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Teks -- Mark 4:1-41 (NET)

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Konteks
The Parable of the Sower
4:1 Again he began to teach by the lake. Such a large crowd gathered around him that he got into a boat on the lake and sat there while the whole crowd was on the shore by the lake. 4:2 He taught them many things in parables, and in his teaching said to them: 4:3 “Listen! A sower went out to sow. 4:4 And as he sowed, some seed fell along the path, and the birds came and devoured it. 4:5 Other seed fell on rocky ground where it did not have much soil. It sprang up at once because the soil was not deep. 4:6 When the sun came up it was scorched, and because it did not have sufficient root, it withered. 4:7 Other seed fell among the thorns, and they grew up and choked it, and it did not produce grain. 4:8 But other seed fell on good soil and produced grain, sprouting and growing; some yielded thirty times as much, some sixty, and some a hundred times.” 4:9 And he said, “Whoever has ears to hear had better listen!”
The Purpose of Parables
4:10 When he was alone, those around him with the twelve asked him about the parables. 4:11 He said to them, “The secret of the kingdom of God has been given to you. But to those outside, everything is in parables, 4:12 so that although they look they may look but not see, and although they hear they may hear but not understand, so they may not repent and be forgiven.” 4:13 He said to them, “Don’t you understand this parable? Then how will you understand any parable? 4:14 The sower sows the word. 4:15 These are the ones on the path where the word is sown: Whenever they hear, immediately Satan comes and snatches the word that was sown in them. 4:16 These are the ones sown on rocky ground: As soon as they hear the word, they receive it with joy. 4:17 But they have no root in themselves and do not endure. Then, when trouble or persecution comes because of the word, immediately they fall away. 4:18 Others are the ones sown among thorns: They are those who hear the word, 4:19 but worldly cares, the seductiveness of wealth, and the desire for other things come in and choke the word, and it produces nothing. 4:20 But these are the ones sown on good soil: They hear the word and receive it and bear fruit, one thirty times as much, one sixty, and one a hundred.”
The Parable of the Lamp
4:21 He also said to them, “A lamp isn’t brought to be put under a basket or under a bed, is it? Isn’t it to be placed on a lampstand? 4:22 For nothing is hidden except to be revealed, and nothing concealed except to be brought to light. 4:23 If anyone has ears to hear, he had better listen!” 4:24 And he said to them, “Take care about what you hear. The measure you use will be the measure you receive, and more will be added to you. 4:25 For whoever has will be given more, but whoever does not have, even what he has will be taken from him.”
The Parable of the Growing Seed
4:26 He also said, “The kingdom of God is like someone who spreads seed on the ground. 4:27 He goes to sleep and gets up, night and day, and the seed sprouts and grows, though he does not know how. 4:28 By itself the soil produces a crop, first the stalk, then the head, then the full grain in the head. 4:29 And when the grain is ripe, he sends in the sickle because the harvest has come.”
The Parable of the Mustard Seed
4:30 He also asked, “To what can we compare the kingdom of God, or what parable can we use to present it? 4:31 It is like a mustard seed that when sown in the ground, even though it is the smallest of all the seeds in the ground4:32 when it is sown, it grows up, becomes the greatest of all garden plants, and grows large branches so that the wild birds can nest in its shade.”
The Use of Parables
4:33 So with many parables like these, he spoke the word to them, as they were able to hear. 4:34 He did not speak to them without a parable. But privately he explained everything to his own disciples.
Stilling of a Storm
4:35 On that day, when evening came, Jesus said to his disciples, “Let’s go across to the other side of the lake.” 4:36 So after leaving the crowd, they took him along, just as he was, in the boat, and other boats were with him. 4:37 Now a great windstorm developed and the waves were breaking into the boat, so that the boat was nearly swamped. 4:38 But he was in the stern, sleeping on a cushion. They woke him up and said to him, “Teacher, don’t you care that we are about to die?” 4:39 So he got up and rebuked the wind, and said to the sea, “Be quiet! Calm down!” Then the wind stopped, and it was dead calm. 4:40 And he said to them, “Why are you cowardly? Do you still not have faith?” 4:41 They were overwhelmed by fear and said to one another, “Who then is this? Even the wind and sea obey him!”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Satan a person, male (evil angelic),an angel that has rebelled against God


Topik/Tema Kamus: Jesus, The Christ | JESUS CHRIST, 4C1 | Sermon | MARK, THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO, 1 | Word of God | Minister | Sower | Apostasy | Miracles | Church | Perseverance | Kingdom | Backsliders | Character | PARABLE | Instability | Faith | MUSTARD | Regeneration | Mustard Seed | selebihnya
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Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Lightfoot , Haydock , Gill

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NET Notes , Geneva Bible

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Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College , McGarvey , Lapide

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Mar 4:1 - Sat in the sea Sat in the sea ( kathēsthai en tēi thalassēi ). In the boat, of course, which was in the sea. He first sat by the beach (Mat 13:1) and then a v...

Sat in the sea ( kathēsthai en tēi thalassēi ).

In the boat, of course, which was in the sea. He first sat by the beach (Mat 13:1) and then a very great multitude (ochlos pleistos ) made him enter a boat in which he sat and taught. It was a common experience now to teach the crowds on the beach (Mar 2:13; Mar 3:7-9).

Robertson: Mar 4:1 - There is gathered There is gathered ( sunagetai ). Graphic pictorial present again. See the crowds pressing Jesus into the sea.

There is gathered ( sunagetai ).

Graphic pictorial present again. See the crowds pressing Jesus into the sea.

Robertson: Mar 4:2 - He taught them He taught them ( edidasken autous ). Imperfect tense describing it as going on.

He taught them ( edidasken autous ).

Imperfect tense describing it as going on.

Robertson: Mar 4:2 - In parables In parables ( en parabolais ). As in Mar 3:23, only here more extended parables. See notes in Matthew 13 for discussion concerning Christ’ s use...

In parables ( en parabolais ).

As in Mar 3:23, only here more extended parables. See notes in Matthew 13 for discussion concerning Christ’ s use of parables. Eight are given there, one (the Lamp both in Mar 4:21 and Luk 8:16 (both Sower and the Lamp in Luke), one alone in Mar 4:26-29 (seed growing of itself) not in Matthew or Luke, ten on this occasion. Only four are mentioned in Mark 4:1-34 (The Sower, the Lamp, the Seed Growing of Itself, the Mustard Seed). But Mark adds (Mar 4:34) "without a parable spake he not unto them,"clearly meaning that Jesus spoke many others on this occasion and Matt. after mentioning eight (Mat 13:34) makes the same statement. Manifestly, therefore, Jesus spoke many parables on this day and all theories of exegesis or dispensations on the basis of the number of these kingdom parables are quite beside the mark.

Robertson: Mar 4:2 - -- @@In beginning Jesus said: Hearken (Akouete ). It is significant that even Jesus had to ask people to listen when he spoke. See also Mar 4:9.

@@In beginning Jesus said: Hearken (Akouete ). It is significant that even Jesus had to ask people to listen when he spoke. See also Mar 4:9.

Robertson: Mar 4:7 - Choked Choked ( sunepnixan ). Pnigō means to strangle, throttle. Mark has the compounded form with suṅ , squeezed together. Mat 13:7 has apepnixan , ...

Choked ( sunepnixan ).

Pnigō means to strangle, throttle. Mark has the compounded form with suṅ , squeezed together. Mat 13:7 has apepnixan , choked off .

Robertson: Mar 4:7 - Yielded no fruit Yielded no fruit ( karpon ouk edōkan ). In Mark alone. Barren in results.

Yielded no fruit ( karpon ouk edōkan ).

In Mark alone. Barren in results.

Robertson: Mar 4:8 - Growing up and increasing Growing up and increasing ( anabainonta kai auxanomena ). In Mark alone. A vivid detail enlarging on the continued growth implied in the imperfect "y...

Growing up and increasing ( anabainonta kai auxanomena ).

In Mark alone. A vivid detail enlarging on the continued growth implied in the imperfect "yielded fruit"(edidou karpon ). It kept on yielding as it grew. Fruit is what matters.

Robertson: Mar 4:10 - When he was alone When he was alone ( hote egeneto kata monas ). Only in Mark. Vivid recollection of Peter. Mark has also "they that were about him with the twelve"(ho...

When he was alone ( hote egeneto kata monas ).

Only in Mark. Vivid recollection of Peter. Mark has also "they that were about him with the twelve"(hoi peri auton sun tois dōdeka ), Matthew and Luke simply "the disciples."They did not want the multitude to see that they did not understand the teaching of Jesus.

Robertson: Mar 4:11 - Unto you is given the mystery of the kingdom of God Unto you is given the mystery of the kingdom of God ( Humin to mustērion dedotai tēs basileias tou theou ). See notes on Mat 13:11 for word muste...

Unto you is given the mystery of the kingdom of God ( Humin to mustērion dedotai tēs basileias tou theou ).

See notes on Mat 13:11 for word mustērion . Here (Mar 4:11; Mat 13:11; Luk 8:10) alone in the Gospels, but in Paul 21 times and in the Revelation 4 times. It is frequent in Daniel and O.T. Apocrypha. Matthew and Luke use it here in the plural. Matthew and Luke add the word to know (gnōnai ), but Mark’ s presentation covers a wider range than growing knowledge, the permanent possession of the mystery even before they understand it. The secret is no longer hidden from the initiated. Discipleship means initiation into the secret of God’ s kingdom and it will come gradually to these men.

Robertson: Mar 4:11 - But unto them that are without But unto them that are without ( ekeinois de tois exō ). Peculiar to Mark, those outside our circle, the uninitiated, the hostile group like the sc...

But unto them that are without ( ekeinois de tois exō ).

Peculiar to Mark, those outside our circle, the uninitiated, the hostile group like the scribes and Pharisees, who were charging Jesus with being in league with Beelzebub. Luk 8:10 has "to the rest"(tois loipois ), Mat 13:11 simply "to them"(ekeinois ). Without the key the parables are hard to understand, for parables veil the truth of the kingdom being stated in terms of another realm. Without a spiritual truth and insight they are unintelligible and are often today perverted. The parables are thus a condemnation on the wilfully blind and hostile, while a guide and blessing to the enlightened.

Robertson: Mar 4:11 - That That ( hina ). Mark has the construction of the Hebrew "lest"of Isa 6:9. with the subjunctive and so Luk 8:10, while Mat 13:13 uses causal hoti wit...

That ( hina ).

Mark has the construction of the Hebrew "lest"of Isa 6:9. with the subjunctive and so Luk 8:10, while Mat 13:13 uses causal hoti with the indicative following the lxx. See notes on Mat 13:13 for the so-called causal use of hina . Gould on Mar 4:12 has an intelligent discussion of the differences between Matthew and Mark and Luke. He argues that Mark here probably "preserves the original form of Jesus’ saying."God ironically commands Isaiah to harden the hearts of the people. If the notion of purpose is preserved in the use of hina in Mark and Luke, there is probably some irony also in the sad words of Jesus. If hina is given the causative use of hoti in Matthew, the difficulty disappears. What is certain is that the use of parables on this occasion was a penalty for judicial blindness on those who will not see.

Robertson: Mar 4:12 - Lest haply they should turn again, and it should be forgiven them Lest haply they should turn again, and it should be forgiven them ( mēpote epistrepsōsin kai aphethēi autois ). Luke does not have these diffic...

Lest haply they should turn again, and it should be forgiven them ( mēpote epistrepsōsin kai aphethēi autois ).

Luke does not have these difficult words that seem in Isaiah to have an ironical turn, though Mat 13:15 does retain them even after using hoti for the first part of the quotation. There is no way to make mēpote in Mar 4:12 and Mat 13:15 have a causal sense. It is the purpose of condemnation for wilful blindness and rejection such as suits the Pharisees after their blasphemous accusation against Jesus. Bengel says: iam ante non videbant, nunc accedit iudicium divinum. Jesus is pronouncing their doom in the language of Isaiah. It sounds like the dirge of the damned.

Robertson: Mar 4:13 - Know ye not this parable? Know ye not this parable? ( ouk oidate tēn parabolēn tauteṉ ). They had asked Jesus his reasons for using parables. This question implies surpr...

Know ye not this parable? ( ouk oidate tēn parabolēn tauteṉ ).

They had asked Jesus his reasons for using parables. This question implies surprise at their dulness though initiated into the secret of God’ s Kingdom. Incapacity to comprehend this parable of the sower raises doubt about all the others on this day and at all times.

Robertson: Mar 4:14 - The sower soweth the word The sower soweth the word ( ho speirōn ton logon speirei ). Not put thus clearly and simply in Mat 13:19 or Luk 8:11.

The sower soweth the word ( ho speirōn ton logon speirei ).

Not put thus clearly and simply in Mat 13:19 or Luk 8:11.

Robertson: Mar 4:15 - Where the word is sown Where the word is sown ( hopou speiretai ho logos ). Explanatory detail only in Mark.

Where the word is sown ( hopou speiretai ho logos ).

Explanatory detail only in Mark.

Robertson: Mar 4:15 - Satan Satan ( Satanās ) where Mat 13:19 has the evil one (ho ponēros ) and Luk 8:12 the devil (ho diabolos ).

Satan ( Satanās )

where Mat 13:19 has the evil one (ho ponēros ) and Luk 8:12 the devil (ho diabolos ).

Robertson: Mar 4:15 - Sown in them Sown in them ( esparmenon eis autous ). Within them, not just among them, "in his heart"(Matt.).

Sown in them ( esparmenon eis autous ).

Within them, not just among them, "in his heart"(Matt.).

Robertson: Mar 4:19 - The lusts of other things The lusts of other things ( hai peri ta loipa epithumiai ). All the passions or longings, sensual, worldly, "pleasures of this life"(hēdonōn tou ...

The lusts of other things ( hai peri ta loipa epithumiai ).

All the passions or longings, sensual, worldly, "pleasures of this life"(hēdonōn tou biou ) as Luke has it (Luk 8:14), the world of sense drowning the world of spirit. The word epithumia is not evil in itself. One can yearn (this word) for what is high and holy (Luk 22:15; Phi 1:23).

Robertson: Mar 4:20 - Bear fruit Bear fruit ( karpophorousin ). Same word in Mat 13:23 and Luk 8:15. Mark gives the order from thirty, sixty, to a hundred, while Mat 13:23 has it rev...

Bear fruit ( karpophorousin ).

Same word in Mat 13:23 and Luk 8:15. Mark gives the order from thirty, sixty, to a hundred, while Mat 13:23 has it reversed.

Robertson: Mar 4:21 - Not to be put on the stand? Not to be put on the stand? ( ouch hina epi tēn luchnian tethēi̱ ). First aorist passive subjunctive of tithēmi with hina (purpose). The l...

Not to be put on the stand? ( ouch hina epi tēn luchnian tethēi̱ ).

First aorist passive subjunctive of tithēmi with hina (purpose). The lamp in the one-room house was a familiar object along with the bushel, the bed, the lampstand. Note article with each. Mēti in the Greek expects the answer no. It is a curious instance of early textual corruption that both Aleph and B, the two oldest and best documents, have hupo tēn luchnian (under the lampstand) instead of epi tēn luchnian , making shipwreck of the sense. Westcott and Hort actually put it in the margin but that is sheer slavery to Aleph and B. Some of the crisp sayings were repeated by Jesus on other occasions as shown in Matthew and Luke. To put the lamp under the bushel (modion ) would put it out besides giving no light. So as to the bed or table-couch (klinēn ) if it was raised above the floor and liable to be set on fire.

Robertson: Mar 4:22 - Save that it should be manifested Save that it should be manifested ( ean mē hina phanerōthēi ). Note ean mē and hina . Luk 8:17 has it that shall not be made manifest (ho...

Save that it should be manifested ( ean mē hina phanerōthēi ).

Note ean mē and hina . Luk 8:17 has it that shall not be made manifest (ho ou phaneron genēsetai ). Here in Mark it is stated that the temporary concealment is for final manifestation and a means to that end. Those who are charged with the secret at this time are given the set responsibility of proclaiming it on the housetops after Ascension (Swete). The hidden (krupton ) and the secret (apokruphon ) are to be revealed in due time.

Robertson: Mar 4:23 - -- @@Repeats Mar 4:9 with conditional form instead of a relative clause. Perhaps some inattention was noted.

@@Repeats Mar 4:9 with conditional form instead of a relative clause. Perhaps some inattention was noted.

Robertson: Mar 4:24 - What ye hear What ye hear ( ti akouete ). Luk 8:18 has it "how ye hear"(pōs akouete ). Both are important. Some things should not be heard at all for they besm...

What ye hear ( ti akouete ).

Luk 8:18 has it "how ye hear"(pōs akouete ). Both are important. Some things should not be heard at all for they besmirch the mind and heart. What is worth hearing should be heard rightly and heeded.

Robertson: Mar 4:24 - With what measure With what measure ( en hōi metrōi ). See already in the Sermon on the Mount (Mat 7:2; see note on Luk 6:38).

With what measure ( en hōi metrōi ).

See already in the Sermon on the Mount (Mat 7:2; see note on Luk 6:38).

Robertson: Mar 4:25 - Even that which he hath Even that which he hath ( kai ho echei ). Luk 8:18 has even that which he thinketh that he hath or seemeth to have (kai ho dokei echein ). It is p...

Even that which he hath ( kai ho echei ).

Luk 8:18 has even that which he thinketh that he hath or seemeth to have (kai ho dokei echein ). It is possible that echei here has the notion of acquiring. The man who does not acquire soon loses what he thinks that he has. This is one of the paradoxes of Jesus that repay thought and practice.

Robertson: Mar 4:26 - As if a man should cast As if a man should cast ( hōs anthrōpos balēi ). Note hōs with the aorist subjunctive without an . It is a supposable case and so the subju...

As if a man should cast ( hōs anthrōpos balēi ).

Note hōs with the aorist subjunctive without an . It is a supposable case and so the subjunctive and the aorist tense because a single instance. Blass considers this idiom "quite impossible,"but it is the true text here and makes good sense (Robertson, Grammar , p. 968). The more common idiom would have been hōs ean (or an ).

Robertson: Mar 4:27 - Should sleep and rise Should sleep and rise ( katheudēi kai egeirētai ). Present subjunctive for continued action. So also spring up and grow (blastāi kai mēkune...

Should sleep and rise ( katheudēi kai egeirētai ).

Present subjunctive for continued action. So also spring up and grow (blastāi kai mēkunētai ) two late verbs. The process of growth goes on all night and all day (nukta kai hēmeran , accusative of time).

Robertson: Mar 4:27 - He knoweth not how He knoweth not how ( hōs ouk oiden autos ). Note position of hōs (beginning) and autos (end) of clause:

He knoweth not how ( hōs ouk oiden autos ).

Note position of hōs (beginning) and autos (end) of clause:

Robertson: Mar 4:27 - How knows not he. How knows not he. The mystery of growth still puzzles farmers and scientists of today with all our modern knowledge. But nature’ s secret proces...

How knows not he.

The mystery of growth still puzzles farmers and scientists of today with all our modern knowledge. But nature’ s secret processes do not fail to operate because we are ignorant. This secret and mysterious growth of the kingdom in the heart and life is the point of this beautiful parable given only by Mark. "When man has done his part, the actual process of growth is beyond his reach or comprehension"(Swete).

Robertson: Mar 4:28 - Of herself Of herself ( automatē ). Automatically, we say. The secret of growth is in the seed, not in the soil nor in the weather nor in the cultivating. The...

Of herself ( automatē ).

Automatically, we say. The secret of growth is in the seed, not in the soil nor in the weather nor in the cultivating. These all help, but the seed spontaneously works according to its own nature. The word automatē is from autos (self) and memaa desire eagerly from obsolete maō . Common word in all Greek history. Only one other example in N.T., in Act 12:10 when the city gate opens to Peter of its own accord. "The mind is adapted to the truth, as the eye to the light"(Gould). So we sow the seed, God’ s kingdom truth, and the soil (the soul) is ready for the seed. The Holy Spirit works on the heart and uses the seed sown and makes it germinate and grow, "first the blade, then the ear, then the full corn in the ear"(prōton chorton , eiten stachun , eiten plērē siton en tōi stachui ). This is the law and order of nature and also of grace in the kingdom of God. Hence it is worth while to preach and teach. "This single fact creates the confidence shown by Jesus in the ultimate establishment of his kingdom in spite of the obstacles which obstruct its progress"(Gould).

Robertson: Mar 4:29 - Is ripe Is ripe ( paradoi , second aorist subjunctive with hotan ). Whenever the fruit yields itself or permits.

Is ripe ( paradoi , second aorist subjunctive with hotan ).

Whenever the fruit yields itself or permits.

Robertson: Mar 4:29 - Putteth forth Putteth forth ( apostellei ). Sends forth the sickle. The word for apostle comes from this verb. See note on Joh 4:38 : "I sent you forth to reap"(...

Putteth forth ( apostellei ).

Sends forth the sickle. The word for apostle comes from this verb. See note on Joh 4:38 : "I sent you forth to reap"(ego apesteila humās therizein ). Sickle (drepanon ) here by metonymy stands for the reapers who use it when the harvest stands ready for it (parestēken , stands by the side, present perfect indicative).

Robertson: Mar 4:30 - How shall we liken? How shall we liken? ( Pōs homoiōsōmeṅ ) Deliberative first aorist subjunctive. This question alone in Mark. So with the other question:

How shall we liken? ( Pōs homoiōsōmeṅ )

Deliberative first aorist subjunctive. This question alone in Mark. So with the other question:

Robertson: Mar 4:30 - In what parable shall we set it forth? In what parable shall we set it forth? ( en tini autēn parabolēi thōmeṉ ). Deliberative second aorist subjunctive. The graphic question draws...

In what parable shall we set it forth? ( en tini autēn parabolēi thōmeṉ ).

Deliberative second aorist subjunctive. The graphic question draws the interest of the hearers ( we ) by fine tact. Luk 13:18. retains the double question which Mat 13:31. does not have, though he has it in a very different context, probably an illustration of Christ’ s favourite sayings often repeated to different audiences as is true of all teachers and preachers.

Robertson: Mar 4:31 - When it is sown When it is sown ( hotan sparēi ). Second aorist passive subjunctive of speirō . Alone in Mark and repeated in Mar 4:32.

When it is sown ( hotan sparēi ).

Second aorist passive subjunctive of speirō . Alone in Mark and repeated in Mar 4:32.

Robertson: Mar 4:31 - Less than all the seeds Less than all the seeds ( mikroteron pantōn tōn spermatōn ). Comparative adjective with the ablative case after it. Hyperbole, of course, but c...

Less than all the seeds ( mikroteron pantōn tōn spermatōn ).

Comparative adjective with the ablative case after it. Hyperbole, of course, but clearly meaning that from a very small seed a large plant grows, the gradual pervasive expansive power of the kingdom of God.

Robertson: Mar 4:32 - Groweth up Groweth up ( anabainei ). Mat 13:32 When it is grown (hotan auxēthēi ).

Groweth up ( anabainei ).

Mat 13:32 When it is grown (hotan auxēthēi ).

Robertson: Mar 4:32 - Under the shadow thereof Under the shadow thereof ( hupo tēn skian autou ). A different picture from Matthew’ s in the branches thereof (en tois kladois autou ). Bu...

Under the shadow thereof ( hupo tēn skian autou ).

A different picture from Matthew’ s in the branches thereof (en tois kladois autou ). But both use kataskēnoin , to tent or camp down, make nests in the branches in the shade or hop on the ground under the shade just like a covey of birds. In Mat 8:20 the birds have nests (kataskēnōseis ). The use of the mustard seed for smallness seems to have been proverbial and Jesus employs it elsewhere (Mat 17:20; Luk 17:6).

Robertson: Mar 4:33 - As they were able to hear it As they were able to hear it ( kathōs ēdunanto akouein ). Only in Mark. Imperfect indicative. See note on Joh 16:12 for ou dunasthe bastazein , n...

As they were able to hear it ( kathōs ēdunanto akouein ).

Only in Mark. Imperfect indicative. See note on Joh 16:12 for ou dunasthe bastazein , not able to bear. Jesus used parables now largely, but there was a limit even to the use of them to these men. He gave them the mystery of the kingdom in this veiled parabolic form which was the only feasible form at this stage. But even so they did not understand what they heard.

Robertson: Mar 4:34 - But privately to his disciples he expounded all things But privately to his disciples he expounded all things ( kat' idian de tois idiois mathētais epeluen panta ). To his own (idiois ) disciples in pr...

But privately to his disciples he expounded all things ( kat' idian de tois idiois mathētais epeluen panta ).

To his own (idiois ) disciples in private, in distinction from the mass of the people Jesus was in the habit (imperfect tense, epeluen ) of disclosing , revealing, all things (panta ) in plain language without the parabolic form used before the crowds. This verb epiluō occurs in the N.T. only here and in Act 19:39 where the town-clerk of Ephesus says of the troubles by the mob: "It shall be settled in the regular assembly"(en tēi ennomōi ekklēsiāi epiluthēsetai ). First future passive indicative from epiluō . The word means to give additional (epi ) loosening (luō ), so to explain, to make plainer, clearer, even to the point of revelation. This last is the idea of the substantive in 2Pe 1:20 where even the Revised Version has it: "No prophecy of scripture is of private interpretation"(pāsa prophēteia graphēs idias epiluseōs ou ginetai ). Here the use of ginetai (comes) with the ablative case (epiluseōs ) and the explanation given in verse 2Pe 1:21 shows plainly that disclosure or revelation to the prophet is what is meant, not interpretation of what the prophet said. The prophetic impulse and message came from God through the Holy Spirit. In private the further disclosures of Jesus amounted to fresh revelations concerning the mysteries of the kingdom of God.

Robertson: Mar 4:35 - When even was come When even was come ( opsias genomenēs ). Genitive absolute. It had been a busy day. The blasphemous accusation, the visit of the mother and brother...

When even was come ( opsias genomenēs ).

Genitive absolute. It had been a busy day. The blasphemous accusation, the visit of the mother and brothers and possibly sisters, to take him home, leaving the crowded house for the sea, the first parables by the sea, then more in the house, and now out of the house and over the sea.

Robertson: Mar 4:35 - Let us go over unto the other side Let us go over unto the other side ( dielthōmen eis to peran ). Hortatory (volitive) subjunctive, second aorist active tense. They were on the west...

Let us go over unto the other side ( dielthōmen eis to peran ).

Hortatory (volitive) subjunctive, second aorist active tense. They were on the western side and a row over to the eastern shore in the evening would be a delightful change and refreshing to the weary Christ. It was the only way to escape the crowds.

Robertson: Mar 4:36 - Even as he was Even as he was ( hōs ēn ). Vulgate, ita ut erat. Bengel says: sine apparatu. That is, they take Jesus along (paralambanousin ) without previou...

Even as he was ( hōs ēn ).

Vulgate, ita ut erat. Bengel says: sine apparatu. That is, they take Jesus along (paralambanousin ) without previous preparation.

Robertson: Mar 4:36 - Other boats Other boats ( alla ploia ). This detail also is given only by Mark. Some people had got into boats to get close to Jesus. There was a crowd even on t...

Other boats ( alla ploia ).

This detail also is given only by Mark. Some people had got into boats to get close to Jesus. There was a crowd even on the lake.

Robertson: Mar 4:37 - There ariseth a great storm of wind There ariseth a great storm of wind ( ginetai lailaps megalē anemou ). Mark’ s vivid historical present again. Mat 8:24 has egeneto (arose) ...

There ariseth a great storm of wind ( ginetai lailaps megalē anemou ).

Mark’ s vivid historical present again. Mat 8:24 has egeneto (arose) and Luk 8:23 katebē (came down). Luke has also lailaps , but Matthew seismos (tempest), a violent upheaval like an earthquake. Lailaps is an old word for these cyclonic gusts or storms. Luke’ s "came down"shows that the storm fell suddenly from Mount Hermon down into the Jordan Valley and smote the Sea of Galilee violently at its depth of 682 feet below the Mediterranean Sea. The hot air at this depth draws the storm down with sudden power. These sudden storms continue to this day on the Sea of Galilee. The word occurs in the lxx of the whirlwind out of which God answered Job (Job 38:1) and in Jonah 1:4.

Robertson: Mar 4:37 - The waves beat into the boat The waves beat into the boat ( ta kumata epeballen eis to ploion ). Imperfect tense (were beating) vividly picturing the rolling over the sides of th...

The waves beat into the boat ( ta kumata epeballen eis to ploion ).

Imperfect tense (were beating) vividly picturing the rolling over the sides of the boat "so that the boat was covered with the waves"(Mat 8:24). Mark has it: "insomuch that the boat was now filling"(hōste ēdē gemizesthai to ploion ). Graphic description of the plight of the disciples.

Robertson: Mar 4:38 - Asleep on the cushion Asleep on the cushion ( epi to proskephalaion katheudōn ). Mark also mentions the cushion or bolster and the stern of the boat (en tēi prumnēi ...

Asleep on the cushion ( epi to proskephalaion katheudōn ).

Mark also mentions the cushion or bolster and the stern of the boat (en tēi prumnēi ). Mat 8:24 notes that Jesus was sleeping (ekatheuden ), Luke that he fell asleep (aphupnōsen , ingressive aorist indicative). He was worn out from the toil of this day.

Robertson: Mar 4:38 - They awake him They awake him ( egeirousin auton ). So Mark’ s graphic present. Matthew and Luke both have "awoke him."Mark has also what the others do not: "C...

They awake him ( egeirousin auton ).

So Mark’ s graphic present. Matthew and Luke both have "awoke him."Mark has also what the others do not: "Carest thou not?"(ou melei soi̱ ). It was a rebuke to Jesus for sleeping in such a storm. We are perishing (apollumetha , linear present middle). Precisely this same form also in Mat 8:25 and Luk 8:24.

Robertson: Mar 4:39 - Rebuked the wind Rebuked the wind ( epetimēsen tōi anemōi ) as in Mat 8:26 and Luk 8:24. He spoke to the sea also. All three Gospels speak of the sudden calm (g...

Rebuked the wind ( epetimēsen tōi anemōi )

as in Mat 8:26 and Luk 8:24. He spoke to the sea also. All three Gospels speak of the sudden calm (galēnē ) and the rebuke to the disciples for this lack of faith.

Robertson: Mar 4:40 - Why are ye fearful? Why are ye fearful? ( Timothydeiloi este̱ ). They had the Lord of the wind and the waves with them in the boat. He was still Master even if asleep i...

Why are ye fearful? ( Timothydeiloi este̱ ).

They had the Lord of the wind and the waves with them in the boat. He was still Master even if asleep in the storm.

Robertson: Mar 4:40 - Have ye not yet faith? Have ye not yet faith? ( Oupō echete pistiṉ ). Not yet had they come to feel that Jesus was really Lord of nature. They had accepted his Messiash...

Have ye not yet faith? ( Oupō echete pistiṉ ).

Not yet had they come to feel that Jesus was really Lord of nature. They had accepted his Messiaship, but all the conclusions from it they had not yet drawn. How like us in our troubles they were!

Robertson: Mar 4:41 - They feared exceedingly They feared exceedingly ( ephobēthēsan phobon megan ). Cognate accusative with the first aorist passive indicative. They feared a great fear. Mat...

They feared exceedingly ( ephobēthēsan phobon megan ).

Cognate accusative with the first aorist passive indicative. They feared a great fear. Mat 8:27 and Luk 8:22 mention that "they marvelled."But there was fear in it also.

Robertson: Mar 4:41 - Who then is this? Who then is this? ( Tis ara houtos estiṉ ). No wonder that they feared if this One could command the wind and the waves at will as well as demons a...

Who then is this? ( Tis ara houtos estiṉ ).

No wonder that they feared if this One could command the wind and the waves at will as well as demons and drive out all diseases and speak such mysteries in parables. They were growing in their apprehension and comprehension of Jesus Christ. They had much yet to learn. There is much yet for us today to learn or seek to grow in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ. This incident opened the eyes and minds of the disciples to the majesty of Jesus.

Vincent: Mar 4:1 - Again Again He had taught there before. See Mar 3:7-9.

Again

He had taught there before. See Mar 3:7-9.

Vincent: Mar 4:1 - In the sea In the sea Mark only.

In the sea

Mark only.

Vincent: Mar 4:1 - There was gathered There was gathered ( συνάγεται ) The A. V. misses Mark's graphic use of the present, " There is gathered." So Rev.

There was gathered ( συνάγεται )

The A. V. misses Mark's graphic use of the present, " There is gathered." So Rev.

Vincent: Mar 4:7 - Choked Choked ( συνέπνιξαν ) The preposition, συν = con (to gether ) , carries the idea of compression.

Choked ( συνέπνιξαν )

The preposition, συν = con (to gether ) , carries the idea of compression.

Vincent: Mar 4:7 - It yielded no fruit It yielded no fruit Added by Mark.

It yielded no fruit

Added by Mark.

Vincent: Mar 4:8 - That sprang up and increased That sprang up and increased ( ἀναβαίνοντα καὶ αὐξανόμενον ) The Rev. literally renders the participles, grow...

That sprang up and increased ( ἀναβαίνοντα καὶ αὐξανόμενον )

The Rev. literally renders the participles, growing up and increasing, thus describing the process more vividly. These two participles, moreover, explain the use of the imperfect tense ἐδίδου ( yielded ) , denoting continuance. It began to yield and kept yielding as it increased.

Vincent: Mar 4:8 - Thirty Thirty ( εἰς τριάκοντα ) Lit., up to thirty.

Thirty ( εἰς τριάκοντα )

Lit., up to thirty.

Vincent: Mar 4:10 - When he was alone When he was alone Mark only.

When he was alone

Mark only.

Vincent: Mar 4:10 - They that were about him with the twelve They that were about him with the twelve Mark only. Matthew and Luke, the disciples.

They that were about him with the twelve

Mark only. Matthew and Luke, the disciples.

Vincent: Mar 4:11 - Unto them that are without Unto them that are without ( ἐκείνοις τοῖς ἔξω ) The two latter words are peculiar to Mark. The phrase means those outs...

Unto them that are without ( ἐκείνοις τοῖς ἔξω )

The two latter words are peculiar to Mark. The phrase means those outside of our circle. Its sense is always determined by the contrast to it. Thus, 1Co 5:12, 1Co 5:13, it is non-Christians in contrast with me. Col 4:5, Christians contrasted with people of the world. Compare 1Th 4:12; 1Ti 3:7. Matthew (Mat 13:11), with less precision, uses simply ἐκείνοις (to them), the pronoun of remote reference. Luk 8:10, τοῖς λοιποῖς ( to the rest ) .

Vincent: Mar 4:13 - Parables Peculiar to Mark. Parables ( τὰς παραβολὰς ) The parables, which I have spoken or may hereafter speak.

Peculiar to Mark.

Parables ( τὰς παραβολὰς )

The parables, which I have spoken or may hereafter speak.

Vincent: Mar 4:14 - The sower soweth the word The sower soweth the word More precise than either Matthew or Luke. Compare Mat 13:19; Luk 8:11.

The sower soweth the word

More precise than either Matthew or Luke. Compare Mat 13:19; Luk 8:11.

Vincent: Mar 4:19 - The lusts of other things entering in The lusts of other things entering in ( αἱ περὶ τὰ λοιπὰ ἐπιθυμίαι ) Lusts, not in the limited sense of mere ...

The lusts of other things entering in ( αἱ περὶ τὰ λοιπὰ ἐπιθυμίαι )

Lusts, not in the limited sense of mere sexual desire, but in the general sense of longing. The word is also used of desire for good and lawful things (Luk 22:15; Phi 1:23).

Vincent: Mar 4:20 - Such as Such as A good rendering of the pronoun οἵτινες , which indicates the class of hearers.

Such as

A good rendering of the pronoun οἵτινες , which indicates the class of hearers.

Vincent: Mar 4:21 - A candle A candle ( ὁ λύχνος ) Properly, the lamp, as Rev.

A candle ( ὁ λύχνος )

Properly, the lamp, as Rev.

Vincent: Mar 4:21 - Brought Brought ( ἔρχεται ) Lit., cometh. Doth the lamp come ? This impersonation or investing the lamp with motion is according to Mark's l...

Brought ( ἔρχεται )

Lit., cometh. Doth the lamp come ? This impersonation or investing the lamp with motion is according to Mark's lively mode of narrative, as is the throwing of the passage into the interrogative form. Compare Luk 8:16. The lamp: the article indicating a familiar household implement. So also " the bed" and " the stand."

Vincent: Mar 4:21 - Bushel Bushel ( μόδιον ) The Latin modius. One of Mark's Latin words. See on Mat 5:15. The modius was nearer a peck than a bushel.

Bushel ( μόδιον )

The Latin modius. One of Mark's Latin words. See on Mat 5:15. The modius was nearer a peck than a bushel.

Vincent: Mar 4:21 - Bed Bed ( κλίνην ) A couch for reclining at table.

Bed ( κλίνην )

A couch for reclining at table.

Vincent: Mar 4:21 - Candlestick Candlestick ( λυχνίαν ) Rev., correctly, stand; i.e., lampstand . See on Mat 5:15.

Candlestick ( λυχνίαν )

Rev., correctly, stand; i.e., lampstand . See on Mat 5:15.

Vincent: Mar 4:22 - Which shall not be manifested Which shall not be manifested ( ἐὰν μὴ ἵνα φανερωθῇ ) The A. V. makes Christ say that every hidden thing shall be r...

Which shall not be manifested ( ἐὰν μὴ ἵνα φανερωθῇ )

The A. V. makes Christ say that every hidden thing shall be revealed. This is wrong. He says that things are hidden in order that they may be manifested. Concealment is a means to revelation.

Vincent: Mar 4:26 - Should cast Should cast ( βάλῃ ) Lit., should have cast, the aorist tense, followed by the presents sleep and rise (καθεύδῃ and ἐ...

Should cast ( βάλῃ )

Lit., should have cast, the aorist tense, followed by the presents sleep and rise (καθεύδῃ and ἐγείρηται ) . The whole, literally, " As if a man should have cast seed into the ground, and should be sleeping and rising night and day." The aorist tense indicates the single act of casting; the presents the repeated, continued sleeping and rising while the seed is growing.

Vincent: Mar 4:26 - Seed Seed ( τὸν σπόρον ) The seed; that particular seed which he had to sow. Such is the force of the article.

Seed ( τὸν σπόρον )

The seed; that particular seed which he had to sow. Such is the force of the article.

Vincent: Mar 4:27 - Grow Grow ( μηκύνηται ) Lit., lengthen; be extended by the seed lengthening out into blade and stalk.

Grow ( μηκύνηται )

Lit., lengthen; be extended by the seed lengthening out into blade and stalk.

Vincent: Mar 4:27 - He knoweth not how He knoweth not how ( ὡς οὐκ οἶδεν αὐτός ) The Greek order is very lively: how knoweth not he.

He knoweth not how ( ὡς οὐκ οἶδεν αὐτός )

The Greek order is very lively: how knoweth not he.

Vincent: Mar 4:28 - Of herself Of herself ( αὐτομάτη ) Lit., self-acting. It occurs in only one other passage of the New Testament, Act 12:10; of the city gate wh...

Of herself ( αὐτομάτη )

Lit., self-acting. It occurs in only one other passage of the New Testament, Act 12:10; of the city gate which opened to Peter of its own accord.

Vincent: Mar 4:29 - Is brought forth Is brought forth ( παραδοῖ ) This rendering cannot be correct, for the verb is active, not passive, meaning to deliver up . Hence it is...

Is brought forth ( παραδοῖ )

This rendering cannot be correct, for the verb is active, not passive, meaning to deliver up . Hence it is usually explained, shall have delivered itself up to harvest; which is stilted and artificial. Rev. is ripe , is a free rendering from the margin of A.V. It is, perhaps, better to explain, as Meyer does, whose rendering is adopted by Rev. in margin: When the fruit shall have allowed, i.e., shall have admitted of being harvested. Xenophon and Herodotus use the word in the sense of permit or allow; and an exact parallel to this occurs in the historian Polybius (xxii., 24, 9): " When the season permitted (παραδιδούσης ) . "

Vincent: Mar 4:29 - Putteth in Putteth in ( ἀποστέλλει ) Lit., sendeth forth. So Rev. in margin. The rendering, putteth in, misses the figure. The verb is the...

Putteth in ( ἀποστέλλει )

Lit., sendeth forth. So Rev. in margin. The rendering, putteth in, misses the figure. The verb is the same as that used of sending forth the apostles to reap the harvest of souls. See especially Joh 4:38 : " I sent (ἀπέστειλα ) you to reap. "

Vincent: Mar 4:30 - With what comparison shall we compare it? Peculiar to Mark. With what comparison shall we compare it? ( ἐν τίνι αὐτὴν παραβολῇ θῶμεν ;) Lit., In wh...

Peculiar to Mark.

With what comparison shall we compare it? ( ἐν τίνι αὐτὴν παραβολῇ θῶμεν ;)

Lit., In what parable might we put it ? Rev., In what parable shall we set it forth ? Note the we, taking the hearers, with a fine tact, into consultation.

Vincent: Mar 4:31 - When it is sown When it is sown ( ὅταν σπαρῇ ) This phrase is repeated in Mar 4:32. Here the emphasis is on ὅταν , when. It is small at...

When it is sown ( ὅταν σπαρῇ )

This phrase is repeated in Mar 4:32. Here the emphasis is on ὅταν , when. It is small at the time when it is sown. In Mar 4:32 the emphasis is on σπαρῇ , it is sown. It begins to grow great from the time when it is sown.

Vincent: Mar 4:31 - That are upon the earth That are upon the earth A little detail peculiar to Mark.

That are upon the earth

A little detail peculiar to Mark.

Vincent: Mar 4:32 - Groweth up Groweth up Mark only.

Groweth up

Mark only.

Vincent: Mar 4:32 - Herbs Herbs ( τῶν λαχάνων ) Rev., rightly, the herbs; those which people are wont to plant in their gardens. The word denotes garden - ...

Herbs ( τῶν λαχάνων )

Rev., rightly, the herbs; those which people are wont to plant in their gardens. The word denotes garden - or pot-herbs, as distinguished from wild herbs.

Vincent: Mar 4:32 - Shooteth out great branches Shooteth out great branches ( ποιεῖ κλάδους μεγάλους ) Lit., maketh, etc. Rev., putteth out. Peculiar to Mark. Matt...

Shooteth out great branches ( ποιεῖ κλάδους μεγάλους )

Lit., maketh, etc. Rev., putteth out. Peculiar to Mark. Matthew has becometh a tree. On branches, see note on Mat 24:32. One of the Talmudists describes the mustard-plant as a tree, of which the wood was sufficient to cover a potter's shed. Another says that he was wont to climb into it as men climb into a fig-tree. Professor Hackett says that on the plain of Akka, toward Carmel, he found a collection of mustard-plants from six to nine feet high, with branches from each side of a trunk an inch or more in thickness. Dr. Thomson relates that near the bank of the Jordan he found a mustard-tree more than twelve feet high.

Vincent: Mar 4:32 - Lodge Lodge ( κατασκηνοῦν ) See on Mat 8:20. Lit., pitch their tents.

Lodge ( κατασκηνοῦν )

See on Mat 8:20. Lit., pitch their tents.

Vincent: Mar 4:33 - Such Such Implying that Mark knew yet more parables that were spoken at that time.

Such

Implying that Mark knew yet more parables that were spoken at that time.

Vincent: Mar 4:33 - As they were able to hear it As they were able to hear it Peculiar to Mark.

As they were able to hear it

Peculiar to Mark.

Vincent: Mar 4:36 - Even as he was in the ship Even as he was in the ship Rev., boat. Just as he was, in the boat in which he was then sitting. Mark adds the detail about the accompanying bo...

Even as he was in the ship

Rev., boat. Just as he was, in the boat in which he was then sitting. Mark adds the detail about the accompanying boats.

Vincent: Mar 4:37 - Storm Storm ( λαῖλαψ ) So Luke. Distinctively a furious storm or hurricane. Compare Septuagint, Job 38:1, of the whirlwind out of which G...

Storm ( λαῖλαψ )

So Luke. Distinctively a furious storm or hurricane. Compare Septuagint, Job 38:1, of the whirlwind out of which God answered Job. See, also, Job 21:18. Matthew uses σεισμὸς a shaking. See on Mat 8:24. Mr. Macgregor (" Rob Roy on the Jordan" ) says that " on the sea of Galilee the wind has a singular force and suddenness; and this is no doubt because that sea is so deep in the world that the sun rarefies the air in it enormously, and the wind, speeding swiftly above a long and level plateau, gathers much force as it sweeps through flat deserts, until suddenly it meets this huge gap in the way, and it tumbles down here irresistible."

Vincent: Mar 4:38 - A pillow A pillow ( τὸ προσκεφάλαιον ) The definite article indicates a well-known part of the boat's equipment - the coarse leathern c...

A pillow ( τὸ προσκεφάλαιον )

The definite article indicates a well-known part of the boat's equipment - the coarse leathern cushion at the stern for the steersman. The Anglo-Saxon version has bolster.

Vincent: Mar 4:39 - Peace, be still Peace, be still ( σιώπα, πεφίμωσο ) Lit., be silent! be muzzled! Wyc., rather tamely, wax dumb! How much more vivid than the...

Peace, be still ( σιώπα, πεφίμωσο )

Lit., be silent! be muzzled! Wyc., rather tamely, wax dumb! How much more vivid than the narratives of either Matthew or Luke is this personification and rebuke of the sea as a raging monster.

Vincent: Mar 4:39 - Ceased Ceased ( ἐκόπασεν ) From κόπος meaning, 1, beating; 2, toil; 3, weariness. A beautiful and picturesque word. The sea san...

Ceased ( ἐκόπασεν )

From κόπος meaning, 1, beating; 2, toil; 3, weariness. A beautiful and picturesque word. The sea sank to rest as if exhausted by its own beating.

Vincent: Mar 4:39 - There was There was ( ἐγένετο ) More strictly, there arose or ensued . The aorist tense indicates something immediate. Tynd. has followed.

There was ( ἐγένετο )

More strictly, there arose or ensued . The aorist tense indicates something immediate. Tynd. has followed.

Vincent: Mar 4:39 - Calm Calm Wyc., peaceableness .

Calm

Wyc., peaceableness .

Vincent: Mar 4:41 - They feared exceedingly They feared exceedingly ( ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν ) Lit., they feared a great fear.

They feared exceedingly ( ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν )

Lit., they feared a great fear.

Vincent: Mar 4:41 - What manner of man is this? What manner of man is this? ( τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν ) The A. V. is rather a rendering of Matthew's ποταπός ,...

What manner of man is this? ( τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν )

The A. V. is rather a rendering of Matthew's ποταπός , what manner of (Mat 8:27), than of Mark's τίς , who. The Rev. gives it rightly: Who then is this ? The then (ἄρα ) is argumentative. Since these things are so, who then is this

Wesley: Mar 4:1 - -- Mat 13:1; Luk 8:4.

Wesley: Mar 4:2 - He taught them many things by parables After the usual manner of the eastern nations, to make his instructions more agreeable to them, and to impress them the more upon attentive hearers. A...

After the usual manner of the eastern nations, to make his instructions more agreeable to them, and to impress them the more upon attentive hearers. A parable signifies not only a simile or comparison, and sometimes a proverb, but any kind of instructive speech, wherein spiritual things are explained and illustrated by natural, Pro 1:6.

Wesley: Mar 4:2 - To understand a proverb and the interpretation The proverb is the literal sense, the interpretation is the spiritual resting in the literal sense killeth, but the spiritual giveth life.

The proverb is the literal sense, the interpretation is the spiritual resting in the literal sense killeth, but the spiritual giveth life.

Wesley: Mar 4:3 - Hearken This word he probably spoke with a loud voice, to stop the noise and hurry of the people.

This word he probably spoke with a loud voice, to stop the noise and hurry of the people.

Wesley: Mar 4:10 - When he was alone That is, retired apart from the multitude.

That is, retired apart from the multitude.

Wesley: Mar 4:11 - To them that are without So the Jews termed the heathens: so our Lord terms all obstinate unbelievers: for they shall not enter into his kingdom: they shall abide in outer dar...

So the Jews termed the heathens: so our Lord terms all obstinate unbelievers: for they shall not enter into his kingdom: they shall abide in outer darkness.

Wesley: Mar 4:12 - So that seeing they see and do not perceive They would not see before now they could not, God having given them up to the blindness which they had chosen.

They would not see before now they could not, God having given them up to the blindness which they had chosen.

Wesley: Mar 4:13 - Know ye not this parable? Which is as it were the foundation of all those that I shall speak hereafter; and is so easy to be understood?

Which is as it were the foundation of all those that I shall speak hereafter; and is so easy to be understood?

Wesley: Mar 4:19 - The desire of other things choke the word A deep and important truth! The desire of any thing, otherwise than as it leads to happiness in God, directly tends to barrenness of soul.

A deep and important truth! The desire of any thing, otherwise than as it leads to happiness in God, directly tends to barrenness of soul.

Wesley: Mar 4:19 - Entering in Where they were not before. Let him therefore who has received and retained the word, see that no other desire then enter in, such as perhaps till the...

Where they were not before. Let him therefore who has received and retained the word, see that no other desire then enter in, such as perhaps till then he never knew.

Wesley: Mar 4:19 - It becometh unfruitful After the fruit had grown almost to perfection.

After the fruit had grown almost to perfection.

Wesley: Mar 4:21 - And he said, Is a candle As if he had said, I explain these things to you, I give you this light, not to conceal, but to impart it to others. And if I conceal any thing from y...

As if he had said, I explain these things to you, I give you this light, not to conceal, but to impart it to others. And if I conceal any thing from you now, it is only that it may be more effectually manifested hereafter. Mat 5:15; Luk 8:16; Luk 11:33.

Wesley: Mar 4:22 - -- Mat 10:26; Luk 8:17.

Wesley: Mar 4:24 - Take heed what ye hear That is, attend to what you hear, that it may have its due influence upon you.

That is, attend to what you hear, that it may have its due influence upon you.

Wesley: Mar 4:24 - With what measure you mete That is, according to the improvement you make of what you have heard, still farther assistance shall be given.

That is, according to the improvement you make of what you have heard, still farther assistance shall be given.

Wesley: Mar 4:24 - And to you that hear That is, with improvement.

That is, with improvement.

Wesley: Mar 4:25 - He that hath That improves whatever he has received, to the good of others, as well as of his own soul. Mat 13:12; Luk 8:18.

That improves whatever he has received, to the good of others, as well as of his own soul. Mat 13:12; Luk 8:18.

Wesley: Mar 4:26 - So is the kingdom of God The inward kingdom is like seed which a man casts into the ground - This a preacher of the Gospel casts into the heart.

The inward kingdom is like seed which a man casts into the ground - This a preacher of the Gospel casts into the heart.

Wesley: Mar 4:26 - And he sleeps and rises night and day That is, he has it continually in his thoughts.

That is, he has it continually in his thoughts.

Wesley: Mar 4:26 - Meantime it springs and grows up he knows not how Even he that sowed it cannot explain how it grows. For as the earth by a curious kind of mechanism, which the greatest philosophers cannot comprehend,...

Even he that sowed it cannot explain how it grows. For as the earth by a curious kind of mechanism, which the greatest philosophers cannot comprehend, does as it were spontaneously bring forth first the blade, then the ear, then the full corn in the ear: so the soul, in an inexplicable manner, brings forth, first weak graces, then stronger, then full holiness: and all this of itself, as a machine, whose spring of motion is within itself. Yet observe the amazing exactness of the comparison. The earth brings forth no corn (as the soul no holiness) without both the care and toil of man, and the benign influence of heaven.

Wesley: Mar 4:33 - He spake the word as they were able to hear it Adapting it to the capacity of his hearers; and speaking as plain as he could without offending them. A rule never to be forgotten by those who instru...

Adapting it to the capacity of his hearers; and speaking as plain as he could without offending them. A rule never to be forgotten by those who instruct others.

Wesley: Mar 4:35 - -- Mat 8:23; Luk 8:22.

Wesley: Mar 4:36 - They take him as he was in the vessel They carried him immediately in the same vessel from which he had been preaching to the people.

They carried him immediately in the same vessel from which he had been preaching to the people.

Wesley: Mar 4:38 - On the pillow So we translate it, for want of a proper English expression, for that particular part of the vessel near the rudder, on which he lay.

So we translate it, for want of a proper English expression, for that particular part of the vessel near the rudder, on which he lay.

Wesley: Mar 4:39 - Peace Cease thy tossing: Be still - Cease thy roaring; literally, Be thou gagged.

Cease thy tossing: Be still - Cease thy roaring; literally, Be thou gagged.

JFB: Mar 4:1 - And he began again to teach by the seaside: and there was gathered unto him a great multitude Or, according to another well-supported reading, "a mighty" or "immense multitude."

Or, according to another well-supported reading, "a mighty" or "immense multitude."

JFB: Mar 4:1 - so that he entered into a ship Rather, "the ship," meaning the one mentioned in Mar 3:9. (See on Mat 12:15).

Rather, "the ship," meaning the one mentioned in Mar 3:9. (See on Mat 12:15).

JFB: Mar 4:1 - and sat in the sea; and the whole multitude was by the sea on the land Crowded on the seashore to listen to Him. (See on Mat 13:1-2.)

Crowded on the seashore to listen to Him. (See on Mat 13:1-2.)

JFB: Mar 4:2 - And he taught them many things by parables, and said unto them in his doctrine Or "teaching." Parable of the Sower (Mar 4:3-9, Mar 4:13-20).

Or "teaching."

Parable of the Sower (Mar 4:3-9, Mar 4:13-20).

JFB: Mar 4:3 - Hearken; Behold, there went out a sower to sow What means this? See on Mar 4:14. First Case: THE WAYSIDE. (Mar 4:4, Mar 4:15).

What means this? See on Mar 4:14.

First Case: THE WAYSIDE. (Mar 4:4, Mar 4:15).

JFB: Mar 4:4 - And it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell by the wayside By the side of the hard path through the field, where the soil was not broken up.

By the side of the hard path through the field, where the soil was not broken up.

JFB: Mar 4:4 - and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up Not only could the seed not get beneath the surface, but "it was trodden down" (Luk 8:5), and afterwards picked up and devoured by the fowls. What mea...

Not only could the seed not get beneath the surface, but "it was trodden down" (Luk 8:5), and afterwards picked up and devoured by the fowls. What means this? See on Mar 4:15.

Second Case: THE STONY or rather, ROCKY GROUND. (Mar 4:5, Mar 4:16).

JFB: Mar 4:5 - And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth "the rocky ground"; in Matthew (Mat 13:5), "the rocky places"; in Luke (Luk 8:6), "the rock." The thing intended is, not ground with stones in it whic...

"the rocky ground"; in Matthew (Mat 13:5), "the rocky places"; in Luke (Luk 8:6), "the rock." The thing intended is, not ground with stones in it which would not prevent the roots striking downward, but ground where a quite thin surface of earth covers a rock. What means this? See on Mar 4:16.

Third Case: THE THORNY GROUND. (Mar 4:7, Mar 4:18-19).

JFB: Mar 4:7 - And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit This case is that of ground not thoroughly cleaned of the thistles, &c.; which, rising above the good seed, "choke" or "smother" it, excluding light a...

This case is that of ground not thoroughly cleaned of the thistles, &c.; which, rising above the good seed, "choke" or "smother" it, excluding light and air, and drawing away the moisture and richness of the soil. Hence it "becomes unfruitful" (Mat 13:22); it grows, but its growth is checked, and it never ripens. The evil here is neither a hard nor a shallow soil--there is softness enough, and depth enough; but it is the existence in it of what draws all the moisture and richness of the soil away to itself, and so starves the plant. What now are these "thorns?" See on Mar 4:19.

Fourth Case: THE GOOD GROUND. (Mar 4:8, Mar 4:20).

JFB: Mar 4:8 - And other fell on good ground, and did yield fruit, &c. The goodness of this last soil consists in its qualities being precisely the reverse of the other three soils: from its softness and tenderness, recei...

The goodness of this last soil consists in its qualities being precisely the reverse of the other three soils: from its softness and tenderness, receiving and cherishing the seed; from its depth, allowing it to take firm root, and not quickly losing its moisture; and from its cleanness, giving its whole vigor and sap to the plant. In such a soil the seed "brings forth fruit," in all different degrees of profusion, according to the measure in which the soil possesses those qualities. See on Mar 4:20.

JFB: Mar 4:9 - -- And he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. After this parable is recorded the Evangelist says:

And he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.

After this parable is recorded the Evangelist says:

JFB: Mar 4:10 - And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve Probably those who followed Him most closely and were firmest in discipleship, next to the Twelve.

Probably those who followed Him most closely and were firmest in discipleship, next to the Twelve.

JFB: Mar 4:10 - asked of him the parable The reply would seem to intimate that this parable of the sower was of that fundamental, comprehensive, and introductory character which we have assig...

The reply would seem to intimate that this parable of the sower was of that fundamental, comprehensive, and introductory character which we have assigned to it (see on Mat 13:1).

Reason for Teaching in Parables (Mar 4:11-12, Mar 4:21-25).

JFB: Mar 4:11-12 - And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them, &c. See on Mat 13:10-17.

See on Mat 13:10-17.

JFB: Mar 4:13 - Know ye not this parable? and how then will ye know all parables? Probably this was said not so much in the spirit of rebuke, as to call their attention to the exposition of it which He was about to give, and so trai...

Probably this was said not so much in the spirit of rebuke, as to call their attention to the exposition of it which He was about to give, and so train them to the right apprehension of His future parables. As in the parables which we have endeavored to explain in Mat. 13:1-58, we shall take this parable and the Lord's own exposition of the different parts of it together.

JFB: Mar 4:14 - The sower soweth the word Or, as in Luke (Luk 8:11), "Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God." But who is "the sower?" This is not expressed here because if "the ...

Or, as in Luke (Luk 8:11), "Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God." But who is "the sower?" This is not expressed here because if "the word of God" be the seed, every scatterer of that precious seed must be regarded as a sower. It is true that in the parable of the tares it is said, "He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man," as "He that soweth the tares is the devil" (Mat 13:37-38). But these are only the great unseen parties, struggling in this world for the possession of man. Each of these has his agents among men themselves; and Christ's agents in the sowing of the good seed are the preachers of the word. Thus, as in all the cases about to be described, the sower is the same, and the seed is the same; while the result is entirely different, the whole difference must lie in the soils, which mean the different states of the human heart. And so, the great general lesson held forth in this parable of the sower is, that however faithful the preacher, and how pure soever his message, the effect of the preaching of the word depends upon the state of the hearer's heart. Now follow the cases. See on Mar 4:4.

JFB: Mar 4:15 - And these are they by the wayside, where the word is sown; but, when they have heard, &c. Or, more fully (Mat 13:19), "When any one heareth the word of the kingdom, and understandeth it not, then cometh the wicked one, and catcheth away tha...

Or, more fully (Mat 13:19), "When any one heareth the word of the kingdom, and understandeth it not, then cometh the wicked one, and catcheth away that which was sown in his heart." The great truth here taught is, that hearts all unbroken and hard are no fit soil for saving truth. They apprehend it not (Mat 13:19) as God's means of restoring them to Himself; it penetrates not, makes no impression, but lies loosely on the surface of the heart, till the wicked one--afraid of losing a victim by his "believing to salvation" (Luk 8:12) --finds some frivolous subject by whose greater attractions to draw off the attention, and straightway it is gone. Of how many hearers of the word is this the graphic but painful history!

JFB: Mar 4:16 - And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground, &c. "Immediately" the seed in such a case "springs up"--all the quicker from the shallowness of the soil--"because it has no depth of earth." But the sun,...

"Immediately" the seed in such a case "springs up"--all the quicker from the shallowness of the soil--"because it has no depth of earth." But the sun, beating on it, as quickly scorches and withers it up, "because it has no root" (Mar 4:6), and "lacks moisture" (Luk 8:6). The great truth here taught is that hearts superficially impressed are apt to receive the truth with readiness, and even with joy (Luk 8:13); but the heat of tribulation or persecution because of the word, or the trials which their new profession brings upon them quickly dries up their relish for the truth, and withers all the hasty promise of fruit which they showed. Such disappointing issues of a faithful and awakening ministry--alas, how frequent are they!

JFB: Mar 4:18 - -- And these are they which are sown among thorns; such as hear the word,

And these are they which are sown among thorns; such as hear the word,

JFB: Mar 4:19 - And the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in Or "the pleasures of this life" (Luk 8:14).

Or "the pleasures of this life" (Luk 8:14).

JFB: Mar 4:19 - choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful First, "The cares of this world"--anxious, unrelaxing attention to the business of this present life; second, "The deceitfulness of riches"--of those ...

First, "The cares of this world"--anxious, unrelaxing attention to the business of this present life; second, "The deceitfulness of riches"--of those riches which are the fruit of this worldly "care"; third, "The pleasures of this life," or "the lusts of other things entering in"--the enjoyments in themselves may be innocent, which worldly prosperity enables one to indulge. These "choke" or "smother" the word; drawing off so much of one's attention, absorbing so much of one's interest, and using up so much of one's time, that only the dregs of these remain for spiritual things, and a ragged, hurried, and heartless formalism is at length all the religion of such persons. What a vivid picture is this of the mournful condition of many, especially in great commercial countries, who once promised much fruit! "They bring no fruit to perfection" (Luk 8:14); indicating how much growth there may be, in the early stages of such a case, and promise of fruit--which after all never ripens.

JFB: Mar 4:20 - And these are they which are sown on good ground; such as hear the word, and receive it, and bring forth fruit, some thirtyfold, some sixty, and some an hundred A heart soft and tender, stirred to its depths on the great things of eternity, and jealously guarded from worldly engrossments, such only is the "hon...

A heart soft and tender, stirred to its depths on the great things of eternity, and jealously guarded from worldly engrossments, such only is the "honest and good heart" (Luk 8:15), which "keeps," that is, "retains" the seed of the word, and bears fruit just in proportion as it is such a heart. Such "bring forth fruit with patience" (Mar 4:15), or continuance, "enduring to the end"; in contrast with those in whom the word is "choked" and brings no fruit to perfection. The "thirtyfold" is designed to express the lowest degree of fruitfulness; the "hundredfold" the highest; and the "sixtyfold" the intermediate degrees of fruitfulness. As a "hundredfold," though not unexampled (Gen 26:12), is a rare return in the natural husbandry, so the highest degrees of spiritual fruitfulness are too seldom witnessed. The closing words of this introductory parable seem designed to call attention to the fundamental and universal character of it.

JFB: Mar 4:21 - And he said unto them, Is a candle Or "lamp"

Or "lamp"

JFB: Mar 4:21 - brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick? "that they which enter in may see the light" (Luk 8:16). See on Mat 5:15, of which this is nearly a repetition.

"that they which enter in may see the light" (Luk 8:16). See on Mat 5:15, of which this is nearly a repetition.

JFB: Mar 4:22 - For there is nothing hid which shall not be manifested, &c. See on Mat 10:26-27; but the connection there and here is slightly different. Here the idea seems to be this--"I have privately expounded to you these...

See on Mat 10:26-27; but the connection there and here is slightly different. Here the idea seems to be this--"I have privately expounded to you these great truths, but only that ye may proclaim them publicly; and if ye will not, others will. For these are not designed for secrecy. They are imparted to be diffused abroad, and they shall be so; yea, a time is coming when the most hidden things shall be brought to light."

JFB: Mar 4:23 - If any man have ears to hear, let him hear This for the second time on the same subject (see on Mar 4:9).

This for the second time on the same subject (see on Mar 4:9).

JFB: Mar 4:24 - And he saith unto them, Take heed what ye hear In Luke (Luk 8:18) it is, "Take heed how ye hear." The one implies the other, but both precepts are very weighty.

In Luke (Luk 8:18) it is, "Take heed how ye hear." The one implies the other, but both precepts are very weighty.

JFB: Mar 4:24 - with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you See on Mat 7:2.

See on Mat 7:2.

JFB: Mar 4:24 - and unto you that hear That is, thankfully, teachably, profitably. shall more be given.

That is, thankfully, teachably, profitably.

shall more be given.

JFB: Mar 4:25 - For he that hath, to him shall be given; and he that hath not, from him shall be taken even that which he hath Or "seemeth to have," or "thinketh he hath." (See on Mat 13:12). This "having" and "thinking he hath" are not different; for when it hangs loosely upo...

Or "seemeth to have," or "thinketh he hath." (See on Mat 13:12). This "having" and "thinking he hath" are not different; for when it hangs loosely upon him, and is not appropriated to its proper ends and uses, it both is and is not his.

Parable of the Seed Growing We Know not How (Mar 4:26-29).

This beautiful parable is peculiar to Mark. Its design is to teach the Imperceptible Growth of the word sown in the heart, from its earliest stage of development to the ripest fruits of practical righteousness.

JFB: Mar 4:26-27 - So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed into the ground; and should sleep, and rise night and day Go about his other ordinary occupations, leaving it to the well-known laws of vegetation under the genial influences of heaven. This is the sense of "...

Go about his other ordinary occupations, leaving it to the well-known laws of vegetation under the genial influences of heaven. This is the sense of "the earth bringing forth fruit of herself," in Mar 4:27.

JFB: Mar 4:28 - For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear Beautiful allusion to the succession of similar stages, though not definitely marked periods, in the Christian life, and generally in the kingdom of G...

Beautiful allusion to the succession of similar stages, though not definitely marked periods, in the Christian life, and generally in the kingdom of God.

JFB: Mar 4:29 - But when the fruit is brought forth To maturity

To maturity

JFB: Mar 4:29 - immediately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come This charmingly points to the transition from the earthly to the heavenly condition of the Christian and the Church. Parable of the Mustard Seed (Mar...

This charmingly points to the transition from the earthly to the heavenly condition of the Christian and the Church.

Parable of the Mustard Seed (Mar 4:30-32).

For the exposition of this portion, see on Mat 13:31-32.

JFB: Mar 4:33 - And with many such parables spake he the word unto them, as they were able to hear it Had this been said in the corresponding passage of Matthew, we should have concluded that what that Evangelist recorded was but a specimen of other pa...

Had this been said in the corresponding passage of Matthew, we should have concluded that what that Evangelist recorded was but a specimen of other parables spoken on the same occasion. But Matthew (Mat 13:34) says, "All these things spake Jesus unto the multitude in parables"; and as Mark records only some of the parables which Matthew gives, we are warranted to infer that the "many such parables" alluded to here mean no more than the full complement of them which we find in Matthew.

JFB: Mar 4:34 - But without a parable spake he not unto them See on Mat 13:34.

See on Mat 13:34.

JFB: Mar 4:34 - and when they were alone, he expounded all things to his disciples See on Mar 4:22.

See on Mar 4:22.

JFB: Mar 4:35 - And the same day On which He spoke the memorable parables of the preceding section, and of the thirteenth chapter.

On which He spoke the memorable parables of the preceding section, and of the thirteenth chapter.

JFB: Mar 4:35 - when the even was come (See on Mar 6:35). This must have been the earlier evening--what we should call the afternoon--since after all that passed on the other side, when He ...

(See on Mar 6:35). This must have been the earlier evening--what we should call the afternoon--since after all that passed on the other side, when He returned to the west side, the people were waiting for Him in great numbers (Mar 4:21; Luk 8:40).

JFB: Mar 4:35 - he saith unto them, Let us pass over unto the other side To the east side of the lake, to grapple with a desperate case of possession, and set the captive free, and to give the Gadarenes an opportunity of he...

To the east side of the lake, to grapple with a desperate case of possession, and set the captive free, and to give the Gadarenes an opportunity of hearing the message of salvation, amid the wonder which that marvellous cure was fitted to awaken and the awe which the subsequent events could not but strike into them.

JFB: Mar 4:36 - And when they had sent away the multitude, they took him even as he was in the ship That is, without any preparation, and without so much as leaving the vessel, out of which He had been all day teaching.

That is, without any preparation, and without so much as leaving the vessel, out of which He had been all day teaching.

JFB: Mar 4:36 - And there were also with him other little ships With passengers, probably, wishing to accompany Him.

With passengers, probably, wishing to accompany Him.

JFB: Mar 4:37 - And there arose a great storm of wind "a tempest of wind." To such sudden squalls the Sea of Galilee is very liable from its position, in a deep basin, skirted on the east by lofty mountai...

"a tempest of wind." To such sudden squalls the Sea of Galilee is very liable from its position, in a deep basin, skirted on the east by lofty mountain ranges, while on the west the hills are intersected by narrow gorges through which the wind sweeps across the lake, and raises its waters with great rapidity into a storm.

JFB: Mar 4:37 - and the waves beat into the ship Kept beating or pitching on the ship.

Kept beating or pitching on the ship.

JFB: Mar 4:37 - so that it was now full Rather, "so that it was already filling." In Matthew (Mat 8:24), "insomuch that the ship was covered with the waves"; but this is too strong. It shoul...

Rather, "so that it was already filling." In Matthew (Mat 8:24), "insomuch that the ship was covered with the waves"; but this is too strong. It should be, "so that the ship was getting covered by the waves." So we must translate the word used in Luke (Luk 8:23) --not as in our version--"And there came down a storm on the lake, and they were filled [with water]"--but "they were getting filled," that is, those who sailed; meaning, of course, that their ship was so.

JFB: Mar 4:38 - And he was in the hinder part of the ship Or stern.

Or stern.

JFB: Mar 4:38 - asleep on a pillow Either a place in the vessel made to receive the head, or a cushion for the head to rest on. It was evening; and after the fatigues of a busy day of t...

Either a place in the vessel made to receive the head, or a cushion for the head to rest on. It was evening; and after the fatigues of a busy day of teaching under the hot sun, having nothing to do while crossing the lake, He sinks into a deep sleep, which even this tempest raging around and tossing the little vessel did not disturb.

JFB: Mar 4:38 - and they awake him, and say unto him, Master Or "Teacher." In Luke (Luk 8:24) this is doubled--in token of their life-and-death earnestness--"Master, Master."

Or "Teacher." In Luke (Luk 8:24) this is doubled--in token of their life-and-death earnestness--"Master, Master."

JFB: Mar 4:38 - carest thou not that we perish? Unbelief and fear made them sadly forget their place, to speak so. Luke has it, "Lord, save us, we perish." When those accustomed to fish upon that de...

Unbelief and fear made them sadly forget their place, to speak so. Luke has it, "Lord, save us, we perish." When those accustomed to fish upon that deep thus spake, the danger must have been imminent. They say nothing of what would become of Him, if they perished; nor think, whether, if He could not perish, it was likely He would let this happen to them; but they hardly knew what they said.

JFB: Mar 4:39 - And he arose, and rebuked the wind "and the raging of the water" (Luk 8:24).

"and the raging of the water" (Luk 8:24).

JFB: Mar 4:39 - and said unto the sea, Peace, be still Two sublime words of command, from a Master to His servants, the elements.

Two sublime words of command, from a Master to His servants, the elements.

JFB: Mar 4:39 - And the wind ceased, and there was a great calm The sudden hushing of the wind would not at once have calmed the sea, whose commotion would have settled only after a considerable time. But the word ...

The sudden hushing of the wind would not at once have calmed the sea, whose commotion would have settled only after a considerable time. But the word of command was given to both elements at once.

JFB: Mar 4:40 - And he said unto them, Why are ye so fearful? There is a natural apprehension under danger; but there was unbelief in their fear. It is worthy of notice how considerately the Lord defers this rebu...

There is a natural apprehension under danger; but there was unbelief in their fear. It is worthy of notice how considerately the Lord defers this rebuke till He had first removed the danger, in the midst of which they would not have been in a state to listen to anything.

JFB: Mar 4:40 - how is it that ye have no faith? Next to none, or none in present exercise. In Matthew (Mat 8:26) it is, "Why are ye fearful, O ye of little faith?" Faith they had, for they applied t...

Next to none, or none in present exercise. In Matthew (Mat 8:26) it is, "Why are ye fearful, O ye of little faith?" Faith they had, for they applied to Christ for relief: but little, for they were afraid, though Christ was in the ship. Faith dispels fear, but only in proportion to its strength.

JFB: Mar 4:41 - And they feared exceedingly Were struck with deep awe.

Were struck with deep awe.

JFB: Mar 4:41 - and said one to another, What manner of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him? "What is this?" Israel has all along been singing of JEHOVAH, "Thou rulest the raging of the sea: when the waves thereof arise, Thou stillest them!" "...

"What is this?" Israel has all along been singing of JEHOVAH, "Thou rulest the raging of the sea: when the waves thereof arise, Thou stillest them!" "The Lord on high is mightier than the noise of many waters, yea, than the mighty waves of the sea!" (Psa 89:9; Psa 93:4). But, lo, in this very boat of ours is One of our own flesh and blood, who with His word of command hath done the same! Exhausted with the fatigues of the day, He was but a moment ago in a deep sleep, undisturbed by the howling tempest, and we had to waken Him with the cry of our terror; but rising at our call, His majesty was felt by the raging elements, for they were instantly hushed--"WHAT MANNER OF MAN IS THIS?"

Glorious Cure of the Gadarene Demoniac (Mark 5:1-20).

Clarke: Mar 4:2 - He taught them many things by parables He taught them many things by parables - See every part of this parable of the sower explained on Mat 13:1 (note), etc.

He taught them many things by parables - See every part of this parable of the sower explained on Mat 13:1 (note), etc.

Clarke: Mar 4:4 - The fowls The fowls - Του ουρανου, of the air, is the common reading; but it should be omitted, on the authority of nine uncial MSS., upwards of on...

The fowls - Του ουρανου, of the air, is the common reading; but it should be omitted, on the authority of nine uncial MSS., upwards of one hundred others, and almost all the versions. Bengel and Griesbach have left it out of the text. It seems to have been inserted in Mark, from Luk 8:5.

Clarke: Mar 4:9 - And he said - He that hath ears to hear, let him hear And he said - He that hath ears to hear, let him hear - The Codex Bezae, later Syriac in the margin, and seven copies of the Itala, add, και ο...

And he said - He that hath ears to hear, let him hear - The Codex Bezae, later Syriac in the margin, and seven copies of the Itala, add, και ὁ συνιων συνιετω, and whoso understandeth, let him understand.

Clarke: Mar 4:10 - They that were about him They that were about him - None of the other evangelists intimate that there were any besides the twelve with him: but it appears there were several...

They that were about him - None of the other evangelists intimate that there were any besides the twelve with him: but it appears there were several others present; and though they were not styled disciples, yet they appear to have seriously attended to his public and private instructions.

Clarke: Mar 4:11 - Unto you it is given to know Unto you it is given to know - Γνωναι, to know, is omitted by ABKL, ten others, the Coptic, and one of the Itala. The omission of this word m...

Unto you it is given to know - Γνωναι, to know, is omitted by ABKL, ten others, the Coptic, and one of the Itala. The omission of this word makes a material alteration in the sense; for without it the passage may be read thus: - To you the mystery of the kingdom of God is given; but all these things are transacted in parables to those without. Griesbach leaves it doubtful. And Professor White says, probabiliter delendum . I should be inclined to omit it, were it not found in the parallel passages in Matthew and Luke, in neither of whom it is omitted by any MS. or version. See the dissertation on parabolical writing at the end of Mat 13:58.

Clarke: Mar 4:13 - Know ye not this parable? Know ye not this parable? - The scope and design of which is so very obvious

Know ye not this parable? - The scope and design of which is so very obvious

Clarke: Mar 4:13 - How then will ye know all parables? How then will ye know all parables? - Of which mode of teaching ye should be perfect masters, in order that ye may be able successfully to teach oth...

How then will ye know all parables? - Of which mode of teaching ye should be perfect masters, in order that ye may be able successfully to teach others. This verse is not found in any of the other evangelists.

Clarke: Mar 4:15 - These are they These are they - Probably our Lord here refers to the people to whom he had just now preached, and who, it is likely, did not profit by the word spo...

These are they - Probably our Lord here refers to the people to whom he had just now preached, and who, it is likely, did not profit by the word spoken

Clarke: Mar 4:15 - Where the word is sown Where the word is sown - Instead of this clause, four copies of the Itala read the place thus - They who are sown by the way side, are they Who Rece...

Where the word is sown - Instead of this clause, four copies of the Itala read the place thus - They who are sown by the way side, are they Who Receive The Word Negligently. There are thousands of this stamp in the Christian world. Reader, art thou one of them?

Clarke: Mar 4:19 - The deceitfulness of riches The deceitfulness of riches - This is variously expressed in different copies of the Itala: the errors - delights of the world - completely alienate...

The deceitfulness of riches - This is variously expressed in different copies of the Itala: the errors - delights of the world - completely alienated ( abolienati ) by the pleasures of the world. The lusts of other things - which have not been included in the anxious cares of the world, and the deceitfulness of riches. All, all, choke the word!

Clarke: Mar 4:21 - Is a candle - put under a bushel! Is a candle - put under a bushel! - The design of my preaching is to enlighten men; my parables not being designed to hide the truth, but to make it...

Is a candle - put under a bushel! - The design of my preaching is to enlighten men; my parables not being designed to hide the truth, but to make it more manifest.

Clarke: Mar 4:22 - For there is nothing hid, etc. For there is nothing hid, etc. - Probably our Lord means, that all that had hitherto been secret, relative to the salvation of a lost world, or only...

For there is nothing hid, etc. - Probably our Lord means, that all that had hitherto been secret, relative to the salvation of a lost world, or only obscurely pointed out by types and sacrifices, shall now be uncovered and made plain by the everlasting Gospel. See on Mat 5:15 (note); Mat 10:26 (note).

Clarke: Mar 4:24 - And unto you that hear shall more be given And unto you that hear shall more be given - This clause is wanting in DG, Coptic, and four copies of the Itala; and in others, where it is extant, ...

And unto you that hear shall more be given - This clause is wanting in DG, Coptic, and four copies of the Itala; and in others, where it is extant, it is variously written. Griesbach has left it out of the text, and supposes it to be a gloss, Whosoever hath, to him shall be given.

Clarke: Mar 4:25 - He that hath He that hath - See on Mat 13:12 (note).

He that hath - See on Mat 13:12 (note).

Clarke: Mar 4:26 - So is the kingdom of God So is the kingdom of God - This parable is mentioned only by Mark, a proof that Mark did not abridge Matthew. Whitby supposes it to refer to the goo...

So is the kingdom of God - This parable is mentioned only by Mark, a proof that Mark did not abridge Matthew. Whitby supposes it to refer to the good ground spoken of before, and paraphrases is thus: - "What I have said of the seed sown upon good ground, may be illustrated by this parable. The doctrine of the kingdom, received in a good and honest heart, is like seed sown by a man in his ground, properly prepared to receive it; for when he hath sown it, he sleeps and wakes day after day, and, looking on it, he sees it spring and grow up through the virtue of the earth in which it is sown, though he knows not how it doth so; and when he finds it ripe, he reaps it, and so receives the benefit of the sown seed. So is it here: the seed sown in the good and honest heart brings forth fruit with patience; and this fruit daily increaseth, though we know not how the Word and Spirit work that increase; and then Christ the husbandman, at the time of the harvest, gathers in this good seed into the kingdom of heaven."I see no necessity of inquiring how Christ may be said to sleep and rise night and day; Christ being like to this husbandman only in sowing and reaping the seed.

Clarke: Mar 4:27 - And should sleep and rise night and day And should sleep and rise night and day - That is, he should sleep by night, and rise by day; for so the words are obviously to be understood

And should sleep and rise night and day - That is, he should sleep by night, and rise by day; for so the words are obviously to be understood

Clarke: Mar 4:27 - He knoweth not how He knoweth not how - How a plant grows is a mystery in nature, which the wisest philosopher in the universe cannot fully explain.

He knoweth not how - How a plant grows is a mystery in nature, which the wisest philosopher in the universe cannot fully explain.

Clarke: Mar 4:28 - Bringeth forth - of herself Bringeth forth - of herself - Αυτοματη . By its own energy, without either the influence or industry of man. Similar to this is the express...

Bringeth forth - of herself - Αυτοματη . By its own energy, without either the influence or industry of man. Similar to this is the expression of the poet: -

Namque aliae, Nullis Homlnum Cogentibus, ipsa

Sponte Sua veniunt

Virg. Geor. l. ii. v. 1

"Some (trees) grow of their own accord, without the labor of man.

All the endlessly varied herbage of the field is produced in this way

Clarke: Mar 4:28 - The full corn The full corn - Πληρη σιτον, Full wheat; the perfect, full-grown, or ripe corn. Lucian uses κενος καρπος, Empty fruit, for im...

The full corn - Πληρη σιτον, Full wheat; the perfect, full-grown, or ripe corn. Lucian uses κενος καρπος, Empty fruit, for imperfect, or unripe fruit. See Kypke

The kingdom of God, which is generated in the soul by the word of life, under the influence of the Holy Spirit, is first very small; there is only a blade, but this is full of promise, for a good blade shows there is a good seed at bottom, and that the soil in which it is sown is good also. Then the ear - the strong stalk grows up, and the ear is formed at the top; the faith and love of the believing soul increase abundantly; it is justified freely through the redemption that is in Christ; it has the ear which is shortly to be filled with the ripe grain, the outlines of the whole image of God. Then the full corn. The soul is purified from all unrighteousness; and, having escaped the corruption that is in the world, it is made a partaker of the Divine nature, and is filled with all the fullness of God.

Clarke: Mar 4:29 - He putteth in the sickle He putteth in the sickle - ΑποϚελλει, he sendeth out the sickle, i.e. the reapers; the instrument, by a metonomy, being put for the person...

He putteth in the sickle - ΑποϚελλει, he sendeth out the sickle, i.e. the reapers; the instrument, by a metonomy, being put for the persons who use it. This is a common figure. It has been supposed that our Lord intimates here that, as soon as a soul is made completely holy, it is taken into the kingdom of God. But certainly the parable does not say so. When the corn is ripe, it is reaped for the benefit of him who sowed it; for it can be of little or no use till it be ripe: so when a soul is saved from all sin, it is capable of being fully employed in the work of the Lord: it is then, and not till then, fully fitted for the Master’ s use. God saves men to the uttermost, that they may here perfectly love him, and worthily magnify his name. To take them away the moment they are capable of doing this, would be, so far, to deprive the world and the Church of the manifestation of the glory of his grace. "But the text says, he immediately sendeth out the sickle; and this means that the person dies, and is taken into glory, as soon as he is fit for it."No, for there may be millions of cases, where, though to die would be gain, yet to live may be far better for the Church, and for an increase of the life of Christ to the soul. See Phi 1:21, Phi 1:24. Besides, if we attempt to make the parable speak here what seems to be implied in the letter, then we may say, with equal propriety, that Christ sleeps and wakes alternately; and that his own grace grows, he knows not how, in the heart in which he has planted it

On these two parables we may remark: -

1.    That a preacher is a person employed by God, and sent out to sow the good seed of his kingdom in the souls of men

2.    That it is a sin against God to stay in the field and not sow

3.    That it is a sin to pretend to sow, when a man is not furnished by the keeper of the granary with any more seed

4.    That it is a high offense against God to change the Master’ s seed, to mix it, or to sow bad seed in the place of it

5.    That he is not a seeds-man of God who desires to sow by the way side, etc., and not on the proper ground, i.e. he who loves to preach only to genteel congregations, to people of sense and fashion, and feels it a pain and a cross to labor among the poor and the ignorant

6.    That he who sows with a simple, upright heart, the seed of his Master, shall (though some may be unfruitful) see the seed take deep root; and, notwithstanding the unfaithfulness and sloth of many of his hearers, he shall doubtless come with rejoicing, bringing his sheaves with him. See Quesnel.

Clarke: Mar 4:30 - Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? - How amiable is this carefulness of Jesus! How instructive to the preachers of his word! He is not sol...

Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? - How amiable is this carefulness of Jesus! How instructive to the preachers of his word! He is not solicitous to seek fine turns of eloquence to charm the minds of his auditors, nor to draw such descriptions and comparisons as may surprise them: but studies only to make himself understood; to instruct to advantage; to give true ideas of faith and holiness; and to find out such expressions as may render necessary truths easy and intelligible to the meanest capacities. The very wisdom of God seems to be at a loss to find out expressions low enough for the slow apprehensions of men

How dull and stupid is the creature! How wise and good the Creator! And how foolish the preacher who uses fine and hard words in his preaching, which, though admired by the shallow, convey no instruction to the multitude.

Clarke: Mar 4:31 - A grain of mustard seed A grain of mustard seed - See on Mat 13:31, Mat 13:32 (note).

A grain of mustard seed - See on Mat 13:31, Mat 13:32 (note).

Clarke: Mar 4:33 - With many such parables With many such parables - Πολλαις, many, is omitted by L, sixteen others; the Syriac, both the Persic, one Arabic, Coptic, Armenian, Ethiopi...

With many such parables - Πολλαις, many, is omitted by L, sixteen others; the Syriac, both the Persic, one Arabic, Coptic, Armenian, Ethiopic, and two of the Itala. Mill approves of the omission, and Griesbach leaves it doubtful. It is probably an interpolation: the text reads better without it

Clarke: Mar 4:33 - As they were able to hear As they were able to hear - Ακουειν, or to understand always suiting his teaching to the capacities of his hearers. I have always found that...

As they were able to hear - Ακουειν, or to understand always suiting his teaching to the capacities of his hearers. I have always found that preacher most useful, who could adapt his phrase to that of the people to whom he preached. Studying different dialects, and forms of speech, among the common people, is a more difficult and a more useful work than the study of dead languages. The one a man should do, and the other he need not leave undone.

Clarke: Mar 4:34 - He expounded all things to his disciples He expounded all things to his disciples - That they might be capable of instructing others. Outside hearers, those who do not come into close fello...

He expounded all things to his disciples - That they might be capable of instructing others. Outside hearers, those who do not come into close fellowship with the true disciples of Christ, have seldom more than a superficial knowledge of Divine things

In the fellowship of the saints, where Jesus the teacher is always to be found, every thing is made plain, - for the secret of the Lord is with them who fear him.

Clarke: Mar 4:35 - Let us pass over unto the other side Let us pass over unto the other side - Our Lord was now by the sea of Galilee.

Let us pass over unto the other side - Our Lord was now by the sea of Galilee.

Clarke: Mar 4:36 - They took him even as he was in the ship They took him even as he was in the ship - That is, the disciples; he was now εν τῳ πλοιῳ, in the boat, i.e. his own boat which usuall...

They took him even as he was in the ship - That is, the disciples; he was now εν τῳ πλοιῳ, in the boat, i.e. his own boat which usually waited on him, and out of which it appears he was then teaching the people. There were several others there which he might have gone in, had this one not been in the place. The construction of this verse is exceedingly difficult; the meaning appears to be this: - The disciples sailed off with him just as he was in the boat out of which he had been teaching the people; and they did not wait to provide any accommodations for the passage. This I believe to be the meaning of the inspired penman.

Clarke: Mar 4:37 - A great storm of wind A great storm of wind - See on Mat 8:24 (note).

A great storm of wind - See on Mat 8:24 (note).

Clarke: Mar 4:38 - On a pillow On a pillow - Προσκεφαλαιον probably means a little bed, or hammock, such as are common in small vessels. I have seen several in smal...

On a pillow - Προσκεφαλαιον probably means a little bed, or hammock, such as are common in small vessels. I have seen several in small packets, or passage boats, not a great deal larger than a bolster.

Clarke: Mar 4:39 - Peace, be still Peace, be still - Be silent! Be still! There is uncommon majesty and authority in these words. Who but God could act thus? Perhaps this salvation of...

Peace, be still - Be silent! Be still! There is uncommon majesty and authority in these words. Who but God could act thus? Perhaps this salvation of his disciples in the boat might be designed to show forth that protection and deliverance which Christ will give to his followers, however violently they may be persecuted by earth or hell. At least, this is a legitimate use which may be made of this transaction.

Clarke: Mar 4:40 - Why are ye so fearful? Why are ye so fearful? - Having me with you

Why are ye so fearful? - Having me with you

Clarke: Mar 4:40 - How is it that ye have no faith? How is it that ye have no faith? - Having already had such proofs of my unlimited power and goodness.

How is it that ye have no faith? - Having already had such proofs of my unlimited power and goodness.

Clarke: Mar 4:41 - What manner of man is this? What manner of man is this? - They were astonished at such power proceeding from a person who appeared to be only like one of themselves. It is ofte...

What manner of man is this? - They were astonished at such power proceeding from a person who appeared to be only like one of themselves. It is often profitable to entertain each other with the succor and support which we receive from God in times of temptation and distress; and to adore, with respectful awe, that sovereign power and goodness by which we have been delivered

Having spoken so largely of the spiritual and practical uses to be made of these transactions, where the parallel places occur in the preceding evangelist, I do not think it necessary to repeat those things here.

Calvin: Mar 4:12 - That seeing, they may see, and not perceive // Lest at any time they should be converted Mar 4:12.That seeing, they may see, and not perceive Here it may suffice to state briefly what has already been fully explained, that the doctrine is ...

Mar 4:12.That seeing, they may see, and not perceive Here it may suffice to state briefly what has already been fully explained, that the doctrine is not, strictly speaking, or by itself, or in its own nature, but by accident, the cause of blindness. When persons of a weak sight come out into sunshine, their eyes become dimmer than before, and that defect is in no way attributed to the sun, but to their eyes. In like manner, when the word of God blinds and hardens the reprobate, as this takes place through their own depravity, it belongs truly and naturally to themselves, but is accidental, as respects the word.

Lest at any time they should be converted This clause points out the advantage that is gained by seeing and understanding It is, that men, having been converted to God, are restored to his favor, and, being reconciled to him, enjoy prosperity and happiness. The true end for which

God desires that his word should be preached is, to reconcile men to himself by renewing their minds and hearts. With respect to the reprobate, on the other hand, Isaiah here declares that the stony hardness remains in them, so that they do not obtain mercy, and that the word fails to produce its effect upon them, so as to soften their minds to repentance.

Calvin: Mar 4:26 - So is the kingdom of God Mar 4:26.So is the kingdom of God Though this comparison has the same object with the two immediately preceding, yet Christ appears to direct his disc...

Mar 4:26.So is the kingdom of God Though this comparison has the same object with the two immediately preceding, yet Christ appears to direct his discourse purposely to the ministers of the word, that they may not grow indifferent about the discharge of their duty, because the fruit of their labor does not immediately appear. He holds out for their imitation the example of husbandmen, who throw seed into the ground with the expectation of reaping, and do not torment themselves with uneasiness and anxiety, but go to bed and rise again; or, in other words, pursue their ordinary and daily toil, till the corn arrive at maturity in due season. In like manner, though the seed of the word be concealed and choked for a time, Christ enjoins pious teachers to be of good courage, and not to allow their alacrity to be slackened through distrust.

Defender: Mar 4:2 - parables Of the seven parables of the kingdom, Mark only includes in his account the parables of the sower (Mark 4:3-20) and the mustard seed (Mar 4:30-32). On...

Of the seven parables of the kingdom, Mark only includes in his account the parables of the sower (Mark 4:3-20) and the mustard seed (Mar 4:30-32). On these and the other parables, see notes on Matthew 13.

Defender: Mar 4:2 - doctrine "Doctrine" is the same Greek word as "teaching.""

"Doctrine" is the same Greek word as "teaching.""

Defender: Mar 4:13 - this parable Jesus implies here that His first parable - that of the Sower, the Seed (which is the Word of God) and the four types of Soil (representing four types...

Jesus implies here that His first parable - that of the Sower, the Seed (which is the Word of God) and the four types of Soil (representing four types of hearers and their respective responses to the Word) - is the definitive parable, the correct understanding of which is necessary before any of His other parables can be correctly understood."

Defender: Mar 4:21 - under a bushel Mark records two parables (that of the candlestick and also of the silent growth of the seed sown) after that of the Sower, both amplifying the latter...

Mark records two parables (that of the candlestick and also of the silent growth of the seed sown) after that of the Sower, both amplifying the latter. The first stresses the importance of sowing - letting our light shine and keeping it bright. The second reminds us that the actual subterranean growth of the seed, finally springing out of the ground and producing fruit, is not the work of the sower but of the Creator who designed this amazing mechanism. It symbolizes the supernatural work of the Holy Spirit in the heart of the one who has heard God's Word (compare Joh 3:8, Ecc 11:5, Ecc 11:6). The human witness conveys the Word, but he does not win the soul. As Paul said: "Neither is he that planteth any thing, neither he that watereth; but God that giveth the increase" (1Co 3:7)."

Defender: Mar 4:35 - the same day Mark says here that on the same day when Christ told the various parables recorded here and in Matthew 13, he later stilled the storm on Galilee (comp...

Mark says here that on the same day when Christ told the various parables recorded here and in Matthew 13, he later stilled the storm on Galilee (compare Mat 13:1-3 and Mar 4:1-3, apparently both introducing the same event). Then He cast the demons out of the man in Gadara, raised the daughter of Jairus, and healed the woman with an issue of blood (Mark 5:1-43). Yet all of these events are recorded in Mat 8:23-34 and Mat 9:18-25 as apparently taking place before the occasion on which He taught these seven parables of the kingdom (actually there were nine parables, counting the two in Mark 4 added to the seven in Matthew 13). Since several other events (such as the call of Matthew) are interspersed with these, and since Mark also records these latter events as taking place before the giving of the parables, it does seem probable that the events described in Mark 4:35-5:43 all took place before the parables were given. In this case, the phrase "the same day" in Mar 4:35 could be understood as "the same kind of day" or even "the same season." The Greek word (hemera) is somewhat flexible in meaning, depending on context."

TSK: Mar 4:1 - he began // so that he began : Mar 2:13; Mat 13:1, Mat 13:2-9; Luk 8:4-8 so that : Luk 5:1-3

he began : Mar 2:13; Mat 13:1, Mat 13:2-9; Luk 8:4-8

so that : Luk 5:1-3

TSK: Mar 4:2 - by parables // in his by parables : Mar 4:11, Mar 4:34, Mar 3:23; Psa 49:4, Psa 78:2; Mat 13:3, Mat 13:10,Mat 13:34, Mat 13:35 in his : Mar 12:38; Mat 7:28; Joh 7:16, Joh 7...

TSK: Mar 4:3 - Hearken // there Hearken : Mar 4:9, Mar 4:23, Mar 7:14, Mar 7:16; Deu 4:1; Psa 34:11, Psa 45:10; Pro 7:24, Pro 8:32; Isa 46:3, Isa 46:12; Isa 55:1, Isa 55:2; Act 2:14;...

TSK: Mar 4:4 - -- Mar 4:15; Gen 15:11; Mat 13:4, Mat 13:19; Luk 8:5, Luk 8:12

TSK: Mar 4:5 - -- Mar 4:16, Mar 4:17; Eze 11:19, Eze 36:26; Hos 10:12; Amo 6:12; Mat 13:5, Mat 13:6, Mat 13:20; Luk 8:6, Luk 8:13

TSK: Mar 4:6 - the sun // no root the sun : Son 1:6; Isa 25:4; Jon 4:8; Jam 1:11; Rev 7:16 no root : Psa 1:3, Psa 1:4, Psa 92:13-15; Jer 17:5-8; Eph 3:17; Col 2:7; 2Th 2:10; Jud 1:12

TSK: Mar 4:7 - -- Mar 4:18, Mar 4:19; Gen 3:17, Gen 3:18; Jer 4:3; Mat 13:7, Mat 13:22; Luk 8:7, Luk 8:14, Luk 12:15, Luk 21:34; 1Ti 6:9, 1Ti 6:10; 1Jo 2:15, 1Jo 2:16

TSK: Mar 4:8 - fell // an hundred fell : Mar 4:20; Isa 58:1; Jer 23:29; Mat 13:8, Mat 13:23; Luk 8:8, Luk 8:15; Joh 1:12, Joh 1:13; Joh 3:19-21, Joh 7:17, Joh 15:5; Act 17:11; Col 1:6;...

TSK: Mar 4:9 - -- Mar 4:3, Mar 4:23, Mar 4:24; Mar 7:14, Mar 7:16; Mat 11:15, Mat 13:9, Mat 15:10; Luk 8:18; Rev 3:6, Rev 3:13, Rev 3:22

TSK: Mar 4:10 - -- Mar 4:34, Mar 7:17; Pro 13:20; Mat 13:10-17, Mat 13:36; Luk 8:9-15

TSK: Mar 4:11 - Unto you // them // all these Unto you : Mat 11:25, Mat 13:11, Mat 13:12, Mat 13:16, Mat 16:17; Luk 8:10, Luk 10:21-24; 1Co 4:7; 2Co 4:6; Eph 1:9, Eph 2:4-10; Tit 3:3-7; Jam 1:16-1...

TSK: Mar 4:12 - That seeing // be converted That seeing : Rather, as ινα [Strong’ s G2443] frequently denotes, ""So that seeing they see, and do not perceive, and hearing they hear, a...

That seeing : Rather, as ινα [Strong’ s G2443] frequently denotes, ""So that seeing they see, and do not perceive, and hearing they hear, and do not understand,""etc. The expression appears to be proverbial; and relates to those who might see what they now overlook through inattention and folly. See the parallel texts. Deu 29:4; Isa 6:9, Isa 6:10, Isa 44:18; Jer 5:21; Mat 13:14, Mat 13:15; Luk 8:10; Joh 12:37-41; Act 28:25-27; Rom 11:8-10

be converted : Jer 31:18-20; Eze 18:27-32; Act 3:19; 2Ti 2:25; Heb 6:6

TSK: Mar 4:13 - Know Know : Mar 7:17, Mar 7:18; Mat 13:51, Mat 13:52, Mat 15:15-17, Mat 16:8, Mat 16:9; Luk 24:25; 1Co 3:1, 1Co 3:2; Heb 5:11-14; Rev 3:19

TSK: Mar 4:14 - sower // the word sower : Mar 4:3; Isa 32:20; Mat 13:19, Mat 13:37; Luk 8:11 the word : Mar 2:2; Col 1:5, Col 1:6; 1Pe 1:23-25

TSK: Mar 4:15 - these // Satan these : Mar 4:4; Gen 19:14; Isa 53:1; Mat 22:5; Luk 8:12, Luk 14:18, Luk 14:19; Act 17:18-20,Act 17:32, Act 18:14-17, Act 25:19, Act 25:20, Act 26:31,...

TSK: Mar 4:16 - which which : Mar 6:20, Mar 10:17-22; Eze 33:31, Eze 33:32; Mat 8:19, Mat 8:20, Mat 13:20,Mat 13:21; Luk 8:13; Joh 5:35; Act 8:13, Act 8:18-21, Act 24:25, A...

TSK: Mar 4:17 - have // when have : Mar 4:5, Mar 4:6; Job 19:28, Job 27:8-10; Mat 12:31; Luk 12:10; Joh 8:31, Joh 15:2-7; 2Ti 1:15, 2Ti 2:17, 2Ti 2:18, 2Ti 4:10; 1Jo 2:19 when : M...

TSK: Mar 4:18 - -- Mar 4:7; Jer 4:3; Mat 13:22; Luk 8:14

TSK: Mar 4:19 - the cares // the deceitfulness // and the lusts // unfruitful the cares : Luk 10:41, Luk 12:17-21, Luk 12:29, Luk 12:30, Luk 14:18-20, Luk 21:34; Phi 4:6; 2Ti 4:10 the deceitfulness : Pro 23:5; Ecc 4:8, Ecc 5:10-...

TSK: Mar 4:20 - which // an hundred which : Mar 4:8; Mat 13:23; Luk 8:15; Joh 15:4, Joh 15:5; Rom 7:4; Gal 5:22, Gal 5:23; Phi 1:11; Col 1:10; 1Th 4:1; 2Pe 1:8 an hundred : Gen 26:12

TSK: Mar 4:21 - Is a // bushel Is a : Isa 60:1-3; Mat 5:15; Luk 8:16, Luk 11:33; 1Co 12:7; Eph 5:3-15; Phi 2:15, Phi 2:16 bushel : ""The word in the original signifieth a less measu...

Is a : Isa 60:1-3; Mat 5:15; Luk 8:16, Luk 11:33; 1Co 12:7; Eph 5:3-15; Phi 2:15, Phi 2:16

bushel : ""The word in the original signifieth a less measure, as Mat 5:15, marg.""

TSK: Mar 4:22 - -- Psa 40:9, Psa 40:10, Psa 78:2-4; Ecc 12:14; Mat 10:26, Mat 10:27; Luk 8:17, Luk 12:2, Luk 12:3; Act 4:20; Act 20:27; 1Co 4:5; 1Jo 1:1-3

TSK: Mar 4:23 - -- Mar 4:9; Mat 11:15; Rev 2:7, Rev 2:11, Rev 2:17, Rev 2:29

TSK: Mar 4:24 - Take // with // hear Take : Pro 19:27; Luk 8:18; Act 17:11; Heb 2:1; 1Jo 4:1; 1Pe 2:2; 2Pe 2:1-3 with : Mat 7:2; Luk 6:37, Luk 6:38; 2Co 9:6 hear : Mar 9:7; Isa 55:3; Joh ...

TSK: Mar 4:25 - -- Mat 13:12, Mat 25:28, Mat 25:29; Luk 8:18, Luk 16:9-12, Luk 19:24-26; Joh 15:2

TSK: Mar 4:26 - So // as So : Mat 3:2, Mat 4:17, Mat 13:11, Mat 13:31, Mat 13:33; Luk 13:18 as : Mar 4:3, Mar 4:4, Mar 4:14-20; Pro 11:18; Ecc 11:4, Ecc 11:6; Isa 28:24-26, Is...

TSK: Mar 4:27 - and grow and grow : Ecc 8:17, Ecc 11:5; Joh 3:7, Joh 3:8; 1Co 15:37, 1Co 15:38; 2Th 1:3; 2Pe 3:18

TSK: Mar 4:28 - the earth // first // blade the earth : Gen 1:11, Gen 1:12, Gen 2:4, Gen 2:5, Gen 2:9, Gen 4:11, Gen 4:12; Isa 61:11 first : Mar 4:31, Mar 4:32; Psa 1:3, Psa 92:13, Psa 92:14; Pr...

TSK: Mar 4:29 - brought forth // he putteth brought forth : or, ripe, Job 5:26; 2Ti 4:7, 2Ti 4:8 he putteth : Isa 57:1, Isa 57:2; Joe 3:13; Mat 13:30,Mat 13:40-43; Rev 14:13-17

brought forth : or, ripe, Job 5:26; 2Ti 4:7, 2Ti 4:8

he putteth : Isa 57:1, Isa 57:2; Joe 3:13; Mat 13:30,Mat 13:40-43; Rev 14:13-17

TSK: Mar 4:30 - -- Lam 2:13; Mat 11:16; Luk 13:18, Luk 13:20,Luk 13:21

TSK: Mar 4:31 - like // mustard seed // is less than like : Mat 13:31-33; Luk 13:18, Luk 13:19 mustard seed : Mustard, σιναπι [Strong’ s G4615], is a well-known plant of the tetradynamia s...

like : Mat 13:31-33; Luk 13:18, Luk 13:19

mustard seed : Mustard, σιναπι [Strong’ s G4615], is a well-known plant of the tetradynamia siliquosa class, distinguished by its yellow cruciform flowers, with expanding calyx, and its pods smooth, square, and close to the stem. Its seed was probably the smallest known to the Jews; and though its ordinary height does not exceed four feet, yet a species grows to the height of from three to five cubits, with a tapering, ligneous stalk, and spreading branches.

is less than : Gen 22:17, Gen 22:18; Psa 72:16-19; Isa 2:2, Isa 2:3, Isa 9:7, Isa 49:6, Isa 49:7, Isa 53:2, Isa 53:12, Isa 54:1-3; Isa 60:22; Eze 17:22-24; Dan 2:34, Dan 2:35, Dan 2:44, Dan 2:45; Amo 9:11-15; Mic 4:1, Mic 4:2; Zec 2:11, Zec 8:20-23, Zec 12:8, Zec 14:6-9; Mal 1:11; Act 2:41, Act 4:4, Act 5:14, Act 19:20; Act 21:20; Rev 11:15, Rev 20:1-6

TSK: Mar 4:32 - and becometh // shooteth // lodge and becometh : Pro 4:18; Isa 11:9 shooteth : Psa 80:9-11; Eze 31:3-10; Dan 4:10-14, Dan 4:20-22 lodge : Psa 91:1; Son 2:3; Isa 32:2; Lam 4:20

TSK: Mar 4:33 - with // as with : Mat 13:34, Mat 13:35 as : Joh 16:12; 1Co 3:1, 1Co 3:2; Heb 5:11-14

TSK: Mar 4:34 - when when : Mar 4:10, Mar 7:17-23; Mat 13:36-43, Mat 15:15-20; Luk 8:9, Luk 8:10, Luk 24:27, Luk 24:44-46

TSK: Mar 4:35 - the same // Let the same : Mat 8:23; Luk 8:22 Let : Mar 5:21, Mar 6:45, Mar 8:13; Mat 8:18, Mat 14:22; Joh 6:1, Joh 6:17, Joh 6:25

TSK: Mar 4:36 - even even : Mar 4:1, Mar 3:9

even : Mar 4:1, Mar 3:9

TSK: Mar 4:37 - there arose // great storm there arose : Mat 8:23, Mat 8:24; Luk 8:22, Luk 8:23 great storm : Job 1:12, Job 1:19; Psa 107:23-31; Jon 1:4; Act 27:14-20,Act 27:41; 2Co 11:25

TSK: Mar 4:38 - in the // and they // carest in the : Joh 4:6; Heb 2:17, Heb 4:15 and they : 1Ki 18:27-29; Job 8:5, Job 8:6; Psa 44:23, Psa 44:24; Isa 51:9, Isa 51:10; Mat 8:25; Luk 8:24 carest :...

TSK: Mar 4:39 - he arose // rebuked // the wind he arose : Exo 14:16, Exo 14:22, Exo 14:28, Exo 14:29; Job 38:11; Psa 29:10, Psa 93:3, Psa 93:4, Psa 104:7-9, Psa 107:29; Psa 148:8; Pro 8:29; Jer 5:2...

TSK: Mar 4:40 - Why // no faith Why : Psa 46:1-3; Isa 42:3, Isa 43:2; Mat 8:26, Mat 14:31; Luk 8:25; Joh 6:19, Joh 6:20 no faith : Mat 6:30, Mat 16:8

TSK: Mar 4:41 - feared // What feared : Mar 5:33; 1Sa 12:18-20,1Sa 12:24; Psa 89:7; Jon 1:9, Jon 1:10,Jon 1:15, Jon 1:16; Mal 2:5; Heb 12:28; Rev 15:4 What : Mar 7:37; Job 38:11; Ma...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Mar 4:1 - And he taught them many things by parables, and said unto them in his doctrine Mar 4:1-9 The parable of the sower. Mar 4:10-13 Why Christ taught in parables. Mar 4:14-20 The exposition of the parable. Mar 4:21-25 The light ...

Mar 4:1-9 The parable of the sower.

Mar 4:10-13 Why Christ taught in parables.

Mar 4:14-20 The exposition of the parable.

Mar 4:21-25 The light of knowledge is given to be communicated to others.

Mar 4:26-29 The kingdom of God likened to the seed which groweth

imperceptibly,

Mar 4:30-34 and to a grain of mustard seed.

Mar 4:35-41 Christ stilleth a tempest by his word.

Ver. 1,2. We may observe that our Saviour often preached by the seaside, the reason of which was, doubtless, he had there the convenience by a boat or ship to quit himself of the inconvenience of the people’ s pressing upon him: he was now in Galilee, which bordered upon the sea.

And he taught them many things by parables, and said unto them in his doctrine Some of those things which our Lord taught his people by earthly similitudes are afterwards expressed, but probably he taught them many more things than the evangelists have left us upon record.

And said unto them in his doctrine: that may be understood in a double sense; either understanding by doctrine his way of teaching which he affected, and made much use of, viz. by similitudes; or else thus, that he intermixed with the doctrine which he taught them several parables, some of which here follow.

Poole: Mar 4:3-20 - given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God // See Poole on "Mat 13:1" Ver. 3-20. See Poole on "Mat 13:1" , and following verses to Mat 13:23 . The parable is recorded both by Matthew, Mark, and Luke, and is of excellen...

Ver. 3-20. See Poole on "Mat 13:1" , and following verses to Mat 13:23 . The parable is recorded both by Matthew, Mark, and Luke, and is of excellent use:

1. To show the excellency of the word of God, which is here (as in other places) called the word it is the seed of God, the good seed: and the excellency of the ordinance of preaching, for that is the seed sown.

2. To show us the different effect of the word preached from moral discourses and philosophical disputes, from which can be expected no fruit; but where the sower soweth the word, there is yet a very different effect. Some bring forth the fruit of faith and holiness, and the abiding fruit of it, though in different degrees. But many, yea the most of those that hear it, either bring forth no fruit, or no abiding fruit, which is indeed no true fruit. The causes of this are, some men’ s perfunctory and careless hearing, never regarding to meditate on it, apply it to their own souls, or to hide it in their memories. Others not suffering it to sink into their hearts, and to take root in them, though it may at present a little affect them, and make them matter of discourse. Other men’ s thoughts being taken up with business, and the care of this world, and their hearts filled with the love of the things of this life, which they cannot part with when trouble and persecution for the owning and profession of the gospel ariseth.

3. It likewise teacheth us a sure note of unprofitable hearers of the word, as also of those whom the word is likely to profit, and have any good and saving effect upon. The former hear, but never regard whether they understand what they hear, yea or no. The others are not satisfied with hearing unless they understand; for those who went to him to know the parable, were not the twelve only, (who are often called his disciples emphatically), but those others that were about him, to whom it was

given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God

4. The most of our Saviour’ s hearers were doubtless members of the Jewish church, yet our Saviour, Mar 4:11 , styles the most of them those that are without; which teacheth us that not only such as are out of the pale of the church, but those also who are out of the degree of election, those to whom it is not given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God, are in Christ’ s account without. For other things concerning this parable, they are fully spoken to in our notes;

See Poole on "Mat 13:1" , and following verses to Mat 13:23 .

Poole: Mar 4:20 - See Poole on "Mr 4:3 " See Poole on "Mr 4:3 "

See Poole on "Mr 4:3 "

Poole: Mar 4:21 - -- The import of this verse may be learned from Mat 5:15,16 , where the words are, and applied by an exhortation to holiness, being an argument drawn f...

The import of this verse may be learned from Mat 5:15,16 , where the words are, and applied by an exhortation to holiness, being an argument drawn from the end for which men receive gifts and grace from God, which is not only for their own advantage, though (like the husbandman) those that have it reap first of their own fruit, but for the good and advantage of others also. Some think that Christ here speaketh of himself, who is the Light of the world, and therefore opened this parable unto them. But the context in Matthew guiding us to the true sense of the words, I see no reason for us to busy ourselves in searching out another, especially when the connexion is so fair with the foregoing words, where he had been describing the good ground by bringing forth fruit, some thirty, some sixty, some a hundred fold. What therefore the sowing the seed in the good ground, mentioned in the parable, is, that is the lighting up of a candle in this verse; and the light showed by the lighted candle, not put under a vessel, or a bed, but in a candlestick, is the same thing with the fruit before mentioned.

Poole: Mar 4:22-23 - -- Ver. 22,23. Our Saviour, Mat 10:26 , sending out his apostles, saith to them, Fear them not therefore, that is, not your enemies and persecutors: ...

Ver. 22,23. Our Saviour, Mat 10:26 , sending out his apostles, saith to them, Fear them not therefore, that is, not your enemies and persecutors: for there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed; and hid, that shall not be known: the sense of which words we there said might be, though your innocency be now hid, yet it shall be made known, or though the gospel be now hid, and preached in a little corner, and kept secret, it shall be made manifest, and come abroad. Both Mark and Luke have it immediately after the parable of the sower, where it doth not seem to have the same sense as here. But more general proverbial common sayings may be variously applied to things, to which the common sense and import of them will agree. Some here apply them thus, There is nothing in the prophecies concerning me which shall not be manifested; which agrees with the sense of those who interpret the former verse concerning Christ, as if he had been giving a reason why he opened the parables to those that asked him of it. But those who interpret it to the sense which it beareth plainly, Mat 5:15,16 , make the sense thus; For though you may play the hypocrites, and under a profession of the gospel but hide the hypocrisy, lusts, and corruptions of your hearts, yet that mask will not hold always, there will come a day of judgment, which will manifest and discover all, and bring to light the hidden things of dishonesty. What we have Mar 4:23 is but a usual conclusion which our Saviour hath often made of any grave and important discourses.

Poole: Mar 4:24-25 - with what measure ye mete, &c // Take heed what ye hear // And unto you that hear shall more be given Ver. 24,25. Whoso considereth the connection of these words, with what measure ye mete, &c. with the first words in the verse, Take heed what ye h...

Ver. 24,25. Whoso considereth the connection of these words,

with what measure ye mete, &c. with the first words in the verse,

Take heed what ye hear and compares the former with the parallel texts, Mat 7:2 Luk 6:38 , will wonder what the force should be of the argument. For in both the parallel texts the latter words in this verse seem to be used as an argument to persuade them to justice and charity towards men, from the punishments of the violations of the law concerning them, by way of retaliation. Nor are there any sins so ordinarily as those of that kind so punished. But they can have no such force here, following those words, Take heed what ye hear. But, as I said before, there is nothing more usual than diverse applications of the same common saying, or proverbial expression. The saying is true, whether it be understood of men or of God, As we deal with God, so will God deal with us.

Take heed what ye hear. Luke saith, how ye hear. Take heed what ye hear; as much as, Take heed to what you hear, that you may receive the word not as seed by the way side, or in thorny or stony ground, but as in good ground. This seemeth rather to be the sense of our Saviour, than to give a caution by these words to men to examine what they hear, searching the Scriptures whether what they hear doth agree with them, though that also be the duty of all conscientious persons, as appeareth from Act 17:11 For saith our Saviour, God will deal with you as to his providence as you deal with him. If you allow the word of God but a little hearing, you shall reap from it heard little profit and advantage; this appeareth to be the sense from the following words.

And unto you that hear shall more be given that is, unto you that hear, so as you attend, understand, believe, hearken, and obey, God will give further knowledge of Divine mysteries.

For he that hath, to him shall be given, &c.: another general proverbial expression; See Poole on "Mat 13:12" , See Poole on "Mat 25:29" .

Poole: Mar 4:26-29 - The earth bringeth forth fruit of herself Ver. 26-29. Our evangelist alone taketh notice of this parable, nor hath it any particular explication annexed. If we expound it with relation to wha...

Ver. 26-29. Our evangelist alone taketh notice of this parable, nor hath it any particular explication annexed. If we expound it with relation to what went before, the scope of it seemeth to be, to let us know that God will have an account of men for their hearing of his word, and therefore men had need to take heed what they hear, as Mark saith, and how they hear, as Luke phrases it: thus Mar 4:29 expounds the former, with the help of our Saviour’ s exposition of the parable of the tares, on which he had told us, Mat 13:39 , The harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels. There is another notion of God’ s harvest, Mat 9:37 Joh 4:35 , where God’ s harvest signifies a people inclined and prepared to hear and to receive the gospel. But withal this parable of our Saviour’ s may be of further use to us.

So is the kingdom of God, &c.; that is, Such is the providential dispensation of God, in gathering his church by the ministry of the word, as men’ s casting of seed into the ground: when the husbandman hath cast his seed into the ground, he is no more solicitous about it, nor doth he expect to discern the motion of it; but having done what is his part, he sleepeth, and riseth again, leaving the issue to God’ s providence.

The earth bringeth forth fruit of herself yet not without the influence of heaven, both in the shining of the sun and the falling of the dew and of the rain; neither doth its fruit appear presently in its full ripeness and perfection, but gradually is made perfect; first there appears the blade, the herb, then the ear, then the grain, which by degrees groweth to its full magnitude, and then hardeneth, and then the husbandman putteth in his sickle: so the ministers of the gospel ought faithfully to do their parts in sowing the seed of the gospel, then not to be too solicitous, but to leave the issue unto God. Where the seed falls upon good ground, the word will not be unfruitful: the minister of the gospel doth not presently discern the fruit of his labour, he at first, it may be, seeth nothing of it, but is ready to cry out, I have laboured in vain; but though the seed lie under the clods, and seems choked with the corruption of man’ s heart, yet if the soul be one to whom it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God, it shall spring out, the word will be found not to be lost; but first will spring the blade, then will appear the ear: the fruit of the word preached appears by degrees, sometimes at first only by creating good inclinations in the soul, and desires to learn the way of the Lord more perfectly, then in acts further tending to perfection, at last in confirmed habits of grace. It is not thus with all, in some the word brings forth nothing but the blade, a little outward profession, which dwindles away and dies; in some the profession holds longer, but they never come to confirmed habits of virtue and holiness. But there will come a harvest, when God will come with his sickle to reap the fruit of his seed sown; therefore men had need take heed what and how they hear. This I take to be the sense of this parable.

Poole: Mar 4:27 - See Poole on "Mar 4:26 " See Poole on "Mar 4:26 "

See Poole on "Mar 4:26 "

Poole: Mar 4:28 - See Poole on "Mar 4:26 " See Poole on "Mar 4:26 "

See Poole on "Mar 4:26 "

Poole: Mar 4:29 - See Poole on "Mr 4:26 " See Poole on "Mr 4:26 "

See Poole on "Mr 4:26 "

Poole: Mar 4:30-32 - -- Ver. 30-32. We met with this parable in Mat 13:31,32 , where the reader will find we have given the sense of it. It is a prophetical parable, foretel...

Ver. 30-32. We met with this parable in Mat 13:31,32 , where the reader will find we have given the sense of it. It is a prophetical parable, foretelling the great success that the gospel, which at this time was restrained to a little corner of the world, and there met with small acceptance, should have after Christ’ s resurrection from the dead; which prophecy we find was fulfilled in the apostles’ time, and hath been further fulfilling in all ages of the world since that time.

Poole: Mar 4:31 - -- Ver. 31 . See Poole on "Mar 4:30"

Ver. 31 . See Poole on "Mar 4:30"

Poole: Mar 4:32 - See Poole on "Mar 4:30 " See Poole on "Mar 4:30 "

See Poole on "Mar 4:30 "

Poole: Mar 4:33-34 - As they were able to hear it Ver. 33,34. From hence we may gather that all the parables by which our Saviour instructed his hearers are not recorded by the evangelists, though ma...

Ver. 33,34. From hence we may gather that all the parables by which our Saviour instructed his hearers are not recorded by the evangelists, though many be, and some mentioned by one, some by two of them, which are not recorded by the other.

As they were able to hear it Christ disdained not to accommodate his style and method of preaching to his hearers’ capacity, neither will any faithful minister of Christ do it: he preacheth in the best style, language, and method, that preacheth best to the capacity, understanding, and profit of his hearers. Other preachers do indeed but trifle with the greatest work under heaven, and please themselves with their own noises. That he did not speak without a parable unto them, was:

1. That he might speak with the best advantage for their understandings and their memories, and have the greater influence upon their affections; for similitudes have these three advantages.

2. That he might discern who came to hear him with a desire to learn, and be instructed by him, by their coming to him to inquire of his parables.

For although some of his parables were plain, and easy to be understood, yet others of them were dark sayings, because the doctrine taught by them was more mysterious; conscientious hearers would therefore come to have the parables expounded to them; these, were those disciples mentioned Mar 4:34 , to whom be was wont to expound the parables in or by which he taught the multitude. For other common hearers, their contenting themselves with a mere hearing a sound of words, which they did not understand, was a sufficient indication that they made no conscience of their duty, but were such to whom it was not given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God, but such upon whom the prophecy of the prophet Isaiah was to be fulfilled, Mar 6:9,10 .

Poole: Mar 4:35-41 - -- Ver. 35-41. This piece of history is related by Matthew and Luke as well as by our evangelist, and that with no considerable variations one from anot...

Ver. 35-41. This piece of history is related by Matthew and Luke as well as by our evangelist, and that with no considerable variations one from another; what in it wanteth explication, See Poole on "Mat 8:23" , and following verses to Mat 8:27 . Christ had been preaching, and being wearied and tired with the multitude still pressing upon him, gave order to cross the sea, and to go over to the other side; then (to show us he was truly man, and took upon him the infirmities of our nature) he composes himself to sleep on a pillow, in the hinder part of the ship. There happeneth a great storm of wind, not without Christ’ s knowledge and ordering, that he might upon this occasion both try his people’ s faith, and also show his Divine power in stilling the raging of the sea. As man he slept, but at the same time he was the true Watchman of Israel, who never slumbereth nor sleepeth. The storm increaseth till there was a great quantity of water come into the ship, and they were ready to perish. In the mount of the Lord it shall be seen, Gen 22:14 . God often forbears from helping his people till the last hour. Then they awake him, he ariseth, rebukes the wind and the waves, useth no means, but by the word of his power commandeth the wind and waves to be still; and he also rebuketh his disciples for want of faith, who yet did not discern that he was not man only, but the Almighty God, as appears by their words, they said one to another, What manner of man is this?

Lightfoot: Mar 4:1 - He began to teach And he began again to teach by the sea side: and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea...

And he began again to teach by the sea side: and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea; and the whole multitude was by the sea on the land.   

[He began to teach.] That is, he taught; by a phrase very usual to these holy writers, because very usual to the nation: Rabh Canah began to be tedious in his prayer; that is, he was tedious. That scholar began to weep; that is he wept. "The ox began to low"; that is, he lowed. "When the tyrant's letter was brought to the Rabbins, they began to weep"; that is, they wept.   

This our evangelist useth also another word, and that numberless times almost: the others also use it, but not so frequently; namely, the word presently; which answereth to the word out of hand; most common among the Talmudists. We meet with it in this our evangelist seven or eight times in the first chapter, and elsewhere very frequently: and that not seldom according to the custom of the idiom, more than out of the necessity of the thing signified.

Lightfoot: Mar 4:4 - And some fell And it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell by the way side, and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up.   [And some fell.] Accor...

And it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell by the way side, and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up.   

[And some fell.] According to what falls. The Gloss there, "According to the measure which one sows." And there the Gemarists speak of seed falling out of the hand; that is, that is cast out of the hand of the sower: and of seed falling from the oxen; that is, "that which is scattered and sown" by the sowing oxen. "For (as the Gloss speaks) sometimes they sow with the hand, and sometimes they put the seed into a cart full of holes, and drive the oxen upon the ploughed earth, and the seed falls through the holes."

Lightfoot: Mar 4:5 - Because it had no depth of earth And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth:   [Because it...

And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth:   

[Because it had no depth of earth.] For it was rocky, whose turf nevertheless was thick enough, and very fruitful; but this ground which the parable supposeth wanted that thickness. "You have not a more fruitful land among all lands than the land of Egypt; nor a more fruitful country in Egypt than Zoan. And yet Hebron, which was rocky, exceeded it sevenfold." Note that 'it was rocky; and yet so fruitful.'

Lightfoot: Mar 4:7 - Among thorns And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit.   [Among thorns.] The parable supposeth, a...

And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit.   

[Among thorns.] The parable supposeth, a field not freed from thorns.

Lightfoot: Mar 4:11 - Unto them that are without. // All things are done in parables And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done ...

And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables:   

[Unto them that are without.] Those without; in Jewish speech, were the Gentiles; a phrase taken hence, that they called all lands and countries besides their own without the land. Would you have an exact instance of this distinction? "A tree, half of which grows within the land of Israel, and half without the land, the fruits of it which are to be tithed, and the common fruits are confounded: they are the words of Rabba. But Rabban Simeon Ben Gamaliel saith, 'That part which grows within the place, that is bound to tithing" [that is, within the land of Israel], "is to be tithed: that which grows in the place free from tithing" (that is, without the land) "is free.' " The Gloss is, "For if the roots of the tree are without the land, it is free, although the tree itself extends itself sixteen cubits within the land."  

Hence books that are without; are heathen books: extraneous books of Greek wisdom.  

This is the common signification of the phrase. And, certainly it foretells dreadful things, when our blessed Saviour stigmatizeth the Jewish nation with that very name that they were wont to call the heathens by.  

The word those without; occurs also in the Talmudists, when it signifies the Jews themselves; that is, some of the Jewish nation. Here the Karaites; who rejected traditions, there those without; are opposed to the wise men; "He that puts his phylacteries on his forehead, or in the palm of his hand, behold! he follows the custom of the Karaites. And he that overlays one of them with gold, and puts it upon his garment which is at his hand, behold! he follows the custom of those that are without." Where the Gloss, " those without are men who follow their own will, and not the judgment of the wise men." They are supposed to wear phylacteries, and to be Jews; but when they do according to their pleasure, and despise the rules of the wise men, they are esteemed as those that are without; or heathens. So was the whole Jewish nation according to Christ's censure, which despised the evangelical wisdom.  

[All things are done in parables.] I. How much is the Jewish nation deceived concerning the times of the Messias! They think his forerunner Elias will explain all difficulties, resolve scruples, and will render all things plain; so that when the Messias shall come after him, there shall be nothing obscure or dark in the law and in religion. Hence these expressions, and the like to them: "One found a bill of contracts in his keeping, and knew not what it meant, Let it be laid up till Elias shall come." And more in the same tract, concerning things found, when it is not known to whom they are to be restored, "Let them be laid up till Elias come." " That passage; (Eze 14:18;19 where a burnt offering is called a sacrifice for sin) Elias will unfold." Infinite examples of that sort occur.  

II. How those words have wracked interpreters, "Is a candle put under a bushel," etc.; and, "There is nothing hidden," etc.: you may see also without a candle. A very easy sense of them is gathered from the context. When Christ speaks in parables, "A light is put under a bushel": but "the light (saith he) is not come for this end," that it should be so hidden; nor, indeed, were it fit so to hide it, but that the divine justice would have it so, that they who will not see the light should not enjoy the light. But "there is nothing hid" which shall not be made manifest by the brightness of the doctrine of the gospel, so there be eyes that do not refuse the light, nor voluntarily become purblind. Therefore, take you heed how you hear, lest ye be like them, and divine justice mete to you by the same measure as is measured to them; namely, that they shall never hear, because they will not hear.

Haydock: Mar 4:1 - -- If we examine St. Matthew on this point, we shall discover that this discourse was made on the same day as the preceding discourse; for St. Matthew in...

If we examine St. Matthew on this point, we shall discover that this discourse was made on the same day as the preceding discourse; for St. Matthew informs us, that having finished this exhortation, he the same day went and taught by the sea. (Ven. Bede)

Haydock: Mar 4:10 - When he was alone When he was alone: in Greek Ote egeneto Katamonas; i.e. when he was retired and alone, either in the house, out of the city, or at a distance from ...

When he was alone: in Greek Ote egeneto Katamonas; i.e. when he was retired and alone, either in the house, out of the city, or at a distance from the multitude. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Mar 4:11 - -- Such as are out of the Church, though they both hear and read, they cannot understand. (Ven. Bede, in Chap. iv, Mark.)

Such as are out of the Church, though they both hear and read, they cannot understand. (Ven. Bede, in Chap. iv, Mark.)

Haydock: Mar 4:12 - That seeing they may see That seeing they may see, &c. In punishment of their wilfully shutting their eyes, (Matthew xiii. 15.) God justly withdrew those lights and graces...

That seeing they may see, &c. In punishment of their wilfully shutting their eyes, (Matthew xiii. 15.) God justly withdrew those lights and graces which otherwise he would have given them, for their effectual conversion. (Challoner) ---

these speeches here and elsewhere, we are not to understand as if the spoke in parables to this end that the hearers might not understand, lest they should be converted; but we must learn the true sense from the corresponding texts in Matthew xiii, and Acts xxviii, where our Saviour and St. Paul render it thus: with their ears they have been dull of hearing, and their eyes they have shut. lest, perhaps, they may see, and understand, and be converted, and I heal them. Whereby it is evident, that the speaking in parables was not the cause, (for many besides the apostles heard and understood) but themselves, who would not hear and understand, and be converted: and thus they were the real cause of they own wilful and obstinate infidelity. And therefore also he spoke in parables, because they were not worthy to understand, as the others were to whom he expounded them. (Bristow)

Haydock: Mar 4:22 - -- All my parables, doctrines, and actions, which appear now to you so full of mystery, shall not always be so: in due time they shall all be publicly ex...

All my parables, doctrines, and actions, which appear now to you so full of mystery, shall not always be so: in due time they shall all be publicly expounded by you, my apostles, and by your successors. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Mar 4:23 - -- And let him learn that he is not to bury in unjust silence the instructions or examples I give him; but must exercise them for the light and direction...

And let him learn that he is not to bury in unjust silence the instructions or examples I give him; but must exercise them for the light and direction of others. (Bible de Vence)

Haydock: Mar 4:24 - -- Pay attention then to what you hear this day, that you may retain it, and communicate it to others, you brethren; for as you measure to others, so sha...

Pay attention then to what you hear this day, that you may retain it, and communicate it to others, you brethren; for as you measure to others, so shall it be meted unto you; yes, more shall be given to you, who receive the word of God, if you be attentive to preserve it yourselves, and to communicate it to your brethren. (Bible de Vence)

Haydock: Mar 4:25 - -- They who do not profit by the knowledge of the word of God, shall in punishment of their neglect, lose the advantage which they may seem to have, sinc...

They who do not profit by the knowledge of the word of God, shall in punishment of their neglect, lose the advantage which they may seem to have, since it will turn in the end to their greater condemnation: and moreover, by trusting to their own judgment, they interpret the word in a perverse sense, and thus also lose what they seem to have. (Nicholas of Lyra) ---

Let those who talk so much about Scripture, and interpret it according to their own private spirit or fancy, see lest this also attach to them. (Haydock)

Haydock: Mar 4:26 - -- So it is with him who announces the gospel of the kingdom of God, as with the sower. For whether he sleep or rise, the see will grow up while he know...

So it is with him who announces the gospel of the kingdom of God, as with the sower. For whether he sleep or rise, the see will grow up while he knoweth not; and the well prepared soil will, by the blessing of God, be productive: so the word of God she abroad in the heart of man, will increase and fructify independently of all the preacher's solicitude, till he who has received it, being arrived at the measure of the age and fulness of Christ, shall be withdrawn by God from this world, and be called to himself. (Bible de Vence)

Haydock: Mar 4:29 - When the fruit is brought forth When the fruit is brought forth: literally, when the fruit [1] hath produced. By the fruit is here meant the seed; i.e. when the seed by degree...

When the fruit is brought forth: literally, when the fruit [1] hath produced. By the fruit is here meant the seed; i.e. when the seed by degrees hath produced the blade, then the ear, and lastly the corn, which is become ripe. (Witham) ---

This is a secondary sense of the text, when the fruit hath come to maturity, and by no means a forced interpretation.

===============================

[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Cum produxerit fructus. In the Greek, fructus is in the nominative case; Greek: otan de parado o karpos, &c.

====================

Haydock: Mar 4:33 - -- This seems to contradict what was said [in] ver. 12, that seeing they may not see, &c.; but we must observe, that parables have more explanations th...

This seems to contradict what was said [in] ver. 12, that seeing they may not see, &c.; but we must observe, that parables have more explanations than one, some more easy, whilst others are more difficult to be understood. In parables, the multitude understood the more literal interpretation, whilst Christ explains the more abstruse and hidden sense to his apostles. Hence there is no contradiction in these texts. (Nicholas of Lyra)

Gill: Mar 4:1 - And he began again to teach by the sea side // and there was gathered unto him a great multitude // so that he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea // and the whole multitude was by the sea on the land And he began again to teach by the sea side,.... He went out of the house where he was at Capernaum, the same day he had the above discourse with the ...

And he began again to teach by the sea side,.... He went out of the house where he was at Capernaum, the same day he had the above discourse with the Scribes and Pharisees, and on which his mother and: brethren came to speak with him; and from thence he went where he had been before, and taught the people; namely, to the sea side, the shore of the sea of Galilee, or Tiberias:

and there was gathered unto him a great multitude; which followed him from the house, and from other parts of the city, and perhaps from the adjacent places:

so that he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea; in the ship at sea, at some little distance from the shore; the sea of Tiberias being rather a lake, and within land, had no tide, and so was still and quiet:

and the whole multitude was by the sea on the land; stood on the land, all along the sea shore; See Gill on Mat 13:1, Mat 13:2.

Gill: Mar 4:2 - And he taught them many things by parables // and said unto them in his doctrine And he taught them many things by parables,.... As he sat in the ship, and they stood on shore; and said unto them in his doctrine; as he was teach...

And he taught them many things by parables,.... As he sat in the ship, and they stood on shore;

and said unto them in his doctrine; as he was teaching them, and delivering unto them the doctrine he had received from his Father: though the Jews say c, that

"the Israelites will have no need לתלמודו של מלך משיח, "of the doctrine of the king Messiah, in the time to come"; because it is said, "unto him shall the Gentiles seek", and not the Israelites.''

But it appears from hence, and many other places, that the Israelites both stood in need of his doctrine, and sought after it; and very excellent it was; the doctrine of God, and of the grace of God; and was spoken with authority, and in such a manner as never man spake, and which he delivered to his apostles; and which, if ministers bring not with them, should not be bid God speed.

Gill: Mar 4:3 - Hearken, behold, there went out a sower to sow. Hearken, behold, there went out a sower to sow. By whom is meant Jesus Christ, who came forth from God as a teacher, and went out into the land of Jud...

Hearken, behold, there went out a sower to sow. By whom is meant Jesus Christ, who came forth from God as a teacher, and went out into the land of Judea to preach the Gospel, which is sowing spiritual things among men; and this may be also applicable to any faithful minister of the word.

Gill: Mar 4:4 - And it came to pass, as he sowed // some fell by the way side // and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up And it came to pass, as he sowed,.... Whilst he was preaching the, Gospel, casting about the precious seed of the word, he was laden with: some fel...

And it came to pass, as he sowed,.... Whilst he was preaching the, Gospel, casting about the precious seed of the word, he was laden with:

some fell by the way side; the common beaten path: the word was dispensed among some men comparable to it, on whom it lighted, but made no impression; there it lay, though not long, and was not inwardly received, and took no root, and consequently was of no effect:

and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up; the devils, who have their abode in the air, especially the prince of the posse of them; and the Syriac version reads it in the singular number, "and the fowl came"; that ravenous bird of prey, Satan, who goes about seeking what he may devour; and for this purpose attends where the word is preached, to hinder its usefulness as much as in him lies.

Gill: Mar 4:5 - And some fell on stony ground // where it had not much earth // and immediately it sprung up // because it had no depth of earth And some fell on stony ground,.... The word was preached to some persons who had hearts of stone, and which remained so: where it had not much eart...

And some fell on stony ground,.... The word was preached to some persons who had hearts of stone, and which remained so:

where it had not much earth; and so could be received only in a notional and superficial way, but could take no place, so as to produce any good effect:

and immediately it sprung up; a sudden and hasty profession of the word was made, without a powerful experience of it:

because it had no depth of earth; if it had, it would have been longer in coming up; more work would have been done by it, which would have required more time, before a profession of it had been made.

Gill: Mar 4:6 - But when the sun was up, it was scorched // and because it had no root, it withered away But when the sun was up, it was scorched,.... When persecution arose because of the word, and that became very hot and vehement, it tried and pierced ...

But when the sun was up, it was scorched,.... When persecution arose because of the word, and that became very hot and vehement, it tried and pierced through this thin speculative knowledge of the word, which could not stand before it, and bear the heat of it:

and because it had no root, it withered away; the word had only a place in the head, and not in the heart; wherefore the profession of it was soon dropped, and came to nothing.

Gill: Mar 4:7 - And some fell among thorns // and the thorns grew up, and choked it // and it yielded no fruit And some fell among thorns,.... The word was ministered to some who were eat up with the cares of the world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and othe...

And some fell among thorns,.... The word was ministered to some who were eat up with the cares of the world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and other lusts:

and the thorns grew up, and choked it; the word did not take place so as to beat down, overcome, and root out these things, nor even to weaken, and keep under, and prevent the influence of them; but these got the ascendant of the word, and prevailed over it, and made it altogether useless and unsuccessful: for whilst it was administered, the minds of these persons were after their riches and worldly things, and gave no heed to the word; and last were prevailed upon, not to attend upon it, but drop the profession of it:

and it yielded no fruit; it was not the means of grace; faith did not come by it, nor any other grace; nor did it produce good works in the life and conversation.

Gill: Mar 4:8 - And other fell on good ground // and did yield fruit that sprang up, and increased // and brought forth some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred And other fell on good ground,.... The word was preached to some whose hearts were disposed by the Spirit and grace of God to receive it; and their un...

And other fell on good ground,.... The word was preached to some whose hearts were disposed by the Spirit and grace of God to receive it; and their understandings were enlightened by it; and they had a savoury and comfortable experience of the truths of it, it coming with power to them; it was a good word to them, and through the grace of God they became good by it; a good work of grace was wrought upon their souls, and they were filled with all goodness and righteousness:

and did yield fruit that sprang up, and increased; they not only appeared, and made an outward profession of the word, and brought forth a little show of fruit, which comes to nothing, as in others; but they were filled with the fruits of righteousness, and increased with the increase of God, and grew in grace, and in the knowledge of Christ Jesus, and continued to bring forth fruit to the end of their lives:

and brought forth some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred; that is, so many fold: in some the word of God produced larger and greater effects; the grace of God was more in exercise in some, than in others, and some were more fruitful and useful; yet in all of them there was true grace, and a measure of it; some degree of lively exercise, and some usefulness.

Gill: Mar 4:9 - And he said unto them // he that hath ears to hear, let him hear And he said unto them,.... To the multitude of hearers that were on the sea shore attending to the word preached, and among whom, doubtless, there wer...

And he said unto them,.... To the multitude of hearers that were on the sea shore attending to the word preached, and among whom, doubtless, there were all those sorts of hearers mentioned in this parable:

he that hath ears to hear, let him hear: observe, and take notice of what has been said, as being of the greatest moment and importance: for a larger explanation and illustration of this parable, see the notes on Mat 13:3.

Gill: Mar 4:10 - And when he was alone // they that were about him with the twelve // asked of him the parable And when he was alone,.... After the multitude was dismissed, and he either remained in the ship, or left it, and retired to some private place, it ma...

And when he was alone,.... After the multitude was dismissed, and he either remained in the ship, or left it, and retired to some private place, it may be to Simon's house in Capernaum. The Syriac, Persic, and Ethiopic versions read, "when they were alone"; meaning as follows,

they that were about him with the twelve; that is, such disciples of his, who, besides the twelve, constantly attended him; perhaps those who now were, or hereafter were the seventy disciples. The Vulgate Latin reads, "the twelve that were with him". In Beza's most ancient copy it is read, "his disciples"; and to this agrees the Persic version; and so the other evangelists, Matthew and Luke, relate, that his disciples came and

asked of him the parable; the meaning of it, and why he chose this way of speaking to the people, Mat 13:10, though that word may include others besides the twelve.

Gill: Mar 4:11 - And he said unto them // unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God // but unto them that are without // all these things are done in parables And he said unto them,.... His disciples; unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God; or the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven...

And he said unto them,.... His disciples;

unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God; or the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, the secrets of the Gospel dispensation, the mysterious doctrines of grace; See Gill on Mat 13:11,

but unto them that are without; "to strangers", as the Syriac and Arabic versions render it, who were not the disciples of Christ, nor admitted to any intimacy with him; who came only to amuse themselves with the sight of his person and miracles:

all these things are done in parables; are wrapped up in dark sayings, and figurative expressions, the sound of which they heard, and might be pleased with the pretty similes made use of, but understood not the spiritual meaning of them.

Gill: Mar 4:12 - That seeing they may see That seeing they may see,.... Which the end and reason of his speaking to them in parables. The passage referred to is in Isa 6:9. See Gill on Mat 13:...

That seeing they may see,.... Which the end and reason of his speaking to them in parables. The passage referred to is in Isa 6:9. See Gill on Mat 13:14. See Gill on Mat 13:15.

Gill: Mar 4:13 - And he saith unto them, know ye not this parable // and how then will you know all parables And he saith unto them, know ye not this parable?.... So easy to be understood, taken from things common, and which fall under every one's observation...

And he saith unto them, know ye not this parable?.... So easy to be understood, taken from things common, and which fall under every one's observation:

and how then will you know all parables? if not this single one, and which is so plain, how will ye be able to understand the numerous parables hereafter to be related, and which will be much more difficult?

Gill: Mar 4:14 - The sower soweth the word. The sower soweth the word. Though our Lord thought fit to give the above gentle rebuke to his disciples for their dulness; yet he condescends to favou...

The sower soweth the word. Though our Lord thought fit to give the above gentle rebuke to his disciples for their dulness; yet he condescends to favour them with an interpretation of the above parable, which here begins: by this it appears, that the seed in the parable, before delivered, and which fell on different sorts of ground, is the word of God, which was preached to hearers of different dispositions: the word is the word of life and truth; the word of peace and reconciliation; the word of faith and righteousness; the word of salvation; the word which publishes and declares all these to be in and by Jesus Christ.

Gill: Mar 4:15 - And these are they by the way side, where the word is sown // but when they have heard // Satan cometh immediately and taketh away the word that was sown in their hearts And these are they by the way side, where the word is sown,.... Such hearers are represented by the way side, in which the seed fell; who, coming wher...

And these are they by the way side, where the word is sown,.... Such hearers are represented by the way side, in which the seed fell; who, coming where the Gospel is preached, stop awhile and hear it, and so are only casual and accidental hearers of it:

but when they have heard; and indeed whilst they are hearing, and before they are well got out of the place of hearing,

Satan cometh immediately and taketh away the word that was sown in their hearts. The devil, signified by the fowl, or fowls of the air, immediately takes notice of such hearers, and is very busy with them; filling their minds with other things suitable to their dispositions, and setting before them other objects, whereby their minds are, at once, taken off from what they have been hearing; so that all that they have observed, and laid up in their memories, is lost at once, and never thought of any more.

Gill: Mar 4:16 - And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground // who when they have heard the word immediately receive it with gladness And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground,.... Such sort of hearers of the word are signified by the stony ground, on which the seed ...

And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground,.... Such sort of hearers of the word are signified by the stony ground, on which the seed were sown, who are constant hearers of the word, and have some understanding of it, and some sort of affection for it, and yet their hearts are not truly broken by it; they are not brought to a thorough sight and sense of sin, and of their need of Christ, and salvation by him; their stony hearts are not taken away, and hearts of flesh given them:

who when they have heard the word immediately receive it with gladness; seem highly pleased, and greatly delighted with it, as being a well connected scheme things; and which declares things, as heaven and eternal happiness, which they, from a principle of self love, are desirous of enjoying.

Gill: Mar 4:17 - And have no root in themselves // and so endure but for a time // afterward, when affliction or persecution ariseth for the word's sake, immediately they are offended And have no root in themselves,.... The word has no root in their hearts, only in their natural affections: nor is the root of grace in them; there is...

And have no root in themselves,.... The word has no root in their hearts, only in their natural affections: nor is the root of grace in them; there is no heart work, only speculative notions, and flashy affections:

and so endure but for a time: they continue hearers and professors of the Gospel but for a small season; like the Jews, who rejoiced in the ministry of John the Baptist for a while, and then left him:

afterward, when affliction or persecution ariseth for the word's sake, immediately they are offended. As soon as any small degree of trouble comes upon them, and especially when there is a hot persecution of the professors of religion, because of the Gospel they have embraced; such hearers are stumbled at these things, and cannot bear the loss of any thing, or endure any thing severe for the sake of the word they have professed a pleasure in; and therefore, rather than suffer, they relinquish at once their profession of it.

Gill: Mar 4:18 - And these are they that are sown among thorns // such as hear the word And these are they that are sown among thorns,.... Such hearers of the word are designed by the thorny ground, upon which other seed fell, as it was s...

And these are they that are sown among thorns,.... Such hearers of the word are designed by the thorny ground, upon which other seed fell, as it was sown, who are of worldly dispositions; who are immoderately careful and anxious about the things of this life, and are bent upon acquiring earthly riches, and gratifying their carnal and sensual appetites:

such as hear the word; who notwithstanding are prevailed upon through custom, or the dictates of their consciences, to attend upon the ministry of the word.

Gill: Mar 4:19 - And the cares of this world And the cares of this world,.... The perplexing and distressing cares of it to get as much of it as they can, for themselves and families, fill their ...

And the cares of this world,.... The perplexing and distressing cares of it to get as much of it as they can, for themselves and families, fill their minds, and possess their souls even when and while they are hearing the word: and the deceitfulness of riches; or riches which are deceitful, especially when trusted in, and being obtained, they do not give the satisfaction they promise: and the lusts of other things entering in: carnal desires after other objects, which are pleasing to the sensual mind, entering into their hearts, and gaining, the ascendant there: choke the word, and it, becometh unfruitful; these being more attended to than the word is, that is quite lost, and becomes useless, and unprofitable.

Gill: Mar 4:20 - And these are they which are sown on good ground // such who hear the word, and receive it // and bring forth fruit, some thirty fold, some sixty, and some an hundred And these are they which are sown on good ground,.... Such hearers who are intended by the good ground on which other seed fell, are those who are mad...

And these are they which are sown on good ground,.... Such hearers who are intended by the good ground on which other seed fell, are those who are made good men by the grace of God; for there is none good naturally, nor that doeth good, no not one; these are

such who hear the word, and receive it; as the word of God, in whose hearts it works effectually; who receive it not into their heads only, but into their hearts; and having received it, hold it fast, and abide by it in the worst of times:

and bring forth fruit, some thirty fold, some sixty, and some an hundred; all bring forth good fruit of the same quality, though not of the same quantity: for a larger exposition of this explanation of the parable, see the notes on Mat 13:19. See Gill on Mat 13:19. See Gill on Mat 13:20. See Gill on Mat 13:21. See Gill on Mat 13:22. See Gill on Mat 13:23.

Gill: Mar 4:21 - And he said unto them // is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed, and not to be set on a candlestick And he said unto them,.... At the same time, after he had explained the parable of the sower; for though the following parabolical and proverbial expr...

And he said unto them,.... At the same time, after he had explained the parable of the sower; for though the following parabolical and proverbial expressions were delivered by Christ at other, and different times, and some of them twice, as related by other evangelists; yet they might be all of them expressed or repeated at this time, by our Lord, showing why he explained the above parable to his disciples; and that though he delivered the mysteries of the Gospel in parables to them that were without, yet it was not his design that these things should be always kept a secret, and that from all men: for as the Gospel might be compared to seed, so likewise to a candle, the design and use of which is to give light to men: wherefore he asks,

is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed, and not to be set on a candlestick? when a candle is brought into a room, in the night, where company are together, to converse, or read, or work; is it proper that it should be covered with a bushel, or any other hollow vessel? or when brought into a bedchamber, is it right to put it under the bed? is it not most fitting and convenient, that it should be set in a candlestick, and then it will be of use to all in the room? so the Gospel, which is the candle of the Lord, he had lighted up in the evening of the Jewish world, in the land of Judea; it was not his will that it should be always, and altogether, and from all men, covered with parables, and dark sayings, without any explanation of them; but that the light of it should be communicated, especially to them his; disciples, who were to be the lights of the world, and which were to shine openly before men, for their good, and the glory of his heavenly Father; see Mat 5:14.

Gill: Mar 4:22 - For there is nothing hid // which shall not be manifested // neither was any thing kept secret // but that it should come abroad For there is nothing hid,.... In these parables, and figurative expressions used by Christ, which shall not be manifested, sooner or later, to his ...

For there is nothing hid,.... In these parables, and figurative expressions used by Christ,

which shall not be manifested, sooner or later, to his disciples:

neither was any thing kept secret; any doctrine of the Gospel, or mystery of the kingdom:

but that it should come abroad; it was designed to be published in all Judea, and afterwards, throughout the whole world, for the benefit of God's chosen ones, to their conversion, comfort, and edification: wherefore it becomes the ministers of the Gospel to keep back nothing that may be profitable to the churches, nor shun to declare the whole counsel of God; but faithfully dispense the mysteries of grace, and commend the truth to every man's conscience, without any fear of men, or dreading the effects and consequences of things: since nothing is declared in the word, or made known, but with a design to be published to others, to answer some divine end and purpose; See Gill on Mat 10:26.

Gill: Mar 4:23 - If any man have ears to hear, let him hear. If any man have ears to hear, let him hear. What is now delivered, being very momentous and important; see Mat 11:15.

If any man have ears to hear, let him hear. What is now delivered, being very momentous and important; see Mat 11:15.

Gill: Mar 4:24 - And he said unto them // take heed what you hear // with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured unto you // unto you that hear, shall more be given And he said unto them,.... At the same time, though he had said what follows at another time, still continuing his discourse with his disciples: ta...

And he said unto them,.... At the same time, though he had said what follows at another time, still continuing his discourse with his disciples:

take heed what you hear: diligently attend to it, seek to understand it, and lay it up in your minds and memories, that it may be of use to you in time to come, and you may be useful in communicating it to others:

with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured unto you; a common proverb among the Jews, used on various occasions, and to different purposes; See Gill on Mat 7:2. Here it seems to intimate, that if the disciples carefully hearkened to what they heard from Christ, and studiously laboured to understand it, and faithfully dispensed it to others, in return, a larger measure, and greater degree of spiritual knowledge, would be bestowed upon them: for it follows, and

unto you that hear, shall more be given; that is, that hear so as to understand, keep, and make a good use of what they hear, more shall be communicated to them; they shall have an increase of knowledge in the doctrines of grace, and mysteries of the Gospel.

Gill: Mar 4:25 - For he that hath, to him shall be given // and he that hath not, from him shall be taken, even that which he hath For he that hath, to him shall be given,.... He that has Gospel light and knowledge, and makes a proper use of it, he shall have more; his path shall ...

For he that hath, to him shall be given,.... He that has Gospel light and knowledge, and makes a proper use of it, he shall have more; his path shall be as the path of the just, which shines more and more to the perfect day; the means of grace and knowledge shall be blessed, to him, he attending constantly thereon, that he shall arrive to such a knowledge of the Son of God as to be a perfect man in comparison of others, who are in a lower class; and shall come to the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ, shall grow up to maturity, and be a man in understanding: and he that has the truth of grace, though its beginning is but small, yet that making and keeping him humble, as it always does, he shall have more grace, or that he has shall open and enlarge in its actings and exercises; his faith shall grow exceedingly, he shall abound in hope through the power of the Holy Ghost; and his love to God, and Christ, and to the saints, shall be greater and greater; and he shall increase in humility, patience, self-denial, &c. and so he that has gifts for public usefulness, and does not neglect them, but stirs them up for the profit of others, he shall have an increase of them; he shall shine as a star in Christ's right hand, and appear brighter and brighter in the firmament of the church:

and he that hath not, from him shall be taken, even that which he hath; or seemed to have, or thought he had, Luk 8:18, a saying often used by Christ, both with respect to the ignorant Jews, and professing Christians, and even, as here, to the disciples themselves, respect perhaps being had to Judas. He that has only a speculative notion of the Gospel, and is without any experience and practice of it, in course of time his candle is put out; his light becomes darkness; he drops and denies the truths he held, and relinquishes the profession of them: and he that has only counterfeit grace, a feigned faith, a false hope, and a dissembled love, in due time these will be discovered, and the name of them, and the character he bore, on account of them, will be taken from him: for true grace is never taken away, nor lost; it is a solid, permanent thing, and is inseparable to everlasting glory and happiness: but bare notions of the Gospel, and a mere show of grace, are unstable and transient things; as also are the greatest gifts without the grace of God. Judas had doubtless all the appearance of a true Christian; he had the Gospel committed to him, and the knowledge of it, and gifts qualifying him to preach it, and a commission from Christ for it, yea, even a power of working miracles to confirm what he preached; and yet not having true grace, all was taken away from him, and were of no use unto him in the business of salvation: and so sometimes it is, that even in this life the idle and worthless shepherd has his right arm clean dried up, and his right eye utterly darkened; his ministerial light and abilities are taken away from him; these being either not used at all by him, or used to bad purposes; see Mat 12:12.

Gill: Mar 4:26 - And he said // so is the kingdom of God // as if a man should cast seed into the ground And he said,.... He went on saying the following parable, which was delivered at the same time that the parable of the sower was, though omitted by Ma...

And he said,.... He went on saying the following parable, which was delivered at the same time that the parable of the sower was, though omitted by Matthew; and is here placed between that, and the other concerning the grain of mustard seed; which shows the time when it was spoken. The design of it is to set forth the nature of the word, and the ministration of it; the conduct of the ministers of the Gospel, when they have dispensed it; the imperceptibleness of its springing and growth; the fruitfulness of it, when it has taken root, without the help of man; the gradual increase of grace under the instrumentality of the word; and the gathering of gracious souls, when grace is brought to maturity:

so is the kingdom of God; such is the nature of the Gospel dispensation; and such are the things that are done in it, as may fitly be represented by the following;

as if a man should cast seed into the ground: by "the man", is not meant Christ, for he sleeps not; and besides, he knows how the seed springs and grows; but any Gospel minister, who is sent forth by Christ, bearing precious seed: and by seed is intended, not gracious persons, the children of the kingdom, as in the parable of the tares; nor the grace of God in them, though that is an incorruptible and an abiding seed; but the word of God, or Gospel of Christ, so called for its smallness, the diminutive character it bears, and contempt it is had in by some; and for its choiceness and excellency in itself, and in the account of others; and for its generative virtue under a divine influence: for the Gospel is like the manna, which was a small round thing, as a coriander seed; and as that was contemptible in the eyes of the Israelites, so the preaching of the Gospel is, to them that perish, foolishness; and yet it is choice and precious seed in itself, and to those who know the value of it, by whom it is preferred to thousands of gold and silver; and, as worthless and unpromising as it may seem to be, it has a divine virtue put into it; and, under the influence of powerful and efficacious grace, it is the means of regenerating souls, and produces fruit in them, which will remain unto everlasting life: though, as the seed is of no use this way, unless it is sown in the earth, and covered there; so is the Gospel of no use for regeneration, unless it is by the power of God let into the heart, and received there, where, through that power, it works effectually. By "casting" it into the earth, the preaching of the word is designed; which, like casting seed into the earth, is done with the same sort of seed only, and not with different sorts, with plenty of it, and at the proper time, whatever discouragements there may be, and with great skill and judgment, committing it to God to raise it up again: for the faithful dispensers of the word do not spread divers and strange doctrines; their ministry is all of apiece; they always sow the same like precious seed, without any mixture of the tares of error and heresy; and they do not deal it out in a narrow and niggardly way; they do not restrain and conceal any part of truth, but plentifully distribute it, and declare the whole counsel of God; and though there may be many discouragements attend them, many temptations arise to put off from sowing the word; the weather bad, storms and tempests arise, reproaches and persecutions come thick and fast, still they go on; using all that heavenly skill, prudence, and discretion God has given them, preaching the word in season, and out of season; and when they have done, they leave their work with the Lord, knowing that Paul may plant, and Apollos water, but it is God only that gives the increase: and by the "ground", into which it is cast, As meant the hearers of the word, who are of different sorts; some like the way side, others like the stony ground, and others like the thorny earth, and some like good ground, as here; whose hearts are broke up by the Spirit of God, the stoniness of them taken away, and they made susceptive of the good word.

Gill: Mar 4:27 - And should sleep // and rise night and day // and the seed should spring and grow up, he knoweth not how And should sleep,.... That is, the man that casts in the seed, who represents the ministers of the Gospel: and, as applied to them, is not to be under...

And should sleep,.... That is, the man that casts in the seed, who represents the ministers of the Gospel: and, as applied to them, is not to be understood of natural sleep, and indulging themselves in that; much less of spiritual sloth and indolence, as if they cared not what became of the seed sown, whether it sprung up, and came to any thing, or not; for neither of these belong to the characters of the true ministers of the word: for though bodily sleep in them, as in other men, is necessary for the support of nature, and to put them in a capacity of discharging their work; yet perhaps none have less of it than studious and laborious preachers of the Gospel; and much less do they indulge a spiritual sleep and slothfulness; though this may sometimes attend them, as well as others: but then, whilst they sleep, in this sense, tares are sown, and they spring up, and not the good seed of the word, as in this parable; besides, as they labour in the word and doctrine, by studying and preaching it, so they follow their ministrations with incessant prayers that they be succeeded to the conversion of sinners, and comfort of saints; nor can they be easy, unless they have some seals of their ministry: but rather, this may be understood of the sleep of death; for so it often is, that the seed sown by them does not appear in the fruits of it to the churches of Christ, among whom they have ministered, until after they are fallen asleep in Jesus: though it seems best to understand it of their holy security, confidence, and satisfaction in their own minds, that it will turn to profit and advantage, both to the good of souls, and glory of God, not despairing of success; but having left their work with their Lord, they sit down easy and satisfied, believing that the word shall prosper to the thing whereunto it is sent:

and rise night and day; which shows their diligence and laboriousness, and their constant attendance to other parts of their work, rising up early, and sitting up late, to prepare for, and discharge their ministerial work; and their continued expectation of the springing-up of the seed sown, which accordingly does in proper time:

and the seed should spring and grow up, he knoweth not how; it is a mystery in nature, how the seed under the clods, where it dies before it is quickened, should spring and grow up, and bring forth fruit; and so it is in grace, how the word of God first operates on a sinner's heart, and becomes the ingrafted word there; the time when, and much less the manner how, grace, by this means, is implanted in the heart, are not known to a soul itself, and still less to the ministers of the word, who sometimes never know any thing of it; and when they do, not till some time after: this work is done secretly, and powerfully, under the influence of divine grace, without their knowledge, though by them as instruments; so that though the sowing and planting are theirs, all the increase is God's: this may encourage attendance on the ministry of the word, and teach us to ascribe the work of conversion entirely to the power and grace of God.

Gill: Mar 4:28 - For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself // first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself,.... Without any further help, or cultivation from the husbandman; though under the influence of the sun...

For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself,.... Without any further help, or cultivation from the husbandman; though under the influence of the sun, dews, and showers of rain from heaven: this is said, not to denote that man of himself, upon hearing the word, can bring forth the fruit of grace in himself; he cannot regenerate himself, nor quicken, nor convert himself; he cannot believe in Christ, nor love the Lord of himself; nor repent of his sin, nor begin, or carry on the good work; he can neither sanctify his heart, nor mortify the deeds of the body; or even bring forth the fruits of good works, when converted. For all these things are owing to the Spirit, power, and grace of God: men are regenerated according to the abundant mercy of God, of water and of the Spirit, by the word of truth, through the sovereign will and pleasure of God; and they are quickened, who before were dead in trespasses and sins, and were as dry bones, by the Spirit of God breathing upon them: conversion in the first production, is the Lord's work; "turn thou me, and I shall be turned": faith in Christ is not of ourselves, it is the gift of God; and so is repentance unto life; love is one of the fruits of the Spirit, and in short, the whole work of grace is not by might, nor by power of man, but by the Spirit of the Lord of hosts; who begins and carries on, and performs it until the day of Christ: the work of sanctification, is therefore called the sanctification of the Spirit; and it is through him the deeds of the body are mortified: and indeed, without Christ, believers themselves can do nothing at all; even cannot perform good works, or do any action that is truly and spiritually good. But the design is to show, that as the earth without human power, without the husbandman, under the influence of the heavens, brings forth fruit; so without human power, without the Gospel minister, the word having taken root under divine influence, through the sun of righteousness, the dews of divine grace, and operations of the blessed Spirit, it rises up and brings forth fruit:

first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear; which, as it very aptly describes the progress of the seed from first to last; so it very beautifully represents the gradual increase of the work of grace, under the instrumentality of the word, accompanied with the Spirit and power of God. Grace at first appearance is very small, like the small green spire, when it first shoots out of the earth: light into a man's self, his heart, his state and condition, in the knowledge of Christ, and the doctrines of the Gospel, is but very small; he is one of little faith, and weak in the exercise of it: faith is but at first a small glimmering view of Christ, a venture upon him, a peradventure there may be life and salvation for such an one in him; it comes at length to a reliance and leaning upon him; and it is some time before the soul can walk alone by faith on him: its experience of the love of God is but small, but in process of time there is a growth and an increase; light increases, which shines more and more unto the perfect day; faith grows stronger and stronger; experience of the love of God is enlarged; and the believer wades in these waters of the sanctuary; not only as at first up to the ankles, but to the knees and loins; when at length they are a broad river to swim in, and which cannot be passed over.

Gill: Mar 4:29 - But when the fruit is brought forth // immediately he putteth the sickle // because the harvest is come But when the fruit is brought forth,.... Unto perfection, and is fully ripe; signifying that when grace is brought to maturity, and faith is performed...

But when the fruit is brought forth,.... Unto perfection, and is fully ripe; signifying that when grace is brought to maturity, and faith is performed with power, and the good work begun is perfected; then, as the husbandman,

immediately he putteth the sickle; and cuts it down, and gathers it in;

because the harvest is come; at death or at the end of the world, which the harvest represents: when all the elect of God are called by grace, and grace in them is brought to its perfection, and they have brought forth all the fruit they were ordained to bear, they will then be all gathered in; either by Christ himself who comes into his garden, and gathers his lilies by death; or by the angels, the reapers, at the close of time, who will gather the elect from the four winds; or the ministers of the Gospel, who shall come again with joy, bringing their sheaves with them; being able to observe with pleasure a greater increase, and more fruit of their labours, than they knew of, or expected.

Gill: Mar 4:30 - And he said // whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God, or with what comparison shall we compare it And he said,.... Still continuing his discourse on this subject, and in order to convey to the minds of his disciples clearer ideas of the Gospel disp...

And he said,.... Still continuing his discourse on this subject, and in order to convey to the minds of his disciples clearer ideas of the Gospel dispensation, the success of the Gospel, and the usefulness of their ministration of it, for their encouragement, how unpromising soever things might then be:

whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God, or with what comparison shall we compare it? It was usual with the Jewish doctors, when about to illustrate anything in a parabolical way to begin with such like questions; as, למה הדבר דומה, "to what is this thing like" d? when the answer is to such or such thing, as here.

Gill: Mar 4:31 - It is like a grain of mustard seed // which when it is sown in the earth, is less than all the seeds that be in the earth It is like a grain of mustard seed,.... That is, the kingdom of God spoken of in the preceding verse, is like unto a grain of mustard seed; by which i...

It is like a grain of mustard seed,.... That is, the kingdom of God spoken of in the preceding verse, is like unto a grain of mustard seed; by which is meant, either the Gospel, or the Gospel church state, or the grace of God in the hearts of his people, and it may include them all: the Gospel is so called, because it treats of the two latter; but more especially, because it brings life and immortality to light, or points to the kingdom of heaven, directs the way unto it, and shows what qualifies persons for it, and gives them a claim unto it: and the Gospel church state may be so called, because here Christ dwells, and rules as king; the members of it are his subjects, and the ordinances of it are his laws, to which they are obedient: and the grace of God in the hearts of his people may be so called, because it is a governing principle in them; it reigns through righteousness unto eternal life, and by it Christ reigns in and over them: now the kingdom of God in each of these senses, may be compared to a grain of mustard seed, for the smallness of it, as follows;

which when it is sown in the earth, is less than all the seeds that be in the earth. The Gospel was first preached by very few persons, and these of no figure and account, especially at their first setting out. John the Baptist came preaching the kingdom of God, clothed with a garment of camel's hair, and with a leathern girdle about his loins; our Lord himself made no pompous appearance, there was no form nor comeliness in him; he was a man of sorrows, and acquainted with griefs, and of a mean descent and occupation; his disciples were fishermen, and illiterate persons; those to whom it was preached, and by whom it was received at first were but few, and these were the poor and the unlearned, and publicans and sinners. The Gospel church state at first, consisted of very few persons, of Christ and his twelve apostles; and at his death, the number of the disciples at Jerusalem, men and women, were but an hundred and twenty; the several Gospel churches formed in the Gentile world, rose from small beginnings; from the conversion of a very few persons, and these the filth of the world, and the offscouring of all things. The grace of God in the hearts of his people at first, is very little; it can scarcely be discerned by themselves, and is ready to be despised by others; their light and knowledge, their faith and experience being so exceeding small.

Gill: Mar 4:32 - But when it is sown, it groweth up // and becometh greater than all herbs // and shooteth out great branches, so that the fowls of the air may lodge under the shadow of it But when it is sown, it groweth up,.... So the Gospel, when it was preached, it spread notwithstanding all the opposition made against it by, the Jews...

But when it is sown, it groweth up,.... So the Gospel, when it was preached, it spread notwithstanding all the opposition made against it by, the Jews and Gentiles: there was no stopping it; though the Jewish sanhedrim charged the apostles to speak no more in the name of Jesus, they regarded them not; though Herod stretched forth his hands against the church, and killed one apostle, and put another in prison, yet "the word of God grew and multiplied", Act 12:1, and Gospel churches when set up, whether in Judea, or among the Gentiles, presently had additions made unto them, and "grew up", as holy temples in the Lord: and wherever the grace of God is really implanted, there is a growing in it, and in the knowledge of Christ Jesus:

and becometh greater than all herbs: the Gospel exceeds the traditions of the Jews, and the philosophy of the Gentiles, and any human scheme whatever, in its nature, usefulness, and the largeness of its spread: and the Gospel church state will ere long fill the world, and all nations shall flow unto it; when the Jews shall be converted, and the fulness of the Gentiles shall come, it will be a greater kingdom, than any of the kingdoms of the earth ever were: and the grace of God in the heart, is vastly above nature, and does that which nature can never perform; and which spreads and enlarges, and at last issues in eternal glory:

and shooteth out great branches, so that the fowls of the air may lodge under the shadow of it: by whom are meant, saints; such to whom the Gospel is come in power, and who have the grace of God wrought in their hearts, who are partakers of the heavenly calling: these come where the Gospel is preached, and where gracious souls are met together, even in the several Gospel churches; where they not only come and go, but where they lodge, abide, and continue, under the shadow of the Gospel, and Gospel ordinances, and that with great delight and pleasure; singing songs of praise to God, for his electing and redeeming love, and for calling grace, and for all spiritual blessings, and Gospel privileges: for a larger explanation and illustration of this parable; see Gill on Mat 13:31, Mat 13:32.

Gill: Mar 4:33 - And with many such parables // spake he the word unto them // as they were able to hear it And with many such parables,.... As those of the tares, of the leaven in three measures of meal, of the treasure hid in the field, the pearl of great ...

And with many such parables,.... As those of the tares, of the leaven in three measures of meal, of the treasure hid in the field, the pearl of great price, the net cast into the sea, and of the Scribe instructed unto the kingdom of God; which though not related at length here, are by the Evangelist Matthew, in Mat 13:24 together with others elsewhere:

spake he the word unto them; preached the Gospel to the multitude,

as they were able to hear it: meaning either that he condescended to their weakness, accommodated himself to their capacities, and made use of the plainest similes; and took his comparison from things in nature, the most known and obvious, that what he intended might more easily be understood; or rather, he spoke the word to them in parables, as they were able to hear, without understanding them; and in such a manner, on purpose that they might not understand; for had he more clearly expressed the things relating to himself, as the Messiah, and to the Gospel dispensation, so as that they could have took in his meaning, such were their pride, their wickedness, and the rancour of their minds, that they would have at once rose up, and attempted to have destroyed him.

Gill: Mar 4:34 - But without a parable spake he not unto them // And when they were alone, he expounded all things to his disciples But without a parable spake he not unto them,.... For the above reason, as well as for the accomplishment of Scripture; See Gill on Mat 13:34, Mat 13:...

But without a parable spake he not unto them,.... For the above reason, as well as for the accomplishment of Scripture; See Gill on Mat 13:34, Mat 13:35.

And when they were alone, he expounded all things to his disciples: after they returned with him from the sea side, to the house in Capernaum, where he usually was when there; see Mat 13:36. The multitude being dismissed, he unfolded and explained all these parables to his disciples, and led them into a large knowledge of himself, and the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven; whereby they were furnished for the work he had called them to, and designed them for.

Gill: Mar 4:35 - And the same day, when the even was come // he saith unto them // let us pass over unto the other side And the same day, when the even was come,.... After he had finished his parables among the multitude, and had explained them to his disciples: he s...

And the same day, when the even was come,.... After he had finished his parables among the multitude, and had explained them to his disciples:

he saith unto them; his disciples,

let us pass over unto the other side: that is, of the sea of Galilee, or lake of Gennesaret, to the country of the Gadarenes, and Gergesenes; with a view for retirement and rest, after the fatigue of the day; and for the trial of the faith of his disciples, by a storm which he knew would arise, whilst they were on the sea; and for the sake of a miracle he was to work on the other side, after related.

Gill: Mar 4:36 - And when they had sent away the multitude // they took him even as he was in the ship // and there were also with him other little ships And when they had sent away the multitude,.... Who had been attending him all day on the sea shore; though they seem to have been dismissed by Christ,...

And when they had sent away the multitude,.... Who had been attending him all day on the sea shore; though they seem to have been dismissed by Christ, when he went into the house, and privately interpreted the parables to his disciples: see Mat 13:36, wherefore it is possible, that upon Christ's going to the sea shore again, in order to take boat for the other side, they might gather together the disciples acquainted them that he was not about to preach any more to them, but was going to the other side of the lake; upon which they departed: and

they took him even as he was in the ship; which may be understood of his being taken and carried in the ship, in which he had been preaching all the day, without being moved into another; though this does not so well agree with his quitting that, and going home to his house in Capernaum; where, being alone with the disciples, he opened the parables to them. Some think it refers to the situation and posture in which he laid himself, as soon as he entered the ship; placing himself at the stern, and laying his head upon a pillow there, and so they carried him: others, that they took him into the ship, as he was alone without the multitude, who were sent away, only the disciples with him, which seems best:

and there were also with him other little ships; or boats, that were in company with that, in which Christ was; and had in them either seafaring men upon business, taking fish, or carrying passengers over; or might have in them persons, who were going along with Christ to the other side: these seem to be ordered in providence to be in company, that they might be witnesses of the after miracle.

Gill: Mar 4:37 - And there arose a great storm of wind // and the waves beat into the ship, so that it was full And there arose a great storm of wind,.... Called Laelaps, a wind that is suddenly whirled about upwards and downwards, and is said to be a storm, or ...

And there arose a great storm of wind,.... Called Laelaps, a wind that is suddenly whirled about upwards and downwards, and is said to be a storm, or tempest of wind with rain; it was a sort of a hurricane:

and the waves beat into the ship, so that it was full; of water, and ready to sink. Beza says in one copy it read, βυθιζεσθαι, and so in one of Stephens's. It was immersed, covered all over with water, and was going down at once to the bottom; so that they were in imminent danger, in the utmost extremity; See Gill on Mat 8:24.

Gill: Mar 4:38 - And he was in the hinder part of the ship // asleep on a pillow // And they awake him, and say unto him, Master, carest thou not that we perish And he was in the hinder part of the ship,.... That is, Christ was in the stern of the ship: the Persic version renders it, "he was in the bottom of t...

And he was in the hinder part of the ship,.... That is, Christ was in the stern of the ship: the Persic version renders it, "he was in the bottom of the ship, in a corner", but very wrongly; here he was

asleep on a pillow, which some say was a wooden one, framed at the stern: however, he was fast asleep on it, being greatly fatigued with the work of the day; See Gill on Mat 8:24.

And they awake him, and say unto him, Master, carest thou not that we perish? The disciples came to him and jogged him, and awoke him out of sleep; saying, Master, arise, and save us, or we are lost: hast thou no concern for us? how canst thou lie sleeping here, when we are in such danger? are our lives of no account with thee? is it a matter of no moment with thee, whether we are saved or lost? They seem to say this, not so much praying and interrogating, as complaining and reproving.

Gill: Mar 4:39 - And he arose and rebuked the wind // and said unto the sea, peace, be still // and the wind ceased, and there was a great calm And he arose and rebuked the wind,.... He arose from off his pillow, and stood up; and in a majestic and authoritative way reproved the wind, as if it...

And he arose and rebuked the wind,.... He arose from off his pillow, and stood up; and in a majestic and authoritative way reproved the wind, as if it was a servant that had exceeded his commission; at which he shows some resentment:

and said unto the sea, peace, be still; as if that which was very tumultuous and boisterous, and threatened with shipwreck and the loss of lives, had raged too much and too long:

and the wind ceased, and there was a great calm; which was very unusual and extraordinary; for after the wind has ceased, and the storm is over, the waters of the sea being agitated thereby, keep raging, and in a violent motion, for a considerable time; whereas here, as soon as ever the word was spoken, immediately, at once, the wind ceased, and the sea was calmed: a clear proof this, that he must be the most high God, who gathers the winds in his fists, and stills the noise of the seas and their waves.

Gill: Mar 4:40 - And he said unto them // why are ye so fearful // how is it that ye have no faith And he said unto them,.... His disciples, why are ye so fearful? since he was with them in person, whose power to keep and preserve them, they had ...

And he said unto them,.... His disciples,

why are ye so fearful? since he was with them in person, whose power to keep and preserve them, they had no room to question, when they reflected on the miracles they had so lately seen performed by him:

how is it that ye have no faith? That is, in exercise: faith they had, but it was very small, and scarcely to be called faith: they did indeed apply to him to save them, which showed some faith in him, but then they feared it was too late, and that they were past all hope, and were just perishing; See Gill on Mat 8:26.

Gill: Mar 4:41 - And they feared exceedingly // and said to one another // what manner of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him And they feared exceedingly,.... That is, the men in the ship, the mariners to whom the ship belonged, and who had the management of it: and said t...

And they feared exceedingly,.... That is, the men in the ship, the mariners to whom the ship belonged, and who had the management of it:

and said to one another, as persons in the greatest amazement,

what manner of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him? Surely this person must not be a mere man; he must be more than a man; he must be truly God, that has such power over the wind and sea. This best suits with the mariners, since the disciples must have known before, who and what he was; though they might be more established and confirmed in the truth of Christ's deity, by this wonderful instance of his power.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Mar 4:1 Grk “and all the crowd.” The clause in this phrase, although coordinate in terms of grammar, is logically subordinate to the previous clau...

NET Notes: Mar 4:2 Though parables can contain a variety of figures of speech (cf. 2:19-22; 3:23-25; 4:3-9, 26-32; 7:15-17; 13:28), many times they are simply stories th...

NET Notes: Mar 4:3 A sower went out to sow. The background for this well-known parable, drawn from a typical scene in the Palestinian countryside, is a field through whi...

NET Notes: Mar 4:4 Mark’s version of the parable, like Luke’s (cf. Luke 8:4-8), uses the collective singular to refer to the seed throughout, so singular pro...

NET Notes: Mar 4:5 Grk “it did not have enough depth of earth.”

NET Notes: Mar 4:6 Grk “it did not have root.”

NET Notes: Mar 4:7 That is, crowded out the good plants.

NET Notes: Mar 4:8 Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in the final stage of the parable.

NET Notes: Mar 4:9 The translation “had better listen!” captures the force of the third person imperative more effectively than the traditional “let hi...

NET Notes: Mar 4:11 This is an example of a “divine passive,” with God understood to be the source of the revelation (see ExSyn 437-38).

NET Notes: Mar 4:12 A quotation from Isa 6:9-10. Thus parables both conceal or reveal depending on whether one is open to hearing what they teach.

NET Notes: Mar 4:13 Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the n...

NET Notes: Mar 4:15 The word of Jesus has the potential to save if it germinates in a person’s heart, something the devil is very much against.

NET Notes: Mar 4:17 Grk “are temporary.”

NET Notes: Mar 4:19 That is, their concern for spiritual things is crowded out by material things.

NET Notes: Mar 4:20 Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

NET Notes: Mar 4:21 Or “a bowl”; this refers to any container for dry material of about eight liters (two gallons) capacity. It could be translated “bas...

NET Notes: Mar 4:22 Or “disclosed.”

NET Notes: Mar 4:23 The translation “had better listen!” captures the force of the third person imperative more effectively than the traditional “let hi...

NET Notes: Mar 4:24 Grk “by [the measure] with which you measure it will be measured to you.”

NET Notes: Mar 4:25 What he has will be taken from him. The meaning is that the one who accepts Jesus’ teaching concerning his person and the kingdom will receive a...

NET Notes: Mar 4:29 Because the harvest has come. This parable is found only in Mark (cf. Matt 13:24-30) and presents a complete picture of the coming of God’s king...

NET Notes: Mar 4:31 Mustard seeds are known for their tiny size.

NET Notes: Mar 4:32 The point of the parable seems to be that while the kingdom of God may appear to have insignificant and unnoticeable beginnings (i.e., in the ministry...

NET Notes: Mar 4:33 Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in t...

NET Notes: Mar 4:35 The phrase “of the lake” is not in the Greek text but is clearly implied; it has been supplied here for clarity.

NET Notes: Mar 4:36 A boat that held all the disciples would be of significant size.

NET Notes: Mar 4:37 The Sea of Galilee is located in a depression some 700 ft (200 m) below sea level and is surrounded by hills. Frequently a rush of wind and the right ...

NET Notes: Mar 4:38 Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

NET Notes: Mar 4:39 Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the n...

NET Notes: Mar 4:41 This section in Mark (4:35-5:43) contains four miracles: (1) the calming of the storm; (2) the exorcism of the demon-possessed man; (3) the giving of ...

Geneva Bible: Mar 4:1 And he began again to teach by the ( a ) sea side: and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that he entered into a ship, and sat ( b ) in...

Geneva Bible: Mar 4:3 ( 1 ) Hearken; Behold, there went out a sower to sow: ( 1 ) The same doctrine of the Gospel is sown everywhere, but it it does not have the same succ...

Geneva Bible: Mar 4:10 And when he was ( c ) alone, they that were ( d ) about him with the twelve asked of him the parable. ( c ) Literally, "solitary". ( d ) They that f...

Geneva Bible: Mar 4:11 And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are ( e ) without, all [these] things are do...

Geneva Bible: Mar 4:19 And the cares ( f ) of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruit...

Geneva Bible: Mar 4:21 ( 2 ) And he said unto them, Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick? ( 2 ) Although the lig...

Geneva Bible: Mar 4:24 ( 3 ) And he said unto them, Take heed what ye hear: with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you: and unto you that hear shall more be give...

Geneva Bible: Mar 4:26 ( 4 ) And he said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed into the ground; ( 4 ) The Lord sows and reaps in a manner unknown to men.

Geneva Bible: Mar 4:27 And ( g ) should sleep, and rise night and day, and the seed should spring and grow up, he ( h ) knoweth not how. ( g ) That is, when he has finished...

Geneva Bible: Mar 4:28 For the earth bringeth forth fruit ( i ) of herself; first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear. ( i ) By a certain power whi...

Geneva Bible: Mar 4:30 ( 5 ) And he said, Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? or with what comparison shall we compare it? ( 5 ) God uses a method that men never d...

Geneva Bible: Mar 4:33 And with many such parables spake he the word unto them, ( k ) as they were able to hear [it]. ( k ) According to the ability of the hearers.

Geneva Bible: Mar 4:34 But without a parable spake he not unto them: and when they were alone, he ( l ) expounded all things to his disciples. ( l ) Literally, "loosed", as...

Geneva Bible: Mar 4:37 ( 6 ) And there arose a great storm of wind, and the waves beat into the ship, so that it was now full. ( 6 ) They that sail with Christ, although he...

Geneva Bible: Mar 4:40 And he said unto them, ( m ) Why are ye so fearful? how is it that ye have no faith? ( m ) How does it come to pass that you have no faith?

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Mar 4:10-20 - A Libation To Jehovah Four Soils For One Seed And when He was alone, they that were about Him with the twelve asked of Him the parable. 11. And He said unto them, Unto you...

Maclaren: Mar 4:21 - A Libation To Jehovah Lamps And Bushels "And Jesus said unto them, Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, Or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick? '--Mar...

Maclaren: Mar 4:35-41 - A Libation To Jehovah The Storm Stilled And the same day, when the even was come, He saith unto them, Let us pass over unto the other side. 36. And when they had sent away...

Maclaren: Mar 4:36-38 - A Libation To Jehovah The Toiling Christ They took Him even as He was in the ship. And He was in the hinder part of the ship, asleep on a pillow.'--Mark 4:36-38. AMONG the...

MHCC: Mar 4:1-20 - --This parable contained instruction so important, that all capable of hearing were bound to attend to it. There are many things we are concerned to kno...

MHCC: Mar 4:21-34 - --These declarations were intended to call the attention of the disciples to the word of Christ. By his thus instructing them, they were made able to in...

MHCC: Mar 4:35-41 - --Christ was asleep in the storm, to try the faith of his disciples, and to stir them up to pray. Their faith appeared weak, and their prayers strong. W...

Matthew Henry: Mar 4:1-20 - -- The foregoing chapter began with Christ's entering into the synagogue (Mar 4:1); this chapter begins with Christ's teaching again by the sea side...

Matthew Henry: Mar 4:21-34 - -- The lessons which our Saviour designs to teach us here by parables and figurative expressions are these: - I. That those who are good ought to co...

Matthew Henry: Mar 4:35-41 - -- This miracle which Christ wrought for the relief of his disciples, in stilling the storm, we had before (Mat 8:23, etc.); but it is here more fully ...

Barclay: Mar 4:1-2 - "TEACHING IN PARABLES" In this section we see Jesus making a new departure. He was no longer teaching in the synagogue; he was teaching by the lakeside. He had made the o...