiopic versions read, "the first angel", and who undoubtedly is meant, who readily and cheerfully obeyed the orders given him, as did the rest; by this angel cannot be meant Pope Adrian, as Lyra, a Popish interpreter, imagines; for a pope would never hurt the worshippers of the beast, as this angel does; rather some Christian Protestant prince or magistrate is designed, and Brightman applies it to Queen Elizabeth; though a set of kings and princes yet to come seem to be intended:

and poured out his vial upon the earth; not upon the whole earth, and the inhabitants of it; not upon the temple or church of God, and the worshippers in it, which are measured, hid, and protected; nor upon the Roman Pagan empire, which was destroyed under the sixth seal, and which never had any worshippers of the beast and his image in it, for then he was not risen; nor upon the whole apostate church, only a part of it: some think the meaner and vulgar sort of Papists are meant, who were reformed by the Waldenses, Wycliff, Huss, and others before Luther; but rather the antichristian powers on the continent are designed, and particularly Germany; for as the first trumpet affected the earth, Rev 8:7 and brought the Goths into Germany, and other inland countries on the continent; so this first vial affects the earth, and brings distress upon the Popish party in the same place: and this respects not the Reformation by Luther, as some have thought, nor the wars of the Turks here in the last age; though were it not for some things unfulfilled, which are to precede these vials, one would be tempted to think that this vial was now pouring out upon the empire; but I rather think this refers to a time of distress yet to come on those parts, and which will issue in a reformation from Popery again; for it should be observed, and it may be observed once for all, that though these vials are so many plagues upon antichrist, they are each of them so many steps to the advancement of Christ's kingdom and glory:

and there fell a noisome and grievous sore upon the men which had the mark of the beast, and upon them which worshipped his image; that is, who were professors of the Popish religion, and adherents of the pope of Rome in those parts; see Rev 13:15 who will only feel the effects of this vial, and that by a noisome and grievous sore falling on them, in allusion to the plague of boils in Egypt, Exo 9:8 by which may be meant, either literally something external, but not the plague in Dioclesian's time, for then the beast was not risen; and there were none that could have his mark or worship his image: some have thought the French disease is intended, which first appeared in the world in 1490, among the Papists, as a just judgment upon them for the horrible and unnatural lusts and uncleanness of the Romish clergy; and others understand it of a very great heat, which will be before the burning of the world, and will raise blisters and boils upon men: or rather this may design something internal, either the remorse of their consciences, reflections on their past practices, and black despair and horror of mind; and their madness, wrath, and fury, their malice and envy at the success of the preachers of the Gospel, and of Protestant states and princes against them; see Deu 28:27. Moreover, their secret and wicked practices, both in political and ecclesiastical affairs, will be discovered, and they will appear with boils and blotches upon them all over, which will render them odious to the people, and be the means of a general reformation. Mr. Daubuz thinks the curse of wickedness in the ninth and tenth centuries, after the invocation of saints and angels, and the worship of images were settled, is meant.

Gill: Rev 16:3 - And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea // and it became as the blood of a dead man // and every living soul died in the sea And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea,.... Not literally; and so does not design the stagnation of it, which it is thought will be bef...

And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea,.... Not literally; and so does not design the stagnation of it, which it is thought will be before the general conflagration; see Amo 7:4 nor is it to be understood of the sea of this world, and the men of it, who are like a troubled sea; but rather of Popish doctrines and councils, which are a sea of errors, and will now be confuted and put an end to. Brightman applies it to the council of Trent, and makes this angel to be Chemnitius, a German divine, who wrote a confutation of it; but as the sea is a collection of many waters, and many waters in this book signify the people and nations under the Romish yoke, sea here may design the whole jurisdiction of Rome, or mystical Babylon; see Jer 51:36 and particularly its maritime powers, Spain and Portugal: and as the second trumpet affected the sea, Rev 8:8 and brought the Vandals into Spain and Portugal, so this second vial affects the sea, and brings great wars, slaughter, and bloodshed into these parts, when they also will be reformed from Popery:

and it became as the blood of a dead man; thick, clotted together, and putrid, and so never to be returned to their former state:

and every living soul died in the sea: those, that are not reformed will either die by the sword, or fly into other parts; for there will be no comfortable living for the Popish party in those countries where now they live in power, ease, and affluence. This, and the following vial, are referred by Mr. Daubuz, the one to the first crusades, or holy wars, for the regaining of the holy land, and the other to the latter of them.

Gill: Rev 16:4 - And the third angel poured his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters And the third angel poured his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters,.... Which also is not to be literally understood of a stagnation of them,...

And the third angel poured his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters,.... Which also is not to be literally understood of a stagnation of them, before the burning of the world; nor of the destruction of Popish fleets and navies, such as the Spanish armada in 1588, and others since; but rather of Popish writings, of the most learned and subtle men among them, who like rivers and fountains, which supply and fill the sea, support and keep up the Romish jurisdiction and hierarchy; and of the confutation of them by Protestant writers; and of the utter destruction of their principal orders, and chief men among them, as cardinals, archbishops, bishops, priests, Jesuits, &c. though it seems chiefly to design the places near to Rome, such as Italy and Savoy; for as the third trumpet affects the rivers and fountains, Rev 8:10 and brings in the Huns into Italy, and issued in the destruction of the empire; so the third vial affects the same, and brings terrible wars, and great effusion of blood, where so much of the blood of the saints have been shed: hence it follows, and they became blood; these countries will be covered with blood, and a reformation will ensue upon it; the allusion is to Exo 7:19.

Gill: Rev 16:5 - And I heard the angel of the waters say // Thou art righteous, O Lord, which art, and wast, and shall be // because thou hast judged thus And I heard the angel of the waters say,.... So we read in Jewish writings t of an angel that was שרא דימא, "the prince of the sea", and of ang...

And I heard the angel of the waters say,.... So we read in Jewish writings t of an angel that was שרא דימא, "the prince of the sea", and of angels that were over the waters, and others over fire u; though here is designed not one of the מלאכי מים "angels of the water", that presided ove the waters, as another over fire; See Gill on Rev 14:18, but the third angel that poured out his vial upon the waters; when he had so done, he said as follows. Dr. Lightfoot thinks, and that not without reason, that since these angels appeared in the garb of priests, Rev 15:6 and since there was a priest appointed to take care of the wells, and fountains, and ditches about Jerusalem, that the people might have water at the feasts w, there is an allusion to him; and certain it is that there was such an officer; there was one Nechoniah, who was over the fountains and ditches x; and in the same office was Nicodemon ben Gorion y, thought to be the Nicodemus mentioned in the New Testament.

Thou art righteous, O Lord, which art, and wast, and shall be: which may be understood either of God the Father, who had power over these plagues, Rev 16:9 and sent them; or of the Lord Jesus Christ, who is Lord of all, and is righteous in all his ways and works, in all his judgments on antichrist, and is the eternal "I AM", which is, and was, and shall be; see Rev 1:8. The Alexandrian copy, and most others, and the Vulgate Latin and Syriac versions, read "holy", instead of "shalt be"; for the purity and holiness of Christ will be seen in the judgments which he will exercise, as follows:

because thou hast judged thus; or "these things"; or "them", as the Ethiopic version reads; that is, has brought these judgments upon the men signified by rivers and fountains, and made great havoc and slaughter of them, expressed by their becoming blood; the justice of which appears from the following reason.

Gill: Rev 16:6 - For they have shed the blood of saints and prophets // And thou hast given them blood to drink // for they are worthy For they have shed the blood of saints and prophets,.... Which shows that rivers and fountains cannot be literally understood, but men are designed, w...

For they have shed the blood of saints and prophets,.... Which shows that rivers and fountains cannot be literally understood, but men are designed, wicked and bloody men; and it is notorious to all, how much of the blood of the saints, of the preachers of the Gospel, of the prophets and witnesses, have been shed in Italy, Savoy, and other places near Rome, as well as in Rome itself; see Rev 17:6.

And thou hast given them blood to drink; sent the sword among them, making great slaughter and devastation; see Isa 49:26

for they are worthy; or deserving, to have their blood shed by the law of retaliation.

Gill: Rev 16:7 - And I heard another out of the altar say // even so, Lord God Almighty, true and righteous are thy judgments And I heard another out of the altar say,.... That is, another angel that came out of the altar; see Rev 14:18 and who represents the souls under the ...

And I heard another out of the altar say,.... That is, another angel that came out of the altar; see Rev 14:18 and who represents the souls under the altar, whose blood had been shed by the above persons; compare with this Rev 6:9 though, there, such whose blood had been shed by Rome Pagan are described; the Ethiopic version calls this angel as before, "the angel of the fountains of water"; and the Alexandrian copy, and Syriac and Arabic versions, read, "I heard the altar saying": as follows,

even so, Lord God Almighty, true and righteous are thy judgments; the same as in Rev 15:3. This angel joins the other, and approves and confirms what he says; applauding the judgements of Christ upon the worshippers of the beast, from the verity of them, being what were threatened, and from the justice of them, being what they deserved.

Gill: Rev 16:8 - And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun // And power was given unto him to scorch men with fire And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun,.... Not literally; and so designs not a violent heat, which shall go before, and be a preparati...

And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun,.... Not literally; and so designs not a violent heat, which shall go before, and be a preparation for the burning of the world; nor any sore famine arising from it, which would be common to all, good and bad; but mystically: some understand this of Christ, the sun of righteousness, not of any wrath that shall be poured forth on him again, being now justified in the Spirit; but either of that clear shining of Christ in the ministry of the word, in those times this vial refers to; when Zion's light will be come, and the light of the sun will be seven fold, and Christ alone will be exalted; which clear ministration of Christ, though it will not savingly enlighten, yet will convict and confound the antichristian party; they will be scorched with the beams of heat and light, which will dart from hence; these will torture them, and fill them with envy, rage, and malice, because they will not be able to obscure this light, or stop the progress of it; they themselves will be so enlightened by it, as to see and know the truth of Christ's person, and offices, and grace, and yet will sin against it, and so be guilty of blasphemy against the Spirit of God, a sin which will greatly prevail among them; and they will, like the clay, be the more hardened by this light and heat, and will not repent of their sins and errors, nor confess them, nor own the light and conviction they have received: or else of the wrath of Christ, which he will be moved by this angel to stir up against the antichristian party, and which they will be sensible of, and be fearfully looking for. Others, and which comes much to the same sense, understand this of the Scriptures, the fountain of spiritual light, and of the clear interpretation of them in those times; when the watchmen shall see eye to eye, and when the day shall declare and make manifest every man's work, and the fire reveal and try it; and the same effects upon the antichristian party shall follow as before: but I rather think this refers to some part of the antichristian state, as in the other vials, or to something belonging to it; some have thought that the house of Austria, the chief family in the empire, or the king of Spain, or the emperor, who were both formerly of that house, or Germany itself, is meant; but the empire, as we have seen, seems to be designed by the earth in the first vial; wherefore, rather as the smiting of the third part of the sun, moon, and stars, under the fourth trumpet, signifies the utter extirpation of the Roman emperor, and all other Roman magistrates, who were the sun, moon, and stars in that empire; so this vial upon the sun refers to the pope, and his creatures, the cardinals, &c. who is the sun in the antichristian kingdom; and this angel may design the kings of the earth, who will be stirred up against him, by whom he and his dependents will suffer sorely, if not destroyed.

And power was given unto him to scorch men with fire; which may either respect the burning of Rome, and the adjacent parts; or rather the filling of the antichristian party with rage and malice, at the destruction of the pope, and his creatures; for these men are the same with those in Rev 16:2.

Gill: Rev 16:9 - And men were scorched with great heat // and blasphemed the name of God, which hath power over these plagues // and they repented not to give him glory And men were scorched with great heat,.... Burned with rage against the followers of Christ; were filled with envy at the success of his Gospel, and w...

And men were scorched with great heat,.... Burned with rage against the followers of Christ; were filled with envy at the success of his Gospel, and with fury and madness at the ruinous condition of the antichristian state, being deprived of its head, and chief officers:

and blasphemed the name of God, which hath power over these plagues; plagues or judgments are from God, when and wherever they come; they are sent and inflicted by him, and he can lessen or increase them, continue or remove them, as he pleases; and these, unless sanctified, will not reform men, but harden them, and set them a blaspheming the author of them. And this blasphemy may either respect the nature and perfections of God, charging him with inequality in his ways, and with injustice and unfaithfulness; or the Gospel, and the truths of it, which declare his glory, and his greatness; and which will now have a general spread, to the great mortification and confusion of the followers of antichrist:

and they repented not to give him glory; that is, they did not repent of their wicked deeds, their idolatries, murders, sorceries, fornications, and thefts, as in Rev 9:20 so as to own and confess them, which is, the meaning of giving glory to God in repentance; see Jos 7:19. This shows that repentance is not in man's power, but in the gift of God's grace; for though he may give space, yet if he does not give grace to repent, no man will repent; nor will any means of themselves produce it; as not the most powerful and awakening ministry, as the ministry of John the Baptist, and of Christ, and of the Gospel preachers that will be in those times, this vial refers to, nor the greatest mercies and favours, so not the severest judgments; see Amo 6:6. The event of this vial, or the plague of it, is applied, by Mr. Daubuz, to the wars between the emperors and the popes, and between the Guelphs and Gibelines.

Gill: Rev 16:10 - And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast // And his kingdom was full of darkness And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast,.... The beast is the same with that in Rev 13:1 and which again shows that to be o...

And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast,.... The beast is the same with that in Rev 13:1 and which again shows that to be one and the same: the seat or throne of the beast is Rome, which, when the empire was Pagan, was the seat of Satan, or the dragon, Rev 2:13 and when the beast or antichrist was risen, the dragon gave this seat, as well as his authority to him, Rev 13:2 and is that city which is so often called, in this book, the great city, and is manifestly pointed out by its seven mountains, on which the city of Rome stood, Rev 17:9 and the pouring out of this vial upon it denotes the destruction of it, when it will be burnt down, and become desolate, an habitation of devils, of every foul spirit, and hateful bird, Rev 18:2 and this corresponds with the fifth trumpet; for as that brings in the rise of antichrist, both eastern and western, who rose much about the same time, so this vial affects him particularly; the western antichrist, his seat and kingdom. Mr. Daubuz refers this plague to the expulsion of the western and eastern emperors from their capital cities, Rome and Constantinople, and to the mischiefs caused by the antipopes in the west, and to the quarrels and schism in the Greek churches in the fourteenth century.

And his kingdom was full of darkness; not only of the darkness of false doctrine and superstition, for so it was always, being filled with the smoke of the bottomless pit; nor only of judicial blindness and darkness, which the subjects of the antichristian state are given up unto; but rather of a discovery of all this, with all their hidden works of darkness, which will now be brought to light; though it seems chiefly to design the great affliction and distress the antichristian state will be in at this time, which darkness sometimes signifies; see Isa 9:1 it having lost its sun, the pope, under the preceding vial, and its seat, the city of Rome, under this: the sense is, that it will be greatly obscured in its glory and magnificence, in its traffic and riches, Rev 18:11 its power and authority will be greatly diminished, and it will be had in contempt by the princes of the earth; though it will not as yet be utterly destroyed, for its utter destruction is reserved for the seventh and last vial. The allusion is to the plague of darkness in Egypt, Exo 10:21. And they gnawed their tongues for pain; these are the men of the antichristian party, the subjects of the antichristian kingdom, now become full of darkness, the worshippers of the beast, and his image; these will gnaw their tongues, which expresses their inward anguish and distress, their anger, wrath, and fury, their being filled with revenge, and yet in an incapacity to execute it, and will even be afraid to express it; and therefore will bite their tongues in madness; and this for pain, for the pain of their mind, at the sad and low estate of the antichristian kingdom.

Gill: Rev 16:11 - And blasphemed the God of heaven // because of their pains and their sores And blasphemed the God of heaven,.... Who made it, and dwells in it, and from whence wrath is revealed, and comes upon the seat of the beast, upon the...

And blasphemed the God of heaven,.... Who made it, and dwells in it, and from whence wrath is revealed, and comes upon the seat of the beast, upon the kingdom of antichrist, and the subjects of that kingdom; they will curse him who is of right their King, and their God, and look upwards to heaven, where he is, Isa 8:21 and this,

because of their pains and their sores: see Rev 16:2 the inward frettings and distresses of their minds, the gallings and gnawings of their consciences, the horror and terror of their souls, and their fearful looking for of judgment, which the present face of things upon antichrist will bring upon them; just as the Egyptians, in the time of their darkness, were distressed with internal guilt, and black horror of mind, and with evil spirits, which were sent among them, and haunted them during that season; see Psa 78:49 and repented not of their deeds; their antichristian works of darkness; see Rev 9:20.

Gill: Rev 16:12 - And the sixth angel poured his vial on the great river Euphrates // And the water thereof was dried up // that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared And the sixth angel poured his vial on the great river Euphrates,.... Which is not to be understood literally of the river Euphrates, which ran throug...

And the sixth angel poured his vial on the great river Euphrates,.... Which is not to be understood literally of the river Euphrates, which ran through Mesopotamia and Chaldea, and by the walls of Babylon; and of the drying of it up to make way for the Jews in the eastern parts of the world, to pass into their own land, and possess it; when a like miracle will be wrought for them as was when they came out of Egypt, by dividing the Red sea for them; and as when they entered into Canaan's land, by laying the waters of Jordan on heaps, so that they passed over as on dry land; in favour of which sense the passage in Isa 11:15 is thought to be, which the Targum interprets of God's smiting the river Euphrates; though the river Nile in Egypt seems rather to be meant: but it does not appear that there is any number of Jews beyond the river Euphrates; the far greater number of them is in the western and northern parts of the world; so that there will be no need for the drying up of this river for their passage into their own land; nor, if there were any in those parts, can any reason be given why they should be called the kings of the east, who, wherever they are, are a poor contemptible people, and have never had any ensigns of royalty among them for many hundreds of years; nor can that river be thought much to hinder, were all other impediments out of the way, nor the drying of it up much facilitate their passage to Judea, and much less affect their conversion: besides, this vial, as the rest, is a plague on antichrist, in some branch or other, or on some part or other, of the antichristian state; which, if not designed here, is nowhere in the account of this vial, and therefore this must be understood mystically; there is no doubt an allusion to the draining of this river at the taking of Babylon by Cyrus, according as was predicted in prophecy, Isa 44:27 who, making sluices and drains, turned the river another way, and marched through it with his army, and surprised and took the city at once, while Belshazzar and his nobles were indulging themselves in rioting and drunkenness, as Daniel relates, Dan 5:1. Now some, because that Babylon was situated upon the river Euphrates, and Rome, or the Romish antichrist, is mystical Babylon, think that is here designed, and is the object of this vial; and that the drying up of this river designs the withdrawing of nations and kingdoms, signified by waters, Rev 17:15 from its jurisdiction and power, which will bring on its ruin; and also the stoppage of dues and tithes, annates, Peter's pence, and of all its traffic in indulgences, pardons, &c. whereby it will be greatly impoverished, and brought to nothing: but it should be observed, that the fifth vial affects Rome, the seat of the beast; and as for the beast himself, he will not be destroyed till the battle of Armageddon; and mystical Babylon, or the antichristian state, in the whole compass of it, will not be destroyed until the pouring out of the seventh vial; wherefore rather the eastern antichrist, the Turks are meant, in whose dominions this river is; for as the Assyrian monarch is signified by the waters of this river, when he was in his glory, and had his seat at Babylon, by which this river ran, Isa 8:7 so may the Turks, who inhabit by this river, be intended by it; and the rather, as this sense exactly corresponds with the sixth trumpet; for as the sounding of that trumpet looses the four angels bound in the great river Euphrates, which founded the Turkish empire, as we have seen; so the pouring out of this sixth vial affects the same empire, and brings it to ruin. Mr. Daubuz is of opinion that this plague refers to the depopulation and destruction of the Grecian empire, and the bringing of the Turks into Europe, who have greatly distressed and tormented the corrupted Christians or Papists.

And the water thereof was dried up; the Ottoman empire will be extinct, just as the destruction of the Babylonish monarchy is expressed by the drying up of its sea, Jer 51:36 so the destruction of the Turkish empire is signified by the drying up of the water of this river, which is in the heart of it: and this is the passing away of the second woe, Rev 11:14

that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared; which some understand of Christians in general, who are made kings and priests unto God, and of Christian kings in particular, whose way will be prepared, by the declining state of antichrist, to express their hatred to the whore of Rome, and burn her flesh with fire; but the Romish antichrist is not here intended: others think, as before observed, that the Jews are designed; that the Jews will be converted in the last days seems manifest from Hos 3:5 and other places; and that they will return to their own land is suggested in abundance of prophecies, particularly in Eze 37:21 Amo 9:14 and it must be allowed that the eastern, as well as the western antichrist, is a stumbling to them; and especially the advantage which the Turks have gained over the powers that go under the Christian name, and their possession of their land is an hinderance to their return to it; so that the destruction of the Turkish empire will undoubtedly make way for their conversion, and restoration to their own land; but then this will be equally advantageous to the Jews in the west as to those in the east, if there be any numbers of them there, which does not appear, and therefore there seems no reason why they should be pointed at, and be called the kings of the east: rather therefore to me it seems, that, through the fall of the Ottoman empire, way will be made for the kings and princes of the east, literally understood, to have and embrace the Gospel of Christ; for, the Turks being destroyed, the Mahometan religion will decline, the Gospel will be carried into the eastern parts of the world, into those vast kingdoms and countries which lie in those parts, when they will become the kingdoms of our Lord, and the kings and princes of them will come to the brightness of Zion's rising; so that the ruin of this monarchy will pave the way for the spread of Christ's kingdom from sea to sea, and front the river, the river Euphrates, to the ends of the earth; and this also will prepare the way, and lead on for all the saints, who are kings, and shall reign with Christ a thousand years, who is said to come from the east, Rev 7:2 or from the rising of the sun, as these are said to do, as the words may be rendered, to possess the kingdom under the whole heaven: Philo the Jew z has some expressions illustrating the literal sense of this, where he speaks of a Roman army on the banks of Euphrates, which kept the passage of "the eastern kings".

Gill: Rev 16:13 - And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs // come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs,.... Rome, the seat of antichrist, being destroyed, and the kingdom of the beast darkened, and brought into...

And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs,.... Rome, the seat of antichrist, being destroyed, and the kingdom of the beast darkened, and brought into great contempt, Mahometanism greatly declining, the Gospel succeeding everywhere, the Jews being converted, and resettled in their own land, the devil bestirs himself more than ordinary; and dispatches his, and the emissaries of antichrist, to the kings of the whole earth, that can any ways be engaged on their side, and against the saints; and these are no other than the creatures of antichrist, such as cardinals, priests, and particularly Jesuits, as their original from the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet, show. Mr. Daubuz thinks these "three" are the "monks", the "religious knights", and "secular clergy": and these are called "spirits"; not because they are what are called familiar spirits, or devils themselves, for they are the spirits of devils, as in the next verse; but either because they pretend to be spiritual men, ecclesiastics, men in spiritual offices, and indeed are spiritual wickednesses in high places; or because of their agility, swiftness, and expeditiousness in going to and fro, Satan like, to do mischief: and they are said to be "unclean"; as the evil spirits and devils are, being so by nature, and delighting in uncleanness, and giving themselves up to work it with greediness: and they are "like frogs"; the allusion is to the plague of frogs in Egypt, Exo 8:5 and these antichristian emissaries are fitly compared to them, for their impurity, and pleasure they take in it, as frogs do in dirt and filth; and for their being talkative, impudent, and troublesome, like the noisy croaking frogs; so "rhetoricians" are by Cicero a compared to frogs; and as the frogs of Egypt got into the king's bedchamber, Exo 8:3 so these get into the private retirements of princes, into their cabinet councils, and stir them up to war and bloodshed: and as for the number, "three", this is only used to express a sufficient number of them, or to make the account square with the dragon, beast, and false prophet, from whom they proceed; and besides, this is omitted in the king's manuscript. Now John saw these, in a visionary way,

come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet; by the dragon is meant the devil, Rev 12:9 not as acting in Rome Pagan, which has been long ago destroyed, rather as in the Pagan parts of the world, and as in the Turkish empire, now ruined; who, seeing his cause declining everywhere, bestirs himself to support and revive it, though this issues in the binding of him for a thousand years, Rev 20:2. By the beast is meant the first beast, in Rev 13:1 and so the Ethiopic version renders it; the antichristian civil state, now sadly shattered and weakened, by the pouring out of the fifth vial: and by "the false prophet" is meant, not Mahomet, or the supporters of his religion, but the second beast in Rev 13:11 or the antichristian ecclesiastic state, as appears from the description of this prophet in Rev 19:20 compared with that: so then these spirits manifestly appear to be the emissaries of antichrist, under a diabolical influence; his creatures, that are made, and sent forth by him, have their commissions and orders from him, to act for him in every shape, to support his interest, civil and religious, by lies, murders, and false doctrine; a further account is given of them in the next verse.

Gill: Rev 16:14 - For they are the spirits of devils // working miracles // which go forth unto the kings of the earth // and of the whole world // to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty For they are the spirits of devils,.... They are of their father the devil; they are acted and influenced by him, he works effectually in them, and le...

For they are the spirits of devils,.... They are of their father the devil; they are acted and influenced by him, he works effectually in them, and leads them captive at his will; they do his lusts, and are murderers and liars, and false teachers, like him:

working miracles; lying ones, to deceive men; this clearly points out who are meant, namely, the followers of antichrist, who, as they spread the doctrines of devils, endeavour to confirm them by signs and lying wonders:

which go forth unto the kings of the earth: those who have committed fornication with the Romish antichrist, such of them as will remain:

and of the whole world; as many Pagan princes as they can come at, and engage by any ways and means in their interest; they will go forth to them like the lying spirit to Ahab's prophets, 1Ki 22:22

to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty; that is, they will persuade them to gather together, to fight against the saints, the Gentile Christians in the several parts of the world, and the Jewish Christians, now settled in their own land; and this will be the battle of the Lord, who is God Almighty, and it will be fighting against him; and therefore the attempt must be vain and fruitless, and issue in the ruin of those who are gathered to it, who will be deceived and drawn into it by these diabolical spirits: and this is called "the battle of that great day of God"; not of the day of judgment, for it will be before that time; but of that day of vengeance upon all the remains of his and his church's enemies, both Pagan, Papal, and Mahometan, who will for this purpose be gathered together; "which", as the Ethiopic version renders it, "God has appointed".

Gill: Rev 16:15 - Behold I come as a thief // blessed is he that watcheth // and keepeth his garments // lest he walk naked // and they see his shame Behold I come as a thief,.... These are the words of Christ, inserted in a parenthesis in this account, before it is concluded, to acquaint his people...

Behold I come as a thief,.... These are the words of Christ, inserted in a parenthesis in this account, before it is concluded, to acquaint his people with his near and sudden approach, and to give them a word of caution and exhortation in these times of difficulty; for he is the Lord God Almighty, who sent forth these angels to pour out their vials, and whose judgments are applauded as righteous, Rev 16:1 and who so often in Rev 22:7 says "I come quickly"; and which is to be understood not of his spiritual coming, which will be already at this time, but of his personal coming: and which will be "as a thief": as it is often expressed, 1Th 5:2 not in the bad sense, to steal and kill, and to destroy, though Christ's coming will issue in the everlasting destruction of the wicked; but the phrase is designed to express the suddenness of his coming, and the surprise of it:

blessed is he that watcheth; against sin, the lusts of the flesh, and the cares of this life, lest they bring a sleepiness upon him, and so the day of the Lord come upon him at an unawares; and against Satan and his temptations, who goes about seeking whom he may devour; and against his emissaries and false teachers, who lie in wait to deceive; and blessed is he also who is wishing and waiting for the coming of Christ, and so, being ready, will enter with him into the marriage chamber, and partake of the supper of the Lamb:

and keepeth his garments: either his conversation garments, unspotted from the world, and whenever defiled washes them, and makes them white in the blood of the Lamb; and keeps them from being stripped of them, by those who would lead them into sinful ways; or that keeps and holds fast the robe of Christ's righteousness, and garments of his salvation, which are the righteousness of the saints, that fine linen clean and white, that white raiment which only can cover their nakedness, that the shame thereof does not appear, Rev 19:8

lest he walk naked; ערום מן המצות b, "naked of the commandments", or good works, according to the Jewish phrase; having lost, or dropped his conversation garments:

and they see his shame; or lest, being naked, he be exposed to shame and confusion, yea, to everlasting ruin and destruction; see Mat 22:12 the allusion is to the burning of the garments of those priests who were found asleep when upon their watch in the temple: the account that is given is this c;

"the man of the mountain of the house (the governor of the temple) goes round all the wards (every night) with burning torches before him; and in every ward where the person does not stand upon his feet, the man of the mountain of the house says to him, peace be to thee; if he finds he is asleep, he strikes him with his staff, and he has power to burn his clothes; and they say (in Jerusalem) what voice is that in the court? (it is answered) the voice of a Levite beaten, and his clothes burnt, because he slept in the time of his watch; R. Eliezer ben Jacob says, once they found my mother's brother asleep, and they burnt his clothes:''

now imagine with what shame the poor Levite so served must appear the next morning among his brethren, with his clothes burnt, and he naked; and with greater shame and confusions must he appear at the last day that is destitute of the righteousness of Christ.

Gill: Rev 16:16 - And he gathered them together // into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon And he gathered them together,.... Or rather "they gathered them together", as the Syriac version renders it; for though the verb is singular, a noun ...

And he gathered them together,.... Or rather "they gathered them together", as the Syriac version renders it; for though the verb is singular, a noun plural goes before it, as in Rev 16:14 and the same spirits that are there said to go forth, to gather the kings gether, these will gather them together; will persuade the Papal, Pagan, and Mahometan powers, the remains of them in the several parts of the world, to join together, and make one effort for the reviving of their declining, and almost ruined interests: for which purpose they will be brought together,

into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon; which may be the same with Har-megiddo, the mountain of Megiddo; for the Hebrew word הר is read "Ar" by the Greeks; so the city Argarize is interpreted the mountain of the most High d: and this refers either to the slaying of Josiah in the valley of Megiddo, which occasioned such mourning, that it became proverbial for any great sorrow; see 2Ch 35:22 where it is called the valley of Megiddon; or rather to the slaughter of Sisera's army at the waters of Megiddo, by Barak, Jdg 5:19 suggesting that the same would be the fate of these united powers. Some derive the word from גדהון and חרמא, which signify "the destruction of their troops", or "armies"; and so designs not any place, that has been or is, but which will be so called from the issue of this battle; and since it is an Hebrew name that will be given it, it may lead us to conclude it will be somewhere in Judea, and very likely no other than the valley of Jehoshaphat, where all nations will be gathered; and which is called the valley of decision, where will be the day of the Lord, and multitudes will be slain, Joe 3:2 though the name will suit any place where there will be a defeat of these enemies; but this vial only brings them together; the utter destruction of them is reserved for the next.

Gill: Rev 16:17 - And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air // And there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne // saying, it is done And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air,.... Or "upon the air", as the Alexandrian copy, Syriac and Arabic versions, read; by which is ...

And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air,.... Or "upon the air", as the Alexandrian copy, Syriac and Arabic versions, read; by which is meant the kingdom of Satan, he being the prince of the power of the air, Eph 2:2 not that he has power over the air, to raise or lay winds and storms in it at pleasure; but he is so called because he is the prince of that posse of devils, the principalities and powers of darkness, that have their dwelling in the air; hence the air, encompassing the whole earth, stands for the kingdom of Satan all the world over: and this vial differs from all the rest; that whereas the rest only affect some part or branch of the antichristian state, this will affect all the remains of the Pagan, Papal, and Mahometan powers, gathered and united together at Armageddon; and the pouring out of this vial is the execution of divine wrath and vengeance upon them all at once; and the effects of this vial will not only reach to the kings of the earth, and of the whole world, and their armies, or the united forces of the remains of Pagans, Papists, and Mahometans, who will be slain, and their flesh given to the fowls of the air; and not only to the beast and false prophet, who will be taken in this battle, and cast alive into the lake of fire, which is expressive both of their temporal and eternal punishment, Rev 19:17 but to the binding of Satan upon the second coming of Christ, of which notice is before given, Rev 16:15 and even to the destruction of Gog and Magog at the end of the thousand years' reign; yea, to the casting of the devil into everlasting fire, since this vial is the last plague, in which the wrath of God is filled up, and so brings to the end of all things, Rev 20:1. The first accomplishment of this vial will be the decisive battle at Armageddon, when the remains of all Christ's and his church's enemies will have a total defeat; and this will be the third and last woe, which will utterly destroy those that have destroyed the earth, Pagans, Papists, and Mahometans, even all the open enemies of Christ, so that nothing will lie in the way of his kingdom; now will the spiritual reign of Christ, which has been gradually advancing by the pouring out of each vial, be in its full glory: but though antichrist will be no more, and Satan will have no more in form an open kingdom upon earth; yet, towards the close of this reign, great lukewarmness and coldness will seize professors of religion, and immorality and profaneness will abound again; which will bring on the times of the coming of the son of man; who, upon his personal descent from the third heaven into the air, will drive Satan and his posse of devils from their territories, and quickly will the general conflagration begin, when the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat; and which is no inconsiderable part of the pouring out of this vial into the air.

And there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne; this voice is said to come "out of the temple of heaven", that is, out of the temple which is in heaven, which will now be opened, as under the sounding of the seventh trumpet, with which this vial corresponds, and indeed is contemporary; and which designs the church, enjoying the pure worship of God, the word and ordinances, and the free exercise of religion; and this shows that when this voice will be uttered, as yet the Jerusalem church state will not be begun, since there will be no temple in that; see Rev 11:19 the words, "of heaven", are left out in the Alexandrian copy, and in the Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Ethiopic versions, which read, "out of the temple from the throne"; the seat of government in the church, described in Rev 4:2 the voice came with power, authority, and majesty; not from any of the four and twenty elders, or four living creatures, or angels about the throne; but either from God the Father that sits upon it; or from Christ the Lamb in the midst of it, and rather from the latter, since a like phrase was used by him on the cross, Joh 19:30 and the same is expressed by him who is the Alpha and Omega, Rev 21:6 and this voice is called a great one, being the voice of a great person, the King of kings, and coming with great power, and was spoken aloud:

saying, it is done; what the angel swore should be in the days of the seventh angel, namely, that time, antichristian time, should be no more, and the mystery of God in his purposes and providences should be finished, and all the glorious things spoken of his church and people be accomplished; See Gill on Rev 10:6, Rev 10:7 the word γεγονε may be rendered "it has been", or "it was", and the sense is, but now is not; and the meaning may be, Babylon was, but is not, it is now fallen; the beast and false prophet were, but now are not; the Turk, or Mahomet, was, but is no more; all the antichristian powers are destroyed; Christ's body, the church, will be completed, the Jews will be converted, and the fulness of the Gentiles brought in, all the elect called, and the new Jerusalem prepared as a bride for her husband; and when the utmost effects of this vial will take place, the end of all things will be; by the same "fiat" that made the heavens and the earth, they will disappear, and new heavens and earth succeed in their room.

Gill: Rev 16:18 - And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings // and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, and so great And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings,.... As at the giving of the law, Exo 19:16 and at the sounding of the seventh trumpet; see Gill o...

And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings,.... As at the giving of the law, Exo 19:16 and at the sounding of the seventh trumpet; see Gill on Rev 11:15 and may intend either the pure ministry of the Gospel in the spiritual reign, the voices of Christ's ministers, and the effects of them, who will be "Boanergeses", sons of thunder, and will be the means of enlightening the minds of many, as well as of shaking the consciences of men, signified by the earthquake following; or rather, the tremendous and awful judgments of God upon the remains of the antichristian party, as the very great commotions and changes that will be made in the world are expressed in the next clause:

and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, and so great: for as the changes made in the Jewish state, civil and ecclesiastical, are signified by the shaking of the heavens and the earth, and as the fall of Paganism is expressed by an earthquake, and the fall of the tenth part of the city is the effect of another; so the destruction of all the antichristian powers, and the mutations made in the earth thereby, are designed by this; see Heb 12:26 Joe 3:16. Mr. Daubuz applies the whole of this vial to the, Reformation, when such a revolution was made in a short time, as has not been known since the world was, or men became worshippers of the beast; at which time Christendom was divided into three parts, the eastern or Greek church, the western or Latin church, and the reformed churches.

Gill: Rev 16:19 - and the cities of the nations fell // and great Babylon came in remembrance before God // to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath And the great city was divided into three parts,.... By which is meant not Christendom, distinguished into Protestants, Papists, and neutrals, which h...

And the great city was divided into three parts,.... By which is meant not Christendom, distinguished into Protestants, Papists, and neutrals, which has been long the case; nor the city of Jerusalem, as inhabited by Christians, Jews, and Turks; nor the city of Rome itself, the seat of the beast, which will have suffered under the fifth vial; but the whole Romish jurisdiction, which is the great city, that reigns over the kings of the earth, as it will now be; though some think the Turkish empire is meant, which they suppose was only afflicted under the preceding vial, but will now be divided into three parts, and afterwards into six, Eze 39:1 and so come to ruin; and others are of opinion that it is included in this great city at least; and doubtless the remains of it are to be taken into this account, and probably are considered in the following clause; wherefore it is better to understand this of the Romish jurisdiction, so often called the great city in this book, Rev 11:8 and its division into three parts is either in reference to the three heads of it, the dragon, beast, and false prophet, or to the three unclean spirits that come out of them, which will lead on to this ruin; though the allusion seems rather to be to the destruction of Jerusalem, Eze 5:2 and denotes the utter ruin of the Romish antichrist, in all its branches and remains; a tenth part of this city will fall towards the close of the sixth trumpet, Rev 11:13 and now all the other nine parts will fall, a threefold division will be made of the city, each division containing three parts: the Jews e have a prophecy, that upon an appearance of a star at Rome, which they suppose will be when the Messiah comes, the three upper walls of that city will fall, and the great temple, or church (St. Peter's), will fall, and the governor of that city (the pope) will die:

and the cities of the nations fell; of the Pagans and Mahometaus; or as there will be an utter extirpation of the Papacy, so of Paganism and Mahometanism, in the several nations where they have obtained, and where there will be now any remains of them;

and great Babylon came in remembrance before God; not Constantinople, as Brightman thinks, because that Rome, the seat of the beast, is affected under the fifth vial, and the great city under this; but since no other is called Babylon in this book but the Romish antichristian state, it must be meant here; see Rev 14:8 for many hundreds of years Babylon seemed to be forgotten by God, no notice being taken of her sins and iniquities in a judicial way; but now God will remember her sins, Rev 18:5 and inflict deserved punishment upon her:

to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath; as a just retaliation for the wine of her fornication, with which she has intoxicated the kings and inhabitants of the earth; the wrath of God is sometimes signified in the Old Testament by a cup, a wine cup, a wine cup of fury, see Psa 75:8 and here the exceeding greatness of his wrath is expressed by the phrases used, and intends the pouring out of all his vengeance, to the utter ruin of the Romish antichrist.

Gill: Rev 16:20 - And every island fled away // and the mountains were not found And every island fled away,.... This may be understood either of the dissolution of the world, the present heavens and earth, when there will be no mo...

And every island fled away,.... This may be understood either of the dissolution of the world, the present heavens and earth, when there will be no more sea, Rev 21:1 and so consequently no islands:

and the mountains were not found; for the earth and the heaven will be fled away at the appearance of Christ the Judge, and there will be no place found for them, Rev 20:11 and new heavens, and a new earth, without sea or mountains, will succeed: or rather this may signify the utter extirpation of all the antichristian powers in every shape, whether on islands or on the continent; for this day of the Lord will be upon every high mountain and hill, to bring them low, and the Lord alone shall be exalted, Isa 2:14 and may particularly respect the dissolution of monasteries, and the plundering them of their riches and revenues.

Gill: Rev 16:21 - And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven // every stone about the weight of a talent // and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail // for the plague thereof was exceeding great And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven,.... Which must be understood not as after the fall of the cities, and the flight of the islands an...

And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven,.... Which must be understood not as after the fall of the cities, and the flight of the islands and mountains, but at the same time; and it looks as if such men that shall escape at the battle of Armageddon, that hail stones from heaven will fall upon them and destroy them; just as the kings of the Amorites and their men were killed by hail stones, cast down by the Lord from heaven, as they fled before Joshua, when more were killed by the stones than were slain by the sword, Jos 10:11 the allusion seems to be to the plague of hail in Exo 9:23

every stone about the weight of a talent; which is threescore pound weight, a prodigious weight indeed for a single hailstone! such hail stones were never known to fall; the largest I have read of is what Caspar Wesserus assured Mr. Broughton f of, at Zurich, which being brought from a field afar off, to the consul, and so must melt in carriage, yet weighed a pound. It may be said of this hail storm, as of the earthquake in a preceding verse, that it will be such as never was since men were upon earth; and denotes the sore, heavy, and even intolerable judgments of God upon the antichristian party: God's judgments are sometimes signified by hail storms, Isa 30:26 and particularly the judgments upon Gog and Magog, Eze 38:22 which may respect the same as here: the Jews g now expect a great hail in the times of Gog and Magog:

and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; the plague of hail brought down the hard heart of Pharaoh, and humbled him, so that he acknowledged his wickedness, and the sin of his people, and owned the justice of God; but this more terrible storm will have no effect upon these men, to convince and reform them, but, on the contrary, they will break out into blasphemy against God, who caused it to fall on them; it will have the same effect as the fourth and fifth vials:

for the plague thereof was exceeding great; it must beat down all before it, and be intolerable: whether this hail storm may not also have some regard to coldness and lukewarmness, as Naplet suggests, and so may point at the close of the spiritual reign of Christ, or the Laodicean state, which will bring on the second coming of Christ, and so this effect of the seventh vial will end where the seven churches and seven trumpets do, may be considered; See Gill on Rev 11:15.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Rev 16:1 Or “anger.” Here τοῦ θυμοῦ (tou qumou) has been translated as a genitive of content.

NET Notes: Rev 16:2 Grk ‘the men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and w...

NET Notes: Rev 16:3 Grk “the second”; the referent (the second angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Rev 16:4 Grk “the third”; the referent (the third angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Rev 16:5 Or “because you have judged these things.” The pronoun ταῦτα (tauta) is neuter gender.

NET Notes: Rev 16:6 Grk “They are worthy”; i.e., of this kind of punishment. By extension, “they got what they deserve.”

NET Notes: Rev 16:7 On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (O...

NET Notes: Rev 16:8 Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women...

NET Notes: Rev 16:9 For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

NET Notes: Rev 16:10 The preposition ἐκ (ek) has been translated here and twice in the following verse with a causal sense.

NET Notes: Rev 16:11 Grk “they did not repent” The addition of “still refused” reflects the hardness of people’s hearts in the context.

NET Notes: Rev 16:12 Grk “from the rising of the sun.” BDAG 74 s.v. ἀνατολή 2.a takes this as a geographical direction: &#...

NET Notes: Rev 16:13 According to the next verse, these three unclean spirits are spirits of demons.

NET Notes: Rev 16:14 On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (O...

NET Notes: Rev 16:15 These lines are parenthetical, forming an aside to the narrative. The speaker here is the Lord Jesus Christ himself rather than the narrator. Many int...

NET Notes: Rev 16:16 Or “Harmagedon” (a literal transliteration of the Greek), or “Har-Magedon” (NASB), meaning “the Mount of Magedon” ...

NET Notes: Rev 16:17 Grk “the seventh”; the referent (the seventh angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Rev 16:18 The singular ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used generically here to refer to the human race.

NET Notes: Rev 16:19 Following BDAG 461 s.v. θυμός 2, the combination of the genitives of θυμός (qumo") and ὀ&...

NET Notes: Rev 16:20 Every island fled away and no mountains could be found. Major geographical and topographical changes will accompany the Day of the Lord.

NET Notes: Rev 16:21 Grk “since the plague of it was exceedingly great.”

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:1 And ( 1 ) I heard a great voice out of the temple saying to the seven angels, Go your ways, and pour out the vials of the wrath of God upon the earth....

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:2 ( 2 ) And the first went, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and there fell a noisome and grievous sore upon the men which had the ( 3 ) mark of ...

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:3 ( 4 ) And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea; and it ( a ) became as the blood of a dead [man]: and every living soul died in the sea. ...

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:4 ( 5 ) And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters; and they became blood. ( 5 ) The story of the third angel stri...

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:7 ( 6 ) And I heard another out of the altar say, Even so, Lord God Almighty, true and righteous [are] thy judgments. ( 6 ) A confirmation of the prais...

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:8 ( 7 ) And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun; and power was given unto him to scorch men with fire. ( 7 ) The story of the fourth ange...

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:10 ( 8 ) And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast; and his kingdom was full of darkness; and they gnawed their tongues for pain...

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:12 ( 9 ) And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river ( 10 ) Euphrates; and ( 11 ) the water thereof was dried up, ( 12 ) that the way of...

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:13 And I saw ( 13 ) three unclean spirits ( 14 ) like frogs [come] out of the mouth of the ( 15 ) dragon, and out of the mouth of the ( 16 ) beast, and o...

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:15 ( 18 ) Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed [is] he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame. ( 18 ) A paren...

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:16 ( 19 ) And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue ( 20 ) Armageddon. ( 19 ) Namely the angel, who according to the comman...

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:17 ( 21 ) And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the ( 22 ) air; and there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from ( 23 ) the throne...

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:18 ( 25 ) And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty...

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:19 ( 26 ) And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations ( 27 ) fell: and great ( 28 ) Babylon came in remembrance before...

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:20 And every island fled away, and the mountains ( 29 ) were not ( b ) found. ( 29 ) That is, were seen no more, or were no more extant. A borrowed Hebr...

Geneva Bible: Rev 16:21 ( 30 ) And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, [every stone] about the weight of a ( c ) talent: and men blasphemed God because of the pla...

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Rev 16:1-7 - --We are to pray that the will of God may be done on earth as it is done in heaven. Here is a succession of terrible judgments of Providence; and there ...

MHCC: Rev 16:8-11 - --The heart of man is so desperately wicked, that the most severe miseries never will bring any to repent, without the special grace of God. Hell itself...

MHCC: Rev 16:12-16 - --This probably shows the destruction of the Turkish power, and of idolatry, and that a way will be made for the return of the Jews. Or, take it for Rom...

MHCC: Rev 16:17-21 - --The seventh and last angel poured forth his vial, and the downfall of Babylon was finished. The church triumphant in heaven saw it and rejoiced; the c...

Matthew Henry: Rev 16:1-7 - -- We had in the foregoing chapter the great and solemn preparation that was made for the pouring out of the vials; now we have the performance of that...

Matthew Henry: Rev 16:8-11 - -- In these verses we see the work going on in the appointed order. The fourth angel poured out his vial, and that fell upon the sun; that is, say some...

Matthew Henry: Rev 16:12-16 - -- The sixth angel poured out his vial; and observe, I. Where it fell - upon the great river Euphrates. Some take it literally, for the place where...

Matthew Henry: Rev 16:17-21 - -- Here we have an account of the seventh and last angel pouring forth his vial, contributing his part towards the accomplishment of the downfall of Ba...

Barclay: Rev 16:1-11 - "THE TERRORS OF GOD" The voice from the temple is the voice of God who is despatching his angelic messengers with their terrors upon men. The first terror is a plague of m...

Barclay: Rev 16:12 - "THE HORDES FROM THE EAST" This gives us a picture of the drying up of the Euphrates and the opening of a way for the hordes of the east to descend upon the world. One of the cu...

Barclay: Rev 16:13-16 - "THE UNCLEAN SPIRITS LIKE FROGS" These four verses are full of problems which must be solved if their meaning is to become reasonably clear. Three unclean spirits, like frogs, came ...

Barclay: Rev 16:13-16 - "THE FALSE PROPHET" Our next problem is to identify the false prophet. The dragon is identified as Satan (Rev 12:3, Rev 12:9). The beast, the Roman Empire with its Ca...

Barclay: Rev 16:13-16 - "ARMAGEDDON" We have still another problem to solve in this passage. The evil spirits went out and stirred up the kings of all the earth to bring them to battle. ...

Barclay: Rev 16:17-21 - "NATURE AT WAR" The seventh bowl was poured out upon the air. H. B. Swete speaks of "the air that all men breathe." If the air was polluted, the very life of ma...

Constable: Rev 4:1--22:6 - --III. THE REVELATION OF THE FUTURE 4:1--22:5 John recorded the rest of this book to reveal those aspects of the f...

Constable: Rev 16:1-21 - --J. The seven bowl judgments ch. 16 John revealed the outpouring of the bowls to enable his readers to un...

Constable: Rev 16:1 - --1. The commencement of the bowl judgments 16:1 The voice John heard was evidently God's (cf. 15:...

Constable: Rev 16:2 - --2. The first bowl 16:2 The first four trumpet judgments fall on man's environment rather than on...

Constable: Rev 16:3 - --3. The second bowl 16:3 This judgment resulted in the destruction of all sea life, not just one-...

Constable: Rev 16:4 - --4. The third bowl 16:4 All the fresh water sources (springs, rivers, lakes, etc.) become blood i...

Constable: Rev 16:5-7 - --5. Ascriptions of angelic and martyr praise 16:5-7 John heard praise of God in heaven that interrupted his narration of the outpouring of the bowls of...

Constable: Rev 16:8-9 - --6. The fourth bowl 16:8-9 16:8 The fourth trumpet judgment darkened the sun (8:12), but this judgment increased the sun's intensity. There is a defini...

Constable: Rev 16:10-11 - --7. The fifth bowl 16:10-11 16:10 The darkening of the (first) beast's throne appears to be literal; light will diminish (cf. Exod. 10:21-23; Isa. 60:2...

Constable: Rev 16:12-16 - --8. The sixth bowl 16:12-16 The final three bowl judgments all have political consequences. 16:12 The problem that this judgment poses for earth-dwelle...