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Teks -- Deuteronomy 31:1-30 (NET)

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Konteks
Succession of Moses by Joshua
31:1 Then Moses went and spoke these words to all Israel. 31:2 He said to them, “Today I am a hundred and twenty years old. I am no longer able to get about, and the Lord has said to me, ‘You will not cross the Jordan.’ 31:3 As for the Lord your God, he is about to cross over before you; he will destroy these nations before you and dispossess them. As for Joshua, he is about to cross before you just as the Lord has said. 31:4 The Lord will do to them just what he did to Sihon and Og, the Amorite kings, and to their land, which he destroyed. 31:5 The Lord will deliver them over to you and you will do to them according to the whole commandment I have given you. 31:6 Be strong and courageous! Do not fear or tremble before them, for the Lord your God is the one who is going with you. He will not fail you or abandon you!” 31:7 Then Moses called out to Joshua in the presence of all Israel, “Be strong and courageous, for you will accompany these people to the land that the Lord promised to give their ancestors, and you will enable them to inherit it. 31:8 The Lord is indeed going before you– he will be with you; he will not fail you or abandon you. Do not be afraid or discouraged!”
The Deposit of the Covenant Text
31:9 Then Moses wrote down this law and gave it to the Levitical priests, who carry the ark of the Lord’s covenant, and to all Israel’s elders. 31:10 He commanded them: “At the end of seven years, at the appointed time of the cancellation of debts, at the Feast of Temporary Shelters, 31:11 when all Israel comes to appear before the Lord your God in the place he chooses, you must read this law before them within their hearing. 31:12 Gather the people– men, women, and children, as well as the resident foreigners in your villages– so they may hear and thus learn about and fear the Lord your God and carefully obey all the words of this law. 31:13 Then their children, who have not known this law, will also hear about and learn to fear the Lord your God for as long as you live in the land you are crossing the Jordan to possess.”
The Commissioning of Joshua
31:14 Then the Lord said to Moses, “The day of your death is near. Summon Joshua and present yourselves in the tent of meeting so that I can commission him.” So Moses and Joshua presented themselves in the tent of meeting. 31:15 The Lord appeared in the tent in a pillar of cloud that stood above the door of the tent. 31:16 Then the Lord said to Moses, “You are about to die, and then these people will begin to prostitute themselves with the foreign gods of the land into which they are going. They will reject me and break my covenant that I have made with them. 31:17 At that time my anger will erupt against them and I will abandon them and hide my face from them until they are devoured. Many disasters and distresses will overcome them so that they will say at that time, ‘Have not these disasters overcome us because our God is not among us?’ 31:18 But I will certainly hide myself at that time because of all the wickedness they will have done by turning to other gods. 31:19 Now write down for yourselves the following song and teach it to the Israelites. Put it into their very mouths so that this song may serve as my witness against the Israelites! 31:20 For after I have brought them to the land I promised to their ancestors– one flowing with milk and honey– and they eat their fill and become fat, then they will turn to other gods and worship them; they will reject me and break my covenant. 31:21 Then when many disasters and distresses overcome them this song will testify against them, for their descendants will not forget it. I know the intentions they have in mind today, even before I bring them to the land I have promised.” 31:22 So on that day Moses wrote down this song and taught it to the Israelites, 31:23 and the Lord commissioned Joshua son of Nun, “Be strong and courageous, for you will take the Israelites to the land I have promised them, and I will be with you.”
Anticipation of Disobedience
31:24 When Moses finished writing on a scroll the words of this law in their entirety, 31:25 he commanded the Levites who carried the ark of the Lord’s covenant, 31:26 “Take this scroll of the law and place it beside the ark of the covenant of the Lord your God. It will remain there as a witness against you, 31:27 for I know about your rebellion and stubbornness. Indeed, even while I have been living among you to this very day, you have rebelled against the Lord; you will be even more rebellious after my death! 31:28 Gather to me all your tribal elders and officials so I can speak to them directly about these things and call the heavens and the earth to witness against them. 31:29 For I know that after I die you will totally corrupt yourselves and turn away from the path I have commanded you to walk. Disaster will confront you in the days to come because you will act wickedly before the Lord, inciting him to anger because of your actions.” 31:30 Then Moses recited the words of this song from start to finish in the hearing of the whole assembly of Israel.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Amorites members of a pre-Israel Semitic tribe from Mesopotamia
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jordan the river that flows from Lake Galilee to the Dead Sea,a river that begins at Mt. Hermon, flows south through Lake Galilee and on to its end at the Dead Sea 175 km away (by air)
 · Joshua a son of Eliezer; the father of Er; an ancestor of Jesus,the son of Nun and successor of Moses,son of Nun of Ephraim; successor to Moses,a man: owner of the field where the ark stopped,governor of Jerusalem under King Josiah,son of Jehozadak; high priest in the time of Zerubbabel
 · Levi members of the tribe of Levi
 · Levites relating to Levi and the priesthood given to him,a tribal name describing people and ceremonies as sacred
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Nun son of Elishama; father of Joshua (Ephraim), Moses' aide
 · Og king of Bashan whom Israel defeated.
 · Sihon the king of the Amorites in Moses time


Topik/Tema Kamus: DEUTERONOMY | Geber | Moses | Moab | Hilkiah | Backsliders | Death | Minister | Word of God | Courage | Idolatry | Joshua | God | Instruction | Law | BIBLE, THE, IV CANONICITY | Priest | School | TABERNACLES, THE FEAST OF | War | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Deu 31:1 - Went and spake Continued to speak, an usual Hebrew phrase.

Continued to speak, an usual Hebrew phrase.

Wesley: Deu 31:2 - Go out and come in Perform the office of a leader or governor, because the time of my death approaches.

Perform the office of a leader or governor, because the time of my death approaches.

Wesley: Deu 31:9 - This law Largely so called, the whole law or doctrine delivered unto Moses contained in these five books.

Largely so called, the whole law or doctrine delivered unto Moses contained in these five books.

Wesley: Deu 31:9 - To the priests That they might keep it carefully and religiously, and bring it forth upon occasion, and read it, and instruct the people out of it.

That they might keep it carefully and religiously, and bring it forth upon occasion, and read it, and instruct the people out of it.

Wesley: Deu 31:9 - The elders Who were assistants to the priests, to take care that the law should be kept, and read, and observed.

Who were assistants to the priests, to take care that the law should be kept, and read, and observed.

Wesley: Deu 31:10 - The year of release When they were freed from debts and troubles, and cares of worldly matters, and thereby fitter to attend on God and his service.

When they were freed from debts and troubles, and cares of worldly matters, and thereby fitter to attend on God and his service.

Wesley: Deu 31:11 - Thou shalt read Thou shalt cause it to be read by the priest or Levites; for he could not read it himself in the hearing of all Israel, but this was to be done by sev...

Thou shalt cause it to be read by the priest or Levites; for he could not read it himself in the hearing of all Israel, but this was to be done by several persons, and so the people met in several congregations.

Wesley: Deu 31:12 - Together Not in one place. But into divers assemblies or synagogues. Women who hereby are required to go to Jerusalem at this solemnity, as they were permitted...

Not in one place. But into divers assemblies or synagogues. Women who hereby are required to go to Jerusalem at this solemnity, as they were permitted to do in other solemnities.

Wesley: Deu 31:12 - Children Such of them as could understand, as appears from Neh 8:2-3, the pious Jews doubtless read it daily in their houses, and Moses of old time was read in...

Such of them as could understand, as appears from Neh 8:2-3, the pious Jews doubtless read it daily in their houses, and Moses of old time was read in the synagogues every sabbath day. But once in seven years, the law was thus to be read in public, to magnify it and make it honourable.

Wesley: Deu 31:14 - Give him a charge Immediately from myself for his greater encouragement, and to gain him more authority with the people.

Immediately from myself for his greater encouragement, and to gain him more authority with the people.

Wesley: Deu 31:16 - The strangers of the land That is, of the Canaanites, who will be turned out of their possessions, and become as strangers in their own land. This aggravates their folly to wor...

That is, of the Canaanites, who will be turned out of their possessions, and become as strangers in their own land. This aggravates their folly to worship such gods as could neither preserve their friends, nor annoy their enemies.

Wesley: Deu 31:17 - Hide my face Withdraw my favour and help. Whatever outward troubles we are in if we have but the light of God's countenance, we are safe. But if God hide his face ...

Withdraw my favour and help. Whatever outward troubles we are in if we have but the light of God's countenance, we are safe. But if God hide his face from us then we are undone.

Wesley: Deu 31:19 - Write this song Which is contained Deu. 32:1-43, and is put into a song that it may be better learned, and more fixed in their minds and memories.

Which is contained Deu. 32:1-43, and is put into a song that it may be better learned, and more fixed in their minds and memories.

Wesley: Deu 31:19 - Put it in their mouths Cause them to learn it, and sing it one to another, to oblige them to more circumspection.

Cause them to learn it, and sing it one to another, to oblige them to more circumspection.

Wesley: Deu 31:19 - A witness Of my kindness in giving them so many blessings, of my patience in bearing so long with them, of my clemency in giving them such fair and plain warnin...

Of my kindness in giving them so many blessings, of my patience in bearing so long with them, of my clemency in giving them such fair and plain warnings, and my justice in punishing such an incorrigible people.

Wesley: Deu 31:21 - Their imaginations Inclinations to Idolatry, which they do not check, as they ought; and some of them do not only cherish it in their hearts, but as far as they can and ...

Inclinations to Idolatry, which they do not check, as they ought; and some of them do not only cherish it in their hearts, but as far as they can and dare, secretly practise it, as may be gathered from Amo 5:25; Act 7:43.

Wesley: Deu 31:25 - The Levites The priests, Deu 31:9, who also were Levites.

The priests, Deu 31:9, who also were Levites.

Wesley: Deu 31:26 - Take this book Probably the very same book, which (after having been some way misplaced) was found in the house of the Lord, in the days of Josiah, and publickly rea...

Probably the very same book, which (after having been some way misplaced) was found in the house of the Lord, in the days of Josiah, and publickly read by the king himself, for a witness against a people, who were then almost ripe for ruin.

Wesley: Deu 31:26 - In the side In the outside, in a little chest fixed to it, for nothing but the tables of stone were contained in the ark, 1Ki 8:9, here it was kept for greater se...

In the outside, in a little chest fixed to it, for nothing but the tables of stone were contained in the ark, 1Ki 8:9, here it was kept for greater security and reverence.

Wesley: Deu 31:26 - A witness against thee Against thy people, to whom he turns his speech that they might be the more affected with it.

Against thy people, to whom he turns his speech that they might be the more affected with it.

JFB: Deu 31:1 - Moses went and spake It is probable that this rehearsal of the law extended over several successive days; and it might be the last and most important day on which the retu...

It is probable that this rehearsal of the law extended over several successive days; and it might be the last and most important day on which the return of Moses to the place of assembly is specially noticed. In drawing his discourse towards a conclusion, he adverted to his advanced age; and although neither his physical nor intellectual powers had suffered any decay (Deu 34:7), yet he knew, by a special revelation, that the time had arrived when he was about to be withdrawn from the superintendence and government of Israel.

JFB: Deu 31:2-8 - also the Lord hath said Should be "for the Lord hath said" thou shalt not go over this Jordan. While taking a solemn leave of the people, Moses exhorted them not to be intimi...

Should be "for the Lord hath said" thou shalt not go over this Jordan. While taking a solemn leave of the people, Moses exhorted them not to be intimidated by the menacing opposition of enemies; to take encouragement from the continued presence of their covenanted God; and to rest assured that the same divine power, which had enabled them to discomfit their first assailants on the east of Jordan, would aid them not less effectually in the adventurous enterprise which they were about to undertake, and by which they would obtain possession of "the land which He had sworn unto their fathers to give them."

JFB: Deu 31:9-13 - And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests The law thus committed to writing was either the whole book of Deuteronomy, or the important part of it contained between the twenty-seventh and thirt...

The law thus committed to writing was either the whole book of Deuteronomy, or the important part of it contained between the twenty-seventh and thirtieth chapters. It was usual in cases of public or private contract for two copies of the engagement to be made--one to be deposited in the national archives or some secure place for reference, should occasion require. The other was to remain in the hands of the contracting parties (Jer 32:12-14). The same course was followed on this renewal of the covenant between God and Israel. Two written copies of the law were prepared, the one of which was delivered to the public representatives of Israel; namely, the priests and the elders.

JFB: Deu 31:9-13 - the priests, . . . who bare the ark of the covenant In all ordinary journeys, it was the common duty of the Levites to carry the ark and its furniture (Num 4:15); but, on solemn or extraordinary occasio...

In all ordinary journeys, it was the common duty of the Levites to carry the ark and its furniture (Num 4:15); but, on solemn or extraordinary occasions, that office was discharged by the priests (Jos 3:3-8; Jos 6:6; 1Ch 15:11-12).

JFB: Deu 31:9-13 - all the elders of Israel They were assistants to the priests and overseers to take care of the preservation, rehearsal, and observance of the law.

They were assistants to the priests and overseers to take care of the preservation, rehearsal, and observance of the law.

JFB: Deu 31:10-11 - At the end of every seven years, . . . thou shalt read this law At the return of the sabbatic year and during the feast of tabernacles, the law was to be publicly read. This order of Moses was a future and prospect...

At the return of the sabbatic year and during the feast of tabernacles, the law was to be publicly read. This order of Moses was a future and prospective arrangement; for the observance of the sabbatic year did not commence till the conquest and peaceful occupation of Canaan. The ordinance served several important purposes. For, while the people had opportunities of being instructed in the law every Sabbath and daily in their own homes, this public periodical rehearsal at meetings in the courts of the sanctuary, where women and children of twelve years were present (as they usually were at the great festivals), was calculated to produce good and pious impressions of divine truth amid the sacred associations of the time and place. Besides, it formed a public guarantee for the preservation, integrity, and faithful transmission of the Sacred Book to successive ages.

JFB: Deu 31:14-15 - the Lord said unto Moses, . . .call Joshua, and present yourselves in the tabernacle of the congregation Joshua had been publicly designated to the office of commander by Moses [Num 27:22-23]; and God was pleased to confirm his appointment by the visible ...

Joshua had been publicly designated to the office of commander by Moses [Num 27:22-23]; and God was pleased to confirm his appointment by the visible symbols of His presence and approval. As none but the priests were privileged to enter the sanctuary, it is probable that this significant manifestation of the cloudy pillar was made while the leaders stood at the door of the tabernacle.

JFB: Deu 31:16-22 - the Lord said unto Moses, . . . this people will rise up In this remarkable interview, Moses was distinctly apprised of the infidelity of Israel, their corruptions of the true religion through intercourse wi...

In this remarkable interview, Moses was distinctly apprised of the infidelity of Israel, their corruptions of the true religion through intercourse with the idolatrous inhabitants of Canaan (Amo 5:26), and their chastisements in consequence of those national defections.

JFB: Deu 31:17 - Then my anger shall be kindled, . . . and I will hide my face from them An announcement of the withdrawal of the divine favor and protection of which the Shekinah was the symbol and pledge. It never appeared in the second ...

An announcement of the withdrawal of the divine favor and protection of which the Shekinah was the symbol and pledge. It never appeared in the second temple; and its non-appearance was a prelude of "all the evils that came upon them, because their God was not among them."

JFB: Deu 31:19 - Now therefore write ye this song National songs take deep hold of the memories and have a powerful influence in stirring the deepest feelings of a people. In accordance with this prin...

National songs take deep hold of the memories and have a powerful influence in stirring the deepest feelings of a people. In accordance with this principle in human nature, a song was ordered to be composed by Moses, doubtless under divine inspiration, which was to be learnt by the Israelites themselves and to be taught to their children in every age, embodying the substance of the preceding addresses, and of a strain well suited to inspire the popular mind with a strong sense of God's favor to their nation.

JFB: Deu 31:26 - Take this book of the law, and put it in the side of the ark The second copy of the law (see on Deu 31:9) was deposited for greater security and reverence in a little chest beside the ark of the covenant, for th...

The second copy of the law (see on Deu 31:9) was deposited for greater security and reverence in a little chest beside the ark of the covenant, for there was nothing contained within it but the tables of stone (1Ki 8:9). Others think it was put within the ark, it being certain, from the testimony of Paul (Heb 9:4), that there were once other things inside the ark, and that this was the copy found in the time of Josiah (2Ki 22:8).

Clarke: Deu 31:2 - I am a hundred and twenty years old I am a hundred and twenty years old - The life of Moses, the great prophet of God and lawgiver of the Jews, was exactly the same in length as the ti...

I am a hundred and twenty years old - The life of Moses, the great prophet of God and lawgiver of the Jews, was exactly the same in length as the time Noah employed in preaching righteousness to the antediluvian world. These one hundred and twenty years were divided into three remarkable periods: forty years he lived in Egypt, in Pharaoh’ s court, acquiring all the learning and wisdom of the Egyptians; (see Act 7:20, Act 7:23); forty years he sojourned in the land of Midian in a state of preparation for his great and important mission; (Act 7:29, Act 7:30); and forty years he guided, led, and governed the Israelites under the express direction and authority of God: in all, one hundred and twenty years.

Clarke: Deu 31:3 - Joshua, he shall go over before thee Joshua, he shall go over before thee - See on Num 27:17 (note), etc.

Joshua, he shall go over before thee - See on Num 27:17 (note), etc.

Clarke: Deu 31:6 - Be strong Be strong - חזקו chizku , the same word that is used Exo 4:21 (note), Exo 9:15 (note), for hardening Pharaoh’ s heart. See the notes there...

Be strong - חזקו chizku , the same word that is used Exo 4:21 (note), Exo 9:15 (note), for hardening Pharaoh’ s heart. See the notes there. The Septuagint, in this and the following verse, have, Ανδριζου και ισχυε, Play the man, and be strong; and from this St. Paul seems to have borrowed his ideas, 1Co 16:13 : Στηκετε εν τῃ πιστει· ανδριζεσθε, κρατιουσθε : Stand firm in the faith; play the man - act like heroes; be vigorous.

Clarke: Deu 31:8 - The Lord - doth go before thee The Lord - doth go before thee - To prepare thy way, and to direct thee

The Lord - doth go before thee - To prepare thy way, and to direct thee

Clarke: Deu 31:8 - He will be with thee He will be with thee - Accompany thee in all thy journeys, and assist thee in all thy enterprises

He will be with thee - Accompany thee in all thy journeys, and assist thee in all thy enterprises

Clarke: Deu 31:8 - He will not fail thee He will not fail thee - Thy expectation, however strong and extensive, shall never be disappointed: thou canst not expect too much from him

He will not fail thee - Thy expectation, however strong and extensive, shall never be disappointed: thou canst not expect too much from him

Clarke: Deu 31:8 - Neither forsake thee Neither forsake thee - He knows that without him thou canst do nothing, and therefore he will continue with thee, and in such a manner too that the ...

Neither forsake thee - He knows that without him thou canst do nothing, and therefore he will continue with thee, and in such a manner too that the excellence of the power shall appear to be of him, and not of man.

Clarke: Deu 31:9 - Moses wrote this law Moses wrote this law - Not the whole Pentateuch, but either the discourses and precepts mentioned in the preceding chapters, or the book of Deuteron...

Moses wrote this law - Not the whole Pentateuch, but either the discourses and precepts mentioned in the preceding chapters, or the book of Deuteronomy, which is most likely

Some of the rabbins have pretended that Moses wrote thirteen copies of the whole Pentateuch; that he gave one to each of the twelve tribes, and the thirteenth was laid up by the ark. This opinion deserves little credit. Some think that he wrote two copies, one of which he gave to the priests and Levites for general use, according to what is said in this verse, the other to be laid up beside the ark as a standard copy for reference, and to be a witness against the people should they break it or become idolatrous. This second copy is supposed to be intended Deu 31:26. As the law was properly a covenant or contract between God and the people, it is natural to suppose there were two copies of it, that each of the contracting parties might have one: therefore one was laid up beside the ark, this was the Lord’ s copy; another was given to the priests and Levites, this was the people’ s copy.

Clarke: Deu 31:10-11 - At the end of every seven years - thou shalt read this law At the end of every seven years - thou shalt read this law - Every seventh year was a year of release, Deu 15:1, at which time the people’ s mi...

At the end of every seven years - thou shalt read this law - Every seventh year was a year of release, Deu 15:1, at which time the people’ s minds, being under a peculiar degree of solemnity, were better disposed to hear and profit by the words of God. I suppose on this ground also that the whole book of Deuteronomy is meant, as it alone contains an epitome of the whole Pentateuch. And in this way some of the chief Jewish rabbins understand this place

It is strange that this commandment, relative to a public reading of the law every seven years, should have been rarely attended to. It does not appear that from the time mentioned Jos 8:30, at which time this public reading first took place, till the reign of Jehoshaphat 2Ch 17:7, there was any public seventh year reading - a period of 530 years. The next seventh year reading was not till the eighteenth year of the reign of Josiah, 2Ch 34:30, a space of two hundred and eighty-two years. Nor do we find any other publicly mentioned from this time till the return from the Babylonish captivity, Neh 8:2. Nor is there any other on record from that time to the destruction of Jerusalem. See Dodd.

Clarke: Deu 31:16 - Behold, thou shalt sleep with thy fathers Behold, thou shalt sleep with thy fathers - שכב shocheb , thou shalt lie down; it signifies to rest, take rest in sleep, and, metaphorically, to...

Behold, thou shalt sleep with thy fathers - שכב shocheb , thou shalt lie down; it signifies to rest, take rest in sleep, and, metaphorically, to die. Much stress cannot be safely laid on this expression to prove the immortality of the soul, or that the people in the time of Moses had a distinct notion of its separate existence. It was, however, understood in this sense by Jonathan ben Uzziel, who in his Targum paraphrases the word thus: "Thou shalt lie down in the dust with thy fathers; and thy soul ( נשמתך nishmethach ) shall be laid up in the treasury of the life to come with thy fathers."

Clarke: Deu 31:18 - I will surely hide my face I will surely hide my face - Withdraw my approbation and my protection. This is a general meaning of the word in Scripture.

I will surely hide my face - Withdraw my approbation and my protection. This is a general meaning of the word in Scripture.

Clarke: Deu 31:19 - Write ye this song Write ye this song - The song which follows in the next chapter. Things which were of great importance and of common concern were, among the ancient...

Write ye this song - The song which follows in the next chapter. Things which were of great importance and of common concern were, among the ancients, put into verse, as this was found the best method of keeping them in remembrance, especially in those times when writing was little practiced. Even prose was sometimes sung. The history of Herodotus was divided into Nine books, and each inscribed with the name of one of the Nine Muses, because these books were anciently sung. Homer is reported to have sung his poems through different Greek cities. Aristotle observes that anciently the people sung their laws. And Cicero observes that it was a custom among the ancient Romans to sing the praises of their heroes at the public festivals. This was the case among the northern inhabitants of Europe, particularly in Ireland and Scotland; hence the Gaelic poetry of Ossian and others. See Dodd; and see the note on Exo 15:1, where the subject is largely treated.

Clarke: Deu 31:21 - This song shall testify against them This song shall testify against them - Because in it their general defection is predicted, but in such a way as to show them how to avoid the evil; ...

This song shall testify against them - Because in it their general defection is predicted, but in such a way as to show them how to avoid the evil; and if they did not avoid the evil, and the threatened punishment should come upon them, then the song should testify against them, by showing that they had been sufficiently warned, and might have lived to God, and so escaped those disasters.

Clarke: Deu 31:26 - Take this book of the law Take this book of the law - The standard copy to which all transcripts must ultimately refer: another copy was put into the bands of the priests. Se...

Take this book of the law - The standard copy to which all transcripts must ultimately refer: another copy was put into the bands of the priests. See the note on Deu 31:9.

Clarke: Deu 31:27 - While I am yet alive - ye have been rebellious While I am yet alive - ye have been rebellious - Such was the disposition of this people to act contrary to moral goodness that Moses felt himself j...

While I am yet alive - ye have been rebellious - Such was the disposition of this people to act contrary to moral goodness that Moses felt himself justified in inferring what would take place from what had already happened

1.    Never was a people more fully and faithfully warned, and from this very circumstance we may see that they were under no fatal constraining necessity to commit sin against God; they might have avoided it, but they would not. God was present to help them, till by their repeated provocations they forced him to depart: wrath therefore came upon them to the uttermost because they sinned when they might have lived to the glory of God. Those who abuse God’ s grace shall not only have that grace taken away from them, but shall be punished for the abuse of it, as well as for the transgression. Every sin is double, and must have a twofold punishment; for 1. Grace is resisted; 2. Transgression is committed; and God will visit for both

2.    How astonishing it is that, with such examples of God’ s justice before their eyes, the Jews should be so little affected; and that the Gentiles, who have received the Gospel of God, should act as if God would no more punish transgression, or that he must be so partial to them as to pass by iniquities for which the hand of his justice still continues heavy upon the descendants of Jacob! Let them take heed, for if God spared not the natural branches, he will not spare them. If they sin after the manner of the Jews, they may expect to be partakers with them in their punishments. What God does to nations he will do to individuals who reject his mercy, or trample under foot his grace; the soul that sinneth, and returns not to God by repentance and faith, shall die. This is a decree of God that shall never be reversed, and every day bears witness how strictly he keeps it in view

3.    The ode composed by Moses for this occasion was probably set to some lively and affecting air, and sung by the people. It would be much easier to keep such a song in remembrance, than an equal quantity of prose. The whole would have the additional circumstances of cadence and tune to cause it to be often repeated; and thus insure its being kept in memory. Poetry, though often, nay, generally abused, is nevertheless a gift from God, and may be employed with the best effect in his service. A very considerable part of the Old Testament is written in poetry; particularly the whole book of Psalms, great part of the prophet Isaiah, the Lamentations, and much of the minor prophets. Those who speak against poetic compositions in the service of God, speak against what they do not understand. All that a man hath should be consecrated to his Maker, and employed in his service; not only the energy of his heart and mind, the physical force of his body, but also the musical tones and modulations of his voice.

Calvin: Deu 31:1 - And Moses went and spake these words 1.And Moses went and spake these words By the word went he signifies that, having received the commands from God, he came to the people to report t...

1.And Moses went and spake these words By the word went he signifies that, having received the commands from God, he came to the people to report them. Hence we gather that they were warned in good time to beware, if they had been sensibly disposed. And it was necessary that the people should hear from his own mouth these addresses, which were by no means gratifying, as being full both of cruel threats and severe reproofs; for, if they had been delivered after his death, they would have straightway all exclaimed that they had been deceitfully devised by some one else, and thus that his name was falsely attached to them.

Moreover, the peculiar time of their delivery did not a little avail to enhance their weight, so that the people should not only submit themselves with meekness and teachableness to his instruction at the moment, but also that it might remain hereafter deeply impressed upon their hearts. We know with what attention the last words of the dying are usually received; and Moses, 230 now ready to meet death at God’s command, addressed the people as if bidding them finally farewell. To the credit and dignity belonging to his office as a Prophet, there was consequently added all the force and authority of a testamentary disposition.

As throughout his life he had been incredibly anxious for the people’s welfare, so he now carries his more than paternal care still further. And assuredly it becomes all pious teachers to provide, as far as in them lies, that the fruit of their labors should survive them. Of this solicitude Peter sets himself before us as an example:

“I think it meet (he says), as long as I am in this tabernacle, to stir you up by putting you in remembrance; moreover, I will endeavor that ye may be able after my decease to have these things always in remembrance.” (2Pe 1:13)

Calvin: Deu 31:2 - And he said unto them, I am an hundred and twenty years old 2.And he said unto them, I am an hundred and twenty years old Although Moses had been often proudly and disdainfully rejected, it could not but be th...

2.And he said unto them, I am an hundred and twenty years old Although Moses had been often proudly and disdainfully rejected, it could not but be the case, nevertheless, that his departure would both awaken the deepest sorrow, and inspire them with much alarm. By setting before them his age, therefore, he consoles their anxiety, and mitigates their grief; and also, by another reason, he represses their lamentations, i.e., that God had fixed his term of life. He adduces it, then, as an alleviation, because both his death was more than mature, and he was no longer fitted in his extreme old age for enduring fatigue. Here, however, the question arises, why he should say that he was failing, and broken in strength, when we shall see a little further on that he retained his senses in their rigor even until his death? But the reply is obvious, that he would not have been useless in his old age, because his eyes were dim or his members tremulous, but because his age no longer allowed him to perform his usual duties. For he had been marvelously and preternaturally preserved up to that time; but, since he had now arrived at the end of his course, it was necessary that he should suddenly sink, and be deprived of his faculties.

“To go out, and come in,” is equivalent to performing the functions of life: thus it is said in the Psalm, “Thou has known my going out and coming in.” 231 (Psa 121:8.) And in this sense David is said to have gone out and come in, when he performed the duty intrusted to him by Saul. (1Sa 18:5.)

In the latter clause, where he refers to his exclusion from the land of Canaan, and his being prevented from entering it, he indirectly rebukes the people, for whose offense God had been wroth with himself and Aaron. Thus by this tacit reproof the Israelites were admonished to bear patiently the penalty of their ingratitude. At the same time., as he shows himself to be submissive to the divine decree, he bids them also acquiesce in it.

Calvin: Deu 31:3 - The Lord thy God, he will go over 3.The Lord thy God, he will go over By no ordinary consolation does he encourage their minds to renewed alacrity, because they should experience, eve...

3.The Lord thy God, he will go over By no ordinary consolation does he encourage their minds to renewed alacrity, because they should experience, even when he was dead, the unceasing favor of God. Hence we gather a lesson of especial usefulness, that whenever God raises up to us men endowed with excellent gifts, He is wont so to make use of their labors for a time, as still to retain others in His hand, and constantly to substitute others, unless our sins stand in the way. Hence it follows that the power of God is not to be tied to the illustrious qualities of men, as if their death was His destruction. It is true, indeed, that eminent men are rarely succeeded by their equals, 232 because our wickedness stifles the light of spiritual gifts, and, as far as it can, extinguishes them; still let this be deemed certain that, when God promotes our welfare by ministers of special eminence, He gives us a taste of His goodness, in order that we may expect its continuance; “because he forsakes not the work of his own hands.” (Psa 138:8.) Moses says, therefore, that although he may be taken away by death, still God will undertake the office of their leader, or rather that He will continue to be their leader, as the Israelites had before experienced Him to be.

But h sustains their infirmity by another consolation also, pointing out Joshua as his successor; otherwise the people might have been ready to object that, if God was willing to go before them, why did he not manifest it by the election of a representative, by whose hand He might continue what He had begun by Moses. In this respect, therefore, he also shows that God’s favor was by no means obscure, since Joshua was already chosen to sustain the care and burden of governing the people: for it is not by his own authority that he obtrudes Joshua and sets him over them, but he declares him to be called by God. Still, it is not a matter hitherto unknown which he puts before them, but only bids them remember what God had long ago revealed, as we have elsewhere seen.

Calvin: Deu 31:4 - And the Lord shall do unto them 4.And the Lord shall do unto them He promises that, when they shall come into the land of Canaan, they shall be conquerors of all its nations: and th...

4.And the Lord shall do unto them He promises that, when they shall come into the land of Canaan, they shall be conquerors of all its nations: and this he confirms by experience; for, as God had delivered Sihon king of the Arnorites, and Og king of Bashan, into their hands, so also He would give them the same success in subduing their other enemies. The world is indeed subject to many revolutions, but God still remains like Himself, not only because His counsel is never changed, but because His power is never diminished. By a real proof, therefore, as it is called, he encourages the expectations of the people, and at the same time exhorts them resolutely to execute God’s command, viz., that they should purge the land of Canaan by the destruction of all its inhabitants. In appearance, indeed, this was fierce and cruel, to leave not even one alive; but, since God had justly devoted them to extinction, it was not lawful for the Israelites to inquire what was to be done, but to abandon all discussion, and to obey God’s command. In that they spared many, so much the worse was their remissness, since God had often prepared them to execute the vengeance which He had decreed.

Calvin: Deu 31:6 - Be strong and of good courage 6.Be strong and of good courage After he had shown that God would be with them, for their help, he exhorts the people to firmness and magnanimity. An...

6.Be strong and of good courage After he had shown that God would be with them, for their help, he exhorts the people to firmness and magnanimity. And surely this is one means of confirming our courage, to be assured that the assistance which God promises will suffice for us: so far is it from being the case, that our zeal and energy in acting aright is impaired, by our ascribing to the grace of God what foolish men attribute to their own free will. For those who are aroused to strenuous action in reliance on their own strength, do no more than cast themselves headlong in their senseless temerity and pride. Let us understand, then, that all exhortations are fleeting and ineffective, which are founded on anything else but simple confidence in the grace of God. Thus Moses assumes, as his ground of exhortation, that God will fight for the Israelites. It must, however, be observed that the people were animated to the perseverance of hope, when God declares that He will be their helper even to the end, by which lesson that impious hallucination is refuted, whereby the Popish theologians have fascinated the world. They deny that believers 233 can be certain of God’s grace, except as to their present state. Thus do they hold faith in suspense, so that we may only believe for a day, and even from moment to moment, whilst we are in uncertainty as to what God will do with us on the morrow. Whereas, if faith corresponds with God’s promises, and is, as it were, in harmony with them, it must needs extend itself to our whole life, nay, even beyond death itself; for God removes all doubt as to the future by these words, “I will not leave thee nor forsake thee.”

Calvin: Deu 31:7 - And Moses called unto Joshua 7.And Moses called unto Joshua It hence appears that those, upon whom a public charge is conferred, have need of a twofold confirmation: for, after h...

7.And Moses called unto Joshua It hence appears that those, upon whom a public charge is conferred, have need of a twofold confirmation: for, after having addressed a general instruction to the whole people, he directs his discourse peculiarly to Joshua himself, as to one whose business it was to set an example of bravery to others, and whom severe contests awaited. Since, then, it is more difficult to lead all the rest than to follow a leader, it is necessary that he, who is set over many, should far excel them. But, inasmuch as no one call do anything of himself, we must seek of God whatever we want. Wherefore that, which Moses had enjoined upon the whole people, he now repeats to a single individual, because upon him the burden of ruling them was thrown. And this must be more carefully observed, because, in proportion to the degree of honor, in which a man is placed, so does he disdainfully look down upon all admonitions; whence it is the case that those, who are eminent in the world, carelessly reject the exhortations of God’s servants. But Moses thoroughly overthrows all such fastidiousness, when he shows that all, who are in authority, should not only be instructed together with others, but even more urgently dealt with.

When Moses, in this place as well as above, forbids believers to give way to fear or dread, it must be observed that. he would not have them so deprived of all feeling, as to be hardened into indifference to every danger, or to suppose, as some madmen do, that there is no such thing as bravery without stupidity, but only possessed of such confidence as may overcome all fears, which impede the course of their calling. Appropriately does the Apostle extend this lesson further, where he wishes to correct avarice, which arises from over-anxiety, whilst wretched men do not sufficiently reflect what it is to have God for their perpetual helper. (Hebrews13:5.)

Calvin: Deu 31:9 - And Moses wrote this law 9.And Moses wrote this law It is unquestionable that Moses deposited the Book of the Law in the custody of the Levites, to enjoin upon them the duty ...

9.And Moses wrote this law It is unquestionable that Moses deposited the Book of the Law in the custody of the Levites, to enjoin upon them the duty of teaching; for although it is only related that they were commanded to recite the book before the people every seventh year, yet it is easy to gather that they were appointed the constant proclaimers of its doctrine. For it would have been absurd that the Law should lie buried for seven whole years, and that not a word should be heard of its instruction; besides, the difficulty of hearing in so great a multitude would be great, and the recollection of it would soon have vanished. In a word, very little would have been the use of the ceremony, if at all other times the Levites had been dumb, and nothing should have been heard throughout the land regarding the worship of God. This then was the object of the solemn promulgation of the Law, (Deu 31:10, etc.), which was made in the year of release, that the people should daily inquire the right way of serving God of the Levites, who were chosen to be as it were νομοφύλακες (guardians of the Law), that they might bring forward in due season whatever it was profitable to know. Here, then, is represented to us as in a mirror what Paul says, that the Church of God is “the pillar and ground of the truth,” (1Ti 3:15;) because purity of doctrine is preserved unimpaired in the world, and propagated by the ministry of pastors, whilst piety would soon decay if the living preaching of doctrine should cease. Therefore Paul also elsewhere commands that the sound doctrine, of which he was a minister, should be committed by Timothy

"to faithful men, who should be able to teach others also.”
(2Ti 2:2.)

First, then, we must remember, that the Book of the Law was given in trust, as it were, to the Levites, that the people might learn from them what was right. The addition of “the elders” is not superfluous; for although the office of teaching was not committed to them, yet were they given as coadjutors to the Levites, in order that they might uphold the doctrine of the Law, and not suffer it to be scorned. We know how great is the insolence of the people in rejecting pious teachers, unless they are restrained by those in authority; nor do the latter indeed duly fulfill their duty, if they do not keep their subjects to the study of religion, who would be otherwise too much disposed to impiety.

Moses in this passage calls by the name of “the Law,” not the Ten Commandments engraved on the two tables, but the interpretation of it contained in the four books. The circumstances took place thirty-nine years after God had spoken on Mount Sinai. What follows, that it was to be read every seven years, I have commented on elsewhere; 187 but there will be no harm in repeating what may serve for the understanding of this passage. The seventh year was chosen for this purpose, because all, both males and females, might then assemble at Jerusalem without detriment to their private interests, for there was a cessation from all labor; they neither sowed, nor reaped, and agriculture was altogether at a stand-still. There was therefore no business to prevent them from celebrating that festival, whereby God represented to them in a lively manner, how miraculously He had preserved their fathers in the desert. Lest the recollection of so great a benefit should ever perish, the Law indeed commanded them, wherever they might be, to go forth from their houses every year, and to pass seven days under the boughs of trees; but in the Sabbatical Year, when all was at rest at home, it was more convenient for them to go up to Jerusalem from all quarters, that by their very multitude they might the better testify their gratitude. Therefore it is added, “when all Israel is come,” etc. And it must be observed, that in that assembly they were more solemnly pledged, one and all, to keep the Law, because they were mutually witnesses against each other if they should break the covenant thus publicly renewed. On this account it is added, “Gather the people together, men, women, and children.” But that it might not be a mere empty spectacle, it is expressly commanded that the book should be read “in their hearing:” by which words a recitation is expressed, from whence the hearers might receive profit, else it would have been a sham and ludicrous parade; just as in the Papacy, when they loudly bellow out the Scriptures in an unknown tongue, they do but profane God’s name. To this end, therefore, did God desire the doctrine of His Law to be heard; viz., that He might obtain disciples for Himself; not that He might fill their ears with a senseless and unprofitable clamour. And indeed when the Popish priests were a little ashamed of altogether driving the people away from hearing God’s word, they devised this foolish plan of shouting to the deaf, as if this silly formality would satisfy God’s command, when He ordains that all should be taught from the least to the greatest: for it is afterwards again expressed, “that they may hear, and that they may learn.” Hence we lay it down, that the legitimate use of Scripture is perverted when it is enunciated in an obscure manner such as no one can understand. But whilst no other mode of reading Scripture is approved by God, except such as may instruct the people, so also the fruit of understanding, i.e., that they may learn to fear God, is required in the hearers. But it is undoubted, that “the fear of God” comprehends faith, nay, that properly speaking it springs from faith; and by this expression Moses indicates that the Law was given for the purpose of instructing men in piety and the pure service of God. At the same time we may learn from this passage, that all the services which are paid to God in ignorance, are extravagant, and illegitimate. The beginning of wisdom is to fear God; and on this point all agree; but then each one slips away to his own imaginations and erroneous devotions, as they choose to call them. God, however, in order to restrain such audacity as this, declares that he is not duly worshipped, except He shall first have been listened to. As to “the strangers,” when their participation in sacred things is in question, I have elsewhere observed that all foreigners are not so called, but only those who, being Gentiles by origin, had devoted themselves to God, and having received circumcision, had been incorporated into the Church; otherwise it would not have been lawful to admit them into the congregation of the faithful; and this is confirmed by the additional words, “that is within thy gates:” which is as much as if Moses had said, inhabitants of your cities, and dwelling together with the people. Finally, when their children are mentioned, reference is made to the propagation of sound doctrine, that the pure worship of God may continually be maintained. He therefore commands that the Law should be recited, not in one generation only, but as long as the status of the people may last; and surely all God’s servants ought to take care, that they may transmit to posterity what they have learnt themselves. Yet we must remark, that all doctrine which may have been handed down from their ancestors, is not here promiscuously commended; but God rather claims for Himself the entire authority, both towards the fathers and the children.

Calvin: Deu 31:10 - And Moses commanded them 10.And Moses commanded them The object of this precept is the same as that of the foregoing. He would have (the Law 238) represented, and constantly ...

10.And Moses commanded them The object of this precept is the same as that of the foregoing. He would have (the Law 238) represented, and constantly kept before their eyes; now He commands that it should also be recited every seventh year, lest the knowledge of it should ever depart. But let us follow the order of the words. First of all, Moses says that “he wrote” the Law. Before this, the doctrines of religion had only been expressed by word of mouth, for their fathers had handed down traditionally to their children whatever had been declared to them from heaven. Thus the religion and faith of the people in Egypt was only founded on ancient revelations (oraculis) and the traditions of their fathers. But, forasmuch as nothing is more easy than for men’s minds, in their vanity, speedily to forget true doctrine, and to involve themselves in manifold errors, God, willing to provide against this evil, consigned the rule of piety to public records, 239 so that there might be no pretense of ignorance if their posterity should decline from it. Behold, then, the reason why the Law was written down, that God’s truth might be witnessed in the continued lapse of ages. He does not mean that the Law was so “delivered” to the Levites, that they should suppress it, or should be its only keepers; but if he had exhorted them all indifferently to read it, scarcely any would have applied themselves to its study; for so it is wont to happen, that individuals neglect what is enjoined generally upon all. Wherefore the Levites are appointed to be the guardians of the Law (nomophylaces), to watch diligently, amidst the neglect and contempt of others, lest the knowledge of God should fail. Nor is there any question that the Law was therefore entrusted to their hands, that they might be its interpreters. And to this that passage of Malachi refers, (Mal 2:7,) “For the priest’s lips should keep knowledge, and they should seek the Law at his mouth; for he is the messenger of the Lord of hosts.” For what is added immediately afterwards, that they should read over the Law every seventh year, cannot properly be taken, as if, during the rest of the time, it should remain hidden among themselves; for God would have them to teach daily, and constantly to remind the people of their duty. But lest this practice should become obsolete, either by the aversion of the people or the laziness of the priests, this solemn rite was added, that every seventh year when the most numerous assembly of the people took place, the promulgation of the Law should be renewed. Whence it appears that nothing is too sacred nor too abundantly fortified by precautions to escape violation and infraction from man’s wickedness; for when the recitation of the Law was thus precisely enjoined upon the Levites, it was surely astonishing and detestable that it should be, as it were, discovered in the time of Josiah, and that all were aroused by its novelty, as if they had never heard of it before. (2Kg 22:3, etc.) Exactly the same thing did not occur under the Papacy; but when its scarecrow 240 bishops desired to domineer and tyrannize, they used the artifice of declaring it unlawful to inquire into the mysteries of Scripture. Hence it was brought about that they might securely addict themselves to their ridiculous follies, and that the monks, their emissaries, might vent with impunity whatever fables came into their heads. But, in fine, the intention of God was that every seventh year the people should be reminded to meditate diligently on the law.

Calvin: Deu 31:12 - Gather the people together 12.Gather the people together 241 Literally, “to gather,” 242 etc., in the infinitive mood; and although this is sometimes taken for the imperati...

12.Gather the people together 241 Literally, “to gather,” 242 etc., in the infinitive mood; and although this is sometimes taken for the imperative, yet, in this passage some improperly translate it “Gather,” etc., as if Moses commanded them to give these injunctions once only to the people of their own generation, whereas he is rather continuing with the foregoing sentence. This verse, then, is connected with what went before, viz., that the Law should be promulgated anew, in the years in which they were to hold their greatest assembly; because the people was then called to the Jubilee by the sound of the trumpet. The word “gather,” therefore, extends to all these septennial assemblies, of which mention will be elsewhere made. Nor certainly would what he says of the people that are “within their gates,” accord with the times of Moses, since in those days there were none. Consequently he more fully explains why he pointed out the seventh year, viz., because the whole people then came “to appear before God.” He specially mentions the “women and children,” lest their age or sex might be an excuse; and this heightens the villany and dishonesty of those 243 who would debar not children only, but women also, from religious learning; since God invites all from the least to the greatest to His school, and would have them to be His disciples. With respect to “the strangers,” we must understand not those who had come into the land of Canaan on business, and were soon to return home, but those who had chosen to take up their abode there, and from their long residence had coalesced into the same body with the Israelites. The fruit and utility (of this recitation 244) is added, that by hearing they might learn to fear God. Whence we infer, that true religion has its origin in knowledge, and that whatever piety men not instructed by God’s word may appear to have, is mere pretense. “To observe to do,” is equivalent to applying themselves diligently and zealously to obey the precepts of the Law.

Calvin: Deu 31:13 - And that their children, which have not known anything 13.And that their children, which have not known anything Again, we see that their present assembly is not referred to, but that which was to be repe...

13.And that their children, which have not known anything Again, we see that their present assembly is not referred to, but that which was to be repeated every seven years, in order that their posterity might be retained in the path of duty. Another use, then, of this recitation is adduced; that many who, from their age, could not be witnesses of the first promulgation, might thence learn how God was to be served. The possession of the land is again set before them, that God’s bounty may attract them to obedience.

Calvin: Deu 31:14 - And the Lord said unto Moses 14.And the Lord said unto Moses Joshua is now substituted in the place of Moses by a solemn ceremony, not only that he may be held in greater reveren...

14.And the Lord said unto Moses Joshua is now substituted in the place of Moses by a solemn ceremony, not only that he may be held in greater reverence by men, but also that he may be presented before God, and thus may acknowledge that he is dedicated to His service; for his being brought before the door of the tabernacle was a kind of consecration; and God also declares that He will give him a charge, which is equivalent to saying that He will instruct him in the performance of his duties. The appearance also of the glory of God in the cloud, was not less effectual for encouraging himself personally, than for giving public distinction to his high office. For he would never have been recognized as the successor of Moses, unless this visible approbation of God had fastened the yoke upon the people.

Calvin: Deu 31:16 - Behold, thou, shalt sleep with thy fathers 16.Behold, thou, shalt sleep with thy fathers In order that Moses may labor more earnestly to retain the people in obedience to God, he is reminded o...

16.Behold, thou, shalt sleep with thy fathers In order that Moses may labor more earnestly to retain the people in obedience to God, he is reminded of their indomitable perverseness. He had already sufficiently, and more than sufficiently, experienced how depraved and stubborn was the disposition of the Israelites, and how disobedient and contumacious they had been; God now declares that they will be no better after his death; nay, that they will indulge themselves in greater license in consequence of his absence from them. For it appears as if there was an antithesis implied between the words “lie down,” and “rise up;” 242 as if it were said, As soon as you have gone to rest, their insubordination shall break forth, as if they were released from all laws. Not, indeed, that this should take place immediately, for under Joshua they manifested some humility and submissiveness; at any rate, the outward form of pure religion was then maintained, but soon afterwards they relapsed into their old habits. And perhaps this admonition was useful as a preventative, so that they should not fall away so soon.

Since now we understand the general object which God had in view, it will be well briefly to consider the words He employs. When it is said to Moses, “Thou shalt sleep with thy fathers,” first of all the condition of the human race is stated, that Moses may not think it hard to depart from the world like all others, since he was born to this end. At the same time, the difference is indicated between the death of men and of the brute animals. Hence the best consolation is derived, for, if our death were total annihilation, we should not be said to sleep with our fathers.

Why the Spirit designates idolatry by the name of “whoring,” we have seen elsewhere, as also why he calls all false gods “strange,” or “of the strangers,” viz., because, as God chose to be served alone in Israel, so he had distinguished Himself by this title, that He was “the God of Israel.” It is stated in aggravation of their crime, that they would not only be led away into the superstitions which they had learnt in Egypt, but would also pollute themselves with the defilements of Canaan, from which God had willed that it should be purged by their hand. These words, then, are to be read emphatically, The people shall go a whoring after the gods of the land whither they go, and indeed in the midst of it; for it was far more disgraceful to embrace those false gods, of which they were the conquerors and judges, than to invent for themselves fresh idols.

Another aggravation of their crime is, also added, that they would desert the God by whom they had been adopted as children, and wickedly depart from His covenant. For they could not pretend ignorance, when they had been again and again so clearly and solemnly warned. Meanwhile let us learn from this passage, that whosoever turn away to superstitious worships are covenant breakers, and thus, that all their pretenses are vain, who profess that they worship the supreme God together with idols.

Calvin: Deu 31:17 - Then my anger shall be kindled against them 17.Then my anger shall be kindled against them By this denunciation of punishment, God undoubtedly desired to put a restraint upon the senselessness ...

17.Then my anger shall be kindled against them By this denunciation of punishment, God undoubtedly desired to put a restraint upon the senselessness of the people; but since this was done without their profiting by it, there was another advantage in this lesson, viz., that, after having been seriously chastised according to their deserts, they should at length repent though it might be late. Otherwise these punishments would have been inflicted in vain; and it would have never suggested itself to their minds that they received the just recompense of their ingratitude and perfidiousness. This is indeed the first step of prudence, voluntarily to choose that which is right; but the second is to beware, when we have listened to admonition, and to make a stand against evil. But, if our minds are so blinded, that reproofs and threats profit us nothing, there is still a third, i.e., that those who have been careless in prosperity should at length begin to perceive that they are smitten by God’s hand, and thus be driven to acknowledge their guilt. Although, therefore, the simple admonition, as long as it was not followed by its consequences, was despised by the Israelites; still, when they were further instructed by its result, and by experience, it produced its fruit; and the same is daily the case with ourselves. There is scarcely one in ten of the godly, who, as long as God postpones His punishments, anticipates His judgment, but those who are aroused from their torpor, seriously consider the threats which they had hitherto passed over with indifference, and, being brought under conviction, condemn themselves.

By the word אפי , ephi, I here rather understand His face than His wrath; 243 for the expression is more appropriate; and then he sets forth the effect of His wrath, viz., that, being deprived of His aid, they shall be overtaken by all sorts of evils, until they are consumed and perish. Moreover, He affirms that they should be brought into such straits as should extort from them the confession, that the miseries which they suffered were tokens of God’s alienation from them. But He adds, that He would not then listen to their prayers. Hence are we taught that, as our happiness depends on God’s paternal favor, so there is nothing worse for us than to be forsaken by Him, as if He regarded us with no further care; and the lesson we are to learn is, that there is nothing more desirable for us than that He should honor us with His countenance. We read respecting all His creatures, in Psa 104:29, that they are troubled when He hides His face; but here it is more clearly perceived that nothing can be imagined more miserable than we are, when “our iniquities have separated between us and our God, and our sins have hid his face from us, that he will not hear,” as Isaiah says, (Isa 59:2.)

I have already stated, that the greatness of their miseries is expressed, when the people shall confess that they are thus grievously afflicted, because God is departed from them; for it was by no light punishments that they would be brought to this state of feeling, especially considering their great hardness of heart and blind obstinacy. It follows then, that severe punishments are indicated, that should compel them, though unwillingly, to reflect on God’s anger, which they had previously taken no account of. Still, this confession is not referred to as the fruit or sign of sincere repentance; for, if the sinner sincerely flies to God, God will be sure to meet him, since he is inclined to mercy. But in this place He declares that He will not be favorable to them, but will suffer them to pine away in their wretchedness, for God says of Himself that He will “hide His face from them,” in the 18th verse, with a deeper meaning than just before, in that He will take no notice of their groans and lamentations, and by the very continuance of their punishments will show how greatly wroth with them He is.

Calvin: Deu 31:19 - Now, therefore, write ye this song 19.Now, therefore, write ye this song It seems absurd that a useless remedy should be applied to an incurable disease. Why does not God rather correc...

19.Now, therefore, write ye this song It seems absurd that a useless remedy should be applied to an incurable disease. Why does not God rather correct their wickedness, and by His Spirit mold their hearts to obedience, than pour forth words in vain into their deaf ears? Thus do proud and profane men mock at this mode of dealing with them, as if God, throwing away His labor, were deluding unhappy men. We must bear in mind, however, that the preaching of the word, although it is a savior of death to them that perish, is still a sacrifice of sweet savior to God; nor is it to be considered thrown away and ineffectual, when it convicts the ungodly more and more, and renders them altogether inexcusable. And God expressly declares that this would be the use of the song as “a witness” against those, from whose mouth it should proceed. To some, indeed, it was profitable unto salvation; for, when subdued by chastisement, they at length learnt from it that their iniquities were the source and cause of all their evils. For, however God may redouble the blows of His scourges, unbelievers, who are without instruction, reap no advantage from them. Thus, this song was the means of assisting the elect to seek after repentance, when they were smitten by the hand of God. Still, although the word of God should do nothing more than condemn its hearers to death, yet it would be enough that it was a sweet savor to Himself. It seems by no means accordant with our reason that God should have given this command to Isaiah;

“Go, and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes, lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed,” (Isa 6:9)

but, with respect to the secret judgments of God, whereby all our senses must be overwhelmed, let sober-mindedness be our wisdom.

Calvin: Deu 31:20 - But when I shall have brought them 20.But when I shall have brought them In other words, God again enlarges upon the atrociousness of their iniquity, in that, when He had dealt liberal...

20.But when I shall have brought them In other words, God again enlarges upon the atrociousness of their iniquity, in that, when He had dealt liberally with the Israelites, they would turn His benefits into occasions of perversity, since nothing can be more base than such ingratitude, he says, then, that He will perform to them, unworthy as they are, that which he has sworn, so that He might thus be faithful to His promises. He commends the fertility of the land, since this striking pledge of His indulgence should have attracted them by its sweetness to love so beneficent a Father in return. Hence, therefore, the perverseness of their nature is demonstrated, inasmuch as, when full, they would kick against Him, like horses which become intractable from high feeding. But, after having complained of their future rebellion, He again says, that when they shall have been brought into sore straits, and overwhelmed with miseries, this song would be “as a witness,” as if they should proclaim in it their own condemnation.

When He says that He knew their disposition, 244 or what they forged within them, (for the word employed is יצר , yetzer, which is equivalent to figment, or imagination, and includes all the thoughts and feelings,) it is apparent that He was by no means unaware how in He was bestowing His benefits upon such unworthy persons, but that He thus contended with their unworthiness, in order that His goodness might be the more conspicuous; and also that He desired this instruction to be set before them, ungodly and hopeless as they were, which He knew they would despise, so as to render them all the more inexcusable by this test. But it may be objected, Why then did He not turn their hearts to better things? for thus do ungodly railers allow themselves to dispute with Him; but let us rather reflect on the words of Paul, “Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God? Hath not the potter power over the clay, to make” of it vessels according to his own will? (Rom 9:20.) And,

“Who hath first given to him, and it shall be recompensed
unto him again?” ( Rom 11:35.)

So will it come to pass, that we shall exclaim with trembling, Oh, how deep are the judgments of God; how incomprehensible are His ways!

That God should judge from their former life what they would be hereafter, does not seem very logical; but these two clauses are to be taken connectedly, that God foresees that nothing else is to be expected from them, but that they would be carried away into sin by their unbridled lust; and secondly, that it had already been sufficiently manifested by their many iniquities how desperate was their obstinacy.

Calvin: Deu 31:23 - And he gave Joshua the son of Nul, a charge 23.And he gave Joshua the son of Nul, a charge The more difficult was the task of Joshua, the more needful was it that he should be encouraged to exe...

23.And he gave Joshua the son of Nul, a charge The more difficult was the task of Joshua, the more needful was it that he should be encouraged to exert himself, and to beware of failure. For this reason his charge is repeated, although in his person all the others were at the same time confirmed. Moses grounds it on the promise of God, which has been so often mentioned; and says that Joshua had been chosen to complete the work of deliverance already begun; for it was hardly credible that the disciple should be not only superior to his master, but that a man of humble position should be elevated to the dignity from which the sovereign Prophet, and God’s chief minister, had been degraded, unless this was done by the decree and ordinance of God. At the same time, however, he makes him more confident of the result of his calling, by promising him that God, who was the mover of this expedition, would be with him; for He has the power to accomplish every work to which He has appointed any one of us.

Calvin: Deu 31:24 - And it came to pass, when Moses had made an end 24.And it came to pass, when Moses had made an end By “the words of this law,” we must understand not only those which are embraced in this book,...

24.And it came to pass, when Moses had made an end By “the words of this law,” we must understand not only those which are embraced in this book, but in the other three also; and there is an implied antithesis between the two tables written by God’s hand, and the exposition which was afterwards added, lest there should be any obscurity respecting God’s will on account of the brevity with which it was delivered. At the very beginning, indeed, God had set forth whatever it was useful for them to know, but it was His will that what He had briefly comprehended in the Decalogue should be more fully unfolded, and not only so, but that it should be also committed to writing, lest it should be forgotten. We know how inclined to vanity is the mind of man, nay, how willfully it is led away into error by its levity; whilst it has other faults also, such as inquisitiveness, and audacity in invention, and the love of novelty. Thus religion would have been corrupted in a thousand ways, had not its rule been diligently written down for posterity. Moreover, since the books of Moses were for a long time buried through the carelessness of the people and the priests, what darkness of error would have overspread the minds of all, if nothing had been written down!

Since the two Tables were enclosed in the Ark of the Covenant, a place at the side was assigned to the interpretation, so that they might have no doubt but that it proceeded from the same Divine Author; and, since the Decalogue is repeated in these books, it was not at all necessary that the Ark should be opened; which was not lawful, because they might seek in the books of Moses the instruction which was hidden in the Tables. This, indeed, we must remember, that the volume was placed near the Ark in token of its dignity, so that, when it was taken from thence by the Levites, it might be listened to with greater reverence. When it is said, “That it may be there for a witness against thee,” this is not addressed to the Levites alone, but relates generally to the whole people, though the general statement is directed to them as one member of the whole body. But further, although the application of its doctrine is manifold, still one point only is adverted to; for the Law was not written with the single object of being a witness to condemn the people, but to be the rule of a pious and holy life, and a testimony of God’s favor. But, since he had to do with hard and proud minds, Moses declares that, whenever its doctrine shall be set forth, it will render their perverseness inexcusable.

Calvin: Deu 31:27 - For I know thy rebellion 27.For I know thy rebellion The reason is given why he passed over the utility of his doctrine, and only cited it as a witness against the Israelites...

27.For I know thy rebellion The reason is given why he passed over the utility of his doctrine, and only cited it as a witness against the Israelites in terms of severity and reproach, viz., because he had found them by experience to be of a “stiff neck,” (of which expression I have spoken elsewhere,) and has no confidence that they will be more tractable hereafter. He argues from the less to the greater; for, if, while such a leader as theirs was alive, they were rebellious, they were likely to assume greater audacity when he was dead. For we know of what avail is the authority of a great and excellent person to restrain the licentiousness of a people. At the same time, Moses does not arrogate so much to himself as to say that the good condition of the people depended upon his presence, but, pointing out their danger, he seeks to render them more obedient after his death.

Calvin: Deu 31:28 - Gather to me all the elders of your tribes 28.Gather to me all the elders of your tribes Special reference is here made to the Song, which we gather from the last verse to have been alone reci...

28.Gather to me all the elders of your tribes Special reference is here made to the Song, which we gather from the last verse to have been alone recited. Moses, indeed, appears to contradict himself when he commands the elders and officers only to be called to listen, whereas he soon afterwards records that he read it to the whole people. But these two things are easily reconciled, when we remember the order which he was accustomed to observe in gathering the multitude together; for it is manifest from many passages that they were not called together promiscuously, but that the heads of tribes, and the princes of the people, each of them led their band; so that the assembling of the elders here mentioned, is so far from excluding the rest of the multitude, that it rather indicates that the whole people were gathered together by their tribes and classes. And this we may infer from the context, for assuredly he did not “call heaven and earth to record against” the officers only; and yet so he seems to signify. Under the leaders, therefore, the whole multitude is included.

Defender: Deu 31:8 - will not fail thee Compare this phrase to Jos 1:5, Jos 1:9 and Heb 13:5."

Compare this phrase to Jos 1:5, Jos 1:9 and Heb 13:5."

Defender: Deu 31:24 - in a book This is a clear assertion that Moses, not some later combination of "redactors," was the direct author of all the words of this law, including the com...

This is a clear assertion that Moses, not some later combination of "redactors," was the direct author of all the words of this law, including the complete books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. Because Genesis was compiled and edited by Moses from the writings of the earlier patriarchs, it also is normally included as one of the books of the law, all now called the Pentateuch. The entire "book" was then placed in the ark of the covenant to be a perpetual witness to the people (Deu 31:26)."

TSK: Deu 31:2 - I am an // I can no more // Thou shalt not I am an : The life of Moses, the great prophet of Jehovah and lawgiver of the Jews, was exactly the same in length as the time Noah employed in preach...

I am an : The life of Moses, the great prophet of Jehovah and lawgiver of the Jews, was exactly the same in length as the time Noah employed in preaching righteousness to the antediluvian world. These one hundred and twenty years were divided into three remarkable periods. Forty years he lived in Egypt, in the court of Pharaoh, acquiring all the learning and wisdom of the Egyptians (Act 7:20, Act 7:23); forty years he sojourned in Midian, in a state of preparation for his great and important mission (Act 7:29, Act 7:30); and forty years he guided, led, and governed the Israelites under the express direction and authority of Godcaps1 . icaps0 n all 120 years. Deu 34:7; Exo 7:7; Jos 14:10, Jos 14:11; Psa 90:10; Act 7:23

I can no more : Deu 34:7; Num 27:17; 2Sa 21:17; 1Ki 3:7

Thou shalt not : Deu 3:26, Deu 3:27, Deu 4:21, Deu 4:22, Deu 32:48-52; Num 20:12, Num 27:13, Num 27:14; Act 20:25; 2Pe 1:13, 2Pe 1:14

TSK: Deu 31:3 - thy God // and Joshua thy God : Deu 9:3; Gen 48:21; Psa 44:2, Psa 44:3, Psa 146:3-6 and Joshua : Deu 31:7, Deu 31:8, Deu 31:14, Deu 31:23, Deu 3:28, Deu 34:9; Num 27:18-21;...

TSK: Deu 31:4 - -- Deu 2:33, Deu 3:3-11, Deu 3:21, Deu 7:2, Deu 7:16; Exo 23:28-31; Num 21:24-35

TSK: Deu 31:5 - And the Lord // according And the Lord : Deu 7:2, Deu 7:18 according : Deu 7:23-25, Deu 20:16, Deu 20:17; Exo 23:32, Exo 23:33, Exo 34:12-16; Num 33:52-56

TSK: Deu 31:6 - Be strong // fear not // he will not fail Be strong : Deu 31:7, Deu 31:23, Deu 20:4; Jos 1:6, Jos 1:7, Jos 1:9, Jos 10:25; 1Ch 22:13, 1Ch 28:10, 1Ch 28:20; 2Ch 32:7; Psa 27:14; Isa 43:1-5; Hag...

TSK: Deu 31:7 - Be strong // for thou must Be strong : Deu 31:6, Deu 31:23, Deu 1:38, Deu 3:28; Jos 1:6; Dan 10:19; Eph 6:10 for thou must : Deu 31:3, Deu 1:38, Deu 3:28; Joh 1:17

TSK: Deu 31:8 - he it is that // he will be he it is that : Deu 31:3, Deu 9:3; Exo 13:21, Exo 13:22, Exo 33:14 he will be : Deu 31:6; Jos 1:5, Jos 1:9; 1Ch 28:20; Isa 8:9, Isa 8:10, Isa 43:1, Is...

TSK: Deu 31:9 - Moses // delivered // the priests // which bare Moses : Deu 31:22-24, Deu 31:28; Num 33:2; Dan 9:13; Mal 4:4; Mar 10:4, Mar 10:5, Mar 12:19; Luk 20:28; Joh 1:17, Joh 1:45, Joh 5:46 delivered : Deu 3...

TSK: Deu 31:10 - -- Deu 15:1, Deu 15:2; Lev 23:34-43

TSK: Deu 31:11 - to appear // in the place // shalt read to appear : Deu 16:16, Deu 16:17; Exo 23:16, Exo 23:17, Exo 34:24; Psa 84:7 in the place : Deu 12:5 shalt read : Jos 8:34, Jos 8:35; 2Ki 23:2; Neh 8:1...

TSK: Deu 31:12 - Gather // men // that they may Gather : Deu 4:10 men : Deu 6:6, Deu 6:7; Ezr 10:1; Psa 19:7-11; Joh 5:39; 2Ti 3:15-17 that they may : Deu 29:29; Psa 34:11-14

TSK: Deu 31:13 - -- Deu 6:7, Deu 11:2; Psa 78:4-8; Pro 22:6; Eph 6:4

TSK: Deu 31:14 - that thou must die // I may give // presented that thou must die : Deu 31:2, Deu 34:5; Num 27:13; Jos 23:14; 2Ki 1:4; Ecc 9:5; Isa 38:1 I may give : Deu 31:23; Num 27:19, Num 27:20; Act 20:28-31; ...

TSK: Deu 31:15 - -- Exo 33:9, Exo 33:10, Exo 40:38; Psa 99:7

TSK: Deu 31:16 - thou shalt // sleep // and go a // forsake me // break my thou shalt : Gen 25:8; 2Sa 7:12; Isa 57:2; Act 13:36 sleep : Heb. lie down, Shochaiv , ""lying down:""it signifies to rest, take rest in sleep, and ...

thou shalt : Gen 25:8; 2Sa 7:12; Isa 57:2; Act 13:36

sleep : Heb. lie down, Shochaiv , ""lying down:""it signifies to rest, take rest in sleep, and metaphorically, to die. Though much stress cannot be safely laid upon this expression to prove the immortality of the soul, or that the people, in the time of Moses, had a distinct notion of its separate existence; yet is was understood in this sense by Jonathan, who paraphrases the words thus: ""Thou shalt lie down in the dust with thy fathers; and thy soul (nishmatoch ) shall be laid up in the treasury of the life to come, with thy fathers.""Job 20:11

and go a : Exo 32:6, Exo 34:15; Lev 20:3-6; Jdg 2:17-20; Psa 73:27, Psa 106:39; Isa 57:3-8; Jer 3:1-3; Eze 16:15, Eze 16:25-36, Eze 23:5-8, Eze 23:9-21; Hos 2:2-5; Rev 17:2-5, Rev 19:2

forsake me : Deu 32:15; Jdg 2:12, Jdg 10:6, Jdg 10:13; Jer 2:11-13

break my : Lev 26:15; Jdg 2:20; Jer 31:32

TSK: Deu 31:17 - my anger // I will forsake // hide my face // befall them // Are not these my anger : Deu 29:20, Deu 32:21, Deu 32:22; Jdg 2:14, Jdg 2:15; Psa 2:12, Psa 90:11 I will forsake : 1Ch 28:9; 2Ch 15:2; Jer 23:33, Jer 23:39; Hos 9:1...

my anger : Deu 29:20, Deu 32:21, Deu 32:22; Jdg 2:14, Jdg 2:15; Psa 2:12, Psa 90:11

I will forsake : 1Ch 28:9; 2Ch 15:2; Jer 23:33, Jer 23:39; Hos 9:12

hide my face : Though this may allude to the withdrawing of the Shechinah , or visible appearance of Jehovah, yet the general meaning of the expression in Scripture is, the withdrawing of his approbation and protection, of which his visible appearance was formerly the sign and pledge. Deu 32:20; Job 13:24; Psa 27:9, Psa 30:7, Psa 89:46, Psa 104:29; Isa 8:17, Isa 64:7; Eze 39:23, Eze 39:24, Eze 39:29

befall them : Heb. find them, Neh 9:32 *marg. Job 34:11

Are not these : Deu 29:24-27; Num 14:42; Jdg 6:13; Isa 63:17

TSK: Deu 31:18 - -- Deu 31:16, Deu 31:17

TSK: Deu 31:19 - this song // and teach it // put it in their // a witness this song : Deu 31:22, Deu 31:30, 32:1-43, Deu 32:44, Deu 32:45 and teach it : Deu 4:9, Deu 4:10, Deu 6:7, Deu 11:19 put it in their : Exo 4:15; 2Sa 1...

TSK: Deu 31:20 - when // floweth // eaten // waxen fat // then when : Deu 6:10-12, Deu 7:1, Deu 8:7 floweth : Exo 3:8, Exo 3:17 eaten : Deu 8:10-14; Neh 9:25, Neh 9:26 waxen fat : Deu 32:15; Neh 9:25, Neh 9:26, Ne...

TSK: Deu 31:21 - this song // against // I know // go about this song : A sacred song, appointed to be composed by Moses, doubtless under divine inspiration; which the people were required to learn, and teach t...

this song : A sacred song, appointed to be composed by Moses, doubtless under divine inspiration; which the people were required to learn, and teach to their children from generation to generation. Deu 31:19

against : Heb. before

I know : Gen 6:5, Gen 8:21; Psa 139:2; Isa 46:10; Eze 38:10, Eze 38:11; Hos 5:3, Hos 13:5, Hos 13:6; Amo 5:25, Amo 5:26; Joh 2:24, Joh 2:25; Act 2:23, Act 4:28

go about : Heb. do

TSK: Deu 31:22 - -- Deu 31:9, Deu 31:19

TSK: Deu 31:23 - he gave Joshua // shalt bring he gave Joshua : Deu 31:7, Deu 31:8, Deu 31:14; Jos 1:5-9 shalt bring : Deu 31:3, Deu 3:28; Act 7:45

he gave Joshua : Deu 31:7, Deu 31:8, Deu 31:14; Jos 1:5-9

shalt bring : Deu 31:3, Deu 3:28; Act 7:45

TSK: Deu 31:24 - writing the words writing the words : Deu 31:9, Deu 17:18

writing the words : Deu 31:9, Deu 17:18

TSK: Deu 31:25 - bare the ark bare the ark : Deu 31:9

bare the ark : Deu 31:9

TSK: Deu 31:26 - in the side // a witness in the side : 1Ki 8:9; 2Ki 22:8-11; 2Ch 34:14, 2Ch 34:15 a witness : Deu 31:19; 2Ki 22:8, 2Ki 22:13-19; Rom 3:19, Rom 3:20; Gal 2:19

TSK: Deu 31:27 - I know // stiff neck // ye have been I know : Deu 32:20 stiff neck : Deu 9:6, Deu 32:20; Exo 32:8; 2Ch 30:8; Psa 78:8; Isa 48:4; Act 7:51 ye have been : Deu 9:24

I know : Deu 32:20

stiff neck : Deu 9:6, Deu 32:20; Exo 32:8; 2Ch 30:8; Psa 78:8; Isa 48:4; Act 7:51

ye have been : Deu 9:24

TSK: Deu 31:28 - Gather unto me // call heaven Gather unto me : Deu 31:12, Deu 29:10; Gen 49:1, Gen 49:2; Exo 18:25; Num 11:16, Num 11:17 call heaven : Deu 4:26, Deu 30:19, Deu 32:1; Isa 1:2; Luk 1...

TSK: Deu 31:29 - corrupt yourselves // and evil // the latter days corrupt yourselves : Deu 32:5; Jdg 2:19; Isa 1:4; Hos 9:9; Act 20:30; 2Ti 3:1-6; 2Pe 1:14, 2Pe 1:15; 2Pe 2:1, 2Pe 2:2 and evil : Deut. 28:15-68, Deu 2...

corrupt yourselves : Deu 32:5; Jdg 2:19; Isa 1:4; Hos 9:9; Act 20:30; 2Ti 3:1-6; 2Pe 1:14, 2Pe 1:15; 2Pe 2:1, 2Pe 2:2

and evil : Deut. 28:15-68, Deu 29:18-28; Lev. 26:14-46; 2Ch 34:24; Luk 19:42-44, Luk 21:24

the latter days : Deu 4:30; Gen 49:1; Job 19:25; Eze 38:8; 1Ti 4:1; 2Ti 3:1; Heb 1:2; 2Pe 3:3

TSK: Deu 31:30 - -- Deu 4:5; Joh 12:49; Act 20:27; Heb 3:2, Heb 3:5

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Deu 31:1 - Went and spake Went and spake i.e. proceeded or continued to speak, a usual Hebrew phrase. Or, went to the place where he had assembled the people, that he might s...

Went and spake i.e. proceeded or continued to speak, a usual Hebrew phrase. Or, went to the place where he had assembled the people, that he might speak to them.

Poole: Deu 31:2 - Go out and come in Go out and come in i.e. perform the office of a leader or governor, either because I now find a decay of my mind and body, which seems not well to ag...

Go out and come in i.e. perform the office of a leader or governor, either because I now find a decay of my mind and body, which seems not well to agree with Deu 34:7 , or because I foresee the time of my death approaches.

Poole: Deu 31:4 - -- Which he gave to you to possess.

Which he gave to you to possess.

Poole: Deu 31:5 - Before your face Before your face i.e. into your power. See Poole "Deu 1:8" .

Before your face i.e. into your power. See Poole "Deu 1:8" .

Poole: Deu 31:9 - This law // Delivered it unto the priests // Which bare the ark // The elders of Israel This law largely so called, the whole law or doctrine delivered unto Moses contained in these five books. Delivered it unto the priests that they m...

This law largely so called, the whole law or doctrine delivered unto Moses contained in these five books.

Delivered it unto the priests that they might keep it carefully and religiously, and bring it forth upon occasion, and read it, and instruct the people out of it.

Which bare the ark to wit, sometimes in great solemnities, as Jos 3:13,17 6:12 1Ki 8:3 ; though the Levites also might bear it, as appears from Nu 3 Nu 4 Nu 10 1Ch 15:2 .

The elders of Israel were assistants to the priests, and overseers to take care that the law should be kept, and read, and observed.

Poole: Deu 31:10 - The year of release The year of release when they were freed from debts and troubles, and cares of worldly matters, and thereby fitter to attend upon God and his service...

The year of release when they were freed from debts and troubles, and cares of worldly matters, and thereby fitter to attend upon God and his service.

Poole: Deu 31:11 - -- Thyself in part, for the Jews tell us that the king was in person to read some part of it; or, at least, thou shalt cause it to be read by the pries...

Thyself in part, for the Jews tell us that the king was in person to read some part of it; or, at least, thou shalt cause it to be read by the priests or Levites, for he could not read it himself in the hearing of all Israel, but this was to be done by several persons, and to the people met in several congregations. See Neh 8:1 , &c.

Poole: Deu 31:12 - Gather the people together // Women // Children // Thy stranger // That they may learn Gather the people together not into one place, where all could not hear, but into divers assemblies or synagogues. Women hereby are required to go ...

Gather the people together not into one place, where all could not hear, but into divers assemblies or synagogues.

Women hereby are required to go to Jerusalem at this solemnity, as they were permitted to do in other solemnities, when the males only were enjoined to go, Exo 23:17 .

Children to wit, such of them as could understand, as appears from Neh 8:2,3 .

Thy stranger i.e. the proselytes, though others also were admitted.

That they may learn that they may then certainly and constantly do so, though they had also other opportunities to do so, as upon the sabbath days, Act 15:21 , and other solemn feasts, yea, even in their private houses.

Poole: Deu 31:14 - In the tabernacle // That I may give him a charge In the tabernacle either properly so called, for though the priests only might ordinarily enter there, yet others might go in upon a call and command...

In the tabernacle either properly so called, for though the priests only might ordinarily enter there, yet others might go in upon a call and command from God, which here they had; or in the court of the tabernacle, at the door of which God stood in the cloudy pillar, Deu 31:15 , the court coming here under the name of the tabernacle, as elsewhere it comes under the name of the temple.

That I may give him a charge immediately from myself, for his greater encouragement, and to gain him more authority with the people.

Poole: Deu 31:16 - Of the strangers of the land The death of men, both good and bad, is oft called a sleep because they shall certainly awake out of it by resurrection. See Psa 76:5 Dan 12:2 1Th...

The death of men, both good and bad, is oft called a

sleep because they shall certainly awake out of it by resurrection. See Psa 76:5 Dan 12:2 1Th 4:13 , &c.; 2Pe 3:4 . This people will go a whoring : God certainly foresees all things to come, yea, even those which depend upon the wills of men, or contingencies of the things, as this unquestionably did.

Of the strangers of the land i.e. of the Canaanites, who now are possessors, but shortly will be turned out of their possessions, and become as strangers in their own land. This aggravates their folly, to worship such gods as could neither preserve their friends, nor annoy their enemies.

Poole: Deu 31:17 - Hide my face Hide my face i.e. withdraw my favour and help.

Hide my face i.e. withdraw my favour and help.

Poole: Deu 31:19 - This song // Put it in their mouths // A witness for me This song which is contained De 32 , and is put into a song that it may be better learned, and more fixed in their minds and memories. Put it in the...

This song which is contained De 32 , and is put into a song that it may be better learned, and more fixed in their minds and memories.

Put it in their mouths cause them to learn it, and sing it one to another, to oblige them to more circumspection and watchfulness.

A witness for me of my kindness in giving them so many blessings, of my patience in bearing so long with them, of my clemency in giving them such fair and plain warnings, and my justice in punishing such an unthankful, perverse, and incorrigible people.

Poole: Deu 31:21 - It shall not be forgotten // Their imagination which they go about, even now It shall not be forgotten: this seems not to be a precept that they should remember it, but a prediction, that God would give them sad occasion to re...

It shall not be forgotten: this seems not to be a precept that they should remember it, but a prediction, that God would give them sad occasion to remember it, by bringing upon them the dreadful calamities mentioned in it.

Their imagination which they go about, even now either their inward inclinations to idolatry, which they do not check, as they ought, but rather entertain with delight; and some of them do not only cherish it in their hearts, but as far as they can and dare secretly practise it, as may be gathered from Amo 5:26 Act 7:43 ; or their secret purposes to allow themselves therein, when they are settled in their land, which were clearly known to God, though it may be not fully evident to themselves.

Poole: Deu 31:23 - -- This wickedness of theirs which I now foresee and foretell shall not hinder me from bringing them into Canaan.

This wickedness of theirs which I now foresee and foretell shall not hinder me from bringing them into Canaan.

Poole: Deu 31:25 - The Levites The Levites i.e. the priests, Deu 31:9 who also were Levites.

The Levites i.e. the priests, Deu 31:9 who also were Levites.

Poole: Deu 31:26 - In the side // A witness against thee In the side i.e. in the outside, in a little chest fixed to it, for nothing but the tables of stone were contained in the ark, 1Ki 8:9 . Here it was ...

In the side i.e. in the outside, in a little chest fixed to it, for nothing but the tables of stone were contained in the ark, 1Ki 8:9 . Here it was kept for greater security and reverence.

A witness against thee i.e. against thy people, to whom he turns his speech, that they might be more affected with it.

Haydock: Deu 31:1 - Despise Despise, ( detrahent ,) "detract," (Haydock) and represent me as an unjust and weak God. Hebrew, "they will despise, or blaspheme," &c. Septuagint,...

Despise, ( detrahent ,) "detract," (Haydock) and represent me as an unjust and weak God. Hebrew, "they will despise, or blaspheme," &c. Septuagint, "they will irritate me." (Calmet)

Haydock: Deu 31:1 - Went Went. Began. (Menochius) --- "Concluded." Septuagint, continued, or, just before he dismissed the audience, he spoke to them as follows. Josephu...

Went. Began. (Menochius) ---

"Concluded." Septuagint, continued, or, just before he dismissed the audience, he spoke to them as follows. Josephus (iv. 8,) thinks that this took place the day after his first harangue. (Calmet)

Haydock: Deu 31:2 - Come in // Especially Come in, to conduct you. (Menochius) --- Especially. Hebrew, "and the Lord." It was not the want of strength which hindered Moses from continuin...

Come in, to conduct you. (Menochius) ---

Especially. Hebrew, "and the Lord." It was not the want of strength which hindered Moses from continuing to perform his arduous functions, as he was still full of vigour both in soul and body; (chap. xxxiv. 7.; Calmet) but it was his submission to the will of God, who had resolved thus to punish his former diffidence. (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 31:3 - Then Then. This word is not in Hebrew or the Septuagint; neither does Moses mean to insinuate, that God would take his place in conducting the people; bu...

Then. This word is not in Hebrew or the Septuagint; neither does Moses mean to insinuate, that God would take his place in conducting the people; but only that after he should be no more, the divine Providence would no less watch over his people, and direct the councils of Josue, who stood beside him. (Haydock) ---

The ark preceded the army, (Josue iii.) and God invisibly put the enemies of Israel to flight. (Menochius)

Haydock: Deu 31:7 - Called // Lot Called. Hebrew, "unto Josue." He did this publicly that no dispute might arise after his death, respecting the choice of a successor. (Haydock) --...

Called. Hebrew, "unto Josue." He did this publicly that no dispute might arise after his death, respecting the choice of a successor. (Haydock) ---

Lot. Hebrew and Chaldean, "thou shalt put them in possession of it." (Calmet)

Haydock: Deu 31:9 - This law // Ancients This law of Deuteronomy. (Menochius) --- Some think that he had written so far before he came to the assembly, as well as the Canticle; because G...

This law of Deuteronomy. (Menochius) ---

Some think that he had written so far before he came to the assembly, as well as the Canticle; because God commanded him the same to ascend the mount, chap. xxxii. 48. (Calmet) ---

But Moses did not speak the discourses recorded in this book, at one time. After he had, therefore, dismissed the people with his blessing, and with an assurance that God would be their newly appointed leader, he committed to writing what he had delivered by God's order, at different times, and gave a copy of the Pentateuch to the priests, who were to keep it carefully on the side of the ark, and explain it to the people, particularly every seventh year. The Jews understand this law to mean the whole Pentateuch. It may denote also, more particularly (Haydock) Deuteronomy, as far as this place, or the 27th, and three subsequent chapters of it. He gave two copies; one to be deposited beside the ark, and the other (ver. 26,) to be kept by the priests. In all contracts of consequence, this method is observed, one copy being laid carefully by, and the other left in the hands of those who may be concerned, Jeremias xxxii. 12. The Rabbins say that 13 copies were taken; one for each of the 12 tribes and one to be placed on the side of the ark. But of this new assertion we must not expect to hear any proof. ---

Priests, whose duty it is to instruct the people, Matthew ii. 7. (Calmet) ---

Ancients, or magistrates, who must put the law in execution, and guide their decisions by it. (Haydock) ---

The mention of the ark in this place is to insinuate that the book was to be deposited on one side of it, ver. 26. The priests might carry the ark, if they thought proper, (Menochius) as they did sometimes on the more solemn occasions; (Josue iii., and vi., and 1 Kings iv. 4,) though the duty belonged to the Levites, Numbers iii., and iv. The pagans placed their sacred books in their temples, under the care of the priests, who were obliged to transcribe them. (Calmet)

Haydock: Deu 31:10 - Years Years commenced. Hebrew, "at the extremity of seven years." The sabbatic years began at the expiration of every six years, (Haydock) after the land...

Years commenced. Hebrew, "at the extremity of seven years." The sabbatic years began at the expiration of every six years, (Haydock) after the land of Chanaan was conquered, (Calmet) or perhaps after the passage of the Jordan, which took place soon after this discourse was made. Josue spent above six years in the conquest of the country, and then divided it among the tribes. The seventh year was the first year of remission; as the Israelites, particularly on the east side of the Jordan, had already enjoyed the benefits of the country for a considerable time. If they had been required to wait till the whole had been conquered, no sabbatical year would have been of obligation before the reign of Solomon, as he had still some of the devoted nations to subdue. See Exodus xxiii., and Leviticus xxv. (Salien, in the year before Christ 1463) At this time, the ark was removed from Galgala to Silo, where it remained about 350 years, Josue xviii. (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 31:11 - Thou shalt Thou shalt. Septuagint, "you shall read." Josephus says, the high priest had to perform this office; while the Rabbins assert, that the chief magis...

Thou shalt. Septuagint, "you shall read." Josephus says, the high priest had to perform this office; while the Rabbins assert, that the chief magistrate, Moses, and his successors, the kings of Juda, had to read the law publicly. The princes did this in the court of the temple, designed for the women, as they also were bound to hear it. We find that Josias read aloud in the temple the words of the covenant, which have been lately discovered, 4 Kings xxiii. 2. (Calmet) ---

But Esdras, a Levite, did the like; (1 Esdras viii. 2,) and the command seems to be directed chiefly to the priests, from whose number Moses was not excluded, Psalm xcviii. 6. (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 31:12 - Children Children, ( parvulis. ) Those who were above 12 years of age, attended the festivals as much as possible, particularly the three great ones. Even l...

Children, ( parvulis. ) Those who were above 12 years of age, attended the festivals as much as possible, particularly the three great ones. Even little children came to the temple, when they did not live at too great a distance. The lawgiver knew of what importance it was to inspire their tender minds with a love and respect for religion, and for the laws. (Calmet)

Haydock: Deu 31:14 - In the In the court, as none but priests were allowed to enter the tabernacle. (Menochius)

In the court, as none but priests were allowed to enter the tabernacle. (Menochius)

Haydock: Deu 31:17 - My face My face, as one indignant and much displeased. (Calmet) --- I will withdraw my special protection and favours from them. (Menochius)

My face, as one indignant and much displeased. (Calmet) ---

I will withdraw my special protection and favours from them. (Menochius)

Haydock: Deu 31:19 - This canticle // That they This canticle, which will be given in the following chapter. Hence this law, (ver. 9,) may comprise not only what had gone before, but also the rema...

This canticle, which will be given in the following chapter. Hence this law, (ver. 9,) may comprise not only what had gone before, but also the remaining part of the book of Deuteronomy. This Moses would write before his death, and deliver entire, with the preceding books, to be kept with the utmost care, by the priests, as a testimony to remind all of what had happened in past ages, and what would befall the transgressors of God's law. (Haydock) ---

The canticle, containing an abridgment of the book of Deuteronomy, (Calmet) as the latter did of the whole law, was to be copied out more frequently, (Haydock) and committed to memory. Some suppose that Moses and Josue are here ordered to see this put in execution. Others think that Moses gives this commission to the priests. ---

That they. Hebrew, "put in their mouths, (Calmet) that this song may be a witness for me against," &c. God foresaw that the Israelites would prove rebellious; but he leaves them without excuse, as they could not plead ignorance. (Haydock) ---

This testimony against them was written in the form of a canticle, that it might be more easily remembered. (Worthington)

Haydock: Deu 31:21 - Thoughts // Them Thoughts. Hebrew, "imagination." Septuagint, "wickedness." --- Them. Hebrew, "concerning which I swore." Septuagint add, "to their fathers." (H...

Thoughts. Hebrew, "imagination." Septuagint, "wickedness." ---

Them. Hebrew, "concerning which I swore." Septuagint add, "to their fathers." (Haydock)

Haydock: Deu 31:23 - The Lord The Lord. Hebrew has not this word, so that it would seem as if Moses had given this charge to Josue; but the context shews (Calmet) that it was the...

The Lord. Hebrew has not this word, so that it would seem as if Moses had given this charge to Josue; but the context shews (Calmet) that it was the Lord; (ver. 14,) for he swore to give the land of Israel. The Septuagint insert the words of Moses and the Lord. "And Moses commanded Josue....the land which the Lord swore." (Haydock) ---

This is the first time that God addresses Josue, in order to confirm his authority. (Menochius)

Haydock: Deu 31:26 - Side // Thee Side. But not within, (Menochius) according to the generality of interpreters, whom Calmet follows, Exodus xxv. 10. But here he adopts the contrary o...

Side. But not within, (Menochius) according to the generality of interpreters, whom Calmet follows, Exodus xxv. 10. But here he adopts the contrary opinion of Jonathan and Grotius, and asserts that this writing, containing the 29th, 30th, and 31st chapters, on thin boards, was placed in the ark, beside the tables of the law, in the same manner as the Philistines placed in it a coffer of gold, 1 Kings vi. 8. We read (3 Kings viii. 9,) that there was nothing in the ark except the two tables, which might be true at the time that book was written; though St. Paul (Hebrews ix. 4,) tells us, that the golden pot, and the rod of Aaron, were in the ark. If they were there in the days when the author of the first book of Kings lived, the passage in question must be understood with these exceptions. (Calmet) ---

This difficulty cannot, however, be now easily decided, as the Scripture often uses the word in to denote near to, &c., ver. 14. The coffer of the Philistines might also be on the outside of the ark. (Haydock) ---

Thee. This act of ratification of the covenant, which had been made at Horeb 39 years before, (Calmet) was placed in or near the ark. (Haydock) ---

The three chapters, of which it probably consisted, seem to have been what was discovered in the reign of Josias; as the threats and blessings which they contain, would naturally tend to make a strong impression upon all, 4 Kings xxii. 8. (Calmet) ---

Kennicott thinks that Helcias discovered the very manuscript, which Moses had written with his own hand, and which he deposited neither in, nor fastened to any side of the ark, but only placed by the side ( mitsad, juxta, Noldius) of it, or upon the same table; so that it might not be taken by the Philistines, but kept in some suitable place. (Dis. ii.) It is surprising that Huet cites Jonathan as delivering this sentiment, in capsa ad latus dextrum. (Haydock)

Gill: Deu 31:1 - And Moses went and spake these words unto all Israel. And Moses went and spake these words unto all Israel. The following words, even to the whole body of the people summoned together on this occasion. It...

And Moses went and spake these words unto all Israel. The following words, even to the whole body of the people summoned together on this occasion. It seems that after Moses had made the covenant with them he was directed to, he dismissed the people to their tents, and went to his own, and now returned, having ordered them to meet him again, very probably at the tabernacle; with which agrees the Targum of Jonathan, he"went to the tabernacle of the house of doctrine;''though, according to Aben Ezra, he went to the each tribes separately, as they lay encamped; his words are these,"he went to every tribe and tribe, to acquaint them that he was about to die, and that they might not be afraid, and to strengthen their hearts;''he adds,"in my opinion he then blessed them, though their blessings are afterwards written;''which is not improbable.

Gill: Deu 31:2 - And he said unto them, I am an hundred and twenty years old this day // I can no more go out and come in // also the Lord hath said unto me // thou shalt not go over this Jordan And he said unto them, I am an hundred and twenty years old this day,.... Whether the meaning is, that that day precisely was his birthday, is a ques...

And he said unto them, I am an hundred and twenty years old this day,.... Whether the meaning is, that that day precisely was his birthday, is a question; it may be the sense is only this, that he was now arrived to such an age; though Jarchi takes it in the first sense, to which are objected his words in Deu 31:14; yet it seems by Deu 32:48 that having delivered to the children of Israel the song he was ordered this day to write, on the selfsame day he was bid to go up to Mount Nebo and die: and it is a commonly received tradition with the Jews, that Moses died on the same day of the month he was born; See Gill on Deu 34:7.

I can no more go out and come in; not that he could no longer go out of his tent and return without great trouble and difficulty, being so decrepit; but that he could not perform his office as their ruler and governor, or go out to battle and return as their general; and this not through any incapacity of body or mind, both being vigorous, sound, and well, as is clear from Deu 34:7; but because it was the will of God that he should live no longer to exercise such an office, power, and authority:

also the Lord hath said unto me, or "for the Lord has said" r, and so is a reason of the foregoing; the Targum is,"the Word of the Lord said:"

thou shalt not go over this Jordan: to which he and the people of Israel were nigh, and lay between them and the land of Canaan, over which it was necessary to pass in order to go into it; but Moses must not lead them there, this work was reserved for Joshua, a type of Christ; not Moses and his law, or obedience to it, is what introduces any into the heavenly Canaan only Jesus and his righteousness; see Deu 3:27.

Gill: Deu 31:3 - The Lord thy God, he will go over before thee // and he will destroy those nations from before thee // and thou shalt possess them // and Joshua, he shall go over before thee // as the Lord hath said The Lord thy God, he will go over before thee,.... This he said to encourage the people of Israel; that though he should die, and not go over with the...

The Lord thy God, he will go over before thee,.... This he said to encourage the people of Israel; that though he should die, and not go over with them, their ever living and true God, the great Jehovah, the Lord of hosts, he would go before them, and fight their battles for them; so that they had nothing to fear from their enemies:

and he will destroy those nations from before thee; the seven nations which then inhabited the land:

and thou shalt possess them; their countries, cities, and houses, fields, and vineyards:

and Joshua, he shall go over before thee; as their general to fight for them, subdue their enemies, and put them into the possession of the land, and divide it to them:

as the Lord hath said; Deu 3:28.

Gill: Deu 31:4 - And the Lord shall do unto them as he did unto Sihon, and to Og, kings of the Amorites // and unto the land of them whom he destroyed And the Lord shall do unto them as he did unto Sihon, and to Og, kings of the Amorites,.... Deliver them up into their hands; see the history of this ...

And the Lord shall do unto them as he did unto Sihon, and to Og, kings of the Amorites,.... Deliver them up into their hands; see the history of this in Num 21:10,

and unto the land of them whom he destroyed; put them into the possession of the land of Canaan, as they were now in possession of the land of those two kings he destroyed by them. This instance is given to encourage their faith, assuring them that what had been done to them would be done to the Canaanitish kings, and their subjects, and their lands.

Gill: Deu 31:5 - And the Lord shall give them up before your face // that ye may do unto them according to all the commandments which I have commanded you And the Lord shall give them up before your face,.... To ruin and destruction; the Targum of Jonathan is,"the Word of the Lord shall deliver them up:"...

And the Lord shall give them up before your face,.... To ruin and destruction; the Targum of Jonathan is,"the Word of the Lord shall deliver them up:"

that ye may do unto them according to all the commandments which I have commanded you; that is, utterly destroy them, make no covenant with them, enter into no alliances nor contract any marriages with them; but demolish their altars, cut down their groves, and break their images in pieces; of which last Aben Ezra interprets the words; but they are not to be restrained to that single instance; see Deu 7:1.

Gill: Deu 31:6 - Be strong and of a good courage // fear not, nor be afraid of them // for the Lord thy God, he it is that doth go with thee // he will not fail thee, nor forsake thee Be strong and of a good courage,.... The Septuagint version is,"play the men, and be strong;''be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might, tr...

Be strong and of a good courage,.... The Septuagint version is,"play the men, and be strong;''be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might, trusting and relying on him that goes before you; and so take heart, and be of good courage, and act the manly part; the apostle seems to refer to this passage, 1Co 16:13,

fear not, nor be afraid of them; their enemies, though so numerous, so mighty, and some of them of a gigantic stature, and their cities strong and well fenced:

for the Lord thy God, he it is that doth go with thee: in comparison of whom, numbers of men, their strength of body, and fortified places, signify nothing:

he will not fail thee, nor forsake thee; not fail to fulfil his promises to them, not leave them till he had given them complete victory over their enemies, put them into the possession of their land, and settled them in it. This promise, though made to literal Israel, belongs to the spiritual Israel of God, and is made good to every true believer in the Lord; see Heb 13:5.

Gill: Deu 31:7 - And Moses called unto Joshua // and said unto him, in the sight of all Israel // be strong and of a good courage // for thou must go with this people unto the land which the Lord hath sworn unto their fathers to give them, and thou shalt cause them to inherit it And Moses called unto Joshua,.... Who might be at some distance from him, with the tribe to which he belonged. The Targum of Jonathan adds,"out of the...

And Moses called unto Joshua,.... Who might be at some distance from him, with the tribe to which he belonged. The Targum of Jonathan adds,"out of the midst of the people:"

and said unto him, in the sight of all Israel; now assembled together, and what follows was said in their hearing, to make him the more respectable to them:

be strong and of a good courage; the same that is said to the people in Deu 31:6, and which was still more necessary in him, who was to be their general, and to go at the head of them, and lead them on to battle; and though Joshua was a man of courage and valour, as well as had military skill, as appears by his fight with Amalek, Exo 17:9; yet such an exhortation was not needless, seeing he had so much work to do, and so many enemies to contend with:

for thou must go with this people unto the land which the Lord hath sworn unto their fathers to give them, and thou shalt cause them to inherit it; the Targum of Jonathan is,"which the Word of the Lord hath sworn to give;''the land of Canaan, thither he must go with them; this was the will and determination of God, and he must go alone without him, Moses, which would be a trial of his courage.

Gill: Deu 31:8 - And the Lord, he it is that doth go before thee // he will be with thee // he will not fail thee, neither forsake thee // fear not, neither be dismayed And the Lord, he it is that doth go before thee,.... The Word of the Lord, his Shechinah, according to the above Targum, and so in the next clause; t...

And the Lord, he it is that doth go before thee,.... The Word of the Lord, his Shechinah, according to the above Targum, and so in the next clause; the same that brought Israel out of Egypt, had gone before them in the wilderness, and now would go before Joshua and them into the land of Canaan:

he will be with thee; to guide and direct, to assist and strengthen, to protect and defend, to give success to his arms, and victory over his enemies:

he will not fail thee, neither forsake thee; not fail to give him counsel and direction, to afford him strength, and to fill him with courage, and to deliver his enemies into his hands; nor forsake him till he had finished the work he was to do, had made a complete conquest of the Canaanites, and settled the people of Israel in their land:

fear not, neither be dismayed; at the number and strength of the enemy, nor at any difficulties that might lie in the way of finishing so great an undertaking, since the Lord would be with him; see Rom 8:31.

Gill: Deu 31:9 - And Moses wrote this law // and delivered it unto the priests, the sons of Levi // which bare the ark of the covenant of the Lord // and unto all the elders of Israel And Moses wrote this law,.... The book of Deuteronomy, or the Pentateuch, the five books of Moses, which he had now finished, and which all of them to...

And Moses wrote this law,.... The book of Deuteronomy, or the Pentateuch, the five books of Moses, which he had now finished, and which all of them together are sometimes called the law, Gal 4:21,

and delivered it unto the priests, the sons of Levi; who were the teachers of the law, as Aben Ezra observes; see Mal 2:7; and therefore it was proper to put it into their hands, to instruct the people in it, and that the people might apply to them in any matter of difficulty, or when they wanted to have any particular law explained to them:

which bare the ark of the covenant of the Lord; for though they were the Levites, and particularly the Kohathites, who in journeying carried the ark; see Num 4:5; yet sometimes it was borne by the priests; see Jos 3:13,

and unto all the elders of Israel; the judges and civil magistrates in the respective tribes; for as there were in the book of the law several things which belonged to the priests to perform, and all of them they were to instruct in, so there were others which were to be the rule of judgment to judges, and all civil magistrates, and which they were to take care were put in execution; and therefore it was proper that they should have a copy of this law, and which must be here understood; for it cannot be thought that one and the same copy should be given both to the priests and to all the elders. The Jews say Moses wrote thirteen copies of the law, twelve for the twelve tribes, and one to be put into the ark, to convict of fraud or corruption, should any be made s.

Gill: Deu 31:10 - And Moses commanded them // saying // at the end of every seven years // in the solemnity of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles And Moses commanded them,.... The priests and the elders, to whom the law was delivered: saying; as follows: at the end of every seven years; e...

And Moses commanded them,.... The priests and the elders, to whom the law was delivered:

saying; as follows:

at the end of every seven years; every seventh year was a year of rest to the land, and of remission of debts to poor debtors: at the close of this year or going out of it, according to the Misnah t, even on the eighth year coming in, the following was to be done, namely, the reading of the law; and so Jarchi interprets it of the first year of release, the eighth, that is, the first year after the year of release; but Aben Ezra better interprets it of the beginning of the seventh year; for as he elsewhere observes on Deu 15:1; the word signifies the extremity of the year, and there are two extremities of it, the beginning and the end, and the first extremity is meant; which is more likely than that the reading of the law should be put off to the end of the year, and which seems to be confirmed by what follows:

in the solemnity of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles, or "in the appointed time" u; of the year of release, of the release of debtors from their debts, Deu 15:1; when the time or season appointed and fixed was come: moreover, what is here directed to being to be done at the feast of tabernacles, shows it to be at the beginning of the year, since that feast was in the month Tisri, which was originally the beginning of the year, before the coming of the children of Israel out of Egypt, and still continued so for many things, and particularly for the years of release w; and this was a very proper time for the reading of the law, when all the increase of the earth and fruits thereof were gathered in; and so their hearts filled, or at least should be, with gladness and gratitude; and when there was no tillage of the land, being the seventh year, and so were at leisure for such service; and when all poor debtors were released from their debts, and so were freed from all cares and troubles, and could better attend unto it.

Gill: Deu 31:11 - When all Israel is come to appear before the Lord thy God // in the place which the Lord shall choose // thou shall read this law before all Israel in their hearing When all Israel is come to appear before the Lord thy God,.... As all the males were obliged to do three times in the year, and one of those times was...

When all Israel is come to appear before the Lord thy God,.... As all the males were obliged to do three times in the year, and one of those times was the feast of tabernacles, and so a proper season for the reading of the law; see Exo 23:14;

in the place which the Lord shall choose; the city of Jerusalem, and the temple there:

thou shall read this law before all Israel in their hearing; the book of Deuteronomy, as Jarchi, or it may be the whole Pentateuch: who were to read it is not expressly said; the speech seems to be directed to the priests and elders, to whom the law written by Moses was delivered, Deu 31:9; and who were either to read it themselves, or take care that it should be read. Josephus x ascribes this service to the high priest; he says, standing in an high pulpit (or on an high bench),"from whence he may be heard, he must read the laws to all;''but the Jewish writers commonly allot this work to the king, or supreme governor, who at least was to read some parts of it; so Jarchi says, the king at first read Deuteronomy, as it is said in the Misnah y;"he read from the beginning of Deuteronomy to Deu 6:4; hear, O Israel, &c. and then added Deu 11:13; then Deu 14:22; after that Deu 26:12; then the section of the king, Deu 17:14; next the blessings and the curses, Deu 27:15, with which he finished the whole section;''and so we find that Joshua, the governor of the people after Moses, read all his laws, Jos 8:35; and so did King Josiah at the finding of the book of the law, 2Ki 23:2, and Ezra, Neh 8:3. The king received the book from the high priest standing, and read it sitting; but King Agrippa stood and read, for which he was praised.

Gill: Deu 31:12 - Gather the people together, men, and women, and children // and thy stranger that is within thy gates // that they may hear // and that they may learn // and fear the Lord your God // and observe to do all the words of this law Gather the people together, men, and women, and children,.... At the three grand festivals in other years, only males were obliged to appear; women mi...

Gather the people together, men, and women, and children,.... At the three grand festivals in other years, only males were obliged to appear; women might if they would, but they were not bound to it; but at this time all of every age and sex were to be summoned and assembled together; and it is said z, when the king read in the book of the law, all the people were obliged to come and bring their families, as it is said Deu 31:12; "gather the people", &c. and as it could not be done when it happened on the sabbath day, the reading of the section was put off to the day following:

and thy stranger that is within thy gates; not only the proselyte of righteousness, but the proselyte of the gate that renounced idolatry, for his further conviction and thorough conversion to the religion of the true God; or, as the Targum of Jonathan expresses it, that they might see the honour and glory of the law. The end is more fully expressed as follows:

that they may hear; all the laws which God had given:

and that they may learn; and attain unto the true knowledge and right understanding of them:

and fear the Lord your God; serve and worship him internally and externally, according to these laws:

and observe to do all the words of this law; so take notice of them as to put them in practice; and reading them in such a solemn and reverent manner made them the more servable, and raised the greater attention to them, to the importance of them; otherwise they were read in their families, and on sabbath days in their synagogues; see Deu 6:7 Act 13:15.

Gill: Deu 31:13 - And that their children, which have not known anything // may hear, and learn to fear the Lord your God // as long as ye live in the land whither ye go over Jordan to possess it And that their children, which have not known anything,.... Of God and of his law and of their duty to God, to their parents, and the rest of their ...

And that their children, which have not known anything,.... Of God and of his law and of their duty to God, to their parents, and the rest of their fellow creatures:

may hear, and learn to fear the Lord your God; hear the law of God, learn the meaning of it, and so be brought up in the fear, nurture, and admonition of the Lord, and serve him their Creator in the days of their youth:

as long as ye live in the land whither ye go over Jordan to possess it; this being a means to continue the fear, service, and worship of God in their posterity, and so of their long continuance in the land of Canaan.

Gill: Deu 31:14 - And the Lord said unto Moses // behold, thy days approach that thou must die // call Joshua, and present yourselves in the tabernacle of the congregation, that I may give him a charge // and Moses and Joshua went and presented themselves in the tabernacle of the congregation And the Lord said unto Moses,.... Either at the same time, or quickly after; rather, perhaps, the same day: behold, thy days approach that thou mus...

And the Lord said unto Moses,.... Either at the same time, or quickly after; rather, perhaps, the same day:

behold, thy days approach that thou must die; which does not necessarily imply that he had some days to live, though but few; but that the time of his death drew nigh, his last moments were approaching; the time of his death being, as every man's is, fixed by the Lord, with whom is the number of his years, months, days, and moments, beyond which he cannot pass, Job 14:5,

call Joshua, and present yourselves in the tabernacle of the congregation, that I may give him a charge; this looks as if the people had been dismissed after the above exhortations given; and now Joshua was called, and Moses with him, to have a charge given him:

and Moses and Joshua went and presented themselves in the tabernacle of the congregation; before the Lord. Aben Ezra says, Moses went from the camp of Israel where he was, to the camp of the Shechinah; the Jews pretend to know in what form they walked thither. Moses, they say a, went on the left hand of Joshua; and they went to the tabernacle, and the pillar of cloud descended and separated between them.

Gill: Deu 31:15 - And the Lord appeared in the tabernacle in a pillar of cloud // and the pillar of the cloud stood over the door of the tabernacle And the Lord appeared in the tabernacle in a pillar of cloud,.... As he was wont to do, see Exo 33:9; in which cloud there was a lustre, a brightness,...

And the Lord appeared in the tabernacle in a pillar of cloud,.... As he was wont to do, see Exo 33:9; in which cloud there was a lustre, a brightness, a glory visible, which showed that he was there:

and the pillar of the cloud stood over the door of the tabernacle; it seems to have appeared first in the tabernacle, and then it came out of it, and stood over the door of it, near to which Moses and Joshua were: the Targum of Jonathan adds,"Moses and Joshua stood without;''

though the former clause, according to Noldius b, should be "over the tabernacle", or above where the cloud was wont to be.

Gill: Deu 31:16 - And the Lord said unto Moses // behold, thou shalt sleep with thy fathers // and this people will rise up // and go a whoring after the gods of the strangers of the land, whither they go to be amongst them // and will forsake me // and break my covenant which I have made with them at Sinai And the Lord said unto Moses,.... Out of the pillar of cloud: behold, thou shalt sleep with thy fathers; a phrase expressive of death, frequently u...

And the Lord said unto Moses,.... Out of the pillar of cloud:

behold, thou shalt sleep with thy fathers; a phrase expressive of death, frequently used both of good and bad men, which serves to render death easy and familiar, and less formidable; and to assure and lead into an expectation of an awaking out of it, or a resurrection from it:

and this people will rise up; in their posterity; for not till after Joshua's death, and the death of the elders of Israel, did they revolt to idolatry, Jos 24:31,

and go a whoring after the gods of the strangers of the land, whither they go to be amongst them; that is, after the gods of the Canaanites, who though at this time the inhabitants of the land, yet when the children of Israel became possessors of it, they were the strangers of it; and being suffered to continue contrary to the directions God had given to destroy them, would be a means of drawing them into the worship of their idols, expressed here by going a whoring after them, or committing whoredom with them. Idolatry in Scripture is frequently signified by fornication and adultery; and, as foretold, this was the case; see Psa 106:35,

and will forsake me: their husband, departing from his worship and service:

and break my covenant which I have made with them at Sinai; and now again in the plains of Moab, and which had the nature of a matrimonial contract; see Jer 31:32.

Gill: Deu 31:17 - Then my anger shall be kindled against them in that day // and I will forsake them // and I will hide my face from them // and they shall be devoured // and many evils and troubles shall befall them // so that they will say in that day, are not these evils come upon us // because our God is not amongst us Then my anger shall be kindled against them in that day,.... As the anger of a man is against his wife who has treacherously departed from him: and je...

Then my anger shall be kindled against them in that day,.... As the anger of a man is against his wife who has treacherously departed from him: and jealousy, which is the rage of such a man, is very cruel; and much more the wrath and anger of a jealous God, who is a consuming fire:

and I will forsake them; withdraw his favours from them, and his protection of them:

and I will hide my face from them; take no notice of them in a providential way for good, nor hear their cries, to deliver them from evil:

and they shall be devoured; by their enemies, or by the sore judgments of God, by famine, sword, pestilence, and evil beasts, they and their substance:

and many evils and troubles shall befall them; both in their own land, and in other countries, where they would be, and have been carried captive:

so that they will say in that day, are not these evils come upon us,

because our God is not amongst us? of which they would be sensible by their being exposed to their enemies for want of his protection, and by the evils upon them through his displeasure, and by their being deprived of the good things that came from him; but no intimation is given of their being sensible of their sins as the cause of all this.

Gill: Deu 31:18 - I will surely hide my face in that day // for all the evils which they shall have wrought // in that they are turned unto other gods I will surely hide my face in that day,.... Which is repeated for the certainty of it, and that it might be taken notice of; that he was the spring an...

I will surely hide my face in that day,.... Which is repeated for the certainty of it, and that it might be taken notice of; that he was the spring and source of all their good things, their sun and their shield, who being withdrawn from them, they would be deprived of every thing that was good, and be liable to all evil; and this he would do:

for all the evils which they shall have wrought; for all the immoralities they should be guilty of, every transgression of his law, whether of the first or second table, and especially idolatry:

in that they are turned unto other gods; to the worship and service of them, which of all evils would be the most provoking to God; and the way of speaking suggests as if all evils were included in idolatry, and sprang from it, or were committed with it.

Gill: Deu 31:19 - Now, therefore, write ye this song for you // and teach it the children of Israel // put it in their mouths // that this song may be a witness for me against the children of Israel Now, therefore, write ye this song for you,.... Which was now dictated by the Lord, and given to Moses and Joshua to write, which is recorded in Deu 3...

Now, therefore, write ye this song for you,.... Which was now dictated by the Lord, and given to Moses and Joshua to write, which is recorded in Deu 32:1,

and teach it the children of Israel; teach them by it, instructing them in the meaning of it: thus it was usual in ancient times to write things in verses, that they might be the more pleasingly attended to and regarded, and be longer retained in memory; and especially this practice was used with children, and still is:

put it in their mouths; oblige them to get it by heart, or lay it up in their memories, and repeat it frequently, that it may be familiar to them, and not be forgotten by them:

that this song may be a witness for me against the children of Israel; when in times to come they shall call to mind how in this song they were cautioned against such and such sins, and what they were threatened with should befall them on account of them, and how all things have come to pass exactly as foretold in it; which would be a testimony for God of his goodness to them, of his tender care of them, and concern for them, in the previous cautions he gave them; and of his foreknowledge of future events; and a testimony against them for their ingratitude and other sins.

Gill: Deu 31:20 - For when I shall have brought them into the land which I sware unto their fathers // that floweth with milk and honey // and they shall have eaten and filled themselves, and waxen fat // then will they turn unto other gods // and serve them // and provoke me // and break my covenant For when I shall have brought them into the land which I sware unto their fathers,.... To give it to them, and put them into the possession of it, eve...

For when I shall have brought them into the land which I sware unto their fathers,.... To give it to them, and put them into the possession of it, even the land of Canaan, often thus described, and as it is by the following character:

that floweth with milk and honey; aboundeth with all good things; see Exo 3:8,

and they shall have eaten and filled themselves, and waxen fat; that is, after they have for a considerable time enjoyed the good things of the land, and they abound with them, and increase in them, and have great fullness of them:

then will they turn unto other gods: turn from the Lord who has brought them into all this plenty, from the fear, worship, and service of him, and turn to the worship of idols:

and serve them: the works of men's hands, and at most but creatures, and not the Creator; than which nothing can be more absurd and stupid, as well as wicked and ungrateful:

and provoke me: nothing being more provoking to the Lord than idolatry, it striking at his very nature, being, and glory:

and break my covenant; now made with them; this being foretold by the Lord, which exactly came to pass in numerous instances, proves his precise foreknowledge of future events, even such as depend on the inclinations, dispositions, and wills of men.

Gill: Deu 31:21 - And it shall come to pass, when many evils and troubles are befallen them // that this song shall testify against them as a witness // for it shall not be forgotten out of the mouths of their seed // for I know their imagination which they go about even now // before I have brought thee into the land which I sware And it shall come to pass, when many evils and troubles are befallen them,.... As did in the times of the judges, in the Babylonish captivity, and do ...

And it shall come to pass, when many evils and troubles are befallen them,.... As did in the times of the judges, in the Babylonish captivity, and do now in their present exile:

that this song shall testify against them as a witness; which so clearly points at their sins, with all their aggravated circumstances, and describes so fully their calamities, distresses, and punishment for them:

for it shall not be forgotten out of the mouths of their seed; which shows that it respects time to come, their later posterity, whose memory of this song would be conjured up by the evils that should come upon them for their sins; nor is it forgotten by them to this day, who acknowledge there are some things in it now fulfilled or fulfilling in them:

for I know their imagination which they go about even now: or are "making" c; forming and framing within themselves, there being a secret inclination in their minds to idolatry, which were working and contriving schemes to bring it about, and set it up; and this, God, the searcher of hearts, knew full well, and that in process of time this evil imagination would break forth into act, in an open and flagrant manner:

before I have brought thee into the land which I sware; to their fathers, to give it to them for an inheritance, as is suggested in Deu 31:20.

Gill: Deu 31:22 - Moses therefore wrote this song the same day // and taught it the children of Israel Moses therefore wrote this song the same day,.... The same day it was dictated to him by divine inspiration; he wrote it, as Josephus says d,"in hexam...

Moses therefore wrote this song the same day,.... The same day it was dictated to him by divine inspiration; he wrote it, as Josephus says d,"in hexameter verse, which he left in the holy Bible or book (the Pentateuch), containing (as he adds) a prophecy of things future, according to which all things have been done, and are done; and in nothing of it has he erred from the truth;''which is a very just account of it, and worthy of observation:

and taught it the children of Israel; instructed them in the meaning of it, directed them to repeat it frequently, to lay it up in their memories, and often meditate upon it; as being a divine composition, and of great importance, as the consideration of it will make appear.

Gill: Deu 31:23 - And he gave Joshua the son of Nun a charge // and said, be strong and of a good courage // for thou shalt bring the children of Israel into the land which I sware unto them // and I will be with thee And he gave Joshua the son of Nun a charge,.... It may be a question who gave this charge, the Lord or Moses; according to the connection of the words...

And he gave Joshua the son of Nun a charge,.... It may be a question who gave this charge, the Lord or Moses; according to the connection of the words with the preceding, it seems to be the latter; for the immediate antecedent to the relative he is Moses, and so the Septuagint interpreters understand it; but then they are obliged to read some following clauses different from the original, as, instead of "I swear", they read "the Lord sware"; and the last clause they read, "and he shall be with thee"; but Aben Ezra gives the same sense without departing from the common and genuine reading, supposing that Moses gave the charge in the name and by the authority of the Lord; his words are,"he gave charge by the commandment of the Lord, therefore he saith, "which I sware unto them";''but it seems best to understand this of the Lord himself, since he ordered Moses and Joshua to present themselves before him, that he might give the latter a charge, Deu 31:14; and the language of the following clauses best agrees with him:

and said, be strong and of a good courage; See Gill on Deu 31:6; See Gill on Deu 31:7,

for thou shalt bring the children of Israel into the land which I sware unto them; See Gill on Deu 31:7;

and I will be with thee; See Gill on Deu 31:8; the Targum of Jonathan is,"my Word shall be thy help.''

Gill: Deu 31:24 - And it came to pass, when Moses had made an end of writing the words of this law in a book // until they were finished And it came to pass, when Moses had made an end of writing the words of this law in a book,.... In this book of Deuteronomy, and which concluded the P...

And it came to pass, when Moses had made an end of writing the words of this law in a book,.... In this book of Deuteronomy, and which concluded the Pentateuch:

until they were finished; all the words of the law, and the whole five books of Moses, excepting some few verses, Deu 34:1, which were added by another hand, Joshua or Ezra.

Gill: Deu 31:25 - That Moses commanded the Levites // which bare the ark of the covenant of the Lord // saying That Moses commanded the Levites,.... These were not the common Levites, but the priests who were also Levites, to whom the law was given, Deu 31:9; a...

That Moses commanded the Levites,.... These were not the common Levites, but the priests who were also Levites, to whom the law was given, Deu 31:9; and none but they might touch the ark, or go so near it as, they are bid to do, to put the law on the side of it; so Aben Ezra; it follows:

which bare the ark of the covenant of the Lord; as the priests are said to do; see Gill on Deu 31:9; for though in journeying the Kohathites carried it, yet not until it was covered by the priests, for they must not touch it; as these must do when they put the law on the side of it, as they are ordered in Deu 31:26.

saying; as follows.

Gill: Deu 31:26 - Take this book of the law // and put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of the Lord your God // that it may be therefore a witness against thee Take this book of the law,.... Not Deuteronomy only, but the whole Pentateuch: and put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of the Lord your G...

Take this book of the law,.... Not Deuteronomy only, but the whole Pentateuch:

and put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of the Lord your God; not in the ark, for there were nothing there but the two tables of stone with the ten commands on them, 1Ki 8:9; but on one side of it; the Targum of Jonathan says, it was"put in a chest (or box) on the right side of the ark of the covenant;''which is very probable. Jarchi observes, that the wise men of Israel are divided about it in the Talmud e; some of them say there was a table (or ledge) that stood out from the ark without, and there it was put; others say it was put on the side of the tables of the law within the ark; the former are in the right:

that it may be therefore a witness against thee; when they fall into idolatry or any other sin, a transgression of any of the laws therein contained.

Gill: Deu 31:27 - For I know thy rebellion and thy stiff neck // behold, while I am yet alive with you this day, ye have been rebellious against the Lord // and how much more after my death For I know thy rebellion and thy stiff neck,.... How rebellious they were against the Lord and his laws, and how unwilling they were to admit the yoke...

For I know thy rebellion and thy stiff neck,.... How rebellious they were against the Lord and his laws, and how unwilling they were to admit the yoke of his commandments to be put upon them, and submit to it; this he had an experience of for forty years past:

behold, while I am yet alive with you this day, ye have been rebellious against the Lord; murmuring at his providences, Exo 16:8, speaking against his ministers, Exo 16:2; breaking his laws, particularly being guilty of idolatry, in making and worshipping the golden calf, Exo 32:8; and even now, as in Deu 31:21, were imagining, forming, and framing in their minds something of the same kind, from the time of their coming out of Egypt unto this time they were now on the borders of Canaan; this had all along been their character; see Deu 9:7,

and how much more after my death? When he would be no more with them to instruct and advise them, to caution and reprove them, and to keep them in awe by his authority.

Gill: Deu 31:28 - Gather unto me all the elders of your tribes, and your officers // that I may speak these words in their ears // and call heaven and earth to record against them Gather unto me all the elders of your tribes, and your officers,.... The heads of the tribes, the princes, and all other inferior magistrates: that...

Gather unto me all the elders of your tribes, and your officers,.... The heads of the tribes, the princes, and all other inferior magistrates:

that I may speak these words in their ears; not the words of the law, but of the song which he was ordered to write, and is recorded in the following chapter:

and call heaven and earth to record against them; to bear witness of what he delivered to them, and to bear witness against them should they transgress the laws he gave them; and to bear witness that they had been faithfully cautioned against transgressing, and had been severely threatened, and the punishment plainly pointed out that should be inflicted on them in case of disobedience, so that they were left entirely without excuse.

Gill: Deu 31:29 - For I know that after my death // ye will utterly corrupt yourselves // and turn aside from the way which I have commanded you // and evil will befall you in the latter days // because ye will do evil in the sight of the Lord, to provoke him to anger through the work of your hands For I know that after my death,.... Which was just at hand, some time after that, not immediately; this he knew by a spirit of prophecy, namely, what ...

For I know that after my death,.... Which was just at hand, some time after that, not immediately; this he knew by a spirit of prophecy, namely, what follows:

ye will utterly corrupt yourselves; their ways, works, and manners, and so themselves; corrupt the worship of God by making idols, and serving them, which is the corruption chiefly intended:

and turn aside from the way which I have commanded you: from the way of the commandments of God, which Moses had given them in his name, and in which they were directed to walk; but, as here foretold, would wander and swerve from them as they did:

and evil will befall you in the latter days; not only in the times of the judges, and in the time of the Babylonish captivity, but in their present captivity, as they call it; which shows that the following song has things in it which respect times at a great distance, and even the present ones, and yet to come:

because ye will do evil in the sight of the Lord, to provoke him to anger through the work of your hands; their idols, idolatry being the evil chiefly designed, which is of all things the most provoking of the Lord.

Gill: Deu 31:30 - And Moses spake in the ears of all the congregation of Israel // the words of this song, until they were ended And Moses spake in the ears of all the congregation of Israel,.... Not in the hearing of the whole body of the people, and every individual thereof; n...

And Moses spake in the ears of all the congregation of Israel,.... Not in the hearing of the whole body of the people, and every individual thereof; no man could be able to speak to such a numerous congregation, as that they should hear him; but in the hearing of their heads and representatives, the elders of their tribes and officers, ordered to be gathered together for this purpose, Deu 31:28,

the words of this song, until they were ended; which song is recorded in the following chapter, Deu 32:1.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Deu 31:1 In the MT this refers to the words that follow (cf. NIV, NCV).

NET Notes: Deu 31:2 Or “am no longer able to lead you” (NIV, NLT); Heb “am no longer able to go out and come in.”

NET Notes: Deu 31:7 Heb “fathers” (also in v. 20).

NET Notes: Deu 31:10 For the regulations on this annual festival see Deut 16:13-15.

NET Notes: Deu 31:11 Heb “before all Israel.”

NET Notes: Deu 31:13 The phrase “this law” is not in the Hebrew text, but English style requires an object for the verb here. Other translations also supply th...

NET Notes: Deu 31:14 Heb “I will command him.”

NET Notes: Deu 31:15 Heb “and the pillar of cloud.” This phrase was not repeated in the translation; a relative clause was used instead.

NET Notes: Deu 31:16 Heb “him.” Smr, LXX, and the Targums read the plural “them.” See note on the first occurrence of “they” in v. 16.

NET Notes: Deu 31:17 Heb “me.” Smr, LXX, and the Targums read the plural “us,” which is necessary in any case in the translation because of contemp...

NET Notes: Deu 31:18 Heb “he.” Smr, LXX, and the Targums read the plural “they.” See note on the first occurrence of “they” in v. 16.

NET Notes: Deu 31:20 Heb “he.” Smr, LXX, and the Targums read the plural “they.” See note on the first occurrence of “they” in v. 16.

NET Notes: Deu 31:21 Heb “him.” Smr, LXX, and the Targums read the plural “them.” See note on the first occurrence of “they” in v. 16.

NET Notes: Deu 31:23 The LXX reads, “as the Lord promised them, and he will be with you.” This relieves the problem of Moses apparently promising to be with Jo...

NET Notes: Deu 31:25 Heb “Moses.” The pronoun has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons to avoid redundancy.

NET Notes: Deu 31:27 Heb “How much more after my death?” The Hebrew text has a sarcastic rhetorical question here; the translation seeks to bring out the force...

NET Notes: Deu 31:29 Heb “the work of your hands.”

Geneva Bible: Deu 31:2 And he said unto them, I [am] an hundred and twenty years old this day; I ( a ) can no more go out and come in: also the LORD hath said unto me, Thou ...

Geneva Bible: Deu 31:5 And the LORD shall give them up ( b ) before your face, that ye may do unto them according unto all the commandments which I have commanded you. ( b ...

Geneva Bible: Deu 31:7 And Moses called unto Joshua, and said unto him in the sight of all Israel, Be strong and ( c ) of a good courage: for thou must go with this people u...

Geneva Bible: Deu 31:8 And the LORD, he [it is] that doth ( d ) go before thee; he will be with thee, he will not fail thee, neither forsake thee: fear not, neither be disma...

Geneva Bible: Deu 31:11 When all Israel is come to appear ( e ) before the LORD thy God in the place which he shall choose, thou shalt read this law before all Israel in thei...

Geneva Bible: Deu 31:13 And [that] their children, which ( f ) have not known [any thing], may hear, and learn to fear the LORD your God, as long as ye live in the land whith...

Geneva Bible: Deu 31:15 And the LORD appeared in the tabernacle in a pillar of a ( g ) cloud: and the pillar of the cloud stood over the door of the tabernacle. ( g ) In a c...

Geneva Bible: Deu 31:17 Then my anger shall be kindled against them in that day, and I will forsake them, and I will ( h ) hide my face from them, and they shall be devoured,...

Geneva Bible: Deu 31:19 Now therefore write ye this ( i ) song for you, and teach it the children of Israel: put it in their mouths, that this song may be a witness for me ag...

Geneva Bible: Deu 31:20 For when I shall have brought them into the land which I sware unto their fathers, that floweth with milk and honey; and they shall have eaten and fil...

Geneva Bible: Deu 31:21 And it shall come to pass, when many evils and troubles are befallen them, that this song shall ( l ) testify against them as a witness; for it shall ...

Geneva Bible: Deu 31:26 Take this book of the law, and put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of the LORD your God, that it may be there for a ( m ) witness against th...

Geneva Bible: Deu 31:28 Gather unto me all the elders of your tribes, and your ( n ) officers, that I may speak these words in their ears, and call heaven and earth to record...

Geneva Bible: Deu 31:29 For I know that after my death ye will utterly corrupt [yourselves], and turn aside from the way which I have commanded you; and evil will befall you ...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Deu 31:1-8 - --Moses assures Israel of the constant presence of God with them. This is applied by the apostle to all God's spiritual Israel, to encourage their faith...

MHCC: Deu 31:9-13 - --Though we read the word in private, we must not think it needless to hear it read in public. This solemn reading of the law must be done in the year o...

MHCC: Deu 31:14-22 - --Moses and Joshua attended the Divine Majesty at the door of the tabernacle. Moses is told again that he must shortly die; even those who are most read...

MHCC: Deu 31:23-30 - --The solemn delivery of the book of the law to the Levites, to be deposited in, or rather by the side, of the ark, is again related. The song which fol...

Matthew Henry: Deu 31:1-8 - -- Loth to part (we say) bids oft farewell. Moses does so to the children of Israel: not because he was loth to go to God, but because he was loth ...

Matthew Henry: Deu 31:9-13 - -- The law was given by Moses; so it is said, Joh 1:17. He was not only entrusted to deliver it to that generation, but to transmit it to the generatio...

Matthew Henry: Deu 31:14-21 - -- Here, I. Moses and Joshua are summoned to attend the divine majesty at the door of the tabernacle, Deu 31:14. Moses is told again that he must short...

Matthew Henry: Deu 31:22-30 - -- Here, I. The charge is given to Joshua, which God has said (v. 14) he would give him. The same in effect that Moses had given him. The same in effec...

Keil-Delitzsch: Deu 31:1-13 - -- Deu 31:1-13 describe how Moses promised the help of the Lord in the conquest of the land, both to the people generally, and also to Joshua, their le...

Keil-Delitzsch: Deu 31:14-18 - -- After handing over the office to Joshua, and the law to the priests and elders, Moses was called by the Lord to come to the tabernacle with Joshua, ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Deu 31:19-23 - -- "And now," sc., because what was announced in Deu 31:16-18 would take place, "write you this song." "This"refers to the song which follows in ch. 32...

Keil-Delitzsch: Deu 31:24-27 - -- With the installation of Joshua on the part of God, the official life of Moses was brought to a close. Having returned from the tabernacle, he finis...

Keil-Delitzsch: Deu 31:28-29 - -- Directly after handing over the book of the law, Moses directed the elders of all the tribes, together with the official persons, to gather round hi...

Keil-Delitzsch: Deu 31:30 - -- Deu 31:30 forms the introduction to the rehearsal of the ode.

Constable: Deu 29:2--31:1 - --VI. MOSES' THIRD MAJOR ADDRESS: AN EXHORTATION TO OBEDIENCE 29:2--30:20 "The rest of chapter 29 contains many re...

Constable: Deu 31:1--34:12 - --VII. MOSES' LAST ACTS chs. 31--34 Having completed the major addresses to the Israelites recorded to this point ...

Constable: Deu 31:1-29 - --A. The duties of Israel's future leaders 31:1-29 "Israel was not to be a nation of anarchists or even of...

Constable: Deu 31:1-8 - --1. The presentation of Joshua 31:1-8 Moses presented Joshua to the nation as God's chosen leader...

Constable: Deu 31:9-13 - --2. The seventh year covenant renewal ceremony 31:9-13 "Moses assigned the priests and elders the...

Constable: Deu 31:14-23 - --3. The commissioning of Joshua 31:14-23 Whereas previously Moses had presented Joshua to the peo...

Constable: Deu 31:24-29 - --4. The preservation of God's words 31:24-29 Moses charged the priests with the care and keeping ...

Constable: Deu 31:30 - --1. The introduction to the song 31:30 Moses recited the song God had given him in the hearing of...

Guzik: Deu 31:1-30 - Some Final Instructions from Moses Deuteronomy 31 - Some Final Instructions from Moses A. Moses charges the people, Joshua, and the priests. 1. (1-2) Moses at one hundred and twenty. ...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) DEUTERONOMY, the second law, a title which plainly shows what is the object of this book, namely, a recapitulation of the law. It was given in the for...

JFB: Deuteronomy (Garis Besar) MOSES' SPEECH AT THE END OF THE FORTIETH YEAR. (Deu. 1:1-46) THE STORY IS CONTINUED. (Deu. 2:1-37) CONQUEST OF OG, KING OF BASHAN. (Deu. 3:1-20) AN E...

TSK: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) The book of Deuteronomy marks the end of the Pentateuch, commonly called the Law of Moses; a work every way worthy of God its author, and only less th...

TSK: Deuteronomy 31 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Deu 31:1, Moses encourages the people; Deu 31:7, He encourages Joshua; Deu 31:9, He delivers the law unto the priests to be read in the s...

Poole: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) FIFTH BOOK of MOSES, CALLED DEUTERONOMY THE ARGUMENT Moses, in the two last months of his life, rehearseth what God had done for them, and their ...

Poole: Deuteronomy 31 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 31 Moses declares to the people his approaching death, and encourageth them, and Joshua, Deu 31:1-8 . He delivereth the law unto the priest...

MHCC: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) This book repeats much of the history and of the laws contained in the three foregoing books: Moses delivered it to Israel a little before his death, ...

MHCC: Deuteronomy 31 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Deu 31:1-8) Moses encourages the people, and Joshua. (Deu 31:9-13) The law to be read every seventh year. (Deu 31:14-22) The Israelites' apostasy f...

Matthew Henry: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Fifth Book of Moses, Called Deuteronomy This book is a repetition of very much both of the history ...

Matthew Henry: Deuteronomy 31 (Pendahuluan Pasal) In this chapter Moses, having finished his sermon, I. Encourages both the people who were now to enter Canaan (Deu 31:1-6), and Joshua who was to ...

Constable: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The title of this book in the Hebrew Bible was its first two words,...

Constable: Deuteronomy (Garis Besar) Outline I. Introduction: the covenant setting 1:1-5 II. Moses' first major address: a review...

Constable: Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Bibliography Adams, Jay. Marriage, Divorce and Remarriage in the Bible. Phillipsburg, N.J.: Presbyt...

Haydock: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION. THE BOOK OF DEUTERONOMY. This Book is called Deuteronomy, which signifies a second law , because it repeats and inculcates the ...

Gill: Deuteronomy (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO DEUTERONOMY This book is sometimes called "Elleh hadebarim", from the words with which it begins; and sometimes by the Jews "Mishne...

Gill: Deuteronomy 31 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO DEUTERONOMY 31 Moses being old, and knowing he should quickly die, and must not go over Jordan with the people of Israel, acquaints...

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