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Teks -- Matthew 19:1-30 (NET)

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Questions About Divorce
19:1 Now when Jesus finished these sayings, he left Galilee and went to the region of Judea beyond the Jordan River. 19:2 Large crowds followed him, and he healed them there. 19:3 Then some Pharisees came to him in order to test him. They asked, “Is it lawful to divorce a wife for any cause?” 19:4 He answered, “Have you not read that from the beginning the Creator made them male and female, 19:5 and said, ‘For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and will be united with his wife, and the two will become one flesh’? 19:6 So they are no longer two, but one flesh. Therefore what God has joined together, let no one separate.” 19:7 They said to him, “Why then did Moses command us to give a certificate of dismissal and to divorce her?” 19:8 Jesus said to them, “Moses permitted you to divorce your wives because of your hard hearts, but from the beginning it was not this way. 19:9 Now I say to you that whoever divorces his wife, except for immorality, and marries another commits adultery.” 19:10 The disciples said to him, “If this is the case of a husband with a wife, it is better not to marry!” 19:11 He said to them, “Not everyone can accept this statement, except those to whom it has been given. 19:12 For there are some eunuchs who were that way from birth, and some who were made eunuchs eunuchs by others, and some who became eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of heaven. The one who is able to accept this should accept it.”
Jesus and Little Children
19:13 Then little children were brought to him for him to lay his hands on them and pray. But the disciples scolded those who brought them. 19:14 But Jesus said, “Let the little children come to me and do not try to stop them, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these.” 19:15 And he placed his hands on them and went on his way.
The Rich Young Man
19:16 Now someone came up to him and said, “Teacher, what good thing must I do to gain eternal life?” 19:17 He said to him, “Why do you ask me about what is good? There is only one who is good. But if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments.” 19:18 “Which ones?” he asked. Jesus replied, “Do not murder, do not commit adultery, do not steal, do not give false testimony, 19:19 honor your father and mother, and love your neighbor as yourself.” 19:20 The young man said to him, “I have wholeheartedly obeyed all these laws. What do I still lack?” 19:21 Jesus said to him, “If you wish to be perfect, go sell your possessions and give the money to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven. Then come, follow me.” 19:22 But when the young man heard this he went away sorrowful, for he was very rich. 19:23 Then Jesus said to his disciples, “I tell you the truth, it will be hard for a rich person to enter the kingdom of heaven! 19:24 Again I say, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich person to enter into the kingdom of God.” 19:25 The disciples were greatly astonished when they heard this and said, “Then who can be saved?” 19:26 Jesus looked at them and replied, “This is impossible for mere humans, but for God all things are possible.” 19:27 Then Peter said to him, “Look, we have left everything to follow you! What then will there be for us?” 19:28 Jesus said to them, “I tell you the truth: In the age when all things are renewed, when the Son of Man sits on his glorious throne, you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 19:29 And whoever has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or children or fields for my sake will receive a hundred times as much and will inherit eternal life. 19:30 But many who are first will be last, and the last first.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Galilee the region of Palestine north of Sameria and west of the upper Jordan River,a region west of Lake Galilee and north of the Jezreel Valley
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jordan the river that flows from Lake Galilee to the Dead Sea,a river that begins at Mt. Hermon, flows south through Lake Galilee and on to its end at the Dead Sea 175 km away (by air)
 · Judea a region that roughly corresponded to the earlier kingdom of Judah
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Peter a man who was a leader among the twelve apostles and wrote the two epistles of Peter
 · Pharisee a religious group or sect of the Jews


Topik/Tema Kamus: Peraea | Matthew, Gospel according to | DIVORCE IN THE NEW TESTAMENT | JESUS CHRIST, 4D | Jesus, The Christ | Divorce | Marriage | Riches | FAMILY | Life | Greed | LAW IN THE NEW TESTAMENT | Wife | Young Men | Self-righteousness | Salvation | Works | Polygamy | Quotations and Allusions | Concubine | selebihnya
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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Mat 19:1 - He departed He departed ( metēren ). Literally, to lift up, change something to another place. Transitive in the lxx and in a Cilician rock inscription. Intran...

He departed ( metēren ).

Literally, to lift up, change something to another place. Transitive in the lxx and in a Cilician rock inscription. Intransitive in Mat 13:53 and here, the only N.T. instances. Absence of hoti or kai after kai egeneto , one of the clear Hebraisms in the N.T. (Robertson, Grammar , pp. 1042f.). This verse is a sort of formula in Matthew at the close of important groups of logia as in Mat 7:28; Mat 11:1; Mat 13:53.

Robertson: Mat 19:1 - The borders of Judea beyond Jordan The borders of Judea beyond Jordan ( eis ta horia tēs Ioudaias peran tou Iordanou ). This is a curious expression. It apparently means that Jesus l...

The borders of Judea beyond Jordan ( eis ta horia tēs Ioudaias peran tou Iordanou ).

This is a curious expression. It apparently means that Jesus left Galilee to go to Judea by way of Perea as the Galileans often did to avoid Samaria. Luke (Luk 17:11) expressly says that he passed through Samaria and Galilee when he left Ephraim in Northern Judea (Joh 11:54). He was not afraid to pass through the edge of Galilee and down the Jordan Valley in Perea on this last journey to Jerusalem. McNeile is needlessly opposed to the trans-Jordanic or Perean aspect of this phase of Christ’ s work.

Robertson: Mat 19:3 - Pharisees tempting him Pharisees tempting him ( Pharisaioi peirazontes auton ). They "could not ask a question of Jesus without sinister motives"(Bruce). See note on Mat 4:...

Pharisees tempting him ( Pharisaioi peirazontes auton ).

They "could not ask a question of Jesus without sinister motives"(Bruce). See note on Mat 4:1 for the word (peirazō ).

Robertson: Mat 19:3 - For every cause For every cause ( kata pasan aitian ). This clause is an allusion to the dispute between the two theological schools over the meaning of Deu 24:1. Th...

For every cause ( kata pasan aitian ).

This clause is an allusion to the dispute between the two theological schools over the meaning of Deu 24:1. The school of Shammai took the strict and unpopular view of divorce for unchastity alone while the school of Hillel took the liberal and popular view of easy divorce for any passing whim if the husband saw a prettier woman (modern enough surely) or burnt his biscuits for breakfast. It was a pretty dilemma and meant to do Jesus harm with the people. There is no real trouble about the use of kata here in the sense of propter or because of (Robertson, Grammar , p. 509).

Robertson: Mat 19:5 - Shall cleave Shall cleave ( kollēthēsetai ). First future passive, "shall be glued to,"the verb means.

Shall cleave ( kollēthēsetai ).

First future passive, "shall be glued to,"the verb means.

Robertson: Mat 19:5 - The twain shall become one flesh The twain shall become one flesh ( esontai hoi duo eis sarka mian ). This use of eis after eimi is an imitation of the Hebrew, though a few examp...

The twain shall become one flesh ( esontai hoi duo eis sarka mian ).

This use of eis after eimi is an imitation of the Hebrew, though a few examples occur in the older Greek and in the papyri. The frequency of it is due to the Hebrew and here the lxx is a direct translation of the Hebrew idiom.

Robertson: Mat 19:6 - What therefore God hath joined together What therefore God hath joined together ( ho oun ho theos sunezeuxen ). Note "what,"not "whom."The marriage relation God has made. "The creation of s...

What therefore God hath joined together ( ho oun ho theos sunezeuxen ).

Note "what,"not "whom."The marriage relation God has made. "The creation of sex, and the high doctrine as to the cohesion it produces between man and woman, laid down in Gen., interdict separation"(Bruce). The word for "joined together"means "yoked together,"a common verb for marriage in ancient Greek. It is the timeless aorist indicative (sunezeuxen ), true always.

Robertson: Mat 19:6 - Bill Bill ( biblion ). A little biblos (see note on Mat 1:1), a scroll or document (papyrus or parchment). This was some protection to the divorced wife...

Bill ( biblion ).

A little biblos (see note on Mat 1:1), a scroll or document (papyrus or parchment). This was some protection to the divorced wife and a restriction on laxity.

Robertson: Mat 19:8 - For your hardness of heart For your hardness of heart ( pros tēn sklērokardian hūmōn ). The word is apparently one of the few Biblical words (lxx and the N.T.). It is a...

For your hardness of heart ( pros tēn sklērokardian hūmōn ).

The word is apparently one of the few Biblical words (lxx and the N.T.). It is a heart dried up (sklēros ), hard and tough.

Robertson: Mat 19:8 - But from the beginning it hath not been so But from the beginning it hath not been so ( ap' archēs de ouk gegonen houtōs ). The present perfect active of ginomai to emphasize the permane...

But from the beginning it hath not been so ( ap' archēs de ouk gegonen houtōs ).

The present perfect active of ginomai to emphasize the permanence of the divine ideal. "The original ordinance has never been abrogated nor superseded, but continues in force"(Vincent). "How small the Pharisaic disputants must have felt in presence of such holy teaching, which soars above the partisan view of controversialists into the serene region of ideal, universal, eternal truth"(Bruce).

Robertson: Mat 19:9 - Except for fornication Except for fornication ( parektos logou porneias ). This is the marginal reading in Westcott and Hort which also adds "maketh her an adulteress"(poie...

Except for fornication ( parektos logou porneias ).

This is the marginal reading in Westcott and Hort which also adds "maketh her an adulteress"(poiei autēn moicheuthēnai ) and also these words: "and he that marrieth her when she is put away committeth adultery"(kai ho apolelumenēn gamēsas moichatai ). There seems to be a certain amount of assimilation in various manuscripts between this verse and the words in Mat 5:32. But, whatever reading is accepted here, even the short one in Westcott and Hort (mē epi porneiāi , not for fornication), it is plain that Matthew represents Jesus in both places as allowing divorce for fornication as a general term (porneia ) which is technically adultery (moicheia from moichaō or moicheuō ). Here, as in Mat 5:31., a group of scholars deny the genuineness of the exception given by Matthew alone. McNeile holds that "the addition of the saving clause is, in fact, opposed to the spirit of the whole context, and must have been made at a time when the practice of divorce for adultery had already grown up."That in my opinion is gratuitous criticism which is unwilling to accept Matthew’ s report because it disagrees with one’ s views on the subject of divorce. He adds: "It cannot be supposed that Matthew wished to represent Jesus as siding with the school of Shammai."Why not, if Shammai on this point agreed with Jesus? Those who deny Matthew’ s report are those who are opposed to remarriage at all. Jesus by implication, as in Mat 5:31, does allow remarriage of the innocent party, but not of the guilty one. Certainly Jesus has lifted the whole subject of marriage and divorce to a new level, far beyond the petty contentions of the schools of Hillel and Shammai.

Robertson: Mat 19:10 - The disciples say unto him The disciples say unto him ( legousin autōi hoi mathētai ). "Christ’ s doctrine on marriage not only separated Him toto caelo from Pharisa...

The disciples say unto him ( legousin autōi hoi mathētai ).

"Christ’ s doctrine on marriage not only separated Him toto caelo from Pharisaic opinions of all shades, but was too high even for the Twelve"(Bruce).

Robertson: Mat 19:10 - The case The case ( hē aitia ). The word may refer to the use in Mat 19:3 "for every cause."It may have a vague idea here = res , condition. But the point c...

The case ( hē aitia ).

The word may refer to the use in Mat 19:3 "for every cause."It may have a vague idea here = res , condition. But the point clearly is that "it is not expedient to marry"(ou sumpherei gamēsai ) if such a strict view is held. If the bond is so tight a man had best not commit matrimony. It is a bit unusual to have anthrōpos and gunē contrasted rather than anēr and gunē .||

Robertson: Mat 19:11 - But they to whom it is given But they to whom it is given ( all' hois dedotai ). A neat Greek idiom, dative case of relation and perfect passive indicative. The same idea is repe...

But they to whom it is given ( all' hois dedotai ).

A neat Greek idiom, dative case of relation and perfect passive indicative. The same idea is repeated at the close of Mat 19:12. It is a voluntary renunciation of marriage for the sake of the kingdom of heaven. "Jesus recognizes the severity of the demand as going beyond the capacity of all but a select number."It was a direct appeal to the spiritual intelligence of the disciples not to misconceive his meaning as certainly the monastic orders have done.

Robertson: Mat 19:13 - Rebuked them Rebuked them ( epetimēsen autois ). No doubt people did often crowd around Jesus for a touch of his hand and his blessing. The disciples probably f...

Rebuked them ( epetimēsen autois ).

No doubt people did often crowd around Jesus for a touch of his hand and his blessing. The disciples probably felt that they were doing Jesus a kindness. How little they understood children and Jesus. It is a tragedy to make children feel that they are in the way at home and at church. These men were the twelve apostles and yet had no vision of Christ’ s love for little children. The new child world of today is due directly to Jesus.

Robertson: Mat 19:14 - Suffer Suffer ( aphete ). "Leave them alone."Second aorist active imperative.

Suffer ( aphete ).

"Leave them alone."Second aorist active imperative.

Robertson: Mat 19:14 - Forbid them not Forbid them not ( mē kōluete ). "Stop hindering them."The idiom of mē with the present imperative means just that.

Forbid them not ( mē kōluete ).

"Stop hindering them."The idiom of mē with the present imperative means just that.

Robertson: Mat 19:14 - Of such Of such ( tōn toioutōn ). The childlike as in Mat 18:3.

Of such ( tōn toioutōn ).

The childlike as in Mat 18:3.

Robertson: Mat 19:16 - What good thing What good thing ( ti agathon ). Mark (Mar 10:17) has the adjective "good"with "Teacher."

What good thing ( ti agathon ).

Mark (Mar 10:17) has the adjective "good"with "Teacher."

Robertson: Mat 19:16 - May have May have ( schō ). Ingressive aorist subjunctive, "may get,""may acquire."

May have ( schō ).

Ingressive aorist subjunctive, "may get,""may acquire."

Robertson: Mat 19:17 - Concerning that which is good Concerning that which is good ( peri tou agathou ). He had asked Jesus in Mat 19:16 "what good thing"he should do. He evidently had a light idea of t...

Concerning that which is good ( peri tou agathou ).

He had asked Jesus in Mat 19:16 "what good thing"he should do. He evidently had a light idea of the meaning of agathos . "This was only a teacher’ s way of leading on a pupil"(Bruce). So Jesus explains that "One there is who is good,"one alone who is really good in the absolute sense.

Robertson: Mat 19:20 - What lack I yet? What lack I yet? ( ti eti husterō̇ ) Here is a psychological paradox. He claims to have kept all these commandments and yet he was not satisfied. ...

What lack I yet? ( ti eti husterō̇ )

Here is a psychological paradox. He claims to have kept all these commandments and yet he was not satisfied. He had an uneasy conscience and Jesus called him to something that he did not have. He thought of goodness as quantitative (a series of acts) and not qualitative (of the nature of God). Did his question reveal proud complacency or pathetic despair? A bit of both most likely.

Robertson: Mat 19:21 - If thou wouldest be perfect If thou wouldest be perfect ( ei theleis teleios einai ). Condition of the first class, determined as fulfilled. Jesus assumes that the young man rea...

If thou wouldest be perfect ( ei theleis teleios einai ).

Condition of the first class, determined as fulfilled. Jesus assumes that the young man really desires to be perfect (a big adjective that, perfect as God is the goal, Mat 5:48).

Robertson: Mat 19:21 - That thou hast That thou hast ( sou ta huparchonta ). "Thy belongings."The Greek neuter plural participle used like our English word "belongings."It was a huge dema...

That thou hast ( sou ta huparchonta ).

"Thy belongings."The Greek neuter plural participle used like our English word "belongings."It was a huge demand, for he was rich.

Robertson: Mat 19:22 - Went away sorrowful Went away sorrowful ( apēlthen lupoumenos ). "Went away grieved."He felt that Jesus had asked too much of him. He worshipped money more than God wh...

Went away sorrowful ( apēlthen lupoumenos ).

"Went away grieved."He felt that Jesus had asked too much of him. He worshipped money more than God when put to the test. Does Jesus demand this same test of every one? Not unless he is in the grip of money. Different persons are in the power of different sins. One sin is enough to keep one away from Christ.

Robertson: Mat 19:23 - It is hard It is hard ( duskolōs ). With difficulty. Adverb from duskolos , hard to find food, fastidious, faultfinding, then difficult.

It is hard ( duskolōs ).

With difficulty. Adverb from duskolos , hard to find food, fastidious, faultfinding, then difficult.

Robertson: Mat 19:24 - It is easier for a camel to go through a needle’ s eye It is easier for a camel to go through a needle’ s eye ( eukopōteron estin kamēlon dia trēmatos rhaphidos eiselthein ). Jesus, of course, ...

It is easier for a camel to go through a needle’ s eye ( eukopōteron estin kamēlon dia trēmatos rhaphidos eiselthein ).

Jesus, of course, means by this comparison, whether an eastern proverb or not, to express the impossible. The efforts to explain it away are jejune like a ship’ s cable, kamilon or rhaphis as a narrow gorge or gate of entrance for camels which recognized stooping, etc. All these are hopeless, for Jesus pointedly calls the thing "impossible"(Mat 19:26). The Jews in the Babylonian Talmud did have a proverb that a man even in his dreams did not see an elephant pass through the eye of a needle (Vincent). The Koran speaks of the wicked finding the gates of heaven shut "till a camel shall pass through the eye of a needle."But the Koran may have got this figure from the New Testament. The word for an ordinary needle is rhaphis , but, Luke (Luk 18:25) employs belonē , the medical term for the surgical needle not elsewhere in the N.T.

Robertson: Mat 19:25 - Were astonished Were astonished ( exeplēssonto ). Imperfect descriptive of their blank amazement. They were literally "struck out."

Were astonished ( exeplēssonto ).

Imperfect descriptive of their blank amazement. They were literally "struck out."

Robertson: Mat 19:26 - Looking on them Looking on them ( emblepsas ). Jesus saw their amazement.

Looking on them ( emblepsas ).

Jesus saw their amazement.

Robertson: Mat 19:27 - What then shall we have? What then shall we have? ( ti ara estai hēmiṅ ) A pathetic question of hopeless lack of comprehension.

What then shall we have? ( ti ara estai hēmiṅ )

A pathetic question of hopeless lack of comprehension.

Robertson: Mat 19:28 - In the regeneration In the regeneration ( en tēi palingenesiāi ). The new birth of the world is to be fulfilled when Jesus sits on his throne of glory. This word was...

In the regeneration ( en tēi palingenesiāi ).

The new birth of the world is to be fulfilled when Jesus sits on his throne of glory. This word was used by the Stoics and the Pythagoreans. It is common also in the mystery religions (Angus, Mystery Religions and Christianity , pp. 95ff.). It is in the papyri also. We must put no fantastic ideas into the mouth of Jesus. But he did look for the final consummation of his kingdom. What is meant by the disciples also sitting on twelve thrones is not clear.

Robertson: Mat 19:29 - A hundredfold A hundredfold ( hekatonplasiona ). But Westcott and Hort read pollaplasiona , manifold. Eternal life is the real reward.

A hundredfold ( hekatonplasiona ).

But Westcott and Hort read pollaplasiona , manifold. Eternal life is the real reward.

Robertson: Mat 19:30 - The last first and the first last The last first and the first last ( hoi eschatoi prōtoi kai hoi prōtoi eschatoi ). This paradoxical enigma is probably in the nature of a rebuke ...

The last first and the first last ( hoi eschatoi prōtoi kai hoi prōtoi eschatoi ).

This paradoxical enigma is probably in the nature of a rebuke to Peter and refers to ranks in the kingdom. There are many other possible applications. The following parable illustrates it.

Vincent: Mat 19:1 - Coasts Coasts ( ὅρια ) Better Rev., borders; though it is easy to see how the translation coasts arose, coast being derived from the Latin...

Coasts ( ὅρια )

Better Rev., borders; though it is easy to see how the translation coasts arose, coast being derived from the Latin costa, a side, and hence a border generally, though now applied to the sea-side only.

Vincent: Mat 19:3 - Tempting Tempting See on Mat 6:13.

Tempting

See on Mat 6:13.

Vincent: Mat 19:3 - For every cause For every cause The temptation turned upon the dispute dividing the two great Rabbinical schools, the one of which (that of Hillel) held that a...

For every cause

The temptation turned upon the dispute dividing the two great Rabbinical schools, the one of which (that of Hillel) held that a man might divorce his wife for any reason which rendered her distasteful to him; and the other (that of Shammai) that divorce was allowable only in case of unchastity. The querists would be anxious to know which side Jesus espoused.

Vincent: Mat 19:5 - Shall cleave Shall cleave ( κολληθήσεται ) Lit., shall be glued.

Shall cleave ( κολληθήσεται )

Lit., shall be glued.

Vincent: Mat 19:5 - Shall be one flesh Shall be one flesh ( ἔσονται εἰς σάρκα μίαν ) Lit., " into one flesh;" Wyc., two in one flesh.

Shall be one flesh ( ἔσονται εἰς σάρκα μίαν )

Lit., " into one flesh;" Wyc., two in one flesh.

Vincent: Mat 19:6 - What What ( ὃ ) Not those. Christ is contemplating, not the individuals, but the unity which God cemented; and so Wyc., that thing that Go...

What ( ὃ )

Not those. Christ is contemplating, not the individuals, but the unity which God cemented; and so Wyc., that thing that God enjoined; i.e., knit together. The aorist tense (denoting the occurrence of an event at some past time, considered as a momentary act) seems to refer to the original ordinance of God at the creation (Mat 19:4).

Vincent: Mat 19:7 - Writing Writing ( βιβλίον ) Rev., bill. The word is a diminutive of βίβλος , which originally means the inner bark of the papyrus, use...

Writing ( βιβλίον )

Rev., bill. The word is a diminutive of βίβλος , which originally means the inner bark of the papyrus, used for writing, then a book or roll of this bark; hence a paper, bill.

Vincent: Mat 19:8 - Because of Because of ( πρὸς ) Rev., for : having regard to.

Because of ( πρὸς )

Rev., for : having regard to.

Vincent: Mat 19:8 - It was not so It was not so ( οὐ γέγονεν οὕτως ) The A. V. is commonly understood to mean, it was not so in the beginning. But that is ...

It was not so ( οὐ γέγονεν οὕτως )

The A. V. is commonly understood to mean, it was not so in the beginning. But that is not Christ's meaning. The verb is in the perfect tense (denoting the continuance of past action or its results down to the present). He means: Notwithstanding Moses' permission, the case has not been so from the beginning until now. The original ordinance has never been abrogated nor superseded, but continues in force.

Vincent: Mat 19:9 - Except for fornication Except for fornication ( μὴ ἐπὶ πορνείᾳ ) Lit., not on account of fornication.

Except for fornication ( μὴ ἐπὶ πορνείᾳ )

Lit., not on account of fornication.

Vincent: Mat 19:10 - The case The case ( αἰτία ) Not the relation of the man to his wife, nor the circumstances, the state of the case. Αἰτία refers to ...

The case ( αἰτία )

Not the relation of the man to his wife, nor the circumstances, the state of the case. Αἰτία refers to cause (Mat 19:3), and the meaning is, if the matter stands thus with reference to the cause which the man must have for putting away his wife.

Vincent: Mat 19:14 - Suffer Suffer ( ἄφετε ) Lit., leave alone. Compare Mar 14:6; Mar 15:36; Luk 13:8. Sir J. Cheke: Let these children alone.

Suffer ( ἄφετε )

Lit., leave alone. Compare Mar 14:6; Mar 15:36; Luk 13:8. Sir J. Cheke: Let these children alone.

Vincent: Mat 19:17 - Why callest thou me good? Why callest thou me good? ( τί με λέγεις ἀγαθόν ) But the true reading is, τί με ἐρωτᾷς περὶ τ...

Why callest thou me good? ( τί με λέγεις ἀγαθόν )

But the true reading is, τί με ἐρωτᾷς περὶ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ; Why askest thou me concerning the good ?

Vincent: Mat 19:17 - There is none good but one, that is God There is none good but one, that is God ( οὐδεὶς ἀγαθὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς ὁ Θεός ) But the reading is, εἱ...

There is none good but one, that is God ( οὐδεὶς ἀγαθὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς ὁ Θεός )

But the reading is, εἷς ἐστὶν ὁ ἀγαθός , One there is who is good. The saying of Christ appears especially appropriate in the light of the Rabbinic apothegm, " There is nothing else that is good but the law."

Vincent: Mat 19:24 - Camel - through a needle's eye Camel - through a needle's eye ( κάμηλον διά τρύπηματος ῥαφίδος ) See on Mar 10:25; and Luk 18:25. Compare t...

Camel - through a needle's eye ( κάμηλον διά τρύπηματος ῥαφίδος )

See on Mar 10:25; and Luk 18:25. Compare the Jewish proverb, that a man did not even in his dreams see an elephant pass through the eye of a needle. The reason why the camel was substituted for the elephant was because the proverb was from the Babylonian Talmud, and in Babylon the elephant was common, while in Palestine it was unknown. The Koran has the same figure: " The impious shall find the gates of heaven shut; nor shall he enter there till a camel shall pass through the eye of a needle." Bo-chart, in his history of the animals of scripture, cites a Talmudic passage: " A needle's eye is not too narrow for two friends, nor is the world wide enough for two enemies." The allusion is not to be explained by reference to a narrow gate called a needle's eye.

Vincent: Mat 19:26 - This This ( τοῦτο ) Not the salvation of rich men, but salvation in general. It is in answer to the question, who can be saved ? Man cann...

This ( τοῦτο )

Not the salvation of rich men, but salvation in general. It is in answer to the question, who can be saved ? Man cannot save himself nor his fellow. God only can save him.

Vincent: Mat 19:27 - We We Emphatic, in contrast with the young ruler.

We

Emphatic, in contrast with the young ruler.

Vincent: Mat 19:28 - Have followed Have followed " Peter had said together the words we have left, we have followed. Jesus replies to them separately; for the latter was pecu...

Have followed

" Peter had said together the words we have left, we have followed. Jesus replies to them separately; for the latter was peculiar to the apostles, the former common to them with others" (Bengel).

Vincent: Mat 19:28 - In the regeneration In the regeneration The final restitution of all things. To be construed with ye shall sit.

In the regeneration

The final restitution of all things. To be construed with ye shall sit.

Vincent: Mat 19:28 - Shall sit Shall sit ( καθίσῃ ) Or shall have taken his seat, which brings out more vividly the solemn inauguration of Christ's judgment.

Shall sit ( καθίσῃ )

Or shall have taken his seat, which brings out more vividly the solemn inauguration of Christ's judgment.

Vincent: Mat 19:29 - Every one Every one ( πᾶς ) Compare 2Ti 4:8, " to all them that love his appearing." " Not only apostles, nor ought Peter to have inquired only c...

Every one ( πᾶς )

Compare 2Ti 4:8, " to all them that love his appearing." " Not only apostles, nor ought Peter to have inquired only concerning them" (Bengel). The promise hitherto restricted to the apostles now becomes general.

Vincent: Mat 19:29 - A hundred-fold A hundred-fold ( ἑκατονταπλασίονα ) But many very high authorities read πολλαπλασίονα , manifold. So Rev. in ...

A hundred-fold ( ἑκατονταπλασίονα )

But many very high authorities read πολλαπλασίονα , manifold. So Rev. in margin. Compare Mar 10:30, where there is added " houses and brethren," etc. Also the Arabic proverb: " Purchase the next world with this; so shalt thou win both."

Wesley: Mat 19:1 - He departed and from that time walked no more in Galilee. Mar 10:1.

and from that time walked no more in Galilee. Mar 10:1.

Wesley: Mat 19:2 - Multitudes followed him, and he healed them there That is, wheresoever they followed him.

That is, wheresoever they followed him.

Wesley: Mat 19:3 - The Pharisees came tempting him Trying to make him contradict Moses.

Trying to make him contradict Moses.

Wesley: Mat 19:3 - For every cause That is, for any thing which he dislikes in her. This the scribes allowed.

That is, for any thing which he dislikes in her. This the scribes allowed.

Wesley: Mat 19:4 - He said, Have ye not read So instead of contradicting him, our Lord confutes them by the very words of Moses. He who made them, made them male and female from the beginning - A...

So instead of contradicting him, our Lord confutes them by the very words of Moses. He who made them, made them male and female from the beginning - At least from the beginning of the Mosaic creation. And where do we read of any other? Does it not follow, that God's making Eve was part of his original design, and not a consequence of Adam's beginning to fall? By making them one man and one woman, he condemned polygamy: by making them one flesh, he condemned divorce.

Wesley: Mat 19:5 - And said By the mouth of Adam, who uttered the words. Gen 2:24.

By the mouth of Adam, who uttered the words. Gen 2:24.

Wesley: Mat 19:7 - Why did Moses command Christ replies, Moses permitted (not commanded) it, because of the hardness of your hearts - Because neither your fathers nor you could bear the more ...

Christ replies, Moses permitted (not commanded) it, because of the hardness of your hearts - Because neither your fathers nor you could bear the more excellent way. Deu 24:1; Mat 5:31; Mar 10:2; Luk 16:18.

Wesley: Mat 19:9 - And I say to you I revoke that indulgence from this day, so that from henceforth, Whosoever, &c.

I revoke that indulgence from this day, so that from henceforth, Whosoever, &c.

Wesley: Mat 19:11 - But he said to them This is not universally true; it does not hold, with regard to all men, but with regard to those only to whom is given this excellent gift of God. Now...

This is not universally true; it does not hold, with regard to all men, but with regard to those only to whom is given this excellent gift of God. Now this is given to three sorts of persons to some by natural constitution, without their choice: to others by violence, against their choice; and to others by grace with their choice: who steadily withstand their natural inclinations, that they may wait upon God without distraction.

Wesley: Mat 19:12 - There are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake Happy they! who have abstained from marriage (though without condemning or despising it) that they might walk more closely with God!

Happy they! who have abstained from marriage (though without condemning or despising it) that they might walk more closely with God!

Wesley: Mat 19:12 - He that is able to receive it, let him receive it This gracious command (for such it is unquestionably, since to say, such a man may live single, is saying nothing. Who ever doubted this?) is not desi...

This gracious command (for such it is unquestionably, since to say, such a man may live single, is saying nothing. Who ever doubted this?) is not designed for all men: but only for those few who are able to receive it. O let these receive it joyfully!

Wesley: Mat 19:13 - That he should lay his hands on them This was a rite which was very early used, in praying for a blessing on young persons. See Gen 48:14, Gen 48:20.

This was a rite which was very early used, in praying for a blessing on young persons. See Gen 48:14, Gen 48:20.

Wesley: Mat 19:13 - The disciples rebuked them That is, them that brought them: probably thinking such an employ beneath the dignity of their Master. Mar 10:13; Luk 18:15.

That is, them that brought them: probably thinking such an employ beneath the dignity of their Master. Mar 10:13; Luk 18:15.

Wesley: Mat 19:14 - Of such is the kingdom of heaven Little children, either in a natural or spiritual sense, have a right to enter into my kingdom. Mat 18:3.

Little children, either in a natural or spiritual sense, have a right to enter into my kingdom. Mat 18:3.

Wesley: Mat 19:16 - And behold one came Many of the poor had followed him from the beginning. One rich man came at last. Mar 10:17; Luk 18:18.

Many of the poor had followed him from the beginning. One rich man came at last. Mar 10:17; Luk 18:18.

Wesley: Mat 19:17 - Why callest thou me good Whom thou supposest to be only a man.

Whom thou supposest to be only a man.

Wesley: Mat 19:17 - There is none good Supremely, originally, essentially, but God. If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments - From a principle of loving faith. Believe, and then...

Supremely, originally, essentially, but God. If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments - From a principle of loving faith. Believe, and thence love and obey. And this undoubtedly is the way to eternal life. Our Lord therefore does not answer ironically, which had been utterly beneath his character, but gives a plain, direct, serious answer to a serious question.

Wesley: Mat 19:19 - -- Exo 20:12. &c

Exo 20:12. &c

Wesley: Mat 19:20 - The young man saith, All these have I kept from my childhood So he imagined; and perhaps he had, as to the letter; but not as to the spirit, which our Lord immediately shows.

So he imagined; and perhaps he had, as to the letter; but not as to the spirit, which our Lord immediately shows.

Wesley: Mat 19:21 - If thou desirest to be perfect That is, to be a real Christian: Sell what thou hast - He who reads the heart saw his bosom sin was love of the world; and knew he could not be saved ...

That is, to be a real Christian: Sell what thou hast - He who reads the heart saw his bosom sin was love of the world; and knew he could not be saved from this, but by literally renouncing it. To him therefore he gave this particular direction, which he never designed for a general rule. For him that was necessary to salvation: to us it is not. To sell all was an absolute duty to him; to many of us it would be ali absolute sin.

Wesley: Mat 19:21 - The young man went away Not being willing to have salvation at so high a price.

Not being willing to have salvation at so high a price.

Wesley: Mat 19:24 - -- It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, (a proverbial expression,) than for a rich man to go through the strait gate: that is, hum...

It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, (a proverbial expression,) than for a rich man to go through the strait gate: that is, humanly speaking, it is an absolute impossibility. Rich man! tremble! feel this impossibility; else thou art lost for ever!

Wesley: Mat 19:25 - His disciples were amazed, saying, Who then can be saved? If rich men, with all their advantages, cannot? Who? A poor man; a peasant; a beggar: ten thousand of them, sooner than one that is rich.

If rich men, with all their advantages, cannot? Who? A poor man; a peasant; a beggar: ten thousand of them, sooner than one that is rich.

Wesley: Mat 19:26 - Jesus looking upon them To compose their hurried spirits.

To compose their hurried spirits.

Wesley: Mat 19:26 - O what a speaking look was there! Said to them With the utmost sweetness: With men this is impossible - It is observable, he does not retract what he had said: no, nor soften it in the least degree...

With the utmost sweetness: With men this is impossible - It is observable, he does not retract what he had said: no, nor soften it in the least degree, but rather strengthens it, by representing the salvation of a rich man as the utmost effort of Omnipotence.

Wesley: Mat 19:28 - In the renovation In the final renovation of all things: Ye shall sit - In the beginning of the judgment they shall stand, 2Co 5:10. Then being absolved, they shall sit...

In the final renovation of all things: Ye shall sit - In the beginning of the judgment they shall stand, 2Co 5:10. Then being absolved, they shall sit with the Judge, 1Co 6:2 On twelve thrones - So our Lord promised, without expressing any condition: yet as absolute as the words are, it is certain there is a condition implied, as in many scriptures, where none is expressed. In consequence of this, those twelve did not sit on those twelve thrones: for the throne of Judas another took, so that he never sat thereon.

Wesley: Mat 19:29 - And every one In every age and country; not you my apostles only; That hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or wife, or children - Either by giving any of them up, wh...

In every age and country; not you my apostles only; That hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or wife, or children - Either by giving any of them up, when they could not be retained with a clear conscience or by willingly refraining from acquiring them: Shall receive a hundred - fold - In value, though not in kind, even in the present world.

Wesley: Mat 19:30 - But many first Many of those who were first called, shall be last - Shall have the lowest reward: those who came after them being preferred before them: and yet poss...

Many of those who were first called, shall be last - Shall have the lowest reward: those who came after them being preferred before them: and yet possibly both the first and the last may be saved, though with different degrees of glory. Mat 20:16; Mar 10:31; Luk 13:30.

JFB: Mat 19:1 - And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these sayings, he departed from Galilee This marks a very solemn period in our Lord's public ministry. So slightly is it touched here, and in the corresponding passage of Mark (Mar 10:1), th...

This marks a very solemn period in our Lord's public ministry. So slightly is it touched here, and in the corresponding passage of Mark (Mar 10:1), that few readers probably note it as the Redeemer's Farewell to Galilee, which however it was. See on the sublime statement of Luke (Luk 9:51), which relates to the same transition stage in the progress of our Lord's work.

JFB: Mat 19:1 - and came into the coasts Or, boundaries

Or, boundaries

JFB: Mat 19:1 - of Judea beyond Jordan That is, to the further, or east side of the Jordan, into Perea, the dominions of Herod Antipas. But though one might conclude from our Evangelist tha...

That is, to the further, or east side of the Jordan, into Perea, the dominions of Herod Antipas. But though one might conclude from our Evangelist that our Lord went straight from the one region to the other, we know from the other Gospels that a considerable time elapsed between the departure from the one and the arrival at the other, during which many of the most important events in our Lord's public life occurred--probably a large part of what is recorded in Luk 9:51, onward to Mat 18:15, and part of John 7:2-11:54.

JFB: Mat 19:2 - And great multitudes followed him; and he healed them there Mark says further (Mar 10:1), that "as He was wont, He taught them there." What we now have on the subject of divorce is some of that teaching. Divor...

Mark says further (Mar 10:1), that "as He was wont, He taught them there." What we now have on the subject of divorce is some of that teaching.

Divorce (Mat 19:3-12).

JFB: Mat 19:3 - Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? Two rival schools (as we saw on Mat 5:31) were divided on this question--a delicate one, as DE WETTE pertinently remarks, in the dominions of Herod An...

Two rival schools (as we saw on Mat 5:31) were divided on this question--a delicate one, as DE WETTE pertinently remarks, in the dominions of Herod Antipas.

JFB: Mat 19:4 - And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female Or better, perhaps, "He that made them made them from the beginning a male and a female."

Or better, perhaps, "He that made them made them from the beginning a male and a female."

JFB: Mat 19:5 - And said, For this cause To follow out this divine appointment.

To follow out this divine appointment.

JFB: Mat 19:5 - shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh? Jesus here sends them back to the original constitution of man as one pair, a male and a female; to their marriage, as such, by divine appointment; an...

Jesus here sends them back to the original constitution of man as one pair, a male and a female; to their marriage, as such, by divine appointment; and to the purpose of God, expressed by the sacred historian, that in all time one man and one woman should by marriage become one flesh--so to continue as long as both are in the flesh. This being God's constitution, let not man break it up by causeless divorces.

JFB: Mat 19:7 - -- They say unto him, Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and to put her away?

They say unto him, Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and to put her away?

JFB: Mat 19:8 - He saith unto them, Moses As a civil lawgiver.

As a civil lawgiver.

JFB: Mat 19:8 - because of Or "having respect to."

Or "having respect to."

JFB: Mat 19:8 - the hardness of your hearts Looking to your low moral state, and your inability to endure the strictness of the original law.

Looking to your low moral state, and your inability to endure the strictness of the original law.

JFB: Mat 19:8 - suffered you to put away your wives Tolerated a relaxation of the strictness of the marriage bond--not as approving of it, but to prevent still greater evils.

Tolerated a relaxation of the strictness of the marriage bond--not as approving of it, but to prevent still greater evils.

JFB: Mat 19:8 - But from the beginning it was not so This is repeated, in order to impress upon His audience the temporary and purely civil character of this Mosaic relaxation.

This is repeated, in order to impress upon His audience the temporary and purely civil character of this Mosaic relaxation.

JFB: Mat 19:9 - And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except, &c. See on Mat 5:31.

See on Mat 5:31.

JFB: Mat 19:10 - His disciples say unto him, If the case of the man be so with his wife, it is not good to marry That is, "In this view of marriage, surely it must prove a snare rather than a blessing, and had better be avoided altogether."

That is, "In this view of marriage, surely it must prove a snare rather than a blessing, and had better be avoided altogether."

JFB: Mat 19:11 - But he said unto them, All men cannot receive this saying, save they to whom it is given That is, "That the unmarried state is better, is a saying not for everyone, and indeed only for such as it is divinely intended for." But who are thes...

That is, "That the unmarried state is better, is a saying not for everyone, and indeed only for such as it is divinely intended for." But who are these? they would naturally ask; and this our Lord proceeds to tell them in three particulars.

JFB: Mat 19:12 - For there are some eunuchs which were so born from their mother's womb Persons constitutionally either incapable of or indisposed to marriage.

Persons constitutionally either incapable of or indisposed to marriage.

JFB: Mat 19:12 - and there are some eunuchs which were made eunuchs of men Persons rendered incapable by others.

Persons rendered incapable by others.

JFB: Mat 19:12 - and there be eunuchs which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake Persons who, to do God's work better, deliberately choose this state. Such was Paul (1Co 7:7).

Persons who, to do God's work better, deliberately choose this state. Such was Paul (1Co 7:7).

JFB: Mat 19:12 - He that is able to receive it, let him receive it "He who feels this to be his proper vocation, let him embrace it"; which, of course, is as much as to say--"he only." Thus, all are left free in this ...

"He who feels this to be his proper vocation, let him embrace it"; which, of course, is as much as to say--"he only." Thus, all are left free in this matter.

Clarke: Mat 19:1 - Beyond Jordan Beyond Jordan - Or, by the side of Jordan. Matthew begins here to give an account of Christ’ s journey (the only one he mentions) to Jerusalem,...

Beyond Jordan - Or, by the side of Jordan. Matthew begins here to give an account of Christ’ s journey (the only one he mentions) to Jerusalem, a little before the passover, at which he was crucified. See Mar 10:1; Luk 9:51

Jesus came from Galilee (which lay to the north of Judea) into the coasts of Judea; and from thence, in his way to Jerusalem, he went through Jericho, (Mat 20:17, Mat 20:29), which lay at the distance of sixty furlongs, or seven miles and a half from Jordan, to the western side of it. See Joseph. War, book iv. chap. 8. sect. 3. It seems, therefore, most probable, that the course of Christ’ s journey led him by the side of the river Jordan, not beyond it. That the Greek word περαν, especially with a genitive case as here, has sometimes this signification, see on Joh 6:22 (note); see also Bp. Pearce.

Clarke: Mat 19:2 - Great multitudes followed him Great multitudes followed him - Some to be instructed - some to be healed - some through curiosity - and some to ensnare him.

Great multitudes followed him - Some to be instructed - some to be healed - some through curiosity - and some to ensnare him.

Clarke: Mat 19:3 - Tempting him Tempting him - Trying what answer he would give to a question, which, however decided by him, would expose him to censure

Tempting him - Trying what answer he would give to a question, which, however decided by him, would expose him to censure

Clarke: Mat 19:3 - Is it lawful - for every cause? Is it lawful - for every cause? - Instead of αιτιαν, fault, cause, reason, three MSS. and the Coptic version read αμαρτιαν, sin or t...

Is it lawful - for every cause? - Instead of αιτιαν, fault, cause, reason, three MSS. and the Coptic version read αμαρτιαν, sin or transgression: this was probably the original reading - the first syllable being lost, αρτιαν alone would remain, which a subsequent transcriber would suppose to be a mistake for αιτιαν, and so wrote it; hence this various reading. What made our Lord’ s situation at present so critical in respect to this question was: At this time there were two famous divinity and philosophical schools among the Jews, that of Shammai, and that of Hillel. On the question of divorce, the school of Shammai maintained, that a man could not legally put away his wife, except for whoredom. The school of Hillel taught that a man might put away his wife for a multitude of other causes, and when she did not find grace in his sight; i.e. when he saw any other woman that pleased him better. See the case of Josephus, mentioned in the note on Mat 5:31 (note), and Calmet’ s Comment, vol. i. part ii. p. 379. By answering the question, not from Shammai or Hillel, but from Moses, our blessed Lord defeated their malice, and confounded their devices.

Clarke: Mat 19:4 - He which made them at the beginning He which made them at the beginning - When Adam and Eve were the first of human kind

He which made them at the beginning - When Adam and Eve were the first of human kind

Clarke: Mat 19:4 - Made them male and female Made them male and female - Merely through the design of matrimonial union, that the earth might be thus peopled. To answer a case of conscience, a ...

Made them male and female - Merely through the design of matrimonial union, that the earth might be thus peopled. To answer a case of conscience, a man should act as Christ does here; pay no regard to that which the corruption of manners has introduced into Divine ordinances, but go back to the original will, purpose, and institution of God. Christ will never accommodate his morality to the times, nor to the inclinations of men. What was done at the beginning is what God judged most worthy of his glory, most profitable for man, and most suitable to nature.

Clarke: Mat 19:5 - For this cause For this cause - Being created for this very purpose; that they might glorify their Maker in a matrimonial connection. A man shall leave ( κατα...

For this cause - Being created for this very purpose; that they might glorify their Maker in a matrimonial connection. A man shall leave ( καταλειψαι, wholly give up) both father and mother - the matrimonial union being more intimate and binding than even paternal or filial affection; - and shall be closely united, προσκολληθησεται, shall be firmly cemented to his wife. A beautiful metaphor, which most forcibly intimates that nothing but death can separate them: as a well-glued board will break sooner in the whole wood, than in the glued joint. So also the Hebrew word דבק debak implies

Clarke: Mat 19:5 - And they twain shall be one flesh? And they twain shall be one flesh? - Not only meaning, that they should be considered as one body, but also as two souls in one body, with a complet...

And they twain shall be one flesh? - Not only meaning, that they should be considered as one body, but also as two souls in one body, with a complete union of interests, and an indissoluble partnership of life and fortune, comfort and support, desires and inclinations, joys and sorrows. Farther, it appears to me, that the words in Gen 2:24, לבסר אחד lebasar achad , for one flesh, which our Lord literally translates, mean also, that children, compounded as it were of both, should be the product of the matrimonial connection. Thus, they two (man and woman) shall be for the producing of one flesh, the very same kind of human creature with themselves. See the note on Gen 2:24.

Clarke: Mat 19:6 - What therefore God hath joined together What therefore God hath joined together - Συνεζευξεν, yoked together, as oxen in the plough, where each must pull equally, in order to br...

What therefore God hath joined together - Συνεζευξεν, yoked together, as oxen in the plough, where each must pull equally, in order to bring it on. Among the ancients, when persons were newly married, they put a yoke upon their necks, or chains upon their arms, to show that they were to be one, closely united, and pulling equally together in all the concerns of life. See Kypke in loco

The finest allegorical representation of the marriage union I have met with, is that antique gem representing the marriage of Cupid and Psyche, in the collection of the duke of Marlborough: it may be seen also among Baron Stoch’ s gems, and casts or copies of it in various other collections

1.    Both are represented as winged, to show the alacrity with which the husband and wife should help, comfort and support each ether; preventing, as much as possible, the expressing of a wish or want on either side, by fulfilling it before it can be expressed

2.    Both are veiled, to show that modesty is an inseparable attendant on pure matrimonial connections

3.    Hymen or Marriage goes before them with a lighted torch, leading them by a chain, of which each has a hold, to show that they are united together, and are bound to each other, and that they are led to this by the pure flame of love, which at the same instant both enlightens and warms them

4.    This chain is not iron nor brass, (to intimate that the marriage union is a state of thraldom or slavery), but it is a chain of pearls, to show that the union is precious, beautiful, and delightful

5.    They hold a dove, the emblem of conjugal fidelity, which they appear to embrace affectionately, to show that they are faithful to each other, not merely through duty, but by affection, and that this fidelity contributes to the happiness of their lives

6.    A winged Cupid, or Love, is represented as having gone before them, preparing the nuptial feast; to intimate that active affections, warm and cordial love, are to be to them a continual source of comfort and enjoyment; and that this is the entertainment they are to meet with at every step of their affectionate lives

7.    Another Cupid, or genius of love comes behind, and places on their heads a basket of ripe fruits; to intimate that a matrimonial union of this kind will generally be blessed with children, who shall be as pleasing to all their senses as ripe and delicious fruits to the smell and taste

8.    The genius of love that follows them has his wings shrivelled up, or the feathers all curled, so as to render them utterly unfit for flight; to intimate that love is to abide with them, that there is to be no separation in affection, but that they are to continue to love one another with pure hearts fervently. Thus love begins and continues this sacred union; as to end, there can be none, for God hath yoked them together

A finer or more expressive set of emblems has never, I believe, been produced, even by modern refined taste and ingenuity. This group of emblematical figures is engraved upon an onyx by Tryphon, an ancient Grecian artist. A fine drawing was made of this by Cypriani, and was engraved both by Bartolozzi and Sherwin. See one of these plates in the second volume of Bryant’ s Analysis of Ancient Mythology, page 392.

Clarke: Mat 19:7 - Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement? Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement? - It is not an unusual case for the impure and unholy to seek for a justification of th...

Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement? - It is not an unusual case for the impure and unholy to seek for a justification of their conduct from the law of God itself, and to wrest Scripture to their own destruction. I knew a gentleman, so called, who professed deep reverence for the sacred writings, and, strange as it may appear, was outwardly irreproachable in every respect but one; that was, he kept more women than his wife. This man frequently read the Bible, and was particularly conversant with those places that spoke of or seemed to legalize the polygamy of the patriarchs

Clarke: Mat 19:7 - A writing of divorcement A writing of divorcement - See the form of it in the note on Mat 5:31 (note).

A writing of divorcement - See the form of it in the note on Mat 5:31 (note).

Clarke: Mat 19:8 - Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts - It is dangerous to tolerate the least evil, though prudence itself may require it: because toleratio...

Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts - It is dangerous to tolerate the least evil, though prudence itself may require it: because toleration, in this case, raises itself insensibly into permission, and permission soon sets up for command. Moses perceived that if divorce were not permitted, in many cases, the women would be exposed to great hardships through the cruelty of their husbands: for so the word σκληροκαρδια, is understood in this place by some learned men

Clarke: Mat 19:8 - From the beginning it was not so From the beginning it was not so - The Jews named the books of the law from the first word in each. Genesis they always term Bereshith , בראשי...

From the beginning it was not so - The Jews named the books of the law from the first word in each. Genesis they always term Bereshith , בראשית, which is the first word in it, and signifies, In the beginning. It is probable that our Lord speaks in this way here, In Bereshith it was not so, intimating that the account given in Genesis is widely different. There was no divorce between Eve and Adam; nor did he or his family practice polygamy. But our Lord, by the beginning, may mean the original intention or design.

Clarke: Mat 19:9 - Except it be for fornication Except it be for fornication - See on Mat 5:32 (note). The decision of our Lord must be very unpleasant to these men: the reason why they wished to ...

Except it be for fornication - See on Mat 5:32 (note). The decision of our Lord must be very unpleasant to these men: the reason why they wished to put away their wives was, that they might take others whom they liked better; but our Lord here declares that they could not be remarried while the divorced person was alive, and that those who did marry, during the life of the divorced, were adulterers; and heavy judgments were, denounced, in their law, against such: and as the question was not settled by the schools of Shammai and Hillel, so as to ground national practice on it therefore they were obliged to abide by the positive declaration of the law, as it was popularly understood, till these eminent schools had proved the word had another meaning. The grand subject of dispute between the two schools, mentioned above, was the word in Deu 24:1, When a man hath taken a wife - and she find no grace in his sight, because of some Uncleanness, ערות eruath : - this the school of Shammai held to mean whoredom or adultery; but the school of Hillel maintained that it signified any corporeal defect, which rendered the person deformed, or any bad temper which made the husband’ s life uncomfortable. Any of the latter a good man might bear with; but it appears that Moses permitted the offended husband to put away the wife on these accounts, merely to save her from cruel usage

In this discourse, our Lord shows that marriage, (except in one case), is indissoluble, and should be so: -

1st, By Divine institution, Mat 19:4

2dly, By express commandment, Mat 19:5

3dly, Because the married couple become one and the same person, Mat 19:6

4thly, By the example of the first pair, Mat 19:8; an

5thly, Because of the evil consequent on separation, Mat 19:9. The importance of this subject will, I hope, vindicate or excuse, the length of these notes.

Clarke: Mat 19:10 - If the case of the man If the case of the man - Του ανθρωπου, of a husband, so I think the word should be translated here. The Codex Bezae, Armenian, and most ...

If the case of the man - Του ανθρωπου, of a husband, so I think the word should be translated here. The Codex Bezae, Armenian, and most of the Itala, have του ανδρος, which, perhaps, more properly signifies a husband, though both words are used in this sense

Our word husband comes from the Anglo-Saxon, hus and band : the bond of the house, anciently spelt housebond, - so in my old MS. Bible. It is a lamentable case when the husband, instead of being the bond and union of the family, scatters and ruins it by dissipation, riot, and excess

Clarke: Mat 19:10 - It is not good to marry It is not good to marry - That is, if a man have not the liberty to put away his wife when she is displeasing to him. God had said, Gen 2:18, It is ...

It is not good to marry - That is, if a man have not the liberty to put away his wife when she is displeasing to him. God had said, Gen 2:18, It is not good for man to be alone, i.e. unmarried. The disciples seem to say, that if the husband have not the power to divorce his wife when she is displeasing to him, it is not good for him to marry. Here was a flat contradiction to the decision of the Creator. There are difficulties and trials in all states; but let marriage and celibacy be weighed fairly, and I am persuaded the former will be found to have fewer than the latter. However, before we enter into an engagement which nothing but death can dissolve, we had need to act cautiously, carefully consulting the will and word of God. Where an unbridled passion, or a base love of money, lead the way, marriage is sure to be miserable.

Clarke: Mat 19:11 - All - cannot receive this saying All - cannot receive this saying - A very wise answer, and well suited to the present circumstances of the disciples. Neither of the states is conde...

All - cannot receive this saying - A very wise answer, and well suited to the present circumstances of the disciples. Neither of the states is condemned. If thou marry, thou dost well - this is according to the order, will, and commandment of God. But if thou do not marry, (because of the present necessity, persecution, worldly embarrassments, or bodily infirmity), thou dost better. See 1Co 7:25.

Clarke: Mat 19:12 - Eunuchs Eunuchs - Ευνουχος, from ευνην εχειν, to have the care of the bed or bedchamber; this being the principal employment of eunuchs ...

Eunuchs - Ευνουχος, from ευνην εχειν, to have the care of the bed or bedchamber; this being the principal employment of eunuchs in the eastern countries, particularly in the apartments of queens and princesses. These are they whom our Lord says are made eunuchs by men, merely for the above purpose

Clarke: Mat 19:12 - So born from their mother’ s womb So born from their mother’ s womb - Such as are naturally incapable of marriage, and consequently should not contract any

So born from their mother’ s womb - Such as are naturally incapable of marriage, and consequently should not contract any

Clarke: Mat 19:12 - For the kingdom of heaven’ s sake For the kingdom of heaven’ s sake - I believe our Lord here alludes to the case of the Essenes, one of the most holy and pure sects among the J...

For the kingdom of heaven’ s sake - I believe our Lord here alludes to the case of the Essenes, one of the most holy and pure sects among the Jews. These abstained from all commerce with women, hoping thereby to acquire a greater degree of purity, and be better fitted for the kingdom of God: children they had none of their own, but constantly adopted those of poor people, and brought them up in their own way. Philo, Josephus, and Pliny have largely described this very singular sect; and Dean Prideaux, with his usual fidelity and perspicuity, has given the substance of what each has said. Connex. vol. iii. p. 483, etc.; edit. 1725. The account is very interesting, and well worthy the attention of every Christian. Among the rabbins we find these different kinds of eunuchs, not only mentioned, but circumstantially described, סריס חמה saris chama , eunuchs of the sun, i.e. eunuchs by the hand of God; men born impotent. סריס אדם saris Adam , eunuchs of men, those who were castrated. And they add a third sort; those who make themselves eunuchs, abstain from marriage, etc., that they may give themselves Up to the study of the Divine law. See many examples in Schoettgen

Clarke: Mat 19:12 - He that is able to receive He that is able to receive - Χωρειν χωρειτω . These words are variously translated: he who can take; let him take it; comprehend, let ...

He that is able to receive - Χωρειν χωρειτω . These words are variously translated: he who can take; let him take it; comprehend, let him comprehend it: admit, let him admit it. The meaning seems to be, Let the man who feels himself capable of embracing this way of life, embrace it; but none can do it but he to whom it is given, who has it as a gift from his mother’ s womb

The great Origen, understanding the latter clause of this verse (which I have applied to the Essenes) literally - O human weakness! - went, and literally fulfilled it on himself!

Clarke: Mat 19:13 - Then were there brought unto him little children Then were there brought unto him little children - These are termed by Luke, Luk 18:15, τα βρεφη, infants, very young children; and it was o...

Then were there brought unto him little children - These are termed by Luke, Luk 18:15, τα βρεφη, infants, very young children; and it was on this account, probably, that the disciples rebuked the parents, thinking them too young to receive good. See on Mar 10:16 (note)

Clarke: Mat 19:13 - That he should put his hands That he should put his hands - It was a common custom among the Jews to lay their hands on the heads of those whom they blessed, or for whom they pr...

That he should put his hands - It was a common custom among the Jews to lay their hands on the heads of those whom they blessed, or for whom they prayed. This seems to have been done by way of dedication or consecration to God - the person being considered as the sacred property of God ever after. Often God added a testimony of his approbation, by communicating some extraordinary influence of the Holy Spirit. This rite has been long practised among Christians, when persons are appointed to any sacred office. But this consecration of children to God seems to have grown out of use. It is no wonder that the great mass of children are so wicked, when so few, are put under the care of Christ by humble, praying, believing parents. Let every parent that fears God bring up his children in that fear; and, by baptism, let each be dedicated to the holy trinity. Whatever is solemnly consecrated to God abides under his protection and blessing.

Clarke: Mat 19:14 - Of such is the kingdom of heaven Of such is the kingdom of heaven - Or, the kingdom of heaven is composed of such. This appears to be the best sense of the passage, and utterly ruin...

Of such is the kingdom of heaven - Or, the kingdom of heaven is composed of such. This appears to be the best sense of the passage, and utterly ruins the whole inhuman diabolic system of what is called non-elect infants’ damnation; a doctrine which must have sprung from Moloch, and can only be defended by a heart in which he dwells. A great part of God’ s kingdom is composed of such literally; and those only who resemble little children shall be received into it: see on Mat 18:3 (note). Christ loves little children because he loves simplicity and innocence; he has sanctified their very age by passing through it himself - the holy Jesus was once a little child.

Clarke: Mat 19:15 - He - departed thence He - departed thence - That is, from that part of Judea which was beyond Jordan, Mat 19:1; and then went to Jericho. See Mat 20:29.

He - departed thence - That is, from that part of Judea which was beyond Jordan, Mat 19:1; and then went to Jericho. See Mat 20:29.

Clarke: Mat 19:16 - One came One came - Instead of εις one, several MSS., the Slavonic version, and Hilary, read νεανισκος τις, a certain young man

One came - Instead of εις one, several MSS., the Slavonic version, and Hilary, read νεανισκος τις, a certain young man

Clarke: Mat 19:16 - Good, etc. Good, etc. - Much instruction may be had from seriously attending to the conduct, spirit, and question of this person 1.    He came r...

Good, etc. - Much instruction may be had from seriously attending to the conduct, spirit, and question of this person

1.    He came running, (Mar 10:17), for he was deeply convinced of the importance of his business, and seriously determined to seek so as to find

2.    He kneeled, or caught him by the knees, thus evidencing his humility, and addressing himself only to mercy. See Mat 17:14

3.    He came in the spirit of a disciple, or scholar, desiring to be taught a matter of the utmost importance to him - Good teacher

4.    He came in the spirit of obedience; he had worked hard to no purpose, and he is still willing to work, provided he can have a prospect of succeeding - What good thing shall I do

5.    His question was the most interesting and important that any soul can ask of God - How shall I be saved?

Clarke: Mat 19:17 - Why callest thou me good? Why callest thou me good? - Or, Why dost thou question me concerning that good thing? τι με ερωτας περι του αγαθου . This im...

Why callest thou me good? - Or, Why dost thou question me concerning that good thing? τι με ερωτας περι του αγαθου . This important reading is found in BDL, three others, the Coptic, Sahidic, Armenian, Ethiopic, latter Syriac, Vulgate, Saxon, all the Itala but one, Origen, Eusebius, Cyril, Dionysius Areop., Antiochus, Novatian, Jerome, Augustin, and Juvencus. Erasmus, Grotius, Mill, and Bengel approve of this reading. This authority appears so decisive to Griesbach that he has received this reading into the text of his second edition, which in the first he had interlined. And instead of, None is good but the one God, he goes on to read, on nearly the same respectable authorities, εις εϚιν ο αγαθος . There is one who is good. Let it be observed also that, in the 16th verse, instead of διδασκαλε αγαθε, good teacher, διδασκαλε only is read by BDL, one other, one Evangelistarium, the Ethiopic, three of the Itala, Origen, and Hilary. The whole passage therefore may be read thus: O teacher! what good thing shall I do that I may have eternal life? And he said unto him, Why dost thou question me concerning that good thing? There is one that is good. (Or he who is good is one). But If thou art willing to enter into that life, keep the commandments. This passage, as it stood in the common editions, has been considered by some writers as an incontrovertible proof against the Divinity or Godhead of Christ. A very learned person, in his note on this place, thus concludes concerning it: "Therefore our Savior cannot be God: and the notion of, I know not what, a trinity in unity, Three Gods in One, is here proved beyond all controversy, by the unequivocal declaration of Jesus Christ Himself, to be Erroneous and Impossible."Not so. One of the greatest critics in Europe, not at all partial to the Godhead of Christ, has admitted the above readings into his text, on evidence which he judged to be unexceptionable. If they be the true readings, they destroy the whole doctrine built on this text; and indeed the utmost that the enemies of the trinitarian doctrine can now expect from their formidable opponents, concerning this text, is to leave it neuter

Clarke: Mat 19:17 - Keep the commandments Keep the commandments - From this we may learn that God’ s great design, in giving his law to the Jews, was to lead them to the expectation and...

Keep the commandments - From this we may learn that God’ s great design, in giving his law to the Jews, was to lead them to the expectation and enjoyment of eternal life. But as all the law referred to Christ, and he became the end of the law for righteousness (justification) to all that believe, so he is to be received, in order to have the end accomplished which the law proposed.

Clarke: Mat 19:18 - Thou shalt do no murder, etc. Thou shalt do no murder, etc. - But some say these commandments are not binding on us. Vain, deceived men! Can a murderer, an adulterer, a thief, an...

Thou shalt do no murder, etc. - But some say these commandments are not binding on us. Vain, deceived men! Can a murderer, an adulterer, a thief, and a liar enter into eternal life? No. The God of purity and justice has forbidden it. But we are not to keep these commandments in order to purchase eternal life. Right. Neither Jesus Christ, nor his genuine messengers, say you are. To save your souls, Christ must save you from your sins, and enable you to walk before him in newness of life.

Clarke: Mat 19:19 - Honour thy father and thy mother Honour thy father and thy mother - σου thy, is omitted by almost every MS. of respectability

Honour thy father and thy mother - σου thy, is omitted by almost every MS. of respectability

Clarke: Mat 19:19 - Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself - Self-love, as it is generally called, has been grievously declaimed against, even by religious people, as ...

Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself - Self-love, as it is generally called, has been grievously declaimed against, even by religious people, as a most pernicious and dreadful evil. But they have not understood the subject on which they spoke. They have denominated that intense propensity which unregenerate men feel to gratify their carnal appetites and vicious passions, self-love; whereas it might be more properly termed self-hatred or self-murder. If I am to love my neighbor as myself and this "love worketh no ill to its neighbor,"then self-love, in the sense in which our Lord uses it, is something excellent. It is properly a disposition essential to our nature, and inseparable from our being, by which we desire to be happy, by which we seek the happiness we have not, and rejoice in it when we possess it. In a word, it is a uniform wish of the soul to avoid all evil, and to enjoy all good. Therefore, he who is wholly governed by self-love, properly and Scripturally speaking, will devote his whole soul to God, and earnestly and constantly seek all his peace, happiness, and salvation in the enjoyment of God. But self-love cannot make me happy. I am only the subject which receives the happiness, but am not the object that constitutes this happiness; for it is that object, properly speaking, that I love, and love not only for its own sake, but also for the sake of the happiness which I enjoy through it. "No man,"saith the apostle, "ever hated his own flesh."But he that sinneth against God wrongeth his own soul, both of present and eternal salvation, and is so far from being governed by self-love that he is the implacable enemy of his best and dearest interests in both worlds.

Clarke: Mat 19:20 - All these have I kept All these have I kept - I have made these precepts the rule of my life. There is a difference worthy of notice between this and our Lord’ s wor...

All these have I kept - I have made these precepts the rule of my life. There is a difference worthy of notice between this and our Lord’ s word. He says, Mat 19:17, τηρησον, keep, earnestly, diligently, as with watch and ward; probably referring not only to the letter but to the spirit. The young man modestly says, all these ( εφυλαξα ) have I observed; I have paid attention to, and endeavored to regulate my conduct by them. I have kept them in custody

Clarke: Mat 19:20 - From my youth From my youth - Several MSS., versions, and fathers, leave out these words. Grotius and Mill approve of the omission, and Griesbach leaves them in t...

From my youth - Several MSS., versions, and fathers, leave out these words. Grotius and Mill approve of the omission, and Griesbach leaves them in the text with a note of suspicion. Perhaps the young man meant no more than that he had in general observed them, and considered them of continual obligation

Clarke: Mat 19:20 - What lack I yet? What lack I yet? - He felt a troubled conscience, and a mind unassured of the approbation of God; and he clearly perceived that something was wantin...

What lack I yet? - He felt a troubled conscience, and a mind unassured of the approbation of God; and he clearly perceived that something was wanting to make him truly happy.

Clarke: Mat 19:21 - If thou wilt be perfect If thou wilt be perfect - Τελειος ειναι, To be complete, to have the business finished, and all hinderances to thy salvation removed, g...

If thou wilt be perfect - Τελειος ειναι, To be complete, to have the business finished, and all hinderances to thy salvation removed, go and sell that thou hast - go and dispose of thy possessions, to which it is evident his heart was too much attached, and give to the poor - for thy goods will be a continual snare to thee if thou keep them; and thou shalt have treasure in heaven - the loss, if it can be called such, shall be made amply up to thee in that eternal life about which thou inquirest; and come and follow me - be my disciple, and I will appoint thee to preach the kingdom of God to others. This was the usual call which Christ gave to his disciples. See Mat 4:19; Mat 8:22; Mat 9:9; Mar 2:14; and it is pretty evident, from this, that he intended to make him a preacher of his salvation. How many, by their attachment to filthy lucre, have lost the honor of becoming or continuing ambassadors for the Most High! See on Mar 10:21 (note).

Clarke: Mat 19:22 - Went away sorrowful Went away sorrowful - Men undergo great agony of mind while they are in suspense between the love of the world and the love of their souls. When the...

Went away sorrowful - Men undergo great agony of mind while they are in suspense between the love of the world and the love of their souls. When the first absolutely predominates, then they enjoy a factitious rest through a false peace: when the latter has the upper hand, then they possess true tranquillity of mind, through that peace of God that passeth knowledge

Clarke: Mat 19:22 - He had great possessions He had great possessions - And what were these in comparison of peace of conscience, and mental rest? Besides, he had unequivocal proof that these c...

He had great possessions - And what were these in comparison of peace of conscience, and mental rest? Besides, he had unequivocal proof that these contributed nothing to his comfort, for he is now miserable even while he possesses them! And so will every soul be, who puts worldly goods in the place of the supreme God. See on Mar 10:22 (note).

Clarke: Mat 19:23 - A rich man shall hardly enter A rich man shall hardly enter - That is, into the spirit and privileges of the Gospel in this world, and through them into the kingdom of glory. Ear...

A rich man shall hardly enter - That is, into the spirit and privileges of the Gospel in this world, and through them into the kingdom of glory. Earthly riches are a great obstacle to salvation; because it is almost impossible to possess them, and not to set the heart upon them; and they who love the world have not the love of the Father in them. 1Jo 2:15. To be rich, therefore, is in general a great misfortune: but what rich man can be convinced of this? It is only God himself who, by a miracle of mercy, can do this. Christ himself affirms the difficulty of the salvation of a rich man, with an oath, verily; but who of the rich either hears or believes him!

Clarke: Mat 19:24 - A camel A camel - Instead of καμηλον, camel, six MSS. read καμιλον, cable, a mere gloss inserted by some who did not know that the other was...

A camel - Instead of καμηλον, camel, six MSS. read καμιλον, cable, a mere gloss inserted by some who did not know that the other was a proverb common enough among the people of the east

There is an expression similar to this in the Koran. "The impious, who in his arrogance shall accuse our doctrine of falsity, shall find the gates of heaven shut: nor shall he enter there till a camel shall pass through the eye of a needle. It is thus that we shall recompense the wicked."Al Koran. Surat vii. ver. 37

It was also a mode of expression common among the Jews, and signified a thing impossible. Hence this proverb: A camel in Media dances in a cabe; a measure which held about three pints. Again, No man sees a palm tree of gold, nor an elephant passing through the eye of a needle. Because these are impossible things. "Rabbi Shesheth answered Rabbi Amram, who had advanced an absurdity, Perhaps thou art one of the Pembidithians who can make an elephant pass through the eye of a needle; that is, says the Aruch, ‘ who speak things impossible.’ "See Lightfoot and Schoettgen on this place

Clarke: Mat 19:24 - Go through Go through - But instead of διελθειν, about eighty MSS. with several versions and fathers, have εισελθειν, to enter in; but the d...

Go through - But instead of διελθειν, about eighty MSS. with several versions and fathers, have εισελθειν, to enter in; but the difference is of little importance in an English translation, though of some consequence to the elegance of the Greek text.

Clarke: Mat 19:25 - Who can be saved? Who can be saved? - The question of the disciples seemed to intimate that most people were rich, and that therefore scarcely any could be saved. The...

Who can be saved? - The question of the disciples seemed to intimate that most people were rich, and that therefore scarcely any could be saved. They certainly must have attached a different meaning to what constitutes a rich man, to what we in general do. Who is a rich man in our Lord’ s sense of the word? This is a very important question, and has not, that I know of, been explicitly answered. A rich man, in my opinion, is not one who has so many hundreds or thousands more than some of his neighbors; but is one who gets more than is necessary to supply all his own wants, and those of his household, and keeps the residue still to himself, though the poor are starving through lack of the necessaries of life. In a word, he is a man who gets all he can, saves all he can, and keeps all he has gotten. Speak, reason! Speak, conscience! (for God has already spoken) Can such a person enter into the kingdom of God? All, No!!!

Clarke: Mat 19:26 - With men this is impossible With men this is impossible - God alone can take the love of the world out of the human heart. Therefore the salvation of the rich is represented as...

With men this is impossible - God alone can take the love of the world out of the human heart. Therefore the salvation of the rich is represented as possible only to him: and indeed the words seem to intimate, that it requires more than common exertions of Omnipotence to save a rich man.

Clarke: Mat 19:27 - We have forsaken all We have forsaken all - " A poor all,"says one, "a parcel of rotten nets."No matter - they were their All, whether rotten or sound; besides, they wer...

We have forsaken all - " A poor all,"says one, "a parcel of rotten nets."No matter - they were their All, whether rotten or sound; besides, they were the all they got their bread by; and such an all as was quite sufficient for that purpose: and let it be observed, that that man forsakes much who reserves nothing to himself, and renounces all expectations from this world, taking God alone for his portion. See Mat 4:20

To forsake all, without following Christ, is the virtue of a philosopher. To follow Christ in profession, without forsaking all, is the state of the generality of Christians. But to follow Christ and forsake all, is the perfection of a Christian

Clarke: Mat 19:27 - What shall we have therefore? What shall we have therefore? - Τι αρα εϚαι ημιν, What Reward shall we get? This Kypke proves to be the meaning of the words from some...

What shall we have therefore? - Τι αρα εϚαι ημιν, What Reward shall we get? This Kypke proves to be the meaning of the words from some of the best Greek writers.

Clarke: Mat 19:28 - Ye which have followed me, in the regeneration, when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, etc. Ye which have followed me, in the regeneration, when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, etc. - The punctuation which I have observ...

Ye which have followed me, in the regeneration, when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, etc. - The punctuation which I have observed here, is that which is followed by the most eminent critics: the regeneration is thus referred to the time when Jesus shall sit on the throne of his glory, and not to the time of following him, which is utterly improper

The regeneration, παλιγγενεσια . Some refer this to the time in which the new heavens and the new earth shall be created, and the soul and body united. The Pythagoreans termed that παλιγγενεσια, when, according to their doctrine of the transmigration or metempsychosis, the soul entered into a new body, and got into a new state of being. Clement, in his Epistle to the Corinthians, calls the restoration of the world, after the deluge, by the same name

Clarke: Mat 19:28 - Judging the twelve tribes Judging the twelve tribes - From the parallel place, Luk 22:28-30, it is evident that sitting on thrones, and judging the twelve tribes, means simpl...

Judging the twelve tribes - From the parallel place, Luk 22:28-30, it is evident that sitting on thrones, and judging the twelve tribes, means simply obtaining eternal salvation, and the distinguishing privileges of the kingdom of glory, by those who continued faithful to Christ in his sufferings and death

Judging, κρινοντες . Kypke has shown that κρινεσθαι is to be understood in the sense of governing, presiding, holding the first or most distinguished place. Thus, Gen 49:16, Dan shall Judge his people, i.e. shall preside in, or rule over them; shall occupy a chief place among the tribes. It is well known that the Judges among the Jews were moderators, captains, chief, or head men. The sense therefore of our Lord’ s words appears to be, that these disciples should have those distinguished seats in glory which seem to belong peculiarly to the first confessors and martyrs. See 1Th 4:14, 1Th 4:16, and particularly Rev 20:4-6

The last-quoted passage brings into view the doctrine of the Millennium, when Jesus, after having formed the new heavens and the new earth, shall reign here gloriously among his ancients 365,000 years; for the thousand years referred to above are certainly prophetical years, in which, it is well known, each day stands for a year

Others, of no mean note, are of opinion that the regeneration means the conversion of men by the preaching of the Gospel - that sitting on twelve thrones signifies the state of eminent dignity to which the apostles should be raised - and that judging the twelve tribes of Israel, means no more than exercising authority in the Church, and dispensing laws to the people of God. But I confess I do not see the propriety of this application of the terms, as the following verse seems to fix the meaning mentioned above.

Clarke: Mat 19:29 - Shall receive a hundredfold Shall receive a hundredfold - Viz. in this life, in value, though perhaps not in kind; and in the world to come everlasting life. A glorious portion...

Shall receive a hundredfold - Viz. in this life, in value, though perhaps not in kind; and in the world to come everlasting life. A glorious portion for a persevering believer! The fullness of Grace here, and the fullness of Glory hereafter! See on Mar 10:30 (note).

Clarke: Mat 19:30 - But many that are first, etc. But many that are first, etc. - The Jews, who have been the first and most distinguished people of God, will in general reject the Gospel of my grac...

But many that are first, etc. - The Jews, who have been the first and most distinguished people of God, will in general reject the Gospel of my grace, and be consequently rejected by me. The Gentiles, who have had no name among the living, shall be brought to the knowledge of the truth, and become the first, the chief, and most exalted people of God. That this prediction of our Lord has been literally fulfilled, the present state of the Christian and Jewish Churches sufficiently proves. To illustrate this fully, and to demonstrate that the Jews and Gentiles were now put on an equal footing by the Gospel, our Lord speaks the following parable, which has been unhappily divided from its connection by making it the beginning of a new chapter.

Calvin: Mat 19:3 - And the Pharisees came to him, tempting him Mat 19:3.And the Pharisees came to him, tempting him Though the Pharisees lay snares for Christ, and cunningly endeavor to impose upon him, yet their ...

Mat 19:3.And the Pharisees came to him, tempting him Though the Pharisees lay snares for Christ, and cunningly endeavor to impose upon him, yet their malice proves to be highly useful to us; as the Lord knows how to turn, in a wonderful manner, to the advantage of his people all the contrivances of wicked men to overthrow sound doctrine. For, by means of this occurrence, a question arising out of the liberty of divorce was settled, and a fixed law was laid down as to the sacred and indissoluble bond of marriage. The occasion of this quibbling was, that the reply, in whatever way it were given, could not, as they thought, fail to be offensive.

They ask, Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any cause whatever? If Christ reply in the negative, they will exclaim that he wickedly abolishes the Law; and if in the affirmative, they will give out that he is not a prophet of God, but rather a pander, who lends such countenance to the lust of men. Such were the calculations which they had made in their own minds; but the Son of God, who knew how to take the wise in their own craftiness, (Job 5:13,) disappointed them, sternly opposing unlawful divorces, and at the same time showing that he brings forward nothing which is inconsistent with the Law. For he includes the whole question under two heads: that the order of creation ought to serve for a law, that the husband should maintain conjugal fidelity during the whole of life; and that divorces were permitted, not because they were lawful, but because Moses had to deal with a rebellious and intractable nation.

Calvin: Mat 19:4 - Have you not read? 4.Have you not read? Christ does not indeed reply directly to what was asked, but he fully meets the question which was proposed; just as if a person...

4.Have you not read? Christ does not indeed reply directly to what was asked, but he fully meets the question which was proposed; just as if a person now interrogated about the Mass were to explain faithfully the mystery of the Holy Supper, and at length to conclude, that they are guilty of sacrilege and forgery who venture either to add or to take away any thing from the pure institution of the Lord, he would plainly overturn the pretended sacrifice of the Mass. Now Christ assumes as an admitted principle, that at the beginning God joined the male to the female, so that the two made an entire man; and therefore he who divorces his wife tears from him, as it were, the half of himself. But nature does not allow any man to tear in pieces his own body.

He adds another argument drawn from the less to the greater. The bond of marriage is more sacred than that which binds children to their parents. But piety binds children to their parents by a link which cannot be broken. Much less then can the husband renounce his wife. Hence it follows, that a chain which God made is burst asunder, if the husband divorce his wife. 594

Now the meaning of the words is this: God, who created the human race, made them male and female, so that every man might be satisfied with his own wife, and might not desire more. For he insists on the number two, as the prophet Malachi, (Mal 2:15,)when he remonstrates against polygamy, employs the same argument, that God, whose Spirit was so abundant that He had it in His power to create more, yet made but one man, that is, such a man as Christ here describes. And thus from the order of creation is proved the inviolable union of one husband with one wife. If it be objected, that in this way it will not be lawful, after the first wife is dead, to take another, the reply is easy, that not only is the bond dissolved by death, but the second wife is substituted by God in the room of the first, as if she had been one and the same woman.

Calvin: Mat 19:5 - Therefore shall a man leave his father and mother // And the two shall be one flesh 5.Therefore shall a man leave his father and mother It is uncertain whether Moses represents Adam or God as speaking these words; but it is of little...

5.Therefore shall a man leave his father and mother It is uncertain whether Moses represents Adam or God as speaking these words; but it is of little consequence to the present passage which of these meanings you choose, for it was enough to quote the decision which God had pronounced, though it might have been uttered by the mouth of Adam. Now he who marries a wife is not commanded absolutely to leave his father; for God would contradict himself, if by marriage He set aside those duties which He enjoins on children towards their parents; but when a comparison is made between the claims, the wife is preferred to the father and mother But if any man abandon his father, and shake off the yoke by which he is bound, no man will own such a monster; 595 much less will he be at liberty to dissolve a marriage.

And the two shall be one flesh This expression condemns polygamy not less than it condemns unrestrained liberty in divorcing wives; for, if the mutual union of two persons was consecrated by the Lord, the mixture of three or four persons is unauthorized. 596 But Christ, as I stated a little ago, applies it in a different manner to his purpose; namely, to show that whoever divorces his wife tears himself in pieces, because such is the force of holy marriage, that the husband and wife become one man. For it was not the design of Christ to introduce the impure and filthy speculation of Plato, but he spoke with reverence of the order which God has established. Let the husband and wife, therefore, live together in such a manner, that each shall cherish the other in the same manner as if they were the half of themselves. Let the husband rule, so as to be the head, and not the tyrant, of his wife; and let the woman, on the other hand, yield modestly to his commands.

Calvin: Mat 19:6 - What God therefore hath joined 6.What God therefore hath joined By this sentence Christ restrains the caprice of husbands, that they may not, by divorcing their wives, burst asunde...

6.What God therefore hath joined By this sentence Christ restrains the caprice of husbands, that they may not, by divorcing their wives, burst asunder the sacred knot. And as he declares that it is not in the power of the husband to dissolve the marriage, so likewise he forbids all others to confirm by their authority unlawful divorces; for the magistrate abuses his power when he grants permission to the husband to divorce his wife. But the object which Christ had directly in view was, that every man should sacredly observe the promise which he has given, and that those who are tempted, by wantonness or wicked dispositions, to divorce, may reflect thus with themselves: “Who, art thou that allowest thyself to burst asunder what God hath joined? ” But this doctrine may be still farther extended. The Papists, contriving for us a church separated from Christ the Head, leave us an imperfect and mutilated body. In the Holy Supper, Christ joined the bread and the wine; but they have dared to withhold from all the people the use of the cup. To these diabolical corruptions we shall be at liberty to oppose these words, What God hath joined let not man separate

Calvin: Mat 19:7 - Why then did Moses order? 7.Why then did Moses order? They had thought of this calumny, 597 if, which was more probable, Christ should demand a proper cause to be shown in cas...

7.Why then did Moses order? They had thought of this calumny, 597 if, which was more probable, Christ should demand a proper cause to be shown in cases of divorce; for it appears that whatever God permits by his law, whose will alone establishes the distinction between what is good or evil, is lawful. But Christ disarms the falsehood and slander by the appropriate reply, that Moses permitted it on account of their obstinacy, and not because he approved of it as lawful. And he confirms his opinion by the best argument, because it was not so at the beginning. He takes for granted that, when God at first instituted marriage, he established a perpetual law, which ought to remain in force till the end of the world. And if the institution of marriage is to be reckoned an inviolable law, it follows that whatever swerves from it does not arise from its pure nature, but from the depravity of men.

But it is asked, Ought Moses to have permitted what was in itself bad and sinful? I reply, That, in an unusual sense of the word, he is said to have permitted what he did not severely forbid; 598 for he did not lay down a law about divorces, so as to give them the seal of his approbation, but as the wickedness of men could not be restrained in any other way, he applied what was the most admissible remedy, that the husband should, at least, attest the chastity of his wife. For the law was made solely for the protection of the women, that they might not suffer any disgrace after they had been unjustly rejected. Hence we infer, that it was rather a punishment inflicted on the husbands, than an indulgence or permission fitted to inflame their lust. Besides, political and outward order is widely different from spiritual government. What is lawful and proper the Lord has comprehended under the ten words. 599 Now as it is possible that many things, for which every man’s conscience reproves and charges him, may not be called in question at a human tribunal, it is not wonderful if those things are connived at by political laws.

Let us take a familiar instance. The laws grant to us a greater liberty of litigation than the law of charity allows. Why is this? Because the right cannot be conferred on individuals, unless there be an open door for demanding it; and yet the inward law of God declares that we ought to follow what charity shall dictate. And yet there is no reason why magistrates should make this an excuse for their indolence, if they voluntarily abstain from correcting vices, or neglect what the nature of their office demands. But let men in a private station beware of doubling the criminality of the magistrates, by screening their own vices under the protection of the laws. For here the Lord indirectly reproves the Jews for not, reckoning it enough that their stubbornness was allowed to pass unpunished, if they did not implicate God as defending their iniquity. And if the rule of a holy and pious life is not always, or in all places, to be sought from political laws, much less ought we to seek it from custom.

Calvin: Mat 19:9 - But I say to you. Mark // For the sake of avoiding fornication // And whosoever shall marry her that is divorced 9.But I say to you. Mark relates that this was spoken to the disciples apart, when they had come into the house; but Matthew, leaving out this cir...

9.But I say to you. Mark relates that this was spoken to the disciples apart, when they had come into the house; but Matthew, leaving out this circumstance, gives it as a part of the discourse, as the Evangelists frequently leave out some intermediate occurrence, because they reckon it enough to sum up the leading points. There is therefore no difference, except that the one explains the matter more distinctly than the other. The substance of it is: though the Law does not punish divorces, which are at variance with God’s first institution, yet he is an adulterer who rejects his wife and takes another. For it is not in the power of a man to dissolve the engagement of marriage, which the Lord wishes to remain inviolate; and so the woman who occupies the bed of a lawful wife is a concubine.

But an exception is added; for the woman, by fornication, cuts herself off, as a rotten member, from her husband, and sets him at liberty. Those who search for other reasons ought justly to be set at nought, because they choose to be wise above the heavenly teacher. They say that leprosy is a proper ground for divorce, because the contagion of the disease affects not only the husband, but likewise the children. For my own part, while I advise a religious man not to touch a woman afflicted with leprosy, I do not pronounce him to be at liberty to divorce her. If it be objected, that they who cannot live unmarried need a remedy, that they may not be burned, I answer, that what is sought in opposition to the word of God is not a remedy. I add too, that if they give themselves up to be guided by the Lord, they will never want continence, for they follow what he has prescribed. One man shall contract such a dislike of his wife, that he cannot endure to keep company with her: will polygamy cure this evil? Another man’s wife shall fall into palsy or apoplexy, or be afflicted with some other incurable disease, shall the husband reject her under the pretense of incontinency? We know, on the contrary, that none of those who walk in their ways are ever left destitute of the assistance of the Spirit.

For the sake of avoiding fornication, says Paul, let every man marry a wife, (1Co 7:2.) He who has done so, though he may not succeed to his wish, has done his duty; and, therefore, if any thing be wanting, he will be supported by divine aid. To go beyond this is nothing else than to tempt God. When Paul mentions another reason, namely, that when, through a dislike of godliness, wives happen to be rejected by unbelievers, a godly brother or sister is not, in such a case, liable to bondage, (1Co 7:12,) this is not inconsistent with Christ’s meaning. For he does not there inquire into the proper grounds of divorce, but only whether a woman continues to be bound to an unbelieving husband, after that, through hatred of God, she has been wickedly rejected, and cannot be reconciled to him in any other way than by forsaking God; and therefore we need not wonder if Paul think it better that she should part with a mortal man than that she should be at variance with God.

But the exception which Christ states appears to be superfluous. For, if the adulteress deserve to be punished with death, what purpose does it serve to talk of divorces? But as it was the duty of the husband to prosecute his wife for adultery, in order to purge his house from infamy, whatever might be the result, the husband, who convicts his wife of uncleanness, is here freed by Christ from the bond. It is even possible that, among a corrupt and degenerate people, this crime remained to a great extent unpunished; as, in our own day, the wicked forbearance of magistrates makes it necessary for husbands to put away unchaste wives, because adulterers are not punished. It must also be observed, that the right belongs equally and mutually to both sides, as there is a mutual and equal obligation to fidelity. For, though in other matters the husband holds the superiority, as to the marriage bed, the wife has an equal right: for he is not the lord of his body; and therefore when, by committing adultery, he has dissolved the marriage, the wife is set at liberty.

And whosoever shall marry her that is divorced This clause has been very ill explained by many commentators; for they have thought that generally, and without exception, celibacy is enjoined in all cases when a divorce has taken place; and, therefore, if a husband should put away an adulteress, both would be laid under the necessity of remaining unmarried. As if this liberty of divorce meant only not to lie with his wife; and as if Christ did not evidently grant permission in this case to do what the Jews were wont indiscriminately to do at their pleasure. It was therefore a gross error; for, though Christ condemns as an adulterer the man who shall marry a wife that has been divorced, this is undoubtedly restricted to unlawful and frivolous divorces. In like manner, Paul enjoins those who have been so dismissed

to remain unmarried, or to be reconciled to their husbands,
(1Co 7:11;)

that is, because quarrels and differences do not dissolve a marriage. This is clearly made out from the passage in Mark, where express mention is made of the wife who has left her husband: and if the wife shall divorce her husband Not that wives were permitted to give their husbands a letter of divorcement, unless so far as the Jews had been contaminated by foreign customs; but Mark intended to show that our Lord condemned the corruption which was at that time universal, that, after voluntary divorces, they entered on both sides into new marriages; and therefore he makes no mention of adultery.

Calvin: Mat 19:10 - His disciples say to him 10.His disciples say to him As if it were a hard condition for husbands to be so bound to their wives, that, so long as they remain chaste, they are ...

10.His disciples say to him As if it were a hard condition for husbands to be so bound to their wives, that, so long as they remain chaste, they are compelled to endure every thing rather than leave them, the disciples, roused by this answer of Christ, reply, that it is better to want wives than to submit to a knot of this kind. 603 But why do they not, on the other hand, consider how hard is the bondage of wives, 604 but because, devoted to themselves and their own convenience, they are driven by the feeling of the flesh to disregard others, and to think only of what is advantageous for themselves? Meanwhile, it is a display of base ingratitude that, from the dread or dislike of a single inconvenience, they reject a wonderful gift of God. It is better, according to them, to avoid marriage than to bind one’s self by the bond of living always together. 605 But if God has ordained marriage for the general advantage of mankind, though it may be attended by some things that are disagreeable, it is not on that account to be despised. Let us therefore learn not to be delicate and saucy, but to use with reverence the gifts of God, even if there be something in them that does not please us. Above all, let us guard against this wickedness in reference to holy marriage; for, in consequence of its being attended by many annoyances, Satan has always endeavored to make it an object of hatred and detestation, in order to withdraw men from it. And Jerome has given too manifest a proof of a malicious and wicked disposition, in not only loading with calumnies that sacred and divinely appointed condition of life, but in collecting as many terms of reproach ( λοιδορίας) as he could from profane authors, in order to take away its respectability. But let us recollect that whatever annoyances belong to marriage are accidental, for they arise out of the depravity of man. Let us remember that, since our nature was corrupted, marriage began to be a medicine, and therefore we need not wonder if it have a bitter taste mixed with its sweetness. But we must see how our Lord confutes this folly.

Calvin: Mat 19:11 - All are not capable of receiving this saying 11.All are not capable of receiving this saying By this he means, that the choice is not placed in our hands, as if we were to deliberate on a matter...

11.All are not capable of receiving this saying By this he means, that the choice is not placed in our hands, as if we were to deliberate on a matter submitted to us. If any man thinks it advantageous for him to want a wife, and, without making any inquiry, lays upon himself an obligation to celibacy, 606 he is widely mistaken. God, who has declared it to be good that a man should have a woman to be his helper, will punish the contempt of his own appointment; for mortals take too much on themselves, when they endeavor to exempt themselves from the heavenly calling. But Christ proves that it is not free to all to make what choice they please, because the gift of continence is a special gift; for when he says that all are not capable of receiving it, but those to whom it is given, he plainly shows that it was not given to all. And this reproves the pride of those who do not hesitate to claim for themselves what Christ so manifestly refuses to them.

Calvin: Mat 19:12 - For there are eunuchs // For the sake of the kingdom of heaven // He that can receive it, let him receive it 12.For there are eunuchs Christ distinguishes three kinds of eunuchs Those who are so by nature, or who have been castrated by men, are debarred fr...

12.For there are eunuchs Christ distinguishes three kinds of eunuchs Those who are so by nature, or who have been castrated by men, are debarred from marriage by this defect, for they are not men. He says that there are other eunuchs, who have castrated themselves, that they may be more at liberty to serve God; and these he exempts from the obligation to marry. Hence it follows, that all others who avoid marriage fight against God with sacrilegious hardihood, after the manner of the giants. When Papists urge the word castrate, ( εὐνοῦχισαν) as if at their own pleasure men might lay themselves under obligation to continence, it is too frivolous. For Christ has already declared, that God gives it to whom he chooses; and, a little afterwards, we shall find him maintaining, that it is folly in any man to choose to live unmarried, when he has not received this special gift. This castration, therefore, is not left to free will; but the plain meaning is, while some men are by nature fit to marry, though they abstain, they do not tempt God, because God grants them exemption. 607

For the sake of the kingdom of heaven Many foolishly explain this as meaning, in order to deserve eternal life; as if celibacy contained within itself some meritorious service, as the Papists imagine that it is an angelical state. But Christ meant nothing more than that persons unmarried ought to have this for their object, that, being freed from all cares, they may apply themselves more readily to the duties of piety. It is, therefore, a foolish imagination, that celibacy is a virtue; for it is not in itself more pleasing to God than fasting, and is not entitled to be reckoned among the duties which he requires from us, but ought to have a reference to another object. Nay more, Christ expressly intended to declare that, though a man be pure from fornication, yet his celibacy is not approved by God, if he only consults his own ease and comfort, but that he is excused on this single ground, that he aims at a free and unrestrained meditation on the heavenly life. In short, Christ teaches us, that it is not enough, if unmarried men live chastely, unless they abstain from having wives, for the express purpose of devoting themselves to better employments. 608

He that can receive it, let him receive it By this conclusion Christ warns them, that the use of marriage is not to be despised, unless we intend, with blind rashness, to rush headlong to destruction: for it became necessary to restrain the disciples, whom he saw acting inconsiderately and without judgment. But the warning is useful to all; for, in selecting a manner of life, few consider what has been given to them, but men rush forward, without discrimination, in whatever direction inconsiderate zeal prompts them. And I wish that the warning had been attended to in past times; but men’s ears are stopped by I know not what enchantments of Satan, so that, contrary to nature, and, at it were, in spite of God, those whom God called to marriage have bound themselves by the cord of perpetual virginity 609 Next came the deadly cord of a vow, by which wretched souls were bound, 610 so that they never rose out of the ditch.

Calvin: Mat 19:13 - NO PHRASE This narrative is highly useful; for it shows that Christ receives not only those who, moved by holy desire and faith, freely approach to him, but th...

This narrative is highly useful; for it shows that Christ receives not only those who, moved by holy desire and faith, freely approach to him, but those who are not yet of age to know how much they need his grace. Those little children have not yet any understanding to desire his blessing; but when they are presented to him, he gently and kindly receives them, and dedicates them to the Father 611 by a solemn act of blessing. We must observe the intention of those who present the children; for if there had not been a deep-rooted conviction in their minds, that the power of the Spirit was at his disposal, that he might pour it out on the people of God, it would have been unreasonable to present their children. There is no room, therefore, to doubt, that they ask for them a participation of his grace; and so, by way of amplification, Luke adds the particle also; as if he had said that, after they had experienced the various ways in which he assisted adults, they formed an expectation likewise in regard to children, that, if he laid hands on them, they would not leave him without having received some of the gifts of the Spirit. The laying on of hands (as we have said on a former occasion) was an ancient and well known sign of blessing; and so there is no reason to wonder, if they desire that Christ, while employing that solemn ceremony, should pray for the children At the same time, as the inferior are blessed by the better, (Heb 7:7,) they ascribe to him the power and honor of the highest Prophet.

Mat 19:13. But the disciples rebuked them. If a crown 612 had been put on his head, they would have admitted it willingly, and with approbation; for they did not yet comprehend his actual office. But they reckon it unworthy of his character to receive children; and their error wanted not plausibility; for what has the highest Prophet and the Son of God to do with infants? But hence we learn, that they who judge of Christ according to the feeling of their flesh are unfair judges; for they constantly deprive him of his peculiar excellencies, and, on the other hand, ascribe, under the appearance of honor, what does not at all belong to him. Hence arose an immense mass of superstitions, which presented to the world a fancied Christ. 613 And therefore let us learn not to think of him otherwise than what himself teaches, and not to assign to him a character different from what he has received from the Father. We see what happened with Popery. They thought that they were conferring a great honor on Christ, if they bowed down before a small piece of bread; but in the sight of God it was an offensive abomination. Again, because they did not think it sufficiently honorable to him to perform the office of an Advocate for us, they made for themselves innumerable intercessors; but in this way they deprived him of the honor of Mediator.

Calvin: Mat 19:14 - Suffer children // For of such is the kingdom of heaven 14.Suffer children He declares that he wishes to receive children; and at length, taking them in his arms, he not only embraces, but blesses the...

14.Suffer children He declares that he wishes to receive children; and at length, taking them in his arms, he not only embraces, but blesses them by the laying on of hand; from which we infer that his grace is extended even to those who are of that age. And no wonder; for since the whole race of Adam is shut up under the sentence of death, all from the least even to the greatest must perish, except those who are rescued by the only Redeemer. To exclude from the grace of redemption those who are of that age would be too cruel; and therefore it is not without reason that we employ this passage as a shield against the Anabaptists. They refuse baptism to infants, because infants are incapable of understanding that mystery which is denoted by it. We, on the other hand, maintain that, since baptism is the pledge and figure of the forgiveness of sins, and likewise of adoption by God, it ought not to be denied to infants, whom God adopts and washes with the blood of his Son. Their objection, that repentance and newness of life are also denoted by it, is easily answered. Infants are renewed by the Spirit of God, according to the capacity of their age, till that power which was concealed within them grows by degrees, and becomes fully manifest at the proper time. Again, when they argue that there is no other way in which we are reconciled to God, and become heirs of adoption, than by faith, we admit this as to adults, but, with respect to infants, this passage demonstrates it to be false. Certainly, the laying on of hands was not a trifling or empty sign, and the prayers of Christ were not idly wasted in air. But he could not present the infants solemnly to God without giving them purity. And for what did he pray for them, but that they might be received into the number of the children of God? Hence it follows, that they were renewed by the Spirit to the hope of salvation. In short, by embracing them, he testified that they were reckoned by Christ among his flock. And if they were partakers of the spiritual gifts, which are represented by Baptism, it is unreasonable that they should be deprived of the outward sign. But it is presumption and sacrilege to drive far from the fold of Christ those whom he cherishes in his bosom, and to shut the door, and exclude as strangers those whom he does not wish to be forbidden to come to him

For of such is the kingdom of heaven Under this term he includes both little children and those who resemble them; for the Anabaptists foolishly exclude children, with whom the subject must have commenced; but at the same time, taking occasion from the present occurrence, he intended to exhort his disciples to lay aside malice and pride, and put on the nature of children Accordingly, it is added by Mark and Luke, that no man can enter into the kingdom of heaven unless he be made to resemble a child. But we must attend to Paul’s admonition,

not to be children in understanding, but in malice,
(1Co 14:20.)

Calvin: Mat 19:16 - And, lo, one Mat 19:16.And, lo, one Luke says that he was a ruler, ( ἄρχων,) that is, a man of very high authority, not one of the common people. 616 And th...

Mat 19:16.And, lo, one Luke says that he was a ruler, ( ἄρχων,) that is, a man of very high authority, not one of the common people. 616 And though riches procure respect, 617 yet he appears to be here represented to have been held in high estimation as a good man. For my own part, after weighing all the circumstances, I have no doubt that, though he is called a young man, he belonged to the class of those who upheld the integrity of the Elders, by a sober and regular life. 618 He did not come treacherously, as the scribes were wont to do, but from a desire of instruction; and, accordingly, both by words and by kneeling, he testifies his reverence for Christ as a faithful teacher. But, on the other hand, a blind confidence in his works hindered him from profiting under Christ, to whom, in other respects, he wished to be submissive. Thus, in our own day, we find some who are not ill-disposed, but who, under the influence of I know not what shadowy holiness, 619 hardly relish the doctrine of the Gospel.

But, in order to form a more correct judgment of the meaning of the answer, we must attend to the form of the question. He does not simply ask how and by what means he shall reach life, but what good thing he shall do, in order to obtain it. He therefore dreams of merits, on account of which he may receive eternal life as a reward due; and therefore Christ appropriately sends him to the keeping of the law, which unquestionably is the way of life, as I shall explain more fully afterwards.

Calvin: Mat 19:17 - Why callest thou me good? // Keep the commandments 17.Why callest thou me good? I do not understand this correction in so refined a sense as is given by a good part of interpreters, as if Christ inten...

17.Why callest thou me good? I do not understand this correction in so refined a sense as is given by a good part of interpreters, as if Christ intended to suggest his Divinity; for they imagine that these words mean, “If thou perceivest in me nothing more exalted than human nature, thou falsely appliest to me the epithet good, which belongs to God alone. ” I do acknowledge that, strictly speaking, men and even angels do not deserve so honorable a title; because they have not a drop of goodness in themselves, but borrowed from God; and because in the former, goodness is only begun, and is not perfect. But Christ had no other intention than to maintain the truth of his doctrine; as if he had said, “Thou falsely callest me a good Master, unless thou acknowledgest that I have come from God.” The essence of his Godhead, therefore, is not here maintained, but the young man is directed to admit the truth of the doctrine. He had already felt some disposition to obey; but Christ wishes him to rise higher, that he may hear God speaking. For — as it is customary with men to make angels of those who are devils — they indiscriminately give the appellation of good teachers to those in whom they perceive nothing divine; but those modes of speaking are only profanations of the gifts of God. We need not wonder, therefore, if Christ, in order to maintain the authority of his doctrine, directs the young man to God.

Keep the commandments This passage was erroneously interpreted by some of the ancients, whom the Papists have followed, as if Christ taught that, by beeping the law, we may merit eternal life On the contrary, Christ did not take into consideration what men can do, but replied to the question, What is the righteousness of works? or, What does the Law require? And certainly we ought to believe that God comprehended in his law the way of living holily and righteously, in which righteousness is included; for not without reason did Moses make this statement,

He that does these things shall live in them, (Lev 18:5;)

and again,

I call heaven and earth to witness that l have
this day showed you life, (Deu 30:19.)

We have no right, therefore, to deny that the keeping of the law is righteousness, by which any man who kept the law perfectly — if there were such a man — would obtain life for himself. But as we are all destitute of the glory of God, (Rom 3:23,) nothing but cursing will be found in the law; and nothing remains for us but to betake ourselves to the undeserved gift of righteousness. And therefore Paul lays down a twofold righteousness, the righteousness of the law, (Rom 10:5,) and the righteousness of faith, (Rom 10:6.) He makes the first to consist in works, and the second, in the free grace of Christ.

Hence we infer, that this reply of Christ is legal, because it was proper that the young man who inquired about the righteousness of works should first be taught that no man is accounted righteous before God unless he has fulfilled the law, 620 (which is impossible,) that, convinced of his weakness, he might betake himself to the assistance of faith. I acknowledge, therefore, that, as God has promised the reward of eternal life to those who keep his law, we ought to hold by this way, if the weakness of our flesh did not prevent; but Scripture teaches us, that it is through our own fault that it becomes necessary for us to receive as a gift what we cannot obtain by works. If it be objected, that it is in vain to hold out to us the righteousness which is in the law, (Rom 10:5,) which no man will ever be able to reach, I reply, since it is the first part of instruction, by which we are led to the righteousness which is obtained by prayer, it is far from being superfluous; and, therefore, when Paul says, that the doers of the law are justified, (Rom 2:13,) he excludes all from the righteousness of the law.

This passage sets aside all the inventions which the Papists have contrived in order to obtain salvation. For not only are they mistaken in wishing to lay God under obligation to them by their good works, to bestow salvation as a debt; but when they apply themselves to do what is right, they leave out of view the doctrine of the law, and attend chiefly to their pretended devotions, as they call them, not that they openly reject the law of God, but that they greatly prefer human traditions. 621 But what does Christ say? That the only worship of which God approves is that which he has prescribed; because obedience is better to him than all sacrifices, 622 (1Sa 15:22.) So then, while the Papists are employed in frivolous traditions, let every man who endeavors to regulate his life by obedience to Christ direct his whole attention to keep the commandments of the law.

Calvin: Mat 19:18 - Thou shalt not murder // The young man saith to him 18.Thou shalt not murder It is surprising that, though Christ intended to show that we are bound to obey the whole law, he should mention the second ...

18.Thou shalt not murder It is surprising that, though Christ intended to show that we are bound to obey the whole law, he should mention the second table only; but he did so, because from the duties of charity the disposition of every man is better ascertained. Piety towards God holds, no doubt, a higher rank; 623 but as the observation of the first table is often feigned by hypocrites, the second table is better adapted for making a scrutiny. 624 Let us know, therefore, that Christ selected those commandments in which is contained a proof of true righteousness; but by a synecdoche he takes a part for the whole. As to the circumstance of his placing that commandment last which speaks of honoring parents, it is of no consequence, for he paid no attention to the regular order. Yet it is worthy of notice, that this commandment is declared to belong to the second table, that no one may be led astray by the error of Josephus, who thought that it belonged to the first table. 625 What is added at the end, Thou shalt love thy neighbor, contains nothing different from the former commandments, but is, general explanation of them all.

The young man saith to him The law must have been dead to him, when he vainly imagined that he was so righteous; for if he had not flattered himself through hypocrisy, it was an excellent advice to him to learn humility, to contemplate his spots and blemishes in the mirror of the law. But, intoxicated with foolish confidence, he fearlessly boasts that he has discharged his duty properly from his childhood. Paul acknowledges that the same thing happened to himself, that, so long as the power of the law was unknown to him, he believed that he was alive; but that, after he knew what the law could do, a deadly wound was inflicted on him, (Rom 7:9.) So the reply of Christ, which follows, was suited to the man’s disposition. And yet Christ does not demand any thing beyond the commandments of the law, but, as the bare recital had not affected him, Christ employed other words for detecting the hidden disease of avarice.

I confess that we are nowhere commanded in the law to sell all; but as the design of the law is, to bring men to self-denial, and as it expressly condemns covetousness, we see that Christ had no other object in view than to correct the false conviction of the young man. 626 for if he had known himself thoroughly, as soon as he heard the mention of the law, he would have acknowledged that he was liable to the judgment of God; but now, when the bare words of the law do not sufficiently convince him of his guilt, the inward meaning is expressed by other words. If Christ now demanded any thing beyond the commandments of the law, he would be at variance with himself. He just now taught that perfect righteousness is comprehended in the commandments of the law: how then will it agree with this to charge the law with deficiency? Besides, the protestation of Moses, (Deu 30:15,) which I formerly quoted, would be false.

Calvin: Mat 19:22 - He went away sorrowful Mat 19:22.He went away sorrowful The result at length showed how widely distant the young man was from that perfection to which Christ had called hi...

Mat 19:22.He went away sorrowful The result at length showed how widely distant the young man was from that perfection to which Christ had called him; for how comes it that he withdraws from the school of Christ, but because he finds it uneasy to be stripped of his riches? But if we are not prepared to endure poverty, it is manifest that covetousness reigns in us. And this is what I said at the outset, that the order which Christ gave, to sell all that he had, was not an addition to the law, but the scrutiny of a concealed vice. 629 For the more deeply a man is tainted by this or the other vice, the more strikingly will it be dragged forth to light by being reproved. We are reminded also by this example that, if we would persevere steadily in the school of Christ, we must renounce the flesh. This young man, who had brought both a desire to learn and modesty, withdrew from Christ, because it was hard to part with a darling vice. The same thing will happen to us, unless the sweetness of the grace of Christ render all the allurements of the flesh distasteful to us. Whether or not this temptation was temporary, so that the young man afterwards repented, we know not; but it may be conjectured with probability, that his covetousness kept him back from making any proficiency.

Calvin: Mat 19:23 - A rich man will with difficulty enter Mat 19:23.A rich man will with difficulty enter Christ warns them, not only how dangerous and how deadly a plague avarice is, but also how great an ob...

Mat 19:23.A rich man will with difficulty enter Christ warns them, not only how dangerous and how deadly a plague avarice is, but also how great an obstacle is presented by riches. In Mark, indeed, he mitigates the harshness of his expression, by restricting it to those only who place confidence in riches But these words are, I think, intended to confirm, rather than correct, the former statement, as if he had affirmed that they ought not to think it strange, that he made the entrance into the kingdom of heaven so difficult for the rich, because it is an evil almost common to all to trust in their riches Yet this doctrine is highly useful to all; to the rich, that, being warned of their danger, they may be on their guard; to the poor, that, satisfied with their lot, they may not so eagerly desire what would bring more damage than gain. It is true indeed, that riches do not, in their own nature, hinder us from following God; but, in consequence of the depravity of the human mind, it is scarcely possible for those who have a great abundance to avoid being intoxicated by them. So they who are exceedingly rich are held by Satan bound, as it were, in chains, that they may not raise their thoughts to heaven; nay more, they bury and entangle themselves, and became utter slaves to the earth. The comparison of the camel. , which is soon after added, is intended to amplify the difficulty; for it means that the rich are so swelled with pride and presumption, that they cannot endure to be reduced to the straits through which God makes his people to pass. The word camel denotes, I think, a rope used by sailors, rather than the animal so named. 633

Calvin: Mat 19:25 - And his disciples, when they heard these things, were greatly amazed. The disciples are astonished, 25.And his disciples, when they heard these things, were greatly amazed. The disciples are astonished, because it ought to awaken in us no little anx...

25.And his disciples, when they heard these things, were greatly amazed. The disciples are astonished, because it ought to awaken in us no little anxiety, that riches obstruct the entrance into the kingdom of God; for, wherever we turn our eyes, a thousand obstacles will present themselves. But let us observe that, while they were struck with astonishment, they did not shrink from the doctrines of Christ. The case was different with him who was lately mentioned; for he was so much alarmed by the severity of the commandment, that he separated from Christ; while they, though trembling, and inquiring, who can be saved? do not break off in an opposite direction, but are desirous to conquer despair. Thus it will be of service to us to tremble at the threatenings of God: whenever he denounces any thing that is gloomy or dreadful, provided that our minds are not discouraged, but rather aroused.

Calvin: Mat 19:26 - With men this is impossible 26.With men this is impossible Christ does not entirely free the minds of his disciples from all anxiety; for it is proper that they should perceive ...

26.With men this is impossible Christ does not entirely free the minds of his disciples from all anxiety; for it is proper that they should perceive how difficult it is to ascend to heaven; first, that they may direct all their efforts to this object; and next, that, distrusting themselves, they may implore strength from heaven. We see how great is our indolence and carelessness; and what the consequence would be if believers thought that they had to walk at ease, for pastime, along a smooth and cheerful plain. Such is the reason why Christ does not extenuate the danger — though he perceives the terror which it excited in his disciples — but rather increases it; for though formerly he said only that it was difficult, he now affirms it to be impossible Hence it is evident, that those teachers are guilty of gross impropriety, who are so much afraid to speak harshly, that they give indulgence to the slothfulness of the flesh. They ought to follow, on the contrary, the rule of Christ, who so regulates his style that, after men have been bowed down within themselves, he teaches them to rely on the grace of God alone, and, at the same time, excites them to prayer. In this manner, the weakness of men is seasonably relieved, not by ascribing anything to them, but by arousing their minds to expect the grace of God. By this reply of Christ is also refuted that widely embraced principle — which the Papists have borrowed from Jerome — “Whoever shall say that it is impossible to keep the law, let him be accursed. “For Christ plainly declares, that it is not possible for men to keep the way of salvation, except so far as the grace of God assists them.

Calvin: Mat 19:27 - Then Peter answering said to him // Lo, we have left all Mat 19:27.Then Peter answering said to him Peter tacitly compares himself and the other disciples to the rich man, whom the world had turned aside f...

Mat 19:27.Then Peter answering said to him Peter tacitly compares himself and the other disciples to the rich man, whom the world had turned aside from Christ. As they had led a poor and wandering 639 life, which was not unaccompanied by disgrace and by annoyances, and as no better condition for the future presented itself, he properly inquires if it be to no purpose that they have left all their property, and devoted themselves to Christ; for it would be unreasonable if, after having been stripped of their property by the Lord, they should not be restored to a better condition.

Lo, we have left all But what were those all things? for, being mean and very poor men, they scarcely had a home to leave, and therefore this boasting might appear to be ridiculous. And certainly experience shows how large an estimate men commonly form of their duties towards God, as at this day, among the Papists, those who were little else than beggars make it a subject of haughty reproach that they have sustained great damage for the sake of the Gospel. But the disciples may be excused on this ground, that, though their wealth was not magnificent, they subsisted at home, by their manual labors, not less cheerfully than the richest man. And we know that men of humble condition, who have been accustomed to a quiet and modest life, reckon it a greater hardship to be torn from their wives and children than those who are led by ambition, or who are carried in various directions by the gale of prosperity. Certainly, if some reward had not been reserved for the disciples, it would have been foolish in them to have changed their course of life. 640 But though on that ground they might be excused, they err in this respect, that they demand a triumph to be given them, before they have finished their warfare. If we ever experience such uneasiness at delay, and if we are tempted by impatience, let us learn first to reflect on the comforts by which the Lord soothes the bitterness of the cup in this world, and next elevate our minds to the hope of the heavenly life; for these two points embrace the answer of Christ.

Calvin: Mat 19:28 - Verily I say to you // You also shall sit on twelve thrones // In the regeneration 28.Verily I say to you That the disciples may not think that they have lost their pains, and repent of having begun the course, Christ warns them tha...

28.Verily I say to you That the disciples may not think that they have lost their pains, and repent of having begun the course, Christ warns them that the glory of his kingdom, which at that time was still hidden, was about to be revealed. As if he had said, “There is no reason why that mean condition should discourage you; for I, who am scarcely equal to the lowest, will at length ascend to my throne of majesty. Endure then for a little, till the time arrive for revealing nay glory.” And what does he then promise to them? That they shall be partakers of the same glory.

You also shall sit on twelve thrones By assigning to them thrones, from which they may judge the twelve tribes of Israel, he compares them to assessors, or first councilors and judges, who occupy the highest seats in the royal council. We know that the number of those who were chosen to be apostles was twelve, in order to testify that, by the agency of Christ, God purposed to collect the remnant of his people which was scattered. This was a very high rank, but hitherto was concealed; and therefore Christ holds their wishes in suspense till the latest revelation of his kingdom, when they will fully receive the fruit of their election. And though the kingdom of Christ is, in some respects, manifested by the preaching of the Gospel, there is no doubt that Christ here speaks of the last day.

In the regeneration Some connect this term with the following clause. In this sense, regeneration would be nothing else than the renovation which shall follow our restoration, when life shall swallow up what is mortal, and when our mean body shall be transformed into the heavenly glory of Christ. But I rather explain regeneration as referring to the first coming of Christ; for then the world began to be renewed, and arose out of the darkness of death into the light of life. And this way of speaking occurs frequently in the Prophets, and is exceedingly adapted to the connection of this passage. For the renovation of the Church, which had been so frequently promised, had raised an expectation of wonderful happiness, as soon as the Messiah should appear; and therefore, in order to guard against that error, Christ distinguishes between the beginning and the completion of his reign.

Calvin: Mat 19:29 - And whosoever shall forsake Mat 19:29.And whosoever shall forsake After having raised the expectation of his followers to the hope of a future life, he supports them by immediate...

Mat 19:29.And whosoever shall forsake After having raised the expectation of his followers to the hope of a future life, he supports them by immediate consolations, 641 and strengthens them for bearing the cross. For though God permit his people to be severely afflicted, he never abandons them, so as not to recompense their distresses by his assistance. And here he does not merely address the apostles, but takes occasion to direct his discourse generally to all the godly. The substance of it is this: Those who shall willingly lose all for the sake of Christ, will be more happy even in this life than if they had retained the full possession of them; but the chief reward is laid up for them in heaven.

But what he promises about recompensing them a hundredfold appears not at all to agree with experience; for in the greater number of cases, those who have been deprived of their parents, or children, and other relatives — who have been reduced to widowhood, and stripped of their wealth, for the testimony of Christ — are so far from recovering their property, that in exile, solitude and desertion, they have a hard struggle with severe poverty. I reply, if any man estimate aright the immediate grace of God, by which he relieves the sorrows of his people, he will acknowledge that it is justly preferred to all the riches of the world. For though unbelievers flourish, (Psa 92:7,) yet as they know not what awaits them on the morro w (Jas 4:14,) they must be always tossed about in perplexity and terror, and it is only by stupefying themselves in some sort that they can at all enjoy prosperity. 642 Yet God gladdens his people, so that the small portion of good which they enjoy is more highly valued by them, and far sweeter, than if out of Christ they had enjoyed an unlimited abundance of good things. In this sense I interpret the expression used by Mark, with persecutions; as if Christ had said, Though persecutions always await the godly in this world, and though the cross, as it were, is attached to their back, yet so sweet is the seasoning of the grace of God, which gladdens them, that their condition is more desirable than the luxuries of kings.

Calvin: Mat 19:30 - And many that are first shall be last 30.And many that are first shall be last This sentence was added in order to shake off the indolence of the flesh. The apostles, though they had scar...

30.And many that are first shall be last This sentence was added in order to shake off the indolence of the flesh. The apostles, though they had scarcely begun the course, were hastening to demand the prize. And such is the disposition of almost all of us, that, when a month has elapsed, we ask, like soldiers who have served their time, to receive a discharge. But Christ exhorts those who have begun well (Gal 3:3) to vigorous perseverance, and at the same time gives warning, that it will be of no avail to runners to have begun with alacrity, if they lose courage in the midst of the course. In like manner Paul also warns us, that not all who run obtain t/re prize, (1Co 9:24;) and in another passage he exhorts believers, by referring to his own example, to:

forget those things which are behind, and press forward to the remaining portion of their course,
(Phi 3:13.)

As often, therefore, as we call to mind the heavenly crown, we ought, as it were, to feel the application of fresh spurs, that we may not be more indolent for the future.

Defender: Mat 19:4 - Have ye not read In response to a vital question about the most important of all human institutions (marriage and family), the Lord quotes as His authority the account...

In response to a vital question about the most important of all human institutions (marriage and family), the Lord quotes as His authority the account of creation in Genesis. It is obvious that He regarded the creation record as historically true and divinely inspired."

Defender: Mat 19:5 - cleave to his wife Modern critics often allege that the first two chapters of Genesis are two different and contradictory accounts of creation. Jesus, however, quoted Ge...

Modern critics often allege that the first two chapters of Genesis are two different and contradictory accounts of creation. Jesus, however, quoted Gen 1:27 and Gen 2:24 as being perfectly complementary and of absolute authority. Furthermore, He was there at the beginning!"

Defender: Mat 19:6 - let not man put asunder The creation account is the foundation for the institution of marriage which was validated by the Creator Himself and established to be a lifelong uni...

The creation account is the foundation for the institution of marriage which was validated by the Creator Himself and established to be a lifelong union between one man and woman who were commanded to "be fruitful and multiply" (Gen 1:28)."

Defender: Mat 19:7 - writing of divorcement Christ here confirms the Mosaic authorship of Deuteronomy (Deu 24:1-4)."

Christ here confirms the Mosaic authorship of Deuteronomy (Deu 24:1-4)."

Defender: Mat 19:9 - except it be for fornication The relatively easy divorce allowed in the Mosaic law was not intended in God's original economy (Mat 19:8). The only allowable grounds for divorce ac...

The relatively easy divorce allowed in the Mosaic law was not intended in God's original economy (Mat 19:8). The only allowable grounds for divorce according to Christ is adultery. The Greek word for "fornication" (porneia) could include any sexual sin committed after the betrothal contract. On the other hand, Jesus did not even allow this exception in Luk 16:18. The conclusion would be that even though adultery or fornication are permissible grounds for divorce and remarriage, it is still better to salvage the marriage if possible (Rom 7:2, Rom 7:3; 1Co 7:10-15)."

Defender: Mat 19:14 - little children "Little children" is one word in the Greek, referring to very small children, even infants. If the kingdom of heaven is "of such," then evidently ther...

"Little children" is one word in the Greek, referring to very small children, even infants. If the kingdom of heaven is "of such," then evidently there are many children in the kingdom who are safe in Christ. Such children were too young to be conscious sinners, perhaps reaching heaven through death before the age of accountability."

Defender: Mat 19:22 - great possessions No matter how outwardly righteous a person may be, he can only be saved if he comes to Christ with nothing of his own. The Lord may not ask a follower...

No matter how outwardly righteous a person may be, he can only be saved if he comes to Christ with nothing of his own. The Lord may not ask a follower to give up his possessions or anything else, but maybe He will. That person must at least be willing to do so. We cannot bargain with God. We are dead in sins until He saves us; only Christ can give us life."

Defender: Mat 19:26 - impossible Jesus had said that a camel could more easily go through the eye of a needle than a rich man enter the kingdom of God (Mat 19:24). Both are impossible...

Jesus had said that a camel could more easily go through the eye of a needle than a rich man enter the kingdom of God (Mat 19:24). Both are impossible. "Blessed be ye poor," Jesus said, "for yours is the kingdom of God" (Luk 6:20). One must at least be willing to give up his possessions before he can enter the kingdom."

Defender: Mat 19:28 - the regeneration The "regeneration" is the "re-creation," or "restoration," of the primeval perfections of the earth before the Genesis Flood. This will happen after C...

The "regeneration" is the "re-creation," or "restoration," of the primeval perfections of the earth before the Genesis Flood. This will happen after Christ's return.

Defender: Mat 19:28 - judging This verse gives the particular assignment of the twelve disciples during the millennial period. During this period, "the saints shall judge the world...

This verse gives the particular assignment of the twelve disciples during the millennial period. During this period, "the saints shall judge the world" (1Co 6:2)."

TSK: Mat 19:1 - that when // he departed that when : Mar 10:1; Joh 10:40 he departed : This was our Lord’ s final departure from Galilee, previous to his crucifixion; but he appears to h...

that when : Mar 10:1; Joh 10:40

he departed : This was our Lord’ s final departure from Galilee, previous to his crucifixion; but he appears to have taken in a large compass in his journey, and passed through the districts east of Jordan. Some learned men, however, are of opinion, that instead of ""beyond Jordan,""we should render, ""by the side of Jordan,""as περαν [Strong’ s G4008], especially with a genitive, sometimes signifies.

TSK: Mat 19:2 - -- Mat 4:23-25, Mat 9:35, Mat 9:36, Mat 12:15, Mat 14:35, Mat 14:36, Mat 15:30,Mat 15:31; Mar 6:55, Mar 6:56

TSK: Mat 19:3 - tempting // Is it tempting : Mat 16:1, Mat 22:16-18, Mat 22:35; Mar 10:2, Mar 12:13, Mar 12:15; Luk 11:53, Luk 11:54; Joh 8:6; Heb 3:9 Is it : Mat 5:31, Mat 5:32; Mal 2...

TSK: Mat 19:4 - Have // that Have : Mat 12:3, Mat 21:6, Mat 21:42, Mat 22:31; Mar 2:25, Mar 12:10,Mar 12:26; Luk 6:3, Luk 10:26 that : Gen 1:27, Gen 5:2; Mal 2:15

TSK: Mat 19:5 - said // cleave // and they said : Gen 2:21-24; Psa 45:10; Mar 10:5-9; Eph 5:31 cleave : Προσκολληθησεται [Strong’ s G4347], ""shall be cemented to his wi...

said : Gen 2:21-24; Psa 45:10; Mar 10:5-9; Eph 5:31

cleave : Προσκολληθησεται [Strong’ s G4347], ""shall be cemented to his wife,""as the Hebrew davak implies; a beautiful metaphor, forcibly intimating that nothing but death can separate them. Gen 34:3; Deu 4:4, Deu 10:20, Deu 11:22; 1Sa 18:1; 2Sa 1:26; 1Ki 11:2; Psa 63:8; Rom 12:9

and they : 1Co 6:16, 1Co 7:2, 1Co 7:4

TSK: Mat 19:6 - God // hath God : Pro 2:17; Mal 2:14; Mar 10:9; Rom 7:2; 1Co 7:10-14; Eph 5:28; Heb 13:4 hath : Συνεζευξεν [Strong’ s G2201], ""hath yoked toget...

God : Pro 2:17; Mal 2:14; Mar 10:9; Rom 7:2; 1Co 7:10-14; Eph 5:28; Heb 13:4

hath : Συνεζευξεν [Strong’ s G2201], ""hath yoked together,""as oxen in the plough, where each must pull equally in order to bring it on. Among the ancients, they put a yoke upon the necks of a new married couple, or chains on their arms, to shew that they were to be one, closely united, and pulling equally together in all the concerns of life.

TSK: Mat 19:7 - Why // and to Why : Mat 5:31; Deu 24:1-4; Isa 50:1; Jer 3:8; Mar 10:4 and to : Mat 1:19; Mal 2:16

TSK: Mat 19:8 - because // suffered // but because : Psa 95:8; Zec 7:12; Mal 2:13, Mal 2:14; Mar 10:5 suffered : Mat 3:15, Mat 8:31; 1Co 7:6 but : Gen 2:24, Gen 7:7; Jer 6:16

TSK: Mat 19:9 - Whosoever // except // doth Whosoever : Mat 5:32; Mar 10:11, Mar 10:12; Luk 16:18; 1Co 7:10-13, 1Co 7:39 except : 2Ch 21:11; Jer 3:8; Eze 16:8, Eze 16:15, Eze 16:29; 1Co 5:1 doth...

TSK: Mat 19:10 - -- Gen 2:18; Pro 5:15-19, Pro 18:22, Pro 19:13, Pro 19:14, Pro 21:9, Pro 21:19; 1Co 7:1, 1Co 7:2, 1Co 7:8, 1Co 7:26-28; 1Co 7:32-35, 1Co 7:39, 1Co 7:40; ...

TSK: Mat 19:11 - -- 1Co 7:2, 1Co 7:7, 1Co 7:9, 1Co 7:17, 1Co 7:35

TSK: Mat 19:12 - which were made // which have which were made : Isa 39:7, Isa 56:3, Isa 56:4 which have : 1Co 7:32-38, 1Co 9:5, 1Co 9:15

which were made : Isa 39:7, Isa 56:3, Isa 56:4

which have : 1Co 7:32-38, 1Co 9:5, 1Co 9:15

TSK: Mat 19:13 - brought // and the brought : Mat 18:2-5; Gen 48:1, Gen 48:9-20; 1Sa 1:24; Psa 115:14, Psa 115:15; Jer 32:39; Mar 10:13; Luk 18:15; Act 2:39; 1Co 7:14 and the : Mat 16:22...

TSK: Mat 19:14 - Suffer // for Suffer : Gen 17:7, Gen 17:8, Gen 17:24-26, Gen 21:4; Jdg 13:7; 1Sa 1:11, 1Sa 1:22, 1Sa 1:24, 1Sa 2:18; Mar 10:14; Luk 18:16, Luk 18:17 for : Mat 11:25...

TSK: Mat 19:15 - -- Isa 40:11; Mar 10:16; 1Co 7:14; 2Ti 3:15

TSK: Mat 19:16 - one // what // eternal one : Mar 10:17; Luk 18:18 what : Luk 10:25; Joh 6:27-29; Act 16:30 eternal : Mat 25:46; Dan 12:2; Joh 3:15, Joh 4:14, Joh 5:39, Joh 6:47, Joh 6:68, J...

TSK: Mat 19:17 - there // but there : 1Sa 2:2; Psa 52:1, Psa 145:7-9; Jam 1:17; 1Jo 4:8-10,1Jo 4:16 but : Lev 18:5; Eze 20:11, Eze 20:12; Luk 10:26-28; Rom 10:5; Gal 3:11-13

TSK: Mat 19:18 - Which // Thou shalt do Which : Gal 3:10; Jam 2:10,Jam 2:11 Thou shalt do : Mat 5:21-28; Exo 20:12-17; Deu 5:16-21; Mar 10:19; Luk 18:20; Rom 13:8-10

TSK: Mat 19:19 - Honour // Thou Honour : Mat 15:4-6; Lev 19:3; Pro 30:17; Eph 6:1, Eph 6:2 Thou : Mat 22:39; Lev 19:18; Luk 10:27; Rom 13:9; Gal 5:14; Jam 2:8

TSK: Mat 19:20 - All // what All : Mar 10:20; Luk 15:7, Luk 15:29, Luk 18:11, Luk 18:12, Luk 18:21; Joh 8:7; Rom 3:19-23, Rom 7:9; Gal 3:24; Phi 3:6 what : Mar 10:21; Luk 18:22

TSK: Mat 19:21 - If // go // come If : Mat 5:19, Mat 5:20,Mat 5:48; Gen 6:9, Gen 17:1; Job 1:1; Psa 37:37; Luk 6:40; Phi 3:12-15 go : Mat 6:19, Mat 6:20; Mar 10:21; Luk 12:33, Luk 14:3...

TSK: Mat 19:22 - he went // for he went : Mat 13:22, Mat 14:9; Jdg 18:23, Jdg 18:24; Dan 6:14-17; Mar 6:26, Mar 10:22; Luk 18:23; Joh 19:12-16 for : Mat 6:24, Mat 16:26; Psa 17:14; E...

TSK: Mat 19:23 - That // enter That : Mat 13:22; Deu 6:10-12, Deu 8:10-18; Job 31:24, Job 31:25; Psa 49:6, Psa 49:7, Psa 49:16-19; Pro 11:28; Pro 30:8, Pro 30:9; Mar 10:23; Luk 12:1...

TSK: Mat 19:24 - It It : So in the Koran, ""The impious, who in his arrogance shall accuse our doctrine of falsity, shall find the gates of heaven shut; nor shall he ente...

It : So in the Koran, ""The impious, who in his arrogance shall accuse our doctrine of falsity, shall find the gates of heaven shut; nor shall he enter till a camel shall pass through the eye of a needle.""It was a common mode of expression among the Jews to declare anything that was rare or difficult. Mat 19:26, Mat 23:24; Jer 13:23; Mar 10:24, Mar 10:25; Luk 18:25; Joh 5:44

TSK: Mat 19:25 - Who Who : Mat 24:22; Mar 13:20; Luk 13:23, Luk 13:24; Rom 10:13, Rom 11:5-7

TSK: Mat 19:26 - but but : Gen 18:14; Num 11:23; Job 42:2; Psa 3:8, Psa 62:11; Jer 32:27; Zec 8:6; Mar 10:27; Luk 1:37, Luk 18:27

TSK: Mat 19:27 - we have forsaken // what we have forsaken : Mat 4:20-22, Mat 9:9; Deu 33:9; Mar 1:17-20, Mar 2:14, Mar 10:28; Luk 5:11, Luk 5:27, Luk 5:28, Luk 14:33; Luk 18:28; Phi 3:8 what ...

TSK: Mat 19:28 - in the regeneration // when // ye also // the twelve in the regeneration : Isa 65:17, Isa 66:22; Act 3:21; 2Pe 3:13; Rev 21:5 when : Mat 16:27, Mat 25:31; 2Th 1:7-10; Rev 20:11-15 ye also : Mat 20:21; Lu...

TSK: Mat 19:29 - every // or brethren // my // an // inherit every : Mat 16:25; Mar 10:29, Mar 10:30; Luk 18:29, Luk 18:30; 1Co 2:9 or brethren : Mat 8:21, Mat 8:22, Mat 10:37, Mat 10:38; Luk 14:26; 2Co 5:16; Ph...

TSK: Mat 19:30 - -- Mat 8:11, Mat 8:12, Mat 20:16, Mat 21:31, Mat 21:32; Mar 10:31; Luk 7:29, Luk 7:30, Luk 13:30, Luk 18:13, Luk 18:14; Rom 5:20,Rom 5:21, Rom 9:30-33; G...

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Poole: Mat 19:1 - See Poole on "Mat 19:2" Mat 19:1-2 Christ healeth the sick, Mat 19:3-12 answereth the question of the Pharisees concerning divorce, and the objection of his disciples to...

Mat 19:1-2 Christ healeth the sick,

Mat 19:3-12 answereth the question of the Pharisees concerning

divorce, and the objection of his disciples to the

expediency of marriage,

Mat 19:13-15 receiveth little children with tenderness,

Mat 19:16-22 instructs a young man how to attain eternal life, and

how to become perfect,

Mat 19:23-26 showeth how hard it is for a rich man to enter into

the kingdom of God,

Mat 19:27-30 and promises great rewards to his disciples, and to

all who have forsaken aught to follow him.

See Poole on "Mat 19:2" .

Poole: Mat 19:1-2 - And came into the coasts of Judea beyond Jordan // Beyond Jordan // great multitudes followed him // He healed them Ver. 1,2. Most interpreters agree that both Mark, Mar 10:1 , and Luk 9:51 , make mention of the same motion of our Saviour out of Galilee into the pr...

Ver. 1,2. Most interpreters agree that both Mark, Mar 10:1 , and Luk 9:51 , make mention of the same motion of our Saviour out of Galilee into the province of Judea which is here expressed, though Luke and John mention, something largely, some things done in the way, of which Matthew speaketh not. He departed from Galilee. Our Saviour had hitherto spent his time mostly in Galilee. The country of the Jews was divided into three provinces, Galilee, Samaria, and Judea. Galilee was the more northerly part of the country, and was divided into the Upper Galilee, which is also called Galilee of the Gentiles, Mat 4:15 , and the Lower Galilee, which was contiguous to it, but lay more southerly, and adjoined to Samaria. Our Saviour dwelt at Nazareth a long time. Chorazin, Bethsaida, Capernaum, were all cities of Galilee. He is now taking his leave of this province, into which he never returned more. His next way into Judea lay through Samaria, (for Samaria lay in the middle between Galilee and Judea), and through part of it he did go, for, Luk 9:52,53 , some inhabitants of a village belonging to the Samaritans refused to receive him.

And came into the coasts of Judea beyond Jordan This phrase hath caused some difficulty to interpreters, because Judea was bounded by Jordan, and had no coasts beyond it. Some say that the term beyond Jordan must be applied to he came, he came beyond Jordan to the coasts of Judea. Others say, that as men came out of Egypt, the coasts of Judea were beyond Jordan, Mat 4:15 . But some think it should be there translated, by Jordan: the word peran signifies any border, or side of a border.

Beyond Jordan therefore, is on the border of Jordan, and possibly were better translated so, seeing the word will bear it, and there were no coasts of Judea beyond Jordan. It is probable that our Saviour, coming out of Galilee into Samaria, kept on the left hand near to Jordan, till he came into Judea, which also bordered on that river. Wherever he went

great multitudes followed him but more for healing their bodies, or for the loaves, than for the feeding or healing of their souls; so different is most people’ s sense of their bodily and spiritual wants.

He healed them the text saith; but it saith not, they believed in him.

Poole: Mat 19:3 - tempting him // Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? Our Saviour, though yet at some distance from Jerusalem, was come into that province where the Pharisees had the greatest power, and were in greater...

Our Saviour, though yet at some distance from Jerusalem, was come into that province where the Pharisees had the greatest power, and were in greater numbers: now they come to him,

tempting him where the word tempting rather signifies, generally, making a trial of him, than strictly, soliciting him to sin; they came (as appeareth by their question) to make a trial whether they could entrap him, and get any determination from him of a point for which they might accuse him. The question they propound to him is,

Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? The word here translated cause, signifieth not cause, or occasion, but crime also. So it may be translated crime; but they did not only put away their wives for crimes, but upon any occasion, in abuse of that text, Deu 24:1 , When a man hath taken a wife, and married her, and it come to pass that she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleanness in her; which the Pharisees had interpreted of any kind of deformity, or natural infirmity, not merely of moral uncleanness. Had our Saviour now answered Yes, he had contradicted what he had formerly delivered, Mat 5:32 ; had he denied, they had trapped him as contradicting the law of Moses, Deu 24:1 , according to their interpretation of it. So they had whereof to accuse him.

Poole: Mat 19:4-6 - -- Ver. 4-6. Mark, Mar 10:2-9 , giveth us the same history of this discourse, differing a little in the order of the words, but nothing as to the substa...

Ver. 4-6. Mark, Mar 10:2-9 , giveth us the same history of this discourse, differing a little in the order of the words, but nothing as to the substance of his discourse. Our Saviour answereth neither Yea nor Nay to their discourse, but gives them a fair occasion to answer themselves, and tacitly charges them with ignorance and corruption of the law of God. He refers them to the first institution of marriage, and for that to the book of Genesis, Gen 1:27 2:24 . It is as much as if our Lord had said, You own the book of Genesis, as well as the book of Deuteronomy. In the book of Genesis you read the first institution of marriage: it was instituted by God himself; he made male and female, Gen 1:27 ; he made the law of marriage, Gen 2:24 , that a man (should) leave his father and mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they (should) be one flesh; from whence he concludes that the man and wife are one flesh in God’ s account. From hence he leaves them to conclude, whether it was probable that Moses, whom they so reverenced, and who was so faithful in the house of God as a servant, would license them to put asunder whom God had put together; or whether they had not put an interpretation upon the law of Moses which it could not bear in consistency with the law of God. For the sense of those words, Gen 1:27 2:24 , see the notes on those places. See Poole on "Gen 1:27" . See Poole on "Gen 2:24" .

Poole: Mat 19:7-8 - -- Ver. 7,8. Mark reports this a little differently, Mar 10:3 &c., as if Christ had first said unto them. What did Moses command you? And they said,...

Ver. 7,8. Mark reports this a little differently, Mar 10:3 &c., as if Christ had first said unto them. What did Moses command you? And they said, Moses suffered to write a bill of divorcement, and to put her away. And Jesus answered and said unto them, For the hardness of your heart he wrote you this precept, & c. The substance of our Saviour’ s answer seemeth to be this: Moses gave you no positive command in the case, he could not make a law directly opposite to the law of my Father; but Moses saw the wantonness and wickedness of your hearts, that you would turn away your wives without any just and warrantable cause; and to restrain your extravagances of cruelty to your wives, or disorderly turning them off upon any occasion, he made a law that none should put away his wife but upon a legal cognizance of the cause, and giving her a bill of divorce. Indeed possibly this bill of divorce was sometimes judicially granted upon irregular causes, and Moses might connive at it for the preventing of greater evils, because you were always a hard hearted and stiff necked people; and you by your traditions have expounded that law beyond Moses’ s intention, and made a bill of divorce grantable in cases which he never thought of, nor intended in that law. But the measures of lawfulness are neither to be taken from Moses’ s temporary toleration and connivance, nor much less from your traditions and expositions of the law of Moses, but from the original institution of marriage, and from God’ s original law relating to it: now God at first made but one woman for one man, and so united them that he styled them one flesh; so as he who puts away his wife, doth as it were divide and tear his own flesh piece from piece, which is barbarous, inhuman, and unnatural. And the law of God was not, that a man should forsake his wife whenever he had a mind to it, but that he should rather forsake his father and mother than his wife; that he should cleave to his wife, living and dwelling with her, as a man of knowledge; not hating his own flesh; loving his wife as his own body, loving and cherishing her, Eph 5:28,29 . Now how can this possibly consist with a man’ s putting away his wife upon every little and trivial cause of offence or dislike unto her.

Poole: Mat 19:9 - -- We met with the like determination of our Lord’ s upon this question Mat 5:32 , only there it was (instead of committeth adultery) causeth her ...

We met with the like determination of our Lord’ s upon this question Mat 5:32 , only there it was (instead of committeth adultery) causeth her to commit adultery, that is, in case she married again. Here our Lord saith the like of the husband: we have the same, Mar 10:11 Luk 16:18 . The reason is this: Because nothing but adultery dissolves the knot and band of marriage, though they be thus illegally separated, yet according to the law of God, they are still man and wife. Some have upon these words made a question whether it be lawful for the husband or the wife separated for adultery to marry again while each other liveth. As to the party offending, it may be a question; but as to the innocent person offended, it is no question, for the adultery of the person offending hath dissolved the knot of marriage by the Divine law. It is true that the knot cannot be dissolved without the freedom of both persons each from another, but yet it seemeth against reason that both persons should have the like liberty to a second marriage. For,

1. The adulteress is by God’ s law a dead woman, and so in no capacity to a second marriage.

2. It is unreasonable that she should make an advantage of her own sin and error.

3. This might be the occasion of adultery, to give a wicked person a legal liberty to satisfy an extravagant lust.

But for the innocent person, it is as unreasonable that he or she should be punished for the sin of another. But what our Saviour saith here, and in the other parallel texts, is undoubtedly to be understood of husbands and wives put away not for adultery, but for other light and trivial causes, for which by the law of God no divorce is allowed.

Poole: Mat 19:10 - -- This is a very strange saying, and discovers to us both the imperfect state of Christ’ s disciples, and also the tyranny of a sinful practice g...

This is a very strange saying, and discovers to us both the imperfect state of Christ’ s disciples, and also the tyranny of a sinful practice grown up into a custom. The Jews had assumed a liberty of turning their wives out of doors upon every light and trivial offence or dislike; the disciples think, if this licentiousness may not be allowed it is not good to marry. So a holy institution of God, ordained for the propagation of mankind, for the restraint of extravagant lust, and for the solace and comfort of man’ s life, should be despised, rather than those unquiet lusts and corruptions mortified, the mortification of which would have made those irregular separations both needless and undesirable. Surely they should rather have said, If the case of a man be so with his wife, then both husbands and wives had need to learn to deny themselves, to comply each with another, to silence their brutish and boisterous passions, that, being the same flesh, they might also have one and the same spirit, and not be like a diseased piece of flesh, where humours so quarrel that one piece need be cut off to preserve the other. But the best of men have their infirmities; and, as the Hebrews said, Spiritus Dei non semper tangit corda prophetarum, The Spirit of God was not always upon the hearts of the prophets; so it is as true, Spiritius Dei non semper et ubique tangit corda fidelium, All that the saints say is not gospel. Their flesh hath its turn to speak, as well as the Spirit in them. A sinful liberty conceded, indulged, or connived at, by the laws, or by the rulers of a church or place where we live, for a long time, is not easily restrained, and even good men may for a time be carried away with the error of it, so as they cannot discern it, be convinced of it, or be brought clear of it to a conformity to the will of God.

Poole: Mat 19:11-12 - All men Ver. 11,12. Our Saviour, knowing the sinful custom and practice of the Jewish nation now for many years, and giving some allowance for that, and his ...

Ver. 11,12. Our Saviour, knowing the sinful custom and practice of the Jewish nation now for many years, and giving some allowance for that, and his disciples’ infirmities; so he doth not answer them severely, as what they said might deserve, but reproves them gently. What he saith amounts to thus much: You do not consider what you say.

All men without sinning against God, cannot abstain from marriage. An ability to live chastely without the use of marriage is a peculiar gift of God, and your saying hath no place in persons to whom God hath not given that gift, for it is better to marry than to burn. There are some whom God by nature hath made unfit for marriage. There are others whom men (wickedly) make unfit for it, that they may gratify their own jealousy. (Thus several courtiers were made eunuchs, and so entrusted with the care of princes’ wives and concubines). And there are some who have made themselves eunuchs, not castrating themselves, (that is wickedness), but abstaining from marriage, and yet living chastely, (having mortified their lusts, and brought under their body), that they might be less encumbered with the cares of the world, and be more free for the work of the ministry, or be able more to give up themselves to a holy life and spiritual conversation. But God, who by his ordinance of marriage designed to people and continue the world, hath given to persons different tempers and constitutions; so as possibly the most of men and women cannot without making use of marriage govern their lusts. As to these, marriage is not a matter of choice and deliberation, and they may and ought to use it as an appointment of God, for the ends for which he hath instituted it. If there be any who can receive this saying, who can without marriage bridle his lust, and so live in a solute and single state as not to sin against God by any extravagance of lusts, and impure desires and affections, and desire, and shall do so, that he may be more spiritual, and serve God with less distraction, and be a more fit instrument to promote the kingdom of God in the world, let him do it.

Poole: Mat 19:13 - that he should put his hands on them // The disciples rebuked them Mark saith, Mar 10:13 , and Luke saith, Luk 18:15 , they were brought that he should touch them. A doubt may from this text arise in the reader̵...

Mark saith, Mar 10:13 , and Luke saith, Luk 18:15 , they were brought that he should touch them. A doubt may from this text arise in the reader’ s mind, for what purpose the parents or nurses did bring these young children to Christ. It was not for baptism, for he baptized none himself, Joh 4:2 . It is not likely it was for healing; for though our Saviour in such cases did sometimes touch or lay his hand upon the sick persons, yet it is not likely that in that case the disciples would have rebuked them, knowing that their Master used to heal such as were brought to him. It must therefore unquestionably be, that he might bless them. Matthew here saith,

that he should put his hands on them and pray. The putting of hands upon persons when they blessed them, or prayed for a blessing on persons, was a very usual rite and custom amongst the Jews.

Without all contradiction (saith the apostle, Heb 7:7 ) the less is blessed of the better. It was a custom amongst the Jews to bring persons to those whom they looked upon as excelling in holiness, to be blessed and commended to God by their prayers, Gen 27:4 48:14 . The parents or nurses of these children by this act declared that they looked upon Christ as some great Prophet in favour with God, and whose prayers could prevail with God, and whose blessing was considerable as to these little ones.

The disciples rebuked them as thinking they were too troublesome to their Master, and not understanding what children in health had to do with their Master, nor perhaps having before seen such a precedent.

Poole: Mat 19:14-15 - See Poole on "Mat 18:3" Ver. 14,15. Both Mark and Luke add something to this story. Mark saith, Mar 10:14-16 , When Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said unto them...

Ver. 14,15. Both Mark and Luke add something to this story. Mark saith, Mar 10:14-16 , When Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said unto them, Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for of such is the kingdom of God. Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter therein. And he took them up in his arms, put his hands upon them, and blessed them. Luke saith the same, Luk 18:16 , only he saith, he called them unto him, and leaves out what Mark hath, Mar 10:16 of Christ taking them up in his arms, putting his hands upon them, and blessing them. From this text divines will prove the baptism of children, because theirs is the kingdom of heaven; which whether we understand of the church, and the dispensation of the grace of Christ under the gospel, viz. that the gospel church is made up of infants as well as more adult persons, or that the grace of Christ under the gospel, viz. remission of sins through the blood of Christ, doth belong to some children, as well as to grown persons; or of the kingdom of glory, viz. children shall go to heaven as well as grown persons; the argument is well drawn from this text, Those who have a right to a membership in the church are to be baptized; or, Those who have a right to the kingdom of glory may be baptized. But one or both of these are affirmed in this text. We must take heed we do not found infant baptism upon the example of Christ in this text, for it is certain that he did not baptize these children; Mark only saith, he took them up in his arms, put his hands upon them, and blessed them. The argument for infant baptism from this text is founded upon his words, uttered on this occasion, not upon his practice. Mark addeth, that our Saviour told them, that unless a man received the kingdom of God as a little child, he could not enter into it. But we opened those words before, Mat 18:3 , where we met with the same in effect.

See Poole on "Mat 18:3" .

Poole: Mat 19:16 - What good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? This history is reported by Mark, Mar 10:17-23 and by Luke, Luk 18:18-25 . Mark saith, When he was gone forth into the way, there came one running...

This history is reported by Mark, Mar 10:17-23 and by Luke, Luk 18:18-25 . Mark saith, When he was gone forth into the way, there came one running, and kneeled to him, and asked him, Good Master, what shall I do, that I may inherit eternal life? Luke saith, A certain ruler asked him. Our Lord was now in his way from Galilee to Judea and to Jerusalem. There cometh a person, a ruler, whether of some of the synagogues, or in some place of civil magistracy, the Scripture saith not. He runs, he kneels to him, (paying him at least a civil homage, as to his superior), he salutes him with the ordinary title they gave to their teachers, Master, Good Master; he propounds a grave question to him, what he should do that he might get to heaven; but yet he doth not propound the question in those terms, but,

What good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? It appeareth by his respect showed to Christ at his coming, and by the question proposed, and by his going away sorrowful when our Saviour’ s answer did not satisfy him, that he did not come upon any captious design to entrap our Saviour, but out of a desire to learn; but yet it appeareth plainly that he was a Pharisee, or a disciple of the Pharisees; and thought his life was in his own hands, that he had a power in himself to do some good thing by which he might merit eternal life, or upon the doing of which he might at least obtain everlasting life, though not as a strict reward for his work, without any consideration of a Messias. He grants an eternal state, he declares his desire of an eternal happiness, he declares his readiness to do some good thing that he might obtain it.

Poole: Mat 19:17 - why callest thou me good? // But if thou will enter into life, keep the commandments // keep the commandments Mark omits the latter clause, and only saith, Thou knowest the commandments; so saith Luke, Luk 18:19,20 . Our Saviour’ s design here was, n...

Mark omits the latter clause, and only saith, Thou knowest the commandments; so saith Luke, Luk 18:19,20 . Our Saviour’ s design here was, not to show this young man by this answer the way by which it was possible that he or any other might come to heaven, but only to convince him of the errors of the Pharisaical doctrine. They would not own Christ to be God, nor to be come forth from God; they taught eternal life to be obtainable by the works of the law, and by a fulfilling of the law, according to that imperfect sense which they gave of it, of which we heard much, in Mat 5:1-48 . Now, saith our Saviour, seeing you will not own me to be God, nor yet to have come from God,

why callest thou me good? There is none originally, essentially, and absolutely good, but God: there is none derivatively good, but he derives his goodness from God. How callest thou me good, whom thou wilt neither own to be God, nor to derive from God?

But if thou will enter into life, keep the commandments This was the doctrine of the Pharisees, That men might keep the commandments. Saith our Saviour, The way to eternal life, according to your doctrine, is plain before thee. You say, men may perfectly keep the commandments of God. He that doth so shall be saved. Therefore

keep the commandments Not that our Saviour thought he could do it, or that there did lie a passable road to heaven that way, but that he might convince him of his error, and the need he had of a Saviour.

Poole: Mat 19:18-19 - -- Ver. 18,19. Mark addeth, defraud not, Mar 10:19 , but Luke doth not put it in, Luk 18:20 . Three things we may observe: 1. There are no commandment...

Ver. 18,19. Mark addeth, defraud not, Mar 10:19 , but Luke doth not put it in, Luk 18:20 . Three things we may observe:

1. There are no commandments mentioned but those of the second table.

2. Nor are they reckoned up in order.

3. The tenth commandment is expressed by, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself; which elsewhere our Saviour calls the second great commandment, and makes comprehensive of all the commandments of the second table.

We must not from our Saviour’ s order here, in the enumeration of the commandments, either conclude that the precepts of the second table are greater than those of the first, or that it is enough to keep them in order to eternal life: nor yet, that the fifth commandment is lesser than the sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, because it is put after them. But;

1. Our Saviour had reckoned up commandments enough to convince this man that he could not by keeping the commandments hope for eternal life.

2. He had reckoned those, by some of which he intended by and by to convince him that he had not kept the commandments.

3. And those of the non observation of which it was most easy to convince him.

4. The Pharisees looked upon these as the most vulgar and easy commandments.

5. Because love to our neighbour is an excellent evidence of our love to God.

As concerning the order in which they are enumerated, it was not our Saviour’ s business here to show which was the greatest commandment; that he hath elsewhere determined, calling, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, &c., the first and great commandment: here he is not solicitous about the order.

Poole: Mat 19:20 - -- Those words, what lack I yet? are not in Mark or Luke. The young man understood these commandments according to the Pharisees’ interpretation...

Those words, what lack I yet? are not in Mark or Luke. The young man understood these commandments according to the Pharisees’ interpretation of them, who, as we heard, Mat 5:1-48 , interpreted them only as prohibiting the overt acts, not the inward lusts and motions of the heart, together with the means or occasions leading to such acts. Paul saith, he had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet, Rom 7:7 . Men that deceive themselves with false glosses and interpretations may think they keep the commandments of God, and be very confident of a righteousness in themselves; but it is impossible others should be so. What lack I yet? He expected Christ should have set him some new task, and was not aware that he only wanted a better knowledge and understanding of the law to convince him of his mistake.

Poole: Mat 19:21 - -- Mark repeats it thus, Mar 10:21 , Then Jesus beholding him loved him, and said unto him, One thing thou lackest: go thy way, sell whatsoever th...

Mark repeats it thus, Mar 10:21 , Then Jesus beholding him loved him, and said unto him, One thing thou lackest: go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, take up the cross, and follow me. Luke, Luk 18:22 , repeats it as Matthew, only he begins it with, Yet lackest thou one thing. Mark saith, that Jesus beholding him loved him: not with a special saving love, for he sent him away sad; upon his going he tells his disciples, that it was a very hard thing for a rich man to come to heaven; he tells him one thing was wanting to him: but he loved him with such a common love as he loveth all his creatures with, and more especially such as are better than others. All that can be concluded from hence is, that acts of moral righteousness are pleasing to God. He saith to him, If thou wilt be perfect, that is, in keeping the commandments of God. The papists make a great deal of stir to found upon this text their counsels of perfection; as if Christ here were advising only the young man to do something beyond what the law strictly required, in order to a more perfect state than others. But that this cannot be the sense of the words will appear to him who will diligently consider;

1. That this had been needless, for our Saviour, in directing the young man to keep the commandments in order to his obtaining everlasting life, had sufficiently declared that the keeping of the commandments was perfection enough.

2. He says, One thing is wanting to thee, that is, in order to thy obtaining everlasting life, which had not been true if our Saviour had granted him to have kept all the commandments, for he had before let him know that the keeping them was sufficient. Our Saviour therefore, by this speech, only endeavours to convince him that he had not kept all the commandments.

But it may be objected, How could that be, for there was no commandment that obliged him to go sell all that he had, and give to the poor? I answer, there was a commandment that he should love the Lord his God with all his heart, and soul, and strength, which he could not do unless he had a heart ready to obey any command God should lay upon him, which our Saviour puts upon the trial by this special precept:

3. There was a commandment of God that he should love his neighbour as himself, and that he should not covet. Now not to be ready at the commandment of God liberally to relieve the poor members of Christ, argued a covetous mind, more in love with his estate than with God; so as though this was not before specially commanded, yet it was commanded generally, and that he would have understood had he rightly understood the law of God; especially having such a promise annexed as thou shalt have treasure in heaven.

4. Nor must all the command be taken to be included in those Go sell that thou hast, and give to the poor; but the following words must also be taken in, and come, take up the cross, and follow me. Perfection here is not made to lie in a voluntary poverty only, but in coming after and following of Christ, with a free taking up of the cross.

In short, no man can be perfect in keeping the commandments of God, that doth not love God with all his heart, soul, and strength; nor can any man pretend to this, that hath not a heart ready to obey God in all things, whether more generally or more specially commanded. Nor can any man fulfil the duties of the second table, without first fulfil the duties of the first: for if our love to our neighbour flow not from a love to God, it is no act of obedience, and consequently no fulfilling of the law; which is not fulfilled by mere doing the external duty of it, but by doing what is required in it out of an obedience unto God, which cannot be without a first loving God.

Poole: Mat 19:22 - -- Mark saith the same, Mar 10:22 ; so doth Luke, Luk 18:23 . He was sorry that he had ever propounded the question, or that the terms were such as his...

Mark saith the same, Mar 10:22 ; so doth Luke, Luk 18:23 . He was sorry that he had ever propounded the question, or that the terms were such as his covetous heart could not comply with. He would have had heaven if he could have had it cheap; or, it may be, he would have parted with something for it; but to sell all was a hard saying! Or he was sorry to see himself so confuted, and convinced that, whatsoever he dreamed, he had not kept the commandments, and had not a heart prepared to obey God in one thing. It is not said, because he loved his great possessions, but,

for he had great possessions yet the first is intended. It is a hard thing for us to have a great concern in the world, and not to love it more than God.

He went away; he would hear no more of that discourse. How many would have heaven if they might have it upon their own terms! How few are willing to come up to God’ s terms! How false and deceitful are our hearts! They will persuade us we have done all, when indeed we have done nothing, nor are prepared to do any thing in truth and sincerity. We are not perfect, something is wanting to us, till to will to do whatsoever God requireth of us be present with us, though, when it comes to, we may want strength to perform.

Poole: Mat 19:23-24 - A rich man shall hardly enter // It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle Ver. 23,24. Mark saith, Mar 10:23-25 , And Jesus looked round about, and saith unto his disciples, How hardly shall they that have riches enter into...

Ver. 23,24. Mark saith, Mar 10:23-25 , And Jesus looked round about, and saith unto his disciples, How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God! And the disciples were astonished at his words. But Jesus answereth again, and saith unto them, Children, how hard is it for them that trust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God. It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God . Luke saith, Luk 18:24,25 , And when Jesus saw that he was sorrowful, he said, How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God! For it is easier for a camel to go through a needle’ s eye, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God . Our Lord, seeing the young man that came to him so briskly, with such a zeal for his soul, and appearing warmth of desire to be instructed in the right way to heaven, and asking for a task to be set him; first, what good thing he should do in order to that end, then calling for more; when our Saviour had reckoned up some commandments to be observed, What lack I yet? saith he; go away quite damped and sorrowful when our Saviour said not to him, Give thy body to be burned; no, nor yet, Cut off a right hand or foot, or pluck out a right eye; only part with some of thy circumstances, Sell that thou hast and give to the poor; a thing he might have done, and have been a man still perfect, both as to his essential and integral parts: he hence takes occasion to discourse with his disciples the danger of riches, and the ill influence they have upon men’ s souls, with relation to their eternal welfare. Luke and Mark say he spake it by way of question, How hardly? Matthew delivereth it as spoken positively,

A rich man shall hardly enter & c. The sense is the same, only the interrogation seems to aggravate the difficulty, and to fortify, the affirmation, as much as to say, A rich man shall very hardly enter into the kingdom of heaven.

The disciples were astonished at this, (saith Mark), which made our Saviour say it over again, with a little exposition, How hard is it for them that trust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God! Which exposition is so far from a correction or abatement of the severity of his former speech, that some judge it rather a confirmation of it, for he goes on with saying,

It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle But why should this astonish the disciples, who had no reason upon this account to fear for themselves, who had forsaken all to follow Christ? Possibly, because it was so contrary to the common opinion of the world, who did not only, as in Malachi’ s time, call the proud happy, but thought God had scarce any favour for any but the rich; in opposition to which Christ, Luk 6:20,24 , blesseth the poor, and pronounces woes to the rich, as having received their consolation. As to the words themselves, the design of our Saviour in them was not to condemn riches, as in themselves damnable; nor yet to deny salvation to all rich persons: our Lord knew that Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Job, were all rich persons, and yet in heaven; so was David and Solomon, &c. He also knew that riches are the gifts of God, good things, not in themselves pernicious. His design was only to show that they are dangerous temptations, soliciting and enticing our hearts into so great a love of them, and affection to them, as is not consistent with our duty with reference to God; and giving the heart of man such advantages for the lusts of pride, covetousness, ambition, oppression, luxury, (some or other of which are predominant in all souls), that it is very hard for a rich man so far to deny himself, as to do what he must do if ever he will be saved. For those words in Mark, them that trust in riches, I take them rather to give the reason of the difficulty, than to be an abatement of what he had before said; for to trust in riches, is to place a happiness in them, to promise ourselves a security from them, so as to be careless of a further happiness, Psa 49:6 52:7 1Ti 6:17 . That which makes it so hard for a rich man to be saved, is the difficulty of having riches and not placing our felicity in them, being secure because of them, and having our hearts cleave unto them, so as we cannot deny ourselves in them to obey any command of God; and the suffering them to be temptations to us to pride, luxury ambition, oppression, contempt and despising of others, covetousness, &c. Upon these accounts our Saviour goeth on and saith, It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God . Which doubtless was a proverbial expression, in use then amongst the Jews, to signify a thing of great difficulty, by terms importing impossibility: or else the phrase may signify an impossibility without the extraordinary influence of Divine grace, as our Saviour seemeth to expound it in the next verses.

Poole: Mat 19:25-26 - With men this is impossible; but with God all things are possible Ver. 25,26. Mark saith, They were astonished out of measure, saying among themselves, & c. All three evangelists agree in the same substance of the...

Ver. 25,26. Mark saith, They were astonished out of measure, saying among themselves, & c. All three evangelists agree in the same substance of the other words. But why are the disciples amazed? or why do they say, Who then can be saved? Are there not in all places more poor than rich persons? The disciples might reasonably conclude, that poor persons were by their poverty also exposed to many great and dangerous temptations; that even they, though they had not riches, yet might too much place felicity in them, and covet what they had not; and from hence collect a difficulty for any to get to heaven. Our Saviour saith unto them,

With men this is impossible; but with God all things are possible If men indeed were left all to themselves, none would be saved; the blackamoor cannot change his skin, nor the leopard his spots; but God can bring men to heaven by the mighty power of his grace: he can change a rich man’ s heart, and take it off from too much love of riches, and make him to despise and contemn his wealth, and to put his trust in the living God; or a poor man’ s heart, and make him also poor in spirit and rich in grace.

Poole: Mat 19:27-28 - We have forsaken all, and followed thee; what shall we have? Ver. 27,28. Mark and Luke repeateth the words of Peter in part, but neither of them have this part of our Lord’ s answer, particularly respectin...

Ver. 27,28. Mark and Luke repeateth the words of Peter in part, but neither of them have this part of our Lord’ s answer, particularly respecting his apostles. We heard before, Mat 4:18-22 , of Peter, and Andrew, and James, and John, forsaking all and following of Christ, when he called them; the others doubtless did the same. Peter observing that our Saviour laid not the stress of men’ s salvation either upon riches or poverty, but upon the frame of men’ s spirits, their humility, self-denial, their obedience to and readiness to follow him; rejoins these words, and saith,

We have forsaken all, and followed thee; what shall we have? Some think that he had an expectation of something in this life, according to the notion which the other Jews had, and it is apparent the disciples had some tincture of a secular kingdom, which the Messias should exercise. But considering our Lord’ s former discourse could not be so interpreted, and the disciples question, Who then can be saved? I cannot agree that. And for the same reason I cannot agree, that the coming of the Son of man in his glory, mentioned Mat 19:28 , should be understood of his coming in his mediatory kingdom, (as some would have it), but of his last coming, which is most properly called the coming of the Son of man in his glory, mentioned 1Th 4:15-17 Jud 1:14 ; and that the thing here promised to the apostles, is not a preference in the church, but a further degree of honour and glory in the day of judgment.

Ye which have followed me in the regeneration; that is, at this time, while I have been by my doctrine reforming the word; in the regeneration of my church, while I have been putting it into a new state. Some make those words, in the regeneration, to refer to the next words.

In the regeneration; that is, in the day of judgment, when Christ shall come in his glory. The apostle indeed, Act 3:21 , calleth that day, the times of restitution of all things. And the prophet speaks of it as the time of the new heavens and new earth, Isa 66:22 . So doth the apostle, 2Pe 3:13 ; and John, in Rev 21:1 . It is not much material to which part we apply the term.

Ye which have followed me; that is, who have followed and shall go on and follow me, for this promise cannot belong to Judas, the son of perdition.

Ye shall sit upon twelve thrones. Judges and princes use to have assessors, that sit with them in judgment. He mentions twelve thrones, because he had now twelve disciples, his apostles; and though afterward Judas fell away, yet Matthias succeeded, Act 1:26 ; so as the twelve thrones shall not be empty, but filled up with twelve that followed Christ, for such a one was Matthias, Act 1:21 .

Judging the twelve tribes of Israel. Though the tribes were thirteen, yet they usually went under the notion of twelve, because Levi was not counted, as having no particular possession. That is, judging the Jews for their unbelief, and not reception of me: judging others also; but judgment shall begin at the house of God. Doubtless this promise imports, that the apostles shall have a higher place in glory at the great day than ordinary believers: yet the apostle saith the saints shall judge the world, 1Co 6:2 .

Poole: Mat 19:29 - -- Mark saith, Mar 10:29,30 , for my sake, and the gospel’ s, but he shall receive an hundredfold now in this time, houses, and brethren, and sis...

Mark saith, Mar 10:29,30 , for my sake, and the gospel’ s, but he shall receive an hundredfold now in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions; and in the world to come eternal life. Luke saith, Luk 18:29,30 , for the kingdom of God’ s sake, who shall not receive manifold more in this present time, and in the world to come life everlasting. The words are a liberal promise, and we must consider,

1. To whom it is made.

2. Of what it is.

The former promise respected the apostles, and was special, as appears by the number of twelve thrones. This respecteth all those that should forsake any thing, houses, brethren, lands, sisters, fathers, mothers, wife, children, for Christ; which is expressed by three phrases ( for my name’ s sake, for the gospel’ s sake, for the kingdom of God’ s sake ) all of the same import; rather than they will forsake me, and the profession of my gospel; rather than they will sin against God. The promise is,

1. Of an hundredfold in this time.

2. Of eternal life.

We must not understand of an hundredfold in specie, but in value. Therefore Mark saith, he shall receive what he hath in this life with persecutions. What is therefore this hundredfold in this life?

1. Joy in the Holy Ghost, peace of conscience, the sense of God’ s love; so as, with the apostles, they shall rejoice that they are thought worthy to suffer any thing for the name of Christ, Act 5:41 . They shall, with Paul and Silas, Act 16:25 , sing in the prison; with those, Heb 10:34 , take joyfully the spoiling of their goods, knowing they have in heaven a better and an enduring substance. This inward joy and peace shall be a hundredfold more than fathers and mothers, or brethren, or sisters.

2. Contentment. They shall have a contented frame of spirit with the little that is left; though they have not so much to drink as they had, yet they shall have less thirst, Phi 4:11,12 .

3. God will stir up the hearts of others to supply their wants, and that supply shall be sweeter to them than their abundance was.

4. God sometimes repays them in this life, as he restored Job after his trial to greater riches. But they shall have a certain reward in another world, eternal happiness.

Poole: Mat 19:30 - But many that are first shall be last So saith Mark, Mar 10:31 . We have much the same sentence, Luk 13:30 Mat 20:16 . The Jews that are counted now the first, nearest to the kingdom of ...

So saith Mark, Mar 10:31 . We have much the same sentence, Luk 13:30 Mat 20:16 . The Jews that are counted now the first, nearest to the kingdom of heaven, shall have no place there; and the Gentiles, looked upon as most remote from it, shall be admitted into it. The Pharisees and great doctors, who think themselves first, that is, nearest the kingdom of heaven, shall be last; and those whom they count last, such as shall have nothing to do with heaven, shall be counted the first, shall have the preference, the chiefest place in heaven. It is a general sentence, and may be applied variously. But if we consider what discourse follows, we shall see reason to interpret it as an awakening sentence to the best of men. It is the apostles, those who had forsaken all to follow him, to whom he here saith,

But many that are first shall be last & c. As much as if he had said, You have forsaken all and followed me, but you had need look, and consider, from what principle, with what love, and to what end you have done it; you had need keep a watch upon yourselves, and see that you hold on, and that you have no confidence in yourselves. For many that are first in, profession, first in the opinion of others, first in their own opinion and confidence, at the day of judgment will be found to be last in mine and my Father’ s esteem and reckoning: and many who make not so great a noise, nor have so great a name and repute in the world, and who have the lowest and meanest opinion of themselves, will be found first, and highest in my favour. The day of judgment will frustrate many expectations.

Lightfoot: Mat 19:1 - He came unto the coasts of Judea beyond Jordan And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these sayings, he departed from Galilee, and come into the coasts of Judaea beyond Jordan; &nbs...

And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these sayings, he departed from Galilee, and come into the coasts of Judaea beyond Jordan;   

[He came unto the coasts of Judea beyond Jordan.] If it were barely said, the coasts of Judea beyond Jordan; by the coasts of Judea one might understand the bounds of the Jews beyond Jordan. Nor does such a construction want its parallel in Josephus; for "Hyrcanus (saith he) built a fortification, the name of which was Tyre, between Arabia and Judea, beyond Jordan, not far from Essebonitis." But see Mark here, Mar 10:1, relating the same story with this our evangelist: He came; saith he, into the coasts of Judea; (taking a journey from Galilee,) along the country beyond Jordan.

Lightfoot: Mat 19:3 - Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause The Pharisees also came unto him, tempting him, and saying unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause?   [Is i...

The Pharisees also came unto him, tempting him, and saying unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause?   

[Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause?] of the causes, ridiculous (shall I call them?) or wicked; for which they put away their wives, we have spoke at Mat 5:31. We will produce only one example here; " When Rabh went to Darsis ('whither,' as the Gloss saith, 'he often went'), he made a public proclamation, What woman will have me for a day? Rabh Nachman, when he went to Sacnezib, made a public proclamation, What woman will have me for a day?" The Gloss is, "Is there any woman who will be my wife while I tarry in this place?"   

The question here propounded by the Pharisees was disputed in the schools, and they divided into parties concerning it, as we have noted before. For the school of Shammai permitted not divorces, but only in the case of adultery; the school of Hillel, otherwise.

Lightfoot: Mat 19:8 - Because Moses for the hardness of your hearts suffered, etc. He saith unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so.  &...

He saith unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so.   

[Because Moses for the hardness of your hearts suffered, etc.] interpreters ordinarily understand this of the unkindness of men towards their wives; and that not illy: but at first sight hardness of heart for the most part in Scripture denotes rather obduration against God than against men. Examples occur everywhere. Nor does this sense want its fitness in this place: not to exclude the other, but to be joined with it here.   

I. That God delivered that rebellious people for the hardness of their hearts to spiritual fornication, that is, to idolatry, sufficiently appears out of sacred story, and particularly from these words of the first martyr Stephen, Act 7:42; God turned, and gave them up to worship the host of heaven; etc. And they seem not less given up to carnal fornication, if you observe the horrid records of their adulteries in the Holy Scripture, and their not less horrid allowances of divorces and polygamies in the books of the Talmudists: so that the particle...carries with it a very proper sense, if you interpret it to; according to its most usual signification; "Moses to the hardness of your hearts added this, that he permitted divorces; something that savours of punishment in itself, however you esteem it for a privilege."   

II. But you may interpret it more clearly and aptly of the inhumanity of husbands towards their wives: but this is to be understood also under restriction: for Moses permitted not divorces, because, simply and generally men were severe and unkind towards their wives; for then, why should he restrain divorces to the cause of adultery? But because, from their fierceness and cruelty towards their wives, they might take hold of and seek occasions from that law which punished adultery with death, to prosecute their wives with all manner of severity, to oppress them, to kill them.   

Let us search into the divine laws in case of adultery a little more largely.   

1. There was a law made upon the suspicion of adultery, that the wife should undergo a trial by the bitter waters, Numbers_5; but it is disputed by the Jewish schools, rightly and upon good ground, whether the husband was bound in this case by duty to prosecute his wife to extremity, or whether it were lawful for him to connive at and pardon her, if he would. And there are some who say he was bound by duty; and there are others who say that it was left to his pleasure.   

2. There was a law of death made in case of the discovery of adultery, Deu 22:21-23; "If a man shall be found lying with a married woman, both shall die," etc. Not that this law was not in force unless they were taken in the very act; but the word shall be found is opposed to suspicion, and means the same as if it were said, "When it shall be found that a man hath lain," etc.   

3. A law of divorce also was given in case of adultery discovered, Deu 24:1; for in that case only, and when it is discovered, it plainly appears from our Saviour's gloss, and from the concession of some Rabbins also, that divorces took place: for, say they in the place last cited, "Does a man find something foul in his wife? he cannot put her away, because he hath not found foul nakedness in her "; that is, adultery.   

But now, how do the law of death and that of divorce consist together? It is answered, They do not so consist together that both retain their force; but the former was partly taken off by the latter, and partly not. The Divine Wisdom knew that inhuman husbands would use that law of death unto all manner of cruelty towards their wives: for how ready was it for a wicked and unkind husband to lay snares even for his innocent wife, if he were weary of her, to oppress her under that law of death! And if she were taken under guilt, how cruelly and insolently would he triumph over her, poor woman, both to the disgrace of wedlock and to the scandal of religion! Therefore the most prudent, and withal merciful lawgiver, made provision that the woman, if she were guilty, might not go without her punishment; and if she were not guilty, might go without danger; and that the wicked husband that was impatient of wedlock might not satiate his cruelty. That which is said by one does not please me, "That there was no place for divorce where matrimony was broke off by capital punishment"; for there was place for divorce for that end, that there might not be place for capital punishment. That law indeed of death held the adulterer in a snare, and exacted capital punishment upon him, and so the law made sufficient provision for terror: but it consulted more gently for the woman, the weaker vessel, lest the cruelty of her husband might unmercifully triumph over her.   

Therefore, in the suspicion of adultery, and the thing not discovered, the husband might, if he would, try his wife by the bitter waters; or if he would he might connive at her. In case of the discovery of adultery, the husband might put away his wife, but he scarce might put her to death; because the law of divorce was given for that very end, that provision might be made for the woman against the hardheartedness of her husband.   

Let this story serve for a conclusion; "Shemaiah and Abtalion compelled Carchemith, a libertine woman-servant, to drink the bitter waters." The husband of this woman could not put her away by the law of Moses, because she was not found guilty of discovered adultery. He might put her away by the traditional law, which permitted divorces without the case of adultery; he might not, if he had pleased, have brought her to trial by the bitter waters; but it argued the hardness of his heart towards his wife, or burning jealousy, that he brought her. I do not remember that I have anywhere in the Jewish pandect read any example of a wife punished with death for adultery. There is mention of the daughter of a certain priest committing fornication in her father's house, that was burnt alive; but she was not married.

Lightfoot: Mat 19:13 - Then were little children brought unto him Then were there brought unto him little children, that he should put his hands on them, and pray: and the disciples rebuked them.   [The...

Then were there brought unto him little children, that he should put his hands on them, and pray: and the disciples rebuked them.   

[Then were little children brought unto him.] Not for the healing of some disease; for if this had been the end propounded, why did the disciples keep them back above all others, or chide any for their access? Nor can we believe that they were the children of unbelieving Jews, when it is scarcely probable that they, despising the doctrine and person of Christ, would desire his blessing. Some therefore of those that believe brought their infants to Christ, that he might take particular notice of them, and admit them into his discipleship, and mark them for his by his blessing. Perhaps the disciples thought this an excess of officious religion; or that they would be too troublesome to their Master; and hence they opposed them: but Christ countenanceth the same thing, and favours again that doctrine which he had laid down, Mat 18:3; namely, that the infants of believers were as much disciples and partakers of the kingdom of heaven as their parents.

Lightfoot: Mat 19:18 - Thou shalt do no murder, etc. He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false ...

He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness,   

[Thou shalt do no murder, etc.] It is worthy marking, how again and again in the New Testament, when mention is made of the whole law, only the second table is exemplified, as in this place; so also Rom 13:8-9; and Jam 2:8; Jam 2:11; etc. Charity towards our neighbour is the top of religion, and a most undoubted sign of love towards God.

Lightfoot: Mat 19:21 - Sell that thou hast, and give to the poor Jesus said unto him, If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and com...

Jesus said unto him, If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come and follow me.   

[Sell that thou hast, and give to the poor.] When Christ calls it perfection to sell all and give to the poor, he speaks according to the idiom of the nation, which thought so: and he tries this rich man, boasting of his exact performance of the law, whether, when he pretended to aspire to eternal life, he would aspire to that perfection which his countrymen so praised. Not that hence he either devoted Christians to voluntary poverty, or that he exhorted this man to rest ultimately in a Pharisaical perfection; but lifting up his mind to the renouncing of worldly things, he provokes him to it by the very doctrine of the Pharisees which he professed.   

"For these things the measure is not stated; for the corner of the field" to be left for the poor; "for the firstfruits for the appearance in the Temple" (according to the law, Exo 23:15; Exo 23:17; where, what, or how great an oblation is to be brought, is not appointed), "for the shewing mercy, and for the study of the law." The casuists, discussing that point of 'shewing mercy,' do thus determine concerning it: "A stated measure is not indeed prescribed to the shewing of mercy, as to the affording poor men help with thy body," that is, with thy bodily labour; "but as to money there is a stated measure, namely, the fifth part of thy wealth; nor is any bound to give the poor above the fifth part of his estate, unless he does it out of extraordinary devotion." See Rambam upon the place, and the Jerusalem Gemara: where the example of R. Ishbab is produced, distributing all his goods to the poor.

Lightfoot: Mat 19:24 - A camel to go through the eye of a needle, etc. And again I say unto you, It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.  &...

And again I say unto you, It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.   

[A camel to go through the eye of a needle, etc.] a phrase used in the schools, intimating a thing very unusual and very difficult. There, where the discourse is concerning dreams and their interpretation, these words are added. They do not shew a man a palm tree of gold, nor an elephant going through the eye of a needle. The Gloss is, "A thing which he was not wont to see, nor concerning which he ever thought."   

In like manner R. Sheshith answered R. Amram, disputing with him and asserting something that was incongruous, in these words; "Perhaps thou art one of those of Pombeditha, who can make an elephant pass through the eye of a needle": that is, as the Aruch interprets it, "who speak things that are impossible."

Lightfoot: Mat 19:28 - Ye that have followed me, in the regeneration. // When the Son of man shall sit upon the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne o...

And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.   

[Ye that have followed me, in the regeneration.] That the world is to be renewed at the coming of the Messias, and the preaching of the gospel, the Scriptures assert, and the Jews believe; but in a grosser sense, which we observe at Matthew_24. Our Saviour, therefore, by the word regeneration; calls back the mind of the disciples to a right apprehension of the thing; implying that renovation, concerning which the Scripture speaks, is not of the body or substance of the world; but that it consists in the renewing of the manners, doctrine, and a dispensation conducing thereunto: men are to be renewed, regenerated, -- not the fabric of the world. This very thing he teaches Nicodemus, treating concerning the nature of the kingdom of heaven, Joh 3:3.   

[When the Son of man shall sit upon the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit.] These words are fetched out of Daniel, Dan 7:9-10; which words I wonder should be translated by the interpreters, Aben Ezra, R. Saadia, and others, as well Jews as Christians, thrones were cast down. R. Solomon the Vulgar, and others, read it righter, thrones were set up; where Lyranus thus, "He saith thrones in the plural number, because not only Christ shall judge, but the apostles, and perfect men, shall assist him in judgment, sitting upon thrones." The same way very many interpreters bend the words under our hands, namely, that the saints shall at the day of judgment sit with Christ, and approve and applaud his judgment. But, 1. besides, that the scene of the last judgment, painted out in the Scripture, does always represent as well the saints as the wicked standing before the tribunal of Christ, Mat 25:32; 2Co 5:10; etc.; we have mention here only of "twelve thrones." And, 2, we have mention only of judging the "twelve tribes of Israel." The sense, therefore, of the place may very well be found out by weighing these things following:   

I. That those thrones set up in Daniel are not to be understood of the last judgment of Christ, but of his judgment in his entrance upon his evangelical government, when he was made by his Father chief ruler, king, and judge of all things: Psa 2:6; Mat 28:18; Joh 5:27. For observe the scope and series of the prophet, that, after the four monarchies, namely, the Babylonian, the Medo-Persian, the Grecian, and the Syro-Grecian, which monarchies had vexed the world and the church by their tyranny, were destroyed, the kingdom of Christ should rise, etc. Those words, "The kingdom of heaven is at hand," that judiciary scene set up Revelation_4-5; and those thrones Rev 20:1; etc. do interpret Daniel to this sense.   

II. The throne of glory, concerning which the words before us are, is to be understood of the judgment of Christ to be brought upon the treacherous, rebellious, wicked people. We meet with very frequent mention of the coming of Christ in his glory in this sense; which we shall discourse more largely of at Matthew_24.   

III. That the sitting of the apostles upon thrones with Christ is not to be understood of their persons; it is sufficiently proved; because Judas was now one of the number: but it is meant of their doctrine; as if he had said, "When I shall bring judgment upon this most unjust nation, then our doctrine, which you have preached in my name, shall judge and condemn them." See Rom 2:16.   

Hence it appears that the gospel was preached to all the twelve tribes of Israel before the destruction of Jerusalem.

Haydock: Mat 19:1 - -- MATTHEW

MATTHEW

Haydock: Mat 19:3 - Is it lawful? // To put away his wife for every cause Is it lawful? Here again the Pharisees, ever anxious to ensnare Jesus in his words, come to him and ask him, is it lawful for a man to put away his ...

Is it lawful? Here again the Pharisees, ever anxious to ensnare Jesus in his words, come to him and ask him, is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? Thinking now they had to a certainty succeeded, they argue thus with themselves: shall he say that it is not lawful, we will accuse him of blasphemy, contradicting the Scriptures. For, it is written, Deuteronomy iv. 1. If a man take a wife, and she find not favour in his eyes, for some uncleanness, he shall write a bill of divorce. And Malachias, ii. 16. When thou shalt hate her, put her away. ---

On the other hand, if he shall say it is lawful, we will accuse him of favouring the passions. But Jesus Christ, the wisdom of the eternal Father, silences them with the authority of that Scripture they attempted to bring against him. What God has joined together, let no man put asunder; intimating, that the connexion between husband and wife is so strict, that by it they become as one flesh, and can no more be separated than one member from another. (Denis the Carthusian) ---

To put away his wife for every cause, [1] or upon every occasion. They did not doubt it, if the cause was considerable. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Quacunque ex causa, Greek: kata pasan aitian, ex qualibet causa.

Haydock: Mat 19:4 - In the beginning In the beginning. It is remarked by St. Jerome, St. John Chrysostom, and Theophylactus, that the Almighty does not say of any of the animals which h...

In the beginning. It is remarked by St. Jerome, St. John Chrysostom, and Theophylactus, that the Almighty does not say of any of the animals which he created, as he does of man and woman, that he joined one male to one female; from which it appears, according to the reasoning of St. Augustine, that monogamy, as well as the indissolubility of marriage, was instituted from the beginning by the Almighty. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Mat 19:5 - And they shall be in one flesh These words were pronounced by Adam. Genesis xi. 24. [sic; ii. 24] --- And they shall be in one flesh. [2] I translate thus with submission to bett...

These words were pronounced by Adam. Genesis xi. 24. [sic; ii. 24] ---

And they shall be in one flesh. [2] I translate thus with submission to better judges; yet the sense may be, by a kind of Hebraism, they shall be esteemed as one person. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Erunt duo in carne una, Greek: duo eis sarka mian, in carnem unam, as Genesis ii. 7. factus est homo in animam viventem. See Maldonat.

Haydock: Mat 19:7 - -- The Pharisees, not satisfied, again attack our Saviour. To this second attack he replies: Moses indeed permitted you to put away your wives on accoun...

The Pharisees, not satisfied, again attack our Saviour. To this second attack he replies: Moses indeed permitted you to put away your wives on account of the hardness of your hearts, and to prevent a greater evil, lest through your cruelty you should poison them, or put them to violent death; but in the natural law, signified by the beginning, it was not so. (Denis the Carthusian)

Haydock: Mat 19:8 - Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, permitted you Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, permitted you, &c. Whether this was permitted in the old law, so that the man who was divorced from h...

Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, permitted you, &c. Whether this was permitted in the old law, so that the man who was divorced from his wife could marry another woman, is disputed. Some think this second marriage was still unlawful for the man or woman so separated to marry another. (Witham) ---

The latter part of this verse, of St. Paul, (Romans vii. 3,) and the constant tradition of the Church, shew that the exception only refers to separation, but not to the marrying another during the life of the parties. In this place Christ restores the original condition of the marriage state, and henceforth will have it to be a perfect figure of the hypostatic union of his divine person with our human nature, as also of his nuptial union with his Church, and consequently that it should be indissoluble. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Mat 19:9 - And I say to you And I say to you. It is worthy of remark, that in the parallel texts, St. Mark x. 2. and St. Luke xvi. 18. and St. Paul to Corinthians vii. 10. omit...

And I say to you. It is worthy of remark, that in the parallel texts, St. Mark x. 2. and St. Luke xvi. 18. and St. Paul to Corinthians vii. 10. omit the exception of fornication; and also that St. Matthew himself omits it in the second part of the verse; and says absolutely, that he who shall marry her that is put away committeth adultery. It perhaps crept in here from chap. v. 23, where it is found in a phrase very similar to this, but which expresses a case widely different. Divorce is in no case admitted but in that of adultery. This is what Christ teaches in chap. v. 32, and to this the exception is referred, marked in the two texts. But in this very case the separated parties cannot contract a second marriage without again committing adultery, as we must infer, from a comparison of this text with the parallel texts of St. Mark and St. Luke. (Bible de Vence) ---

If we did not understand it in this manner, the case of the adulteress would be preferable to the case of her who should be put away without any crime of her own; as in this supposition, the former would be allowed to marry again, which the latter would not be allowed. (Tirinus) ---

St. Augustine is very explicit on this subject. See lib. 11. de adult conjug. chap. xxi. xxii. xxiv. ---

St. Jerome, in his high commendation of the noble matron, Fabiola, says of her: "that though she was the innocent party, for the unlawful act of marrying again, she did public penance." (In Epitaph. Fabiolæ.) ---

This universally received doctrine of the Catholic Church was confirmed in the general council of Trent. (Session xxiv. canon 6.)

Haydock: Mat 19:11 - All receive not this word All receive not this word. [3] To translate all cannot take, or cannot receive this word, is neither conformable to the Latin nor Greek text. To b...

All receive not this word. [3] To translate all cannot take, or cannot receive this word, is neither conformable to the Latin nor Greek text. To be able to live singly, and chastely, is given to every one that asketh, and prayeth for the grace of God to enable him to live so. (Witham) ---

Jesus Christ take occasion from the remark of the Pharisees to praise holy virginity, which he represents as a great and good gift of heaven; and such it has ever been considered in the eye of true and genuine religion. Hence it appears that besides commandments, there are evangelical counsels, to the observance of which it is both lawful and meritorious for a Christian to devote himself, especially for the purpose of employing himself with greater liberty and less encumbrance in the service of his God. ---

Our Lord does not approve of the conclusion his disciple drew from his doctrine on the indissolubility of marriage, lest he should seem to condemn matrimony both good and necessary; neither does he reprove them for it, lest he should seem to prefer it before the state of continency. His answer therefore prudently avoids both difficulties, by seeming to grant, on the one hand, that it was more expedient not to marry, because chastity is a great gift of God; (1 Corinthians vii.) and plainly shewing on the other, that only few can have this privilege, because all do not receive this word, i.e. all are not called to this state. (Jansenius) ---

All cannot receive it, because all do not wish it. The reward is held out to all. Let him who seeks for glory, not think of the labour. None would overcome, if all were afraid of engaging in the conflict. If some fail, are we to be less careful in our pursuit of virtue? Is the soldier terrified, because his comrade fights and falls by his side? (St. John Chrysostom) ---

He that can receive it, let him receive it. He that can fight, let him fight, overcome and triumph. It is the voice of the Lord animating his soldiers to victory. (St. Jerome)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Non omnes capiunt, Greek: ou pantes chorousi. Maldonat will needs have Greek: chorein, to signify intelligere, as it does sometimes. But St. Jerome on this place, unusquisque consideret vires suas, &c. And St. John Chrysostom (hom. lxiii.) ut singulare esse certamen perdiscas. St. Jerome adds, Sed his datum est, qui petierunt; qui voluerunt; qui ut acciperent, laboraverunt. And St. John Chrysostom, His enim datum est, qui sponte id eligunt. Greek: dedotai gar ekeinois tois boulomenois. Ed. Sav. p. 397.

Haydock: Mat 19:12 - And there are eunuchs, who have made themselves eunuchs // He that can receive it, let him receive it And there are eunuchs, who have made themselves eunuchs, &c. It is not to be taken in the literal sense, but of such who have taken a firm and comme...

And there are eunuchs, who have made themselves eunuchs, &c. It is not to be taken in the literal sense, but of such who have taken a firm and commendable resolution of leading a single life. ---

He that can receive it, let him receive it. Some think that to receive, in this and the foregoing verse, is to understand; and so will have the sense to be, he that can understand what I have said of different eunuchs, let him understand it; as when Christ said elsewhere, he that hath ears to hear, let him hear. But others expound it as an admonition to men and women, not to engage themselves in a vow of living a single life, unless, after serious deliberation, they have good grounds to think they can duly comply with this vow, otherwise let them not make it. Thus St. Jerome on this place, and St. John Chrysostom where they both expressly take notice, that this grace is granted to every one that asketh and beggeth for it by prayer. (Witham) ---

To the crown and glory of which state, let those aspire who feel themselves called by heaven.

Haydock: Mat 19:13 - That he should lay his hands upon them // And the disciples rebuked them That he should lay his hands upon them. It was the custom to present children to men reputed holy, as it is now the custom for bishops and priests t...

That he should lay his hands upon them. It was the custom to present children to men reputed holy, as it is now the custom for bishops and priests to pray and give a blessing to others. (Witham) ---

It was customary with the Jews to present their children to the elders, that they might receive their blessing; hence they present them on this occasion to our Lord. (St. Remigius) ---

And the disciples rebuked them, not because they were unwilling that the children should be blessed by the hands of our Saviour, but as they were yet weak in faith, they thought that, like other men, he would be teased by the importunity of the offerers. (St. Jerome) ---

The people thought that the same hands, which could restore instantaneous health to the sick, must necessarily impart every good to such children as they should touch. The disciples thought they made too free with their Master, requesting what, in their ideas, was beneath his dignity. (Haydock)

Haydock: Mat 19:14 - Jesus said ... Suffer the little children Jesus said ... Suffer the little children, &c. He here blames the conduct of the apostles, and shews that his assertions in praise of virginity, wer...

Jesus said ... Suffer the little children, &c. He here blames the conduct of the apostles, and shews that his assertions in praise of virginity, were not meant as derogatory from the holiness of the marriage state, by giving his blessing to these little ones, the fruits of lawful wedlock; and declares that the kingdom of heaven is the portion of such as resemble these little ones, by the innocence of their lives and simplicity of their hearts. He, moreover, shews that confidence in our own strength, in our own free-will, and in our merits, is an invincible obstacle to salvation. St. Mark (x. 16) says, that embracing them, and laying hands upon them, he blessed them. Hence probably arose the ancient custom of presenting children to bishops and priests, to receive their blessing, beside that of confirmation immediately after baptism. ---

Nicephorus tells us that the celebrated St. Ignatius, afterwards bishop of Antioch, was one of these children who, on this occasion, received Christ's blessing. ---

If we would enter into the kingdom of heaven, we must imitate the virtues of little children. Their souls are free from every passion; void of every thought of revenge, they approach those who have grieved them as to their best friends. Though the parent repeatedly chastise his child, it still will adhere to him, still it love him, and prefer him in all his poverty to all the fascinating charms of dazzling gold and purple. They seek not beyond what is necessary, they admire not the beauty of the body, they are not grieved at the loss of worldly wealth, therefore does the Saviour of the world say, that theirs is the kingdom of heaven. (St. John Chrysostom, hom. lxiii.)

Haydock: Mat 19:16 - Behold one came Behold one came. St. Luke (xviii. 18.) calls him a prince or lord. Some conjecture this young man came only in a dissembling way, to try or tem...

Behold one came. St. Luke (xviii. 18.) calls him a prince or lord. Some conjecture this young man came only in a dissembling way, to try or tempt our Saviour, as the Pharisees sometimes did, and without any design to follow his advice; but by all the circumstances related of him, by the evangelists particularly, when St. Mark (Chap. x. 22.) tells us, he went away sorrowful, he seems to have come with sincerity, but without resolution strong enough to leave his worldly goods and possessions. (Witham)

Haydock: Mat 19:17 - Why askest thou me concerning good? // One is good Why askest thou me concerning good? [4] In the ordinary Greek copies, why dost thou call me good? (Witham) --- One is good, &c. God alone, by hi...

Why askest thou me concerning good? [4] In the ordinary Greek copies, why dost thou call me good? (Witham) ---

One is good, &c. God alone, by his own nature, is essentially, absolutely, and unchangeably good; at the same time, he is the source of all created goodness, as all goodness is a mere emanation from his. The person here addressing our Saviour, appears not to have believed that Christ was God: wherefore our Saviour, to rectify his misconception, tells him that God alone is good, insinuating thereby, that he should believe him to be God, or cease to address him by the title of good. (Tirinus) ---

The sense is, that only God is good necessarily, and by his own nature. The Arians bring this place to shew, that Christ is not truly and properly God: but by this way of speaking, Christ does not deny that he is good, even by his nature, and consequently God; but seems to speak in this manner, to make the man know who he was. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Quid me interrogas de bono? Greek: erotas peri agathou. In the common Greek copies, ti me legeis agathon.

Haydock: Mat 19:19 - -- St. Jerome thinks his answer was not conformable to truth, or he would not have been sorry when ordered to distribute his goods among the poor.

St. Jerome thinks his answer was not conformable to truth, or he would not have been sorry when ordered to distribute his goods among the poor.

Haydock: Mat 19:21 - If thou wilt be perfect // Follow me If thou wilt be perfect. This shews there is a difference betwixt things that are of precept, and those that are of counsel only, which they aim...

If thou wilt be perfect. This shews there is a difference betwixt things that are of precept, and those that are of counsel only, which they aim at, that aspire to the greatest perfection. (Witham) ---

Evangelical perfection essentially consists in the perfect observance of God's commandments, which is greatly assisted by embracing not only voluntary poverty, but also the other counsels given to us in the gospels, such as perpetual chastity, and entire obedience. ---

Follow me. Thus to follow Christ, is to be without wife and care of children, to have no property, and to live in community; this state of life hath a great reward in heaven. This state, we learn from St. Augustine, the apostles followed; and he himself not only embraced it, but exhorted as many others as he possibly could to embrace it. (St. Augustine, ep. lxxxix, in fine, and in Ps. ciii. conc. 3. post. med.) (Bristow) ---

The whole perfection of a Christian life consists in following Christ, by an imitation of his virtues. So that he who possesses poverty and chastity, does not immediately become perfect, but only enters upon the way of perfection, by facilitating his progress to perfection, removing hindrances, and laying aside all care of temporal concerns. (Nicholas de Lyra.) ---

In this chapter Jesus Christ delivers the evangelical counsels. In ver. 12, he recommends continency -- here he proposes voluntary poverty, and immediately adds that of obedience, follow me. St. Augustine teaches, that the apostles bound themselves by vow to the observance of these three counsels. (De civit. Dei. Book xvii. chap. 4.)

Haydock: Mat 19:22 - Sorrowful Sorrowful. I know not how it happens, that when superfluous and earthly things are loved, we are more attached to what we possess in effect than in ...

Sorrowful. I know not how it happens, that when superfluous and earthly things are loved, we are more attached to what we possess in effect than in desire. For, why did this young man depart sad, but because he had great riches? It is one thing not to wish for, and another to part with them, when once we have them. They become incorporated, and, as it were, a part of ourselves, like food; and, when taken, are changed into our own members. No one easily suffers a member of his body to be cut off. (St. Augustine, ep. xxxi. ad Paul.)

Haydock: Mat 19:24 - It is easier for a camel It is easier for a camel, [5] &c. This might be a common saying, to signify anything impossible, or very heard. Some by a camel, would have to be ...

It is easier for a camel, [5] &c. This might be a common saying, to signify anything impossible, or very heard. Some by a camel, would have to be meant a cable, or ship-rope, but that is differently writ in Greek, and here is commonly understood a true camel. (Witham) ---

But nothing is impossible to God.

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Camelum, Greek: kamelun, which is observed to be different from Greek: kamilos, a cable, or ship-rope. See Mr. Legh, Critica Sacra.

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Haydock: Mat 19:25 - They wondered very much They wondered very much. The apostles wondered how any person could be saved, not because all were rich, but because the poor were also included, wh...

They wondered very much. The apostles wondered how any person could be saved, not because all were rich, but because the poor were also included, who had their hearts and affections fixed on riches. (St. Augustine and Nicholas de Lyra.)

Haydock: Mat 19:27 - Behold we have left all! Behold we have left all! What confidence this in Peter! He ad been but a fisherman, always poor, living by his industry, and gaining his bread by t...

Behold we have left all! What confidence this in Peter! He ad been but a fisherman, always poor, living by his industry, and gaining his bread by the sweat of his brow; yet with great confidence he says, we have left all. (St. Jerome) ---

For, we are not to consider what he left, but the will with which he left his all. He leaves a great deal, who reserves nothing for himself. It is a great matter to quit all, though the things we leave be very inconsiderable in themselves. Do we not observe with how great affection we love what we already have, and how earnestly we search after what we have not? It is on this account that St. Peter, and his brother, St. Andrew, left much, because they denied themselves even the desire and inclination of possessing any thing. (St. Gregory, on S. Mat. hom. v.) ---

Though I have not been rich, I shall not, on that account, receive a less reward; for, the apostles, who have done the same thing with me, were no richer than myself. He therefore leaves all the world, who leaves all he has, and the desire of ever having more. (St. Augustine, ep. lxxxix. ad. Hilar.)

Haydock: Mat 19:28 - In the regeneration // You also shall sit on twelve seats In the regeneration. Jesus Christ here calls the general resurrection the regeneration, because there will then be a renovation of the human body, a...

In the regeneration. Jesus Christ here calls the general resurrection the regeneration, because there will then be a renovation of the human body, and of the whole world. The promise which is here made to the apostles of sitting on thrones at the general judgment, and passing sentence on the 12 tribes of Israel, must not be understood as limited to the apostles, or to the Jews. For St. Paul says, (1 Corinthians vi. 2. and 3,) that not only he, but also many of the Corinthians to whom he was writing, would judge not merely the 12 tribes, but the whole world, and moreover angels themselves. It is the opinion of many of the Fathers, St. Jerome, St. Augustine, St. Gregory, and others, that all apostolical men, i.e. such as, renouncing the good of this life, adhere to Christ in mind and affection, and by every possible means promote his reign and the propagation of his gospel, will be so far honoured as to sit in judgment with him at the general resurrection. (Tirinus) ---

You also shall sit on twelve seats, or thrones, meaning at the general resurrection, when Christ will appear on the throne of his majesty, with his heavenly court, and with his elect, shall condemn the wicked world. (Witham)

Haydock: Mat 19:29 - Shall receive a hundred-fold Shall receive a hundred-fold. In St. Mark we read a hundred-fold now in this time, and in the world to come life everlasting. Which hundred-fold...

Shall receive a hundred-fold. In St. Mark we read a hundred-fold now in this time, and in the world to come life everlasting. Which hundred-fold is to be understood of the blessings in this life, or interior consolations, or the peace of a good conscience, and in general of spiritual gifts and graces, which are much more valuable than all temporal goods. And besides these spiritual graces in this world, he shall have everlasting glory in the world to come. (Witham) ---

Our Saviour does not here lay down a precept of separating from wives; but, as when he before said, he that loseth his life for my sake, shall find it, he did not counsel, much less command us to lay violent hands upon ourselves; so here he teaches us to prefer the duties of piety to every other consideration. (St. John Chrysostom, hom. lxv.) ---

The reward will be a hundred-fold, by the accumulation of spiritual gifts and graces in this life, infinitely superior to all we have left, and the inheritance of life eternal in the next. (Bible de Vence)

Gill: Mat 19:1 - And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these sayings // he departed from Galilee // and came into the coasts of Judea beyond Jordan And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these sayings,.... Concerning humility, avoiding offences, the methods to be taken in reproving offe...

And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these sayings,.... Concerning humility, avoiding offences, the methods to be taken in reproving offenders, and the forgiveness that is to be exercised towards them:

he departed from Galilee; where he had chiefly preached and wrought his miracles, no more to return thither till after his resurrection:

and came into the coasts of Judea beyond Jordan; that is, to that country which was called "beyond Jordan", and bordered on Judea; coming still nearer and nearer to Jerusalem, where he had told his disciples, a little while ago, he must come, and suffer, and die. Rather, it should be rendered, "on this side Jordan", as also in Joh 1:28 for the coasts of Judea were on this side; so עבר הירדן, is rendered in Deu 4:49

Gill: Mat 19:2 - And great multitudes followed him // and he healed them there And great multitudes followed him,.... The Persic version adds, "of the sick and diseased"; but all that followed him were not such, though some were:...

And great multitudes followed him,.... The Persic version adds, "of the sick and diseased"; but all that followed him were not such, though some were: these came not only from Galilee, but from the adjacent parts, from the country beyond Jordan, and the coasts of Judea, where he had been formerly; and who resort to him again, as Mark observes; and whom, according to his usual manner, he taught and instructed in the knowledge of divine things, and confirmed his doctrines by miracles:

and he healed them there; in the above mentioned places, even as many of them as were sick and diseased.

Gill: Mat 19:3 - The Pharisees also came unto him // tempting him // and saying to him, is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause The Pharisees also came unto him,.... Either from the places round about, or from Jerusalem: these came unto him, not for the sake of learning, or to ...

The Pharisees also came unto him,.... Either from the places round about, or from Jerusalem: these came unto him, not for the sake of learning, or to be instructed by him; but as spies upon him, to observe what he said and did, and watch every opportunity to expose him to the contempt and hatred of the people;

tempting him with a question about divorces, in order to ensnare him:

and saying to him, is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? be it ever so trivial, as said the school of Hillell: for there was a difference between the school of Shammai and the school of Hillell about this matter; the former insisted that a man might not put away his wife but in case of uncleanness; but the latter allowed putting away for very trifling things; as if she spoiled her husband's food by over roasting, or over salting it; and, as one of the doctors say, if he found another woman that was more beautiful than her; see Gill on Mat 5:32. This question being now agitated in the schools, they artfully put to Christ; not for information, but with a view to reproach him in some way or other; and that he might incur the resentment of one party or another, as he should answer. They might argue thus with themselves, and hope to succeed in this manner; should he be on the side of the school of Shammai, which was the weakest side, and less popular, as they had reason to believe he would, he would then expose himself to the resentment of the school of Hillell, and all on that side the question; should he take the part of Hillell, he would make the school of Shammai his enemies; should he forbid putting away of wives, which Moses allowed, they would then traduce him as contrary to Moses, and his law, which could not fail of setting the people against him; and should he consent to it, they would charge him with contradicting himself, or with inconstancy in his doctrine, since he had before asserted the unlawfulness of it, but in case of adultery; and should he abide by this, they might hope to irritate the men against him, who would think their liberty granted by Moses was entrenched on; as, on the other hand, should he, according to the question, admit of putting away for every cause, the women would be provoked at him, who would be left to the uncertain humour and caprice of their husbands; so that either way they hoped to get an advantage of him.

Gill: Mat 19:4 - And he answered and said unto them // have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning, made them male and female? And he answered and said unto them,.... Not by replying directly to the question, but by referring them to the original creation of man, and to the fi...

And he answered and said unto them,.... Not by replying directly to the question, but by referring them to the original creation of man, and to the first institution of marriage, previous to the law of Moses;

have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning, made them male and female? This may be read in Gen 1:27 and from thence this sense of things collected; that God, who in the beginning of time, or of the creation, as Mark expresses it, made all things, the heavens, and the earth, and all that is therein, and particularly "man", as the Vulgate Latin, and Munster's Hebrew Gospel supply it here, made the first parents of mankind, male and female; not male and females, but one male, and one female; first, one male, and then, of him one female, who, upon her creation, was brought and married to him; so that in this original constitution, no provision was made for divorce, or polygamy. Adam could not marry more wives than one, nor could he put away Eve for every cause, and marry another: now either the Pharisees had read this account, or they had not; if they had not, they were guilty of great negligence and sloth; if they had, they either understood it or not; if they did not understand it, it was greatly to their reproach, who pretended to great knowledge of the Scriptures, and to be able to explain them to others; and if they did understand it, there was no need for this question, which therefore must be put with an evil design.

Gill: Mat 19:5 - And said // and they twain shall be one flesh And said,.... Gen 2:24 where they seem to be the words of Adam, though here they are ascribed to God, who made Adam and Eve; and as if they were spoke...

And said,.... Gen 2:24 where they seem to be the words of Adam, though here they are ascribed to God, who made Adam and Eve; and as if they were spoken by him, when he brought them together; and which is easily reconciled by observing, that these words were spoken by Adam, under the direction of a divine revelation; showing, that there would be fathers, and mothers, and children; and that the latter, when grown up, would enter into a marriage state, and leave their parents, and cleave to their proper yoke fellows, which relations then were not in being: this therefore being the effect of a pure revelation from God, may be truly affirmed to be said by him. Some think they are the words of Moses the historian; and if they were, as they were delivered by divine inspiration, they may be rightly called the word of God. A note by Jarchi on this text exactly agrees herewith, which is הקדש אומרת כן רוח, "the holy Spirit says thus: for this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife"; and not wives: and the phrase denotes that close union between a man and his wife, which is not to be dissolved for every cause, it being stricter than that which is between parents and children; for the wife must be cleaved unto, and father and mother forsaken: not that upon this new relation between man and wife, the former relation between parents and children ceases; nor does this phrase denote an entire separation from them, so as to have the affection alienated from them, or to be disengaged from all duty and obedience to them, and care and regard for them, for the future; but a relinquishing the "house of his father and the bed of his mother", as all the three Targums on the place explain it: that is, he shall quit the house of his father, and not bed and board there, and live with him as before; but having taken a wife to himself, shall live and cohabit with her:

and they twain shall be one flesh; the word "twain" is: not in the Hebrew text in Genesis, but in the Septuagint version compiled by Jews, in the Samaritan Pentateuch, and version, and in the Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel, who renders, it as here, תרוויהון לבישרא חד ויהון, "and they two shall be one flesh". This is the true sense, for neither more nor less can possibly be meant; and denotes that near conjunction, and strict union, between a man and his wife, the wife being a part of himself, and both as one flesh, and one body, and therefore not to be parted on every slight occasion; and has a particular respect to the act of carnal copulation, which only ought to be between one man and one woman, lawfully married to each other; See Gill on 1Co 6:16.

Gill: Mat 19:6 - Wherefore they are no more twain // but one flesh // what therefore God hath joined together // let no man put asunder Wherefore they are no more twain,.... They were two before marriage, but now no more so; not but that they remain two distinct persons, but one fle...

Wherefore they are no more twain,.... They were two before marriage, but now no more so; not but that they remain two distinct persons,

but one flesh; or, as the Syriac, Arabic, Persic, and Ethiopic versions read, "one body": hence the wife is to beloved by the husband as his own body, as himself, as his own flesh, Eph 5:28.

what therefore God hath joined together; or, by the first institution of marriage, has declared to be so closely united together, as to be, as it were, one flesh, and one body, as husband and wife are;

let no man put asunder; break the bond of union, dissolve the relation, and separate them from each other, for every trivial thing, upon any slight occasion, or for anything; but what is hereafter mentioned. The sense is, that the bond of marriage being made by God himself, is so sacred and inviolable, as that it ought not to be dissolved by any man; not by the husband himself, or any other for him; nor by any state or government, by any prince or potentate, by any legislator whatever; no, not by Moses himself, who is, at least, included, if not chiefly designed here, though not named, to avoid offence: and God and man being opposed in this passage, shows, that marriage is an institution and appointment of God, and therefore not to be changed and altered by man at his pleasure; this not merely a civil, but a sacred affair, in which God is concerned.

Gill: Mat 19:7 - They say unto him // why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and put her away They say unto him,.... That is the Pharisees, who object the law of Moses to him, hoping hereby to ensnare him, and expose him to the resentment of th...

They say unto him,.... That is the Pharisees, who object the law of Moses to him, hoping hereby to ensnare him, and expose him to the resentment of the people, should he reject that, as they supposed he would;

why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and put her away? referring to Deu 24:1 which they thought to be a contradiction, and what they knew not how to reconcile to the doctrine Christ had delivered, concerning the original institution of marriage, and the close union there is between a man and his wife, by virtue of it, and which is not to be dissolved by men. Concerning a writing of divorcement and the form, and manner of it; see Gill on Mat 5:31

Gill: Mat 19:8 - He saith unto them // Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, suffered you to put away your wives // but from the beginning it was not so He saith unto them,.... In answer to their objection; Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, suffered you to put away your wives: in which ...

He saith unto them,.... In answer to their objection;

Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, suffered you to put away your wives: in which may be observed, that, though it was by direction that Moses, in his system of laws, allowed of divorces; yet not God, but he is said to do it, because it was a branch of the political and judicial laws, by which the people of the Jews were governed under Moses, and whilst the Mosaic economy continued, and did not concern other people, and other times; and therefore it is said "you" and "your" wives, you Jews, and you only, and not the Gentiles. And so the Jews say m, that the Gentiles have no divorces: for thus they represent God, saying;

"in Israel I have granted divorces, I have not granted divorces among the nations of the world. R. Chananiah, in the name of R. Phineas, observed, that in every other section it is written, the Lord of hosts, but here it is written, the God of Israel; to teach thee, that the holy, blessed God does not join his name to divorces, but in Israel only. R. Chayah Rabbah says, גוים אין להן גירושין, "the Gentiles have no divorces."''

Besides, this was a direct positive command to the Jews, as the Pharisees suggest in their objection; it was only a sufferance, a permission in some cases, and not in everyone; and that because of the hardness of their hearts; they being such a stubborn and inflexible people, that when they were once displeased there was no reconciling them; and so malicious and revengeful, that if this had not been granted, would have used their wives, that displeased them, in a most cruel, and barbarous manner, if not have murdered them: so that this grant was made, not to indulge their lusts, but to prevent greater evils; and not so much as a privilege and liberty to the men, as in favour of the women; who, when they could not live peaceably and comfortably with a man, might be dismissed and marry another:

but from the beginning it was not so; from the beginning of time, or of the creation, or of the world, or at the first institution of marriage, and in the first ages of the world, there was no such permission, nor any such practice. This was not the declared will of God at first, nor was it ever done by any good men before the times of Moses; we never read that Adam, or Seth, or Noah, or Abraham, put away their wives, upon any consideration; though in the latter there might have been some appearance of reason for so doing, on account of sterility, but this he did not; nor Isaac, nor Jacob, nor any of the "patriarchs".

Gill: Mat 19:9 - And I say unto you // whosoever shall put away in his wife // except it be for fornication // and shall marry another woman, committeth adultery // and whoso marrieth her which is put away // doth commit adultery And I say unto you,.... To his disciples, when they were with him alone in the house, and asked him more particularly about the subject, concerning wh...

And I say unto you,.... To his disciples, when they were with him alone in the house, and asked him more particularly about the subject, concerning which he had been discoursing with the Pharisees, as Mark observes, Mar 10:10 when he said to them much the same things, he had delivered before in Mat 5:32

whosoever shall put away in his wife; separate her from his person, house and bed, and dismiss her as his wife, no more to be considered in that relation to him,

except it be for fornication; or whoredom, for defiling his bed: for this is not to be understood of fornication committed before, but of uncleanness after marriage, which destroys their being one flesh:

and shall marry another woman, committeth adultery; Marks adds, "against her"; which may be understood either of the woman he marries, which not being lawfully done, she lives in adultery with the husband of another woman; or of his former wife, and who is still his wife, and to whose injury he has married another; and he not only commits adultery himself, but, as in Mat 5:32 "causeth her to commit adultery also", by being the occasion of marrying another man, when she is still his lawful wife:

and whoso marrieth her which is put away, for any other cause than adultery,

doth commit adultery also; since he cohabits with the wife of another man; see Gill on Mat 5:32

Gill: Mat 19:10 - His disciples say unto him // if the case of a man be so with his wife // it is not good to marry His disciples say unto him,.... Being surprised at this account of things, it being quite contrary to what they had been taught, and very different fr...

His disciples say unto him,.... Being surprised at this account of things, it being quite contrary to what they had been taught, and very different from the general practice and usage of their nation:

if the case of a man be so with his wife; if they are so closely joined together in marriage; if they are, as it were, one flesh, or one body, that a man's wife is himself: that the bond between them is so inviolable, that it is not to be dissolved, but in case of adultery; that if a separation be made by a bill of divorce, in any other case, and either party marry again, they are guilty of adultery; if a man cannot part with his wife lawfully, provided she be chaste, and is faithful to his bed, let her be what she will otherwise, though ever so disagreeable in her person, and troublesome in her behaviour; though she may be passionate, and a brawler; though she may be drunken, luxurious, and extravagant, and mind not the affairs of her family, yet if she is not an adulteress, must not be put away:

it is not good to marry; it would be more expedient and advisable for a man to live always a single life, than to run the risk of marrying a woman, that may prove very disagreeable and uncomfortable; to whom he must be bound all the days of his or her life, and, in such a case, not to be able to relieve and extricate himself. This they said under the prejudice of a national law and custom, which greatly prevailed, and under the influence of a carnal heart.

Gill: Mat 19:11 - But he said unto them // all men cannot receive this saying // save they to whom it is given But he said unto them,.... With respect to the inference or conclusion, the disciples formed from what he had asserted: all men cannot receive this...

But he said unto them,.... With respect to the inference or conclusion, the disciples formed from what he had asserted:

all men cannot receive this saying; of their's, that it is not good to marry, but it is more proper and expedient to live a single life! every man, as the Syriac version renders it, is not ספק לה, "sufficient", or "fit", for this thing; everyone has not the gift of continency, and indeed very few; and therefore it is expedient for such to marry; for what the disciples said, though it might be true in part, yet not in the whole; and though the saying might be proper and pertinent enough to some persons, yet not to all, and indeed to none,

save they to whom it is given; to receive such a saying, to live unmarried with content, having the gift of chastity; for this is not of nature, but of grace: it is the gift of God.

Gill: Mat 19:12 - For there are some eunuchs // which were so born from their mother's womb // and there are some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men // and there be eunuchs which have made themselves eunuchs // for the kingdom of heaven's sake // He that is able to receive it, let him receive it For there are some eunuchs,.... Our Lord here distinguishes the various sorts of persons, that can and do live in a single state with content: some by...

For there are some eunuchs,.... Our Lord here distinguishes the various sorts of persons, that can and do live in a single state with content: some by nature, and others by violence offered to them, are rendered incapable of entering into a marriage state; and others, through the gift of God, and under the influence of his grace, abstain from marriage cheerfully and contentedly, in order to be more useful in the interest of religion; but the number of either of these is but few, in comparison of such who choose a conjugal state, and with whom it is right to enter into it, notwithstanding all the difficulties that may attend it. Some men are eunuchs, and of these there are different sorts; there are some,

which were so born from their mother's womb; meaning, not such who, through a natural temper and inclination of mind, could easily abstain from marriage, and chose to live single; but such who had such defects in nature that they were impotent, unfit for, and unable to perform the duties of a marriage state; who, as some are born without hands or feet, these were born without proper and perfect organs of generation; and such an one was, by the Jews, frequently called, סריס המה, "an eunuch of the sun n": that is, as their doctors o explain it, one that from his mother's womb never saw the sun but as an eunuch; that is, one that is born so; and that such an one is here intended, ought not to be doubted. The signs of such an eunuch, are given by the Jewish p writers, which may be consulted by those, that have ability and leisure. This sort is sometimes q called סריס בידי שמים "an eunuch by the hands of heaven", or God, in distinction from those who are so by the hands, or means of men, and are next mentioned:

and there are some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men: as among the Romans formerly, and which Domitian the emperor forbid by a law r; and more especially in the eastern countries, and to this day among the Turks, that they may the more safely be entrusted with the custody of their women; and this sort the Jews call סריס אדם, "an eunuch of men", or בידי אדם, "by the hands of men". The distinction between an "eunuch of the sun", and an "eunuch of men", is so frequent with the Jews s, and so well known to them, that a question need not be made of our Lord's referring to it:

and there be eunuchs which have made themselves eunuchs; not in a literal sense, in which the words are not to be taken, as they were by Origen; who though otherwise too much pursued the allegorical way of interpreting Scripture, here took it literally, and castrated himself t; as did also a sort of heretics, called Valesians u, from one Valens an Arabian; and which practice is recommended by Philo the Jew w, and by Heathen philosophers x, for the sake of chastity. But here it means such, who having the gift of continency without mutilating their bodies, or indulging any unnatural lusts, can live chastely without the use of women, and choose celibacy:

for the kingdom of heaven's sake; not in order, by their chaste and single life, to merit and obtain the kingdom of glory; but that they might be more at leisure, being free from the incumbrances of a marriage state, to attend the worship and service of God, the ordinances of the Gospel church state, to minister in, and preach the Gospel of Christ, and be a means of spreading it in the world, and of enlarging his kingdom and interest.

He that is able to receive it, let him receive it: whoever is able to receive cordially, and embrace heartily, the above saying concerning the expediency and goodness of a single life, and having the gift of continency, can live according to it; let him take it, and hold it fast, and act up to it; he may have less of worldly trouble, and be more useful for God in the Gospel of Christ, and to the interest of religion; but this should be a voluntary thing: no man should be forced into it; and he that goes into it, ought to consider well whether he is able to contain, or not.

Gill: Mat 19:13 - Then were there brought unto him little children // that he should put his hands on them, and pray // and the disciples rebuked them Then were there brought unto him little children,.... It does not appear that they were new born babes; the words used by either of the evangelists do...

Then were there brought unto him little children,.... It does not appear that they were new born babes; the words used by either of the evangelists do not always signify such, but are sometimes used of such as are capable of going alone; yea, of receiving instructions, of understanding the Scriptures, and even of one of twelve years of age, Mat 18:2 nor is it probable that infants just born, or within a month, should be had abroad. Moreover, these were such as Christ called unto him, Luk 18:16 and were capable of coming to him of themselves, as his words following suppose; nor does their being brought to him, or his taking them in his arms, contradict this; since the same things are said of such as could walk of themselves, Mat 12:22 Mar 9:36. Nor is it known whose children they were, whether their parents were believers or unbelievers, nor by whom they were brought: but the end for which they were brought is expressed,

that he should put his hands on them, and pray; not that he should baptize them, nor did he; which may be concluded from the entire silence of all the evangelists; and from an express declaration that Christ baptized none; and from the mention of other ends for which they were brought, as that Christ should "touch" them, Mar 10:13 as he sometimes used to do persons, when he healed them of diseases; and probably some of those infants, if not all of them, were diseased, and brought to be cured; otherwise, it is not easy to conceive what they should be touched by him for: or as here, that he might put his hands on them, and pray over them, and bless them, as was usual with the Jews to do; see Gen 48:14 and it was common with them to bring their children to venerable persons, men of note for religion and piety, to have their blessing and prayers y:

and the disciples rebuked them; not the children, as the Persic version reads, but those that brought them, Mark observes; either because they came in a rude and disorderly manner, and were very noisy and clamorous; or they might think it would be too troublesome to Christ, to go through such a ceremony with so many of them; or that it was too mean for him, and below him to take notice of them; or for fear he should take fresh occasion, on the sight of these children, to rebuke them again for their pride and ambition. However, from this rebuke and prohibition of the disciples, it looks plainly as if it had never been the practice of the Jews, nor of John the Baptist, nor of Christ and his disciples, to baptize infants; for had this been then in use, they would scarcely have forbid and rebuked those that brought them, since they might have thought they brought them to be baptized; but knowing of no such usage that ever obtained in that nation, neither among those that did, or did not believe in Christ, they forbad them.

Gill: Mat 19:14 - But Jesus said, suffer little children // and forbid them not to come unto me // for of such is the kingdom of heaven But Jesus said, suffer little children.... This he said to show his humility, that he was not above taking notice of any; and to teach his disciples t...

But Jesus said, suffer little children.... This he said to show his humility, that he was not above taking notice of any; and to teach his disciples to regard the weakest believers, and such as were but children in knowledge; and to inform them what all ought to be, who expect the kingdom of heaven; for it follows;

and forbid them not to come unto me, now, or at any other time;

for of such is the kingdom of heaven; that is, as the Syriac renders it, "who are as these" or as the Persic version, rather paraphrasing than translating, renders it, "who have been humble as these little children": and it is as if our Lord should say, do not drive away these children from my person and presence; they are lively emblems of the proper subjects of a Gospel church state, and of such that shall enter into the kingdom of heaven: by these I may instruct and point out to you, what converted persons should be, who have a place in my church below, and expect to enter into my kingdom and glory above; that they are, or ought to be, like such children, harmless and inoffensive; free from rancour and malice, meek, modest, and humble; without pride, self-conceit, and ambitious views, and desires of grandeur and superiority. Christ's entire silence about the baptism of infants at this time, when he had such an opportunity of speaking of it to his disciples, had it been his will, has no favourable aspect on such a practice. It is not denied that little children, whether born of believers or unbelievers, which matters not, may be chosen of God, redeemed by the blood of Christ, and have the passive work of the Spirit on their souls, and so enter into heaven; but this is not the sense of this text. It was indeed a controversy among the Jews, whether the little children of the wicked of Israel, באין לעולם הבא, "go into the world to come": some affirmed, and others denied; but all agreed, that the little children of the wicked of the nations of the world, do not. They dispute about the time of entrance of a child into the world to come; some say, as soon as it is born, according to Psa 22:31 others, as soon as it can speak, or count, according to Psa 22:30 others as soon as it is sown, as the gloss says, as soon as the seed is received in its mother's womb, though it becomes an abortion; according to the same words, "a seed shall serve thee": others, as soon as he is circumcised, according to Psa 88:15 others, as soon as he can say "Amen", according z to Isa 26:2 All weak, frivolous, and impertinent.

Gill: Mat 19:15 - And he laid his hands on them // and departed thence And he laid his hands on them,.... "And blessed them", as Mark says; he put his hands upon them, according to the custom of the country, and wished al...

And he laid his hands on them,.... "And blessed them", as Mark says; he put his hands upon them, according to the custom of the country, and wished all kind of prosperity to them:

and departed thence, out of the house where he had been, and his disciples with him: the Ethiopic version renders it, "and they went from thence", from those parts, towards Jerusalem.

Gill: Mat 19:16 - And behold, one came // and said unto him, good master // what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life And behold, one came,.... The Persic version reads, "a rich man"; and so he was, as appears from what follows: Luke calls him, "a certain ruler"; not ...

And behold, one came,.... The Persic version reads, "a rich man"; and so he was, as appears from what follows: Luke calls him, "a certain ruler"; not of a synagogue, an ecclesiastical ruler, but a civil magistrate: perhaps he might be one of the sanhedrim, which consisted of "twenty one" persons; or of that which consisted only of "three", as in some small towns and villages Mark represents him as "running"; for Christ was departed out of the house, and was gone into the way, the high road, and was on his journey to some other place, when this man ran after him with great eagerness; and, as the same evangelist adds, "kneeled to him"; thereby paying him civil respect, and honour; believing him to be a worthy good man, and deserving of esteem and veneration:

and said unto him, good master: some say, that this was a title which the Jewish doctors were fond of, and gave to each other, but I have not observed it; he seems by this to intimate, that he thought him not only to be a good man, but a good teacher; that he was one that came from God, and taught good doctrine, which induced him to run after him, and put the following question to him:

what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? Or, as in the other evangelists, "inherit eternal life"; a phrase much in use with the Jewish Rabbins a:

"Judah confessed, and was not ashamed, and what is his end? נחל חיי העולם הבא, "he inherits the life of the world to come" (i.e. eternal life); Reuben confessed, and was not ashamed, and what is his end? "he inherits the life of the world to come".''

This man was no Sadducee, he believed a future state; was a serious man, thoughtful about another world, and concerned how he should enjoy everlasting life; but was entirely upon a legal bottom, and under a covenant of works; and speaks in the language and strain of the nation of Israel, who were seeking for righteousness and life by the works of the law: he expected eternal life by doing some good thing, or things; and hoped, as the sequel shows, that he had done every good thing necessary to the obtaining it.

Gill: Mat 19:17 - And he said unto him // why callest thou me good // There is none good but one, that is God // but if thou wilt enter into life // keep the commandments And he said unto him,.... By way of reply, first taking notice of, and questioning him about, the epithet he gave him: why callest thou me good? no...

And he said unto him,.... By way of reply, first taking notice of, and questioning him about, the epithet he gave him:

why callest thou me good? not that he denied that he was so; for he was good, both as God and man, in his divine and human natures; in all his offices, and the execution of them; he was goodness itself, and did good, and nothing else but good. But the reason of the question is, because this young man considered him only as a mere man, and gave him this character as such; and which, in comparison of God, the fountain of all goodness, agrees with no mere man: wherefore our Lord's view is, by his own language; and from his own words, to instruct him in the knowledge of his proper deity. Some copies read, "why dost thou ask me concerning good". And so the Vulgate Latin, and the Ethiopic versions, and Munster's Hebrew Gospel read; but the Syriac, Arabic, and Persic versions, read as we do, and this the answer of Christ requires.

There is none good but one, that is God; who is originally, essentially, independently, infinitely, and immutably good, and the author and source of all goodness; which cannot be said of any mere creature. This is to be understood of God considered essentially, and not personally; or it is to be understood, not of the person of the Father, to the exclusion of the Son, or Spirit: who are one God with the Father, and equally good in nature as he. Nor does this contradict and deny that there are good angels, who have continued in that goodness in which they were created; or that there are good men, made so by the grace of God; but that none are absolutely and perfectly good, but God. What Christ here says of God, the b Jews say of the law of Moses, whose praise they can never enough extol; אין טוב אלא תורה "there is nothing good but the law". The law is good indeed; but the author of it must be allowed to be infinitely more so. Christ next directly answers to the question,

but if thou wilt enter into life: eternal life, which is in the question, and which being sometimes expressed by a house, a city, and kingdom, by mansions, and everlasting habitations, enjoyment of it is fitly signified by entering into it; which, if our Lord suggests, he had a desire of having a right to by doing any good thing himself, he must

keep the commandments; that is, perfectly: he must do not only one good thing, but all the good things the law requires; he must not be deficient in any single action, in anyone work of the law, either as to matter, or manner of performance; everything must be done, and that just as the Lord in his law has commanded it. Our Lord answers according to the tenor of the covenant of works, under which this man was; and according to the law of God, which requires perfect obedience to it, as a righteousness, and a title to life; and in case of the least failure, curses and condemns to everlasting death; see Deu 6:25. This Christ said, in order to show, that it is impossible to enter into, or obtain eternal life by the works of the law, since no man can perfectly keep it; and to unhinge this man from off the legal foundation on which he was, that he might drop all his dependencies on doing good things, and come to him for righteousness and life.

Gill: Mat 19:18 - He saith unto him, which // Jesus said // thou shalt do no murder, thou shalt not commit adultery, thou shalt not steal, thou shalt not bear false witness He saith unto him, which?.... Whether those commandments of a moral, or of a ceremonial kind; whether the commands of the written, or of the oral law;...

He saith unto him, which?.... Whether those commandments of a moral, or of a ceremonial kind; whether the commands of the written, or of the oral law; of God, or of the elders, or both; or whether he did not mean some new commandments of his own, which he delivered as a teacher sent from God:

Jesus said; according to the other evangelists, "thou knowest the commandments"; not the true nature, spirituality, and use of them, but the letter and number of them; being trained up from a child by his parents, in the reading them, committing them to memory, and the outward observance of them, particularly those of the second table:

thou shalt do no murder, thou shalt not commit adultery, thou shalt not steal, thou shalt not bear false witness. Christ takes no notice of the ceremonial law, nor of the traditions of the elders, only moral precepts; and these only such as refer to the second, and not the first table of the law, which respect duty to the neighbour, and not to God: and this he does, because these commandments were more known, and were in common use; and he chose to instance in these, partly to show, that if men are under obligation to regard these, much more such as concern God more immediately; and partly, to observe, that if men are deficient in their duty to one another, they are much more so in their worship of God; and consequently, eternal life is never to be got and enjoyed by the performance of these things.

Gill: Mat 19:19 - Honour thy father and thy mother // And thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself Honour thy father and thy mother:.... This, as it is the first commandment with promise, so the first of the second table, and yet is here mentioned l...

Honour thy father and thy mother:.... This, as it is the first commandment with promise, so the first of the second table, and yet is here mentioned last; which inversion of order is of no consequence: so the "seventh" command is put before the "sixth", and the "fifth" omitted, in Rom 13:9 and with the Jews it is a common c saying, אין מוקדם ומאוחר בתורה, "there is neither first nor last in the law": that is, it is of no consequence which commandment is recited first, or which last. Moreover, it looks as if it was usual to recite these commands in this order, since they are placed exactly in the same method, by a very noted Jewish d writer.

And thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself; which is not a particular distinct command from the rest, or an explication of the tenth and last, not mentioned; but a recapitulation, or compendium, and abridgment of the whole, and is said to be a complement and fulfilling of the law; see Rom 13:9.

Gill: Mat 19:20 - The young man saith unto him // all these things have I kept from my youth up // what lack I yet The young man saith unto him,.... For though he was so very rich and in such an exalted station in life, as to be a ruler, it seems he was but a young...

The young man saith unto him,.... For though he was so very rich and in such an exalted station in life, as to be a ruler, it seems he was but a young man; and to be so early serious and religious, amidst so much riches and grandeur, though it was but externally, was both remarkable and commendable: upon hearing the answer of Christ, with which he was highly pleased and greatly elated, he very pertly replies,

all these things have I kept from my youth up: as soon as he was capable of learning, his parents taught him these precepts; and ever since he had the use of his reason, and understood the letter, and outward meaning of them, he had been careful to observe them; nor could he charge himself with any open and flagrant transgression of them; not understanding the internal sense, extensive compass, and spirituality of them; and therefore asks,

what lack I yet? In what am I deficient hitherto? in what have I come short of doing these things? what remains at last to be performed? what other precepts are to be obeyed? if there are any other commands, I am ready to observe them, which may be thought necessary to obtain eternal life.

Gill: Mat 19:21 - Jesus said unto him, if thou wilt be perfect // one thing thou lackest // go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven // and come and follow me Jesus said unto him, if thou wilt be perfect,.... Wanting nothing, completely righteous, according to the tenor of the covenant of works, having no ev...

Jesus said unto him, if thou wilt be perfect,.... Wanting nothing, completely righteous, according to the tenor of the covenant of works, having no evil, concupiscence, or worldly lusts: our Lord signifies it was not enough to be possessed of negative holiness, and do no hurt to his neighbour, to his person, property, and estate, but he must love him, and do him good; and therefore, though so far as he had complied with the law, it was right and commendable; wherefore it is said by Mark, "that Jesus beholding him loved him"; had an affectionate regard to him as man, and approved of his intentions, seriousness, and actions, so far as agreeable; yet tells him,

one thing thou lackest: not but that he lacked many more, but he was only willing to observe one thing to him, as a trial of his love to his neighbour, which is the fulfilling of the law:

go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: not that either the law of God, or Gospel of Christ, require this to be done of all men, and at all times; for though it is a duty binding upon all, and always, to relieve the poor and the needy, yet a man is not obliged to give all that he has to them; see 2Co 8:11 nor does either legal or Christian perfection lie in doing this: a man may give all his goods to the poor and yet be destitute of the grace of God, 1Co 13:3 much less can such an action merit the heavenly treasure of eternal life. Nevertheless of some persons, and in some cases, it has been required, that they part with all their worldly substance, for the sake of Christ and his Gospel; as the apostles were called to leave all and follow Christ, as this man was also; for it is added,

and come and follow me: between these two, Mark puts, "take up the cross"; all which to do, was much more than to sell what he had, and give to the poor; and indeed, in this branch lies Gospel perfection, or to be really and truly a Christian: for to "come" to Christ, is to believe in him, lay hold on him, receive and embrace him as a Saviour and Redeemer; and to "follow" him, is to be obedient to his will, to be observant of his commands, to submit to his ordinances, and to imitate him in the exercise of grace, and discharge of duty; neither of which can be done, without "taking up the cross"; bearing reproach and persecution with patience; undergoing hardships and difficulties, of one sort or another, which attend faith in Christ, a profession of his name, and following him the Lamb, whithersoever he goes. The consequence of this now, not by way of merit, but by way of grace, is the enjoyment of the rich treasures of eternal glory: but this man was so far from complying with the latter, with coming to Christ, taking up the cross, and following him, that he could by no means agree to the former, parting with his worldly substance; and which is mentioned, as a test of his love to God and his neighbour, and to discover his sinful love of the world, and the things of it; and consequently, that he was far from being in a state of perfection. Moreover, it should be observed, that Christ is here speaking, not the pure language of the law, or according to the principles of the Gospel, when he seems to place perfection in alms deeds, and as if they were meritorious of eternal life; but according to the doctrine of the Pharisees, and which was of this man; and so upon the plan of his own notions, moves him to seek for perfection, and convicts him of the want of it, in a way he knew would be disagreeable to him; and yet he would not be able to disprove the method, on the foot of his own tenets: for this is their doctrine e;

"It is a tradition, he that says this "sela", or shekel, is for alms, that my son may live, or I may be a son of the world to come, lo! זה צדיק גמור, "this man is a perfect righteous man".''

The gloss adds,

"In this thing; and he does not say that he does not do it for the sake of it, but he fulfils the command of his Creator, who has commanded him to do alms; and he also intends profit to himself, that thereby he may be worthy of the world to come, or that his children may live.''

And so in answer to a question much like this, the young man put to Christ f;

"How shall we come at the life of the world to come?''

It is replied,

"take thy riches, and give to the fatherless and the poor, and I will give thee a better portion in the law.''

Gill: Mat 19:22 - But when the young man heard that saying // he went away sorrowful // for he had great possessions But when the young man heard that saying..... That he must sell his estates, and all his worldly substance, and the money made of them, give away to t...

But when the young man heard that saying..... That he must sell his estates, and all his worldly substance, and the money made of them, give away to the poor; and become a follower of Christ, deny himself, and submit to hardships very disagreeable to the flesh:

he went away sorrowful; not with a godly sorrow for his sin and imperfections, but with the sorrow of the world, which worketh death: he was ashamed and confounded, that he could not perform what he had just now so briskly promised, at least tacitly, that whatever else was proper he would do; as also grieved, that he had not arrived to perfection, which he had hoped he had, but now began to despair of, and of obtaining eternal life; and most of all troubled, that he must part with his worldly substance, his heart was so much set upon, or not enjoy it:

for he had great possessions; which were very dear to him; and he chose rather to turn his back on Christ, and drop his pursuits of the happiness of the other world, than part with the present enjoyments of this.

Gill: Mat 19:23 - Then said Jesus unto his disciples // verily I say unto you, that a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom of heaven Then said Jesus unto his disciples..... When the young man was gone; taking this opportunity to make some proper observations for the use and instruct...

Then said Jesus unto his disciples..... When the young man was gone; taking this opportunity to make some proper observations for the use and instruction of his disciples, after, as Mark observes, he had "looked round about"; with concern, and in order to affect their minds with this incident, and to raise their attention to what he was about to say:

verily I say unto you, that a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom of heaven: either into the Gospel dispensation, and receive the truths, and submit to the ordinances of it, or into the kingdom of glory hereafter; not but that there have been, are, and will be, some that are rich, called by grace, brought into a Gospel church state, and are heirs of the kingdom of heaven; though these are but comparatively few: nor is it riches themselves that make the entrance so difficult, and clog the way, either into grace or glory, but putting trust and confidence in them; and therefore in Mark, they "that have riches", are by Christ explained of such, that "trust in riches"; and which rich men in common are very apt to do, as this young man did, against which the apostle cautions, 1Ti 6:17

Gill: Mat 19:24 - And again I say unto you // it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God And again I say unto you,.... After the apostles had discovered their astonishment at the above expression, about the difficulty of a rich man enterin...

And again I say unto you,.... After the apostles had discovered their astonishment at the above expression, about the difficulty of a rich man entering into the kingdom of heaven; when they expected that, in a short time, all the rich and great men of the nation would espouse the interest of the Messiah, and acknowledge him as a temporal king, and add to the grandeur of his state and kingdom; and after he had in a mild and gentle manner, calling them "children", explained himself of such, that trusted in uncertain riches, served mammon, made these their gods, and placed their hope and happiness in them; in order to strengthen and confirm what he had before asserted, and to assure, in the strongest manner, the very great difficulty, and seeming impossibility, of rich men becoming followers of Christ here, or companions with him hereafter, he expresses himself in this proverbial way:

it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God: thus, when the Jews would express anything that was rare and unusual, difficult and impossible, they used a like saying with this. So speaking of showing persons the interpretation of their dreams g;

"Says Rabba, you know they do not show to a man a golden palm tree i.e. the interpretation of a dream about one, which, as the gloss says, is a thing he is not used to see, and of which he never thought, דעייל בקופא דמחטא ולא פילא, "nor an elephant going through the eye of a needle".''

Again, to one that had delivered something as was thought very absurd, it is said h;

"perhaps thou art one of Pombeditha (a school of the Jews in Babylon) דמעיילין פילא בקופא דמחטא, "who make an elephant pass through the eye of a needle".''

That is, who teach such things as are equally as monstrous and absurd, and difficult of belief. So the authors of an edition of the book of Zohar, to set forth the difficulty of the work they engaged in, express themselves in this manner i:

"In the name of our God, we have seen fit, בקופא דמחטא להכניס פילא, "to bring an elephant through the eye of a needle".''

And not only among the Jews, but in other eastern nations, this proverbial way of speaking was used, to signify difficulties or impossibilities. Mahomet has it in his Alcoran k;

"Verily, says he, they who shall charge our signs with falsehood, and shall proudly reject them, the gates of heaven shall not be opened to them, neither shall they enter into paradise, "until a camel pass through the eye of a needle".''

All which show, that there is no need to suppose, that by a camel is meant, not the creature so called, but a cable rope, as some have thought; since these common proverbs manifestly make it appear, that a creature is intended, and which aggravates the difficulty: the reason why instead of an elephant, as used in most of the above sayings, Christ makes mention of a camel, may be, because that might be more known in Judea, than the other; and because the hump on its back would serve to make the thing still more impracticable.

Gill: Mat 19:25 - When his disciples heard it // they were exceedingly amazed // saying // who then can be saved When his disciples heard it..... That is, the difficulty of a rich man's entering into the kingdom of heaven, aggravated by the above proverbial expre...

When his disciples heard it..... That is, the difficulty of a rich man's entering into the kingdom of heaven, aggravated by the above proverbial expression,

they were exceedingly amazed. They were surprised at his first words; but when he confirmed them by the proverb of a camel's passing through the eye of a needle, they were, as Mark says, "astonished out of measure": they did not imagine there was any difficulty of rich men coming into the kingdom of the Messiah, which they took to be a worldly one, and would be filled with rich men; for so they understood Christ; though he meant by the kingdom of heaven a spiritual kingdom, a Gospel church state here, or the heavenly glory, or both; but when he expressed, by the proverb, the impracticableness of such men becoming the subjects thereof, their amazement increased;

saying, as in Mark, "among themselves", privately to one another,

who then can be saved? meaning, not with a spiritual and everlasting salvation, but a temporal one: for upon Christ's so saying, they might reason with themselves, that if rich men did not come into the kingdom of the Messiah, they would oppose him and his kingdom, with all their force and strength; and then what would become of such poor men as themselves, who would not be able to stand against them? nor could they hope to be safe long, or enjoy any continued happiness in the expected kingdom, should this be the case.

Gill: Mat 19:26 - But Jesus beheld them // and said unto them, with men this is impossible But Jesus beheld them,.... Looking wishfully and earnestly at them; signifying thereby, that he knew their reasonings among themselves, though they di...

But Jesus beheld them,.... Looking wishfully and earnestly at them; signifying thereby, that he knew their reasonings among themselves, though they did not speak out so as to be heard by him; and that there was no reason why they should be in so much concern, as their countenances showed, or possess themselves with such fears:

and said unto them, with men this is impossible. Mark adds, "but not with God; for with God all things are possible"; to be done by him, if he will, which are consistent with the glory and perfections of his nature: for as he could, by his almighty power, if he would, reduce a camel to so small a size, as to be able to go through the eye of a needle, which, with men, is an impossible thing; so by the mighty power of his grace he can work upon a rich man's heart, in such a manner, as to take off his affections from his worldly substance, and cause him to drop his trust and confidence in it: he can so influence and dispose his mind, as to distribute his riches cheerfully among the poor, and largely, and liberally supply their wants, and even part with all, when necessity requires it: he can change his heart, and cause the desires of his soul to be after true riches of grace and glory; and bring him to see his own spiritual poverty, his need of Christ, and salvation by him; and to deny himself, take up the cross, and follow him, by submitting to his most despised ordinances, and by suffering the loss of all things for his sake; and he can carry him through a thousand snares safe to his kingdom and glory, which is Christ's sense; though the thing is impossible upon the foot of human nature, and strength, which can never effect anything of this kind: and as to what the apostles suggested concerning the safety of persons in the Messiah's kingdom, if no rich man could enter there, but should be in opposition to it; our Lord's answer implies, that though, humanly speaking, it was not possible and practicable that they, a company of poor, mean, and despicable men, should be able to stand against the united force of the great and mighty men of the earth; yet God was able to support, and uphold them, succeed, and keep them, and make them both useful and comfortable, amidst all the opposition and persecution they should meet with, until he had finished his whole will and work by them.

Gill: Mat 19:27 - Then answered Peter and said unto him // behold, we have forsaken all, and followed thee // what shall we have therefore Then answered Peter and said unto him,.... Peter observing what Christ said to the young man, bidding him sell all that he had, and give to the poor, ...

Then answered Peter and said unto him,.... Peter observing what Christ said to the young man, bidding him sell all that he had, and give to the poor, and he should have treasure in heaven, and come and follow him, lays hold on it, and addresses him in the following manner,

behold, we have forsaken all, and followed thee. Though their worldly substance was not so large as the young man's, they had not such estates to sell, nor that to give to the poor, he had; yet all that they had they left for Christ's sake, their parents, wives, children, houses, and worldly employments, by which they supported themselves and families; and became the disciples and followers of Christ, embraced his doctrines, submitted to his commands, imitated him in the exercise of grace, and discharge of duty, denying themselves, and suffering many hardships on his account: wherefore it is asked,

what shall we have therefore? what reward for all this? what part in the Messiah's kingdom? or what treasure in heaven?

Gill: Mat 19:28 - And Jesus said unto them // verily I say unto you // that ye which have followed me // in the regeneration // when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory in the regeneration // When the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory // ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones // judging the twelve tribes of Israel And Jesus said unto them,.... To all the disciples whom Peter represented; verily I say unto you: the thing being something very considerable, and ...

And Jesus said unto them,.... To all the disciples whom Peter represented;

verily I say unto you: the thing being something very considerable, and of great moment, Christ uses the asseveration he sometimes does in such cases:

that ye which have followed me. Christ does not deny that they had forsaken all for his sake, nor does he despise it, because it was but little they left, though he does not repeat it; but only takes notice of their following him, which, including their faith in him, their profession of him, and subjection to him, was a much greater action, and of more importance that the other, and therefore is only mentioned, and which our Lord confirms:

in the regeneration. This clause is so placed, that it may be read in connection with the preceding words, and be understood of the disciples following Christ in the regeneration; meaning, not the grace of regeneration, in which they could not be said, with propriety, to follow Christ; and one of them was never a partaker of it: but the new state of things, in the church of God, which was foretold, and is called the time of reformation, or setting all things right, which began upon the sealing up the law, and the prophets, and the ministry of John the Baptist, and of Christ; who both, when they began to preach, declared, that this time, which they call the kingdom of heaven, was at hand, just ushering in. Now the twelve apostles followed Christ herein: they believed, and professed him to be the Messiah; they received, what the Jews called, his new doctrine, and preached it to others; they submitted to the new ordinance of baptism, and followed Christ, and attended him wherever he went, working miracles, preaching the Gospel, and reforming the minds and manners of men. Now this new dispensation is called the regeneration, and which more manifestly took place after our Lord's resurrection, and ascension, and the pouring down of the Spirit; wherefore the phrase may be connected with the following words,

when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory in the regeneration; not in the resurrection of the dead, or at the last judgment, but in this new state of things, which now began to appear with another face: for the apostles having a new commission to preach the Gospel to all the world; and being endued with power from on high for such service, in a short time went every where preaching the word, with great success. Gentiles were converted, as well as Jews, and both brought into a Gospel church state; the ceremonies of the old law being abolished, were disused; and the ordinances of baptism, and the Lord's supper, every where practised; old things passed away, and all things became new: agreeably to this the Syriac version renders the phrase, בעלמא חדתא, "in the new world"; and so the Persic. The Arabic reads it, "in the generation", or "age to come"; which the Jews so often call the world, or age to come, the kingdom of the Messiah, the Gospel dispensation.

When the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, or glorious throne; as he did when he ascended into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God; and was then exalted as a prince, and made, or declared to be Lord and Christ; and was crowned in human nature, with honour, and glory, and angels, principalities, and powers, made subject to him:

ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones: for though Judas fell from his apostleship, yet Matthias was chosen in his room, and took his place, and made up the number twelve; a metaphorical phrase, setting forth the honour, dignity, and authority of their office and ministry, by which they should be

judging the twelve tribes of Israel; doctrinally and practically; by charging them with the sin of crucifying Christ, condemning them for their unbelief, and rejection of him, denouncing the wrath of God, and the heaviest judgments that should fall upon them, as a nation, for their sin; and by turning from them to the Gentiles, under which judgment they continue to this day. So the doctors among the Jews are represented as sitting and judging others: of "the potters", in 1Ch 4:23 they say l,

"these are the disciples of the law, or the lawyers, for whose sake the world is created, דיתבין על דינא "who sit in judgment", and establish the world; and build, and perfect the ruins of the house of Israel.''

Gill: Mat 19:29 - And everyone that hath forsaken houses // brethren or sisters, or father or mother, or wife or children, lands, for my name's sake // shall receive an hundred fold // even houses and brethren, and sisters and mothers, and children and lands // and shall inherit everlasting life And everyone that hath forsaken houses,.... Not only the then disciples of Christ, but any other believer in him, whether at that time, or in any age,...

And everyone that hath forsaken houses,.... Not only the then disciples of Christ, but any other believer in him, whether at that time, or in any age, that should be called to quit their habitations, or leave their dearest relations, friends, and substance: as

brethren or sisters, or father or mother, or wife or children, lands, for my name's sake; or, as in Luke, "for the kingdom of God's sake"; that is, for the sake of the Gospel, and a profession of it. Not that believing in Christ, and professing his name, do necessarily require a parting with all worldly substance, and natural relations, but when these things stand in competition with Christ, he is to be loved and preferred before them; and believers are always to be ready to part with them for his sake, when persecution arises, because of the word. All these things are to be relinquished, rather than Christ, and his Gospel; and such who shall be enabled, through divine grace, to do so,

shall receive an hundred fold: Mark adds, "now in this time"; and Luke likewise, "in this present time", in this world; which may be understood either in spiritual things, the love of God, the presence of Christ, the comforts of the Holy Ghost, the communion of saints, and the joys and pleasures felt in the enjoyment of these things, being an hundred times more and better to them, than all they have left or lost for Christ's sake; or in temporal things, so in Mark it seems to be explained, that such shall now receive an hundred fold,

even houses and brethren, and sisters and mothers, and children and lands; not that they should receive, for the leaving of one house, an hundred houses; or for forsaking one brother, an hundred brethren, &c. which last indeed might be true, as to a spiritual relation; but that the small pittance of this world's goods, and the few friends they should have "with persecutions" along with them, and amidst them, should be so sweetened to them, with the love and presence of God, that these should be more and better to them than an hundred houses, fields, and friends, without them:

and shall inherit everlasting life. The other evangelists add, "in the world to come", which is infinitely best of all; for this is an inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, which fades not away, reserved in the heavens, when all other inheritances are corruptible, defiled, fading and perishing; houses fall, relations die, friends fail, and lands and estates do not continue for ever: they then have the best of it, who being called, in providence, to quit all terrene enjoyments for Christ's sake, are favoured with his presence here, and shall enjoy eternal glory and happiness with him in another world.

Gill: Mat 19:30 - But many that are first shall be last // and the last shall be first But many that are first shall be last,.... This may refer unto, or be occasioned by, either the young ruler; signifying that he, and others like him, ...

But many that are first shall be last,.... This may refer unto, or be occasioned by, either the young ruler; signifying that he, and others like him, who were superior in riches and honour, were first in this world, of the first rank and figure, should be the last in the world to come:

and the last shall be first; the apostles, who were last in this world, being poor, mean, and abject, should be the first in the other: or to the Scribes and Pharisees, who were in the chief place, and highest esteem, in the Jewish church, and yet least in the kingdom of heaven; when, on the other hand, the publicans and sinners, who were in the lowest class, and in least esteem, went first into it: or to the case of persecution, when some, who seem most forward to endure it at a distance, when it comes nearer, are most backward to it; whilst others, who were most fearful of it, and ready to shrink at the thoughts of it, most cheerfully bear it: or to the apostles themselves, one of which, who was now first, Judas, should be last; and the apostle Paul, who was last of all, as one born out of due time, should be first: or to Jews and Gentiles, intimating, that the Jews, who were first in outward privileges, would be rejected of God for their unbelief, and contempt of the Messiah; and the Gentiles, who were last called, should be first, or chief, in embracing the Messiah, professing his Gospel, and supporting his interest. This sentence is confirmed, and illustrated, by a parable, in the following chapter.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Mat 19:1 “River” is not in the Greek text but is supplied for clarity. The region referred to here is sometimes known as Transjordan (i.e., “...

NET Notes: Mat 19:3 The question of the Pharisees was anything but sincere; they were asking it to test him. Jesus was now in the jurisdiction of Herod Antipas (i.e., Jud...

NET Notes: Mat 19:4 A quotation from Gen 1:27; 5:2.

NET Notes: Mat 19:5 A quotation from Gen 2:24.

NET Notes: Mat 19:7 A quotation from Deut 24:1. The Pharisees were all in agreement that the OT permitted a man to write a certificate of dismissal and to divorce his wif...

NET Notes: Mat 19:8 Grk “heart” (a collective singular).

NET Notes: Mat 19:10 ‡ Some significant witnesses, along with the majority of later mss (Ì25 C D L W Z 078 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat sy samss bo), read α...

NET Notes: Mat 19:11 Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

NET Notes: Mat 19:12 Grk “people.”

NET Notes: Mat 19:13 Grk “the disciples scolded them.” In the translation the referent has been specified as “those who brought them,” since otherw...

NET Notes: Mat 19:14 The kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these. Children are a picture of those whose simple trust illustrates what faith is all about. The remark ill...

NET Notes: Mat 19:15 Grk “went from there.”

NET Notes: Mat 19:16 Grk “And behold one came.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equival...

NET Notes: Mat 19:19 A quotation from Lev 19:18.

NET Notes: Mat 19:20 While the rich man was probably being sincere when he insisted I have wholeheartedly obeyed all these laws, he had confined his righteousness to exter...

NET Notes: Mat 19:21 The call for sacrifice comes with a promise of eternal reward: You will have treasure in heaven. Jesus’ call is a test to see how responsive the...

NET Notes: Mat 19:22 Grk “he had many possessions.” This term (κτῆμα, kthma) is often used for land as a possession.

NET Notes: Mat 19:23 Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

NET Notes: Mat 19:24 The eye of a needle refers to a sewing needle. (The gate in Jerusalem known as “The Needle’s Eye” was built during the middle ages a...

NET Notes: Mat 19:25 The assumption is that the rich are blessed, so if they risk exclusion, who is left to be saved?

NET Notes: Mat 19:26 The plural Greek term ἄνθρωποις (anqrwpois) is used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and w...

NET Notes: Mat 19:27 Grk “We have left everything and followed you.” Koine Greek often used paratactic structure when hypotactic was implied.

NET Notes: Mat 19:28 The statement you…will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel looks at the future authority the Twelve will have when J...

NET Notes: Mat 19:29 Jesus reassures his disciples with a promise that (1) much benefit in this life (a hundred times as much) and (2) eternal life will be given.

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:1 And it came to pass, [that] when Jesus had finished these sayings, he ( a ) departed from Galilee, and came into the coasts of Judaea beyond Jordan; ...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:3 ( 1 ) The Pharisees also came unto him, tempting him, and saying unto him, Is it lawful for a man to ( b ) put away his wife for every cause? ( 1 ) T...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:5 And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall ( c ) cleave to his wife: and they ( d ) twain shall be one flesh? ( c ) The ...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:6 Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath ( e ) joined together, let not man put asunder. ( e ) Has made them yokefell...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:7 ( 2 ) They say unto him, Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and to put her away? ( 2 ) Because political laws are adjusted ...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:8 He saith unto them, Moses ( f ) because of the hardness of your hearts ( g ) suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:9 And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except [it be] ( h ) for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and whoso m...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:10 His disciples say unto him, If the ( i ) case of the man be so with [his] wife, it is not good to marry. ( i ) If the matter stands in this way betwe...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:11 ( 3 ) But he said unto them, All [men] cannot ( k ) receive this saying, save [they] to whom it is given. ( 3 ) The gift of celibacy is peculiar, and...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:12 For there are some ( l ) eunuchs, which were so born from [their] mother's womb: and there are some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men: and there...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:13 ( 4 ) Then were there brought unto him little children, that he should put [his] hands on them, and pray: and the disciples rebuked them. ( 4 ) The e...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:16 ( 5 ) And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? ( 5 ) Those who seek to be save...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:21 Jesus said unto him, If ( n ) thou wilt be perfect, go [and] sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and co...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:23 ( 6 ) Then said Jesus unto his disciples, Verily I say unto you, That a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom of heaven. ( 6 ) Rich men have n...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:24 And again I say unto you, It is ( o ) easier for a ( p ) camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:28 ( 7 ) And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the ( q ) regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the ...

Geneva Bible: Mat 19:30 ( 8 ) But many [that are] first shall be last; and the last [shall be] first. ( 8 ) To have begun well, and not to continue unto the end, is not only...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Mat 19:16-26 - A Libation To Jehovah The Requirements Of The King And, behold, one came and said unto Him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? 17. And ...

MHCC: Mat 19:1-2 - --Great multitudes followed Christ. When Christ departs, it is best for us to follow him. They found him as able and ready to help elsewhere, as he had ...

MHCC: Mat 19:3-12 - --The Pharisees were desirous of drawing something from Jesus which they might represent as contrary to the law of Moses. Cases about marriage have been...

MHCC: Mat 19:13-15 - --It is well when we come to Christ ourselves, and bring our children. Little children may be brought to Christ as needing, and being capable of receivi...

MHCC: Mat 19:16-22 - --Christ knew that covetousness was the sin which most easily beset this young man; though he had got honestly what he possessed, yet he could not cheer...

MHCC: Mat 19:23-30 - --Though Christ spoke so strongly, few that have riches do not trust in them. How few that are poor are not tempted to envy! But men's earnestness in th...

Matthew Henry: Mat 19:1-2 - -- We have here an account of Christ's removal. Observe, 1. He left Galilee. There he had been brought up, and had spent the greatest part of his life ...

Matthew Henry: Mat 19:3-12 - -- We have here the law of Christ in the case of divorce, occasioned, as some other declarations of his will, by a dispute with the Pharisees. So pat...

Matthew Henry: Mat 19:13-15 - -- We have here the welcome which Christ gave to some little children that were brought to him. Observe, I. The faith of those that brought them. How m...

Matthew Henry: Mat 19:16-22 - -- Here is an account of what passed between Christ and a hopeful young gentleman that addressed himself to him upon a serious errand; he said to be a ...

Matthew Henry: Mat 19:23-30 - -- We have here Christ's discourse with his disciples upon occasion of the rich man's breaking with Christ. I. Christ took occasion from thence to show...