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Teks -- Micah 1:1-16 (NET)

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Konteks
Introduction
1:1 This is the prophetic message that the Lord gave to Micah of Moresheth. He delivered this message during the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah. The prophecies pertain to Samaria and Jerusalem.
The Judge is Coming
1:2 Listen, all you nations! Pay attention, all inhabitants of earth! The sovereign Lord will testify against you; the Lord will accuse you from his majestic palace. 1:3 Look, the Lord is coming out of his dwelling place! He will descend and march on the earth’s mountaintops! 1:4 The mountains will disintegrate beneath him, and the valleys will be split in two. The mountains will melt like wax in a fire, the rocks will slide down like water cascading down a steep slope. 1:5 All this is because of Jacob’s rebellion and the sins of the nation of Israel. How has Jacob rebelled, you ask? Samaria epitomizes their rebellion! Where are Judah’s pagan worship centers, you ask? They are right in Jerusalem! 1:6 “I will turn Samaria into a heap of ruins in an open field– vineyards will be planted there! I will tumble the rubble of her stone walls down into the valley, and tear down her fortifications to their foundations. 1:7 All her carved idols will be smashed to pieces; all her metal cult statues will be destroyed by fire. I will make a waste heap of all her images. Since she gathered the metal as a prostitute collects her wages, the idols will become a prostitute’s wages again.” 1:8 For this reason I will mourn and wail; I will walk around barefoot and without my outer garments. I will howl like a wild dog, and screech like an owl. 1:9 For Samaria’s disease is incurable. It has infected Judah; it has spread to the leadership of my people and has even contaminated Jerusalem! 1:10 Don’t spread the news in Gath! Don’t shed even a single tear! In Beth Leaphrah sit in the dust! 1:11 Residents of Shaphir, pass by in nakedness and humiliation! The residents of Zaanan can’t leave their city. Beth Ezel mourns, “He takes from you what he desires.” 1:12 Indeed, the residents of Maroth hope for something good to happen, though the Lord has sent disaster against the city of Jerusalem. 1:13 Residents of Lachish, hitch the horses to the chariots! You influenced Daughter Zion to sin, for Israel’s rebellious deeds can be traced back to you! 1:14 Therefore you will have to say farewell to Moresheth Gath. The residents of Achzib will be as disappointing as a dried up well to the kings of Israel. 1:15 Residents of Mareshah, a conqueror will attack you, the leaders of Israel shall flee to Adullam. 1:16 Shave your heads bald as you mourn for the children you love; shave your foreheads as bald as an eagle, for they are taken from you into exile.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Achzib a town in the western foothills of Judah,a town of Asher on the coast 14 km north of Acco
 · Adullam a resident of the town of Adullam
 · Ahaz a son of Jotham; listed as an ancestor of Jesus,son and successor of King Jotham of Judah,son of Micah of Benjamin
 · Beth-Ezel a town, probably in the lowlands of Judah (OS)
 · Beth-ezel a town, probably in the lowlands of Judah (OS)
 · Beth-Leaphrah a town possibly 3 km NW of Beth-Tappuah & 15 km east of Lachish
 · Beth-leaphrah a town possibly 3 km NW of Beth-Tappuah & 15 km east of Lachish
 · Gath a town of the Anakim and Philistines in Judah 12 km south. of Ekron
 · Hezekiah the son of Ahaz who succeeded him as king of Judah; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Ahaz; king of Judah,forefather of the prophet Zephaniah,an Israelite chief who signed the covenant to obey God's law
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Jotham the son who succeeded King Uzziah of Judah; the father of Ahaz; an ancestor of Jesus,the youngest son of Jerubbaal (Gideon),son and successor of King Azariah of Judah,son of Jahdai of Judah
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Lachish a town of Judah 23 km west of Hebron & 40 km north of Beersheba (SMM)
 · Mareshah town in the western foothills of Judah,son of Caleb son of Hezron of Judah,son of Laadah; great grandson of Judah
 · Maroth a town in the plain west of Jerusalem (ZD)
 · Micah a man of Ephraim who made an ephod,son of Shime-i of Reuben,son of Merib-Baal of Benjamin,first born son of Uzziel son of Kohath,father of Abdon/Achbor whom King Josiah used as a messenger,the prophet of Moresheth under Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah
 · Moresheth a town near Gath in Judah
 · Moresheth-gath a town near Gath in Judah
 · Moresheth-Gath a town near Gath in Judah
 · Samaria residents of the district of Samaria
 · Shaphir a town somewhere in the western lowlands of Judah
 · Zaanan a town somewhere in the western lowlands of Judah
 · Zion one of the hills on which Jerusalem was built; the temple area; the city of Jerusalem; God's people,a town and citidel; an ancient part of Jerusalem


Topik/Tema Kamus: Micah | Idolatry | NAMES, PROPER | SHAPHIR | MICAH (2) | BUSH, BURNING | Aphrah | Adullam | Wax | Eagle | MORESHETH-GATH | Maroth | Baldness | Saphir | Jerusalem | Moresheth | Gath | Lachish | Dragon | Nakedness | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Mic 1:1 - Hezekiah The best son, of the worst father. How long Micah prophesied during his reign, we can but conjecture, possibly 'till the fourteenth year of Hezekiah. ...

The best son, of the worst father. How long Micah prophesied during his reign, we can but conjecture, possibly 'till the fourteenth year of Hezekiah. So this prophet may be supposed to have prophesied sixteen years in Jotham's time, as many under Ahaz, and fourteen under Hezekiah, in all forty - six years. And he survived the captivity of Israel ten years, which he lamented as well as foretold.

Wesley: Mic 1:2 - O earth This seems to be an appeal to the senseless creatures, or a summons to bring them in evidences for God against those kingdoms.

This seems to be an appeal to the senseless creatures, or a summons to bring them in evidences for God against those kingdoms.

Wesley: Mic 1:2 - Therein Animate or inanimate creatures, all that are on the earth.

Animate or inanimate creatures, all that are on the earth.

Wesley: Mic 1:2 - Temple Either from his temple at Jerusalem, or from heaven.

Either from his temple at Jerusalem, or from heaven.

Wesley: Mic 1:3 - The Lord He comes forth as a judge, to hear, determine, and punish.

He comes forth as a judge, to hear, determine, and punish.

Wesley: Mic 1:3 - His place Heaven, the place of his glorious throne.

Heaven, the place of his glorious throne.

Wesley: Mic 1:3 - Come down Shew, by the effects of his power, justice, and wisdom, that he is more eminently present there.

Shew, by the effects of his power, justice, and wisdom, that he is more eminently present there.

Wesley: Mic 1:3 - Tread upon Trample under foot all that is high, excellent, and matter of your glorying.

Trample under foot all that is high, excellent, and matter of your glorying.

Wesley: Mic 1:4 - Cleft Or rent in sunder, broken up and slide away.

Or rent in sunder, broken up and slide away.

Wesley: Mic 1:5 - Jacob The sons of Jacob, the ten tribes.

The sons of Jacob, the ten tribes.

Wesley: Mic 1:5 - What Or, who is the spring, and cause of that overflowing transgression? Of Jacob - The kingdom of the ten tribes, the head of which was Samaria, where the...

Or, who is the spring, and cause of that overflowing transgression? Of Jacob - The kingdom of the ten tribes, the head of which was Samaria, where the kings had their residence, where they worshiped idols, and set an example to the rest of the Israelitish kingdom.

Wesley: Mic 1:5 - And what Or, who is the cause of the high places, and the idolatry there practised? Jerusalem - Which was the chief city of that kingdom, and had the same infl...

Or, who is the cause of the high places, and the idolatry there practised? Jerusalem - Which was the chief city of that kingdom, and had the same influence over Judah, as Samaria had on the ten tribes.

Wesley: Mic 1:6 - As an heap As a heap of ruins.

As a heap of ruins.

Wesley: Mic 1:6 - Of a vineyard In planting vineyards, they dig up the earth, and cast it up in hillocks; so shall they make this city.

In planting vineyards, they dig up the earth, and cast it up in hillocks; so shall they make this city.

Wesley: Mic 1:6 - Into the valley The city was built on a high hill, and a deep valley beneath it.

The city was built on a high hill, and a deep valley beneath it.

Wesley: Mic 1:6 - I will discover I will raze the walls, fortresses, and public buildings of this city, to the very foundations.

I will raze the walls, fortresses, and public buildings of this city, to the very foundations.

Wesley: Mic 1:7 - The hires The rich gifts given for the honour and service of the idols by deceived idolaters.

The rich gifts given for the honour and service of the idols by deceived idolaters.

Wesley: Mic 1:7 - She The kingdom of Samaria.

The kingdom of Samaria.

Wesley: Mic 1:7 - It Their wealth, or the rich presents made to their idols.

Their wealth, or the rich presents made to their idols.

Wesley: Mic 1:7 - Of an harlot As harlots get rich gifts of their lovers.

As harlots get rich gifts of their lovers.

Wesley: Mic 1:7 - They These rich presents shall be turned by the Assyrians to the service and honour of their idols.

These rich presents shall be turned by the Assyrians to the service and honour of their idols.

Wesley: Mic 1:8 - Therefore Because of those dreadful slaughters in Israel and Samaria.

Because of those dreadful slaughters in Israel and Samaria.

Wesley: Mic 1:8 - And naked As one that in bitterness of passion hath cast off his upper garment.

As one that in bitterness of passion hath cast off his upper garment.

Wesley: Mic 1:8 - Dragons Or rather, Jackals, which haunt desolate places, and make a great and hideous noise by night.

Or rather, Jackals, which haunt desolate places, and make a great and hideous noise by night.

Wesley: Mic 1:9 - Her wound The wounds of Samaria, her own sins, and God's just displeasure.

The wounds of Samaria, her own sins, and God's just displeasure.

Wesley: Mic 1:9 - It is come The contagion of her sins, and the indignation of God against it, have reached to Judah also, yea, to Jerusalem.

The contagion of her sins, and the indignation of God against it, have reached to Judah also, yea, to Jerusalem.

Wesley: Mic 1:10 - Declare ye it not Lest the Philistines triumph.

Lest the Philistines triumph.

Wesley: Mic 1:10 - Weep ye not Make no public weeping.

Make no public weeping.

Wesley: Mic 1:10 - Aphrah This was farther from the Philistines.

This was farther from the Philistines.

Wesley: Mic 1:10 - Roll thyself Express thy sorrow.

Express thy sorrow.

Wesley: Mic 1:11 - Pass ye away The imperative is here put for the future; they shalt go into captivity.

The imperative is here put for the future; they shalt go into captivity.

Wesley: Mic 1:11 - Saphir Probably Samaria and Jerusalem.

Probably Samaria and Jerusalem.

Wesley: Mic 1:11 - Naked Stript by the conquering enemy.

Stript by the conquering enemy.

Wesley: Mic 1:11 - Zaanan It is thought, this was a considerable garrison full of people and soldiers.

It is thought, this was a considerable garrison full of people and soldiers.

Wesley: Mic 1:11 - Came not forth To help their neighbouring town Beth - ezel.

To help their neighbouring town Beth - ezel.

Wesley: Mic 1:11 - Beth ezel - A strong town taken by the Assyrians.

ezel - A strong town taken by the Assyrians.

Wesley: Mic 1:11 - His standing The enemy shall encamp among you, shall stand on your ground, so that you will have no opportunity of coming out to help your neighbours.

The enemy shall encamp among you, shall stand on your ground, so that you will have no opportunity of coming out to help your neighbours.

Wesley: Mic 1:12 - Maroth A town in Judea.

A town in Judea.

Wesley: Mic 1:12 - But evil The flood of affliction by the Assyrian, swallowed up other cities, and swelled even to the head city, Jerusalem.

The flood of affliction by the Assyrian, swallowed up other cities, and swelled even to the head city, Jerusalem.

Wesley: Mic 1:13 - Lachish A strong fortress on the confines of Judah.

A strong fortress on the confines of Judah.

Wesley: Mic 1:13 - Bind the chariot To fly from the sword of the enemy.

To fly from the sword of the enemy.

Wesley: Mic 1:13 - She Lachish, which being the nearest to idolatrous Israel, took the infection of them, and conveyed it to Jerusalem.

Lachish, which being the nearest to idolatrous Israel, took the infection of them, and conveyed it to Jerusalem.

Wesley: Mic 1:13 - The transgressions Not only the idolatry, but other sins also.

Not only the idolatry, but other sins also.

Wesley: Mic 1:13 - Of Israel Of the ten tribes.

Of the ten tribes.

Wesley: Mic 1:14 - Give presents The inhabitants of Lachish courted the assistance of the Philistines against the Assyrian.

The inhabitants of Lachish courted the assistance of the Philistines against the Assyrian.

Wesley: Mic 1:14 - Moresheth gath - A known city of the Philistines, called Moresheth - gath, to distinguish it from a town of the same name in the tribe of Judah.

gath - A known city of the Philistines, called Moresheth - gath, to distinguish it from a town of the same name in the tribe of Judah.

Wesley: Mic 1:14 - Achzib This was also a city of the Philistines.

This was also a city of the Philistines.

Wesley: Mic 1:14 - A lie A lying refuge, a prop that will break under them.

A lying refuge, a prop that will break under them.

Wesley: Mic 1:15 - An heir The Assyrian, who in the right of conquest shall possess thee.

The Assyrian, who in the right of conquest shall possess thee.

Wesley: Mic 1:15 - Mareshah A town of the Philistines.

A town of the Philistines.

Wesley: Mic 1:15 - Adullam Perhaps this city was considerable enough at that time, to be the glory of Israel.

Perhaps this city was considerable enough at that time, to be the glory of Israel.

Wesley: Mic 1:16 - Thee O Judea and Israel, tear off thy hair. Shave what thou canst not tear off.

O Judea and Israel, tear off thy hair. Shave what thou canst not tear off.

Wesley: Mic 1:16 - For thy children For the loss of them, some being slain, others starved, or swept away with pestilence, and the residue carried captive.

For the loss of them, some being slain, others starved, or swept away with pestilence, and the residue carried captive.

Wesley: Mic 1:16 - As the eagle One species of which is entirely bald.

One species of which is entirely bald.

JFB: Mic 1:2 - all that therein is Hebrew, "whatever fills it." Micaiah, son of Imlah, begins his prophecy similarly, "Hearken, O people, every one of you." Micah designedly uses the sa...

Hebrew, "whatever fills it." Micaiah, son of Imlah, begins his prophecy similarly, "Hearken, O people, every one of you." Micah designedly uses the same preface, implying that his ministrations are a continuation of his predecessor's of the same name. Both probably had before their mind Moses' similar attestation of heaven and earth in a like case (Deu 31:28; Deu 32:1; compare Isa 1:2).

JFB: Mic 1:2 - God be witness against you Namely, that none of you can say, when the time of your punishment shall come, that you were not forewarned. The punishment denounced is stated in Mic...

Namely, that none of you can say, when the time of your punishment shall come, that you were not forewarned. The punishment denounced is stated in Mic 1:3, &c.

JFB: Mic 1:2 - from his holy temple That is, heaven (1Ki 8:30; Psa 11:4; Jon 2:7; compare Rom 1:18).

That is, heaven (1Ki 8:30; Psa 11:4; Jon 2:7; compare Rom 1:18).

JFB: Mic 1:3 - tread upon the high places of the earth He shall destroy the fortified heights (compare Deu 32:13; Deu 33:29) [GROTIUS].

He shall destroy the fortified heights (compare Deu 32:13; Deu 33:29) [GROTIUS].

JFB: Mic 1:4 - -- Imagery from earthquakes and volcanic agency, to describe the terrors which attend Jehovah's coming in judgment (compare Jdg 5:5). Neither men of high...

Imagery from earthquakes and volcanic agency, to describe the terrors which attend Jehovah's coming in judgment (compare Jdg 5:5). Neither men of high degree, as the mountains, nor men of low degree, as the valleys, can secure themselves or their land from the judgments of God.

JFB: Mic 1:4 - as wax (Psa 97:5; compare Isa 64:1-3). The third clause, "as wax," &c.; answers to the first in the parallelism, "the mountains shall be molten"; the fourth...

(Psa 97:5; compare Isa 64:1-3). The third clause, "as wax," &c.; answers to the first in the parallelism, "the mountains shall be molten"; the fourth, "as the waters," &c.; to the second, "the valleys shall be cleft." As wax melts by fire, so the mountains before God, at His approach; and as waters poured down a steep cannot stand but are diffused abroad, so the valleys shall be cleft before Jehovah.

JFB: Mic 1:5 - For the transgression of Jacob is all this All these terrors attending Jehovah's coming are caused by the sins of Jacob or Israel, that is, the whole people.

All these terrors attending Jehovah's coming are caused by the sins of Jacob or Israel, that is, the whole people.

JFB: Mic 1:5 - What is the transgression of Jacob? Taking up the question often in the mouths of the people when reproved, "What is our transgression?" (compare Mal 1:6-7), He answers, Is it not Samari...

Taking up the question often in the mouths of the people when reproved, "What is our transgression?" (compare Mal 1:6-7), He answers, Is it not Samaria? Is not that city (the seat of the calf-worship) the cause of Jacob's apostasy (1Ki 14:16; 1Ki 15:26, 1Ki 15:34; 1Ki 16:13, 1Ki 16:19, 1Ki 16:25, 1Ki 16:30)?

JFB: Mic 1:5 - and what are the high places of Judah? What city is the cause of the idolatries on the high places of Judah? Is it not Jerusalem (compare 2Ki 18:4)?

What city is the cause of the idolatries on the high places of Judah? Is it not Jerusalem (compare 2Ki 18:4)?

JFB: Mic 1:6 - -- Samaria's punishment is mentioned first, as it was to fall before Jerusalem.

Samaria's punishment is mentioned first, as it was to fall before Jerusalem.

JFB: Mic 1:6 - as an heap of the field (Mic 3:12). Such a heap of stones and rubbish as is gathered out of fields, to clear them (Hos 12:11). Palestine is of a soil abounding in stones, wh...

(Mic 3:12). Such a heap of stones and rubbish as is gathered out of fields, to clear them (Hos 12:11). Palestine is of a soil abounding in stones, which are gathered out before the vines are planted (Isa 5:2).

JFB: Mic 1:6 - as plantings of a vineyard As a place where vines are planted. Vineyards were cultivated on the sides of hills exposed to the sun. The hill on which Samaria was built by Omri, h...

As a place where vines are planted. Vineyards were cultivated on the sides of hills exposed to the sun. The hill on which Samaria was built by Omri, had been, doubtless, planted with vines originally; now it is to be reduced again to its original state (1Ki 16:24).

JFB: Mic 1:6 - pour down Dash down the stones of the city into the valley beneath. A graphic picture of the present appearance of the ruins, which is as though "the buildings ...

Dash down the stones of the city into the valley beneath. A graphic picture of the present appearance of the ruins, which is as though "the buildings of the ancient city had been thrown down from the brow of the hill" [Scottish Mission of Inquiry, pp. 293,294].

JFB: Mic 1:6 - discover the foundations Destroy it so utterly as to lay bare its foundations (Eze 13:14). Samaria was destroyed by Shalmaneser.

Destroy it so utterly as to lay bare its foundations (Eze 13:14). Samaria was destroyed by Shalmaneser.

JFB: Mic 1:7 - all the hires The wealth which Israel boasted of receiving from her idols as the "rewards" or "hire" for worshipping them (Hos 2:5, Hos 2:12).

The wealth which Israel boasted of receiving from her idols as the "rewards" or "hire" for worshipping them (Hos 2:5, Hos 2:12).

JFB: Mic 1:7 - idols . . . will I . . . desolate That is, give them up to the foe to strip off the silver and gold with which they are overlaid.

That is, give them up to the foe to strip off the silver and gold with which they are overlaid.

JFB: Mic 1:7 - she gathered it of the hire of an harlot, and they shall return to the hire of an harlot Israel gathered (made for herself) her idols from the gold and silver received from false gods, as she thought, the "hire" of her worshipping them; an...

Israel gathered (made for herself) her idols from the gold and silver received from false gods, as she thought, the "hire" of her worshipping them; and they shall again become what they had been before, the hire of spiritual harlotry, that is, the prosperity of the foe, who also being worshippers of idols will ascribe the acquisition to their idols [MAURER]. GROTIUS explains it, The offerings sent to Israel's temple by the Assyrians, whose idolatry Israel adopted, shall go back to the Assyrians, her teachers in idolatry, as the hire or fee for having taught it. The image of a harlot's hire for the supposed temporal reward of spiritual fornication, is more common in Scripture (Hos 9:1).

JFB: Mic 1:8 - Therefore I will wail The prophet first shows how the coming judgment affects himself, in order that he might affect the minds of his countrymen similarly.

The prophet first shows how the coming judgment affects himself, in order that he might affect the minds of his countrymen similarly.

JFB: Mic 1:8 - stripped That is, of shoes, or sandals, as the Septuagint translates. Otherwise "naked" would be a tautology.

That is, of shoes, or sandals, as the Septuagint translates. Otherwise "naked" would be a tautology.

JFB: Mic 1:8 - naked "Naked" means divested of the upper garment (Isa 20:2). "Naked and barefoot," the sign of mourning (2Sa 15:30). The prophet's upper garment was usuall...

"Naked" means divested of the upper garment (Isa 20:2). "Naked and barefoot," the sign of mourning (2Sa 15:30). The prophet's upper garment was usually rough and coarse-haired (2Ki 1:8; Zec 13:4).

JFB: Mic 1:8 - like the dragons So JEROME. Rather, "the wild dogs," jackals or wolves, which wail like an infant when in distress or alone [MAURER]. (See on Job 30:29).

So JEROME. Rather, "the wild dogs," jackals or wolves, which wail like an infant when in distress or alone [MAURER]. (See on Job 30:29).

JFB: Mic 1:8 - owls Rather, "ostriches," which give a shrill and long-drawn, sigh-like cry, especially at night.

Rather, "ostriches," which give a shrill and long-drawn, sigh-like cry, especially at night.

JFB: Mic 1:9 - wound . . . incurable Her case, politically and morally, is desperate (Jer 8:22).

Her case, politically and morally, is desperate (Jer 8:22).

JFB: Mic 1:9 - it is come The wound, or impending calamity (compare Isa 10:28).

The wound, or impending calamity (compare Isa 10:28).

JFB: Mic 1:9 - he is come . . . even to Jerusalem The evil is no longer limited to Israel. The prophet foresees Sennacherib coming even "to the gate" of the principal city. The use of "it" and "he" is...

The evil is no longer limited to Israel. The prophet foresees Sennacherib coming even "to the gate" of the principal city. The use of "it" and "he" is appropriately distinct. "It," the calamity, "came unto" Judah, many of the inhabitants of which suffered, but did not reach the citizens of Jerusalem, "the gate" of which the foe ("he") "came unto," but did not enter (Isa 36:1; Isa 37:33-37).

JFB: Mic 1:10 - Declare ye it not at Gath On the borders of Judea, one of the five cities of the Philistines, who would exult at the calamity of the Hebrews (2Sa 1:20). Gratify not those who e...

On the borders of Judea, one of the five cities of the Philistines, who would exult at the calamity of the Hebrews (2Sa 1:20). Gratify not those who exult over the falls of the Israel of God.

JFB: Mic 1:10 - weep ye not at all Do not betray your inward sorrow by outward weeping, within the cognizance of the enemy, lest they should exult at it. RELAND translates, "Weep not in...

Do not betray your inward sorrow by outward weeping, within the cognizance of the enemy, lest they should exult at it. RELAND translates, "Weep not in Acco," that is, Ptolemais, now St. Jean d'Acre, near the foot of Mount Carmel; allotted to Asher, but never occupied by that tribe (Jdg 1:31); Acco's inhabitants would, therefore, like Gath's, rejoice at Israel's disaster. Thus the parallelism is best carried out in all the three clauses of the verse, and there is a similar play on sounds in each, in the Hebrew Gath, resembling in sound the Hebrew for "declare"; Acco, resembling the Hebrew for "weep"; and Aphrah, meaning "dust." While the Hebrews were not to expose their misery to foreigners, they ought to bewail it in their own cities, for example, Aphrah or Ophrah (Jos 18:23; 1Sa 13:17), in the tribe of Benjamin. To "roll in the dust" marked deep sorrow (Jer 6:26; Eze 27:30).

JFB: Mic 1:11 - Pass ye away That is, Thou shall go into captivity.

That is, Thou shall go into captivity.

JFB: Mic 1:11 - inhabitant of Saphir A village amidst the hills of Judah, between Eleutheropolis and Ascalon, called so, from the Hebrew word for "beauty." Though thy name be "beauty," wh...

A village amidst the hills of Judah, between Eleutheropolis and Ascalon, called so, from the Hebrew word for "beauty." Though thy name be "beauty," which heretofore was thy characteristic, thou shalt have thy "shame" made "naked." This city shall be dismantled of its walls, which are the garments, as it were, of cities; its citizens also shall be hurried into captivity, with persons exposed (Isa 47:3; Eze 16:37; Hos 2:10).

JFB: Mic 1:11 - the inhabitant of Zaanan came not forth Its inhabitants did not come forth to console the people of Beth-ezel in their mourning, because the calamity was universal; none was exempt from it (...

Its inhabitants did not come forth to console the people of Beth-ezel in their mourning, because the calamity was universal; none was exempt from it (compare Jer 6:25). "Zaanan" is the same as Zenan, in Judah (Jos 15:37), meaning the "place of flocks." The form of the name used is made like the Hebrew for "came forth." Though in name seeming to imply that thou dost come forth, thou "camest not forth."

JFB: Mic 1:11 - Beth-ezel Perhaps Azal (Zec 14:5), near Jerusalem. It means a "house on the side," or "near." Though so near, as its name implies, to Zaanan, Beth-ezel received...

Perhaps Azal (Zec 14:5), near Jerusalem. It means a "house on the side," or "near." Though so near, as its name implies, to Zaanan, Beth-ezel received no succor or sympathy from Zaanan.

JFB: Mic 1:11 - he shall receive of you his standing "he," that is, the foe; "his standing," that is, his sustenance [PISCATOR]. Or, "he shall be caused a delay by you, Zaanan." He shall be brought to a ...

"he," that is, the foe; "his standing," that is, his sustenance [PISCATOR]. Or, "he shall be caused a delay by you, Zaanan." He shall be brought to a stand for a time in besieging you; hence it is said just before, "Zaanan came not forth," that is, shut herself up within her walls to withstand a siege. But it was only for a time. She, too, fell like Beth-ezel before her [VATABLUS]. MAURER construes thus: "The inhabitant of Zaanan came not forth; the mourning of Beth-ezel takes away from you her shelter." Though Beth-ezel be at your side (that is, near), according to her name, yet as she also mourns under the oppression of the foe, she cannot give you shelter, or be at your side as a helper (as her name might lead you to expect), if you come forth and be intercepted by him from returning to Zaanan.

JFB: Mic 1:12 - Maroth Possibly the same as Maarath (Jos 15:59). Perhaps a different town, lying between the previously mentioned towns and the capital, and one of those plu...

Possibly the same as Maarath (Jos 15:59). Perhaps a different town, lying between the previously mentioned towns and the capital, and one of those plundered by Rab-shakeh on his way to it.

JFB: Mic 1:12 - waited carefully for good That is, for better fortune, but in vain [CALVIN]. GESENIUS translates, "is grieved for her goods," "taken away" from her. This accords with the meani...

That is, for better fortune, but in vain [CALVIN]. GESENIUS translates, "is grieved for her goods," "taken away" from her. This accords with the meaning of Maroth, "bitterness," to which allusion is made in "is grieved." But the antithesis favors English Version, "waited carefully (that is, anxiously) for good, but evil came down."

JFB: Mic 1:12 - from the Lord Not from chance.

Not from chance.

JFB: Mic 1:12 - unto the gate of Jerusalem After the other cities of Judah have been taken.

After the other cities of Judah have been taken.

JFB: Mic 1:13 - -- "Bind the chariot to the swift steed," in order by a hasty flight to escape the invading foe. Compare Note, see on Isa 36:2, on "Lachish," at which Se...

"Bind the chariot to the swift steed," in order by a hasty flight to escape the invading foe. Compare Note, see on Isa 36:2, on "Lachish," at which Sennacherib fixed his headquarters (2Ki 18:14, 2Ki 18:17; Jer 34:7).

JFB: Mic 1:13 - she is the beginning of the sin to . . . Zion Lachish was the first of the cities of Judah, according to this passage, to introduce the worship of false gods, imitating what Jeroboam had introduce...

Lachish was the first of the cities of Judah, according to this passage, to introduce the worship of false gods, imitating what Jeroboam had introduced in Israel. As lying near the border of the north kingdom, Lachish was first to be infected by its idolatry, which thence spread to Jerusalem.

JFB: Mic 1:14 - shalt thou give presents to Moresheth-gath That its inhabitants may send thee help. MAURER explains it, "thou shalt give a writing of renunciation to Moresheth-gath," that is, thou shalt renoun...

That its inhabitants may send thee help. MAURER explains it, "thou shalt give a writing of renunciation to Moresheth-gath," that is, thou shalt renounce all claim to it, being compelled to yield it up to the foe. "Thou," that is, Judah. "Israel" in this verse is used for the kingdom of Judah, which was the chief representative of the whole nation of Israel. Moresheth-gath is so called because it had fallen for a time under the power of the neighboring Philistines of Gath. It was the native town of Micah (Mic 1:1).

JFB: Mic 1:14 - Achzib Meaning "lying." Achzib, as its name implies, shall prove a "lie to . . . Israel," that is, shall disappoint Israel's hopes of succor from her (compar...

Meaning "lying." Achzib, as its name implies, shall prove a "lie to . . . Israel," that is, shall disappoint Israel's hopes of succor from her (compare Job 6:15-20; Jer 15:18). Achzib was in Judah between Keilah and Mareshah (Jos 15:44). Perhaps the same as Chezib (Gen 38:5).

JFB: Mic 1:15 - Yet will I bring an heir unto thee Rather, "the heir." As thou art now occupied by possessors who expelled the former inhabitants, so will I bring "yet" again the new possessor, namely,...

Rather, "the heir." As thou art now occupied by possessors who expelled the former inhabitants, so will I bring "yet" again the new possessor, namely, the Assyrian foe. Other heirs will supplant us in every inheritance but that of heaven. There is a play upon the meaning of Mareshah, "an inheritance": there shall come the new heir of the inheritance.

JFB: Mic 1:15 - Adullam the glory of Israel So called as being superior in situation; when it and the neighboring cities fell, Israel's glory was gone. MAURER, as the Margin, translates, "the gl...

So called as being superior in situation; when it and the neighboring cities fell, Israel's glory was gone. MAURER, as the Margin, translates, "the glory of Israel" (her chief citizens: answering to "thy delicate children," Mic 1:16) "shall come in flight to Adullam." English Version better preserves the parallelism, "the heir" in the first clause answering to "he" in the second.

JFB: Mic 1:16 - Make thee bald, &c. A token of deep mourning (Ezr 9:3; Job 1:20). Mourn, O land, for thy darling children.

A token of deep mourning (Ezr 9:3; Job 1:20). Mourn, O land, for thy darling children.

JFB: Mic 1:16 - poll Shave off thy hair.

Shave off thy hair.

JFB: Mic 1:16 - enlarge thy baldness Mourn grievously. The land is compared to a mother weeping for her children.

Mourn grievously. The land is compared to a mother weeping for her children.

JFB: Mic 1:16 - as the eagle The bald eagle, or the dark-winged vulture. In the moulting season all eagles are comparatively bald (compare Psa 103:5).

The bald eagle, or the dark-winged vulture. In the moulting season all eagles are comparatively bald (compare Psa 103:5).

Clarke: Mic 1:1 - The word of the Lord that came to Micah the Morasthite The word of the Lord that came to Micah the Morasthite - For all authentic particulars relative to this prophet, see the introduction

The word of the Lord that came to Micah the Morasthite - For all authentic particulars relative to this prophet, see the introduction

Clarke: Mic 1:1 - In the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah In the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah - These three kings reigned about threescore years; and Micah is supposed to have prophesied about forty o...

In the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah - These three kings reigned about threescore years; and Micah is supposed to have prophesied about forty or fifty years; but no more of his prophecies have reached posterity than what are contained in this book, nor is there any evidence that any more was written. His time appears to have been spent chiefly in preaching and exhorting; and he was directed to write those parts only that were calculated to profit succeeding generations.

Clarke: Mic 1:2 - Hear, all ye people Hear, all ye people - The very commencement of this prophecy supposes preceding exhortations and predictions

Hear, all ye people - The very commencement of this prophecy supposes preceding exhortations and predictions

Clarke: Mic 1:2 - Hearken, O earth Hearken, O earth - ארץ arets , here, should be translated land, the country of the Hebrews being only intended

Hearken, O earth - ארץ arets , here, should be translated land, the country of the Hebrews being only intended

Clarke: Mic 1:2 - And let the Lord God be Witness And let the Lord God be Witness - Let him who has sent me with this message be witness that I have delivered it faithfully; and be a witness against...

And let the Lord God be Witness - Let him who has sent me with this message be witness that I have delivered it faithfully; and be a witness against you, if you take not the warning

Clarke: Mic 1:2 - The Lord from his holy temple The Lord from his holy temple - The place where he still remains as your King, and your Judge; and where you profess to pay your devotions. The temp...

The Lord from his holy temple - The place where he still remains as your King, and your Judge; and where you profess to pay your devotions. The temple was yet standing, for Jerusalem was not taken for many years after this; and these prophecies were delivered before the captivity of the ten tribes, as Micah appears to have been sent both to Israel and to Judah. See Mic 1:5-9, Mic 1:12, Mic 1:13.

Clarke: Mic 1:3 - For, behold, the Lord cometh forth For, behold, the Lord cometh forth - See this clause, Amo 4:13 (note). He represents Jehovah as a mighty conqueror, issuing from his pavilion, stepp...

For, behold, the Lord cometh forth - See this clause, Amo 4:13 (note). He represents Jehovah as a mighty conqueror, issuing from his pavilion, stepping from mountain to mountain, which rush down and fill the valleys before him; a consuming fire accompanying him, that melts and confounds every hill and dale, and blends all in universal confusion. God is here represented as doing that himself which other conquerors do by the multitude of their hosts; levelling the mountains, filling some of the valleys, and digging for waters in others, and pouring them from hills and dales for the use of the conquering armies, by pipes and aqueducts

And why is all this mighty movement? Mic 1:5. "For the transgression of Jacob is all this, and for the sins of the house of Israel."

Clarke: Mic 1:5 - What is the transgression of Jacob? What is the transgression of Jacob? - Is it not something extremely grievous? Is it not that of Samaria? Samaria and Jerusalem, the chief cities, ar...

What is the transgression of Jacob? - Is it not something extremely grievous? Is it not that of Samaria? Samaria and Jerusalem, the chief cities, are infected with idolatry. Each has its high places, and its idol worship, in opposition to the worship of the true God. That there was idolatry practiced by the elders of Israel, even in the temple of Jehovah, see Eze 8:1, etc. As the royal cities in both kingdoms gave the example of gross idolatry, no wonder that it spread through the whole land, both of Israel and Judah.

Clarke: Mic 1:6 - I will make Samaria I will make Samaria - I will bring it to desolation: and, instead of being a royal city, it shall be a place for vineyards. Newcome observes, that S...

I will make Samaria - I will bring it to desolation: and, instead of being a royal city, it shall be a place for vineyards. Newcome observes, that Samaria was situated on a hill, the right soil for a vineyard

Clarke: Mic 1:6 - I will discover the foundations thereof I will discover the foundations thereof - I will cause its walls and fortifications to be razed to the ground.

I will discover the foundations thereof - I will cause its walls and fortifications to be razed to the ground.

Clarke: Mic 1:7 - All the hires thereof shall be burned All the hires thereof shall be burned - Multitudes of women gave the money they gained by their public prostitution at the temples for the support o...

All the hires thereof shall be burned - Multitudes of women gave the money they gained by their public prostitution at the temples for the support of the priesthood, the ornamenting of the walls, altars, and images. So that these things, and perhaps several of the images themselves, were literally the hire of the harlots: and God threatens here to deliver all into the hands of enemies who should seize on this wealth, and literally spend it in the same way in which it was acquired; so that "to the hire of a harlot these things should return."

Clarke: Mic 1:8 - I will make a wailing like the dragons I will make a wailing like the dragons - Newcome translates: - I will make a wailing like the foxes, (or jackals) And mourning like the daughters of...

I will make a wailing like the dragons - Newcome translates: -

I will make a wailing like the foxes, (or jackals)

And mourning like the daughters of the ostrich

This beast, the jackal or shiagal, we have often met with in the prophets. Travellers inform us that its howlings by night are most lamentable; and as to the ostrich, it is remarkable for its fearful shrieking and agonizing groanings after night. Dr. Shaw says he has often heard them groan as if they were in the greatest agonies.

Clarke: Mic 1:9 - Her wound is incurable Her wound is incurable - Nothing shall prevent their utter ruin, for they have filled up the measure of their iniquity

Her wound is incurable - Nothing shall prevent their utter ruin, for they have filled up the measure of their iniquity

Clarke: Mic 1:9 - He is come - even to Jerusalem He is come - even to Jerusalem - The desolation and captivity of Israel shall first take place; that of Judah shall come after.

He is come - even to Jerusalem - The desolation and captivity of Israel shall first take place; that of Judah shall come after.

Clarke: Mic 1:10 - Declare ye it not at Gath Declare ye it not at Gath - Do not let this prediction be known among the Philistines, else they will glory over you

Declare ye it not at Gath - Do not let this prediction be known among the Philistines, else they will glory over you

Clarke: Mic 1:10 - House of Aphrah House of Aphrah - Or, Beth-aphrah. This place is mentioned Jos 18:23, as in the tribe of Benjamin. There is a paronomasia, or play on words, here: ...

House of Aphrah - Or, Beth-aphrah. This place is mentioned Jos 18:23, as in the tribe of Benjamin. There is a paronomasia, or play on words, here: בבית לעפרה עפר bebeith leaphrah aphar , "Roll thyself in the dust in the house of dust."

Clarke: Mic 1:11 - Inhabitant of Saphir Inhabitant of Saphir - Sapher, Sepphoris, or Sephora, was the strongest place in Galilee. - Calmet. It was a city in the tribe of Judah, between Ele...

Inhabitant of Saphir - Sapher, Sepphoris, or Sephora, was the strongest place in Galilee. - Calmet. It was a city in the tribe of Judah, between Eleutheropolis and Ascalon. - Houbigant

Clarke: Mic 1:11 - Zaanan Zaanan - Another city in the tribe of Judah, Jos 15:13

Zaanan - Another city in the tribe of Judah, Jos 15:13

Clarke: Mic 1:11 - Beth-ezel Beth-ezel - A place near Jerusalem, Zec 14:5. Some think that Jerusalem itself is intended by this word.

Beth-ezel - A place near Jerusalem, Zec 14:5. Some think that Jerusalem itself is intended by this word.

Clarke: Mic 1:12 - The inhabitant of Maroth The inhabitant of Maroth - There was a city of a similar name in the tribe of Judah, Jos 15:59.

The inhabitant of Maroth - There was a city of a similar name in the tribe of Judah, Jos 15:59.

Clarke: Mic 1:13 - Inhabitant of Lachish Inhabitant of Lachish - This city was in the tribe of Judah, Jos 15:39, and was taken by Sennacherib when he was coming against Jerusalem, 2Ki 18:13...

Inhabitant of Lachish - This city was in the tribe of Judah, Jos 15:39, and was taken by Sennacherib when he was coming against Jerusalem, 2Ki 18:13, etc., and it is supposed that he wished to reduce this city first, that, possessing it, he might prevent Hezekiah’ s receiving any help from Egypt

Clarke: Mic 1:13 - She is the beginning of the sin She is the beginning of the sin - This seems to intimate that Lachish was the first city in Judah which received the idolatrous worship of Israel.

She is the beginning of the sin - This seems to intimate that Lachish was the first city in Judah which received the idolatrous worship of Israel.

Clarke: Mic 1:14 - Give presents to Moresheth-gath Give presents to Moresheth-gath - Calmet says that Moresa or Morashti, and Achzib, were cities not far from Gath. It is possible that when Ahaz foun...

Give presents to Moresheth-gath - Calmet says that Moresa or Morashti, and Achzib, were cities not far from Gath. It is possible that when Ahaz found himself pressed by Pekah, king of Israel, he might have sent to these places for succor, that by their assistance he might frustrate the hopes of the king of Israel; and this may be the meaning of "The houses of Achzib shall be a lie to the kings of Israel."In these verses there are several instances of the paronomasia. See Mic 1:10, עפר aphar , dust, and עפרה aphrah , the name of the city. Mic 1:11. צאנן tsaanan , the city, and יצאה yatsah , to go out. Mic 1:13, לכיש lachish , the city, and רכש rechesh , the swift beast. Mic 1:14, אכזיב achzib , the city, and אכזב achzab , a lie. Such paronomasias were reputed ornaments by the prophets. They occur in Isaiah with great effect. See Isa 5:7.

Clarke: Mic 1:15 - Yet will I bring an heir unto thee, O - Mareshah Yet will I bring an heir unto thee, O - Mareshah - Here is another instance, הירש haigeresh , to bring an heir, and מרשה mareshah , the ci...

Yet will I bring an heir unto thee, O - Mareshah - Here is another instance, הירש haigeresh , to bring an heir, and מרשה mareshah , the city, the name of which signifies heirship. And so of the above proper names

Clarke: Mic 1:15 - Adullam the glory of Israel Adullam the glory of Israel - This was a fenced city in the south of Judah (see 2Ch 11:7) towards the Dead Sea There is much obscurity in the conclu...

Adullam the glory of Israel - This was a fenced city in the south of Judah (see 2Ch 11:7) towards the Dead Sea

There is much obscurity in the concluding verses of this chapter. They undoubtedly refer to the captivity of Israel, and to circumstances of distress, etc., which are not mentioned in any of the historical books, and therefore their reference and meaning can only be conjectured.

Clarke: Mic 1:16 - Make thee bald Make thee bald - Cutting off the hair was a sign of great distress, and was practised on the death of near relatives; see Amo 8:10 The desolation sh...

Make thee bald - Cutting off the hair was a sign of great distress, and was practised on the death of near relatives; see Amo 8:10

The desolation should be so great that Israel should feel it to her utmost extent; and the mourning should be like that of a mother for the death of her most delicate children

Clarke: Mic 1:16 - Enlarge thy baldness as the eagle Enlarge thy baldness as the eagle - Referring to the mounting of this bird, when in casting its feathers and breeding new ones, it is very sickly, a...

Enlarge thy baldness as the eagle - Referring to the mounting of this bird, when in casting its feathers and breeding new ones, it is very sickly, and its strength wholly exhausted

Clarke: Mic 1:16 - They are gone into captivity They are gone into captivity - This is a prediction of the captivity by Shalmaneser. Samaria, the chief city, is called on to deplore it, as then fa...

They are gone into captivity - This is a prediction of the captivity by Shalmaneser. Samaria, the chief city, is called on to deplore it, as then fast approaching.

Calvin: Mic 1:1 - NO PHRASE This inscription, in the first place, shows the time in which Micah lived, and during which God employed his labors. And this deserves to be noticed:...

This inscription, in the first place, shows the time in which Micah lived, and during which God employed his labors. And this deserves to be noticed: for at this day his sermons would be useless, or at least frigid, except his time were known to us, and we be thereby enabled to compare what is alike and what is different in the men of his age, and in those of our own: for when we understand that Micah condemned this or that vice, as we may also learn from the other Prophets and from sacred history, we are able to apply more easily to ourselves what he then said, inasmuch as we can view our own life as it were in a mirror. This is the reason why the Prophets are wont to mention the time in which they executed their office.

But how long Micah followed the course of his vocation we cannot with certainty determine. It is, however, probable that he discharged his office as a Prophet for thirty years: it may be that he exceeded forty years; for he names here three kings, the first of whom, that is Jotham, reigned sixteen years; and he was followed by Ahab, who also reigned as many years. If then Micah was called at the beginning of the first reign, he must have prophesied for thirty-two years, the time of the two kings. Then the reign of Hezekiah followed, which continued to the twenty-ninth year: and it may be, that the Prophet served God to the death, or even beyond the death, of Hezekiah. 59 We hence see that the number of his years cannot with certainty be known; though it be sufficiently evident that he taught not for a few years, but that he so discharged his office, that for thirty years he was not wearied, but constantly persevered in executing the command of God.

I have said that he was contemporary with Isaiah: but as Isaiah began his office under Uzziah, we conclude that he was older. Why then was Micah joined to him? That the Lord might thus break down the stubbornness of the people. It was indeed enough that one man was sent by God to bear witness to the truth; but it pleased God that a testimony should be borne by the mouth of two, and that holy Isaiah should be assisted by this friend and, as it were, his colleague. And we shall hereafter find that they adopted the very same words; but there was no emulation between them, so that one accused the other of theft, when he repeated what had been said. Nothing was more gratifying to each of them than to receive a testimony from his colleague; and what was committed to them by God they declared not only in the same sense and meaning, but also in the same words, and, as it were, with one mouth.

Of the expression, that the word was sent to him, we have elsewhere reminded you, that it ought not to be understood of private teaching, as when the word of God is addressed to individuals; but the word was given to Micah, that he might be God’s ambassador to us. It means then that he came furnished with commands, as one sustaining the person of God himself; for he brought nothing of his own, but what the Lord commanded him to proclaim. But as I have elsewhere enlarged on this subject, I now only touch on it briefly.

This vision, he says, was given him against two cities Samaria and Jerusalem 60 It is certain that the Prophet was specifically sent to the Jews; and Maresah, from which he arose, as it appears from the inscription, was in the tribe of Judah: for Morasthite was an appellative, derived from the place Maresah. 61 But it may be asked, why does he say that visions had been given him against Samaria? We have said elsewhere, that though Hosea was specifically and in a peculiar manner destined for the kingdom of Israel, he yet by the way mingled sometimes those things which referred to the tribe or kingdom of Judah: and such was also the case with our Prophet; he had a regard chiefly to his own kindred, for he knew that he was appointed for them; but, at the same time, he overlooked not wholly the other part of the people; for the kingdom of Israel was not so divided from the tribe of Judah that no connection remained: for God was unwilling that his covenant should be abolished by their defection from the kingdom of David. We hence see, that though Micah spent chiefly his labors in behalf of the Jews, he yet did not overlook or entirely neglect the Israelites.

But the title must be restricted to one part of the book; for threatenings only form the discourse here. But we shall find that promises, full of joy, are also introduced. The inscription then does not include all the contents of the book; but as his purpose was to begin with threatenings, and to terrify the Jews by setting before them the punishment that was at hand, this inscription was designedly given. There is, at the same time, no doubt but that the Prophet was ill received by the Jews on this account; for they deemed it a great indignity, and by no means to be endured, to be tied up in the same bundle with the Israelites; for Samaria was an abomination to the kingdom of Judah; and yet the Prophet here makes no difference between Samaria and Jerusalem. This was then an exasperating sentence: but we see how boldly the Prophet performs the office committed to him; for he regarded not what would be agreeable to men, nor endeavored to draw them by smooth things: though his message was disliked, he yet proclaimed it, for he was so commanded, nor could he shake off the yoke of his vocation. Let us now proceed —

Calvin: Mic 1:2 - NO PHRASE The Prophet here rises into an elevated style, being not content with a simple and calm manner of speaking. We hence may learn, that having previousl...

The Prophet here rises into an elevated style, being not content with a simple and calm manner of speaking. We hence may learn, that having previously tried the disposition of the people, he knew the stubbornness of almost all classes: for except he was persuaded that the people would be rebellious and obstinate, he would certainly have used some mildness, or have at least endeavored to lead them of their own accord rather than to drive them thus violently. There is then no doubt but that the obstinacy of the people and their wickedness were already fully known to him, even before he began to address one word to them. But this difficulty did not prevent him from obeying God’s command. He found it necessary in the meantime to add vehemence to his teaching; for he saw that he addressed the deaf, yea, stupid men, who were destitute of every sense of religion, and who had hardened themselves against God, and had not only fallen away through want of thought, but had also become immersed in their sins, and were wickedly and abominably obstinate in them. Since then the Prophet saw this, he makes here a bold beginning, and addresses not only his own nation, for whom he was appointed a Teacher; but he speaks to the whole world.

For what purpose does he say, Hear, all ye people? 62 It was not certainly his object to proclaim indiscriminately to all the truth of God for the same end: but he summons here all nations as witnesses or judges, that the Jews might understand that their impiety would be made evident to all, except they repented, and that there was no reason for them to hope that they could conceal their baseness, for God would expose their hidden crimes as it were on an open stage. We hence see how emphatical are the words, when the Prophet calls on all nations and would have them to be witnesses of the judgment which God had resolved to bring on his people.

He afterwards adds, Let also the earth give ear and its fullness We may take the earth, by metonymy, for its inhabitants; but as it is added, and its fullness, the Prophet, I doubt not, meant here to address the very earth itself, though it be without reason. He means that so dreadful would be the judgment of God, as to shake created things which are void of sense; and thus he more severely upbraids the Jews with their stupor, that they heedlessly neglected the word of God, which yet would shake all the elements by its power.

He then immediately turns his discourse to the Jews: after having erected God’s tribunal and summoned all the nations, that they might form as it were a circle of a solemn company, he says, There will be for me the Lord Jehovah against you for a witness the Lord from the temple of his holiness. By saying that God would be as a witness for him, he not only affirms that he was sent by God, but being as it were inflamed with zeal, he appeals here to God, and desires him to be present, that the wickedness and obstinacy of the people might not be unpunished; as though he said, “Let God, whose minister I am, be with me, and punish your impiety; let him prove that he is the author of this doctrine, which I declare from his mouth and by his command; let him not suffer you to escape unpunished, if ye do not repent.”

We now then perceive the meaning of the Prophet, when he says that God would be for him a witness; as though he had said, that there was no room here to trifle; for if the Jews thought to elude God’s judgment they greatly deceived themselves; inasmuch as when he has given a command to his servants to treat with his people, he is at the same time present as a judge, and will not suffer his word to be rejected without immediately undertaking his own cause.

Nor is this addition superfluous, The Lord from the temple of his holiness: for we know how thoughtlessly the Jews were wont to boast that God dwelt in the midst of them. And this presumption so blinded them that they despised all the Prophets; for they thought it unlawful that any thing should be said to their disgrace, because they were the holy people of God, his holy heritage and chosen nation. Inasmuch then as the Lord had adopted them, they falsely boasted of his favors. Since then the Prophet knew that the people insolently gloried in those privileges, with which they had been honored by God, he now declares that God would be the avenger of impiety from his temple; as though he said, Ye boast that God is bound to you, and that he has so bound up his faith to you as to render his name to you a sport: he indeed dwells in his temple; but from thence he will manifest himself as an avenger, as he sees that you are perverse in your wickedness. We hence see that the Prophet beats down that foolish arrogance, by which the Jews were inflated; yea, he turns back on their own heads what they were wont boastingly to bring forward. After having made this introduction, to awaken slumbering men with as much vehemence as he could, he subjoins —

Calvin: Mic 1:3 - He shall tread, he says, on the high places of the earth The Prophet pursues the same subject; and he dwells especially on this — that God would be a witness against his people from his sanctuary. He ther...

The Prophet pursues the same subject; and he dwells especially on this — that God would be a witness against his people from his sanctuary. He therefore confirms this, when he says that God would come from his place Some interpreters do at the same time take this view — that the temple would hereafter be deprived of God’s presence, and would hence become profane, according to what Ezekiel declares. For as the Jews imagined that God was connected with them as long as the temple stood, and this false imagination proved to them an allurement, as it were, to sin, as on this account they took to themselves greater liberty, — this was the reason why the Prophet Ezekiel declares that God was no longer in the temple; and the Lord had shown to him by a vision that he had left his temple, so that he would no longer dwell there. Some, as I have said, give a similar explanation of this passage; but this sense does not seem to suit the context. I therefore take another view of this sentence — that God would go forth from his place. But yet it is doubted what place the Prophet refers to: for many take it to be heaven, and this seems probable, for immediately after he adds, Descend shall God, and he will tread on the high places of the earth This descent seems indeed to point out a higher place: but as the temple, we know, was situated on a high and elevated spot, on mount Zion, there is nothing inconsistent in saying that God descended from his temple to chastise the whole of Judea as it deserved. Then the going forth of God is by no means ambiguous in its meaning, for he means that God would at length go forth, as it were, in a visible form. With regard then to the place, I am inclined to refer it to the temple; and this clause, I have no doubt, has proceeded from the last verse.

But why is going forth here ascribed to God? Because the Jews had abused the forbearance of God in worshipping him with vain ceremonies in the temple; and at the same time they thought that they had escaped from his hand. As long then as God spared them, they thought that he was, as it were, bound to them, because he dwelt among them. Besides, as the legal and shadowy worship prevailed among them, they imagined that God rested in their temple. But now the Prophet says, “He will go forth: ye have wished hitherto to confine God to the tabernacle, and ye have attempted to pacify him with your frivolous puerilities: but ye shall know that his hand and his power extend much farther: he shall therefore come and show what that majesty is which has been hitherto a derision to you.” For when hypocrites set to sale their ceremonies to God, do they not openly trifle with him, as though he were a child? and do they not thus rob him of his power and authority? Such was the senselessness of that people. The Prophet therefore does not say without reason that God would go forth, that he might prove to the Jews that they were deluded by their own vain imaginations, when they thus took away from God what necessarily belonged to him, and confined him to a corner in Judea and fixed him there, as though he rested and dwelt there like a dead idol.

The particle, Behold, is emphatical: for the Prophet intended here to shake off from the Jews their torpidity, inasmuch as nothing was more difficult to them than to be persuaded and to believe that punishment was nigh at hand, when they flattered themselves that God was propitious to them. Hence that they might no longer cherish this willfulness, he says, Behold, come shall the Lord, forth shall he go from his place Isaiah has a passage like this in an address to the people, Isa 26:0; but the object of it is different; for Isaiah intended to threaten the enemies of the Church and heathen nations: but here Micah denounces war on the chosen people, and shows that God thus dwelt in his temple, that the Jews might perceive that his hand was opposed to them, as they had so shamefully despised him, and, by their false imaginations reduced, as it were, to nothing his power.

He shall tread, he says, on the high places of the earth By the high places of the earth I do not understand superstitious places, but those well fortified. We know that fortresses were then fixed, for the most part, on elevated situations. The Prophet then intimates, that there would be no place into which God’s vengeance would not penetrate, however well fortified it might be: “No enclosures,” he says, “shall hinder God from penetrating into the inmost parts of your fortresses; he shall tread on the high places of the earth.” At the same time, I doubt not but that he alludes, by this kind of metaphor, to the chief men, who thought themselves exempted from the common lot of mankind; for they excelled so much in power, riches, and authority, that they would not be classed with the common people. The Prophet then intimates, that those, who were become proud through a notion of their own superiority would not be exempt from punishment.

Calvin: Mic 1:4 - NO PHRASE And he afterwards adds, that this going forth of God would be terrible, Melt, he says, shall the mountains under him It hence appears, that the P...

And he afterwards adds, that this going forth of God would be terrible, Melt, he says, shall the mountains under him It hence appears, that the Prophet did not speak in the last verse of the departure of God, as though he was going to forsake his own temple, but that he, on the contrary, described his going forth from the temple, that he might ascend his tribunal and execute punishment on the whole people, and thus, in reality, prove that he would be a judge, because he had been very daringly despised. Hence he says, Melt shall the mountains under him, the valleys shall be rent, or cleave, as wax before the fire, as waters rolling into a lower place 63 The Prophets do not often describe God in a manner so awful; but this representation is to be referred to the circumstance of this passage, for he sets forth God here as the judge of the people: it was therefore necessary that he should be exhibited as furnished and armed with powers that he might stake such vengeance on the Jews as they deserved. And other similar passages we shall hereafter meet with, and like to those which we found in Hosea. God then is said to melt the mountains, and he is said to strike the valleys with such terror that they cleave under him; in short, he is said so to terrify all elements, that the very mountains, however stony they may be, melt like wax or like waters which flow, — because he could not otherwise produce a real impression on a people so obstinate, and who, as it has been said, so flattered themselves even in their vices.

We may further easily learn what application to make of this truth in our day. We find the Papists boasting of the title Church, and, in a manner, with vain confidence, binding God to themselves, because they have baptism, though they have adulterated it with their superstitions; and then, they think that they have Christ, because they still retain the name of a Church. Had the Lord promised that his dwelling would be at Rome, we yet see how foolish and frivolous would be such boasting: for though the temple was at Jerusalem, yet the Lord went forth thence to punish the sins of the people, yea, even of the chosen people. We further know, that it is folly to bind God now to one place, for it is his will that his name should be celebrated without any difference through the whole world. Wheresoever, then, the voice of the Gospel sounds, God would have us to know that he is present there. What the Papists then proudly boast of — that Christ is joined to them — will turn out to their own condemnation; — why so? Because the Lord will prove that he is the avenger of so impious and shameful a profanation, as they not only presumptuously lay claim to his name, but also tear it in pieces, and contaminate it with their sacrilegious abominations.

Again, since God is said to melt the mountains with his presence, let us hence learn to rouse up all our feelings whenever God comes forth not that we may flee to a distance from him, but that we may reverently receive his word, so that he may afterwards appear to us a kind and reconciled Father. For when we become humble, and the pride and height of our flesh is subdued, he then immediately receives us, as it were, into his gentle bosom, and gives us an easy access to him, yea, he invites us to himself with all possible kindness. That the Lord then may thus kindly receive us, let us learn to fear as soon as he utters his voice: but let not this fear make us to flee away but only humble us, so that we may render true obedience to the word of the Lord. It follows —

Calvin: Mic 1:5 - NO PHRASE The Prophet teaches, in this verse, that God is not angry for nothing; though when he appears rigid, men expostulate with him, and clamor as though h...

The Prophet teaches, in this verse, that God is not angry for nothing; though when he appears rigid, men expostulate with him, and clamor as though he were cruel. That men may, therefore, acknowledge that God is a just judge, and that he never exceeds moderation in punishments, the Prophet here distinctly states that there was a just cause, why God denounced so dreadful a judgment on his chosen people, — even because not only a part of the people, but the whole body had, through their impiety, fallen away; for by the house of Jacob, and by the house of Israel, he means that impiety had everywhere prevailed, so that no part was untainted. The meaning then is, — that the contagion of sin had spread through all Israel, that no portion of the country was free from iniquity, that no corner of the land could bring an excuse for its defection; the Lord therefore shows that he would be the judge of them all, and would spare neither small nor great.

We now then understand the Prophet’s object in this verse: As he had before taught how dreadful would be God’s vengeance against all the ungodly, so now he mentions their crimes, that they might not complain that they were unjustly treated, or that God employed too much severity. The Prophet then testifies that the punishment, then near at hand, would be just.

He now adds, What is the wickedness of Jacob? The Prophet, no doubt, indirectly reproves here the hypocrisy which ruled dominant among the people. For he asks not for his own satisfaction or in his own person; but, on the contrary, he relates, by way of imitation, (μιμητικῶς, — imitatively) what he knew to be ever on their lips, “Oh! what sort of thing is this sin? Why! thou assumest here a false principle, — that we are wicked men, ungodly and perfidious: thou does us a grievous wrong.” Inasmuch, then, as hypocrites thought themselves pure, having wiped, as it were, their mouths, whenever they eluded reproofs by their sophistries, the Prophet borrows a question, as it were, from their own lips, “Of what kind is this wickedness? Of what sort is that transgression?” As though he said, “I know what ye are wont to do, when any one of the Prophets severely reproves you; ye instantly contend with him, and are ready with your objections: but what do you gain? If you wish to know what your wickedness is, it is Samaria; and where your high places are, they are at Jerusalem.” It is the same as if he had said, “I do not here contend with the common people, but I attack the first men: my contest then is with the princes themselves, who surpass others in dignity, and are, therefore, unwilling to be touched.”

But it sometimes happens that the common people become degenerated, while some integrity remains among the higher orders: but the Prophet shows that the diseases among the people belonged to the principal men; and hence he names the two chief cities, Jerusalem and Samaria, as he had said before, in the first verse, that he proclaimed predictions against these: and yet it is certain, that the punishment was to be in common to the whole people. But as they thought that Jerusalem and Samaria would be safe, though the whole country were destroyed, the Prophet threatens them by name: for, relying first on their strength, they thought themselves unassailable; and then, the eyes of nearly all, we know, were dazzled with empty splendor, powers and dignity: thus the ungodly wholly forget that they are men, and what they owe to God, when elevated in the world. So great an arrogance could not be subdued, except by sharp and severe words, such as the Prophet, as we see, here employs. He then says, that the wickedness of Israel was Samaria; the fountain of all iniquities was the royal city, which yet ought to have ruled the whole land with wisdom and justice: but what any more remains, when kings and their counselors tread under foot all regard for what is just and right, and having cast away every shame, rise up in rebellion against God and men? When therefore kings thus fall from their dignity, an awful ruin must follow.

This is the reason why the Prophet says that the wickedness of Israel was Samaria, that thence arose all iniquities. But we must at the same time bear in mind, that the Prophet speaks not here of gross crimes; but, on the contrary, he directs his reproof against ungodly and perverted forms of worship; and this appears more evident from the second clause, in which he mentions transgressions in connection with the high places. We hence see, that all sins in general are not here reproved, but their vicious modes of worship, by which religion had been polluted among the Jews as well as the Israelites. But it might seem very unjust, that the Prophet should charge with sin those forms of worship in which the Jews laboriously exercised themselves with the object of pacifying God. But we see how God regards as nothing whatever men blend with his worship out of their own heads. And this is our principal contest at this day with the Papists; we call their perverted and spurious modes of worship abominations: they think that what is heavenly is to be blended with what is earthly. We diligently labor, they say, for this end — that God may be worshipped. True; but, at the same time, ye profane his worship by your inventions; and it is therefore an abomination. We now then see how foolish and frivolous are those delusions, when men follow their own wisdom in the duty of worshipping God: for the Prophet here, in the name of God, fulminates, as it were, from heaven against all superstitions, and shows that no sin is more detestable, than that preposterous caprice with which idolaters are inflamed, when they observe such forms of worship as they have themselves invented.

Now with regard to the high places, we must notice, that there was a great difference between the Jews and the Israelites at that time as to idolatry. The Israelites had so fallen, that they were altogether degenerated; nothing could be seen among them that had an affinity to the true and legitimate worship of God: but the Jews had retained some form of religion, they had not thus abandoned themselves; but yet they had a mixture of superstitions; such as one would find, were he to compare the gross Popery of this day with that middle course which those men invent, who seem to themselves to be very wise, fearing, forsooth, as they do, the offenses of the world; and hence they form for us a mixture, I know not what, from the superstitions of the Papacy and from the Reformation, as they call it. Something like this was the mixture at Jerusalem. We however see, that the Prophet pronounces the same sentence against the Jews and the Israelites and that is, that God will allow nothing that proceeds from the inventions of men to be joined to his word. Since then God allows no such mixtures, the Prophet here says that there was no less sin on the high places of Judea, than there was in those filthy abominations which were then dominant among the people of Israel. But the remainder we must defer until to-morrow.

Calvin: Mic 1:6 - NO PHRASE Though Micah intended especially to devote his services to the Jews, as we have said yesterday, he yet, in the first place, passes judgment on Samari...

Though Micah intended especially to devote his services to the Jews, as we have said yesterday, he yet, in the first place, passes judgment on Samaria; for it was his purpose afterwards to speak more fully against Jerusalem and the whole of Judea. And this state of the case ought to be borne in mind; for the Prophet does not begin with the Israelites, because he directs his discourse peculiarly to them; but his purpose was briefly to reprove them, and then to address more especially his own people, for it was for this purpose that he was called. Now, as he threatens destruction to Samaria and the whole kingdom of Israel on account of their corrupted forms of worship, we may hence learn how displeasing to God is superstition, and that he regards nothing so much as the true worship of his name. There is no reason here for men to advance this position — that they do not designedly sin; for God shows how he is to be worshipped by us. Whenever, then, we deviate in any thing from the rule which he has prescribed, we manifest, in that particular, our rebellion and obstinacy. Hence the superstitious ever act like fools with regard to God, for they will not submit to his word, so as to be thereby alone made wise.

And he says, I will set Samaria as an heap of the field, that is, such shall be the ruins that they shall differ nothing from the heaps of the fields: for husband men, we know, when they find stones in their fields, throw them into some corner, that they may not be in the way of the slough. Like such heaps then, as are seen in the fields, Samaria would be, according to what God declared. He then says, that the place would be empty, so that vines would be planted there; and, in the third place, that its stones would be scattered through the valley; as when one casts stones where there is a wide plain, they run and roll far and wide; so would be the scattering of Samaria according to what the Prophet says, it was to be like the rolling of stones in a wide field. He adds, in the fourth place, I will uncover her foundations, that is, I will entirely demolish it, so that a stone, as Christ says, may not remain on a stone, (Mat 24:2.) We now perceive the import of the words; and we also perceive that the reason why the Prophet denounces on Samaria so severe a judgment was, because it had corrupted the legitimate worship of God with its own inventions; for it had devised, as we well know, many idols, so that the whole authority of the law had been abolished among the Israelites. It now follows —

Calvin: Mic 1:7 - NO PHRASE The Prophet goes on with the same subject, and says, that the ruin of Samaria was at hand, so that its idols would be broken, and also, that its weal...

The Prophet goes on with the same subject, and says, that the ruin of Samaria was at hand, so that its idols would be broken, and also, that its wealth would be destroyed which she had gathered by illegitimate means, and which she thought to be the reward of her idolatry. But God mentions idols here expressly by his Prophet, in order to confirm what we noticed yesterday — that the cause of vengeance was, because Samaria had abandoned itself to ungodly forms of worship, and had departed from the Law. That the Israelites might then understand the cause for which God would so severely punish them, the Prophet here makes express mention of their graven images and idols. God is not indeed angry with stones and wood; but he observes the abuse and the perversion of them, when men pollute themselves by wickedly worshipping such things. This is the reason why God says here that the graven images of Samaria would be broken in pieces, and that its idols would be destroyed.

With regard to the wages, the Prophet no doubt designed to stamp with disgrace all the wealth of Samaria. אתנן , atanen, is properly a gift or a present. But as he twice repeats it, and says, that what Samaria possessed was the reward of an harlot, and then, that it would return to the reward of an harlot, he, in the first place, I have no doubt, upbraids the Israelites, because they, after the manner of harlots and strumpets, had heaped together their great riches: and this was done by Jeroboam, who constructed a new form of worship, in order to secure his own kingdom. The Israelites then began to flourish; and we also know how wealthy that kingdom became, and how proud they were on account of their riches. As, then, the Israelites despised the kingdom of Judah, and thought themselves in every way happy, and as they ascribed all this, as we have seen in Hosea, to their superstitions, Micah speaks here according to their view of things, when he says, Idolatry has been gainful to you, this splendor dazzles your eyes; but your rewards I have already doomed to the burning: they shall then be burnt, and thus perish. Hosea also, as we have seen, made use of the same comparison, — that the children of Israel felicitated themselves in their impiety, like a harlot, who, while she gains many presents from those who admire her beauty, seems not conscious of her turpitude and baseness: such were the Israelites. The Prophets therefore does not say, without reason, Behold, your rewards, by burning, shall perish, or, be consumed with fire. Why so? Because ye have gathered them, he says, from the reward of an harlot, and all this shall return to the reward of an harlot.

This last clause ought to be restricted to the gifts or wealth of Samaria; for it cannot properly be applied to idols or graven images. The import of the whole then is that God would be the avenger of idolatry with regard to the city of Samaria and the whole kingdom of Israel. Besides, as the Israelites boasted that their ungodly forms of worship turned out to their happiness and prosperity, God declares that the whole of this success would be evanescent, like that of the harlot, who amasses great wealth, which soon vanishes away: and we see that thus it commonly happens.

Some explain the passage thus, — that the gifts, with which the Israelites adorned their temples, would return to be the reward of an harlot, that is, would he transferred to Chaldea, and that the Babylonians would, in their turn, adorn with them their idols. But this view is not suitable to the place; for the Prophet does not say that what Samaria had gathered would be a prey or a spoil to enemies but that it would perish by fire. 66 He speaks therefore, proverbially when he says that the produce, from the reward of an harlot, would return to be the reward of an harlot, that is, that it would become nothing; for the Lord sets a curse on such riches as strumpets gain by their baseness, while they prostitute themselves. Since, then, the whole of such wealth is under the curse of God, it must necessarily soon pass away like smoke: and this, in my view, is the real meaning of the Prophet. It now follows —

Calvin: Mic 1:8 - NO PHRASE The Prophet here assumes the character of a mourner, that he might more deeply impress the Israelites; for we have seen that they were almost insensi...

The Prophet here assumes the character of a mourner, that he might more deeply impress the Israelites; for we have seen that they were almost insensible in their torpidity. It was therefore necessary that they should be brought to view the scene itself, that, seeing their destruction before their eyes they might be touched both with grief and fear. Lamentations of this kind are everywhere to be met with in the Prophets, and they ought to be carefully noticed; for we hence gather how great was the torpor of men, inasmuch as it was necessary to awaken them, by this form of speech, in order to convince them that they had to do with God: they would have otherwise continued to flatter themselves with delusions. Though indeed the Prophet here addresses the Israelites, we ought yet to apply this to ourselves; for we are not much unlike the ancient people: for however God may terrify us with dreadful threatening, we still remain quiet in our filth. It is therefore needful that we should be severely treated, for we are almost void of feeling.

But the Prophets sometimes assumed mourning, and sometimes they were touched with real grief: for when they spoke of aliens and also of the enemies of the Church, they introduce these lamentations. When a mention is made of Babylon or of Egypt, they sometimes say, Behold, I will mourn, and my bowels shall be as a timbrel. The Prophets did not then really grieve; but, as I have said, they transferred to themselves the sorrows of others, and ever with this object, that they might persuade men that God’s threatenings were not vain, and that God did not trifle with men when he declared that he was angry with them. But when the discourse was respecting the Church and the faithful, then the Prophets did not put on grief. The representation here is then to be taken in such a way as that we may understand that the Prophet was in real mourning, when he saw that a dreadful ruin was impending over the whole kingdom of Israel. For though they had perfidiously departed from the Law, they were yet a part of the holy race, they were the children of Abraham, whom God had received into favor. The Prophet, therefore, could not refrain from mourning unfeignedly for them. And the Prophet does here these two things, — he shows the fraternal love which he entertained for the children of Israel, as they were his kindred, and a part of the chosen people, — and he also discharges his own duty; for this lamentation was, as it were, the mirror in which he sets before them the vengeance of God towards men so extremely torpid. He therefore exhibits to them this representation, that they might perceive that God was by no means trifling with men, when he thus denounced punishment on the wicked and such as were apostates.

Moreover, he speaks not of a common lamentation, but says, I will wail and howl, and then, I will go spoiled The word אנושה , shulal, some take as meaning one out of his mind or insane, as though he said, “I shall be now as one not possessed of a sound mind.” But as this metaphor is rather unnatural, I prefer the sense of being spoiled; for it was the custom with mourners, as it is well known, to tear and to throw away their garments from them. I will then go spoiled and naked; and also, I will make wailing, not like that of men, but like the wailing of dragons: I will mourn, he says, as the ostriches are wont to do. In short, the Prophet by these forms of speech intimates, that the coming evil would by no means be of an ordinary kind: for if he adopted the usual manner of men, he could not have set forth the dreadfulness of God’s vengeance that was impending.

Calvin: Mic 1:9 - NO PHRASE He afterwards subjoins, that the wounds vault be grievous; but he speaks as of what was present, Grievous, he says, are the wounds Grievous means...

He afterwards subjoins, that the wounds vault be grievous; but he speaks as of what was present, Grievous, he says, are the wounds Grievous means properly full of grief; others render it desperate or incurable, but it is a meaning which suits not this place; for אנושה , anushe, means what we express in French by douloureuse. The wounds, then, are full of grief: for it came, (something is understood; it may suitably be referred to the enemy, or, what is more approved, to the slaughter) — It came then, that is, the slaughter, 68 to Judah; it has reached to the gate of my people, even to Jerusalem itself. He says first, to Judah, speaking of the land; and then he confines it to the cities; for when the gates are closed up against enemies, they are forced to stop. But the Prophet says, that the cities would be no hindrance to the enemies to approach the very gates and even the chief city of Judah, that is, Jerusalem; and this, we know, was fulfilled. It is the same then as though he said that the whole kingdom of Israel would be so laid waste, that their enemies would not he content with victory, but would proceed farther and besiege the holy city: and this Sennacherib did. For after having subverted the kingdom of Israel, as though it was not enough to draw the ten tribes into exile, he resolved to take possession of the kingdom of Judah; and Jerusalem, as Isaiah says, was left as a tent. We hence see that the threatening of the Prophet Micah were not in vain. It now follows —

Calvin: Mic 1:10 - NO PHRASE The Prophet seems here to be inconsistent with himself: for he first describes the calamity that was to be evident to all; but now he commands silenc...

The Prophet seems here to be inconsistent with himself: for he first describes the calamity that was to be evident to all; but now he commands silence, lest the report should reach the enemies. But there is here nothing contradictory; for the evil itself could not be hid, since the whole kingdom of Israel would be desolated, the cities demolished or burnt, the whole country spoiled and laid waste, and then the enemies would enter the borders of Judah: and when Jerusalem should have been nearly taken how could it have been concealed? No, this could not have been. There is no wonder then that the Prophet had referred here to a solemn mourning. But he now speaks of the feeling of those who were desirous of hiding their own disgrace, especially from their enemies and aliens: for it is an indignity which greatly vexes us, when enemies taunt us, and upbraid us in our misfortunes; when no hope remains, we at least wish to perish in secret, so that no reproach and disgrace should accompany our death; for dishonor is often harder to be borne, and wounds us more grievously, than any other evil. The Prophet then means that the Israelites would not only be miserable, but would also be subject to the reproaches and taunts of their enemies. We indeed know that the Philistine were inveterate in their hatred to the people of God; and we know that they ever took occasion to upbraid them with their evils and calamities.

This then is the meaning of the Prophet, when he says, In Gath declare it not, by weeping weep not; as though he said, “Though extreme evils shall come upon you, yet seek to perish in silence; for you will find that your enemies will gape for the opportunity to cut you with their taunts, when they shall see you thus miserable. He then forbids the people’s calamities to be told in Gath; for the Philistine usually desired nothing more than the opportunity to torment the people of God with reproaches.

It now follows, In the house of Aphrah, in dust roll thyself There is here an alliteration which cannot be conveyed in Latin: for עפרה , ophre, means dusty, and עפר , opher, is dust. That city attained its name from its situation, because the country where it was, was full of dust; as if a city were called Lutosa, muddy or full of clay; and indeed many think that Lutetia (Paris) had hence derived its name. And he says, Roll thyself in dust, in the house full of dust; as though he had said that the name would be now most suitable, for the ruin of the city would constrain all neighboring cities to be in mourning to cast themselves in the dust; So great would be the extremity of their evils.

But we must ever bear in mind the object of the Prophet: for he here rouses the Israelites as it were with the sharpest goads, who entertained no just idea of the dreadfulness of God’s vengeance, but were ever deaf to all threatening. The Prophet then shows that the execution of this vengeance which he denounced was ready at hand; and he himself not only mourned, but called others also to mourning. He speaks of the whole country, as we shall see by what follows. I shall quickly run over the whole of this chapter; for there is no need of long explanation, as you will find.

Calvin: Mic 1:11 - NO PHRASE The Prophet here addresses the cities which were on the borders of the kingdom of Israel, and through which the enemy would pass in entering the king...

The Prophet here addresses the cities which were on the borders of the kingdom of Israel, and through which the enemy would pass in entering the kingdom of Judah. He therefore bids the inhabitants of the city Saphir to pass over, and says, that the city would be ashamed or in a shameful manner naked. The word שפיר , shaphir, means splendid. He then says, “Thou art now beautiful, but the Lord will discover thy shame, so that thy nakedness shall be a shame to all, and the greatest disgrace to thyself.” There is a correspondence in the words, though not an alliteration. Hence the Prophet says, that though the city was called splendid, it would yet be deformed, so that no one would deign to look on it, at least without feeling shame. There is the same correspondence in the word Zaanan; for צעה , tsoe, means to transfer, as צען , tson, is to migrate. Hence the Prophet says, Go forth shall not the inhabitant of Zaanan for the mourning of Beth-Aezel; that is, he will remain quiet at home: this he will do contrary to what will be natural; for whence is the name of the city? even from removing, for it was a place of much traffic. But he will remain, he says, at home: though he may see his neighbors dragged into exile, he will not dare to move from his place.

He now adds, Take will the enemy from you his station. The verb עמד , omad, means to stand; nor is there a doubt but that when the Prophet says, He will take from you his standing, he speaks of the standing or station of the enemy: but interpreters however vary here. Some understand, that when the enemy had continued long in the land, they would not depart before they possessed the supreme power; as though he said, “Ye will think that your enemy can be wearied out with delay and tediousness, when not able soon to conquer your cities: this, he says, will not be the case; for he will resolutely persevere, and his expectation will not disappoint him; for he will receive the reward of his station, that is, of his delay.” But some say, He will receive his station from you. They explain the verb לקח , lakech, metaphorically, as meaning to receive instruction from hand to hand; as though the Prophet had said, Some, that is, your neighbors, will learn their own position from you. What does this mean? Zaanan will not go forth on account of the mourning of its neighboring city Aezel: others will afterwards follow this example. How so? For Zaanan will be, as it were, the teacher to other cities; as it will not dare to show any sign of grief for its neighbors, being not able to succor them; so also, when it shall be taken in its turn into exile, that is, its citizens and inhabitants, its neighbors will remain quiet, as though the condition of the miserable city was no object of their care. They shall then learn from you their standing; that is, Ye will remain quiet and still, when your neighbors will be destroyed; the same thing will afterwards happen to you. But as this bears but little on the main subjects we may take either of these views. 71 It afterwards follows —

Calvin: Mic 1:12 - NO PHRASE The Prophet joins here another city even Maroth, and others also in the following verses. But in this verse he says, that Maroth would be in sorrow f...

The Prophet joins here another city even Maroth, and others also in the following verses. But in this verse he says, that Maroth would be in sorrow for a lost good. The verb חול , chul, means to grieve; and it has this sense here; for the Marothites, that is, the inhabitants of that city, would have to grieve for losing their property and their former happy condition. But as the verb means also to expect, some approve of a different exposition, that is, — that the inhabitants of the city Maroth would in vain depend on an empty and fallacious expectation, for they were doomed to utter destruction. In vain then will the inhabitant of Maroth expect or entertain hope; for an evil descends from Jehovah to the gate of the city. This view is very suitable, that is, that its hope will disappoint Maroth, since even the city of Jerusalem shall not be exempted. For though God had then by a miracle delivered the chief city, and its siege was raised through the intervention of an angel, when a dreadful slaughter, as sacred history records, took place; yet the city Maroth was not then able to escape vengeance. We now see the reason why this circumstance was added. Some give a harsher explanation, — that the citizens of Maroth were to be debilitated, or, as it were, demented. As this metaphor is too strained, I embrace the other, — that the citizens of Maroth would grieve for the loss of good, 72 or that they would vainly expect or hope, since they were already doomed to utter ruin, without any hope of deliverance.

But we must notice, that evil was nigh at hand from Jehovah, for he reminds them, that though the whole country would be desolated by the Assyrians, yet God would be the chief leader, since he would employ the work of all those who would afflict the people of Israel. That the Jews then, as well as the Israelites might know, that they had to do, not with men only, but also with God, the celestial Judge, the Prophet distinctly expresses that all this would proceed from Jehovah. He afterwards adds —

Calvin: Mic 1:13 - NO PHRASE By bidding the citizens of Lachish to tie their chariots to dromedaries he intimates that it would not be not safe for them to remain in their city, ...

By bidding the citizens of Lachish to tie their chariots to dromedaries he intimates that it would not be not safe for them to remain in their city, and that nothing would be better for them than to flee elsewhere and to carry away their substance. “Think,” he says, “of flight, and of the quickest flight.” The word רכש , recash, which I render dromedary or camel, is of an uncertain meaning among the Hebrews; some render it swift horses: but we understand the Prophet’s meaning; for he intimates that there would be no time for flight, except they made great haste, for the enemies would come upon them quickly.

And he then subjoins that that city had been the beginning of sin to the Jews; for though he names here the daughter of Zion, he still includes, by taking a part for it the whole, all the Jews. And why he says that Lachish had been the beginning of sin to the citizens of Jerusalem, we may collect from the next clauses, In thee, he says, were found the transgressions of Israel. The citizens of Lachish were then, no doubt, the first who had embraced the corruptions of Jeroboam, and had thus departed from the pure worship of God. When, therefore, contagion had entered that city, it crept, by degrees, into neighboring places, until at length, as we find, the whole kingdom of Judah had become corrupt: and this is what the Prophet repeats more fully in other places. It was not then without reason that he denounces desolation here on the citizens of Lachish; for they had been the authors of sin to their own kindred. However alienated the ten tribes had become from pure faith and pure worship, the kingdom of Judah remained still upright, until Lachish opened the door to ungodly superstitions; and then its superstitions spread through the whole of Judea. She therefore suffered the punishment which she deserved, when she was drawn away into distant exile, or, at least, when she could not otherwise escape from danger, than by fleeing into some fear country, and that very swiftly. She is the beginning, he says, of sin to the daughter of Zion How so? For in thee — (it is more emphatical when the Prophet turns his discourse to Lachish itself) — in thee, he says, were found the transgressions of Israel. It follows —

Calvin: Mic 1:14 - NO PHRASE Here the Prophet alludes to another thing, — that they would attempt to pacify their enemies with gifts, and would try to redeem themselves and the...

Here the Prophet alludes to another thing, — that they would attempt to pacify their enemies with gifts, and would try to redeem themselves and their neighbors. But the Prophet expressly mentions this, that the event might teach them that nothing happens without a design; for it ought to work a greater conviction in blind and obstinate men, when they see that they really find that to be true which had been long before predicted. This, then, is the reason why the Prophet enumerates here various particulars; it was, that the hand of God might be more evident and conspicuous when he would begin, in an especial manner, to fulfill all the things which he now in words foretells, Thou, he says, wilt send a gift for Moreseth-gath; that is, for a neighboring city. And he calls it Moreseth-gath, to distinguish it from another city of the same name. Thou wilt then send gifts for Moreseth-gath, to the sons of Achzib for a lie אכזיב , aczib, is a word derived from one which means a lie. There is, therefore, a striking alliteration, when he says, Thou wilt send gifts to the sons of אכזיב , Aczib, for a lie, לאכזב , laaczeb; that is Thou wilt send gifts to the sons of a lie, for a lie. The city had obtained its name from its fallacies or guiles. And he says, for a lie to the kings of Israel; because it profited the children of Israel nothing to pacify them with gifts or to attempt to draw them to their side, as they hired the services of one another. So then he says, that they would be for a lie to the kings of Israel, for they would gain nothing by having many auxiliaries. Some take the words actively, — that the kings of Israel had first deceived the citizens of Achzib: but this view is less probable; I am therefore disposed to adopt the other, — that though the citizens of Lachish tried to conciliate their neighbors with a great sum of money, especially the people of Achzib, this would be yet to no purpose; for it would be a lie to the people of Israel: or, it may be, that the Prophet’s meaning is this, — that the citizens of Achzib had already wished to bring aid, but in vain to the kings of Israel; for Lachish was one of the first cities which the Assyrians conquered; but it was within the kingdom of Judah, or on its borders. It is then probable that the kings of Israel had recourse to the aid of this people, and were not assisted. Now, as the citizens of Lachish also endeavored to extricate themselves from the hand of their enemies by such aid, the prophet derides such a folly, inasmuch as they did not become wise by experience, having seen with their own eyes, that such an help had been useless and deceptive to the kings of Israel: they ought then to have tried some other means rather than to expose themselves to the same deceptions. 73 I cannot finish the chapter to-day.

Calvin: Mic 1:15 - NO PHRASE The Prophet here threatens his own birth place, as he had done other cities; for, as we have stated, he sprung from this city. He does not now spare ...

The Prophet here threatens his own birth place, as he had done other cities; for, as we have stated, he sprung from this city. He does not now spare his own kindred: for as God is no respecter of persons, so also God’s servants ought, as with closed eyes, to deal impartially with all, so as not to be turned here and there either by favor or by hatred, but to follows without any change, whatever the Lord commands them. We see that Micah was endued with this spirit, for he reproved his own kindred, as he had hitherto reproved others.

There is a peculiar meaning in the word, Mareshah, for it is derived from ירש , iresh, and it means possession. The Prophet now says, I will send to thee הורש , euresh, a possessor; the word is from the same root. 75 ] But he means that the Morasthites would come into the power of their enemies no less than their neighbors, of whom he had spoken before. He says, to Adullam This was also a city in the tribe of Judah, as it is well known. But some would have “enemy” to be here understood and they put כבוד , cabud, in the genitive case: The enemy of the glory of Israel shall come to Adullam; but this is strained. Others understand the passage thus that the glory of Israel would come to disgrace; for Adullam, we know, was a cave. Since then it an obscure place, the Prophet here, as they think, declares that the whole glory of Israel would be covered with dishonor, because the dignity and wealth, in which they gloried would lose their pristine fixate, so that they would differ nothing from an ignoble cave. If any approve of this meaning, I will not oppose them. Yet others think that the Prophet speaks ironically and that the Assyrian is thus called because the whole glory and dignity of Israel would by him be taken away. But there is no need of confining this to enemies; we may then take a simpler view, and yet regard the expression as ironical, — that the glory, that is, the disgrace or the devastation of Israel, would come to Adullam. But what if we read it, in apposition, He shall come to Adullam, the glory of Israel? For Adullam was not obscure, as those interpreters imagine, whom I have mentioned, but it is named among the most celebrated cities after the return and restoration of the people. When, therefore, the whole country was laid waste, this city, with a few others, remained, as we read in the Neh 11:0. It might then be, that the Prophet called Adullam the glory of Israel; for it was situated in a safe place, and the inhabitants thought that they were fortified by a strong defense, and thus were not open to the violence of enemies. This meaning also may be probable; but still, as the glory of Israel may be taken ironically for calamity or reproach if any one approves more of this interpretation, it may be followed. I am, however, inclined to another, — that the Prophet say, that the enemy would come to Adullam, which was the glory of Israel, 76 because that city was as it were in the recesses of Judea, so that an access to it by enemies was difficult. It may be also that some may think, that the recollection of its ancient history is here revived; for David concealed himself in its cave, and had it as his fortress. The place no doubt had, from that time, attained some fame; then this celebrity, as I have said, may be alluded to, when Adullam is said to be the glory of Israel. It follows —

Calvin: Mic 1:16 - Make bald, The Prophet at length concludes that nothing remained for the people but lamentation; for the Lord had resolved to desolate and destroy the whole cou...

The Prophet at length concludes that nothing remained for the people but lamentation; for the Lord had resolved to desolate and destroy the whole country. Now they were wont in mourning, as we have seen in other places, to shave and even tear off their hair: and some think that the verb קרחי , korechi, implies as much as though the Prophet said “Pluck, tear, pull off your hair.” When afterwards he adds רגזי , regizi, they refer it to shavings which is done by a razor. However this may be, the Prophet here means that the condition of the people would be so calamitous that nothing would be seen anywhere but mourning.

Make bald, he says, for the children of thy delicacies 77 The Prophet here indirectly upbraids those perverse men, who after so many warnings had not repented, with the neglect of God’s forbearance: for whence did those delicacies proceed, except from the extreme kindness of God in long sparing the Israelites, notwithstanding their disobedience? The Prophet then shows here that they had very long abused the patience of God, while they each immersed themselves in their delicacies. Now, he says, Enlarge thy baldness as the eagle Eagles are wont to cast off their feathers; and hence he compares here bald men to eagles, as though he called them, Hairless. As then the eagles are for a certain time without feathers until they recover them; so also you shall be hairless, even on account of your mourning. He says, For they have migrated from thee He intimates that the Israelites would become exiles, that the land might remain desolate. Now follows —

Defender: Mic 1:1 - Micah Micah ("Who is like Jehovah?") was a contemporary of Isaiah in Judah, and some of his prophecies reflect the influence of Isaiah's Messianic writings.

Micah ("Who is like Jehovah?") was a contemporary of Isaiah in Judah, and some of his prophecies reflect the influence of Isaiah's Messianic writings.

Defender: Mic 1:1 - Samaria and Jerusalem Although Micah lived in Judah, coming from a small town south of Jerusalem, his prophecy was directed to both Samaria and Jerusalem (capitals of the n...

Although Micah lived in Judah, coming from a small town south of Jerusalem, his prophecy was directed to both Samaria and Jerusalem (capitals of the northern and southern kingdoms, respectively), and centered particularly upon the coming invasion of Israel by Assyria, which in turn was a precursive foreshadowing of the judgments of the last days."

Defender: Mic 1:6 - heap of the field This prophecy was fulfilled when the Assyrians besieged Samaria for three years, finally defeating King Hoshea and his forces, and carrying them away ...

This prophecy was fulfilled when the Assyrians besieged Samaria for three years, finally defeating King Hoshea and his forces, and carrying them away to Assyria (2Ki 17:6). Since this event took place during the reign of Ahaz in Judah, the prophecy itself was evidently made during the previous reign of Jotham. Samaria, built to a state of opulence by Omri and Ahab, as the capital of Israel, was completely demolished by the Assyrian armies of Sargon. It stood on a hill, but its building stones were thrown down into the valley, just as prophesied, and its entire area eventually cultivated with vineyards, olive trees and fig trees."

Defender: Mic 1:9 - come unto Judah Micah could also foresee the future time when the same Assyrian invaders would come to the very "gate of my people, even to Jerusalem" during the late...

Micah could also foresee the future time when the same Assyrian invaders would come to the very "gate of my people, even to Jerusalem" during the later reign of Hezekiah (2Ki 18:17)."

TSK: Mic 1:1 - Micah // Jotham // which // concerning Micah : Mic 1:14, Mic 1:15; Jer 26:18 Jotham : 2Chr. 27:1-32:33; Isa 1:1; Hos 1:1 which : Amo 1:1; Hab 1:1 concerning : Mic 1:5; Hos 4:15, Hos 5:5-14,...

TSK: Mic 1:2 - all ye people // hearken // all that therein is // let // the Lord from all ye people : Heb. ye people all of them hearken : Mic 6:1, Mic 6:2; Deu 32:1; Psa 49:1, Psa 49:2, Psa 50:1; Isa 1:2; Jer 22:29; Mar 7:14-16; Rev 2:...

all ye people : Heb. ye people all of them

hearken : Mic 6:1, Mic 6:2; Deu 32:1; Psa 49:1, Psa 49:2, Psa 50:1; Isa 1:2; Jer 22:29; Mar 7:14-16; Rev 2:7, Rev 2:11, Rev 2:17, Rev 2:29, Rev 3:6, Rev 3:13, Rev 3:22

all that therein is : Heb. the fulness thereof, Psa 24:1, Psa 50:12

let : Psa 50:7; Jer 29:23; Mal 2:14, Mal 3:5

the Lord from : Psa 11:4, Psa 28:2; Jon 2:7; Hab 2:20

TSK: Mic 1:3 - cometh // place // and tread // the high cometh : Isa 26:21, Isa 64:1, Isa 64:2; Eze 3:12; Hos 5:14, Hos 5:15 place : Psa 115:3 and tread : Job 40:12; Isa 2:10-19, Isa 25:10, Isa 63:3, Isa 63...

TSK: Mic 1:4 - the mountains // the valleys // as wax // a steep place the mountains : Jdg 5:4; Psa 97:5; Isa 64:1-3; Amo 9:5; Nah 1:5; Hab 3:6, Hab 3:10; 2Pe 3:10-12; Rev 20:11 the valleys : Zec 14:4 as wax : Psa 68:2 a ...

the mountains : Jdg 5:4; Psa 97:5; Isa 64:1-3; Amo 9:5; Nah 1:5; Hab 3:6, Hab 3:10; 2Pe 3:10-12; Rev 20:11

the valleys : Zec 14:4

as wax : Psa 68:2

a steep place : Heb. a descent

TSK: Mic 1:5 - the transgression of Jacob // is it // they the transgression of Jacob : 2Kings 17:7-23; 2Ch 36:14-16; Isa 50:1, Isa 50:2, Isa 59:1-15; Jer 2:17, Jer 2:19; Jer 4:18, Jer 5:25, Jer 6:19; Lam 5:16...

TSK: Mic 1:6 - I will make // and I will pour I will make : Mic 3:12; 2Ki 19:25; Isa 25:2, Isa 25:12; Jer 9:11, Jer 51:37; Hos 13:16 and I will pour : Jer 51:25; Lam 4:1; Eze 13:14; Hab 3:13; Mat ...

TSK: Mic 1:7 - all the graven // the hires // for all the graven : Lev 26:30; 2Ki 23:14, 2Ki 23:15; 2Ch 31:1, 2Ch 34:6, 2Ch 34:7; Isa 27:9; Hos 8:6, Hos 10:5, Hos 10:6 the hires : Jer 44:17, Jer 44:18...

TSK: Mic 1:8 - I will wail // I will go // a wailing // owls I will wail : Isa 16:9, Isa 21:3, Isa 22:4; Jer 4:19, Jer 9:1, Jer 9:10,Jer 9:19, Jer 48:36-39 I will go : Isa 20:2-4 a wailing : Job 30:29; Psa 102:6...

I will wail : Isa 16:9, Isa 21:3, Isa 22:4; Jer 4:19, Jer 9:1, Jer 9:10,Jer 9:19, Jer 48:36-39

I will go : Isa 20:2-4

a wailing : Job 30:29; Psa 102:6

owls : Heb. daughters of the owl

TSK: Mic 1:9 - her wound is incurable // it // he her wound is incurable : or, she is grievously sick of her wounds, Isa 1:5, Isa 1:6; Jer 15:18, Jer 30:11-15 it : 2Ki 18:9-13; Isa 8:7, Isa 8:8 he : M...

her wound is incurable : or, she is grievously sick of her wounds, Isa 1:5, Isa 1:6; Jer 15:18, Jer 30:11-15

it : 2Ki 18:9-13; Isa 8:7, Isa 8:8

he : Mic 1:12; 2Chr. 32:1-23; Isa 10:28-32, Isa 37:22-36

TSK: Mic 1:10 - Declare // Aphrah // roll Declare : 2Sa 1:20; Amo 5:13, Amo 6:10 Aphrah : i.e. dust, Jos 18:23, Ophrah roll : Job 2:8; Jer 6:26; Lam 3:29

Declare : 2Sa 1:20; Amo 5:13, Amo 6:10

Aphrah : i.e. dust, Jos 18:23, Ophrah

roll : Job 2:8; Jer 6:26; Lam 3:29

TSK: Mic 1:11 - Pass // thou inhabitant of Saphir // Zaanan // Bethezel Pass : Isa 16:2; Jer 48:6, Jer 48:9 thou inhabitant of Saphir : or, thou that dwellest fairly, Heb. inhabitress. having. Mic 1:8; Isa 20:4, Isa 47:2,...

Pass : Isa 16:2; Jer 48:6, Jer 48:9

thou inhabitant of Saphir : or, thou that dwellest fairly, Heb. inhabitress. having. Mic 1:8; Isa 20:4, Isa 47:2, Isa 47:3; Jer 13:22; Eze 16:37; Nah 3:5

Zaanan : or, the country of flocks

Bethezel : or, a place near

TSK: Mic 1:12 - Maroth // waited carefully // but Maroth : Rth 1:20 waited carefully : or, was grieved, 1Sa 4:13; Job 30:26; Isa 59:9-11; Jer 8:15, Jer 14:19 but : Mic 1:9; Isa 45:7; Amo 3:6

Maroth : Rth 1:20

waited carefully : or, was grieved, 1Sa 4:13; Job 30:26; Isa 59:9-11; Jer 8:15, Jer 14:19

but : Mic 1:9; Isa 45:7; Amo 3:6

TSK: Mic 1:13 - Lachish // bind // she // for Lachish : Jos 15:39; 2Ki 18:13, 2Ki 18:14, 2Ki 18:17; 2Ch 11:9, 2Ch 32:9; Isa 37:8 bind : Gen 19:17; Isa 10:31; Jer 4:29 she : Exo 32:21; 1Ki 13:33, 1...

TSK: Mic 1:14 - give // to // houses // Achzib give : 2Sa 8:2; 2Ki 16:8, 2Ki 18:14-16; 2Ch 16:1-3; Isa 30:6 to : or, for houses : Psa 62:9, Psa 118:8, Psa 118:9, Psa 146:3, Psa 146:4 Achzib : that ...

give : 2Sa 8:2; 2Ki 16:8, 2Ki 18:14-16; 2Ch 16:1-3; Isa 30:6

to : or, for

houses : Psa 62:9, Psa 118:8, Psa 118:9, Psa 146:3, Psa 146:4

Achzib : that is, a lie, Jos 15:44

TSK: Mic 1:15 - will // Mareshah // he // Adullam will : Isa 7:17-25, Isa 10:5, Isa 10:6; Jer 49:1 Mareshah : Jos 15:44 he : etc. or, the glory of Israel shall come to, etc. 1Sa 22:1; Isa 10:3 Adullam...

will : Isa 7:17-25, Isa 10:5, Isa 10:6; Jer 49:1

Mareshah : Jos 15:44

he : etc. or, the glory of Israel shall come to, etc. 1Sa 22:1; Isa 10:3

Adullam : Jos 15:35; 2Ch 11:7

TSK: Mic 1:16 - bald // thy delicate // for bald : Job 1:20; Isa 15:2, Isa 22:12; Jer 6:26, Jer 7:29, Jer 16:6; Amo 8:10 thy delicate : Deu 28:56, Deu 28:57; Isa 3:16-26; Lam 4:5-8 for : Deu 28:...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Mic 1:1 - The word of the Lord that came // Micah // The Morasthite // In the days of Jotham // Ahaz // Hezekiah // Kings of Judah // Which he saw // Concerning Samaria The word of the Lord that came: thus Hosea begins his prophecy, Hos 1:1 , and Joe 1:1 , and Jon 1 :, and Zep 1:1 , which see. Micah: though Hierom...

The word of the Lord that came: thus Hosea begins his prophecy, Hos 1:1 , and Joe 1:1 , and Jon 1 :, and Zep 1:1 , which see.

Micah: though Hierom, Epiphanius, and Dorotheus are said to report this Micah to be the same with the son of Imlah, 1Ki 22:8 , yet R. Sol. Jarchi’ s reason why this could not be is satisfactory, for one generation and almost a half intervened between Ahab and Jotham; Ahab died about A.M. 3046, Jotham began to reign about A.M. 3190, by which it appears there were one hundred and forty-four years between Micaiah the son of Imlah and Micah our prophet.

The Morasthite: whether Mareshah, rebuilt by Rehoboam 2Ch 11:8 , (called also Beth-gebarim in after-time,) of which 2Ch 11:14 of this chapter, or whether Moresheth, of which 2Ch 11:15 , gave him this surname, and whether because Micah was born there or else did dwell there, is not easily resolved, nor material if it were resolved.

In the days of Jotham: it is not said what year of Jotham this prophet begun, it is probable it was about the beginning of Jotham’ s reign, A.M. 3190, of which we have this character, 2Ki 15:34,35 , He did right , &c., yet the high places were not removed . Religion was not wholly corrupted as in Israel, yet was it exceedingly abased with their own mixtures.

Ahaz the very worst of all Judah’ s kings, all things considered; he brought the Baalitical idolatry into Judah.

Hezekiah the best son of the worst father, who reformed Judah. How long Micah prophesied during his reign we can but conjecture, possibly till the fourteenth year of Hezekiah. So this prophet may be supposed to have prophesied sixteen years in Jotham’ s time, as many under Ahaz, and fourteen under Hezekiah, in all forty-six years, and survived the captivity of Israel ten years, which he lamented as well as foretold.

Kings of Judah Judah only named, but Benjamin is included.

Which he saw: see Amo 1:1 .

Concerning Samaria the metropolis of the kingdom of the ten tribes, and by a well-known figure put for the whole kingdom, as Jerusalem, chief city of Judah, is, by the same figure, put for the whole kingdom. As both had linked together in sinning, God doth link them together in suffering, and commands Micah to do so.

Poole: Mic 1:2 - Hear // All ye people // All that therein is // Let the Lord God // Be witness against you // From his holy temple Hear: the prophet here by proclamation requires earnest attention to his word. So Moses, Deu 4:26 30:19 32:1 ; so the psalmist, Psa 50:1,4 ; and so I...

Hear: the prophet here by proclamation requires earnest attention to his word. So Moses, Deu 4:26 30:19 32:1 ; so the psalmist, Psa 50:1,4 ; and so Isaiah, Isa 1:2 34:1 .

All ye people either all the people of both kingdoms, all Israel and Judah, or else universally all people of all kingdoms whatever, both of that present age and all of future ages. Hearken, O earth : it may be taken for the meaner sort of people, the commonalty; but I rather incline to interpret it as both a tacit reproof of the deafness of this sinful and hardened people, with whom Micah now contends, and an appeal to the senseless creatures, or a summons to bring them in evidences for God against those kingdoms.

All that therein is animate or inanimate creatures, all that are on the earth. If we interpret earth for the meaner sort of people, then this fulness of the earth will be the whole multitude of the people. It is a lofty strain, such as those of Moses, Deu 32:1 , David, Psa 1:1, Isa 1:1,2 , and Jer 6:19 .

Let the Lord God the mighty, holy, gracious, and faithful God, Lord of heaven and earth; who knows all your ways, who is a just judge, and a severe avenger of obdurate sinners.

Be witness against you by his word, the voice of his law, by his prophets whom he hath sent, by the judgments he doth execute according to his menaces; as by his sovereignty he is supreme judge, so by his omniscience and truth he is an authentic witness against you, O house of Jacob.

From his holy temple either from his temple at Jerusalem, or else from heaven, as Psa 11:4 Hab 2:20 .

Poole: Mic 1:3 - For, behold // The Lord cometh forth // Out of his place // Come down // Tread upon // The high places of the earth For, behold there is great reason for my earnestness with all people, and therefore once more I advise you to consider it well. Behold, attend to wha...

For, behold there is great reason for my earnestness with all people, and therefore once more I advise you to consider it well. Behold, attend to what is said.

The Lord cometh forth who is Judge himself, Psa 50:1,4 , whose holy majesty you have provoked to displeasure, who is a jealous God, and hath an almighty power to dash his enemies into pieces. He cometh forth as a judge prepared to hear, determine, and punish. Now when God, who is in all places at all times, is said to come forth, it is not to be meant of his leaving a place where he was, to come to a place where before he was not; but it is to be understood of his discovering his presence by some effects of it, which before in that place were not, discovered.

Out of his place heaven, the place of his glorious throne.

Come down show by the effects of his power, justice, and wisdom that he is more eminently present there.

Tread upon trample under foot, stain, abase, and break.

The high places of the earth all that is high, excellent, and matter of your glorying, whether the flourishing state of your kingdoms, or the power of your kings, or strength of your fortresses, temples, and altars, or cities and palaces. In that day the haughtiness of man shall be laid low, and the pride of man shall be brought down, Isa 2:17 . Your sins will procure this to you, O Samaria and Jerusalem, of which God is my witness I have plainly told you.

Poole: Mic 1:4 - The mountains shall be molten // Shall be molten under him // The valleys // Shall be cleft // As wax // And as the waters that are poured down a steep place The mountains shall be molten: if literally understood, we know it hath been so: when God will kindle that fire which shall burn up the earth, and th...

The mountains shall be molten: if literally understood, we know it hath been so: when God will kindle that fire which shall burn up the earth, and the works of it, as he will when he cometh finally to judge the world, it shall be done again. But figuratively mountains are mighty states and kingdoms, flourishing with prosperity, and which do think the foundation of this sure as mountains. So Amo 6:1,2 Hab 3:6 Isa 2:14 , Or possibly these mountains may be, by a synecdoche, put for those who dwell on them, mountaineers, who were usually more fierce, secure hardy, and of difficult access, and therefore less regardful of threats and punishments.

Shall be molten under him : which way soever you take mountains, yet the effect of God’ s powerful anger and justice shall be this, they shall be no more able to bear his indignation, or withstand it, than that which like wax melts before a strong fire.

The valleys which either are emblems of the lower sort of men, or the men that dwell in the valleys with their cities built there, which might hope to escape the storm, lying more under covert. But such shall be the sweeping, searching, and rapid storm of God’ s judgments, that no places, no persons shall either withstand or divert them.

Shall be cleft or rent in sunder, broken up, as the word Gen 7:11 , and slide away.

As wax which doth easily and speedily dissolve, and run before the fire.

And as the waters that are poured down a steep place which immediately spreads itself and runs down the precipice, not able to keep together in one body, but scattered one part from other, loseth itself without remedy; so shall the glory and strength of Samaria melt away before the fire of God’ s displeasure executed by Shalmaneser, and by Sennacherib and Nebuchadnezzar on Judah.

Poole: Mic 1:5 - For the transgression // Of Jacob // Is all this // The house of Israel // What is the transgression? // What are the high places? // Jerusalem For the transgression the singular for the plural, the many transgressions committed amongst them; but especially that flood of iniquity which, sprin...

For the transgression the singular for the plural, the many transgressions committed amongst them; but especially that flood of iniquity which, springing up in Samaria, did overflow the whole kingdom, idolatry, pride, luxury, cruelty, and oppression.

Of Jacob the sons of Jacob: the ten tribes most likely are here meant by Jacob.

Is all this all these, many and great, inevitable and irresistible, judgments of God foretold. and which will overtake and utterly ruin these sinners.

The house of Israel the people of the kingdom of Judah, called here by the name of Israel. Or else this and the former phrase may comprehend the twelve tribes, which were fallen from God’ s law and worship, and be an elegant ingemination to confirm the thing spoken.

What is the transgression? or, who is , i.e. the spring and cause of that overflowing transgression? who brought in the abominable idolatry?

Of Jacob: here is meant the kingdom of the ten tribes, (he head of which was Samaria, where the kings of that kingdom had their royal residence, where they worshipped idols, whence they issued out their edicts, and which became example to the rest of the Israelitish kingdom.

What are the high places? or, who is , i.e. cause of the high places, and the idolatry there practised?

Jerusalem which was chief city of that kingdom, and place where their kings dwelt; had the same influence on that kingdom as Samaria had on the ten tribes; there was the example they imitated, thence the laws they obeyed contrary to God’ s law.

Poole: Mic 1:6 - Therefore // I will make // Samaria as a heap of the field // And as plantings of a vineyard // I will pour down the stones thereof into the valley // And I will discover the foundations thereof Therefore for these sins of Samaria, and the kingdom of Israel. I will make not by an immediate hand from heaven, but by the Assyrians under the co...

Therefore for these sins of Samaria, and the kingdom of Israel.

I will make not by an immediate hand from heaven, but by the Assyrians under the conduct of Shalmaneser, they shall do it as my servants, saith the Lord.

Samaria as a heap of the field much like Isa 25:2 ; that beautiful city shall be made, and so left, as a ruinous heap in the field.

And as plantings of a vineyard: in planting vineyards, they did dig up the earth, and cast it up in hillocks, cast out all the stones; so shall they make this city.

I will pour down the stones thereof into the valley: the city was built on a high hill, and a deep valley beneath it; now when it was sacked by the Assyrians, they pulled down the buildings, and cast the stones thereof into that valley; so God did by them throw down the stones of Samaria.

And I will discover the foundations thereof raze the walls, fortresses, and public buildings of this city to the very foundations of it, nor leave one stone upon another, as Mat 24:2 Luk 19:44 desolation upon Samaria for her sin such a desolation as shall not leave the least footsteps of Samaria in the place where once it stood.

Poole: Mic 1:7 - All the graven images // Shall be beaten to pieces // All the hires // Shall be burnt with the fire // And all the idols thereof will I lay desolate // For she // And they All the graven images erected in honour to the idols they worshipped, which usually were the images or similitudes resembling their idols, their gods...

All the graven images erected in honour to the idols they worshipped, which usually were the images or similitudes resembling their idols, their gods of silver, gold, or stone and brass, or wood.

Shall be beaten to pieces pulled out of their chapels, shrines, or repositories by the conquering Assyrians, who would as was customary with such nations, deal with the gods as with enemies conquered, trample upon them, and use them most contemptibly; and when they break into pieces idols of rich materials, it was to carry them away with them as their booty; others were broken in contempt of them.

All the hires or rewards, or gifts, which idolaters thought their idols gave them, as Hos 2:5 ; or the rich gifts given for the honour and service of the idols by deceived idolaters; or all the wealth Israel got by leagues with idolaters.

Shall be burnt with the fire when their cities or temples are burnt, as no doubt many were burnt by the Assyrian before he could reduce them to obedience, in which conflagrations many rich donatives belonging to idols were consumed to ashes, or melted down.

And all the idols thereof will I lay desolate thus shall the idols of Samaria be made desolate, i.e. their temples burnt, their images either beaten in pieces in contempt, or to be carried away (if the materials they were made of were worth the carriage); however, they shall neither remain, nor be worshipped any more in Israel or Samaria, but be carried away captives with their captive worshippers.

For she the kingdom of the ten tribes, or Samaria, gathered it, their wealth, or the rich presents made to their idols, or both, of the hire of a harlot; as harlots get rich gifts of their lovers, so did this deceived people think, and say, that their idols gave them the wealth they had; or else as impudent adulteresses, that hire lewd men to come in to them; so this hire was that these blind idolaters (like shameless adulteresses) gave to their idols.

And they these rich presents,

shall return to the hire of an harlot shall be either turned by the Assyrians to the service and honour of their idols, presented as gifts in acknowledgment of their greatness and prosperity, to be the blessings their idols have. given to them, as Hos 10:6 ; or else thus, as what is got by harlots brings shame and a curse with it, and never continues long, but is as basely wasted as it was gotten, so shall it be with all the ill-gotten goods of these Samaritan idolaters, and all their wealth.

Poole: Mic 1:8 - Therefore // I will wail // And howl // I will go stripped and naked // Dragons // Owls Therefore because of those dreadful slaughters and devastations made in Israel and Samaria, I will wail solemnly, as when they who are skilful in l...

Therefore because of those dreadful slaughters and devastations made in Israel and Samaria,

I will wail solemnly, as when they who are skilful in lamentation do at funerals bewail in most affective manner to stir up the like sorrow in others: see Amo 5:16 .

And howl the same in a word of like sense, to ascertain the thing, and to intimate the doubled sorrow, the multiplied miseries of this people.

I will go stripped and naked as one spoiled of his clothes by force, or as one that in bitterness of passion hath cast off his upper garment, or as if discomposed in mind through the greatness of his vexations; now this the prophet either speaks as fellow sufferer with them, or as intimating what they should be reduced to at last: so Isa 20:2,3 : whether of these, or whether both, I determine not.

Dragons : see Mal 1:3 : rather jackals , which haunt desolate places, and make great and hideous noise by night, by their wailing, or doleful cries, in which it is said they answer one another, and fill the air with the sound and travellers with fear: these creatures are between a fox and wolf for bigness, and seem somewhat like each in qualities, and probably their noise may be as mixed of the barking of the fox and howling of the wolf. It is possible the prophet by this kind of wailing would intimate the near approach of the Assyrian lion, hungering and thirsting, and pursuing the prey; as the jackal runs a little before the lion, so this wailing of the prophet should be followed very suddenly with the roaring of the lion.

Owls ; a melancholy creature, and loves night, and makes a most unpleasant noise, haunts desolate places, and so fitly is an emblem of Israel’ s doleful, desolate state: others render it ostrich, which makes a doleful cry in the deserts: either will fit the place.

Poole: Mic 1:9 - Her wound is incurable // It is come unto Judah // He is come // Unto the gate of my people // gate of my people // Even to Jerusalem Her wound is incurable the wounds of Samaria and the ten tribes; her own sins, God’ s just displeasure, and the enemy’ s rage have deeply w...

Her wound is incurable the wounds of Samaria and the ten tribes; her own sins, God’ s just displeasure, and the enemy’ s rage have deeply wounded her, she is senseless, impenitent, and furious against her Physician, and she shall at last die by sword, famine, pestilence, and captivity.

It is come unto Judah the contagion of her sins, and the indignation of God against it, and the enemy’ s successes, viz. Sennacherib’ s, or Nebuchadnezzar’ s, like a flood have reached to Judah also; and this is the reason why the prophet foretells such mourning, and is willing to personate it to awaken both kingdoms to repent and turn to God.

He is come the insulting, conquering, and cruel enemy, or, in the neuter gender, it, i.e. the evil, is come, i.e. in the prophetic style, will certainly and suddenly come.

Unto the gate of my people either signifying the Assyrians besieging Jerusalem, as Sennacherib son of Shalmaneser did some few years after the sack of Samaria, or else by

gate of my people is meant the city where the sovereign court of judicature to the whole kingdom is, denoting the victories of the Assyrian over the rest of the kingdom of Judah, or else the victories of Nebuchadnezzar.

Even to Jerusalem: this seems added to explain the former phrase.

Poole: Mic 1:10 - Declare ye it not at Gath // In the house of Aphrah // dust Declare ye it not at Gath do what you can to keep your griefs to yourselves, let them not be public, that the Philistines, your bitter enemies, shoul...

Declare ye it not at Gath do what you can to keep your griefs to yourselves, let them not be public, that the Philistines, your bitter enemies, should know how sad it is with you and rejoice at it. Gath was a principal city of the Philistines, and though this only is mentioned the rest are understood: such phrase you have 2Sa 1:20 . Weep ye not at all; you that are of Israel or Judah, make no public weeping, that your cries and tears should inform your enemies in Palestine how deplorable your state is, let not your griefs be their joys.

In the house of Aphrah: we render it as a proper name of some city or town; though of no great note, yet we meet with one, 1Sa 13:23 , in the tribe of Benjamin; a second we find in Manasseh’ s lot, and was the place where Gideon’ s father dwelt, Jud 6:11 : these towns were somewhat remote from the Philistines, and there the prophet does direct then, to weep with the greatest expressions of it, and to keep it private from the Philistines. Others account the word to be a common name denoting

dust and so give the sense, in the house of dust roll thyself in dust . Roll thyself, or, I have rolled myself, viz. in compassion to the miserable Israelites, or as a pattern to which they shall conform; so the word as written, but as by direction of the Masorets it is read, and as there it is rendered,

roll thyself it directs and foretells; it foretells what they shall do at last, and directs what they should do at present. They shall be brought to sit, nay, to wallow in the dust, and in foresight of this it would become them to sit in the dust now.

Poole: Mic 1:11 - Pass ye away // Having thy shame naked // Zaanan // Came not forth // Bethezel // He // Shall receive of you his standing Pass ye away: the imperative is here put for the future, and the prophet does here foretell and threaten what shall befall this people, they shall go...

Pass ye away: the imperative is here put for the future, and the prophet does here foretell and threaten what shall befall this people, they shall go before the enemy into captivity. Saphir denotes either the beautiful and pleasant habitation, and so may be applied to any pleasant seat, such as were many in Judea; such were Samaria and Jerusalem, which perhaps are here intended. Or else it is the proper name of some particular town or city: who read Eusebius will meet with such a village in the mountains between Ashkelon and Hebron, or (as later it is called) Eleutheropolis.

Having thy shame naked stripped by thy conquering enemy, so that thou shalt not have so much left as shall cover thy nakedness; with shame shalt thou be thus led into captivity, and change all thy beauty into shameful nakedness.

Zaanan a place rich in pastures and sheep, say some; others take it for the proper name of a particular place in the tribe of Judah; it is likely at this time it might be some considerable garrison full of people and soldiers.

Came not forth neither sent out succours to relieve their neighbouring besieged town Bethezel, but stood on their own guard, nor yet durst send out any to condole the captive state of their neighbours.

Bethezel a strong town taken and wasted by the Assyrians, the people carried captive under the eye of the inhabitants of Zaanan, who mean time dare not stir or make many signs of sorrow.

He the invading enemy, say some, others say it is the inhabitant of Zaanan.

Shall receive of you his standing: who refer this to the enemy make this the sense, viz. That the enemy should make his stay among them till he had conquered, spoiled, and captivated them; or, that he should by severe dealing make them pay dear for their obstinacy in defending their town against his forces, that he should strip them of all to recompense his expenses of treasure, time, and blood in taking them. But they that refer this to Zaanan and its inhabitants make this the sense, That they should take their measures, and judge what the enemy would do against them by that which he had done against Beth-ezel their neighbour.

Poole: Mic 1:12 - For // The inhabitant // Maroth // Waited carefully // For good // Evil // Came down // From the Lord // Unto the gate of Jerusalem For yet, or certainly, as the Hebrew particle is often to be rendered. The inhabitant one put for all, because all should fare alike. Maroth: som...

For yet, or certainly, as the Hebrew particle is often to be rendered.

The inhabitant one put for all, because all should fare alike.

Maroth: some say it is by transposing the letters put for Ramoth; others say it is, as the word imports, the grieving, imbittered cities; others take it for the proper name of some lesser place in Judah.

Waited carefully long, earnestly, and patiently.

For good for peace, prosperity, and what might make them happy.

Evil of trouble, sword, famine, and pestilence, all sorts of evil comprised in this one:

Came down in mighty tempests, or as a sweeping rain.

From the Lord by his special command and charge, and as a punishment inflicted on them from heaven.

Unto the gate of Jerusalem the flood of affliction by the Assyrian swallowed up other towns and cities, and swelled high to the head city Jerusalem, as partly by Sennacherib’ s invasion, but more fully by Nebuchadnezzar’ s besieging and taking Jerusalem, and carrying the citizens captive to Babylon.

Poole: Mic 1:13 - Lachish // Bind the chariot to the swift beast // She // the daughter of Zion // For the transgressions // of Israel // were found in thee Lachish a very strong fortress on the confines of Judah towards the kingdom of the ten tribes, and which, as it did to the last stand out against Sen...

Lachish a very strong fortress on the confines of Judah towards the kingdom of the ten tribes, and which, as it did to the last stand out against Sennacherib, so it is very probable they did boast of their strength and valour.

Bind the chariot to the swift beast either to flee from the sword of the enemy, and to seek safety in-another country, forsaking their own; or else by way of derision, You will be besieged and cooped up by the Assyrian, and then you may harness your horses or mules to carry you in chariots about your own streets; or else the prophet foretells Sennacherib’ s commanding post-chariots to carry his messengers to summon Jerusalem to yield up all to him.

She Lachish, is the beginning of the sin to the daughter of Zion; from thence idolatry spread itself into Judah and Jerusalem. Lachish, nearest to idolatrous Israel, took the infection of them, and conveyed it to Judah, or Jerusalem, here called

the daughter of Zion

For the transgressions not only the idolatry, but other sins also,

of Israel of the ten tribes,

were found in thee thou didst receive and worship the same idols that Samaria did.

Poole: Mic 1:14 - Therefore // Shalt thou // give presents // Moresheth-gath // Achzib // A lie // To the kings of Israel Therefore forasmuch as thou hast imitated Israel in sin, and been at least an occasion to Jerusalem and the kingdom of Judah to commit the same sins....

Therefore forasmuch as thou hast imitated Israel in sin, and been at least an occasion to Jerusalem and the kingdom of Judah to commit the same sins.

Shalt thou Lachish,

give presents: though I do not remember the sacred story reporting this in matter of fact, we read not what presents were given, or by whom sent, or when; yet as it was foretold by the prophet, so no doubt it was fulfilled, and the inhabitants of Lachish courted the assistance of the Philistines against the Assyrian, and possibly against the Babylonian.

Moresheth-gath a known city or town of the Philistines, called here Moresheth-gath to distinguish it from a town of the same name in the tribe of Judah and in the valley of Zephathah, where Asa smote Zerah, the Ethiopian king, who invaded Asa with a million of men.

Achzib: this was also a city of the Philistines not far from Mareshah, Ashkelon, and Gaza; it was a maritime town and strong. There was another city of that name toward Tyre also, but of this the prophet doth not speak in this place.

A lie ; a lying refuge, or a prop that should break under them that leaned upon it, as Egypt proved a broken reed to Judah when trusted to: in the Hebrew there is an elegant allusion, which the translation cannot express.

To the kings of Israel some say it is meant of the kings of Judah, but we find not that Hezekiah made any use of the houses of Achzib when Sennacherib invaded him. It is more probable the kings of the ten tribes are meant, and that Hoshea did rely on Gath. Achzib, &c., and on the friendship of the rest of the Philistines, to join with the Egyptians, or to give them a quiet passage through their country to help Israel against the Assyrian.

Poole: Mic 1:15 - Yet will I bring // An heir // Mareshah // Adullam // The glory of Israel Yet will I bring the Lord will cause the Assyrian to rise up and prosper in his wars, to the subduing and possessing of the cities of Israel and the ...

Yet will I bring the Lord will cause the Assyrian to rise up and prosper in his wars, to the subduing and possessing of the cities of Israel and the Philistines.

An heir the Assyrian, who in the right of conquest shall possess, and account himself heir of what he possesseth.

Mareshah most think the prophet speaks of Mareshah in his own country, but I think the Assyrian did not inherit that, though he might inherit that of the Philistines.

Adullam famous for its strength, say some; but I rather think it better known for the cave where David lay hid, 1Sa 22:1 . It was made a town of defence by Rehoboam, 2Ch 11:7 . It was once a royal city, and had several villages belonging to it, Jos 12:15 .

The glory of Israel ironically (say some) called thus, minatorily threatening that the glory of Israel should be brought as low, into as mean condition, as Adullam. Others think it should be read, and to the glory of Israel, that is, Jerusalem; so there should be an ellipsis of (duw ) the particle conjunctive. Others think it is the prophet’ s deep sigh at the thoughts how the glory of Israel is laid in the dust. Others think it was then considerable enough at that time to be called the glory of Israel, though we know not how.

Poole: Mic 1:16 - Make thee bald // Poll thee // For thy delicate children // Enlarge thy baldness // As the eagle // For they // are gone into captivity from thee Make thee bald O Judea and Israel, in token of sorrow for these wasting judgments, tear off thy hair with thine own hands. Poll thee shave off with...

Make thee bald O Judea and Israel, in token of sorrow for these wasting judgments, tear off thy hair with thine own hands.

Poll thee shave off with the razor and by others’ hand what thou canst not tear off.

For thy delicate children for the loss of them, some being slain, others starved or swept away with pestilence, and the residue carried captive; express thy deep sorrow for these miseries conformably to the custom of bitter mourning, Job 1:20 Isa 3:24 15:2 Jer 7:29 .

Enlarge thy baldness make thy baldness greater than usual, for the occasion does require and will justify it.

As the eagle which loseth at once her strength, courage, and beauty, and languisheth in her baldness.

For they thy delicate children,

are gone into captivity from thee never to return more: or not till a long captivity expire.

Haydock: Mic 1:1 - Gate Gate. That is, the destruction of Samaria shall be followed by the invasion of my people of Juda, and the Assyrian shall come and lay all waste even...

Gate. That is, the destruction of Samaria shall be followed by the invasion of my people of Juda, and the Assyrian shall come and lay all waste even to the confines of Jerusalem. (Challoner) ---

Juda received the worship of Baal from Israel. It shared in the punishment of that kingdom. The prophet alludes to the ravages of Sennacherib, ver 13. Yet Juda was much afflicted by Razin and Phacee, before that invasion: which caused Achaz to call in the aid of Theglathphalassar, 2 Paralipomenon xxviii., and 4 Kings xvi. (Calmet)

Haydock: Mic 1:1 - Kings Morasthite, "of Maresa," (Chaldean; chap. i. 14.; Calmet) a village near Eleutheropolis. (St. Jerome) --- Kings. They reigned about sixty years. ...

Morasthite, "of Maresa," (Chaldean; chap. i. 14.; Calmet) a village near Eleutheropolis. (St. Jerome) ---

Kings. They reigned about sixty years. (Calmet)

Haydock: Mic 1:2 - Witness Witness. Deuteronomy xxxii., Isaias i., and vi.. The prophet discharges his duty, and will not be blameable, if people die in their sins, Jeremias ...

Witness. Deuteronomy xxxii., Isaias i., and vi.. The prophet discharges his duty, and will not be blameable, if people die in their sins, Jeremias iii. 18. (Worthington) ---

This sublime address shews the importance of the subject, and how deep an impression the sins of Israel had made in his breast.

Haydock: Mic 1:3 - Earth Earth, to subdue the rebels, Amos iv. 13., and Habacuc iii. 3. (Calmet)

Earth, to subdue the rebels, Amos iv. 13., and Habacuc iii. 3. (Calmet)

Haydock: Mic 1:4 - Melted // Cleft Melted. Septuagint, "moved." (Haydock) --- Cleft, as it was to swallow up Core, (Numbers xvi. 31.) with the greatest ease.

Melted. Septuagint, "moved." (Haydock) ---

Cleft, as it was to swallow up Core, (Numbers xvi. 31.) with the greatest ease.

Haydock: Mic 1:5 - Jerusalem Jerusalem. High places were left there under Joathan, 4 Kings xv. 35. Achab had introduced the worship of Baal into Samaria, and though the family o...

Jerusalem. High places were left there under Joathan, 4 Kings xv. 35. Achab had introduced the worship of Baal into Samaria, and though the family of Jehu repressed this worship, it gained ground when Micheas appeared. (Calmet) ---

This conduct excited God's indignation. (Haydock) ---

He came to punish the most guilty. (Calmet)

Haydock: Mic 1:6 - Heap // Bare Heap. Septuagint, "hut to keep the fruit." Hebrew, "hillock of the field," (Haydock) to be cultivated. (Grotius) --- Bare, by Salmanasar, 4 King...

Heap. Septuagint, "hut to keep the fruit." Hebrew, "hillock of the field," (Haydock) to be cultivated. (Grotius) ---

Bare, by Salmanasar, 4 Kings xvii. 6. It was afterwards rebuilt, (Calmet) but completely levelled by Hircan. (Josephus, Antiquities xiii. 18.)

Haydock: Mic 1:7 - Her wages // Harlot Her wages. That is, her donaries or presents offered to her idols; or the hire of all her traffic and labour. (Challoner) --- Samaria had traffick...

Her wages. That is, her donaries or presents offered to her idols; or the hire of all her traffic and labour. (Challoner) ---

Samaria had trafficked with infidels, and thus grew rich, but imitated their idolatry; (Worthington) and therefore was ruined, and her citizens and riches (Haydock) removed into Assyria. (Worthington) ---

Harlot. They were gathered together by one idolatrous city, viz., Samaria: and they shall be carried away to another idolatrous city, viz., Ninive. (Challoner) ---

The hire of prostitution was not to be received in God's temple, (Deuteronomy xxiii. 18.) which prohibition shews the antiquity of this abominable custom, Baruch vi. 9. (St. Augustine, City of God iv. 10.) (Calmet)

Haydock: Mic 1:8 - Naked // Dragons // Tannim // Ostriches Naked. Ill clothed, (Haydock) to shew the approaching calamity of the Israelites, Isaias xx. (Menochius) --- Septuagint and Chaldean explain all ...

Naked. Ill clothed, (Haydock) to shew the approaching calamity of the Israelites, Isaias xx. (Menochius) ---

Septuagint and Chaldean explain all of the people, (Calmet) or of Samaria. "Therefore shall she lament and howl, go barefoot and naked, bewail like," &c. (Haydock) ---

Dragons, when they are crushed by the elephant. (Solin xxxviii.) (Menochius) ---

Tannim means also (Haydock) whales, &c., which make a horrible noise. ---

Ostriches, or swans, Isaias xiii. 21. Both have a mournful note. (Calmet)

Haydock: Mic 1:10 - Geth // Weep ye not // With tears // Of dust Geth. Amongst the Philistines, lest they rejoice at your calamity. (Challoner) (2 Kings i. 20., and Amos iii. 9.) (Calmet) --- Tell not these ca...

Geth. Amongst the Philistines, lest they rejoice at your calamity. (Challoner) (2 Kings i. 20., and Amos iii. 9.) (Calmet) ---

Tell not these calamities, which I foresee, among your enemies, lest they rejoice. But lament in your own houses, which shall be filled with dust. St. Jerome prays for the light of the Holy Ghost to understand this passage. (Worthington) ---

Weep ye not. Keep in your tears, that you may not give your enemies an occasion of exulting over you: but in your own houses, or in your house of dust, your earthly habitation, sprinkle yourselves with dust, and put on the habit of penitents. Some take the house of dust (in Hebrew Haphra ) to be the proper name of a city. (Challoner) ---

With tears. Hebrew, "at all," (Protestants; Haydock) "in Acco," or Ptolemais, (Reland) or Bochim, (Haydock) a place near Jerusalem, Judges ii. 1. But no reference to this place, or to "the Enakim," (who appear in some copies of the Septuagint) seems to be made. ---

Of dust. Samaria, ver. 6. (Calmet)

Haydock: Mic 1:11 - Place // Forth // Adjoining Place. In Samaria. In the Hebrew, the beautiful place is expressed by the word Shaphir, which some take for the proper name of a city. (Challo...

Place. In Samaria. In the Hebrew, the beautiful place is expressed by the word Shaphir, which some take for the proper name of a city. (Challoner) ---

It is thought that St. Jerome has given the sense of several proper names, (Calmet) or this has been done since in the Vulgate by some other. In the edition of his works, (A.D. 1533) we read, "The dwelling of Saphir passes from you: she hath not come out who inhabits Sennan. The house of Asel shall receive," &c. (Haydock) ---

Saphir or Diocesarea was a strong place (Josephus, Jewish Wars ii. 37.) of Galilee, where Saanan was also situated, Judges iv. 11. Haetsel may denote "the vicinity." (Calmet) ---

People shall not attempt to comfort their neighbours, being themselves under the greatest alarms. (Haydock) ---

Forth. That is, they that dwelt in the confines came not forth, but kept themselves within, for fear. ---

Adjoining, viz., Judea and Jerusalem, neighbours to Samaria, and partners in her sins, shall share also in her mourning and calamity: though they had pretended to stand by themselves, trusting in their strength. (Challoner) ---

All the inhabitants shall be led into captivity naked. (Haydock)

Haydock: Mic 1:12 - Weak // Bitterness Weak, &c. Jerusalem is become weak unto any good; because she dwells in the bitterness of sin. (Challoner) --- Protestants, "the inhabitant of Mar...

Weak, &c. Jerusalem is become weak unto any good; because she dwells in the bitterness of sin. (Challoner) ---

Protestants, "the inhabitant of Maroth waited carefully for good." (Haydock) ---

We know not of any place called Maroth. Grotius would substitute Ramoth. (Calmet) ---

Bitterness. St. Jerome, "Maroth." Symmachus, "provoking to bitterness." They are unable to defend their possessions. (Haydock)

Haydock: Mic 1:13 - Lachis // Beginning Lachis, when Sennacherib came to besiege it, 4 Kings xviii. 13. (Calmet) --- Beginning. That is, Lachis was the first city of Juda that learnt fro...

Lachis, when Sennacherib came to besiege it, 4 Kings xviii. 13. (Calmet) ---

Beginning. That is, Lachis was the first city of Juda that learnt from Samaria the worship of idols, and communicated it to Jerusalem. (Challoner) ---

This is not very probable. We may translate, "this is the source of sin," or of chastisement; or the imitation of Israel, is the chief of the crimes of Sion. (Calmet)

Haydock: Mic 1:14 - Send // Inheritance Send. Lachis shall send to Geth for help; but in vain: for Geth, instead of helping, shall be found to be a house of lying and deceit to Israel....

Send. Lachis shall send to Geth for help; but in vain: for Geth, instead of helping, shall be found to be a house of lying and deceit to Israel. (Challoner) ---

Inheritance. Some translate rather "Moreseth (or Morasthi) of Geth, the houses of Acsib," &c. Both these towns were near Geth, and perhaps at this time subject to it, 2 Paralipomenon xxviii. 18. Achaz sent to ask for aid against the king of Israel, ver. 9. (Calmet) ---

Protestants, "therefore shalt thou give presents to Moresheth-Gath, the houses of Achzib shall be a lie to the," &c. (Haydock) ---

There is an allusion between Acsib and a lie, as also between Maresa and an heir, (ver. 15.; Calmet) as the terms have those senses. (Haydock)

Haydock: Mic 1:15 - Heir // Glory Heir. Maresa (which was the name of a city of Juda) signifies inheritance: but here God by his prophet tells the Jews, that he will bring them ...

Heir. Maresa (which was the name of a city of Juda) signifies inheritance: but here God by his prophet tells the Jews, that he will bring them an heir to take possession of their inheritance: and that the glory of Israel shall be obliged to give place, and to retire even to Odollam, a city in the extremity of their dominions. And therefore he exhorts them to penance in the following verse. (Challoner) ---

Maresa shall fall a prey to the king of Assyria. Micheas was a native of this town, and he ironically addresses his countrymen. (Calmet) ---

Glory. Thus he denotes "the misery" of Israel, which shall be extended to the last town in Juda. (Worthington) ---

Hebrew means also "burden." Odolla was taken by Sennacherib, (Calmet) with the other towns around Jerusalem. (Haydock)

Haydock: Mic 1:16 - Eagle Eagle. When it loses its feathers, it becomes languid. (Theodoret) --- This verse should be joined with the next chapter, which regards the kingdo...

Eagle. When it loses its feathers, it becomes languid. (Theodoret) ---

This verse should be joined with the next chapter, which regards the kingdom of Israel. (Calmet)

Gill: Mic 1:1 - The word of the Lord that came to Micah the Morasthite // in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah // which he saw concerning Samaria and Jerusalem The word of the Lord that came to Micah the Morasthite,.... So called, either from Mareshah, mentioned Mic 1:15; and was a city in the tribe of Judah,...

The word of the Lord that came to Micah the Morasthite,.... So called, either from Mareshah, mentioned Mic 1:15; and was a city in the tribe of Judah, Jos 15:44; as the Targum, Jarchi, Kimchi, and Zacutus i; or rather from Moresheth, from which Moreshethgath, Mic 1:14; is distinguished; which Jerom k says was in his time a small village in the land of Palestine, near Eleutheropolis. Some think these two cities to be one and the same; but they appear to be different from the account of Jerom l elsewhere. The Arabic version reads it, Micah the son of Morathi; so Cyril, in his commentary on this place, mentions it as the sense of some, that Morathi was the father of the prophet; which can by no means be assented to:

in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah; by which it appears that he was contemporary with Isaiah, Hoses, and Amos, though they began to prophesy somewhat sooner than he, even in the days of Uzziah; very probably he conversed with these prophets, especially Isaiah, with whom he agrees in many things; his style is like his, and sometimes uses the same phrases: he, being of the tribe of Judah, only mentions the kings of that nation most known to him; though he prophesied against Israel, and in the days of Zachariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah, and Hoshea:

which he saw concerning Samaria and Jerusalem; in the vision of prophecy; Samaria was the metropolis of the ten tribes of Israel, and is put for them all; as Jerusalem was of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, and is put for them Samaria is mentioned first, because it was the head of the greatest body of people; and as it was the first in transgression, it was the first in punishment.

Gill: Mic 1:2 - Hear, all ye people // hearken, O earth, and all that therein is // and let the Lord God be witness against you // the Lord from his holy temple Hear, all ye people,.... Or, "the people, all of them" m; not all the nations of the world, but the nations of Israel, so called from their several tr...

Hear, all ye people,.... Or, "the people, all of them" m; not all the nations of the world, but the nations of Israel, so called from their several tribes; though some n think the rest of the inhabitants of the earth are meant: thee are the same words which are used by Micaiah the prophet in the times of Ahab, long before this time, from whom they might be borrowed, 1Ki 22:28. The phrase in the Hebrew language, as Aben Ezra observes, is very wonderful, and serves to strike the minds and excite the attention of men; it is like the words of a crier, in a court of judicature, calling for silence:

hearken, O earth, and all that therein is; or, "its fulness" o; the land of Israel and Judah, the whole land of promise, and all the inhabitants of it; for to them are the following words directed:

and let the Lord God be witness against you; or, "in you" p; the Word of the Lord, as the Targum; let him who is the omniscient God, and knows all hearts, thoughts, words, and actions, let him bear witness in your consciences, that what I am about to say is truth, and comes from him; is not my own word, but his; and if you disregard it, and repent not, let him be a witness against you, and for me, that I have prophesied in his name; that I have faithfully delivered his message, and warned you of your danger, and reproved you for your sins, and have kept back nothing I have been charged and entrusted with: and now, you are summoned into open court, and at the tribunal of the great God of heaven and earth; let him be a witness against you of the many sins you have been guilty of, and attend while the indictment is read, the charge exhibited, and the proof given by

the Lord from his holy temple, from heaven, the habitation of his holiness; whose voice speaking from thence should be hearkened to; who from thence beholds all the actions of men, and from whence his wrath is revealed against their sins, and he gives visible tokens of his displeasure; and especially when he seems to come forth from thence in some remarkable instances of his power and providence, as follows:

Gill: Mic 1:3 - For, behold, the Lord cometh out of his place // and will come down, and tread upon the high places of the earth For, behold, the Lord cometh out of his place,.... Out of heaven, the place of the house of his Shechinah or Majesty, as the Targum; where his throne ...

For, behold, the Lord cometh out of his place,.... Out of heaven, the place of the house of his Shechinah or Majesty, as the Targum; where his throne is prepared; where he keeps his court, and displays his glory; from whence he removes, not by local motion, since he is everywhere; but by some manifest exertion of his power, either on the behalf of his people, or in taking vengeance on his and their enemies; or on them sinning against him, in which sense it is probably to be understood. It signifies not change of place, but of his dispensations; going out of his former customary method into another; removing, as Jarchi has it, from the throne of mercies to the throne of judgment; doing not acts of mercy, in which he delights, but exercising judgment, his strange work. So the Cabalistic writers q observe on the passage, that

"it cannot be understood of place properly taken, according to Isa 40:12; for God is the place of the world, not the world his place; hence our wise men so expound the text, he cometh forth out of the measure of mercy, and goes into the measure of justice;''

or property of it. Some understand this of his leaving the temple at Jerusalem, and giving it up into the hands of the Chaldeans; but the former sense is best:

and will come down, and tread upon the high places of the earth; which are his footstool; Samaria and Jerusalem, built on mountains, and all other high towers and fortified places, together with men of high looks and haughty countenances, who exalt themselves like mountains, and swell with pride: these the Lord can easily subdue and humble, bring low and tread down like the mire of the street; perhaps there may be an allusion to the high places where idols were worshipped; and which were the cause of the Lord's wrath and vengeance, and of his coming forth, in this unusual way, in his providences.

Gill: Mic 1:4 - And the mountains shall be molten under him // and the valleys shall be cleft // as wax before the fire // and as the waters that are poured down a steep place And the mountains shall be molten under him,.... As Sinai was when he descended on it, and as all nations will be at the general conflagration; but he...

And the mountains shall be molten under him,.... As Sinai was when he descended on it, and as all nations will be at the general conflagration; but here the words are to be taken, not literally, but figuratively, for the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, and for the kings, and princes, and great men in them, that lifted up their heads as high, and thought themselves as secure, as mountains; yet when the judgments of God should fall upon them, their hearts would melt through fear under him; as well as all their glory and greatness depart from them, and they be no more what they were before, but levelled with the meanest subject:

and the valleys shall be cleft: have chasms made in them by the melting of the mountains, or by the flow of water from the hills: these may design the lower sort of people, who shall have their share in this calamity; the inhabitants of the valleys and country villages; who, though mean and low, shall be lower still, and lose that little substance, that liberty and those privileges, they had; as valleys may be cleft, and open, and sink into the lower parts of the earth; so it is signified that these people should be in a more depressed state and condition:

as wax before the fire; melts, and cannot stand the force of it; so the mountains should melt at the presence of the Lord; and kingdoms and states, and the greatest and mightiest of men in them, would not be able to stand before the fierceness of his wrath; see Psa 68:2;

and as the waters that are poured down a steep place; that run with great swiftness, force, and rapidity, and there is no stopping them; so should the judgments of God come down upon the lower sort of people, the inhabitants of the valleys; neither high nor low would escape the indignation of the Lord, or be able to stand against it, or stand up under it.

Gill: Mic 1:5 - For the transgression of Jacob is all this, and for the sins of the house of Israel // what is the transgression of Jacob // is it not Samaria // and what are the high places of Judah // are they not Jerusalem For the transgression of Jacob is all this, and for the sins of the house of Israel,.... All this evil, all these calamities and judgments, signified...

For the transgression of Jacob is all this, and for the sins of the house of Israel,.... All this evil, all these calamities and judgments, signified by the above metaphorical phrases, these did not come by chance, nor without, reason; but were or would be inflicted, according to the righteous judgment of God, upon the people of Israel and Judah, for their manifold sins and transgressions, especially their idolatry: and should it be asked,

what is the transgression of Jacob? what notorious crime has he been guilty of? or what is the iniquity the two tribes are charged with, that is the cause of so much severity? the answer is,

is it not Samaria? the wickedness of Samaria, the calf of Samaria? as in Hos 7:1; that is, the worship of the calf of Samaria; is not that idolatry the transgression of Jacob, or which the ten tribes have given into? it is; and a just reason for all this wrath to come upon them: or, "who is the transgression of Jacob?" r who is the spring and source of it; the cause, author, and encourager of it? are they not the kings that have reigned in Samaria from the times of Omri, with their nobles, princes, and great men, who, by their edicts, influence, and example, have encouraged the worship of the golden calves? they are the original root and motive of it, and to them it must be ascribed; they caused the people to sin: or, as the Targum,

"where have they of the house of Jacob sinned? is it not in Samaria?''

verily it is, and from thence, the metropolis of the nation, the sin has spread itself all over it:

and what are the high places of Judah? or, "who are they?" s who have been the makers of them? who have set them up, and encouraged idolatrous worship at them?

are they not Jerusalem? are they not the king, the princes, and priests, that dwell at Jerusalem? certainly they are; such as Ahaz, and others, in whose times this prophet lived; see 2Ki 16:4; or, as the Targum,

"where did they of the house of Judah commit sin? was it not in Jerusalem?''

truly it was, and even in the temple; here Ahaz built an altar like that at Damascus, and sacrificed on it, and spoiled the temple, and several of the vessels in it, 2Ki 16:10.

Gill: Mic 1:6 - Therefore I will make Samaria as an heap of the field, and as plantings of a vineyard // and I will pour down the stones thereof into the valley // and I will discover the foundations thereof Therefore I will make Samaria as an heap of the field, and as plantings of a vineyard,.... As a field ploughed, and laid in heaps; see Mic 3:12; or a...

Therefore I will make Samaria as an heap of the field, and as plantings of a vineyard,.... As a field ploughed, and laid in heaps; see Mic 3:12; or as stones gathered out of a field, and out of a vineyard planted, and laid in a heap; so should this city become a heap of stones and rubbish, being utterly demolished; and this being done according to the will of God, and through his instigation of Shalmaneser king of Assyria to it, and by his providence succeeding his army that besieged it, is said to be done by him. With this agrees the Vulgate Latin version,

"I will make Samaria as a heap of stones in a field, when a vineyard is planted;''

see Isa 5:2; for the city, being destroyed, cannot be compared to the plants of a vineyard set in good order, beautiful and thriving; but, as to heaps of stones in a field, so to such in a vineyard; or to hillocks raised up there for the plants of vines; and if the comparison is to plants themselves, it must be to withered ones, that are good for nothing. The note of similitude as is not in the text; and the words may be read without it, "I will make Samaria an heap of the field, plantings of a vineyard" t; that is, it shall be ploughed up, and made a heap of; turned into a field, and vines planted on it; for which its situation was very proper, being on a hill where vines used to be planted, and so should no more be inhabited as a city:

and I will pour down the stones thereof into the valley; the stones of the buildings and walls of the city, which, being on a hill, when pulled down, rolled into the valley; and with as much swiftness and force as waters run down a steep place, as in Mic 1:4; where the same word is used as here:

and I will discover the foundations thereof; which should be fused up, and left bare; not one stone should be upon another; so that there should be no traces and footsteps of the city remaining, and it should be difficult to know the place where it stood. This is expressive of the total desolation and utter destruction of it: this was not accomplished by Shalmaneser when he took it; for though he carried captive the inhabitants thereof, he put others in their room; but this was entirely fulfilled, not by Jonathan Maccabeus, though he is said u to besiege it, and level it with the ground; but by John Hyrcanus; and the account of the destruction of it by him, as given by Josephus w, exactly answers to this prophecy, and, to Hos 13:16; where its desolation is also predicted; he says that Hyrcanus, having besieged it a year, took it; and, not content with this only, he utterly destroyed it, making brooks to run through it; and by digging it up, so that it fell into holes and caverns, insomuch that there were no signs nor traces of the city left. It was indeed afterwards rebuilt by Gabinius the Roman proconsul of Syria, and restored by Augustus Caesar to Herod, who adorned and fortified it, and called it by the name of Sebaste, in honour of Augustus x; though Benjamin of Tudela pretends that Ahab's palace might be discerned there in his time, or the place known where it was, which is not likely; excepting this, his account is probable.

"From Luz (he says y) is one day's journey to Sebaste, which is Samaria; and still there may be perceived there the palace of Ahab king of Israel; and it is a fortified city on a very high hill, and in it are fountains; and is a land of brooks of water, and gardens, orchards, vineyards, and olive yards;''

but, since his time, it is become more ruinous. Mr. Maundrell, who some years ago was upon the spot, gives a fuller account of it;

"this great city (he says z) is now wholly converted into gardens; and all the tokens that remain, to testify that there has ever been such a place, are only on the north side, a large square piazza, encompassed with pillars; and, on the east, some poor remains of a great church, said to be built by the Empress Helena, over the place where St. John Baptist was both imprisoned and beheaded.''

So say others a,

"the remains of Sebaste, or the ancient Samaria, though long ago laid in ruinous heaps, and a great part of it turned into ploughed land and garden ground, do still retain some monuments of its ancient grandeur, and of those noble edifices in it, with which King Herod caused it to be adorned;''

and then mention the large square piazza on the north, and the church on the east. It was twelve miles from Dothaim, and as many from Merran, and four from Atharoth, according to Eusebius b; and was, as Josephus c says, a day's journey from Jerusalem. Sichem, called by the Turks Naplus, is now the metropolis of the country of Samaria; Samaria, or Sebaste, being utterly destroyed, as says Petrus a Valle d, a traveller in those parts.

Gill: Mic 1:7 - And all the graven images thereof shall be beaten to pieces // and all the hires thereof shall be burnt with fire // and all the idols thereof will I lay desolate // for she gathered it of the hire of an harlot, and they shall return to the hire of an harlot And all the graven images thereof shall be beaten to pieces,.... By the Assyrian army, for the sake of the gold and silver of which they were, made, o...

And all the graven images thereof shall be beaten to pieces,.... By the Assyrian army, for the sake of the gold and silver of which they were, made, or with which they were adorned, as was usually done by conquerors to the gods of the nations they conquered; these were the calf of Samaria, and other idols; and not only those in the city of Samaria, but in all the other cities of Israel which fell into the hands of the Assyrian monarch; see Isa 10:11;

and all the hires thereof shall be burnt with fire; this the Targum also interprets of idols; such as escaped the plunder of the soldiers should be burnt with fire: Kimchi, by "hires", understands the beautiful garments, and other ornaments, with which they adorned their idols, which were gifts unto them; and they committing spiritual adultery with them, these are compared to the hire of a harlot: or it may design their fine houses, and the furniture of them, all their substance and riches, which they looked upon as obtained by entering into alliances with idolatrous nations, and as the hire and reward of their idolatry; all these should be consumed by fire when the city was taken:

and all the idols thereof will I lay desolate; such as were not broke to pieces, nor burnt, should be thrown down, and trampled upon, and made no account of, or carried away with other spoil. The Targum interprets it of the houses or temples of their idols, which should be demolished. By this and the preceding clause it appears, that, besides the golden calf, there were other idols worshipped in Samaria. In the times of Ahab was the image of Baal, with others, for which he built an altar and a temple in Samaria, and a grove, 1Ki 16:31; and at the time it was taken by Shalmaneser there were idols in it, as appears from Isa 10:10; and there were still more after a colony of the Babylonians and others were introduced into it; the names of which were Succothbenoth, Nergal, Ashima, Nibhaz, Tartak, Adrammelech, and Anammelech. The first of these is thought, by Selden e to be Venus; and the two last, both by him and Braunius f, to be the same with Mo, having the signification of a king in them, as that word signifies, and children being burnt unto them: they are all difficult to be understood. The account the Jews g give of them is, that "Succothbenoth" were images of a hen and chickens; "Nergal", a cock; "Ashima", a goat without hair; "Nibhaz", or "Nibchan", as sometimes read, a dog; and "Tartak", an ass; "Adrammelech", a mule, or a peacock; and "Anammelech", a horse, or a pheasant. And it was not unusual for some of these creatures to be worshipped by the Heathens, as a cock by the Syrians, and others; a goat by the Mendesians; and the dog Anubis, perhaps the same with Nibhaz, by the Egyptians h. And though the inhabitants of Samaria might be better instructed, after Manasseh and other Jews came to reside among them in later times, still they retained idolatrous practices; and, even in the times of our Lord, they were ignorant of the true object of religious worship, Joh 4:22; and they are charged by the Jewish writers i with worshipping the image of a dove on Mount Gerizim, and also such strange gods, the teraphim, which Jacob hid under the oak at Sichem; however, let their idols be what they will they worshipped, they are now utterly destroyed, according to this prophecy;

for she gathered it of the hire of an harlot, and they shall return to the hire of an harlot; as all the riches of Samaria and its inhabitants were gathered together as the reward of their idolatry, as they imagined, so they should return to idolaters, the Assyrians; to Nineveh, called the well favoured harlot, Nah 3:4; the metropolis of the Assyrian empire; and to the house or temple of those that worshipped idols, as the Targum; with which they should adorn their idols, or use them in idolatrous worship: or the sense in general is, that as their riches were ill gotten, as the hire of a harlot, and which never prospers, so theirs should come to nothing; as it came, so it should go: according to our proverb, "lightly come, lightly go". The allusion seems to be to harlots prostituting themselves in the temples of idols, which was common among the Heathens, as at Comana and Corinth, as Strabo k relates; and particularly among the Babylonians and Assyrians, which may be here referred to: for Herodotus l says, it was a law with the Babylonians that every woman of that country should once in her life sit in the temple of Venus, and lie with a strange man: here women used to sit with a crown upon their heads: nor might they return home until some stranger threw money into their laps, and took them out of the temple, and lay with them; and he that cast it must say, I implore the goddess Mylitta for thee; the name by which the Assyrians call Venus; nor was it lawful to reject the price or the money, be it what it would, for it was converted to holy uses, and Strabo m affirms much the same. So the Phoenician women used to prostitute themselves in the temples of their idols, and dedicate there the hire of their bodies to their gods, thinking thereby to appease their deities, and obtain good things for themselves n.

Gill: Mic 1:8 - Therefore I will wail and howl, I will go stripped and naked // I will make a wailing like the dragons // and mourning as the owls Therefore I will wail and howl, I will go stripped and naked,.... To his shut, putting off his upper garment; the rough one, such as the prophets used...

Therefore I will wail and howl, I will go stripped and naked,.... To his shut, putting off his upper garment; the rough one, such as the prophets used to wear; which he did as the greater sign of his mourning: sometimes, in such cases, they rent their garments; at other times they stripped themselves of them, and walked naked, as Isaiah did, Isa 20:3; he went about like a madman, one disturbed in his mind, bereft of his senses, because of the desolation coming upon Israel; and without his clothes, as such persons often do: so the word rendered "stripped" signifies, as the Jewish commentators observe. This lamentation, and with these circumstances, the prophet made in his own person, to show the reality and certainty of their ruin, and to represent to them the desolate condition they would be in, destitute of all good things, and to them with it; as well as to express the sympathy of his heart, and thereby to assure them that it was not out of ill will to them, or a spirit of revenge, that he delivered such a message: or this he did in the person of all the people, showing what they would do, and that this would be their case shortly. So the Targum,

"for this they shall wail and howl, and go naked among the spoilers;''

I will make a wailing like the dragons; as in their fight with elephants, at which time they make a hideous noise n; and whose hissings have been very terrible to large bodies of men. Aelianus o speaks of a dragon in India, which, when it perceived Alexander's army near at hand, gave such a prodigious hiss and blast, that it greatly frightened and disturbed the whole army: and he relates p of another, that was in a valley near Mount Pellenaeus, in the isle of Chios, whose hissing was very terrible to the inhabitants of that place; and Bochart q conjectures that this their hissing is here referred to; and who observes of the whale, that it has its name from a word in the Hebrew tongue, which signifies to lament; and which word is here used, and is frequently used of large fishes, as whales, sea calves, dolphins, &c. which make a great noise and bellowing, as the sea calf; particularly the balaena, which is one kind of a whale, and makes such a large and continued noise, as to be heard at the distance of two miles, as Rondeletius r says; and dolphins are said to make a moan and groaning like human creatures, as Pliny s and Solinus t report: and Peter Gillius relates, from his own experience, that lodging one night in a vessel, in which many dolphins were taken, there were such weeping and mourning, that he could not sleep for them; he thought they deplored their condition with mourning, lamentation, and a large flow of tears, as men do, and therefore could not help pitying their case; and, while the fisherman was asleep, took that which was next him, that seemed to mourn most, and cast it into the sea; but this was of no avail, for the rest increased their mourning more and more, and seemed plainly to desire the like deliverance; so that all the night he was in the midst of the most bitter moaning: wherefore Bochart, who quotes these instances, elsewhere u thinks that the prophet compares his mourning with the mourning of these creatures, rather than with the hissing of dragons. Some w think crocodiles are here meant; and of them it is reported x, that when they have eaten the body of a creature, which they do first, and come to the head, they weep over it with tears; hence the proverb of crocodiles tears, for hypocritical ones; but it cannot well be thought, surely, that the prophet would compare his mourning to that of such a creature. The learned Pocock thinks it more reasonable that the "jackals" are meant, called by the Arabians "ebn awi", rather than dragons; a creature of a size between a fox and a wolf, or a dog and a fox, which makes a dreadful howling in the night; by which travellers, unacquainted with it, would think a company of women or children were howling, and goes before the lion as his provider;

and mourning as the owls; or "daughters of the owl" y; which is a night bird, and makes a very frightful noise, especially the screech owl. The Targum interprets it of the ostrich z; and it may be meant either of the mourning it makes when its young are about to be taken away, and it exposes itself to danger on their account, and perishes in the attempt. Aelianus a reports that they are taken by sharp iron spikes fixed about their nest, when they are returning to their young, after having been in quest of food for them; and, though they see the shining iron, yet such is their vehement desire after their young, that they spread their wings like sails, and with great swiftness and noise rush into the nest, where they are transfixed with the spikes, and die: and not only Vatablus observes, that these creatures have a very mournful voice; but Bochart b has shown, from the Arabic writers, that they frequently cry and howl; and from John de Laet, who affirms that those in the parts about Brazil cry so loud as to be heard half a mile; and indeed they have their name from crying and howling. The Targum renders it by a word which signifies pleasant; and so Onkelos on Lev 11:16, by an antiphrasis, because its voice is so very unpleasant. Or, since the words may be rendered, "the daughters of the ostrich" c, it may be understood of the mourning of its young, when left by her, when they make a hideous noise and miserable moan, as some observe d.

Gill: Mic 1:9 - For her wound is incurable // for it is come unto Judah // he is come unto the gate of my people, even to Jerusalem For her wound is incurable,.... Or her "stroke is desperate" e. The ruin of Samaria, and the ten tribes, was inevitable; the decree being gone forth...

For her wound is incurable,.... Or her "stroke is desperate" e. The ruin of Samaria, and the ten tribes, was inevitable; the decree being gone forth, and they hardened in their sins, and continuing in their impenitence; and their destruction was irrevocable; they were not to be restored again, nor are they to this day; nor will be till the time comes that all Israel shall be saved: or "she is grievously sick of her wounds"; just ready to die, upon the brink of ruin, and no hope of saving her; this is the cause and reason of the above lamentation of the prophet: and what increased his grief and sorrow the more was,

for it is come unto Judah; the calamity has reached the land of Judah; it stopped not with Israel or the ten tribes, but spread itself into the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin; for the Assyrian army, having taken Samaria, and carried Israel captive, in a short time, about seven or eight years, invaded Judea, and took the fenced cities of Judah in Hezekiah's time, in which Micah prophesied;

he is come unto the gate of my people, even to Jerusalem; Sennacherib, king of Assyria, having taken the fenced cities, came up to the very gates of Jerusalem, and besieged it, where the courts of judicature were kept, and the people resorted to, to have justice done them; and Micah, being of the tribe of Judah, calls them his people, and was the more affected with their distress.

Gill: Mic 1:10 - Declare ye it not at Gath // weep ye not at all // in the house of Aphrah roll thyself in the dust Declare ye it not at Gath,.... A city of the Philistines, put for all the rest: the phrase is borrowed from 2Sa 1:20; where the reason is given, and ...

Declare ye it not at Gath,.... A city of the Philistines, put for all the rest: the phrase is borrowed from 2Sa 1:20; where the reason is given, and holds good here as there; and the sense is, not that the destruction of Israel, or the invasion of Judea, or the besieging of Jerusalem, could be hid from the Philistines; but that it was a thing desirable, was it possible, since it would be matter of rejoicing to them, and that would be an aggravation of the distress of Israel and Judah:

weep ye not at all; that is, before the Philistines, or such like enemies, lest they should laugh and scoff at you; though they had reason to weep, and did and ought to weep in secret; yet, as much as in them lay, it would be right to forbear it openly, because of the insults and reproach of the enemy. The learned Reland f suspects that it should be read, "weep not in Acco": which was another city in Palestine, to the north from the enemy, as Gath was to the south; and observes, that there is a like play on words g in the words, as in the places after mentioned. Acco is the same with Ptolemais, Act 21:7; See Gill on Act 21:7. It had this name from Ptolemy Lagus king of Egypt, who enlarged it, and called it after his own name; but Mr, Maundrell h observes,

"now, since it hath been in the possession of the Turks, it has, according to the example of many other cities in Turkey, cast off its Greek, and recovered some semblance of its old Hebrew name again, being called Acca, or Acra. As to its situation (he says) it enjoys all possible advantages, both of sea and land; on its north and east sides it is compassed with a spacious and fertile plain; on the west it is washed by the Mediterranean sea; and on the south by a large bay, extending from the city as far as Mount Carmel;''

in the house of Aphrah roll thyself in the dust; as mourners used to do, sit in the dust, or cover their heads with it, or wallow in it; this is allowed to be done privately, in houses or in towns distinct from the Philistines, as Aphrah or Ophrah was, which was in the tribe of Benjamin, Jos 18:23; called here "Aphrah", to make it better agree with "Aphar", dust, to which the allusion is: and it may be rendered, "in the house of dust roll thyself in the dust"; having respect to the condition houses would be in at this time, mere heaps of dust and rubbish, so that they would find enough easily to roll themselves in. Here is a double reading; the "Keri", or marginal reading, which the Masora directs to, and we follow, is, "roll thyself": but the "Cetib", or writing, is, "I have rolled myself" i; and so are the words of the prophet, who before says he wailed and howled, and went stripped and naked; here he says, as a further token of his sorrow, that he rolled himself in dust, and as an example for Israel to do the like. This place was a village in the times of Jerom k and was called Effrem; it was five miles from Bethel to the east.

Gill: Mic 1:11 - Pass ye away, thou inhabitant of Saphir // having thy shame naked // the inhabitant of Zaanan came not forth in the mourning of Bethezel // he shall receive of him his standing Pass ye away, thou inhabitant of Saphir,.... A village, according to Eusebius l, between Eleutheropolis and Ashkelon; perhaps the same with Sephoron; ...

Pass ye away, thou inhabitant of Saphir,.... A village, according to Eusebius l, between Eleutheropolis and Ashkelon; perhaps the same with Sephoron; it is mentioned among the cities of Judah, in the Greek version of Jos 15:48. Calmet m conjectures the prophet intends the city of Sephoris or Sephora in Galilee. Hillerus n: takes it to be the same with Parah, mentioned with Ophrah, in Jos 18:23; so called from its ornament, neatness, beauty, and elegance, as both words signify, to which the prophet alludes: now everyone of the inhabitants of this place are called upon to prepare to go into captivity to Babylon; which would certainly be their case, though they dwelled in fine buildings, neat houses, and streets well paved. In the margin it is, "thou that dwellest fairly" o; which some understand of Samaria; others of Judea; and particularly Jerusalem, beautifully situated, yet should go into captivity:

having thy shame naked; their city dismantled, their houses plundered, and they stripped of their garments, and the shame of their nakedness discovered; which must be the more distressing to beautiful persons, that have dressed neatly, and lived in handsome well built houses, and elegantly furnished, and now all the reverse;

the inhabitant of Zaanan came not forth in the mourning of Bethezel; or house of Azel, where the posterity of Azel, of the tribe of Benjamin, dwelt. Hillerus p suspects it to be the same with Mozah, Jos 18:26; so called from Moza, the great grandfather of Azel, 1Ch 8:37. Capellus takes it to be the same with Azal in Zec 14:5. This place being taken and plundered by the enemy occasioned great mourning among the inhabitants: and it seems to have been taken first, before Zaanan; perhaps the same with Zenan, Jos 15:37; and is here read "Sennan" by Aquila; the inhabitants of which did not "come forth", in which there is an allusion to its name q, either to help them in their distress, or to condole them; they being in fear of the enemy themselves, and in arms in their own defence, expecting it would be their turn next, and that they should share the same fate with them. Some think that under the name of Bethezel is meant Bethel; and of Zaanan, Zion; and that the sense is, that when Bethel, Samaria, and the ten tribes, were in distress, they of Zion and Judea did not come to give them any relief; and when they were carried captive did not mourn with them, were not affected with their case, nor troubled themselves about them;

he shall receive of him his standing: either the enemy, as R. Joseph Kimchi, shall receive of the inhabitants of Zaanan his standing; that is, he shall make them dearly pay for stopping him, for making him stand and stay so long before their city before he could take it; for all his loss of time, men, and money, in besieging it; by demolishing their city, plundering their houses, and carrying them captive; who remained he put to death by the sword. Aben Ezra interprets the word "receive" of doctrine or learning, as in Pro 4:2; and renders it, "he shall learn"; either Bethezel, or rather Zaanan, shall learn, by the case of Bethezel, and other neighbouring places, what would be his own case, whether he should stand or fall.

Gill: Mic 1:12 - For the inhabitant of Maroth waited carefully for good // but evil came down from the Lord unto the gate of Jerusalem For the inhabitant of Maroth waited carefully for good,.... Or, "though they waited for good" r; expected to have it, yet the reverse befell them: or...

For the inhabitant of Maroth waited carefully for good,.... Or, "though they waited for good" r; expected to have it, yet the reverse befell them: or "verily they were grieved for good" s; for the good things they had lost, or were likely to lose; and which they had no more hope of, when they saw Jerusalem in distress. Grotius thinks, by transposition of letters, Ramoth is intended by Maroth, or the many Ramahs which were in Judah and Benjamin; but Hillerus t is of opinion that Jarmuth is meant, a city of Judah, Jos 15:35; the word Maroth signifies "bitterness"; see Rth 1:20; and, according to others, "rough places"; and may design the inhabitants of such places that were in great bitterness and trouble because of the invasion of the enemy, who before that had promised themselves good things, and lived in the expectation of them:

but evil came down from the Lord unto the gate of Jerusalem; meaning the Assyrian army under Sennacherib, which came into the land of Judea by the order, direction, and providence of God, like an overflowing flood; which spread itself over the land, and reached to the very gates of Jerusalem, which was besieged by it, and threatened with destruction: or "because evil came down", &c. that is, "because" of that, the inhabitants of Maroth grieved, or were in pain, as a woman in travail.

Gill: Mic 1:13 - O thou inhabitant of Lachish, bind the chariot to the swift beast // she is the beginning of the sin to the daughter of Zion // for the transgressions of Israel were found in thee O thou inhabitant of Lachish, bind the chariot to the swift beast,.... Horses, camels, dromedaries, or mules. Some u render the word swift horse or ho...

O thou inhabitant of Lachish, bind the chariot to the swift beast,.... Horses, camels, dromedaries, or mules. Some u render the word swift horse or horses, post horses; others dromedaries w; and some mules x the two latter seem more especially to be meant, either dromedaries, as the word is translated in 1Ki 4:28; which is a very swift creature: Isidore says y the dromedary is one sort of camels, of a lesser stature, yet swifter, from whence it has its name, and is used to go more than a hundred miles a day; this is thought to be what the Jews z call a flying camel; which the gloss says is a sort of camels that are as swift in running as a bird that flies; they are lighter made than a camel, and go at a much greater rate; whereas a camel goes at the rate of thirty miles a day, the dromedary will perform a journey of one hundred and twenty miles in a day; they make use of them in the Indies for going post, and expresses frequently perform a journey of eight hundred miles upon them in the space of a week a: this may serve the better to illustrate Jer 2:23; and improve the note there: but whether these were used in chariots I do not find; only Bochart b takes notice of a kind of camel, that has, like the dromedary, two humps on its back, which the Arabians call "bochet", and put to chariots: or else mules are meant, for by comparing the above text in 1Ki 4:28 with 2Ch 9:24, it looks as if "mules" were there intended; and so the word here used is rendered in Est 8:10; and by their being there said to be used for posts to ride on expresses, it up pears to be a swift creature. Aelianus c makes mention of mules in India of a red colour, very famous for running; and mules were used in the Olympic games, and many riders of them got the victory; and that these were used in chariots, there is no doubt to be made of it: Homer d speaks of mules drawing a four wheeled chariot; so Pausanias e of mules yoked together, and drawing a chariot, instead of horses; and the Septuagint version of Isa 66:20; instead of "in litters and on mules", renders it, "in litters" or carriages "of mules": but, be they one or the other that are here meant, they were creatures well known, and being swift were used in chariots, to which they were bound and fastened in order to draw them, and which we call "putting to"; this the inhabitants of Lachish f are bid to do, in order to make their escape, and flee as fast as they could from the enemy, advancing to besiege them; as they were besieged by the army of Sennacherib, before he came to Jerusalem, 2Ch 32:1. Or these words may be spoken in an ironical and sarcastic way, that whereas they had abounded in horses and chariots, and frequently rode about their streets in them, now let them make use of them, and get away if they could; and may suggest, that, instead of riding in these, they should be obliged to walk on foot into captivity. Lachish was a city in the tribe of Judah, in the times of Jerom g; it was a village seven miles from Eleutheropolis, as you go to Daroma or the south;

she is the beginning of the sin to the daughter of Zion; lying upon the borders of the ten tribes, as Lachish did, it was the first of the cities of Judah that gave into the idolatry of Jeroboam, the worshipping of the calves; and from thence it spread itself to Zion and Jerusalem; and, being a ringleader in this sin, should be punished for it: though some think this refers to their conspiracy with the citizens of Jerusalem against King Amaziah, and the murder of him in this place, now punished for it, 2Ki 14:18;

for the transgressions of Israel were found in thee; not only their idolatry, but all other sins, with which it abounded; it was a very wicked place, and therefore no wonder it was given up to destruction. The Targum is,

"for the transgressors of Israel were found in thee.''

Gill: Mic 1:14 - Therefore shalt thou give presents to Moreshethgath // the houses of Achzib shall be a lie to the kings of Israel Therefore shalt thou give presents to Moreshethgath,.... Since Lachish was the cause of leading Judah into idolatry, and was a city so very wicked; th...

Therefore shalt thou give presents to Moreshethgath,.... Since Lachish was the cause of leading Judah into idolatry, and was a city so very wicked; therefore it should be reduced to such distress as to send messengers with presents to the Philistines at Moreshethgath, a place near to Gath of the Philistines, and may include that and other cities of theirs, to come and help them against the Assyrians:

the houses of Achzib shall be a lie to the kings of Israel; a city of Judah, Jos 15:44; or of Asher, Jos 19:29; the same with Chezib, Gen 38:5; and called Ecdippa by Josephus h, Pliny i, and Ptolemy k. The Jewish writers commonly call it Cezib, of which they l say many things about that, and the land unto it, being subject to tithes, the laws of the seventh year, and the like. Maimonides and Bartenora say m it is the name of a place which divided between the land of Israel, which they possessed who came out of Babylon, and that land which they enjoyed who came out of Egypt; but the Jews are not agreed about the situation of it. One of their writers n places it to the northeast of the land of Israel; but another o observes, and proves from one that resided in those parts some time, and diligently inquired into and made his observation on places, that Cezib, and also Aco and Amana, frequently mentioned with it, were all on the western sea of the land of Israel, that is, the Mediterranean sea; in which he was right, without all doubt: the place is now called Zib by contraction, of which Mr. Maundrell p gives this account;

"having travelled about one hour in the plain of Acra, we passed by an old town called Zib, situate on an ascent close by the seaside; this may probably be the old Achzib, mentioned Jos 19:29; called afterwards Ecdippa; for St. Jerom q places Achzib nine miles distant from Ptolemais (or Aco), towards Tyre, to which account we found the situation of Zib exactly agreeing.''

Now the houses or families that dwelt in this place, or the idols' temples there, as some, and the idolatry exercised therein, should be a lie unto, or disappoint the expectations of, the kings of Israel; which, according to Kimchi, is put for Judah, who placed confidence in them, and had dependence on them: there is an elegant play on words between Achzib and a "lie" r. The Targum is,

"thou shall send gifts to the heirs of Gath; the houses of Achzib shall be delivered to the people, because of the sins of the kings of Israel, who worshipped idols in them.''

Gill: Mic 1:15 - Yet will I bring an heir unto thee, O inhabitant of Mareshah // he shall come unto Adullam the glory of Israel Yet will I bring an heir unto thee, O inhabitant of Mareshah,.... Another city in the tribe of Judah, mentioned with Achzib in Jos 15:44; and by many ...

Yet will I bring an heir unto thee, O inhabitant of Mareshah,.... Another city in the tribe of Judah, mentioned with Achzib in Jos 15:44; and by many thought to be the birth place of this prophet; and, if so, his faithfulness may be observed in declaring the whole counsel of God, though against his own fire place; and this must be an aggravation of the sin of the inhabitants of it, that they had such a prophet that arose from them, and they regarded him not. There is a beautiful allusion in the word "heir" to Mareshah s, which signifies an "inheritance"; and here were an "heir" or heirs for it, as the Targum; not the Persians, as some in Aben Ezra, and in an Agadah mentioned by Jarchi, who descended from Elam the firstborn of Shem; and so had a right of inheritance, as those interpreters suppose; but the king of Assyria, who should invade the land, and seize upon this place among others, and possess it, as if it was his by right of inheritance, having obtained it by conquest: and this being by the permission and according to the will of God, he is said to be brought by him to it. Capellus thinks, on the contrary, that Hezekiah and his posterity are meant:

he shall come unto Adullam the glory of Israel; another city in the tribe of Judah, a royal one, Jos 15:35; said by Jerom to be in his time no small village, and to be about ten miles from Eleutheropolis; called the "glory of Israel", having been a royal city in Joshua's time, Jos 12:15; and a fenced city in the times of Rehoboam, 2Ch 11:7; and Eusebius says it was a large town; and Jerom says it was not a small one in his time; though some think Jerusalem is meant, the metropolis of the nation, Israel being put for Judah, as in Mic 1:14; and to be read, "he that is the enemy and heir shall come to Adullam, yea, to the glory of Israel" t; even to Jerusalem, the most glorious city in all the tribes; though others are of opinion that this is the character of the enemy or heir that should come thither, called so by way of contradiction, as coming to the reproach and disgrace of Israel; or, ironically, whom Israel before gloried in, when they had recourse to him for help. The margin of our Bible reads, "the glory of Israel shall come to Adullam"; that is, the great men, the princes and heads of the people, shall flee to the cave of Adullam u, to hide them from the enemy, where David was hid from Saul; see 1Sa 22:1. Burkius w, a very late commentator, takes Adullam for an appellative, and with Hillerus x renders it, "the perpetuity of the yoke"; and the whole thus, "at the perpetuity of the yoke, the glory of Israel shall come"; that is, when all things shall seem to tend to this, that the yoke once laid on Israel by the Gentiles shall become perpetual, without any hope of deliverance, then shall come the Deliverer, that is, Jesus, the Glory of Israel; and, adds he, God forbid we should think of any other subject here; and so he interprets the "heir" in the preceding clause of the Messiah; and which is a sense far from being despicable.

Gill: Mic 1:16 - Make thee bald, and poll thee for thy delicate children // enlarge thy baldness as the eagle // for they are gone into captivity from thee Make thee bald, and poll thee for thy delicate children,.... Which is said, either with respect to Mareshah, or to Adullam, or to the whole land, as K...

Make thee bald, and poll thee for thy delicate children,.... Which is said, either with respect to Mareshah, or to Adullam, or to the whole land, as Kimchi observes; rather to the latter; and that either to Israel, or to Judah, or both; the prophecy in general being concerning them both, Mic 1:1; making baldness, whether by plucking off the hair, or by shaving it, was used in token of mourning, Job 1:20; and so it is designed to express it here: the inhabitants of the land are called to lamentation and weeping for their children taken from them, whom they dearly loved, and brought up in a delicate manner. The Targum is,

"pluck off thy hair, and cast it upon the children of thy delight;''

and Sanctius observes; that it was a custom with the Gentiles to cut off their hair, and cast it into the graves of their kindred and friends at their interment, to which be thinks the prophet alludes:

enlarge thy baldness as the eagle; when it moults, and cast off all its feathers, as it does in old age, and so renews its youth; to which the allusion seems to be in Psa 103:5; or every year, as birds of prey usually do at the beginning of the spring. The Jewish writers y say this happens to it every ten years; when, finding its feathers heavy and unfit for flying, it makes a tour to the sun with all its force it can, to get as near it as possible; and, having heated its plumage excessively, it casts itself into the sea for cooling, and then its feathers fall off, and new ones succeed; and this it does until it is a hundred years old; and to its then state of baldness, while it is moulting, is the allusion here; unless it can be thought any respect is had to that kind of eagle which is called the bald one. In Virginia z there are three sorts of eagles; one is the grey eagle, about the size of a kite; another the black eagle, resembling those in England; and a third the bald eagle, so called because the upper part of the neck and head are covered with a sort of white down: but the former sort of baldness seems to be intended, which is at certain stated times, and not what always is, and is only partial; for it denotes such an universal baldness to be made, as to take in all the parts of the body where any hair grows; as expressive of the general devastation that should be made, which would be the cause of this great mourning:

for they are gone into captivity from thee; that is, the delicate children of Israel and Judah, and so were as dead unto them, or worse: this was accomplished in Israel or the ten tribes, partly by Tiglathpileser, and more completely by Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, 2Ki 15:29; and in Judah or the two tribes, when Sennacherib came and took their fenced cities; and doubtless some of the inhabitants and their children were carried captive by him, though not Jerusalem; and therefore cannot be addressed here, as some do interpret the words, unless the prophecy is to be extended to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Mic 1:1 For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

NET Notes: Mic 1:2 Or “his holy temple” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT). This refers to the Lord’s dwelling in heaven, however, rather than the temple...

NET Notes: Mic 1:3 Or “high places” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

NET Notes: Mic 1:4 The words “the rocks will slide down” are supplied in the translation for clarification. This simile elaborates on the prior one and furth...

NET Notes: Mic 1:5 For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

NET Notes: Mic 1:6 Heb “I will uncover her foundations.” The term “foundations” refers to the lower courses of the stones of the city’s out...

NET Notes: Mic 1:7 Heb “for from a prostitute’s wages she gathered, and to a prostitute’s wages they will return.” When the metal was first colle...

NET Notes: Mic 1:8 Or perhaps “ostrich” (cf. ASV, NAB, NASB, NRSV, NLT).

NET Notes: Mic 1:9 For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

NET Notes: Mic 1:10 To sit in the dust was an outward sign of mourning. The name Beth Leaphrah means “house of dust.”

NET Notes: Mic 1:11 The precise meaning of the line is uncertain. The translation assumes: (a) the subject of the third masculine singular verb יִק’...

NET Notes: Mic 1:12 Heb “though disaster has come down from the Lord to the gate of Jerusalem.”

NET Notes: Mic 1:13 Heb “for in you was found the transgressions of Israel.”

NET Notes: Mic 1:14 Because of the enemy invasion, Achzib would not be able to deliver soldiers for the army and/or services normally rendered to the crown.

NET Notes: Mic 1:15 Heb “to Adullam the glory of Israel will go.” This probably means that the nation’s leadership will run for their lives and, like Da...

NET Notes: Mic 1:16 Or “a vulture” (cf. NIV, TEV); CEV “a buzzard.” The Hebrew term נֶשֶׁר (nesher) refers to ...

Geneva Bible: Mic 1:1 The word of the LORD that came to Micah the ( a ) Morasthite in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, [and] Hezekiah, kings of Judah, which he saw concerning Sama...

Geneva Bible: Mic 1:2 Hear, ( b ) all ye people; hearken, O earth, and all that therein is: and let the Lord GOD be witness against you, the Lord from his holy temple. ( b...

Geneva Bible: Mic 1:3 For, behold, the LORD cometh forth out of his place, and will come ( c ) down, and tread upon the high places of the earth. ( c ) Meaning by this tha...

Geneva Bible: Mic 1:5 For the transgression of Jacob [is] all this, and for the sins of the house of Israel. What [is] the transgression of Jacob? [is it] not ( d ) Samaria...

Geneva Bible: Mic 1:7 And all the graven images thereof shall be beaten to pieces, and all the ( f ) hires thereof shall be burned with the fire, and all the idols thereof ...

Geneva Bible: Mic 1:10 Declare ye [it] not at ( h ) Gath, weep ye not at all: in the house of ( i ) Aphrah roll thyself in the dust. ( h ) Lest the Philistines our enemies ...

Geneva Bible: Mic 1:11 Pass ye away, thou inhabitant of ( k ) Saphir, having thy shame naked: the inhabitant of Zaanan came not forth in the mourning of Bethezel; he shall (...

Geneva Bible: Mic 1:12 For the inhabitant of Maroth waited carefully for good: but evil came down from the LORD unto the ( m ) gate of Jerusalem. ( m ) For Rabshakeh had sh...

Geneva Bible: Mic 1:13 O thou inhabitant of Lachish, bind the chariot to the ( n ) swift beast: she ( o ) [is] the beginning of the sin to the daughter of Zion: for the tran...

Geneva Bible: Mic 1:14 Therefore shalt thou give presents to ( p ) Moreshethgath: the houses of Achzib [shall be] a lie to the kings of Israel. ( p ) You will bribe the Phi...

Geneva Bible: Mic 1:15 Yet will I bring an ( q ) heir unto thee, O inhabitant of Mareshah: he shall come unto Adullam ( r ) the glory of Israel. ( q ) He prophesies against...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Mic 1:1-7 - --The earth is called upon, with all that are therein, to hear the prophet. God's holy temple will not protect false professors. Neither men of high deg...

MHCC: Mic 1:8-16 - --The prophet laments that Israel's case is desperate; but declare it not in Gath. Gratify not those that make merry with the sins or with the sorrows o...

Matthew Henry: Mic 1:1-7 - -- Here is, I. A general account of this prophet and his prophecy, Mic 1:1. This is prefixed for the satisfaction of all that read and hear the prophec...

Matthew Henry: Mic 1:8-16 - -- We have here a long train of mourners attending the funeral of a ruined kingdom. I. The prophet is himself chief mourner (Mic 1:8, Mic 1:9): I will...

Keil-Delitzsch: Mic 1:1-4 - -- The heading in Mic 1:1 has been explained in the introduction. Mic 1:2-4 form the introduction to the prophet's address. Mic 1:2. "Hear, all ye nat...

Keil-Delitzsch: Mic 1:5-7 - -- This judicial interposition on the part of God is occasioned by the sin of Israel. Mic 1:5. "For the apostasy of Jacob (is) all this, and for the s...

Keil-Delitzsch: Mic 1:8-10 - -- The judgment will not stop at Samaria, however, but spread over Judah. The prophet depicts this by saying that he will go about mourning as a prison...

Keil-Delitzsch: Mic 1:11-12 - -- The penetration of the judgment into Judah is now clearly depicted by an individualizing enumeration of a number of cities which will be smitten by ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Mic 1:13-16 - -- And the judgment will not even stop at Jerusalem, but will spread still further over the land. This spreading is depicted in Mic 1:13-15 in the same...

Constable: Mic 1:1 - --I. Heading 1:1 Prophetic revelation from Yahweh came to Micah concerning Samaria (the Northern Kingdom) and Jeru...

Constable: Mic 1:2--3:1 - --II. The first oracle: Israel's impending judgment and future restoration 1:2--2:13 This is the first of three me...

Constable: Mic 1:2-7 - --A. The judgment coming on Israel 1:2-7 This opening pericope sets the tone and forms the backdrop for the rest of the book. All people were to hear Go...

Constable: Mic 1:8-9 - --1. Micah's personal response 1:8-9 1:8 In view of this coming judgment, Micah said he felt compelled to lament and wail. He would express his sorrow b...

Constable: Mic 1:10-16 - --2. Micah's call for the people's response 1:10-16 The prophet used several clever wordplays in this poem to describe the desolation that God would bri...

Guzik: Mic 1:1-16 - Coming Judgment on Israel and Judah Micah 1 - Coming Judgment on Israel and Judah A. Coming judgment on Israel. 1. (1) Introduction to the prophecy of Micah. The word of the LORD tha...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Evidence: Mic 1:1-4 Notice the word "let" in verse 2. Those who allow God to speak to them will understand that He has witnessed every transgression of His Law. Those who...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Micah (Pendahuluan Kitab) MICAH was a native of Moresheth, not the same as Mareshah in Mic 1:15, but the town called Moresheth-gath (Mic 1:14), which lay near Eleutheropolis, w...

JFB: Micah (Garis Besar) GOD'S WRATH AGAINST SAMARIA AND JUDAH; THE FORMER IS TO BE OVERTHROWN; SUCH JUDGMENTS IN PROSPECT CALL FOR MOURNING. (Mic. 1:1-16) DENUNCIATION OF TH...

TSK: Micah 1 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Mic 1:1, The time when Micah prophesied; Mic 1:2, He shews the wrath of God against Jacob for idolatry; Mic 1:10, He exhorts to mourning.

Poole: Micah (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE ARGUMENT IT is by custom become necessary, in writing the arguments on the several prophets, to tell of what country the prophet was; and where...

Poole: Micah 1 (Pendahuluan Pasal) MICAH CHAPTER 1 The time when Micah prophesied, Mic 1:1 . Micah showeth the wrath of God against Israel and Judah for idolatry, Mic 1:2-9 A lament...

MHCC: Micah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Micah was raised up to support Isaiah, and to confirm his predictions, while he invited to repentance, both by threatened judgments and promised merci...

MHCC: Micah 1 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Mic 1:1-7) The wrath of God against Israel. (Mic 1:8-16) Also against Jerusalem and other cities, Their precautions vain.

Matthew Henry: Micah (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Prophecy of Micah We shall have some account of this prophet in the first verse of the book of his ...

Matthew Henry: Micah 1 (Pendahuluan Pasal) In this chapter we have, I. The title of the book (Mic 1:1) and a preface demanding attention (Mic 1:2). II. Warning given of desolating judgment...

Constable: Micah (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title and Writer The title, as usual in the prophetical books of the Old ...

Constable: Micah (Garis Besar) Outline I. Heading 1:1 II. The first oracle: Israel's impending judgment and future restorat...

Constable: Micah Micah Bibliography Aharoni, Y. The Land of the Bible. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1967. Al...

Haydock: Micah (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION. THE PROPHECY OF MICHEAS. Micheas, of Morasti, a little town in the tribe of Juda, was cotemporary with the prophet Isaias, whom he...

Gill: Micah (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO MICAH This book is called, in the Hebrew copies, "Sepher Micah", the Book of Micah; in the Vulgate Latin version "the Prophecy of M...

Gill: Micah 1 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO MICAH 1 This chapter treats of the judgments of God on Israel and Judah for their idolatry. It begins with the title of the whole b...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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