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Teks -- Luke 13:1-35 (NET)

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Konteks
A Call to Repent
13:1 Now there were some present on that occasion who told him about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices. 13:2 He answered them, “Do you think these Galileans were worse sinners than all the other Galileans, because they suffered these things? 13:3 No, I tell you! But unless you repent, you will all perish as well! 13:4 Or those eighteen who were killed when the tower in Siloam fell on them, do you think they were worse offenders than all the others who live in Jerusalem? 13:5 No, I tell you! But unless you repent you will all perish as well!”
Warning to Israel to Bear Fruit
13:6 Then Jesus told this parable: “A man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard, and he came looking for fruit on it and found none. 13:7 So he said to the worker who tended the vineyard, ‘For three years now, I have come looking for fruit on this fig tree, and each time I inspect it I find none. Cut it down! Why should it continue to deplete the soil?’ 13:8 But the worker answered him, ‘Sir, leave it alone this year too, until I dig around it and put fertilizer on it. 13:9 Then if it bears fruit next year, very well, but if not, you can cut it down.’”
Healing on the Sabbath
13:10 Now he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath, 13:11 and a woman was there who had been disabled by a spirit for eighteen years. She was bent over and could not straighten herself up completely. 13:12 When Jesus saw her, he called her to him and said, “Woman, you are freed from your infirmity.” 13:13 Then he placed his hands on her, and immediately she straightened up and praised God. 13:14 But the president of the synagogue, indignant because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the crowd, “There are six days on which work should be done! So come and be healed on those days, and not on the Sabbath day.” 13:15 Then the Lord answered him, “You hypocrites! Does not each of you on the Sabbath untie his ox or his donkey from its stall, and lead it to water? 13:16 Then shouldn’t this woman, a daughter of Abraham whom Satan bound for eighteen long years, be released from this imprisonment on the Sabbath day?” 13:17 When he said this all his adversaries were humiliated, but the entire crowd was rejoicing at all the wonderful things he was doing.
On the Kingdom of God
13:18 Thus Jesus asked, “What is the kingdom of God like? To what should I compare it? 13:19 It is like a mustard seed that a man took and sowed in his garden. It grew and became a tree, and the wild birds nested in its branches.” 13:20 Again he said, “To what should I compare the kingdom of God? 13:21 It is like yeast that a woman took and mixed with three measures of flour until all the dough had risen.”
The Narrow Door
13:22 Then Jesus traveled throughout towns and villages, teaching and making his way toward Jerusalem. 13:23 Someone asked him, “Lord, will only a few be saved?” So he said to them, 13:24 “Exert every effort to enter through the narrow door, because many, I tell you, will try to enter and will not be able to. 13:25 Once the head of the house gets up and shuts the door, then you will stand outside and start to knock on the door and beg him, ‘Lord, let us in!’ But he will answer answer you, ‘I don’t know where you come from.’ 13:26 Then you will begin to say, ‘We ate and drank in your presence, and you taught in our streets.’ 13:27 But he will reply, ‘I don’t know where you come from! Go away from me, all you evildoers!’ 13:28 There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth when you see Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and all the prophets in the kingdom of God but you yourselves thrown out. 13:29 Then people will come from east and west, and from north and south, and take their places at the banquet table in the kingdom of God. 13:30 But indeed, some are last who will be first, and some are first who will be last.”
Going to Jerusalem
13:31 At that time, some Pharisees came up and said to Jesus, “Get away from here, because Herod wants to kill you.” 13:32 But he said to them, “Go and tell that fox, ‘Look, I am casting out demons and performing healings today and tomorrow, and on the third day I will complete my work. 13:33 Nevertheless I must go on my way today and tomorrow and the next day, because it is impossible impossible that a prophet should be killed outside Jerusalem.’ 13:34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those who are sent to you! How often I have longed to gather your children together as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you would have none of it! 13:35 Look, your house is forsaken! And I tell you, you will not see me until you say, ‘Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord!’”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abraham a son of Terah; the father of Isaac; ancestor of the Jewish nation.,the son of Terah of Shem
 · Galilean the region of Palestine north of Sameria and west of the upper Jordan River,a region west of Lake Galilee and north of the Jezreel Valley
 · Herod son of Antipater; king over Judea when Christ was born,a son of Herod the Great,a grandson of Herod the Great and son of Aristobulus and Berenice
 · Isaac the only son of Abraham and Sarah; father of Jacob and Esau
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Pharisee a religious group or sect of the Jews
 · Pilate the Roman governor of Judea who allowed Jesus to be crucified
 · Satan a person, male (evil angelic),an angel that has rebelled against God
 · Siloam a pool (water reservoir) and a tower at Jerusalem


Topik/Tema Kamus: LUKE, THE GOSPEL OF | Sabbath | Jesus, The Christ | JESUS CHRIST, 4D | Judgment | Repentance | Miracles | Synagogue | Wicked | CROOK-BACKED | Hypocrisy | ESCHATOLOGY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, VI-X | Impenitence | Reprobacy | God | Fig Tree | Responsibility | Opportunity | JESUS CHRIST, 4C1 | Kingdom of God | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Lightfoot , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College , McGarvey , Lapide

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Luk 13:1 - At that very season At that very season ( en autōi tōi kairōi ). Luke’ s frequent idiom, "at the season itself."Apparently in close connexion with the precedi...

At that very season ( en autōi tōi kairōi ).

Luke’ s frequent idiom, "at the season itself."Apparently in close connexion with the preceding discourses. Probably "were present"(parēsan , imperfect of pareimi ) means "came,""stepped to his side,"as often (Mat 26:50; Act 12:20; Joh 11:28). These people had a piece of news for Jesus.

Robertson: Luk 13:1 - Whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices Whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices ( hōn to haima Peilatos emixen meta tōn thusiōn autōn ). The verb emixen is first aori...

Whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices ( hōn to haima Peilatos emixen meta tōn thusiōn autōn ).

The verb emixen is first aorist active (not past perfect) of mignumi , a common verb. The incident is recorded nowhere else, but is in entire harmony with Pilate’ s record for outrages. These Galileans at a feast in Jerusalem may have been involved in some insurrection against the Roman government, the leaders of whom Pilate had slain right in the temple courts where the sacrifices were going on. Jesus comments on the incident, but not as the reporters had expected. Instead of denunciation of Pilate he turned it into a parable for their own conduct in the uncertainty of life.

Robertson: Luk 13:2 - Sinners above all Sinners above all ( hamartōloi para pantas ). Para means "beside,"placed beside all the Galileans, and so beyond or above (with the accusative).

Sinners above all ( hamartōloi para pantas ).

Para means "beside,"placed beside all the Galileans, and so beyond or above (with the accusative).

Robertson: Luk 13:2 - Have suffered Have suffered ( peponthasin ). Second perfect active indicative third plural from paschō , common verb, to experience, suffer. The tense notes that...

Have suffered ( peponthasin ).

Second perfect active indicative third plural from paschō , common verb, to experience, suffer. The tense notes that it is "an irrevocable fact"(Bruce).

Robertson: Luk 13:3 - Except ye repent Except ye repent ( ean mē metanoēte ). Present active subjunctive of metanoeō , to change mind and conduct, linear action, keep on changing. Co...

Except ye repent ( ean mē metanoēte ).

Present active subjunctive of metanoeō , to change mind and conduct, linear action, keep on changing. Condition of third class, undetermined, but with prospect of determination.

Robertson: Luk 13:3 - Ye shall perish Ye shall perish ( apoleisthe ). Future middle indicative of apollumi and intransitive. Common verb.

Ye shall perish ( apoleisthe ).

Future middle indicative of apollumi and intransitive. Common verb.

Robertson: Luk 13:4 - The tower in Siloam The tower in Siloam ( ho purgos en Silōam ). Few sites have been more clearly located than this. Jesus mentions this accident (only in Luke) of his...

The tower in Siloam ( ho purgos en Silōam ).

Few sites have been more clearly located than this. Jesus mentions this accident (only in Luke) of his own accord to illustrate still further the responsibility of his hearers. Jesus makes use of public events in both these incidents to teach spiritual lessons. He gives the "moral"to the massacre of the Galilean pilgrims and the "moral"of the catastrophe at Siloam.

Robertson: Luk 13:4 - Offenders Offenders ( opheiletai ). Literally, debtors , not sinners as in Luk 13:2 and as the Authorized Version renders here. See note on Luk 7:41; Luk 11:4...

Offenders ( opheiletai ).

Literally, debtors , not sinners as in Luk 13:2 and as the Authorized Version renders here. See note on Luk 7:41; Luk 11:4; Mat 6:12; Mat 18:24-34.

Robertson: Luk 13:5 - Except ye repent Except ye repent ( ean mē metanoēsēte ). First aorist active subjunctive, immediate repentance in contrast to continued repentance, metanoēte...

Except ye repent ( ean mē metanoēsēte ).

First aorist active subjunctive, immediate repentance in contrast to continued repentance, metanoēte in Luk 13:3, though Westcott and Hort put metanoēte in the margin here. The interpretation of accidents is a difficult matter, but the moral pointed out by Jesus is obvious.

Robertson: Luk 13:6 - Planted Planted ( pephuteumenēn ). Perfect passive participle of phuteuō , to plant, an old verb, from phuton , a plant, and that from phuō , to grow. ...

Planted ( pephuteumenēn ).

Perfect passive participle of phuteuō , to plant, an old verb, from phuton , a plant, and that from phuō , to grow. But this participle with eichen (imperfect active of echō ) does not make a periphrastic past perfect like our English "had planted."It means rather, he had a fig tree, one already planted in his vineyard.

Robertson: Luk 13:7 - The vinedresser The vinedresser ( ton ampelourgon ). Old word, but here only in the N.T., from ampelos , vine, and ergon , work.

The vinedresser ( ton ampelourgon ).

Old word, but here only in the N.T., from ampelos , vine, and ergon , work.

Robertson: Luk 13:7 - These three years I come These three years I come ( tria etē aph' hou erchomai ). Literally, "three years since (from which time) I come."These three years, of course, have...

These three years I come ( tria etē aph' hou erchomai ).

Literally, "three years since (from which time) I come."These three years, of course, have nothing to do with the three years of Christ’ s public ministry. The three years are counted from the time when the fig tree would normally be expected to bear, not from the time of planting. The Jewish nation is meant by this parable of the barren fig tree. In the withering of the barren fig tree later at Jerusalem we see parable changed to object lesson or fact (Mar 11:12-14; Mat 21:18.).

Robertson: Luk 13:7 - Cut it down Cut it down ( ekkopson ). "Cut it out,"the Greek has it, out of the vineyard, perfective use of ek with the effective aorist active imperative of k...

Cut it down ( ekkopson ).

"Cut it out,"the Greek has it, out of the vineyard, perfective use of ek with the effective aorist active imperative of koptō , where we prefer "down."

Robertson: Luk 13:7 - Why? Why? ( hina ti ). Ellipsis here of genētai of which ti is subject (Robertson, Grammar , pp. 739, 916).

Why? ( hina ti ).

Ellipsis here of genētai of which ti is subject (Robertson, Grammar , pp. 739, 916).

Robertson: Luk 13:7 - Also Also ( kai ). Besides bearing no fruit.

Also ( kai ).

Besides bearing no fruit.

Robertson: Luk 13:7 - Doth cumber the ground Doth cumber the ground ( tēn gēn katargei ). Makes the ground completely idle, of no use (kata , argeō , from argos , a privative and ergon ,...

Doth cumber the ground ( tēn gēn katargei ).

Makes the ground completely idle, of no use (kata , argeō , from argos , a privative and ergon , work). Late verb, here only in the N.T. except in Paul’ s Epistles.

Robertson: Luk 13:8 - Till I shall dig Till I shall dig ( heōs hotou skapsō ). First aorist active subjunctive like balō (second aorist active subjunctive of ballō ), both commo...

Till I shall dig ( heōs hotou skapsō ).

First aorist active subjunctive like balō (second aorist active subjunctive of ballō ), both common verbs.

Robertson: Luk 13:8 - Dung it Dung it ( balō kopria ). Cast dung around it, manure it. Kopria , late word, here alone in the N.T.

Dung it ( balō kopria ).

Cast dung around it, manure it. Kopria , late word, here alone in the N.T.

Robertson: Luk 13:9 - And if it bear fruit thenceforth And if it bear fruit thenceforth ( k'an men poiēsēi karpon eis to mellon ). Aposiopesis, sudden breaking off for effect (Robertson, Grammar , p....

And if it bear fruit thenceforth ( k'an men poiēsēi karpon eis to mellon ).

Aposiopesis, sudden breaking off for effect (Robertson, Grammar , p. 1203). See it also in Mar 11:32; Act 23:9. Trench ( Parables ) tells a story like this of intercession for the fig tree for one year more which is widely current among the Arabs today who say that it will certainly bear fruit this time.

Robertson: Luk 13:10 - He was teaching He was teaching ( ēn didaskōn ). Periphrastic imperfect active.

He was teaching ( ēn didaskōn ).

Periphrastic imperfect active.

Robertson: Luk 13:11 - A spirit of infirmity A spirit of infirmity ( pneuma astheneias ). A spirit that caused the weakness (astheneias , lack of strength) like a spirit of bondage (Rom 8:15), g...

A spirit of infirmity ( pneuma astheneias ).

A spirit that caused the weakness (astheneias , lack of strength) like a spirit of bondage (Rom 8:15), genitive case.

Robertson: Luk 13:11 - She was bowed together She was bowed together ( ēn sunkuptousa ). Periphrastic imperfect active of sunkuptō , old verb, here only in the N.T., to bend together, medical...

She was bowed together ( ēn sunkuptousa ).

Periphrastic imperfect active of sunkuptō , old verb, here only in the N.T., to bend together, medical word for curvature of the spine.

Robertson: Luk 13:11 - And could in no wise lift herself up And could in no wise lift herself up ( kai mē dunamenē anakupsai eis to panteles ). Negative form of the previous statement. Anakupsai , first ao...

And could in no wise lift herself up ( kai mē dunamenē anakupsai eis to panteles ).

Negative form of the previous statement. Anakupsai , first aorist active infinitive of anakuptō (ana , kuptō , same verb above compounded with sun ). Unable to bend herself up or back at all (eis to panteles , wholly as in Heb 7:25 only other passage in the N.T. where it occurs). The poor old woman had to come in all bent over.

Robertson: Luk 13:12 - He called her He called her ( prosephōnēsen ). To come to him (pros ).

He called her ( prosephōnēsen ).

To come to him (pros ).

Robertson: Luk 13:12 - Thou art loosed Thou art loosed ( apolelusai ). Perfect passive indicative of apoluō , common verb, loosed to stay free. Only N.T. example of use about disease.

Thou art loosed ( apolelusai ).

Perfect passive indicative of apoluō , common verb, loosed to stay free. Only N.T. example of use about disease.

Robertson: Luk 13:13 - He laid his hands upon her He laid his hands upon her ( epethēken autēi tas cheiras ). First aorist active indicative of epitithēmi . As the Great Physician with gentle k...

He laid his hands upon her ( epethēken autēi tas cheiras ).

First aorist active indicative of epitithēmi . As the Great Physician with gentle kindness.

Robertson: Luk 13:13 - She was made straight She was made straight ( anōrthōthē ). First aorist (effective) passive indicative of anorthoō , old verb, but only three times in the N.T. (L...

She was made straight ( anōrthōthē ).

First aorist (effective) passive indicative of anorthoō , old verb, but only three times in the N.T. (Luk 13:13; Heb 12:12; Act 15:16), to make straight again. Here it has the literal sense of making straight the old woman’ s crooked back.

Robertson: Luk 13:13 - She glorified God She glorified God ( edoxazen ton theon ). Imperfect active. Began it (inchoative) and kept it up.

She glorified God ( edoxazen ton theon ).

Imperfect active. Began it (inchoative) and kept it up.

Robertson: Luk 13:14 - Answered Answered ( apokritheis ). First aorist passive participle of apokrinomai . No one had spoken to him, but he felt his importance as the ruler of the s...

Answered ( apokritheis ).

First aorist passive participle of apokrinomai . No one had spoken to him, but he felt his importance as the ruler of the synagogue and was indignant (aganaktōn , from agan and achomai , to feel much pain). His words have a ludicrous sound as if all the people had to do to get their crooked backs straightened out was to come round to his synagogue during the week. He forgot that this poor old woman had been coming for eighteen years with no result. He was angry with Jesus, but he spoke to the multitude (tōi ochlōi ).

Robertson: Luk 13:14 - Ought Ought ( dei ). Really, must, necessary, a direct hit at Jesus who had "worked"on the sabbath in healing this old woman.

Ought ( dei ).

Really, must, necessary, a direct hit at Jesus who had "worked"on the sabbath in healing this old woman.

Robertson: Luk 13:14 - And not And not ( kai mē ). Instead of kai ou , because in the imperative clause.

And not ( kai mē ).

Instead of kai ou , because in the imperative clause.

Robertson: Luk 13:15 - The Lord answered him The Lord answered him ( apekrithē de autōi ho Kurios ). Note use of "the Lord"of Jesus again in Luke’ s narrative. Jesus answered the ruler ...

The Lord answered him ( apekrithē de autōi ho Kurios ).

Note use of "the Lord"of Jesus again in Luke’ s narrative. Jesus answered the ruler of the synagogue who had spoken to the crowd, but about Jesus. It was a crushing and overwhelming reply.

Robertson: Luk 13:15 - Hypocrites Hypocrites ( hupokritai ). This pretentious faultfinder and all who agree with him.

Hypocrites ( hupokritai ).

This pretentious faultfinder and all who agree with him.

Robertson: Luk 13:15 - Each of you Each of you ( hekastos humōn ). An argumentum ad hominen . These very critics of Jesus cared too much for an ox or an ass to leave it all the sabb...

Each of you ( hekastos humōn ).

An argumentum ad hominen . These very critics of Jesus cared too much for an ox or an ass to leave it all the sabbath without water.

Robertson: Luk 13:15 - Stall Stall ( phatnēs ). Old word, in the N.T. only here and Luk 2:7, Luk 2:12, Luk 2:16 the manger where the infant Jesus was placed.

Stall ( phatnēs ).

Old word, in the N.T. only here and Luk 2:7, Luk 2:12, Luk 2:16 the manger where the infant Jesus was placed.

Robertson: Luk 13:15 - To watering To watering ( potizei ). Old verb, causative, to give to drink.

To watering ( potizei ).

Old verb, causative, to give to drink.

Robertson: Luk 13:16 - Daughter of Abraham Daughter of Abraham ( thugatera Abraam ). Triple argument, human being and not an ox or ass, woman, daughter of Abraham (Jewess), besides being old a...

Daughter of Abraham ( thugatera Abraam ).

Triple argument, human being and not an ox or ass, woman, daughter of Abraham (Jewess), besides being old and ill.

Robertson: Luk 13:16 - Ought not Ought not ( ouk edei ). Imperfect active. Of necessity. Jesus simply had to heal her even if on the sabbath.

Ought not ( ouk edei ).

Imperfect active. Of necessity. Jesus simply had to heal her even if on the sabbath.

Robertson: Luk 13:16 - Whom Satan bound Whom Satan bound ( hēn edēsen ho Satanas ). Definite statement that her disease was due to Satan.

Whom Satan bound ( hēn edēsen ho Satanas ).

Definite statement that her disease was due to Satan.

Robertson: Luk 13:17 - Were put to shame Were put to shame ( katēischunonto ). Imperfect passive of kataischunō , old verb, to make ashamed, make one feel ashamed. Passive here, to blush...

Were put to shame ( katēischunonto ).

Imperfect passive of kataischunō , old verb, to make ashamed, make one feel ashamed. Passive here, to blush with shame at their predicament.

Robertson: Luk 13:17 - Rejoiced Rejoiced ( echairen ). Imperfect active. Sharp contrast in the emotions of the two groups.

Rejoiced ( echairen ).

Imperfect active. Sharp contrast in the emotions of the two groups.

Robertson: Luk 13:17 - Were done Were done ( ginomenois ). Present middle participle, were continually being done.

Were done ( ginomenois ).

Present middle participle, were continually being done.

Robertson: Luk 13:18 - He said therefore He said therefore ( elegen oun ). It is not clear to what to refer "therefore,"whether to the case of the woman in Luk 13:11, the enthusiasm of the c...

He said therefore ( elegen oun ).

It is not clear to what to refer "therefore,"whether to the case of the woman in Luk 13:11, the enthusiasm of the crowd in Luk 13:17, or to something not recorded by Luke.

Robertson: Luk 13:19 - A grain of mustard seed A grain of mustard seed ( kokkōi sinapeōs ). Either the sinapis nigra or the salvadora persica , both of which have small seeds and grow to ...

A grain of mustard seed ( kokkōi sinapeōs ).

Either the sinapis nigra or the salvadora persica , both of which have small seeds and grow to twelve feet at times. The Jews had a proverb: "Small as a mustard seed."Given by Mar 4:30-32; Mat 13:31. in the first great group of parables, but just the sort to be repeated.

Robertson: Luk 13:19 - Cast into his own garden Cast into his own garden ( ebalen eis kēpon heautou ). Different from "earth"(Mark) or "field"(Matthew.)"Kēpos , old word for garden, only here i...

Cast into his own garden ( ebalen eis kēpon heautou ).

Different from "earth"(Mark) or "field"(Matthew.)"Kēpos , old word for garden, only here in the N.T. and Joh 19:1, Joh 19:26; Joh 19:41.

Robertson: Luk 13:19 - Became a tree Became a tree ( egeneto eis dendron ). Common Hebraism, very frequent in lxx, only in Luke in the N.T., but does appear in Koiné though rare in pa...

Became a tree ( egeneto eis dendron ).

Common Hebraism, very frequent in lxx, only in Luke in the N.T., but does appear in Koiné though rare in papyri; this use of eis after words like ginomai . It is a translation Hebraism in Luke.

Robertson: Luk 13:19 - Lodged Lodged ( kateskēnōsen ). Mark and Matthew have kataskēnoin infinitive of the same verb, to make tent (or nest).

Lodged ( kateskēnōsen ).

Mark and Matthew have kataskēnoin infinitive of the same verb, to make tent (or nest).

Robertson: Luk 13:20 - Whereunto shall I liken? Whereunto shall I liken? ( Tini homoiōsō̱ ). This question alone in Luke here as in Luk 13:8. But the parable is precisely like that in Mat 13:3...

Whereunto shall I liken? ( Tini homoiōsō̱ ).

This question alone in Luke here as in Luk 13:8. But the parable is precisely like that in Mat 13:33, which see note for details.

Robertson: Luk 13:22 - Journeying on unto Jerusalem Journeying on unto Jerusalem ( poreian poioumenos eis Ierosoluma ). Making his way to Jerusalem. Note tenses here of continued action, and distributi...

Journeying on unto Jerusalem ( poreian poioumenos eis Ierosoluma ).

Making his way to Jerusalem. Note tenses here of continued action, and distributive use of kata with cities and villages. This is the second of the journeys to Jerusalem in this later ministry corresponding to that in John 11.

Robertson: Luk 13:23 - Are they few that be saved? Are they few that be saved? ( ei oligoi hoi sōzomenoi̱ ). Note use of ei as an interrogative which can be explained as ellipsis or as ei =ē ...

Are they few that be saved? ( ei oligoi hoi sōzomenoi̱ ).

Note use of ei as an interrogative which can be explained as ellipsis or as ei = (Robertson, Grammar , p. 1024). This was an academic theological problem with the rabbis, the number of the elect.

Robertson: Luk 13:24 - Strive Strive ( agōnizesthe ). Jesus makes short shrift of the question. He includes others (present middle plural of agōnizomai , common verb, our agon...

Strive ( agōnizesthe ).

Jesus makes short shrift of the question. He includes others (present middle plural of agōnizomai , common verb, our agonize). Originally it was to contend for a prize in the games. The kindred word agōnia occurs of Christ’ s struggle in Gethsemane (Luk 22:44). The narrow gate appears also in Mat 7:13, only there it is an outside gate (pulēs ) while here it is the entrance to the house, "the narrow door"(thuras ).

Robertson: Luk 13:25 - When once When once ( aph' hou an ). Possibly to be connected without break with the preceding verse (so Westcott and Hort), though Bruce argues for two parabl...

When once ( aph' hou an ).

Possibly to be connected without break with the preceding verse (so Westcott and Hort), though Bruce argues for two parables here, the former (Luk 13:24) about being in earnest, while this one (Luk 13:25-30) about not being too late. The two points are here undoubtedly. It is an awkward construction, aph' hou = apo toutou hote with an and the aorist subjunctive (egerthēi and apokleisēi ). See Robertson, Grammar , p. 978.

Robertson: Luk 13:25 - Hath shut to Hath shut to ( apokleisēi ) , first aorist active subjunctive of apokleiō , old verb, but only here in the N.T. Note effective aorist tense and p...

Hath shut to ( apokleisēi )

, first aorist active subjunctive of apokleiō , old verb, but only here in the N.T. Note effective aorist tense and perfective use of apo , slammed the door fast.

Robertson: Luk 13:25 - And ye begin And ye begin ( kai arxēsthe ). First aorist middle subjunctive of archomai with aph' hou an like egerthēi and apokleisēi .

And ye begin ( kai arxēsthe ).

First aorist middle subjunctive of archomai with aph' hou an like egerthēi and apokleisēi .

Robertson: Luk 13:25 - To stand To stand ( hestanai ). Second perfect active infinitive of histēmi , intransitive tense and to knock (kai krouein ). Present active infinitive, ...

To stand ( hestanai ).

Second perfect active infinitive of histēmi , intransitive tense and to knock (kai krouein ). Present active infinitive, to keep on knocking.

Robertson: Luk 13:25 - Open to us Open to us ( anoixon hēmin ). First aorist active imperative, at once and urgent.

Open to us ( anoixon hēmin ).

First aorist active imperative, at once and urgent.

Robertson: Luk 13:25 - He shall say He shall say ( erei ). Future active of eipon (defective verb). This is probably the apodosis of the aph' hou clause.

He shall say ( erei ).

Future active of eipon (defective verb). This is probably the apodosis of the aph' hou clause.

Robertson: Luk 13:26 - Shall ye begin Shall ye begin ( arxesthe ). Future middle, though Westcott and Hort put arxēsthe (aorist middle subjunctive of archomai ) and in that case a co...

Shall ye begin ( arxesthe ).

Future middle, though Westcott and Hort put arxēsthe (aorist middle subjunctive of archomai ) and in that case a continuation of the aph' hou construction. It is a difficult passage and the copyists had trouble with it.

Robertson: Luk 13:26 - In thy presence In thy presence ( enōpion sou ). As guests or hosts or neighbours some claim, or the master of the house. It is grotesque to claim credit because C...

In thy presence ( enōpion sou ).

As guests or hosts or neighbours some claim, or the master of the house. It is grotesque to claim credit because Christ taught in their streets, but they are hard run for excuses and claims.

Robertson: Luk 13:27 - I know not whence ye are I know not whence ye are ( ouk oida pothen este ). This blunt statement cuts the matter short and sweeps away the flimsy cobwebs. Acquaintance with C...

I know not whence ye are ( ouk oida pothen este ).

This blunt statement cuts the matter short and sweeps away the flimsy cobwebs. Acquaintance with Christ in the flesh does not open the door. Jesus quotes Psa 8:9 as in Mat 7:23, there as in the lxx, here with pantes ergatai adikias , there with hoi ergazomenoi tēn anomian . But apostēte (second aorist active imperative) here, and there apochōreite (present active imperative).

Robertson: Luk 13:28 - There There ( ekei ). Out there, outside the house whence they are driven.

There ( ekei ).

Out there, outside the house whence they are driven.

Robertson: Luk 13:28 - When ye shall see When ye shall see ( hotan opsēsthe ). First aorist middle subjunctive (of a late aorist ōpsamēn ) of horaō , though opsesthe (future middl...

When ye shall see ( hotan opsēsthe ).

First aorist middle subjunctive (of a late aorist ōpsamēn ) of horaō , though opsesthe (future middle) in margin of Westcott and Hort, unless we admit here a "future"subjunctive like Byzantine Greek (after Latin).

Robertson: Luk 13:28 - And yourselves cast forth without And yourselves cast forth without ( humās de ekballomenous exō ). Present passive participle, continuous action, "you being cast out"with the doo...

And yourselves cast forth without ( humās de ekballomenous exō ).

Present passive participle, continuous action, "you being cast out"with the door shut. See notes on Mat 8:11. for this same picture.

Robertson: Luk 13:29 - Shall sit down Shall sit down ( anaklithēsontai ). Future passive indicative third plural. Recline, of course, is the figure of this heavenly banquet. Jesus does ...

Shall sit down ( anaklithēsontai ).

Future passive indicative third plural. Recline, of course, is the figure of this heavenly banquet. Jesus does not mean that these will be saved in different ways, but only that many will come from all the four quarters of the earth.

Robertson: Luk 13:30 - Last Last ( eschatoi ). This saying was repeated many times (Mat 19:30; Mar 10:31; Mat 20:16).

Last ( eschatoi ).

This saying was repeated many times (Mat 19:30; Mar 10:31; Mat 20:16).

Robertson: Luk 13:31 - In that very hour In that very hour ( en autēi tēi hōrāi ). Luke’ s favourite notation of time.

In that very hour ( en autēi tēi hōrāi ).

Luke’ s favourite notation of time.

Robertson: Luk 13:31 - Pharisees Pharisees ( Pharisaioi ). Here we see the Pharisees in a new role, warning Jesus against the machinations of Herod, when they are plotting themselves...

Pharisees ( Pharisaioi ).

Here we see the Pharisees in a new role, warning Jesus against the machinations of Herod, when they are plotting themselves.

Robertson: Luk 13:32 - That fox That fox ( tēi alōpeki tautēi ). This epithet for the cunning and cowardice of Herod shows clearly that Jesus understood the real attitude and ...

That fox ( tēi alōpeki tautēi ).

This epithet for the cunning and cowardice of Herod shows clearly that Jesus understood the real attitude and character of the man who had put John the Baptist to death and evidently wanted to get Jesus into his power in spite of his superstitious fears that he might be John the Baptist redivivus . The message of Jesus means that he is independent of the plots and schemes of both Herod and the Pharisees. The preacher is often put in a tight place by politicians who are quite willing to see him shorn of all real power.

Robertson: Luk 13:32 - Cures Cures ( iaseis ). Old word, but in the N.T. only here and Act 4:22, Act 4:30.

Cures ( iaseis ).

Old word, but in the N.T. only here and Act 4:22, Act 4:30.

Robertson: Luk 13:32 - I am perfected I am perfected ( teleioumai ). Present passive indicative of teleioō , old verb from teleios , to bring to perfection, frequent in the N.T. Used in...

I am perfected ( teleioumai ).

Present passive indicative of teleioō , old verb from teleios , to bring to perfection, frequent in the N.T. Used in Heb 2:10 of the Father’ s purpose in the humanity of Christ. Perfect humanity is a process and Jesus was passing through that, without sin, but not without temptation and suffering. It is the prophetic present with the sense of the future.

Robertson: Luk 13:33 - The day following The day following ( tēi echomenēi ). See note on Act 20:15. The same as the third day in Luk 13:32. A proverb.

The day following ( tēi echomenēi ).

See note on Act 20:15. The same as the third day in Luk 13:32. A proverb.

Robertson: Luk 13:33 - It cannot be It cannot be ( ouk endechetai ). It is not accepted, it is inadmissible. A severely ironical indictment of Jerusalem. The shadow of the Cross reaches...

It cannot be ( ouk endechetai ).

It is not accepted, it is inadmissible. A severely ironical indictment of Jerusalem. The shadow of the Cross reaches Perea where Jesus now is as he starts toward Jerusalem.

Robertson: Luk 13:34 - O Jerusalem, Jerusalem O Jerusalem, Jerusalem ( Ierousalēm , Ierousalēm ). In Mat 23:37. Jesus utters a similar lament over Jerusalem. The connection suits both there a...

O Jerusalem, Jerusalem ( Ierousalēm , Ierousalēm ).

In Mat 23:37. Jesus utters a similar lament over Jerusalem. The connection suits both there and here, but Plummer considers it "rather a violent hypothesis"to suppose that Jesus spoke these words twice. It is possible, of course, though not like Luke’ s usual method, that he put the words here because of the mention of Jerusalem. In itself it is not easy to see why Jesus could not have made the lament both here and in Jerusalem. The language of the apostrophe is almost identical in both places (Luk 13:34.; Mat 23:37-39). For details see on Matthew. In Luke we have episunaxai (late first aorist active infinitive) and in Matthew episunagagein (second aorist active infinitive), both from episunagō , a double compound of late Greek (Polybius). Both have "How often would I"(posakis ēthelēsa ). How often did I wish. Clearly showing that Jesus made repeated visits to Jerusalem as we know otherwise only from John’ s Gospel.

Robertson: Luk 13:34 - Even as Even as ( hon tropon ). Accusative of general reference and in Mat 23:37 also. Incorporation of antecedent into the relative clause.

Even as ( hon tropon ).

Accusative of general reference and in Mat 23:37 also. Incorporation of antecedent into the relative clause.

Robertson: Luk 13:34 - Brood Brood ( nossian ) is in Luke while Matthew has chickens (nossia ), both late forms for the older neossia . The adjective desolate (erēmos ) i...

Brood ( nossian )

is in Luke while Matthew has chickens (nossia ), both late forms for the older neossia . The adjective desolate (erēmos ) is wanting in Luk 13:35 and is doubtful in Mat 23:39.

Vincent: Luk 13:4 - Sinners Sinners ( ὀφειλέται ) Lit., debtors. Possibly with reference to the figure at the close of the last chapter. Compare Mat 5:25; Mat...

Sinners ( ὀφειλέται )

Lit., debtors. Possibly with reference to the figure at the close of the last chapter. Compare Mat 5:25; Mat 6:12; Mat 18:24; Luk 11:4.

Vincent: Luk 13:7 - These three years I come These three years I come The best texts insert ἀφ ' οὗ , from which, or since. " It is three years from the time at which I came....

These three years I come

The best texts insert ἀφ ' οὗ , from which, or since. " It is three years from the time at which I came."

Vincent: Luk 13:7 - Cut it down Cut it down ( ἔκκοψον ) Rather, " cut it out " (ἐκ ) from among the other trees and the vines.

Cut it down ( ἔκκοψον )

Rather, " cut it out " (ἐκ ) from among the other trees and the vines.

Vincent: Luk 13:7 - Why cumbereth it Why cumbereth it The A. V. omits the very important καὶ , also (Rev.), which, as Trench observes, is the key-word of the sentence. Besides...

Why cumbereth it

The A. V. omits the very important καὶ , also (Rev.), which, as Trench observes, is the key-word of the sentence. Besides being barren in itself, it also injures the soil. " Not only is it unfruitful, but it draws away the juices which the vines would extract from the earth, intercepts the sun, and occupies room" (Bengel). The verb cumbereth (καταργεῖ ) means to make of no effect. So Rom 3:3, Rom 3:31; Gal 3:17. Cumbereth expresses the meaning in a very general and comprehensive way. The specific elements included in it are expressed by Bengel above. De Wette, makes the land unfruitful. See on barren and unfruitful, 2Pe 1:8.

Vincent: Luk 13:9 - And if it bear fruit, well; and if not, then after that And if it bear fruit, well; and if not, then after that Join afar that with bear fruit. " If it bear fruit for the future (εἰς τὸ ...

And if it bear fruit, well; and if not, then after that

Join afar that with bear fruit. " If it bear fruit for the future (εἰς τὸ μέλλον , Rev., thenceforth ) , well; but if not, thou shalt cut it down." Trench (" Parables" ) cites an Arabian writer's receipt for curing a palm-tree of barrenness. " Thou must take a hatchet, and go to the tree with a friend, unto whom thou sayest, 'I will cut down this tree, for it is unfruitful.' He answers, 'Do not so, this year it will certainly bear fruit.' But the other says, 'It must needs be - it must be hewn down;' and gives the stem of the tree three blows with the back of the hatchet. But the other restrains him, crying, 'Nay, do it not, thou wilt certainly have fruit from it this year, only have patience with it, and be not overhasty in cutting it down; if it still refuses to bear fruit, then cut it down.' Then will the tree that year be certainly fruitful and bear abundantly." Trench adds that this story appears to be widely spread in the East.

Vincent: Luk 13:9 - Thou shalt cut it down Thou shalt cut it down The vine-dresser does not say, " I will cut," but refers that to the master.

Thou shalt cut it down

The vine-dresser does not say, " I will cut," but refers that to the master.

Vincent: Luk 13:11 - Spirit of infirmity Spirit of infirmity A spirit which caused infirmity. An evil demon, see Luk 13:16, though it is not certain that it was a case of possession. The...

Spirit of infirmity

A spirit which caused infirmity. An evil demon, see Luk 13:16, though it is not certain that it was a case of possession. The details of the disease, and the noting of the time of its continuance, are characteristic of a physician's narrative.

Vincent: Luk 13:11 - Bowed together Bowed together ( συγκύπτουσα ) Only here in New Testament.

Bowed together ( συγκύπτουσα )

Only here in New Testament.

Vincent: Luk 13:11 - Lift herself up Lift herself up ( ἀνακύψαι ) Only here in New Testament, unless Joh 8:7-10 be accepted as genuine. Used by Galen of strengthening the...

Lift herself up ( ἀνακύψαι )

Only here in New Testament, unless Joh 8:7-10 be accepted as genuine. Used by Galen of strengthening the vertebrae of the spine.

Vincent: Luk 13:12 - Thou art loosed Thou art loosed ( ἀπολέλυσαο ) The only passage in The New Testament where the word is used of disease. Medical writers use it of r...

Thou art loosed ( ἀπολέλυσαο )

The only passage in The New Testament where the word is used of disease. Medical writers use it of releasing from disease, relaxing tendons, and taking off bandages. (Luk 13:25). In Mat 7:13, where the image is of a gate opening into a way, πύλη , gate, is used.

Vincent: Luk 13:13 - She was made straight She was made straight ( ἀνορθώθη ) The verb occurs, Act 15:16, of setting up the tabernacle of David, and Heb 12:12, of lifting up...

She was made straight ( ἀνορθώθη )

The verb occurs, Act 15:16, of setting up the tabernacle of David, and Heb 12:12, of lifting up the hands which hang down.

Vincent: Luk 13:15 - Loose Loose ( λύει ) Compare thou art loosed, Luk 13:12.

Loose ( λύει )

Compare thou art loosed, Luk 13:12.

Vincent: Luk 13:15 - Stall Stall See on Luk 2:7.

Stall

See on Luk 2:7.

Vincent: Luk 13:16 - Satan Satan " True to its principle of contrast, this book gives Satan a prominent position" (Abbot). See Luk 4:13; Luk 10:18; Luk 22:3, Luk 22:31. Se...

Satan

" True to its principle of contrast, this book gives Satan a prominent position" (Abbot). See Luk 4:13; Luk 10:18; Luk 22:3, Luk 22:31. See Introduction.

Vincent: Luk 13:17 - Were ashamed Were ashamed. Rev., more correctly, were put to shame.

Were ashamed.

Rev., more correctly, were put to shame.

Vincent: Luk 13:17 - Glorious things Glorious things See on Mat 11:20.

Glorious things

See on Mat 11:20.

Vincent: Luk 13:17 - Were done Were done ( γινομένοις ) Lit., are being done, denoting their being then in progress.

Were done ( γινομένοις )

Lit., are being done, denoting their being then in progress.

Vincent: Luk 13:19 - His garden His garden Properly, as Rev., his own (ἑαυτοῦ ) where he could personally observe and tend it.

His garden

Properly, as Rev., his own (ἑαυτοῦ ) where he could personally observe and tend it.

Vincent: Luk 13:19 - Great tree Great tree The best texts omit great.

Great tree

The best texts omit great.

Vincent: Luk 13:19 - Birds Birds See on Luk 9:58.

Birds

See on Luk 9:58.

Vincent: Luk 13:19 - Branches Branches ( κλάδοις ) See on Mar 11:8.

Branches ( κλάδοις )

See on Mar 11:8.

Vincent: Luk 13:21 - Leaven Leaven See on Mat 13:33.

Leaven

See on Mat 13:33.

Vincent: Luk 13:24 - Strive Strive Used only by Luke and Paul, except Joh 18:36. Originally to contend for a prize in the public games; and thus conveying a sense of strugg...

Strive

Used only by Luke and Paul, except Joh 18:36. Originally to contend for a prize in the public games; and thus conveying a sense of struggle. The kindred noun, ἀγωνία , agony, is used of Christ's struggle in Gethsemane (Luk 22:44). Compare 1Ti 6:12; 2Ti 4:7.

Vincent: Luk 13:24 - Strait gate Strait gate ( στενῆς θύρας ) Rev., narrow door. See on Mat 7:13. The door of a house, and not a gate, is meant

Strait gate ( στενῆς θύρας )

Rev., narrow door. See on Mat 7:13. The door of a house, and not a gate, is meant

Vincent: Luk 13:25 - When once When once ( ἀφ ' ou{ ) Lit., from the time that. Compare Luk 13:7. Some editors connect this with the previous sentence: " Shall not be abl...

When once ( ἀφ ' ou{ )

Lit., from the time that. Compare Luk 13:7. Some editors connect this with the previous sentence: " Shall not be able when once, " etc.

Vincent: Luk 13:25 - Whence Whence ( πόθεν ) Of what family. Ye do not belong to my household. See Joh 7:27 : " We know whence he (Jesus) is;" i.e., we know his ...

Whence ( πόθεν )

Of what family. Ye do not belong to my household. See Joh 7:27 : " We know whence he (Jesus) is;" i.e., we know his birthplace and family.

Vincent: Luk 13:26 - In thy presence In thy presence ( ἐνώπιον σοῦ ) Not as beloved and familiar guests. Compare with you (μεθ ' ὑμῶν ) , Mat 26:29.

In thy presence ( ἐνώπιον σοῦ )

Not as beloved and familiar guests. Compare with you (μεθ ' ὑμῶν ) , Mat 26:29.

Vincent: Luk 13:27 - I know not whence I know not whence " The sentence is fixed, but it is repeated with emphasis" (Bengel).

I know not whence

" The sentence is fixed, but it is repeated with emphasis" (Bengel).

Vincent: Luk 13:27 - Shall sit down Shall sit down ( ἀνακλιθήσονται ) Sit down at table. Jesus casts his thought into a familiar Jewish image. According to the J...

Shall sit down ( ἀνακλιθήσονται )

Sit down at table. Jesus casts his thought into a familiar Jewish image. According to the Jewish idea, one of the main elements of the happiness of the Messianic kingdom was the privilege of participating in splendid festive entertainments along with the patriarchs of the nation. With this accords Luk 13:30, in allusion to places at the banquet. Compare Luk 14:7-9; Mat 23:6.

Vincent: Luk 13:31 - Day Day The best texts read hour.

Day

The best texts read hour.

Vincent: Luk 13:31 - Will kill Will kill ( θέλει ἀποκτεῖναι ) As in so many cases the A. V. renders as the future of the verb to kill; whereas there are ...

Will kill ( θέλει ἀποκτεῖναι )

As in so many cases the A. V. renders as the future of the verb to kill; whereas there are two distinct verbs; to will or determine, and to kill. The meaning is, Herod willeth or is determined to kill thee. Rev., would fain, seems rather feeble.

Vincent: Luk 13:32 - That fox That fox Herod. Describing his cunning and cowardice.

That fox

Herod. Describing his cunning and cowardice.

Vincent: Luk 13:32 - Cures Cures ( ἰάσεις ) Used by Luke only.

Cures ( ἰάσεις )

Used by Luke only.

Vincent: Luk 13:32 - I shall be perfected I shall be perfected ( τελειοῦμαι ) The present tense: " the present of the certain future" (Meyer). The meaning is, I come to an...

I shall be perfected ( τελειοῦμαι )

The present tense: " the present of the certain future" (Meyer). The meaning is, I come to an end: I have done. Expositors differ greatly. Some interpret, " I end my career of healing, " etc.; others, my life.

Vincent: Luk 13:33 - It cannot be It cannot be ( οὐκ ἐνδέχεται ) The verb means to accept or admit; so that the sense is, " it is not admissible that." Th...

It cannot be ( οὐκ ἐνδέχεται )

The verb means to accept or admit; so that the sense is, " it is not admissible that." The expression is ironical and hyperbolical, with reference to Jerusalem as having a monopoly of such martyrdoms. " It would be contrary to use and wont, and, in a manner, to theocratic decorum, if such a prophet as I should perish elsewhere than in Jerusalem" (Godet).

Vincent: Luk 13:34 - Would I have gathered Would I have gathered ( ἠθέλησα ἐπισυνάξαι ) Lit., " I desired to gather." See on will kill, Luk 13:31.

Would I have gathered ( ἠθέλησα ἐπισυνάξαι )

Lit., " I desired to gather." See on will kill, Luk 13:31.

Vincent: Luk 13:34 - Hen Hen See on Mat 23:37.

Hen

See on Mat 23:37.

Wesley: Luk 13:1 - The Galileans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices Some of the followers of Judas Gaulonites. They absolutely refused to own the Roman authority. Pilate surrounded and slew them, while they were worshi...

Some of the followers of Judas Gaulonites. They absolutely refused to own the Roman authority. Pilate surrounded and slew them, while they were worshipping in the temple, at a public feast.

Wesley: Luk 13:3 - Ye shall all likewise perish All ye of Galilee and of Jerusalem shall perish in the very same manner. So the Greek word implies. And so they did. There was a remarkable resemblanc...

All ye of Galilee and of Jerusalem shall perish in the very same manner. So the Greek word implies. And so they did. There was a remarkable resemblance between the fate of these Galileans and of the main body of the Jewish nation; the flower of which was slain at Jerusalem by the Roman sword, while they were assembled at one of their great festivals. And many thousands of them perished in the temple itself, and were literally buried under its ruins.

Wesley: Luk 13:6 - A man had a fig tree Either we may understand God the Father by him that had the vineyard , and Christ by him that kept it: or Christ himself is he that hath it, and his m...

Either we may understand God the Father by him that had the vineyard , and Christ by him that kept it: or Christ himself is he that hath it, and his ministers they that keep it. Psa 80:8. &c.

Wesley: Luk 13:7 - Three years Christ was then in the third year of his ministry. But it may mean only several years; a certain number being put for an uncertain.

Christ was then in the third year of his ministry. But it may mean only several years; a certain number being put for an uncertain.

Wesley: Luk 13:7 - Why doth it also cumber the ground? That is, not only bear no fruit itself, but take up the ground of another tree that would.

That is, not only bear no fruit itself, but take up the ground of another tree that would.

Wesley: Luk 13:11 - She was bowed together, and utterly unable to lift up herself The evil spirit which possessed her afflicted her in this manner. To many doubtless it appeared a natural distemper. Would not a modern physician have...

The evil spirit which possessed her afflicted her in this manner. To many doubtless it appeared a natural distemper. Would not a modern physician have termed it a nervous case?

Wesley: Luk 13:15 - Thou hypocrite For the real motive of his speaking was envy, not (as he pretended) pure zeal for the glory of God.

For the real motive of his speaking was envy, not (as he pretended) pure zeal for the glory of God.

Wesley: Luk 13:16 - And ought not this woman? Ought not any human creature, which is so far better than an ox or an ass? Much more, this daughter of Abraham - probably in a spiritual as well as na...

Ought not any human creature, which is so far better than an ox or an ass? Much more, this daughter of Abraham - probably in a spiritual as well as natural sense, to be loosed?

Wesley: Luk 13:18 - -- Mat 13:31; Mar 4:30.

Wesley: Luk 13:20 - -- Mat 13:33.

Wesley: Luk 13:21 - Covered up So that, for a time, nothing of it appeared.

So that, for a time, nothing of it appeared.

Wesley: Luk 13:24 - Strive to enter in Agonize. Strive as in an agony. So the word signifies Otherwise none shall enter in. Barely seeking will not avail. Mat 7:13.

Agonize. Strive as in an agony. So the word signifies Otherwise none shall enter in. Barely seeking will not avail. Mat 7:13.

Wesley: Luk 13:25 - -- And even agonizing will not avail, after the door is shut. Agonize, therefore, now by faith, prayer, holiness, patience.

And even agonizing will not avail, after the door is shut. Agonize, therefore, now by faith, prayer, holiness, patience.

Wesley: Luk 13:25 - And ye begin to stand without Till then they had not thought of it! O how new will that sense of their misery be? How late? How lasting? I know not whence ye are - I know not, that...

Till then they had not thought of it! O how new will that sense of their misery be? How late? How lasting? I know not whence ye are - I know not, that is, I approve not of your ways.

Wesley: Luk 13:27 - -- Mat 7:23.

Wesley: Luk 13:28 - -- Mat 8:11.

Wesley: Luk 13:29 - They shall sit down in the kingdom of God Both the kingdom of grace and of glory.

Both the kingdom of grace and of glory.

Wesley: Luk 13:30 - But there are last Many of the Gentiles who were latest called, shall be most highly rewarded; and many of the Jews who were first called, shall have no reward at all. M...

Many of the Gentiles who were latest called, shall be most highly rewarded; and many of the Jews who were first called, shall have no reward at all. Mat 19:30.

Wesley: Luk 13:31 - Herod is minded to kill thee Possibly they gave him the caution out of good will.

Possibly they gave him the caution out of good will.

Wesley: Luk 13:32 - And he said, Go and tell that fox With great propriety so called, for his subtilty and cowardice. The meaning of our Lord's answer is, Notwithstanding all that he can do, I shall for t...

With great propriety so called, for his subtilty and cowardice. The meaning of our Lord's answer is, Notwithstanding all that he can do, I shall for the short time I have left, do the works of him that sent me. When that time is fulfilled, I shall be offered up. Yet not here, but in the bloody city. Behold, I cast out devils - With what majesty does he speak to his enemies! With what tenderness to his friends! The third day I am perfected - On the third day he left Galilee, and set out for Jerusalem, to die there. But let us carefully distinguish between those things wherein Christ is our pattern, and those which were peculiar to his office. His extraordinary office justified him in using that severity of language, when speaking of wicked princes, and corrupt teachers, to which we have no call; and by which we should only bring scandal on religion, and ruin on ourselves, while we irritated rather than convinced or reformed those whom we so indecently rebuked.

Wesley: Luk 13:33 - It cannot be, that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem Which claims prescription for murdering the messengers of God. Such cruelty and malice cannot be found elsewhere.

Which claims prescription for murdering the messengers of God. Such cruelty and malice cannot be found elsewhere.

Wesley: Luk 13:34 - How often would I have gathered thy children together Three solemn visits he had made to Jerusalem since his baptism for this very purpose. Mat 23:37.

Three solemn visits he had made to Jerusalem since his baptism for this very purpose. Mat 23:37.

Wesley: Luk 13:35 - Your house is left to you desolate Is now irrecoverably consigned to desolation and destruction: And verily I say to you, after a very short space, ye shall not see me till the time com...

Is now irrecoverably consigned to desolation and destruction: And verily I say to you, after a very short space, ye shall not see me till the time come, when taught by your calamities, ye shall be ready and disposed to say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. It does not imply, that they should then see Jesus at all; but only that they would earnestly wish for the Messiah, and in their extremity be ready to entertain any who should assume that character.

JFB: Luk 13:1-3 - Galileans Possibly the followers of Judas of Galilee, who, some twenty years before this, taught that Jews should not pay tribute to the Romans, and of whom we ...

Possibly the followers of Judas of Galilee, who, some twenty years before this, taught that Jews should not pay tribute to the Romans, and of whom we learn, from Act 5:37, that he drew after him a multitude of followers, who on his being slain were all dispersed. About this time that party would be at its height, and if Pilate caused this detachment of them to be waylaid and put to death as they were offering their sacrifices at one of the festivals, that would be "mingling their blood with their sacrifices" [GROTIUS, WEBSTER and WILKINSON, but doubted by DE WETTE, MEYER, ALFORD, &c.]. News of this being brought to our Lord, to draw out His views of such, and whether it was not a judgment of Heaven, He simply points them to the practical view of the matter: "These men are not signal examples of divine vengeance, as ye suppose; but every impenitent sinner--ye yourselves, except ye repent--shall be like monuments of the judgment of Heaven, and in a more awful sense." The reference here to the impending destruction of Jerusalem is far from exhausting our Lord's weighty words; they manifestly point to a "perdition" of a more awful kind--future, personal, remediless.

JFB: Luk 13:4-5 - tower in Siloam Probably one of the towers of the city wall, near the pool of Siloam. Of its fall nothing is known.

Probably one of the towers of the city wall, near the pool of Siloam. Of its fall nothing is known.

JFB: Luk 13:6-9 - fig tree Israel, as the visible witness of God in the world, but generally all within the pale of the visible Church of God; a familiar figure (compare Isa 5:1...

Israel, as the visible witness of God in the world, but generally all within the pale of the visible Church of God; a familiar figure (compare Isa 5:1-7; Joh 15:1-8, &c.).

JFB: Luk 13:6-9 - vineyard A spot selected for its fertility, separated from the surrounding fields, and cultivated with special care, with a view solely to fruit.

A spot selected for its fertility, separated from the surrounding fields, and cultivated with special care, with a view solely to fruit.

JFB: Luk 13:6-9 - came and sought fruit A heart turned to God; the fruits of righteousness; compare Mat 21:33-34, and Isa 5:2, "He looked that it should bring forth fruit"; He has a right to...

A heart turned to God; the fruits of righteousness; compare Mat 21:33-34, and Isa 5:2, "He looked that it should bring forth fruit"; He has a right to it, and will require it.

JFB: Luk 13:7 - three years A long enough trial for a fig tree, and so denoting probably just a sufficient period of culture for spiritual fruit. The supposed allusion to the dur...

A long enough trial for a fig tree, and so denoting probably just a sufficient period of culture for spiritual fruit. The supposed allusion to the duration of our Lord's ministry is precarious.

JFB: Luk 13:7 - cut it down Indignant language.

Indignant language.

JFB: Luk 13:7 - cumbereth Not only doing no good, but wasting ground.

Not only doing no good, but wasting ground.

JFB: Luk 13:8 - he answering, &c. Christ, as Intercessor, loath to see it cut down so long as there was any hope (see Luk 13:34).

Christ, as Intercessor, loath to see it cut down so long as there was any hope (see Luk 13:34).

JFB: Luk 13:8 - dig, &c. Loosen the earth about it and enrich it with manure; pointing to changes of method in the divine treatment of the impenitent, in order to freshen spir...

Loosen the earth about it and enrich it with manure; pointing to changes of method in the divine treatment of the impenitent, in order to freshen spiritual culture.

JFB: Luk 13:9 - if . . . fruit, well Genuine repentance, however late, avails to save (Luk 23:42-43).

Genuine repentance, however late, avails to save (Luk 23:42-43).

JFB: Luk 13:9 - after that, &c. The final perdition of such as, after the utmost limits of reasonable forbearance, are found fruitless, will be pre-eminently and confessedly just (Pr...

The final perdition of such as, after the utmost limits of reasonable forbearance, are found fruitless, will be pre-eminently and confessedly just (Pro 1:24-31; Eze 24:13).

JFB: Luk 13:11 - spirit of infirmity Compare Luk 13:17, "whom Satan hath bound." From this it is probable, though not certain, that her protracted infirmity was the effect of some milder ...

Compare Luk 13:17, "whom Satan hath bound." From this it is probable, though not certain, that her protracted infirmity was the effect of some milder form of possession; yet she was "a daughter of Abraham," in the same gracious sense, no doubt, as Zaccheus, after his conversion, was "a son of Abraham" (Luk 19:9).

JFB: Luk 13:12-13 - said . . . Woman . . . and laid Both at once.

Both at once.

JFB: Luk 13:14 - with indignation Not so much at the sabbath violation as at the glorification of Christ. (Compare Mat 21:15) [TRENCH].

Not so much at the sabbath violation as at the glorification of Christ. (Compare Mat 21:15) [TRENCH].

JFB: Luk 13:14 - said to the people "Not daring directly to find fault with the Lord, he seeks circuitously to reach Him through the people, who were more under his influence, and whom h...

"Not daring directly to find fault with the Lord, he seeks circuitously to reach Him through the people, who were more under his influence, and whom he feared less" [TRENCH].

JFB: Luk 13:15 - the Lord (See on Luk 10:1).

(See on Luk 10:1).

JFB: Luk 13:15 - hypocrite! How "the faithful and true Witness" tears off the masks which men wear!

How "the faithful and true Witness" tears off the masks which men wear!

JFB: Luk 13:15 - his ox, &c. (See on Mat 12:9-13; and Luk 6:9).

(See on Mat 12:9-13; and Luk 6:9).

JFB: Luk 13:16 - ought not, &c. How gloriously the Lord vindicates the superior claims of this woman, in consideration of the sadness and long duration of her suffering, and of her d...

How gloriously the Lord vindicates the superior claims of this woman, in consideration of the sadness and long duration of her suffering, and of her dignity notwithstanding, as an heir of the promise!

JFB: Luk 13:18-21 - mustard seed . . . leaven (See on Mar 4:30-32). The parable of "the Leaven" sets forth, perhaps, rather the inward growth of the kingdom, while "the Mustard Seed" seems to poin...

(See on Mar 4:30-32). The parable of "the Leaven" sets forth, perhaps, rather the inward growth of the kingdom, while "the Mustard Seed" seems to point chiefly to the outward. It being a woman's work to knead, it seems a refinement to say that "the woman" here represents the Church, as the instrument of depositing the leaven. Nor does it yield much satisfaction to understand the "three measures of meal" of that threefold division of our nature into "spirit, soul, and body," (alluded to in 1Th 5:23) or of the threefold partition of the world among the three sons of Noah (Gen 10:32), as some do. It yields more real satisfaction to see in this brief parable just the all-penetrating and assimilating quality of the Gospel, by virtue of which it will yet mould all institutions and tribes of men, and exhibit over the whole earth one "Kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ." (See on Rev 11:15).

JFB: Luk 13:23 - Lord, &c. One of those curious questions by talking of which some flatter themselves they are religious.

One of those curious questions by talking of which some flatter themselves they are religious.

JFB: Luk 13:23 - said unto them The multitude; taking no notice of the man or his question, save as furnishing the occasion of a solemn warning not to trifle with so momentous a matt...

The multitude; taking no notice of the man or his question, save as furnishing the occasion of a solemn warning not to trifle with so momentous a matter as "salvation."

JFB: Luk 13:24 - Strive The word signifies to "contend" as for the mastery, to "struggle," expressive of the difficulty of being saved, as if one would have to force his way ...

The word signifies to "contend" as for the mastery, to "struggle," expressive of the difficulty of being saved, as if one would have to force his way in.

JFB: Luk 13:24 - strait gate Another figure of the same. (See on Mat 7:13-14).

Another figure of the same. (See on Mat 7:13-14).

JFB: Luk 13:24 - for many . . . will seek "desire," that is, with a mere wish or slothful endeavor.

"desire," that is, with a mere wish or slothful endeavor.

JFB: Luk 13:24 - and shall not be able Because it must be made a life-and-death struggle.

Because it must be made a life-and-death struggle.

JFB: Luk 13:25 - master of the house is risen up and hath shut to the door Awfully sublime and vivid picture! At present he is represented as in a sitting posture, as if calmly looking on to see who will "strive," while entra...

Awfully sublime and vivid picture! At present he is represented as in a sitting posture, as if calmly looking on to see who will "strive," while entrance is practicable, and who will merely "seek" to enter in. But this is to have an end, by the great Master of the house Himself rising and shutting the door, after which there will be no admittance.

JFB: Luk 13:25 - Lord, Lord Emphatic reduplication, expressive of the earnestness now felt, but too late. (See on Mat 7:21-22).

Emphatic reduplication, expressive of the earnestness now felt, but too late. (See on Mat 7:21-22).

JFB: Luk 13:26-27 - -- See on the similar passage (Mat 7:22-23).

See on the similar passage (Mat 7:22-23).

JFB: Luk 13:26-27 - eaten and drunk, &c. We have sat with Thee at the same table. (See on Mat 7:22).

We have sat with Thee at the same table. (See on Mat 7:22).

JFB: Luk 13:26-27 - taught in our streets Do we not remember listening in our own streets to Thy teaching? Surely we are not to be denied admittance?

Do we not remember listening in our own streets to Thy teaching? Surely we are not to be denied admittance?

JFB: Luk 13:27 - But he shall say, &c. (See on Mat 7:23). No nearness of external communion with Christ will avail at the great day, in place of that holiness without which no man shall see...

(See on Mat 7:23). No nearness of external communion with Christ will avail at the great day, in place of that holiness without which no man shall see the Lord. Observe the style which Christ intimates that He will then assume, that of absolute Disposer of men's eternal destinies, and contrast it with His "despised and rejected" condition at that time.

JFB: Luk 13:28-29 - -- (See Mat 8:11-12). Also see on Mat 13:42.

(See Mat 8:11-12). Also see on Mat 13:42.

JFB: Luk 13:31 - and depart hence And "go forward," push on. He was on His way out of Perea, east of Jordan, and in Herod's dominions, "journeying towards Jerusalem" (Luk 13:22). Haunt...

And "go forward," push on. He was on His way out of Perea, east of Jordan, and in Herod's dominions, "journeying towards Jerusalem" (Luk 13:22). Haunted by guilty fears, probably, Herod wanted to get rid of Him (see on Mar 6:14), and seems, from our Lord's answer, to have sent these Pharisees, under pretense of a friendly hint, to persuade Him that the sooner He got beyond Herod's jurisdiction the better it would be for His own safety. Our Lord saw through both of them, and sends the cunning ruler a message couched in dignified and befitting irony.

JFB: Luk 13:32 - that fox That crafty, cruel enemy of God's innocent servants.

That crafty, cruel enemy of God's innocent servants.

JFB: Luk 13:32 - Behold, I cast out devils and I do cures That is, "Plot on and ply thy wiles; I also have My plans; My works of mercy are nearing completion, but some yet remain; I have work for to-day and t...

That is, "Plot on and ply thy wiles; I also have My plans; My works of mercy are nearing completion, but some yet remain; I have work for to-day and to-morrow too, and the third day; by that time I shall be where his jurisdiction reaches not; the guilt of My blood shall not lie at his door; that dark deed is reserved for others." He does not say, I preach the Gospel--that would have made little impression upon Herod--in the light of the merciful character of Christ's actions the malice of Herod's snares is laid bare [BENGEL].

JFB: Luk 13:32 - to-day, to-morrow, the third day Remarkable language expressive of successive steps of His work yet remaining, the calm deliberateness with which He meant to go through with them, one...

Remarkable language expressive of successive steps of His work yet remaining, the calm deliberateness with which He meant to go through with them, one after another, to the last, unmoved by Herod's threat, yet the rapid march with which they were now hastening to completion. (Compare Luk 22:37).

JFB: Luk 13:32 - I shall be perfected I finish my course, I attain completion.

I finish my course, I attain completion.

JFB: Luk 13:33 - it cannot be that a prophet, &c. "It would never do that," &c.--awful severity of satire this upon "the bloody city!" "He seeks to kill me, does he? Ah! I must be out of Herod's juris...

"It would never do that," &c.--awful severity of satire this upon "the bloody city!" "He seeks to kill me, does he? Ah! I must be out of Herod's jurisdiction for that. Go tell him I neither fly from him nor fear him, but Jerusalem is the prophets' slaughter-house."

JFB: Luk 13:34-35 - O Jerusalem, &c. (See on Mat 23:37; Mat 23:39).

(See on Mat 23:37; Mat 23:39).

Clarke: Luk 13:1 - At that season At that season - At what time this happened is not easy to determine; but it appears that it was now a piece of news which was told to Christ and hi...

At that season - At what time this happened is not easy to determine; but it appears that it was now a piece of news which was told to Christ and his disciples for the first time

Clarke: Luk 13:1 - Whose blood Pilate had mingled Whose blood Pilate had mingled - This piece of history is not recorded (as far as I can find) by Josephus: however, he states that the Galileans wer...

Whose blood Pilate had mingled - This piece of history is not recorded (as far as I can find) by Josephus: however, he states that the Galileans were the most seditious people in the land: they belonged properly to Herod’ s jurisdiction; but, as they kept the great feasts at Jerusalem, they probably, by their tumultuous behavior at some one of them, gave Pilate, who was a mortal enemy to Herod, a pretext to fall upon and slay many of them; and thus, perhaps, sacrifice the people to the resentment he had against the prince. Archelaus is represented by Josephus as sending his soldiers into the temple, and slaying 3000 men while they were employed in offering sacrifices. Josephus, War, b. ii. c. 1, s. 3, and ii. c. 5. Some suppose that this refers to the followers of Judas Gaulonites, (see Act 5:37), who would not acknowledge the Roman government, a number of whom Pilate surrounded and slew, while they were sacrificing in the temple. See Josephus, Antiq. lib. 18: but this is not very certain.

Clarke: Luk 13:4 - The tower in Siloam The tower in Siloam - This tower was probably built over one of the porticoes near the pool, which is mentioned Joh 9:7. See also Neh 3:15 Debtors, ...

The tower in Siloam - This tower was probably built over one of the porticoes near the pool, which is mentioned Joh 9:7. See also Neh 3:15

Debtors, οφειλεται, a Jewish phrase for sinners. Persons professing to be under the law are bound by the law to be obedient to all its precepts; those who obey not are reckoned debtors to the law, or rather to that Divine justice from which the law came. A different word is used when speaking of the Galileans: they are termed ἁμαρτωλοι, as this word is often used to signify heathens; see the notes on Luk 7:37; it is probably used here in nearly a similar sense. "Do ye who live in Jerusalem, and who consider your selves peculiarly attached to the law, and under the strongest obligations to obey it - do ye think that those Galileans were more heathenish than the rest of the Galileans, because they suffered such things? No. It was not on this account that they perished: both these cases exhibit a specimen of the manner in which ye shall all perish, if ye do not speedily repent, and turn to God."

Clarke: Luk 13:5 - Ye shall all likewise perish Ye shall all likewise perish - Ὡσαυτως, ὁμοιως, In a like way, in the same manner. This prediction of our Lord was literally fulfi...

Ye shall all likewise perish - Ὡσαυτως, ὁμοιως, In a like way, in the same manner. This prediction of our Lord was literally fulfilled. When the city was taken by the Romans, multitudes of the priests, etc., who were going on with their sacrifices, were slain, and their blood mingled with the blood of their victims; and multitudes were buried under the ruins of the walls, houses, and temple. See Josephus, War, b. vi. ch. iv., v., vi.; and see the notes on Matthew 24 (note)

It is very wrong to suppose that those who suffer by the sword, or by natural accidents, are the most culpable before God. An adequate punishment for sin cannot be inflicted in this world: what God does here, in this way, is in general

1st, through mercy, to alarm others

2,    to show his hatred to sin

3,    to preserve in men’ s minds a proper sense of his providence and justice; an

4,    to give sinners, in one or two particular instances, a general specimen of the punishment that awaits all the perseveringly impenitent.

Clarke: Luk 13:6 - A certain man A certain man - Many meanings are given to this parable, and divines may abound in them; the sense which our Lord designed to convey by it appears t...

A certain man - Many meanings are given to this parable, and divines may abound in them; the sense which our Lord designed to convey by it appears to be the following: -

1.    A person, τις, God Almighty

2.    Had a fig tree, the Jewish Church

3.    Planted in his vineyard - established in the land of Judea

4.    He came seeking fruit - he required that the Jewish people should walk in righteousness, in proportion to the spiritual culture he bestowed on them

5.    The vine-dresser - the Lord Jesus, for God hath committed all judgment to the Son, Joh 5:22

6.    Cut it down - let the Roman sword be unsheathed against it

7.    Let it alone - Christ is represented as intercessor for sinners, for whose sake the day of their probation is often lengthened; during which time he is constantly employed in doing every thing that has a tendency to promote their salvation

8.    Thou shalt cut it down - a time will come, that those who have not turned at God’ s invitations and reproofs shall be cut off, and numbered with the transgressors.

Clarke: Luk 13:7 - Behold these three years Behold these three years - From this circumstance in the parable, it may be reasonably concluded that Jesus had been, at the time of saying this, ex...

Behold these three years - From this circumstance in the parable, it may be reasonably concluded that Jesus had been, at the time of saying this, exercising his ministry for three years past; and, from what is said in Luk 13:8, of letting it alone this year also, it may be concluded likewise that this parable was spoken about a year before Christ’ s crucifixion; and, if both these conclusions are reasonable, we may thence infer that this parable was not spoken at the time which appears to be assigned to it, and that the whole time of Christ’ s public ministry was about four years. See Bishop Pearce. But it has already been remarked that St. Luke never studies chronological arrangement. See the Preface to this Gospel

Clarke: Luk 13:7 - Why cumbereth it the ground? Why cumbereth it the ground? - Or, in other words, Why should the ground be also useless? The tree itself brings forth no fruit; let it be cut down ...

Why cumbereth it the ground? - Or, in other words, Why should the ground be also useless? The tree itself brings forth no fruit; let it be cut down that a more profitable one may be planted in its place. Cut it down. The Codex Bezae has added here, φερε την αξινην, Bring the axe and cut it down. If this reading be genuine, it is doubtless an allusion to Mat 3:10 (note): Now the axe lieth at the root of the trees. If the writer has added it on his own authority, he probably referred to the place above mentioned. See the note on the above text

There is something very like this in the Γεωπονικα, or De Re Rustica of the ancient Greek writers on agriculture. I refer to cap. 83 of lib. x., p. 773; edit. Niclas, entitled, Δενδρον ακαρπον καρποφορειν, How to make a barren tree fruitful. Having girded yourself, and tied up your garments, take a bipen or axe, and with an angry mind approach the tree as if about to cut it down. Then let some person come forward and deprecate the cutting down of the tree, making himself responsible for its future fertility. Then, seem to be appeased, and so spare the tree, and afterwards it will yield fruit in abundance. "Bean straw (manure of that material), scattered about the roots of the tree, will make it fruitful."That a similar superstition prevailed among the Asiatics, Michaelis proves from the Cosmographer Ibn Alvardi, who prescribes the following as the mode to render a sterile palm tree fruitful: "The owner, armed with an axe, having an attendant with him, approaches the tree, and says, I must cut this tree down, because it is unfruitful. Let it alone, I beseech thee, says the other, and this year it will bring forth fruit. The owner immediately strikes it thrice with the back of his axe; but the other preventing him says, I beseech thee to spare it, and I will be answerable for its fertility. Then the tree becomes abundantly fruitful."Does not our Lord refer to such a custom?

Clarke: Luk 13:11 - A woman which had a spirit of infirmity A woman which had a spirit of infirmity - Relative to this subject three things may be considered: - I.    The woman’ s infirmit...

A woman which had a spirit of infirmity - Relative to this subject three things may be considered: -

I.    The woman’ s infirmity

II.    Her cure. An

III.    The conduct of the ruler of the synagogue on the occasion

I.    The woman’ s infirmity

1.    What was its origin? Sin. Had this never entered into the world, there had not been either pain, distortion, or death

2.    Who was the agent in it? Satan; Luk 13:16. God has often permitted demons to act on and in the bodies of men and women; and it is not improbable that the principal part of unaccountable and inexplicable disorders still come from the same source

3.    What was the nature of this infirmity? She was bowed together, bent down to the earth, a situation equally painful and humiliating; the violence of which she could not support, and the shame of which she could not conceal

4.    What was the duration of this infirmity? Eighteen years. A long time to be under the constant and peculiar influence of the devil

What was the effect of this infirmity? The woman was so bowed together that she could in no case stand straight, or look toward heaven

II.    The woman’ s cure

1.    Jesus saw her, Luk 13:12. Notwithstanding her infirmity was great, painful, and shameful, she took care to attend the synagogue. While she hoped for help from God, she saw it was her duty to wait in the appointed way, in order to receive it. Jesus saw her distress, and the desire she had both to worship her Maker and to get her health restored, and his eye affected his heart

2.    He called her to him. Her heart and her distress spoke loudly, though her lips were silent; and, as she was thus calling for help, Jesus calls her to himself that she may receive help

3.    Jesus laid his hands on her. The hand of his holiness terrifies, and the hand of his power expels, the demon. Ordinances, however excellent, will be of no avail to a sinner, unless he apprehend Christ in them

4.    Immediately she was made straight, Luk 13:13. This cure was -

1.    A speedy one - it was done in an instant

2.    It was a perfect one - she was made completely whole

3.    It was a public one - there were many to attest and render it credible

4.    It was a stable and permanent one - she was loosed, for ever loosed from her infirmity

5.    Her soul partook of the good done to her body - she glorified God. As she knew before that it was Satan who had bound her, she knew also that it was God only that could loose her; and now, feeling that she is loosed, she gives God that honor which is due to his name

III.    The conduct of the ruler of the synagogue on the occasion

1.    He answered with indignation, Luk 13:14. It would seem as if the demon who had left the woman’ s body had got into his heart. It is not an infrequent case to find a person filled with rage and madness, while beholding the effects of Christ’ s power upon others. Perhaps, like this ruler, he pretends zeal and concern for the honor of religion: "These preachings, prayer meetings, convictions, conversions, etc., are not carried on in his way, and therefore they cannot be of God."Let such take care, lest, while denying the operation of God’ s hand, they be given up to demonic influence

2.    He endeavors to prevent others from receiving the kind help of the blessed Jesus - He said unto the people, etc., Luk 13:14. Men of this character who have extensive influence over the poor, etc., do immense harm: they often hinder them from hearing that word which is able to save their souls. But for this also they must stand before the judgment seat of Christ. Reader, hast thou ever acted in this way

3.    Jesus retorts his condemnation with peculiar force; Luk 13:15, Luk 13:16. Thou hypocrite to pretend zeal for God’ s glory, when it is only the workings of thy malicious, unfeeling, and uncharitable heart. Wouldst thou not even take thy ass to water upon the Sabbath day? And wouldst thou deprive a daughter of Abraham (one of thy own nation and religion) of the mercy and goodness of God upon the Sabbath? Was not the Sabbath instituted for the benefit of man

4.    His adversaries were ashamed, Luk 13:17. The mask of their hypocrisy, the only covering they had, is taken away; and now they are exposed to the just censure of that multitude whom they deceived, and from whom they expected continual applause

5.    His indignation and uncharitable censure, not only turn to his own confusion, but are made the instruments of the edification of the multitude - they rejoiced at all the glorious things which he did. Thus, O Lord! the wrath of man shall praise thee, and the remainder thereof thou shalt restrain

A preacher will know how to apply this subject to general edification.

Clarke: Luk 13:18-19 - The kingdom - is like a grain of mustard seed The kingdom - is like a grain of mustard seed - See on Mat 13:31 (note).

The kingdom - is like a grain of mustard seed - See on Mat 13:31 (note).

Clarke: Luk 13:21 - Like leaven Like leaven - See this explained, Mat 13:33 (note).

Like leaven - See this explained, Mat 13:33 (note).

Clarke: Luk 13:22 - Journeying toward Jerusalem Journeying toward Jerusalem - Luke represents all that is said, from Luk 9:51, as having been done and spoken while Christ was on his last journey t...

Journeying toward Jerusalem - Luke represents all that is said, from Luk 9:51, as having been done and spoken while Christ was on his last journey to Jerusalem. See the notes on Luk 9:51, and Luk 12:58 (note), and see the Preface.

Clarke: Luk 13:23 - Are there few that be saved? Are there few that be saved? - A question either of impertinence or curiosity, the answer to which can profit no man. The grand question is, Can I b...

Are there few that be saved? - A question either of impertinence or curiosity, the answer to which can profit no man. The grand question is, Can I be saved? Yes. How? Strive earnestly to enter in through the strait gate - αγωνιζεσθε, agonize - exert every power of body and soul - let your salvation be the grand business of your whole life.

Clarke: Luk 13:24 - Many - will seek Many - will seek - They seek - wish and desire; but they do not strive; therefore, because they will not agonize - will not be in earnest, they shal...

Many - will seek - They seek - wish and desire; but they do not strive; therefore, because they will not agonize - will not be in earnest, they shall not get in. See this subject more particularly explained on Mat 7:13, Mat 7:14 (note).

Clarke: Luk 13:25 - And hath shut to the door And hath shut to the door - See the notes on Mat 7:22-23 (note), and 25:10-41.

And hath shut to the door - See the notes on Mat 7:22-23 (note), and 25:10-41.

Clarke: Luk 13:28 - Abraham, and Isaac, etc. Abraham, and Isaac, etc. - See on Mat 8:12 (note), where the figures and allusions made use of here are particularly explained.

Abraham, and Isaac, etc. - See on Mat 8:12 (note), where the figures and allusions made use of here are particularly explained.

Clarke: Luk 13:29 - They shall come They shall come - That is, the Gentiles, in every part of the world, shall receive the Gospel of the grace of God, when the Jews shall have rejected...

They shall come - That is, the Gentiles, in every part of the world, shall receive the Gospel of the grace of God, when the Jews shall have rejected it.

Clarke: Luk 13:30 - There are last which shall be first There are last which shall be first - See on Mat 19:30 (note).

There are last which shall be first - See on Mat 19:30 (note).

Clarke: Luk 13:31 - Depart hence, etc. Depart hence, etc. - It is probable that the place from which Christ was desired to depart was Galilee or Perea; for beyond this Herod had no jurisd...

Depart hence, etc. - It is probable that the place from which Christ was desired to depart was Galilee or Perea; for beyond this Herod had no jurisdiction. It can scarcely mean Jerusalem, though it appears from Luk 23:7, that Herod Antipas was there at the time of our Lord’ s crucifixion

Clarke: Luk 13:31 - Herod will kill thee Herod will kill thee - Lactantius says that this Herod was the person who chiefly instigated the Jewish rulers to put our Lord to death: Tum Pontius...

Herod will kill thee - Lactantius says that this Herod was the person who chiefly instigated the Jewish rulers to put our Lord to death: Tum Pontius, et illorum clamoribus, et Herodis tetrarchae instigatione, metuentis ne regno pelleretur, victus est : - fearing lest himself should be expelled from the kingdom, if Christ should be permitted to set up his. See Lact. Inst. Div. lib. iv. c. xviii., and Bishop Pearce on Luk 23:7.

Clarke: Luk 13:32 - Tell that fox Tell that fox - Herod was a very vicious prince, and lived in public incest with his sister-in-law, Mar 6:17 : if our Lord meant him here, it is har...

Tell that fox - Herod was a very vicious prince, and lived in public incest with his sister-in-law, Mar 6:17 : if our Lord meant him here, it is hard to say why the character of fox, which implies cunning, design, and artifice, to hide evil intentions, should be attributed to him, who never seemed studious to conceal his vices. But we may suppose that Christ, who knew his heart, saw that he covered his desire for the destruction of our Lord, under the pretense of zeal for the law and welfare of the Jewish people. A fox among the Jews appears to have been the emblem of a wicked ruler, who united cunning with cruelty, and was always plotting how he might aggrandize himself by spoiling the people. See a quotation in Schoettgen

The following observation from the judicious Bishop Pearce deserves attention. "It is not certain,"says he, "that Jesus meant Herod here; he might only have intended to call that man so, from whom the advice of departing came, (whether from the speaker himself, or the person who sent him), for it is probable, that the advice was given craftily, and with design to frighten Jesus, and, make him go from that place.

Clarke: Luk 13:32 - To-day and to-morrow To-day and to-morrow - I am to work miracles for two days more, and on the third day I shall be put to death. But it is probable that this phrase on...

To-day and to-morrow - I am to work miracles for two days more, and on the third day I shall be put to death. But it is probable that this phrase only means, that he had but a short time to live, without specifying its duration

Clarke: Luk 13:32 - Perfected Perfected - Or finished, τελειουμαι . I shall then have accomplished the purpose for which I came into the world, leaving nothing undone ...

Perfected - Or finished, τελειουμαι . I shall then have accomplished the purpose for which I came into the world, leaving nothing undone which the counsel of God designed me to complete. Hence, in reference to our Lord, the word implies his dying; as the plan of human redemption was not finished, till he bowed his head and gave up the ghost on the cross: see Joh 19:30, where the same word is used. It is used also in reference to Christ’ s death, Heb 2:10; Heb 5:9; see also Act 20:24, and Heb 12:23. The word finish, etc., is used in the same sense both by the Greeks and Latins. See Kypke.

Clarke: Luk 13:33 - I must walk, etc. I must walk, etc. - I must continue to work miracles and teach for a short time yet, and then I shall die in Jerusalem: therefore I cannot depart, a...

I must walk, etc. - I must continue to work miracles and teach for a short time yet, and then I shall die in Jerusalem: therefore I cannot depart, according to the advice given me, (Luk 13:31), nor can a hair of my head fall to the ground till my work be all done

Clarke: Luk 13:33 - To-day and to-morrow, etc. To-day and to-morrow, etc. - Kypke contends that the proper translation of the original is, I must walk to-day and to-morrow In The Neighboring Coas...

To-day and to-morrow, etc. - Kypke contends that the proper translation of the original is, I must walk to-day and to-morrow In The Neighboring Coasts: and that εχομενη is often understood in this way: see Mar 1:38, and his notes there. That Christ was now in the jurisdiction of Herod, as he supposes, is evident from Luk 13:31; that he was on his last journey to Jerusalem, Luk 9:51; that he had just passed through Samaria, Luk 9:52, Luk 9:56; that as Samaria and Judea were under the Roman procurator, and Perea was subject to Herod Antipas, therefore he concludes that Christ was at this time in Perea; which agrees with Mat 19:1, and Mar 10:1, and Luk 17:11. He thinks, if the words be not understood in this way, they are contrary to Luk 13:32, which says that on it Christ is to die, while this says he is to live and act

Clarke: Luk 13:33 - Perish out of Jerusalem Perish out of Jerusalem - A man who professes to be a prophet can be tried on that ground only by the grand Sanhedrin, which always resides at Jerus...

Perish out of Jerusalem - A man who professes to be a prophet can be tried on that ground only by the grand Sanhedrin, which always resides at Jerusalem; and as the Jews are about to put me to death, under the pretense of my being a false prophet, therefore my sentence must come from this city, and my death take place in it.

Clarke: Luk 13:34 - O Jerusalem, Jerusalem O Jerusalem, Jerusalem - See the note on Mat 23:37-39 (note), where the metaphor of the hen is illustrated from the Greek Anthology.

O Jerusalem, Jerusalem - See the note on Mat 23:37-39 (note), where the metaphor of the hen is illustrated from the Greek Anthology.

Clarke: Luk 13:35 - Your house Your house - Ὁ οικος, the temple - called here your house, not my house - I acknowledge it no longer; I have abandoned it, and will dwell i...

Your house - Ὁ οικος, the temple - called here your house, not my house - I acknowledge it no longer; I have abandoned it, and will dwell in it no more for ever. So he said, 2Ch 36:17, when he delivered the temple into the hands of the Chaldeans - the house of Your sanctuary. A similar form of speech is found, Exo 32:7, where the Lord said to Moses, Thy people, etc., to intimate that he acknowledged them no longer for his followers. See the notes on Mat 23:21, Mat 23:38. But some think that our Lord means, not the temple, but the whole commonwealth of the Jews

The principal subjects it this chapter may be found considered at large, on the parallel places in Matthew and Mark, to which the reader is referred. As to the account of the woman with the spirit of infirmity, which is not mentioned by any other of the evangelists, see it largely illustrated in the notes on Luk 13:11 (note), etc.

Calvin: Luk 13:2 - Do you imagine? etc 2.Do you imagine? etc This passage is highly useful, were it for no other reason than that this disease is almost natural to us, to be too rigorous a...

2.Do you imagine? etc This passage is highly useful, were it for no other reason than that this disease is almost natural to us, to be too rigorous and severe in judging of others, and too much disposed to flatter our own faults. The consequence is, that we not only censure with excessive severity the offenses of our brethren; but whenever they meet with any calamity, we condemn them as wicked and reprobate persons. On the other hand, every man that is not sorely pressed by the hand of God slumbers at ease in the midst of his sins, as if God were favorable and reconciled to him. This involves a double fault; for when God chastises any one before our eyes, he warns us of his judgments, that each of us may examine himself, and consider what he deserves. If he spares us for a time, we are so far from having a right to take such kindness and forbearance as an opportunity for slumber, that we ought to regard it as an invitation to repentance.

To correct the false and cruel judgment which we are accustomed to pass on wretched sufferers, and, at the same time, to shake off the indulgence which every man cherishes towards himself, he shows, first, that those who are treated with severity are not the most wicked of all men; because God administers his judgments in such a manner, that some are instantly seized and punished, and others are permitted to remain long in the enjoyment of ease and luxury, Secondly, he declares that all the calamities which happen in the world are so many demonstrations of the wrath of God; and hence we learn what an awful destruction awaits us, 278 if we do not avert it.

The immediate occasion for this exhortation was, that some told him that Pilate had mingled human blood with sacrifices, in order that so shocking an event might bring sacrifices into abhorrence. As it is probable that this outrage was committed on the Samaritans, who had departed from the pure service of the Law, the Jews would easily and readily be disposed to condemn the Samaritans, and by so doing to applaud themselves. But our Lord applies it to a different purpose. As that whole nation was hated and detested by them on account of ungodliness, he puts the question, “Do you imagine that those wretched persons, who have been put to death by Pilate, were worse than others? You are perfectly aware, that that country is full of ungodly men, and that many who deserved the same punishment are still alive. He is a blind and wicked judge who decides as to the sins of all men by the punishments which they now endure. It is not always the most wicked man who is first dragged to punishment; but when God selects a few out of a large number to be punished, he holds out in their person a threatening that he will take vengeance on the remainder, in order that all may be alarmed.”

Having spoken of the Samaritans, he now approaches more closely to the Jews themselves. Eighteen men had at that time been killed by the fall of a tower in Jerusalem. He declares that those men were not more wicked than others, but that their death was held out to all as a ground of alarm; for if in them God gave a display of his judgment, no more would others, though they might be spared for a time, escape his hand. Christ does not, however, forbid believers to consider attentively the judgments of God, but enjoins them to observe this order, to begin with their own sins. They will thus obtain the highest advantage; for they will avert God’s chastisements by voluntary repentance. To the same purpose is the warning which Paul gives,

Let no man deceive you with vain words; for on account of these things the wrath of God cometh against the rebellious,
(Eph 5:6.)

Calvin: Luk 13:6 - He spoke also this parable 6.He spoke also this parable The substance of it is, that many are endured for a time who deserve to be cut off; but that they gain nothing by the de...

6.He spoke also this parable The substance of it is, that many are endured for a time who deserve to be cut off; but that they gain nothing by the delay, if they persist in their obstinacy. The wicked flattery, by which hypocrites are hardened, and become more obstinate, arises from this cause, that they do not think of their sins till they are compelled; and, therefore, so long as God winks at these, and delays his chastisements, they imagine that he is well satisfied with them. Thus they indulge themselves more freely, as if, to use the words of Isaiah, (Isa 28:15,) they had made a covenant with death, and were in friendship with the grave. And this is the reason why Paul denounces them in such earnestness of language for

treasuring up to themselves the wrath of God against the last day,
(Rom 2:5.)

It is well known that trees are sometimes preserved, not because their owners find them to be useful and productive, but because the careful and industrious husbandman makes every possible trial and experiment before he determines to remove them out of the field or vineyard. This teaches us that, when the Lord does not immediately take vengeance on the reprobate, but delays to punish them, there are the best reasons for his forbearance. Such considerations serve to restrain human rashness, that no man may dare to murmur against the supreme Judge of all, if He does not always execute his judgments in one uniform manner. A comparison is here drawn between the owner and the vine-dresser: not that God’s ministers go beyond him in gentleness and forbearance, but because the Lord not only prolongs the life of sinners, but likewise cultivates them in a variety of ways, that they may yield better fruit.

Calvin: Luk 13:10 - NO PHRASE I have resolved to place in immediate connection some events which are detailed by Luke alone, without a direct reference to dates; for on that point...

I have resolved to place in immediate connection some events which are detailed by Luke alone, without a direct reference to dates; for on that point, as we have formerly mentioned, the Evangelists did not care much about exactness. We shall afterwards find a more suitable time for returning to the Harmony of the Three Evangelists.

Calvin: Luk 13:11 - And, lo, a woman 11.And, lo, a woman Here is related a miracle performed on a woman who was cured, and the offense which the malignity of the Jews led them to take up...

11.And, lo, a woman Here is related a miracle performed on a woman who was cured, and the offense which the malignity of the Jews led them to take up, because our Lord had cured her on a Sabbath -day Luke says that the woman was held by a spirit of infirmity, so that her body was bent by the contraction of her nerves. As the nature of the disease is no farther described, it is probable that it was not one of an ordinary kind, or which was understood by physicians; and, therefore, he calls it a spirit of infirmity. We know that diseases of an unusual and extraordinary kind are, for the most part, inflicted on men through the agency of the devil; and this gave the more striking display of the divine power of Christ, which triumphed over Satan. Not that Satan rules over men according to his pleasure, but only so far as God grants to him permission to injure them. Besides, as the Lord, from whom alone all our blessings flow, makes his glory to shine with peculiar brightness in those blessings which are more remarkable, and of rare occurrence; so, on the other hand, it is his will that the power and tyranny of Satan should be chiefly regarded in extraordinary chastisements, though his agency is likewise employed in those more gentle applications of the rod, which we experience from day to day.

Calvin: Luk 13:12 - Woman, thou art delivered 12.Woman, thou art delivered In this miracle, as well as in others, Christ exhibited a proof both of his power and of his grace; for in this manner h...

12.Woman, thou art delivered In this miracle, as well as in others, Christ exhibited a proof both of his power and of his grace; for in this manner he testified that he had come for the purpose of granting relief to the wretched. His power is expressed in these words, Woman, thou art delivered; for he authoritatively declares that deliverance was at his own disposal, and employs, at the same time, the outward sign, the use of which we have explained on a former occasion.

Calvin: Luk 13:13 - And glorified God 13.And glorified God As to the people glorifying God, it is mentioned in order to inform us, that this was distinctly perceived to be a heavenly bl...

13.And glorified God As to the people glorifying God, it is mentioned in order to inform us, that this was distinctly perceived to be a heavenly blessing. It was not some doubtful work which allowed room for argument on either side, but one which afforded ample and undoubted grounds for praising God. This discovers more strongly the malignity of the ruler of the synagogue

Calvin: Luk 13:14 - There are six days // On them, therefore, come and you shall be cured 14.There are six days This reprover does not venture to pass censure openly on Christ, but points the venom of his dislike to another quarter, and in...

14.There are six days This reprover does not venture to pass censure openly on Christ, but points the venom of his dislike to another quarter, and indirectly condemns Christ in the person of the multitude. What an astonishing display of furious malice! Six days, he tells them, were set apart for labor; but how incorrectly and foolishly does he define that work, which is not permitted but on six days! Why does he not likewise forbid them to enter the synagogue, lest they should violate the Sabbath? Why does he not order them to refrain from all the exercises of godliness? But granting that men are restrained from following their own employments on the Sabbath-day, how unreasonable is it that the grace of God should be limited in that manner!

On them, therefore, come and you shall be cured He bids them come on the other days to seek a cure, as if the power of God lay asleep on Sabbath, and were not rather exerted chiefly on that day for the salvation of his people. What purpose is to be served by the holy assemblies, except to give an opportunity to believers for entreating the Divine assistance? That ungodly hypocrite talks as if the lawful observation of the Sabbath interrupted the course of God’s favors, hindered men from calling upon him, and took away from them all feeling of his kindness.

Calvin: Luk 13:15 - Doth not every one of you? etc 15.Doth not every one of you? etc Such a combination of malice and stupidity might easily have been exposed in many ways, but Christ satisfied himsel...

15.Doth not every one of you? etc Such a combination of malice and stupidity might easily have been exposed in many ways, but Christ satisfied himself with this single argument. If it be lawful on the Sabbath, to perform the offices of humanity to cattle, it is ridiculous to imagine that the due observance of it will prevent assistance from being granted to the children of God. The words of Christ present a twofold comparison: that of the cattle with the daughter of Abraham, and that of the halter by which the ass or the ox is tied to its stall with the chains of Satan, by which he holds men bound to their destruction. “You,” says he, “who are so scrupulous about observing the Sabbath, venture to loose oxen and asses, and lead them away to watering. And why may not I be permitted to perform a similar office of kindness to the elect people of God; especially when the necessity is more urgent, when some one is to be delivered from the snares of Satan?

Now though the wicked reprover was struck dumb with shame, yet we perceive that Christ never performed any work, however illustrious, which wicked men did not seize as an occasion for slander. Nor need we wonder that Satan labored, with incessant zeal and exertions, to subvert the glory of Christ; for he is constantly employed in spreading his clouds, in order to darken the holy actions of believers.

Calvin: Luk 13:22 - Journeying towards Jerusalem Luk 13:22.Journeying towards Jerusalem It is uncertain whether Luke speaks only of one journey, or means that, while Christ walked throughout Judea, a...

Luk 13:22.Journeying towards Jerusalem It is uncertain whether Luke speaks only of one journey, or means that, while Christ walked throughout Judea, and visited each part of it for the purpose of teaching, he was wont to go up to Jerusalem at the festivals. The former clause, certainly, appears to describe that course of life which Christ invariably pursued, from the time that he began to discharge the office which had been committed to him by the Father. To make the latter clause agree with this, the meaning will be, that, when the festivals were at hand, he attended, along with others, 226 the holy assemblies.

Calvin: Luk 13:23 - And one saith to him Luk 13:23.And one saith to him Although Matthew relates this answer, as if it were immediately connected with other sentences taken out of our Lord’...

Luk 13:23.And one saith to him Although Matthew relates this answer, as if it were immediately connected with other sentences taken out of our Lord’s sermons, yet I rather think that the occasion of its being spoken arose out of the present question. The reason why the question was put appears to have been, that Christ, who declared himself to be the author of life, could with difficulty collect a small number of disciples. It might appear, that a small band of men was to be saved, and that the whole church was going to ruin: for the whole of that nation, among whom the doctrine of Christ made no great progress, and by whom it was universally rejected, had been adopted by God as the heir of life. A similar doubt steals upon us, when we look at the melancholy condition of the world. “‘ The greater part of men pursue a life which is utterly at variance with the Gospel. What is the meaning of this?” For this reason Christ, directing his discourse to all, exhorted them to strive to enter by the narrow gate These words were intended to withdraw his people from a foolish curiosity, by which many are retarded and involved, when they look around to see if any companions are joining them, as if they were unwilling to be saved but in a crowd. When he bids them strive, or labor, he conveys the information, that it is impossible to obtain eternal life without great and appalling difficulties. Let believers, therefore, give their earnest attention to this object, instead of indulging in excessive curiosity about the vast number of those who are going astray.

Calvin: Luk 13:24 - For many will seek to enter 24.For many will seek to enter This was added, that we might not be deceived by a vain hope, as if the multitude of our companions would be of any av...

24.For many will seek to enter This was added, that we might not be deceived by a vain hope, as if the multitude of our companions would be of any avail to us. The flesh is willing to flatter itself, and many who now give themselves every indulgence, promise to themselves an easy entrance into life. Thus men practice mutual deception on each other, and fall asleep in wicked indifference. To shake off from his own people those flattering hopes, Christ declares that those who calculate that their possession of life is already certain, will be shut out. 473

Calvin: Luk 13:25 - And when the master of the house shall have arisen Luk 13:25.And when the master of the house shall have arisen Though these words, as I hinted a little before, were spoken on a different and later occ...

Luk 13:25.And when the master of the house shall have arisen Though these words, as I hinted a little before, were spoken on a different and later occasion, I have chosen to pay more regard to the doctrine than to the time: for it is no slight assistance to the understanding to read, in immediate connection, those passages which are closely related in meaning. As Christ had declared that to many, who shall desire to enter into heaven, the door will not be open, he now asserts, that they gain nothing by occupying a place in the church because God will at length arise in judgment, and shut out from his kingdom those who now lay claim to a place in his family. He employs the comparison of the master of a house, who, having learned that some wicked and dissolute persons among his own domestics steal out unperceived during the night, and expose the house to thieves, rises and shuts the door, and does not allow those night-prowlers to enter, who have been wandering through the public streets at unseasonable hours. By these words he warns us, that we must avail ourselves of the opportunity, while it is offered: for so long as the Lord invites us to himself, the door is, as it were, open, that we may enter into the kingdom of heaven: but the greater part do not deign to move a step. Christ therefore threatens, that the door will at length be shut, and that those who are looking for companions are in danger of being refused admission.

Calvin: Luk 13:26 - Thou hast taught in our streets 26.Thou hast taught in our streets Christ expressly states, that it will be of no advantage to the Jews, that he approached near to them, and permitt...

26.Thou hast taught in our streets Christ expressly states, that it will be of no advantage to the Jews, that he approached near to them, and permitted them to enjoy familiar intercourse with him, if, when called, they do not answer at the appointed day. But he does not follow out his comparison: for, after having spoken about the master of a house, he now states, without a figure, that he is himself the judge; and indeed the words, thou hast taught in our streets, can apply to no one but himself. We now perceive his design, which was, to warn the Jews not to allow themselves to lose, by their own neglect, the salvation which it is in their power to obtain.

Calvin: Luk 13:28 - When you shall see Abraham 28.When you shall see Abraham The Jews bore no resemblance to the holy fathers, and had no right to boast of being descended from them: yet nothing w...

28.When you shall see Abraham The Jews bore no resemblance to the holy fathers, and had no right to boast of being descended from them: yet nothing was more customary than to abuse the title of the Church. 474 Christ here assures them, that a bastard race, which has departed from the faith and piety of the fathers, has “no inheritance in the kingdom of God,” (Eph 5:5.) There is a silent but implied reproof, that those who were desirous to have companions in seeking salvation, did not endeavor to associate themselves with Abraham, and the prophets, and the holy fathers, instead of looking around among their contemporaries, who had degenerated greatly from their example into innumerable corruptions. “If you neglect (says he) to enter by the strait gate, because you are kept back by the great number of those who are going astray, do you not see that you are separated from the number of believers, and become involved with unbelievers?” If the aspect of the world now dazzles your eyes, the last day will cure you of this folly, but it will be too late: for you shall then know that you, and others like you, are excluded from the kingdom of God, and have no part with Abraham

Calvin: Luk 13:29 - And they shall come from the east 29.And they shall come from the east He now draws a larger illustration from the fact, that the Jews, who reckoned themselves the only lawful heirs o...

29.And they shall come from the east He now draws a larger illustration from the fact, that the Jews, who reckoned themselves the only lawful heirs of God, were to be rejected, and that the Gentiles were to be substituted in their room, and obtain the life which was promised to Abraham and his posterity. He contrasts the Gentiles with them, in order to excite them to faith by a holy jealousy: as Paul writes, that

“it will be a distinguished honor of his ministry, if he excite any of his nation and blood to such an emulations,”
(Rom 11:13.)

The Jews must have been stung by it: for they had an inordinate love of themselves, and proudly despised God and his gifts. But as we shall, ere long, meet with this sentence again in the Gospel by Matthew I now glance at it more slightly.

Calvin: Luk 13:30 - And, lo, they are last who shall be first 30.And, lo, they are last who shall be first The same words, as we shall elsewhere see, were frequently employed by Christ, but in a different sense,...

30.And, lo, they are last who shall be first The same words, as we shall elsewhere see, were frequently employed by Christ, but in a different sense, (Mat 19:30; Mar 10:31.) All that he intended here was, to throw down the vain confidence of the Jews, who, having been chosen by God in preference to all the rest of the world, trusted to this distinction, and imagined that God was in a manner bound to them. For this reason, Christ threatens that their condition will soon be changed; that the Gentiles, who were at that time cast off, would obtain the first rank; and that the Jews, deprived of their honor, would not even occupy the farthest corner in the Church. 475

Calvin: Luk 13:31 - NO PHRASE It deserves our attention, that Christ gives the designation, daughter of Abraham, to one whose body had been enslaved by Satan during eighteen ye...

It deserves our attention, that Christ gives the designation, daughter of Abraham, to one whose body had been enslaved by Satan during eighteen years. She was so called, not only in reference to her lineage, as all the Jews without exception gloried in this title, but because she was one of the true and actual members of the Church. Here we perceive also what Paul tells us, that some are

delivered to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus,
(1Co 5:5.)

And the length of time points out to us that, though the Lord does not immediately relieve our distresses, yet we ought not to despair.

It is difficult to ascertain the precise time when this happened, farther than that Christ was at that time residing in Galilee, as during the whole period of his public calling he remained longer there than in any other place. Certain persons, wishing to be considered as his friends, advise him that, if he wishes to be in safety, he should go beyond the boundaries of Herod’s jurisdiction. In what manner those who gave that advice were affected towards him we have no means of knowing; but I am strongly inclined to conjecture, that they attempted to drive him to some other place, because they saw that the greater part of the people in that place were attached to Christ, so that the Gospel was generally received. We must observe who those advisers were. Luke says that they were some of the Pharisees Now we know that that sect was not so favorable to Christ as to make it probable that those men were anxious about his life. What then? Their design was, to awaken in him such fears as would drive him to some place of concealment; for they expected that, in a short time, his authority would decline, and that his whole doctrine would vanish away. But we must also direct our attention to the first originator and contriver of this scheme, Satan; for, as he endeavored at that time to interrupt the progress of the Gospel, by terrifying the Son of God, so he constantly invents and hatches up new grounds of alarm, to strike the ministers of Christ with dismay, and to constrain them to turn aside.

Calvin: Luk 13:32 - Go, tell that fox 32.Go, tell that fox It is certain, that the person here spoken of is Herod Antipas. Though he had throughout the character of a fox, and was as re...

32.Go, tell that fox It is certain, that the person here spoken of is Herod Antipas. Though he had throughout the character of a fox, and was as remarkable for servility as for cunning, I do not think that the term, fox, is intended to refer generally to the cunning of his whole life, but rather to the insidious methods by which he labored to undermine the doctrine of the Gospel, when he did not venture to attack it openly. Christ tells him that, with all his craftiness, he will gain nothing by his schemes. “Whatever artifices he may devise,” says Christ, “ today and tomorrow I will discharge the office which God has enjoined upon me; and when I shall have reached the end of my course, I shall then be offered in sacrifice.” That we may perceive more clearly the meaning of the words, Christ acknowledges, in the former part of his message, that on the third day—that is, within a very short time—he must die; and in this way shows, that he could not be deterred from his duty by any fear of death, to which he advanced boldly, with fixed purpose of mind.

Calvin: Luk 13:33 - It does not usually happen, etc // It usually happened 33.It does not usually happen, etc He next adds, that it is an idle bugbear, which is held out by false and hypocritical advisers; because there is n...

33.It does not usually happen, etc He next adds, that it is an idle bugbear, which is held out by false and hypocritical advisers; because there is no danger of death anywhere else than at Jerusalem. In this second clause he sharply attacks the Pharisees. “Is it you, who — I foresee — will be my executioners, that advise me to beware of Herod? ” The reproof extends, indeed, much farther; for he says, not only that preparations had been made for his own death in Jerusalem, but that it might be said to have been, for a long period, a den of robbers, in which almost all the prophets had been murdered. Many had, no doubt, been slain in other places, and particularly at the time when that cruel fury, 282 Jezebel, (1Kg 19:2,) raged against them; but because in no other place had the prophets, at any time, been fiercely tormented, Christ justly brings this reproach against the ungodly inhabitants of the holy city.

It usually happened that the prophets were slain there; because not only was it the source of all the ungodliness which spread over the whole of Judea, but it was also the field on which God trained his prophets. 283 We know that the more brightly the light of doctrine shines, so as to press more closely on wicked men, they are driven to a greater pitch of madness. What a dreadful example was it, that a place which had been chosen to be the sanctuary of divine worship, and the residence of the Law and of heavenly wisdom, should be polluted not by one or another murder,, but by a regular butchery of the prophets ! It undoubtedly shows how obstinate is the rebellion of the world in rejecting sound doctrine.

The exclamation which immediately follows in Luke, (Luk 13:34,) appears to be connected in such a manner, as if Christ had taken occasion from the present occurrence to inveigh, at this time, against Jerusalem But for my own part, I rather think, that Luke, having said that Jerusalem had been formerly stained by the blood of the prophets, nay, had been, through an uninterrupted succession of many ages, the slaughter-place, where the prophets were cruelly and wickedly put to death, immediately inserts, according to his custom, a statement which harmonized with that discourse. We have seen, on former occasions, that it is by no means unusual with him to introduce into one place a collection of Christ’s sayings, which were uttered at various times.

Defender: Luk 13:3 - repent Earthly accidents, Jesus said, should not be given a judgmental connotation (Luk 13:2, Luk 13:4). The vital issue is true repentance toward God (repea...

Earthly accidents, Jesus said, should not be given a judgmental connotation (Luk 13:2, Luk 13:4). The vital issue is true repentance toward God (repeated again in Luk 13:5 because of its importance) without which men will perish eternally."

Defender: Luk 13:6 - vineyard Jesus' listeners should have recognized (from Isa 5:1-7) that "the vineyard of the Lord of hosts is the house of Israel and that the men of Judah are ...

Jesus' listeners should have recognized (from Isa 5:1-7) that "the vineyard of the Lord of hosts is the house of Israel and that the men of Judah are His pleasant plant." In Isaiah's parable, the vineyard produced only wild grapes, and in Jesus' parable, the fig tree was barren. Later, He cursed a barren fig tree on the Mount of Olives (Mat 21:18-20) when it should have been bearing early figs, just as the tree in the parable. It should have been obvious that this was both an oral and a visual parable directed against the spiritually barren religious leaders of Israel."

Defender: Luk 13:15 - the sabbath The sabbath (meaning "rest") had been instituted in commemoration of God's completed work of creating all things in six days (Gen 2:1-3), and its obse...

The sabbath (meaning "rest") had been instituted in commemoration of God's completed work of creating all things in six days (Gen 2:1-3), and its observance had been enjoined as a national holiday for the Israelites when Moses received the Ten Commandments (Exo 20:8-11). However, it was not intended as a ritualistic burden, but as a blessing. As Jesus said: "The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath" (Mar 2:27). It would both perpetually remind man of his Creator and also provide a much needed weekly time of rest and spiritual renewal. Furthermore, since Christ Himself was the Creator, He could affirm that "the Son of man is Lord also of the Sabbath" (Mar 2:28). Even though most believers now take their day of rest and worship on the first day of the week to commemorate Christ's completed work of redemption as well as His completed work of creation, the principle is still the same. The day should be used for its created purpose, not as an excuse for extra gain or trivial pleasures. But as Jesus asked rhetorically: "Is it lawful on the sabbath days to do good, or to do evil? to save life, or to destroy it?" (Luk 6:9)."

Defender: Luk 13:31 - Herod No longer impressed by Jesus' miracles, evidently Herod had determined (perhaps at the instigation of the Pharisees) to rid himself of the uncomfortab...

No longer impressed by Jesus' miracles, evidently Herod had determined (perhaps at the instigation of the Pharisees) to rid himself of the uncomfortable teachings of Jesus, as he had those of John (Luk 9:7-9). But Jesus was not concerned, knowing that He must die in Jerusalem (Luk 13:33)."

Defender: Luk 13:34 - ye would not This same lament is recorded in Mat 23:37-39 following His final session of teaching the multitudes, with the Pharisees present. It was evidently firs...

This same lament is recorded in Mat 23:37-39 following His final session of teaching the multitudes, with the Pharisees present. It was evidently first uttered here as He contemplated the sad fact that He, like other prophets before Him, was soon to perish in Jerusalem. His sad reminiscence of previous times the Lord had unsuccessfully called Jerusalem to repentance shows that, by this time if not before, He had a fully restored consciousness of His communion with the Father before His human incarnation."

TSK: Luk 13:1 - the Galilaeans // mingled the Galilaeans : The Galilaeans are frequently mentioned by Josephus as the most turbulent and seditious people, being upon all occasions ready to dis...

the Galilaeans : The Galilaeans are frequently mentioned by Josephus as the most turbulent and seditious people, being upon all occasions ready to disturb the Roman authority. It is uncertain to what event our Lord refers; but is probable that they were the followers of Judas Gaulonitis, who opposed paying tribute to Caesar and submitting to the Roman government. A party of them coming to Jerusalem during one of the great festivals, and presenting their oblations in the court of the temple, Pilate treacherously sent a company of soldiers, who slew them, and ""mingled their blood with their sacrifices.""Act 5:37

mingled : Lam 2:20; Eze 9:5-7; 1Pe 4:17, 1Pe 4:18

TSK: Luk 13:2 - Suppose Suppose : Luk 13:4; Job 22:5-16; Joh 9:2; Act 28:4

TSK: Luk 13:3 - except // ye shall except : Luk 13:5, Luk 24:47; Mat 3:2, Mat 3:10-12; Act 2:38-40, Act 3:19; Rev 2:21, Rev 2:22 ye shall : Luk 19:42-44, Luk 21:22-24, Luk 23:28-30; Mat...

TSK: Luk 13:4 - in Siloam // fell // sinners in Siloam : Neh 3:15; Joh 9:7, Joh 9:11 fell : 1Ki 20:30; Job 1:19 sinners : or, debtors, Luk 7:41, Luk 7:42, Luk 11:4; Mat 6:12, Mat 18:24

in Siloam : Neh 3:15; Joh 9:7, Joh 9:11

fell : 1Ki 20:30; Job 1:19

sinners : or, debtors, Luk 7:41, Luk 7:42, Luk 11:4; Mat 6:12, Mat 18:24

TSK: Luk 13:5 - except except : Luk 13:3; Isa 28:10-13; Eze 18:30

TSK: Luk 13:6 - fig tree // and he came fig tree : Psa 80:8-13; Isa 5:1-4; Jer 2:21; Mat 21:19, Mat 21:20; Mar 11:12-14 and he came : Luk 20:10-14; Mat 21:34-40; Joh 15:16; Gal 5:22; Phi 4:1...

TSK: Luk 13:7 - three // cut // why three : Lev 19:23, Lev 25:21; Rom 2:4, Rom 2:5 cut : Luk 3:9; Exo 32:10; Dan 4:14; Mat 3:10, Mat 7:19; Joh 15:2, Joh 15:6 why : Exo 32:10; Mat 3:9

TSK: Luk 13:8 - let let : Exo 32:11-13, Exo 32:30-32, Exo 34:9; Num 14:11-20; Jos 7:7-9; Psa 106:23; Jer 14:7-9, Jer 14:13-18, Jer 15:1, Jer 18:20; Joe 2:17; Rom 10:1, Ro...

TSK: Luk 13:9 - if not if not : Ezr 9:14, Ezr 9:15; Psa 69:22-28; Dan 9:5-8; Joh 15:2; 1Th 2:15; Heb 6:8; Rev 15:3, Rev 15:4, Rev 16:5-7

TSK: Luk 13:10 - -- Luk 4:15, Luk 4:16, Luk 4:44

TSK: Luk 13:11 - a spirit // eighteen // bowed a spirit : Luk 13:16, Luk 8:2; Job 2:7; Psa 6:2; Mat 9:32, Mat 9:33 eighteen : Luk 8:27, Luk 8:43; Mar 9:21; Joh 5:5, Joh 5:6, Joh 9:19-21; Act 3:2, A...

TSK: Luk 13:12 - Woman // loosed Woman : Luk 6:8-10; Psa 107:20; Isa 65:1; Mat 8:16 loosed : Luk 13:16; Joe 3:10

TSK: Luk 13:13 - he laid // and immediately he laid : Luk 4:40; Mar 6:5, Mar 8:25, Mar 16:18; Act 9:17 and immediately : Luk 17:14-17, Luk 18:43; Psa 103:1-5, Psa 107:20-22, Psa 116:16, Psa 116:...

TSK: Luk 13:14 - the ruler // with // There // and not the ruler : Luk 8:41; Act 13:15, Act 18:8, Act 18:17 with : Luk 6:11; Joh 5:15, Joh 5:16; Rom 10:2 There : Exo 20:9, Exo 23:12; Lev 23:3; Eze 20:12 an...

TSK: Luk 13:15 - Thou hypocrite // doth not Thou hypocrite : Luk 6:42, Luk 12:1; Job 34:30; Pro 11:9; Isa 29:20; Mat 7:5, Mat 15:7, Mat 15:14, Mat 23:13, Mat 23:28; Act 8:20-23, Act 13:9, Act 13...

TSK: Luk 13:16 - being // whom // be loosed being : Luk 3:8, Luk 16:24, Luk 19:9; Act 13:26; Rom 4:12-16 whom : Luk 13:11; Joh 8:44; 2Ti 2:26 be loosed : Luk 13:12; Mar 2:27

TSK: Luk 13:17 - all his // and all all his : Luk 14:6, Luk 20:40; Psa 40:14, Psa 109:29, Psa 132:18; Isa 45:24; 2Ti 3:9; 1Pe 3:16 and all : Luk 19:37-40,Luk 19:48; Exo 15:11; Psa 111:3;...

TSK: Luk 13:18 - Unto // the kingdom Unto : Luk 13:20, Luk 7:31; Lam 2:13; Mat 13:31 the kingdom : Luk 17:21; Mar 4:26, Mar 4:30-34

TSK: Luk 13:19 - like // cast // and it // and the like : Mat 13:31, Mat 13:32, Mat 17:20; Mar 4:31, Mar 4:32 cast : Son 4:12, Son 4:16, Son 5:1, Son 6:2, Son 8:13; Isa 58:11, Isa 61:11; Jer 31:12 and ...

TSK: Luk 13:21 - like // till like : Mat 13:33 *marg. till : Job 17:9; Psa 92:13, Psa 92:14; Pro 4:18; Hos 6:3; Joh 4:14, Joh 15:2; 1Co 5:6; Phi 1:6, Phi 1:9-11; 1Th 5:23, 1Th 5:24...

TSK: Luk 13:22 - through // journeying through : Luk 4:43, Luk 4:44; Mat 9:35; Mar 6:6; Act 10:38 journeying : Luk 9:51; Mar 10:32-34

TSK: Luk 13:23 - are // And are : Mat 7:14, Mat 19:25, Mat 20:16, Mat 22:14 And : Luk 12:13-15, Luk 21:7, Luk 21:8; Mat 24:3-5; Mar 13:4, Mar 13:5; Joh 21:21, Joh 21:22; Act 1:7,...

TSK: Luk 13:24 - Strive // the strait // for Strive : Luk 21:36; Gen 32:25, Gen 32:26; Mat 11:12; Joh 6:27; 1Co 9:24-27; Phi 2:12, Phi 2:13; Col 1:29; Heb 4:11; 2Pe 1:10 the strait : Mat 7:13, Ma...

TSK: Luk 13:25 - once // shut // Lord // I know once : Psa 32:6; Isa 55:6; 2Co 6:2; Heb 3:7, Heb 3:8, Heb 12:17 shut : Gen 7:16; Mat 25:10 Lord : Luk 6:46; Mat 7:21, Mat 7:22, Mat 25:11, Mat 25:12 I...

TSK: Luk 13:26 - We We : Isa 58:2; 2Ti 3:5; Tit 1:16

TSK: Luk 13:27 - I tell // depart I tell : Luk 13:25; Psa 1:6; Mat 7:22, Mat 7:23, Mat 25:12, Mat 25:41; 1Co 8:3; Gal 4:9; 2Ti 2:19 depart : Psa 5:6, Psa 6:8, Psa 28:3, Psa 101:8, Psa ...

TSK: Luk 13:28 - weeping // when // the kingdom // you weeping : Psa 112:10; Mat 8:12, Mat 13:42, Mat 13:50, Mat 22:13, Mat 24:51, Mat 25:30 when : Luk 16:23; Mat 8:11 the kingdom : Luk 14:15, Luk 23:42, L...

TSK: Luk 13:29 - -- Gen 28:14; Isa 43:6, Isa 49:6, Isa 54:2, Isa 54:3, Isa 66:18-20; Mal 1:11; Mar 13:27; Act 28:28; Eph 3:6-8; Col 1:6, Col 1:23; Rev 7:9, Rev 7:10

TSK: Luk 13:30 - -- Mat 3:9, Mat 3:10, Mat 8:11, Mat 8:12, Mat 19:30, Mat 20:16, Mat 21:28-31; Mar 10:31

TSK: Luk 13:31 - Get Get : Neh 6:9-11; Psa 11:1, Psa 11:2; Amo 7:12, Amo 7:13

TSK: Luk 13:32 - that fox // I cast // I shall that fox : This was probably Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee, who is described by Josephus as a crafty and incestuous prince, with which the charac...

that fox : This was probably Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee, who is described by Josephus as a crafty and incestuous prince, with which the character given him by our Lord, and the narratives of the evangelists, exactly coincide. Luk 3:19, Luk 3:20, Luk 9:7-9, Luk 23:8-11; Eze 13:4; Mic 3:1-3; Zep 3:3; Mar 6:26-28

I cast : Luk 9:7; Mar 6:14; Joh 10:32, Joh 11:8-10

I shall : Joh 17:4, Joh 17:5, Joh 19:30 *Gr: Heb 2:10, Heb 5:9

TSK: Luk 13:33 - I must // for I must : Joh 4:34, Joh 9:4, Joh 11:54, Joh 12:35; Act 10:38 for : Luk 9:53; Mat 20:18; Act 13:27

TSK: Luk 13:34 - Jerusalem // killest // how // thy // as // and ye Jerusalem : Luk 19:41, Luk 19:42; Mat 23:37-39 killest : 2Ch 24:21, 2Ch 24:22, 2Ch 36:15, 2Ch 36:16; Neh 9:26; Jer 2:30, Jer 26:23; Lam 4:13; Mat 21:3...

TSK: Luk 13:35 - your // Ye shall not // Blessed your : Luk 21:5, Luk 21:6, Luk 21:24; Lev 26:31, Lev 26:32; Psa 69:25; Isa 1:7, Isa 1:8, Isa 5:5, Isa 5:6, Isa 64:10,Isa 64:11; Dan 9:26, Dan 9:27; Mi...

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Poole: Luk 13:1 - -- Luk 13:1-5 Christ showeth that temporal calamities are no sure signs of sinfulness, but that others should take warning by them, and repent. Luk 13...

Luk 13:1-5 Christ showeth that temporal calamities are no sure

signs of sinfulness, but that others should take

warning by them, and repent.

Luk 13:6-9 The parable of the fig tree that was ordered to be

cut down for being fruitless.

Luk 13:10-17 Christ healeth a woman that had been long bowed

together, and putteth the hypocritical ruler of the

synagogue to silence.

Luk 13:18,19 He likens the progress of the gospel to a grain of

mustard seed,

Luk 13:20-22 and to leaven.

Luk 13:23-30 Being asked of the number of the saved, he exhorteth

to strive to enter in at the strait gate,

Luk 13:31-35 He will not be diverted from his course through fear

of Herod; and laments over the approaching

desolation of Jerusalem.

Ver. 1-5. The Holy Scriptures giving us no account of these two stories to which our Saviour doth here refer, and those who have wrote the history of the Jews having given us no account of them, interpreters are at a great loss to determine any thing about them. We read of one Judas of Galilee, who drew away much people after him, and perished, Act 5:37 . It is said that he seduced people from their obedience to the Roman emperor, persuading them not to acknowledge him as their governor, nor to pay tribute to the Romans. It is guessed by interpreters, that some of this faction coming up to the passover, (for they were Jews), Pilate fell upon them, and slew them while they were sacrificing. Others think that these were some remnant of Judas’ s faction, but Samaritans, and slain while they were sacrificing at their temple in Mount Gerizim, and that (though Samaritans) they were called Galilaeans, because Judas, the head of their faction, was such. The reader is at liberty to choose which of these he thinks most probable, for I find no other account given by any. The latter is prejudiced by our Saviour’ s calling them Galilaeans, and advantaged by the desperate hatred which the Jews had to the Samaritans, which might make them more prone to censure any passages of Divine providence severe towards them. But what the certain crime or provocation was we cannot say; we are sure that de facto the thing was true, Pilate did mingle the blood of some Galilaeans with their sacrifices, of which a report was brought to Christ. We are at the same loss for those eighteen upon whom the tower in Siloam fell. Siloe, or Siloa, was the name of a small fountain at the foot of Mount Zion, which, as we are told, did not constantly, but at certain times, send out waters, which running through hollow places of the earth, and mines and quarries of stone, made a great noise. Isaiah mentions it, Isa 8:6 . There was also a pool in Jerusalem which had that name, and had a wall built by it, Neh 3:15 . Christ sent the blind man to go and wash there, Joh 9:7 . Turrets are (as we know) very usual upon walls. It seems one of these towers fell, and slew eighteen persons, come thither either to wash themselves, or by reason of some healing virtue in those waters, upon what occasion we cannot determine; but there they perished. This story seems to have been something older than the other. Our Saviour either had heard what some people had said, or at least knew what they would say upon those accidents, for we are mightily prone to pass uncharitable judgments upon persons perishing suddenly, especially if they die by a violent death. As he therefore took all occasions to press upon them repentance, so he doth not think fit to omit one so fair; and though he doth not, by what he saith, forbid us to observe such extraordinary providences, and to whom they happen, but willeth us to hear and fear; yet he tells them, there were many Galilaeans as bad as they, who unless they repented, that is, being sensible of, heartily turned from, the wickedness of their ways, would perish also: thereby teaching us,

1. That punishments come upon people for their sins, and more signal punishments for more signal sinnings.

2. That although God sometimes by his providence signally punishes some for notorious sinnings, yet he spareth more such sinners than he so signally punishes.

3. That therefore none can conclude from such signal punishments, that such persons punished were greater sinners than they.

4. That the best use we can make of such reports, and spectacles of notorious sinners, more than ordinarily punished, is to examine ourselves, and to repent, lest we also perish.

Poole: Luk 13:6-9 - -- Ver. 6-9. This parable very fitly coheres with the preceding discourse: there he had let his hearers know, that though God spareth some sinners, and ...

Ver. 6-9. This parable very fitly coheres with the preceding discourse: there he had let his hearers know, that though God spareth some sinners, and hath a longer patience with them than others, though they be every whit as great transgressors, in expectation still that they should bring forth fruit; yet if they answer not the means which God useth, with them to bring them to repentance, they shall not be spared long, but vengeance shall overtake them also. Those who think that this parable concerned not the Jews only, but all mankind, or more especially those who are in the pale of the church, judge well, provided that they allow it to have been spoken with a primary reference to that nation, amongst whom Christ had now been preaching and working miracles three years, and expected the fruits of repentance and reformation from them in vain. I do not think it any prejudice to this, that the vine dresser begged but for one year longer, whereas after this Christ had patience with them forty years, before they were destroyed; for one year may not be intended strictly, (though the three years be), but to signify some little time more, that the apostles might use all probable means to reclaim them, and make them more fruitful. Grotius thinks the term of three years is used, because every fig tree (not wholly barren) brought forth fruit one year in three; which notion (if true) of that plant is valuable, but may be of ill consequence, if any should thence conclude, that men’ s days of grace exceed not three years: yet thus much is observable, that when God sends a faithful minister to a place, the greatest success and blessing of his ministry is within a few of his first years in a place. The parable doubtless extendeth much further than to the people of the Jews, and learns us all these lessons:

1. That where God plants any one within the pale of his church, he looks he or she should bring forth the fruits of repentance and faith.

2. That many are so planted, yet bring forth no fruit.

3. That there is a determined time beyond which God will not bear with barren souls.

4. That barren souls are not only useless, but also spoil others; thn ghn katargei , they make the soil unprofitable: a quench coal spoils the fire.

5. That faithful ministers will be very earnest with God to spare even barren souls.

6. That it is their work and duty to use all probable means to make barren souls fruitful. I will dig about it, and dung it

7. That bearing fruit at last will save souls from ruin and destruction.

8. That out it every soul, though standing in God’ s vineyard, will at last perish eternally.

Poole: Luk 13:10-13 - Woman, thou art loosed from thy infirmity. And he laid his hands on her; and immediately she was made straight // glorified God Ver. 10-13. Though the Greek be on the sabbaths, which might signify any day of the week, yet it is manifest by what followeth that this miracle w...

Ver. 10-13. Though the Greek be on the sabbaths, which might signify any day of the week, yet it is manifest by what followeth that this miracle was wrought upon the seventh day, which was the Jewish sabbath, else the ruler of the synagogue would not have quarrelled with our Saviour about it. What is meant here, Luk 13:11 , by a spirit of infirmity, would not easily be determined, whether only a very great infirmity, or an infirmity in the bringing and continuing of which upon her the devil had a great instrumentality, but for Luk 13:16 , where she is said to be one that Satan had bound; she was a cripple, and so bowed down that she could not lift up herself, and thus she had been for eighteen years, so as the distemper was inveterate, and out of the course of ordinary cure. Christ, who, as to people’ s bodily infirmities, was sometimes found of those that sought him not, seeing her, calleth her to him, and saith,

Woman, thou art loosed from thy infirmity. And he laid his hands on her; and immediately she was made straight The inveterateness of the disease, and the instantaneousness of the cure, without the use of any means, made the miracle evident. The woman for it gave thanks to God, for that is meant by

glorified God she spake some things to the honour and glory of God, who had healed her.

Poole: Luk 13:14 - -- Answered here signifies no more than, he spake, as in a multitude of other places in the Gospels. The Jews were both very superstitious and very u...

Answered here signifies no more than, he spake, as in a multitude of other places in the Gospels. The Jews were both very superstitious and very uneven as to the sanctification of the sabbaths: superstitious, because they would not do many things which by God’ s law they might do, such as applying means to heal the sick, defending themselves against enemies, &c. Uneven, because they would do divers things of equal bodily labour with those things which they pretend to scruple, one of which we shall hear our Saviour by and by instancing in. This ruler studied to defame him before the people. His pretence was, this was a work, and such a work as might be done in the six days. Let us hear how our Saviour defends himself.

Poole: Luk 13:15-16 - -- Ver. 15,16. Our Saviour here calleth this ruler of the synagogue hypocrite for his impudence in so severe a reflection on him for doing on the sabba...

Ver. 15,16. Our Saviour here calleth this ruler of the synagogue hypocrite for his impudence in so severe a reflection on him for doing on the sabbath day a work of that nature which he himself did, and thought himself blameless in the doing of, and his friends ordinarily did, upon whom for so working he did not reflect, thereby teaching us one note of a hypocrite, viz. to reflect upon others for things which we do ourselves. This ruler of the synagogue aud his party indeed did not heal on the sabbath day. But what kind of work was healing? Was it not a work of mercy? What servile labour was there in it? It is only said Christ called this poor creature, and she came, not she was brought to him. What did Christ do? He only laid his hands upon her, and pronounced her loosed from her infirmity. Now the Jews would ordinarily upon the sabbath day loose a beast from the stall to go and drink at a pit, or lead it thither; was not this a greater labour? How came this to be lawful, and not that act of mercy which Christ did show to this poor creature? Their act was capable of no other excuse, than that it was an act of mercy, and a good man will show mercy to his beast: it could be no act of piety, nor of necessity; for a beast may live one day without water, or at least might have had water set by it the night before. Nay, our Lord’ s work of mercy was much more noble. Theirs was to a beast; his to one of mankind, to a woman, and she a Jewish woman, a daughter of Abraham, a father upon whom they much valued themselves, and their whole nation, Mat 3:9 Joh 8:39 . Their beast might not be sick; she was under an infirmity, and that no ordinary infirmity, she was in the hands of the enemy of mankind, bound by Satan; nor was her affliction of a few days’ continuance, she had been so bound eighteen years.

Poole: Luk 13:17 - The people rejoiced It is one thing to be ashamed, another thing to be convinced, so as to confess an error; they were ashamed that they were so put to silence before t...

It is one thing to be ashamed, another thing to be convinced, so as to confess an error; they were ashamed that they were so put to silence before the people, but we read of no confession of their error and mistake, and begging Christ’ s pardon.

The people rejoiced and gave thanks to God

for all the glorious things that were done by our Saviour.

Poole: Luk 13:18-21 - -- Ver. 18-21. See Poole on "Mat 13:31" , and following verses to Mat 13:33 . They are two parables by which Christ foretells the great success of the ...

Ver. 18-21. See Poole on "Mat 13:31" , and following verses to Mat 13:33 . They are two parables by which Christ foretells the great success of the gospel, notwithstanding the present small appearance of the efficacy of it.

Poole: Luk 13:22 - -- Still wherever we find our blessed Lord, we find him teaching, and that not by an exemplary life only, but by word of mouth. There are different opi...

Still wherever we find our blessed Lord, we find him teaching, and that not by an exemplary life only, but by word of mouth. There are different opinions whether our Saviour was now journeying towards Jerusalem with respect to the passover, or some other great festival of the Jews.

Poole: Luk 13:23-24 - will seek to enter, and shall not be able Ver. 23,24. Our Saviour hath told us, Mat 7:14 , that strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, that leadeth to eternal life, and few there be that...

Ver. 23,24. Our Saviour hath told us, Mat 7:14 , that strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, that leadeth to eternal life, and few there be that find it Upon this this exhortation is founded. ’ Agwnizesye , Contend, or strive, to enter in at this strait gate, a word which signifies a labouring against opposition, and the utmost endeavour of the mind and body: not that our own labouring will bring us thither, the eternal life is the gift of God, and without the influence of his grace we can do nothing effectually; but to let us know, that the Lord will give heaven to none but such as labour and strive for it, yea, and also strive lawfully : he tells us that many

will seek to enter, and shall not be able either seeking in a wrong way, or in an undue time. By this speech of our Saviour’ s he diverts them from that curious question, about the number of those that shall be saved. That was not so much their concern to know, as that they should be some of that number.

Poole: Luk 13:25-27 - many will seek to enter in, and shall not be able Ver. 25-27. Our Saviour in these verses doth represent himself by a man, who, having invited guests to his supper, stays till all those who were invi...

Ver. 25-27. Our Saviour in these verses doth represent himself by a man, who, having invited guests to his supper, stays till all those who were invited, and accepted the invitation, were Come in; then rising up, shuts the door; and after that is shut, turns a deaf ear to any that shall come knocking, let them plead for admittance what they can plead. By this parabolical expressing of himself, he both openeth in part what he meant by the foregoing words,

many will seek to enter in, and shall not be able and also lets us know, that there is a determinate time, wherein souls must (if ever) accept of the offers of grace and salvation, when they are made to them, which if they slip, they will not be able to obtain of God an entrance into the kingdom of heaven. Seek the Lord while he may be found, saith the prophet, Isa 55:6 . In an acceptable time have I heard thee, saith the prophet, Isa 49:8 ; which the apostle applies, 2Co 6:2 , to persuade men that they should not receive the grace of God (in the gospel) in vain. What this determinate time is God hath hidden from us, and it is probable that it is not the same as to all persons; we know nothing to the contrary, but while there is life there is hope, which warrants us to preach truth and repentance to all. We are also further instructed, that no outward privileges though Christ hath taught in our streets; no external acts of communion with Christ, though we can say we have ate and drunk with him; will justify our hopes of entrance into heaven, if in the mean time we be workers of iniquity. We had much the same; See Poole on "Mat 7:21" , and following verses to Mat 7:23 .

Poole: Luk 13:28-29 - Weeping and gnashing of teeth Ver. 28,29. We have the same Mat 8:11,12 , only he saith only from the east and west:See Poole on "Mat 8:11" , See Poole on "Mat 8:12" . Weeping an...

Ver. 28,29. We have the same Mat 8:11,12 , only he saith only from the east and west:See Poole on "Mat 8:11" , See Poole on "Mat 8:12" .

Weeping and gnashing of teeth are usual expressions by which the pains of the damned are expressed, especially by the evangelist Matthew, Mat 8:12 Mat 13:42,50 22:13 24:51 25:30 . One cause of this vexation of spirit, expressed under this notion, is the Jews’ sight of the rest and happiness that their relations, nay, some to whom they upon earth were enemies, should enjoy in heaven; nay, which some which were heathens should enjoy there; whereas they, who took themselves to be the only church, and to have the same right to the kingdom of heaven that children have to the inheritances of their fathers, should be cast out, as having no portion there.

Poole: Luk 13:29 - -- Ver. 29 See Poole on "Luk 13:28"

Ver. 29 See Poole on "Luk 13:28"

Poole: Luk 13:30 - -- This is a sentence which our Saviour often made use of, and not always to the same purpose. See Poole on "Mat 19:30" . See Poole on "Mat 20:16" . ...

This is a sentence which our Saviour often made use of, and not always to the same purpose. See Poole on "Mat 19:30" . See Poole on "Mat 20:16" . See Poole on "Mar 10:31" . As to the sense of them here, it is plain. Our Saviour here foretells the conversion of the Gentiles; but yet I do not take the Gentiles to be all who are intended under the notion of the last but divers others also. Men who, both in their opinion of themselves, and in reality with respect to privilege, are the first whether in respect of gifts, or office, or the means of grace, or profession, will many of them be the last that is, furthest off from the kingdom of God; and many who are the last upon these accounts will in the day of judgment be first , that is, appear so, as having more of the favour of God, and be so, taken to heaven, when the others shall be cast to hell, Mat 11:20-24 .

Poole: Luk 13:31-33 - Behold, I cast out devils, and I do cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I shall be perfected // I must walk today, and tomorrow, and the day following Ver. 31-33. It is plain from this text, that our Saviour was at this time in Galilee, for that was the tetrarchy or province of Herod Antipas, who is...

Ver. 31-33. It is plain from this text, that our Saviour was at this time in Galilee, for that was the tetrarchy or province of Herod Antipas, who is the Herod here mentioned. Whether these Pharisees came of their own heads, or as sent by Herod, is not so plain, nor so well agreed by interpreters. If they came of their own heads, it is certain they came not out of kindness, for the whole history of the gospel lets us know, that the Pharisees had no kindness for Christ, but were his most implacable enemies, and continually consulting how to destroy him; but they either came to scare him out of Galilee, whose repute was so great, and who did them so much mischief there, or to drive him into the trap which they had laid for him in Judea. But it is most probable that they came as secretly sent by Herod, who though of himself he be reported to be of no bloody disposition, yet upon the Pharisees’ continual solicitations might be persuaded to send them on this errand, choosing rather cunningly to scare him out of his province, than by violence to fall upon him. This opinion looks more probable, because, Luk 13:32 , our Saviour sends them back with a message to Herod, Go ye, and tell that fox Herod had gained himself no reputation amongst the Jews, by his murdering John the Baptist, whom the Jews generally valued as a prophet; and probably seeing our Saviour exceeding him in popular applause, he was not willing to augment the odium which already lay upon him for that fact; yet, to gratify the Pharisees, (many of which were in his province), he was willing, if he could effect it cleverly, and without noise, to he quit of Christ, especially considering (as we before heard) he had an opinion that he was John the Baptist risen from the dead, or the soul of John the Baptist in another body; and possibly: he could not tell what might be the effect of his ghost so haunting his province. It is certain, that either he, or the Pharisees, or both, had a mind to have him gone some where else, to which purpose this message is brought to him. Our Saviour, either discerning Herod’ s craft in this thing, or having observed the craft he used in the whole management of his government, that he might keep favour both with the Roman emperor and with the Jews, bids them, Go and tell that fox . I do not much value their critical observation, who observe that it is not alwpeki eceinh , but, tauth , that is, this fox; from whence they would observe that our Saviour might mean the Pharisees, not Herod; nor is there any need of it to excuse our Saviour from the violation of that law of God, Exo 22:28 , Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people; which law Paul reflected on, Act 23:5 , and pleads ignorance for his calling Ananias a whited wall. For we shall observe that the prophets all along (being immediately sent from God) took a further liberty than any others, in severely reproving kings and princes. Elijah tells Ahab it was he that troubled Israel; the prophets call the rulers of the Jews, rulers of Sodom, and princes of Gomorrah, &c. But Christ may be allowed a liberty neither lawful nor decent for other persons, not though they were prophets. But what is the message which Christ sends by these Pharisees?

Behold, I cast out devils, and I do cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I shall be perfected Tell him, saith he, what I am doing; I am freeing his subjects from molestations by evil spirits, and the encumbrances of many diseases. What do I do worthy of death? I have but a little time to trouble him, for in a little time I must die, which is that which he means by being perfected: it is plain that those words today, and tomorrow, and the third day , must not be taken strictly, for Christ lived more than three days after this. If this will not satisfy him, tell him, saith our Saviour, that

I must walk today, and tomorrow, and the day following I know that, as to this thing, I am not under his command or power, I must walk, & c.; my days are not in his hands, and I know that he cannot kill me,

for it cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem Jerusalem is the place where I must die, not Galilee; the sanhedrim sits at Jerusalem, who alone can take cognizance of the case of false prophets, and Jerusalem is the place where the people must fill up the measure of their iniquities by spilling my blood. Upon this our Saviour breaketh out into a sad lamentation of the case of that once holy city, the praise of the whole earth.

Poole: Luk 13:34-35 - -- Ver. 34-35. See Poole on "Mat 23:37" . See Poole on "Mat 23:38" . See Poole on "Mat 23:39" . These five last verses afford us much for our instruc...

Ver. 34-35. See Poole on "Mat 23:37" . See Poole on "Mat 23:38" . See Poole on "Mat 23:39" . These five last verses afford us much for our instruction.

1. We may from them learn the craft of the enemies of the gospel, as well as their malice; they are lions, and will, like lions, tear rand rend when they see an opportunity; but when they see it convenient, then they put on the fox’ s skin, doing the same thing by subtlety, which they durst not attempt to effect by cruelty.

2. Their malice is as much perspicuous; who but the children of the devil could have found in their hearts to have desired Christ to go out of their country, who did nothing there but innocently and diligently preach the gospel, deliver people from grievous diseases, and the power of Satan, who miserably possessed and tormented them?

3. When the most malicious enemies of God’ s people have done what they can, they shall finish their course, and work the time God hath set them.

4. When they have perfected their work, they shall be perfected. Death is but the perfecting of the saints, as it was the perfecting of Christ.

5. Men shall die, as at the time, so at the place, which God hath set.

6. God sending of his ministers faithfully to reveal his will to people, is a declaration of his willingness to gather them under the wings of his special favour and protection.

7. The perverse wills of men are those things which hinder men and women from being gathered.

8. Temporal judgments, and that of the severest nature, will first or last follow men’ s contempt of the offers of grace and salvation.

9. Those that do contemn the means of grace shalt not see them long. — Ye shall not see me.

10. The proudest scorners and contemners of Christ and his grace shall one day wash that one would or might come unto them in the name of the Lord, and do but now contemn what hereafter they would be glad they might enjoy.

Lightfoot: Luk 13:1 - Of the Galileans. // Whose blood Pilate mingled There were present at that season some that told him of the Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices.   [Of the Gal...

There were present at that season some that told him of the Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices.   

[Of the Galileans.] If this report concerning the Galileans was brought to our Saviour immediately after the deed was done, then was this tragedy acted by Pilate, a little before the feast of Dedication; for we find Christ going towards that feast, Luk 13:22. But the time of this slaughter is uncertain: for it is a question, whether they that tell him this passage, relate it as news which he had not heard before, or only to draw from him his opinion concerning that affair, etc.  

It is hotly disputed amongst some, as to the persons whom Pilate slew. And,  

I. Some would have them to have been of the sect of Judas the Gaulonite; and that they were therefore slain, because they denied to give tribute to Caesar. He is called, indeed, "Judas of Galilee"; and there is little doubt, but that he might draw some Galileans into his opinion and practice. But I question then, whether Christ would have made any kind of defence for such, and have placed them in the same level with these, upon whom the tower of Siloam fell; when it so plainly appears, that he taught directly contrary to that perverse sect and opinion. However, if these were of that sect (for I will not contend it), then do these, who tell this to our Saviour, seem to lay a snare for him, not much unlike that question they put to him, "Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or no?"  

II. There is one that confounds this story with that of Josephus, which he relates from him thus abbreviated; "In Galilee there were certain Samaritans, who, being seduced by a notorious impostor, moved sedition at mount Gerizim, where this cheat promised them to shew them the sacred vessels which, he falsely told them, had been hid by Moses in that place. Pilate, sending his forces upon them, suppressed them; the greater of them were taken and adjudged to death." I admire how this learned man should deliver these things with so much confidence, as even to chastise Josephus himself for his mistake in his computation of the time for this story, concluding thus; "When, indeed, this slaughter, made upon the Samaritans by Pilate, seems to be that very slaughter of the Galileans mentioned by St. Luke, Luk 13:1."  

Whereas, in truth, Josephus mentions not one syllable either of Galilee or sacrifice, or the Galileans, but Samaritans; and it is a somewhat bold thing to substitute rebelling Samaritans in the place of sacrificing Galileans. Nor is it probable that those that tell this matter to our Saviour would put this gloss and colour upon the thing while they related it.  

III. The feud and enmity that was between Pilate and Herod might be enough to incense Pilate to make this havock of the subjects of Herod.  

[Whose blood Pilate mingled.] "David swore to Abishai, As the Lord liveth, if thou touch the blood of this righteous man [Saul], I will mingle thy blood with his blood." So Pilate mingled the blood of these sacrificers with the blood of those sacrifices they had slain. It is remarkable that in Siphra; "the killing of the sacrifices may be well enough done by strangers, by women, by servants, by the unclean; even those sacrifices that are most holy, provided that the unclean touch not the flesh of them." And a little after; "At the sprinkling of the blood, the work of the priest begins; and the slaying of them may be done by any hand whatever."   

Hence was it a very usual thing for those that brought the sacrifice to kill it themselves; and so, probably, these miserable Galileans were slaughtered, while they themselves were slaying their own sacrifices. For it is more likely that they were slain in the Temple while they were offering their sacrifices, than in the way, while they were bringing them thither.

Lightfoot: Luk 13:4 - Upon whom the tower in Siloam fell Or those eighteen, upon whom the tower in Siloam fell, and slew them, think ye that they were sinners above all men that dwelt in Jerusalem?  ...

Or those eighteen, upon whom the tower in Siloam fell, and slew them, think ye that they were sinners above all men that dwelt in Jerusalem?   

[Upon whom the tower in Siloam fell.] The poor of Bethesda was the pool of Siloam; and from thence all that adjacent part of the city is denominated Siloam. And therefore it is left doubtful, whether this tower were built over the pool, that is, over the porches of the pool, or stood something remote from it in those parts that yet bore the name of Siloam. And if the article in does not determine the matter, we must continue still in doubt. Will grammar permit that that article should be prefixed to that part of the city? It is certain, that the very pool is called the pool of Siloam. So that I conceive this tower might be built over the porticoes of the pool, and might overwhelm those eighteen men, while they were busied about purifying themselves (and so this event falls in the more agreeably with that of the Galileans), or as they were expecting to be healed at the troubling of the waters: for it is very uncertain at what time this tower fell.

Lightfoot: Luk 13:7 - -- Then said he unto the dresser of his vineyard, Behold, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none: cut it down; why ...

Then said he unto the dresser of his vineyard, Behold, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none: cut it down; why cumbereth it the ground?   

Behold, these three years I come, etc.] there was no tree that was of a kind to bear fruit might lightly and upon every small occasion be cut down, that law providing against it in Deu 20:19-20; where the Pesikta observes that there is both an affirmative and also a negative command, by which it is the more forbidden that any tree of that kind should be cut down, unless upon a very indispensable occasion. "Rabh saith, 'Cut not down the palm that bears a cab of dates.' They urge, 'And what of the olive, that that should not be cut down?' 'If it bear but the fourth part of a cab.' R. Chaninah said, My son Shibchah had not died, had he not cut down a fig-tree before its time."

Lightfoot: Luk 13:8 - I will dig about it, and dung it And he answering said unto him, Lord, let it alone this year also, till I shall dig about it, and dung it;   [I will dig about it, and...

And he answering said unto him, Lord, let it alone this year also, till I shall dig about it, and dung it;   

[I will dig about it, and dung it.] They dung it and dig it etc. The Gloss is; "They lay dung in their gardens to moisten the earth. They dig about the roots of their trees, they pluck up the suckers, they take off the leaves, they sprinkle ashes, and they smoke under the trees to kill worms."

Lightfoot: Luk 13:11 - Having a spirit of infirmity And, behold, there was a woman which had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and was bowed together, and could in no wise lift up herself. &nb...

And, behold, there was a woman which had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and was bowed together, and could in no wise lift up herself.   

[Having a spirit of infirmity.] I. The Jews distinguish between spirits, and devils, and good angels. "All things do subserve to the glory of the King of kings, the holy blessed One, even spirits, also devils also ministering angels."  

The difficulty is in what sense they take spirits; as they are distinguished from angels and devils; when it is probable they did not mean human souls. But these things are not the business of this place.  

II. Therefore, as to this phrase in St. Luke, a spirit of infirmity; let us begin our inquiry from this passage: "It is written, 'If I put the plague of leprosy in a house of the land of your inheritance.' R. Judah saith, 'This foretells such plagues to come upon them.' R. Simeon saith, ' He excepts those violent plagues that do not render a man unclean.' " Where the Gloss is, If those plagues come by the insufflation of the devil, which do not defile the man. And the Gemara a little after; "Rabba saith, He excepts the plagues of spirits. Rabh Papa saith, 'He excepts the plagues of enchantments.' " Where the Gloss again hath it; "Those plagues which are inflicted by the insufflation of the devil, not by the hands of men."  

I. You see, therefore, first, that it was a most received opinion amongst the Jews, that diseases or plagues might be inflicted by the devil. Which is plain also from the evangelists; because our Saviour, in this very place, tells us, that the bowing together of this woman was inflicted upon her by Satan.  

II. They conceived further, that some diseases were inflicted that were unclean, and some that were not unclean. The unclean were the leprosy, issues, etc.; not unclean, were such as this woman's infirmity, etc.  

III. They distinguish betwixt an evil spirit; and an unclean spirit. Not but they accounted an unclean spirit ill enough, and an evil spirit to be unclean enough; but that they might distinguish the various operations of the devil, as also concerning the various persons possessed and afflicted by him.  

1. They acknowledged that evil spirits might inflict diseases. "Whomsoever either the Gentiles, or evil spirit drive," i.e. beyond the bounds of the sabbath. Where the Gloss is; "The evil spirit is the devil that hath entered into him, disturbs his intellectuals, so that he is carried beyond the bounds." But Rambam saith, "They call all kind of melancholy an evil spirit." And elsewhere: an evil spirit; i.e. a disease.  

2. The unclean spirit amongst them was chiefly and more peculiarly that devil that haunted places of burial, and such-like, that were most unclean. The unclean spirit; i.e. the devil that haunts burying-places. "Thither the necromancer betook himself" (as the Gemara hath it, which I have also quoted in another place); "and when he had macerated himself with fasting, he lodgeth amongst the tombs, to the end that he might be the more inspired by the unclean spirit." Nor is it much otherwise (as they themselves relate it) with the python or prophesying spirit. "For the Rabbins deliver: the python is he that speaks within the parts." The Gloss is, "He that raiseth a dead person, and sits between the parts of the bones," etc.  

Hence that reason of our conjecture concerning that demoniac, Luk 4:33; that he was either a necromancer or pythonist, taken from that unusual way of expressing it which is there observable, not having an unclean spirit; nor having an unclean devil; but having a spirit of an unclean devil.  

There were therefore two sorts of men whom they accounted under the possession of an unclean spirit; in their proper sense so called: those especially who sought and were ambitious to be inspired of the devil amongst tombs and unclean places; and those also, who, being involuntarily possessed by the devils, betook themselves amongst tombs and such places of uncleanness. And whether they upon whom the devil inflicted unclean diseases should be ranked in the same degree, I do not determine. There were others who were not acted by such diabolical furies, but afflicted with other kind of diseases, whom they accounted under the operation of an evil spirit of disease or infirmity. Not of uncleanness; but of infirmity. And perhaps the evangelist speaks according to this antithesis, that this woman had neither a spirit of uncleanness; according to what they judged of a spirit of uncleanness; nor a disease of uncleanness; but a spirit of infirmity.

Lightfoot: Luk 13:15 - Doth not each one of you on the sabbath loose his ox The Lord then answered him, and said, Thou hypocrite, doth not each one of you on the sabbath loose his ox or his ass from the stall, and lead ...

The Lord then answered him, and said, Thou hypocrite, doth not each one of you on the sabbath loose his ox or his ass from the stall, and lead him away to watering?   

[Doth not each one of you on the sabbath loose his ox?] that disceptation doth attest this, How far a beast going forth. Where it is very much cautioned that the beast be not brought out on the sabbath day carrying any thing upon him that might be a burden not permitted to be borne on that day. They allow that a camel be led out with a halter, a horse with a collar; etc.; that is, when they are led out either to pasture or watering. Nay, the Gloss upon the place adds, "that they may lead out the horse to the water, that he may dip the collar in the water if the water be unclean."   

To this may be referred that abstruse and obscure rule concerning the building of mounds about a spring that belongs to a private man, with that art that the beast, being led thither to watering on the sabbath day, shall not go out of the place that is of common right.  

It is not only permitted to lead the beast out to watering on the sabbath day, but they might draw water for him, and pour it into troughs, provided only that they do not carry the water, and set it before the beast to drink; but the beast come and drink it of his own accord.

Lightfoot: Luk 13:23 - Are there few that be saved Then said one unto him, Lord, are there few that be saved? And he said unto them,   [Are there few that be saved?] This question, Lord...

Then said one unto him, Lord, are there few that be saved? And he said unto them,   

[Are there few that be saved?] This question, Lord, are there few that be saved? when it was a received opinion amongst the Jews, 'that all Israel should have their part in the world to come,' makes it doubtful whether it was propounded captiously, or merely for satisfaction.  

This very matter is disputed amongst the Masters. "Therefore hell hath enlarged herself, and opened her mouth beyond the statute [without measure; AV]. Resh Lachish saith, 'This is for him who forsaketh one statute.' (The Gloss is, 'He that leaves one statute unobserved shall be condemned in hell.') But R. Jochanan saith, 'Their Lord will not have it so as thou sayest concerning them.' (The Gloss is, 'He will not have thee judge so concerning Israel.') For the sense is, Although a man have learned but one statute only, he shall escape hell. It is said, 'It shall come to pass that in all the land, saith the Lord, two parts of it shall be cut off and die, and the third part shall be left.' Resh Lachish saith, 'The third part of Shem.' R. Jochanan saith unto him, 'Their Lord will not have it so as thou sayest concerning them, for it is the third part of Noah.' It is said, 'I will take you one of a city and two of a tribe.' Resh Lachish saith, 'These words are to be understood in the very letter.' R. Jochanan saith unto him, 'Their Lord will not have it so as thou sayest concerning them, but one of a city shall expiate for the whole city, and two of a family for the whole family. It is said, 'I will take them for my people'; and it is said, 'I will bring you into the land.' He compares their going out of the land of Egypt with their coming in to their own land: now how was their coming in into the land of Canaan? There were only two persons of threescore myriads that entered it. Rabba saith, So also shall it be in the days of the Messiah.' " A man would hardly have expected such ingenuity from a Jew as we here meet with in Resh Lachish and Rabba.

Lightfoot: Luk 13:32 - Tell that fox And he said unto them, Go ye, and tell that fox, Behold, I cast out devils, and I do cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I shall be pe...

And he said unto them, Go ye, and tell that fox, Behold, I cast out devils, and I do cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I shall be perfected.   

[Tell that fox.] I conceive our Saviour may allude here to the common proverb: "The brethren of Joseph fell down before his face and worshipped him, saith R. Benjamin Bar Japheth. Saith R. Eliezer This is what is commonly said amongst men, Worship the fox in his time." The Gloss is, 'In the time of his prosperity.' But go you, and say to that fox; however he may wallow in his present prosperity, that I will never flatter him, or for any fear of him desist from my work; but "behold, I cast out devils," etc.

Lightfoot: Luk 13:33 - It cannot be that a prophet perish, etc. Nevertheless I must walk today, and tomorrow, and the day following: for it cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem.   [It cann...

Nevertheless I must walk today, and tomorrow, and the day following: for it cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem.   

[It cannot be that a prophet perish, etc.] "A tribe, nor false prophet, [such a one they accounted the holy Jesus,] nor a high priest, can be judged but by the bench of seventy-one." Rambam upon the place, as also the Gemara; "We know that a false prophet must be judged by the Sanhedrim, from the parity of the thing: for so is judged a rebellious judge."  

Now as to the judgment itself, these things are said: "They do not judge him to death in the court of judicature, that is, in his own city, nor in that that is at Jabneh; but they bring him to the great Consistory that is at Jerusalem, and reserve him to one of their feasts; and at their feast they execute him, as it is said, 'All Israel shall hear, and shall fear, and do no more so.'"

Lightfoot: Luk 13:35 - Ye shall not see me, until the time come when ye shall say, Blessed is he, etc.// Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord Behold, your house is left unto you desolate: and verily I say unto you, Ye shall not see me, until the time come when ye shall say, Blessed i...

Behold, your house is left unto you desolate: and verily I say unto you, Ye shall not see me, until the time come when ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.   

[Ye shall not see me, until the time come when ye shall say, Blessed is he, etc.] there was a time (I confess) when I apprehended no difficulty at all in these words; but now (which may seem a paradox) my old eyes see better than my younger ones did; and by how much the more I look into this passage, by so much the more obscure it appears to me.  

I. What sense must that be taken in, Ye shall not see me? when as after he had said this, (at least as the words are placed in our evangelist), they saw him conversant amongst them for the space of three months and more: particularly and in a singular manner, in that august triumph, when riding upon an ass he had the acclamations of the people in these very words, "Blessed is he that cometh," etc. One might therefore think, that the words have some respect to this very time and action; but that in St. Matthew these words are repeated by our Saviour after this triumph was over.  

Christ is now at Jerusalem, at the feast of Dedication; at least that feast was not far off; for we find him going to it, Luk 13:22; so that this exposition of the words looks fair enough; "Ye see me now, but henceforward ye shall see me no more, until ye shall say, 'Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord'"; which very thing was said in that triumph of his. But what shall we say then to that of St. Matthew, that these very words are recited sometime after he had received these acclamations from the people? I would hardly believe with the learned Heinsius, that the words in St. Matthew are not set in their proper place, but the series of the history is transposed: I would rather think our Saviour meant not an ocular seeing him, but spoke it in a spiritual and borrowed sense; viz. In the sense wherein the Jews were wont to use the word seeing; when they spake of "seeing the Messiah, the days of the Messiah, and the consolation of Israel"; that is, of partaking and enjoying the comforts and advantages of the Messiah, and of those days of his. So that our Saviour's meaning may seem to be this; "Ye shall, from henceforward, enjoy no benefit from me the Messiah, till ye shall say, 'Blessed is he that cometh,' " etc.: for it is worthy our inquiry, whether Christ ever after these words of his, did endeavour so to gather the children of Jerusalem together, that the city might not be destroyed, and the whole nation cast off. He did indeed endeavour to gather the remnant according to the election of grace; but did he ever after this labour that the place and nation might be preserved? As to these, it is argument enough that he had given them wholly over in his own mind, in that here, and in St. Matthew, he did in such precise terms denounce the ruin of Jerusalem, immediately before he uttered these words. I had rather, therefore, than admit any immethodicalness in St. Matthew, expound the passage to this sense; "From henceforward, ye shall never see the consolations of Messiah, nor have me any ways propitious amongst you, endeavouring at all the preservation of your city or nation from ruin, till ye shall say, 'Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.'"  

II. But then here ariseth as great a difficulty about the word till; that is, whether it concludes that in time they will say and acknowledge it; or whether it excludes and denies that they ever shall. For who knows not how different and even contrary a force there is in this word until? "Occupy till I come": here it concludes that he will come again. "This iniquity shall not be forgiven you till you die": there their forgiveness is excluded for ever. And indeed the expression in this place looks so perfectly two ways, that he that believes the conversion of the Jewish nation as a thing must come to pass, may turn it to his side; he that believes the contrary, to his.  

[Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.] Although a more intimate weighing of these words will not very much help in determining the force of this word until in this place, yet will it probably afford us some light into the whole clause.  

The words are taken out of Psa 118:26; and were sung in the Great Hallel. So that I will beg the reader's leave to digress a little in search of this usage, especially as to those words that are now in hand.  

I. The Great Hallel was the recitation of Psalms_113-118 upon every feast, in every family or brotherhood. The hymn that our Saviour with his apostles sung at the close of the Passover was the latter part of this Hallel.  

II. Every one, indeed, was of right bound to repeat it entirely in his own person. But seeing it was not every one's lot to be so learned or expedite as that came to, there was one to recite it in the stead of all the rest, and they after him made some responsals. This went for a maxim amongst them, if he hear, it is as if he responded. If he hear, though he do not answer, he performs his duty; the meaning is, if any be so unskillful that he can neither recite himself, nor answer after another that doth recite, let him but hear attentively, and he doth as much as is required from him.  

III. There was a twofold way of responding according to the difference of persons reciting. If an elder, or master of a family, or one that could fitly represent the whole congregation, should recite or lead in singing; then the rest repeat no other words after him except the first clause of every Psalm; and as to all the remainder, they answered verse by verse Hallelujah. For the action of him that represented them, and led up in singing, availed for those that were represented, especially they having testified their consent by answering Hallelujah. He was a dunce, indeed, that could not answer so far amongst the rest.  

IV. But if there wanted such an elder so well skilled in reading or reciting, that it became necessary for a servant or woman, or some more skilful boy, to lead, then let us hear what they did in that case: "If a servant, or woman, or boy should lead in singing, every one in the congregation recites those very words which he had said: if a more ancient person or one of greater note; do sing or read, they answer after him 'Hallelujah.' Now the reason why the words recited by a servant, woman, or boy should be repeated after him verbatim; was this, because such a one was unfit to represent a congregation, and his action could not avail for the rest: so that it behoved every person to recite singly for himself, that he might perform his duty."  

V. When they came to the words now in hand, blessed be he that cometh in the name of the Lord; if it be a boy or a servant that is the praecentor, he saith, Blessed be he that cometh; and the rest answer, In the name of the Lord. And this is that for which I have so long ventured upon the reader's patience, that he may observe what is done differently from the rest when this clause is recited. It is cut in two, which is not done in others. And the first words are not repeated after the praecentor, as they are in other clauses. And whether this custom obtained only in families where servants or boys led in singing, we may judge from this following passage:  

"They asked R. Chaijam Bar Ba, 'How doth it appear, that he who heareth and doth not answer performs his duty?' 'From this, saith he, That we see the greatest Rabbins standing in the synagogue, and they say, Blessed be he that cometh, and they answer, In the name of the Lord; and they both perform their duty.' " Midras Tillin leaves these last words wholly out. For so that hath it: "The men of Jerusalem say from within, Save us now, O Lord, we beseech thee. The men of Judea say from without, Prosper us now, Lord, we beseech thee. The men of Jerusalem say from within, Blessed be he that cometh; and the men of Judea say from without, We have blessed you out of the house of the Lord."  

I will not confidently assert that these men had any ill design when they thus mangled this famous clause; but surely there is at least some ground of suspicion that they hardly refer the words to the right object. R. Solomon assuredly doth not. For, "So it ought to be said (saith he) to those that bring their firstfruits, and go up to the feasts."  

1. To come is oftentimes the same with them as to teach; "If any one shall come in his own name, him ye will receive": i.e. If any one shall teach. And so it is frequently in the Jerusalem Talmud, concerning this or the other Rabbins, he came; and when he cometh. Which if it be not to be understood of such a one teaching, I confess I am at a loss what it should mean else.  

2. Those doctors did not come and teach in the name of the Lord, but either in their own name, or in the name of some father of the traditions. Hence nothing more familiar with them, than "R. N. in the name of R. N. saith": as every leaf; I may say almost every line of their writings witnesses. If, therefore, by cutting short this clause, they would be appropriating to themselves the blessing of the people, whom they had taught to say, Blessed be he that cometh; letting that slip, or omitting what follows, In the name of the Lord; they do indeed like themselves, cunningly lying at catch, and hunting after fame and vainglory.  

Let the reader judge, whether Christ might not look this way in these words. However, I shall not scruple to determine, that they shall never see the Messiah, as to any advantage to themselves, till they have renounced the doctrines of coming in their own name, or in the name of the Fathers of the Traditions, embracing his doctrine, who is come in the name of the Lord.

Haydock: Luk 13:1 - Whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices // Whose blood // Galileans Whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. These seem to have been some of the seditious followers of Judas, the Galilean, or Gaulonite,...

Whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. These seem to have been some of the seditious followers of Judas, the Galilean, or Gaulonite, who denied that God's people were to pay taxes; and it is thought that some of them, coming to offer up sacrifices in the temple, Pilate caused them to be slain at that very time, so that their blood was mixed with the sacrifices. (Witham) ---

Whose blood, &c. i.e. whom he had caused to be massacred in the temple, at the time they were offering sacrifices. The history, to which allusion is made in this place, in not well known; but there is great probability that these Galileans were disciples of Judas, the Galilean, who taught that they ought not to pay tribute to foreigners. As they were spreading this doctrine in Jerusalem, and perhaps even in the temple, Pilate laid violent hands upon them, and caused them to be murdered amidst the sacrifices. (Calmet) ---

Galileans, &c. These were the followers of one Judas, a Galilean, of whom St. Luke makes mention in the Acts of the Apostles, (Chap. v.) who held it unlawful to call any one lord. Many of this sect were punished by Pilate, because they would not allow this title to be given to Cæsar; they also maintained that no other sacrifices could lawfully be offered, except such as were prescribed by the law, by which opinion they forbade the accustomed sacrifices offered up for the emperor and people of Rome. Pilate, irritated by these their opinions, ordered them to be slain in the midst of their sacrifices, and this was their blood mixed with that of the victims. (St. Cyril in St. Thomas Aquinas)

Haydock: Luk 13:2 - Sinners Sinners, &c. People are naturally inclined to believe, that those who are unfortunate, and afflicted with calamities, must likewise be culpable and ...

Sinners, &c. People are naturally inclined to believe, that those who are unfortunate, and afflicted with calamities, must likewise be culpable and impious. The Jews were very much given to these sentiments, as we see in many places in Scripture; John ix. 2 and 3. Our Saviour wishes to do away with this prejudice, by telling them that the Galileans, who are here spoken of, were not the most culpable among the inhabitants of that country; shewing by this, that God often spares the most wicked, and sends upon the good the most apparent signs of vengeance, that he may exercise the patience, and crown the merit of the latter, and give to the former an example of the severity which they must expect, if they continue in their disorders. Neither can it be said, that in this God commits any injustice. He uses his absolute dominion over his creatures, when he afflicts the just; he procures them real good, when he strikes them; and his indulgence towards the wicked, is generally an effect of his mercy, which waits for their repentance, or sometimes the consequences of his great anger, when he abandons them to the hardness of their reprobate hearts, and says, "I will rest, and by angry with you no longer." (Ezechiel, Chap. xvi. 42.) This is the most terrible mark of his final fury. (Calmet)

Haydock: Luk 13:3 - -- This prediction of our Saviour upon the impenitent was afterwards completely verified; for Josephus informs us, that under the government of Cumanus, ...

This prediction of our Saviour upon the impenitent was afterwards completely verified; for Josephus informs us, that under the government of Cumanus, 20,000 of them were destroyed about the temple. (Jewish Antiquities, lib. xx, chap. 4.) That upon the admission of the Idumeans into the city, 8,500 of the high priest's party were slain, insomuch that there was a flood of blood quite round the temple. (The Jewish War, lib. iv, chap. 7.) That in consequence of the threefold faction that happened in Jerusalem before the siege of the Romans, the temple was every where polluted with slaughter; the priests were slain in the exercise of their functions; many who came to worship, fell before their sacrifices; the dead bodies of strangers and natives were promiscuously heaped together, and the altar defiled with their blood. (The Jewish War, lib. vi, chap. 1.) That upon the Romans taking possession of the city and temple, mountains of dead bodies were piled up about the altar; streams of blood ran down the steps of the temple; several were destroyed by the fall of towers, and others suffocated in the ruins of the galleries over the porches. (The Jewish War, lib. vii, chap. 10.)

Haydock: Luk 13:4 - Or those eighteen Or those eighteen, &c. The Almighty permitted these people to be thus chastised, that the others might be filled with fear and apprehension at the s...

Or those eighteen, &c. The Almighty permitted these people to be thus chastised, that the others might be filled with fear and apprehension at the sight of another's dangers, and thus become the heirs of the kingdom of heaven. But then you will say, is another punished that I may become better? No; he is punished for his own crimes; but his punishment becomes to those that witness it the means of salvation. (St. John Chrysostom, Concio. 3. de Lazaro.)

Haydock: Luk 13:5 - Unless you do penance Unless you do penance, &c. The Jews did not penance; and therefore, forty years after our Lord's Passion, the Romans came, and beginning with Galile...

Unless you do penance, &c. The Jews did not penance; and therefore, forty years after our Lord's Passion, the Romans came, and beginning with Galilee, destroyed this impious nation to its roots, and polluted not only the court of the temple, whither the sacrifices were carried, but the inner sanctuary, with human blood. (Ven. Bede)

Haydock: Luk 13:6 - A certain man A certain man, &c. Each one, inasmuch as he holds a place in life, if he produce not the fruit of good works, like a barren tree encumbers the groun...

A certain man, &c. Each one, inasmuch as he holds a place in life, if he produce not the fruit of good works, like a barren tree encumbers the ground; because the place he holds, were it occupied by others, might be a place of fertility. (St. Gregory)

Haydock: Luk 13:9 - And if happily it bear fruit And if happily it bear fruit. It is a way of speaking, when a sentence is left imperfect; yet what is not expressed, may be easily understood; as he...

And if happily it bear fruit. It is a way of speaking, when a sentence is left imperfect; yet what is not expressed, may be easily understood; as here we may understand, well and good, or the like. (Witham)

Haydock: Luk 13:14 - -- The president of the synagogue, when he saw the woman, who before crept on the ground, now raised by the touch of Christ, and hearing the mandate of G...

The president of the synagogue, when he saw the woman, who before crept on the ground, now raised by the touch of Christ, and hearing the mandate of God, was filled with envy, and decried the miracle, apparently through solicitude for keeping the sabbath. But the truth is, he would rather see the poor woman bent to the earth like a beast, than see Christ glorified by healing her. (St. Cyril in St. Thomas Aquinas)

Haydock: Luk 13:19 - -- Our Lord was this mustard-seed, when he was buried in the earth; and He became a tree, when he ascended into heaven; but a tree that overshadowed the ...

Our Lord was this mustard-seed, when he was buried in the earth; and He became a tree, when he ascended into heaven; but a tree that overshadowed the whole creation, in the branches of which the birds of heaven rested; that is, the powers of heaven, and all such as by good works have raised themselves from the earth. The apostles are the branches, to repose in whose bosoms we take our flight, borne on the wings of Christian virtue. Let us sow this seed (Christ) in the garden of our hearts, that the grace of good works may flourish, and you may send forth the various perfumes of every virtue. (St. Ambrose)

Haydock: Luk 13:21 - -- The flour represents us Christians, who receive the Lord Jesus into the inner parts of our soul, till we are all inflamed with the fire of his heavenl...

The flour represents us Christians, who receive the Lord Jesus into the inner parts of our soul, till we are all inflamed with the fire of his heavenly wisdom. (St. Ambrose)

Haydock: Luk 13:24 - Shall seek Shall seek, &c. Shall desire to be saved; but for want of taking sufficient pains, and not being thoroughly in earnest, shall not attain to it. (Cha...

Shall seek, &c. Shall desire to be saved; but for want of taking sufficient pains, and not being thoroughly in earnest, shall not attain to it. (Challoner) ---

Our Lord answers here in the affirmative: viz. that the number of those who are saved, is very small, for a few only can enter by the narrow gate. Therefore does he say, according to St. Matthew, (Chap. vii.) Narrow is the way that leadeth to life, and few there are that enter therein. This does not contradict what is said in the 8th chapter of St. Matthew: That many shall come from the east, and sit down in the kingdom of God; for many indeed shall join the blessed company of the angels, but when considered with the number of the slain, they will appear but few. (St. Augustine, serm. xxxii. de Verb. Dei.)

Haydock: Luk 13:25 - -- When the Almighty casts any off, he is said not to know them: in the same manner as a lover of truth may be said not to know how to tell a falsehood, ...

When the Almighty casts any off, he is said not to know them: in the same manner as a lover of truth may be said not to know how to tell a falsehood, being withheld powerfully from it by his love of truth. (St. Gregory, mor. chap. 8.)

Haydock: Luk 13:26 - -- These words are addressed particularly to the Jews, because Christ was born of them according to the flesh, eat and drank with them, and taught public...

These words are addressed particularly to the Jews, because Christ was born of them according to the flesh, eat and drank with them, and taught publicly in their streets; but they apply to us Christians also, for we eat the body of Christ, and drink his blood, when each day we approach the mystical table, and hear him teaching us in the streets of our souls. (Theophylactus) ---

Many very fervent at the beginning afterwards grow lukewarm; and many, though at first frozen, have suddenly glowed with virtue; many, who in this world were contemned, have received glory in the next; while others, in honour amongst men, have passed to eternal torments. (Ven. Bede)

Haydock: Luk 13:32 - -- It is rather surprising that Christ should make use of these opprobrious words, which could be of no service to himself, but which would only serve to...

It is rather surprising that Christ should make use of these opprobrious words, which could be of no service to himself, but which would only serve to irritate king Herod, should they come to his ears. But Christ, by these words, probably wished to shew that he was not the least afraid of him whom the Pharisees feigned to have a design on his life: for it is supposed that the Pharisees had invented this fiction, in order to compel him to leave them quiet. (Maldonatus)

Haydock: Luk 13:33 - Nevertheless I must walk // It cannot be that a prophet Nevertheless I must walk, (i.e. labour in the mission, teaching, &c.) to-day, and to-morrow, &c. i.e. for a while. --- It cannot be that a prophet...

Nevertheless I must walk, (i.e. labour in the mission, teaching, &c.) to-day, and to-morrow, &c. i.e. for a while. ---

It cannot be that a prophet, [1] &c. Not that all of the prophets suffered in Jerusalem, though many did; and it is rather to prophesy, that he himself, the great Prophet, and their Messias, should be put to death at Jerusalem. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Quia non capit prophetam, &c. Greek: ouk endechetai, non contingit.

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Gill: Luk 13:1 - There were present at that season // some that told him of the Galileans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices There were present at that season,.... Among the innumerable multitude of people, Luk 12:1 that were then hearing the above discourses and sayings of ...

There were present at that season,.... Among the innumerable multitude of people, Luk 12:1 that were then hearing the above discourses and sayings of Christ:

some that told him of the Galileans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. These Galileans were very likely some of the followers of Judas Gaulonitis, or Judas of Galilee; see Act 5:37 who endeavoured to draw off the Jews from the Roman government, and affirmed it was not lawful to give tribute to Caesar; at which Pilate being enraged, sent a band of soldiers, and slew these his followers; who were come up to the feast of the passover, as they were offering their sacrifices in the temple, and so mixed their blood with the blood of the passover lambs: this being lately done, some of the company spoke of it to Christ; very likely some of the Scribes and Pharisees, whom he had just now taxed as hypocrites; either to know his sense of Pilate's conduct, that should he condemn it as brutish and barbarous, they might accuse him to him; or should he approve of it, might traduce him, and bring him into contempt among the people; or to know his sentiments concerning the persons slain, whether or no they were not very wicked persons; and whether this was not a judgment upon them, to be put to death in such a manner, and at such a time and place, and which sense seems to be confirmed by Christ's answer. Josephus z relating a slaughter of the Samaritans by Pilate, which bears some likeness to this, has led some, though without any just reason, to conclude, that these were Samaritans, who are here called Galileans. This history is neither related nor hinted at, by any other writer but Luke. The phrase of mingling blood with blood, is Jewish; it is said of one Trogianus the wicked (perhaps the Emperor Trajan), that he slaughtered the Jews, ועירב דמן בדמן, "and mingled their blood with their blood"; and their blood ran into the sea, unto Cyprus a. The Jews b have a notion, that

"in the age in which the son of David comes, Galilee shall be destroyed.''

Here was a great slaughter of the Galileans now, see Act 5:37 but there was a greater afterwards by the Romans: it may be that the Pharisees made mention of this case to Christ, to reproach him and his followers, who were called Galileans, as his disciples chiefly were.

Gill: Luk 13:2 - And Jesus answering, said unto them // suppose ye that these Galileans were sinners above all the Galileans, because they suffered such things And Jesus answering, said unto them,.... Neither approving, nor condemning Pilate's action; and though he allowed the Galileans to be sinners, which c...

And Jesus answering, said unto them,.... Neither approving, nor condemning Pilate's action; and though he allowed the Galileans to be sinners, which could not be denied, he does not bear hard upon them, but improves the instance for the conviction of his hearers, and in order to show them the necessity of repentance, and to bring them to it:

suppose ye that these Galileans were sinners above all the Galileans, because they suffered such things? such a supposition they seem to have made, by their speaking to Christ concerning this matter; and concluded from their violent and untimely deaths, that they had been notorious and uncommon sinners, and guilty of the most enormous crimes, which had brought upon them the just judgments of God: whereas this is not a rule of judging; oftentimes the best of men suffer exceedingly in this life; God's judgments are a great deep, and not to be fathomed by us, nor is it to be easily known, when any thing befalls persons in a way of judgment; there is nothing comes by chance, but every thing by the wise disposal of divine providence, to answer some end or another; nor are persons that are punished, either immediately by the hand of God, or by the civil magistrate, to be insulted, but rather to be pitied; besides, love and hatred, the characters and states of men, are not to be known by these effects in providence.

Gill: Luk 13:3 - I tell you, nay // but except ye repent // ye shall likewise perish I tell you, nay, They were not greater sinners than others of their neighbours, nor is it to be concluded from the bloody slaughter that was made of ...

I tell you, nay, They were not greater sinners than others of their neighbours, nor is it to be concluded from the bloody slaughter that was made of them; others might be much more deserving of such an end than they, who yet escaped it:

but except ye repent; of sin, and particularly of the disbelief of the Messiah:

ye shall likewise perish; or perish, in like manner, as these Galileans did: and so it came to pass in the destruction of Jerusalem, that great numbers of the unbelieving Jews, even three hundred thousand men were destroyed at the feast of passover c; and that for sedition, as these men very likely were.

Gill: Luk 13:4 - Or those eighteen // upon whom the tower in Siloam fell, and slew them // think ye that they were sinners // above all men that dwelt in Jerusalem Or those eighteen,.... Men; the Persic version reads, "those twelve"; but all copies, and other versions, agree in this number: upon whom the tower...

Or those eighteen,.... Men; the Persic version reads, "those twelve"; but all copies, and other versions, agree in this number:

upon whom the tower in Siloam fell, and slew them; there was a pool near Jerusalem, called the Pool of Siloam, Joh 9:7 near, or over which, was a tower built, which fell down and killed eighteen men; very likely as they were purifying themselves in the pool, and so was a case very much like the other, and might be a very late one: and this Christ the rather observes, and puts them in mind of, that they might see that not Galileans only, whom they had in great contempt, but even inhabitants of Jerusalem, died violent deaths, and came to untimely ends; and yet, as not in the former case, so neither in this was it to be concluded from hence, that they were sinners of a greater size, or their state worse than that of other men:

think ye that they were sinners; or debtors; for as sins are called debts, Mat 6:12 so sinners are called debtors:

above all men that dwelt in Jerusalem? there might be, and doubtless there were, as great, or greater sinners, in that holy city, and among such that made great pretensions to religion and holiness, as they were.

Gill: Luk 13:5 - I tell you, nay // but except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish I tell you, nay,.... I affirm it, and you may depend upon it, they were not greater sinners than others: though such a melancholy accident befell them...

I tell you, nay,.... I affirm it, and you may depend upon it, they were not greater sinners than others: though such a melancholy accident befell them, not without the providence of God:

but except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish; or perish in the same manner; that is, shall be buried under the ruins of the city and temple of Jerusalem, when one stone should not be left upon another; just as these eighteen men were buried under the ruins of the tower of Siloam, of which it was a pledge and emblem; and accordingly great numbers of them did perish in the temple, and were buried under the ruins of it d.

Gill: Luk 13:6 - He spoke also this parable // a certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard // and he came and sought fruit thereon, and found none He spoke also this parable,.... That is, Jesus spake, as the Persic version expresses it, that which follows; and at the same time, and upon the above...

He spoke also this parable,.... That is, Jesus spake, as the Persic version expresses it, that which follows; and at the same time, and upon the above occasion; setting forth the patience of God towards the Jewish nation, their unfruitfulness, and the danger of their being destroyed, in case of non-amendment:

a certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard. This was not at all contrary to the law in Deu 22:9 "thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with divers seeds": for according to the Jewish canons e,

"the prohibition on account of divers seeds in a vineyard, concerned divers sorts of corn, (as wheat, barley, &c.) and divers sorts of herbs only: but it was lawful to sow other sorts of seeds in a vineyard, and there is no need to say other trees.''

And there are cases put, and instances given, which express, or suppose fig trees, particularly, to have been planted in vineyards; for it is said f,

"if a man carries a vine over part of a tree for meat, he may sow seed under the other part of it--it happened that R. Joshua went to R. Ishmael to Cephar Aziz, and he showed him a "vine", carried over, מקצה תאנה, "part of a fig tree".''

Again, more than once it is said in a parabolical way g,

"this is like unto a king that has a paradise, or orchard planted, שורה של תאנים ושל גפנים, "a row of fig trees, and of vines", and of pomegranates, and of apples, &c.''

By the "certain man" may be meant, either God the Father, who is sometimes called an husbandman; or rather the Lord Jesus Christ, who is truly man, as well as properly God; and "by his vineyard" may be meant, the Jewish nation; see Isa 5:1 which were his own nation and people, from whence he sprung, and to whom he was particularly sent, and among whom he had a special property; and may also be applied to the church of God in any age or nation, which is often compared to a vineyard, consisting of persons separated from the world, and planted with various plants, some fruitful, pleasant, profitable, and valuable, and are Christ's by his Father's gift, and his own purchase. And by "the fig tree planted" in it, may be principally meant the Scribes and Pharisees, and the generality of the Jewish people; who were plants, but not of Christ's Father's planting, and therefore to be cut down, or rooted up: and may be accommodated to professors of religion; some of which are true and real, and may be compared to the fig tree, because of its large and green leaves, expressive of their profession; and become fruitful, as they are, being filled with the fruits of the Spirit, of righteousness, and of grace; and because it puts forth its fruit before its leaves, as there should be the fruit of grace before a profession of faith is made. Others are only nominal professors; and are like a fig tree, of which sort was this in the parable, that has large leaves, but no fruit; make a large profession, but bring forth no fruit to the glory of God; and though they are planted in the house of God, yet not by God the Father, nor by Christ, only at best by ministers and churches hoping well of them, but mistaken in them:

and he came and sought fruit thereon, and found none. This, if understood of God the Father, designs his coming to the Jewish people by his servants and prophets, time after time, and at last by John the Baptist, and Jesus Christ, and his apostles, seeking and requiring fruits of holiness, righteousness, and judgment, but found instead thereof the wild grapes of wickedness, oppression, and violence: but if of Christ, which sense is rather to be chosen, it denotes his incarnation, or his coming into the world in human nature, and seeking by his ministry, the fruits of faith in himself, and repentance towards God among the people of the Jews, but found none; at least instances of faith in Israel were very rare, and few repented of their evil works; and hence he upbraided many with their impenitence and unbelief; see Mat 11:20.

Gill: Luk 13:7 - Then said he unto the dresser of the vineyard // behold, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none // cut it down, why cumbereth it the ground Then said he unto the dresser of the vineyard,.... If by the owner of the vineyard is meant God the Father, then by the dresser of the vineyard Jesus ...

Then said he unto the dresser of the vineyard,.... If by the owner of the vineyard is meant God the Father, then by the dresser of the vineyard Jesus Christ is intended; but as he seems rather designed by the owner, the vinedresser, or "the gardeners", as the Persic version reads, in the plural number, may signify the ministers of the word, to whom Christ, who is Solomon's antitype, lets out his vineyard to dress and cultivate it, and to keep the fruit of it; see Son 8:11,

behold, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none; or "behold, there are three years since I came"; so read the Vulgate Latin and Persic versions, and Beza's most ancient copy. Some think Christ here refers to the three years of his public ministry, which he had now gone through among the Jews with little success; but he seems rather to allude to the nature of fig trees, which, if fruitful, bear in three years time; for even בנות שוח, "a sort of white figs", which are the longest before they bring forth fruit to perfection, yet their fruit is ripe in three years time. These trees bear fruit once in three years; they bear fruit indeed every year, but their fruit does not come to maturity till after three years i; and this may be the reason why this number is fixed upon; for if such fig trees do not bring forth ripe fruit in three years time, there is little reason to expect any from them: and thus it was time after time with the Jewish nation; and so it is with carnal professors: hence it follows,

cut it down, why cumbereth it the ground? or "that it may not cumber"; or "render the ground useless", as read the Arabic version, and one of Beza's copies; for unfruitful trees suck up the juices of the earth, and draw away nourishment from other trees that are near them, and so make the earth barren, and not only hurt other trees, but stand in the way and place of fruitful ones; and therefore it is best to cut them down. So barren professors, as were the Jews, are not only useless and unprofitable themselves, being fruitless, but make churches barren, and stand in the way of others, who are stumbled by them; they are grieving to God, to Christ, and to the blessed Spirit, and are troublesome and burdensome to churches, ministers, and true believers: and the cutting them down may regard the judgment of God upon the nation of the Jews, which Christ would not have his apostles and ministers interpose for the averting of; or the excommunication of such worthless and hurtful professors out of the churches by them.

Gill: Luk 13:8 - And he answering, said unto him, Lord // let it alone this year also // till I shall dig about it, and dung it And he answering, said unto him, Lord,.... Which, if understood of God the Father, may intend the intercession of Christ with him, who not only interc...

And he answering, said unto him, Lord,.... Which, if understood of God the Father, may intend the intercession of Christ with him, who not only intercedes for his elect, for those that are unconverted, that they may be converted; and for converted ones, for the carrying on of the work of sanctification; for fresh discoveries of pardoning grace; for consolation and support under trouble; for their final perseverance, and eternal glorification: but also for his enemies, for profane sinners, and for formal professors; for the sake of his own people among them, and for their preservation, and for the averting of divine judgments from them, at least as yet: and so the Jewish nation was spared for some time after this, though now deserving of immediate destruction. But rather, the intercession of the ministers of Christ, and other good men, may be here meant; who, as Abraham interceded for Sodom, and Moses and Aaron for Israel, so do they for a sinful nation, a barren and unfruitful church and people, and particular persons, that they may be spared, at least a little longer, as here:

let it alone this year also; have patience one year more, or a little while longer. The Ethiopic version renders it, "until the winter", that being a time for digging about, and dunging of trees, as follows,

till I shall dig about it, and dung it; these same phrases are used in the "Misna" k,

מזבלין ומעדרין, "they dung and dig" in gardens of cucumbers, and gourds, until the beginning of the year:''

upon which their commentators say l, that they carry dung into their gardens to moisten the earth, and dig about the roots of the trees, and lay them bare, and cover them again, and prune them, and smoke them to kill the worms. And by these phrases may be signified the various means Christ made use of by his own ministry, and by the ministry of his apostles, to make the Jews a fruitful people; and rather the means Christ's ministers make use of, as did the apostles with the Jews, to reach the cases of barren professors; as by "digging", striking at, and exposing some secret sin or sins, which are the root and source of their barrenness; showing them, that they have no root in Christ, nor the root of the matter in them; and declaring to them the insufficiency of a mere profession of religion to save them: and "dunging", which as it supposes want of heat, or coldness, which is the cause of barrenness, and signifies, that such professors are without spiritual life, and without spiritual heat, or real warmth of love to Christ, his truths, ordinances, and people, and discharge their duty in a cold and lifeless manner; so it may design the means they make use of to warm and fire them with zeal for God, and true religion; by preaching the soul quickening doctrines of the Gospel, and by laying before them the agreeableness of a becoming zeal, and the disagreeableness of a lukewarm spirit and disposition, an indolence and unconcern for the glory of God, and interest of Christ.

Gill: Luk 13:9 - And if it bear fruit, well // and if not // after that // thou shall cut it down And if it bear fruit, well,.... If hereby barren professors, as the Jews, become fruitful, it is well, a good thing is done; it is well for themselves...

And if it bear fruit, well,.... If hereby barren professors, as the Jews, become fruitful, it is well, a good thing is done; it is well for themselves, they shall eat the fruit of their doings; it is well for the churches where they are, for good works are profitable to men; and it is well for the owner of the vineyard, and the dresser of it too, for when Christ has his fruit from his churches, his ministers have theirs also:

and if not, then

after that; "for the time to come", as the Vulgate Latin; or "year following", as the Persic version renders it:

thou shall cut it down; do with it as thou pleasest, nothing more will be said or pleaded in its behalf; full consent shall be given, and no more intercession used: any trees might not be cut down, only barren ones; there is a law in Deu 20:19 about cutting down trees, and which the Jews explain thus m;

"they may not cut down trees for meat without the city, nor withhold from them the course of water, that so they may become dry; as it is said, "thou shall not destroy the trees"; and whoever cuts any down is to be beaten, and not in a siege only, but in any place: whoever cuts down a tree for meat, by way of destroying it, is to be beaten; but they may cut it down if it hurts other trees, or because it hurts in the field others, or because its price is dear; the law does not forbid, but by way of destroying. Every barren tree it is lawful to cut down, even though a man hath no need of it; and so a tree for meat, which does hurt, and does not produce but little fruit, and it is not worth while to labour about it, it is lawful to cut it down: and how much may an olive tree produce, and it may not be cut down? the fourth part of a "Kab" of olives; and a palm tree which yields a "Kab" of dates, may not be cut down.''

Much such a parable as this is formed by the Jews, upon Moses's intercession for the people of Israel n.

"Says R. Abin, in the name of R. Simeon ben Josedech, a parable, to what is it like? to a king that hath an uncultivated field; he says to his gardener, go and manure it, and make it a vineyard: the gardener went and manured that field, and planted it a vineyard; the vineyard grew, and produced wine, and it turned to vinegar; when the king saw that the wine turned to vinegar, he said to the gardener, go, וקוץ אותה, "and cut it down", why should I seek after a vineyard that brings forth that which is sour? the gardener replied, my lord, the king, what expense hast thou been at with this vineyard before it was raised? and now thou seekest to cut it down; and shouldst thou say because its wine turns sour; the reason is, because it is young, therefore its wine turns sour, and it does not produce good wine: so when Israel did that work (of the golden calf), the holy blessed God sought to consume them; said Moses, Lord of the world, hast thou not brought them out of Egypt from a place of idolatry, and now they are young, or children, as it is said, Hos 11:1 wait a little for them, and go with them, and they will do good works in thy presence.''

Gill: Luk 13:10 - And he was teaching in one of the synagogues // on the sabbath And he was teaching in one of the synagogues,.... That is Jesus, as the Syriac and Persic versions express it; which was his work, he being a teacher ...

And he was teaching in one of the synagogues,.... That is Jesus, as the Syriac and Persic versions express it; which was his work, he being a teacher sent from God, and who took all opportunities of instructing men in the truths of the Gospel; this was done either in Galilee, or in Judea, in one of the synagogues of some city there, for in their larger cities there were more synagogues than one. In Jerusalem, we are told o, there were three hundred and ninety four synagogues; and other writers p increase their number, and say, there were four hundred and eighty: and it was

on the sabbath; which was now in force, and was religiously observed by Christ.

Gill: Luk 13:11 - And behold there was a woman // which had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years // And was bowed together, and could in no wise lift up herself And behold there was a woman,.... In the synagogue, who, as infirm as she is hereafter described, got out to the place of worship; and which may be a ...

And behold there was a woman,.... In the synagogue, who, as infirm as she is hereafter described, got out to the place of worship; and which may be a rebuke to such, who, upon every trifling indisposition, keep at home, and excuse themselves from an attendance in the house of God:

which had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years; or a weakness that was brought upon her by an evil spirit, by Satan; as appears from Luk 13:16 who, by divine permission, had a power of inflicting diseases on mankind, as is evident from the case of Job; and so the Ethiopic version renders it, "whom a demon had made infirm": and this disorder had been of a long standing; she had laboured under it for the space of eighteen years, so that it was a known case, and had been given up as incurable, which made the following miracle the more illustrious and remarkable.

And was bowed together, and could in no wise lift up herself; or lift up her head, look up, or stand upright; it was a thing utterly impossible, which she could by no means do; her body was convulsed, and every part so contracted, that, as the Persic version renders it, "she could not stretch out a hand or foot".

Gill: Luk 13:12 - And when Jesus saw her // he called her to him // woman, thou art loosed from thine infirmity And when Jesus saw her,.... In the synagogue among the people, either whilst, or after he had done teaching: he called her to him, to come nearer h...

And when Jesus saw her,.... In the synagogue among the people, either whilst, or after he had done teaching:

he called her to him, to come nearer him, and said unto her; of his own accord, without being asked by the woman, or any other for her, out of great compassion to her, seeing her in this miserable condition, and knowing full well the nature, cause, and long continuance of her disorder:

woman, thou art loosed from thine infirmity; which had not only bowed her, but it had bound her, as if she had been bound with cords; but Christ by saying these words, with his hands laid upon her, burst her bonds asunder, dispossessed the evil spirit, and delivered her from her long affliction.

Gill: Luk 13:13 - And he laid his hands on her // And immediately she was made straight // And glorified God And he laid his hands on her,.... As he spoke the above words, which he sometimes did when he healed diseases. And immediately she was made straigh...

And he laid his hands on her,.... As he spoke the above words, which he sometimes did when he healed diseases.

And immediately she was made straight; she lift up herself, stood upright, and her body, and all the parts of it were as straight as ever they had been, or as any were in the synagogue.

And glorified God; that is, "the woman" glorified God, as the Persic version expresses it; she was filled with thankfulness for the mercy, and gave God the glory of it. This woman was an emblem of a poor sinner held in the bonds of iniquity by Satan, and led captive by him at his will, who can by no means raise himself; nor is he able to lift up his head to heaven, or look upwards to Christ for deliverance; and yet attends upon the outward ministry, when Christ, in his own time, meets with him under it, and manifests his power and grace, breaks his bonds asunder, delivers him out of Satan's hands, and from the bondage of his own corruptions, sets him straight, and causes him to lift up his head, and look to him for life and salvation; and so puts a new song into his mouth, even praise to God, to whose free grace and favour he readily ascribes his deliverance.

Gill: Luk 13:14 - And the ruler of the synagogue // answered with indignation, because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath day // and said unto the people // There are six days which men ought to work, in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the sabbath day And the ruler of the synagogue,.... For there never was but one in a synagogue, whatever some writers have observed to the contrary; See Gill on Mat 9...

And the ruler of the synagogue,.... For there never was but one in a synagogue, whatever some writers have observed to the contrary; See Gill on Mat 9:18 the Ethiopic version reads, "the chief priests", but wrongly; these dwelt at Jerusalem, and in Galilee:

answered with indignation, because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath day; his indignation was at Christ, and the miracle he had wrought, being filled with envy at the honour it would bring unto him; though he covered it under pretence of its being a violation of the sabbath, and that it ought not to have been done on such a day, and in such a place, which were appropriated not to servile works, but to religious worship;

and said unto the people; over whom he had an authority, and who stood in awe of him, because of his office and dignity; and not daring to attack Christ himself, at least not directly, though he struck at him through the people, whose doctrine and miracles were so extraordinary.

There are six days which men ought to work, in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the sabbath day; referring to the fourth command: but this observation and reproof were impertinent and needless, for the people did not come to be healed; for ought appears, the cure was unthought of and unexpected; nor was healing, especially as performed by Christ, by a word and a touch, a servile work, and therefore could not be any breach of the law referred to. The Ethiopic version reads, "is there not a sixth day?----come on that day"; the day before the sabbath.

Gill: Luk 13:15 - The Lord then answered him and said // thou hypocrite // doth not each one of you, on the sabbath day, loose his ox, or his ass, from the stall // and lead him away to watering The Lord then answered him and said,.... Though he did not direct his speech to him, he knew that he struck at him, and suggested that he was a violat...

The Lord then answered him and said,.... Though he did not direct his speech to him, he knew that he struck at him, and suggested that he was a violator of the sabbath, as well as the people: and therefore in defence of himself, and of what he had done, and to expose the hypocrisy of this man, made answer as follows,

thou hypocrite; the Vulgate Latin, Arabic, and Ethiopic versions read in the plural, "hypocrites"; as do the Complutensian edition, and four ancient copies of Beza's, and the Alexandrian copy; but the Syriac and Persic versions read in the singular, "hypocrite"; as this man was, who covered his malice and envy at Christ, with a show of zeal for the sabbath day; and yet did that upon it, which must be allowed by themselves, and others, to be a much greater violation of the sabbath, than this cure could ever be thought to be:

doth not each one of you, on the sabbath day, loose his ox, or his ass, from the stall, or rack, where he is fastened with a rope;

and lead him away to watering? to some place of water, where he may drink, after having filled himself at the rack: and that this was agreeably to their own canons and practice, that beasts may be led out on a sabbath day, is certain; for they deliver various rules concerning leading them out, with what they might, and with what they might not be brought out; and particularly, among others, mention asses and heifers q; and they speak r of leading them to water, not only to drink of it, but to wash their chains in it, which, it seems, received pollution, and needed washing, and might be done on a sabbath day; yea, they allow, that not only a beast may be led out to watering, but a man might fill a vessel of water, and pour it out into a trough for it, provided he did not directly set it before it: the rule is this s.

"a man may not fill water (a vessel of it), and put it on a sabbath day before his beast, but he may fill it, and pour it out, and it may drink of it.''

And particularly on a feast day, their rule is t, that

"they do not water nor slay beasts of the desert, but they water and slay domestic ones. Domestic ones are such as lie in the city (i.e. as Maimonides says u, within the sabbatical border, 2000 cubits from the city), and those of the desert are such as lie in pastures.''

And therefore very justly does our Lord observe to the ruler of the synagogue their own practices towards a beast, in defence of his works of mercy to men.

Gill: Luk 13:16 - And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham // whom Satan hath bound, lo these eighteen years // Should not such an one be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham,.... Not only a woman, or rational creature, and much preferable, as such, to an irrational one;...

And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham,.... Not only a woman, or rational creature, and much preferable, as such, to an irrational one; but a descendant of Abraham, of whom the Jews gloried, and in descent from him prided themselves, and trusted; and chose to call their women by this name w, which gave them a character above others: and who, besides all this, was doubtless a good woman, a spiritual worshipper of the God of Israel; who, in a spiritual sense, was a daughter of Abraham, that walked in the steps of his faith, and was now a believer in Christ, and appeared to be a chosen vessel of salvation:

whom Satan hath bound, lo these eighteen years; with a bodily distemper that none could loose her from in so long a time. The Persic version, very wrongly, reads "twelve years"; though in Luk 13:11 it observes the right number.

Should not such an one be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day? the force of Christ's reasoning is this, that if it was lawful, on a sabbath day, to lead out a beast to watering, to quench its thirst, that so it may not suffer so much as one day for want of water, how much more reasonable must it be, that a rational creature, one of Abraham's posterity, and a religious person, who had been for eighteen years under a sore affliction, through the power of Satan over her, by divine permission, should be freed from so long and sore an affliction on the sabbath day? if mercy is to be shown to beasts, much more to men and women.

Gill: Luk 13:17 - And when he had said these things // all his adversaries were ashamed // And all the people rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him And when he had said these things,.... Had argued with them from their own practices, and in a way so strong and rational, that carried such evidence ...

And when he had said these things,.... Had argued with them from their own practices, and in a way so strong and rational, that carried such evidence and conviction with it:

all his adversaries were ashamed; not only the ruler of the synagogue, but the Scribes and Pharisees, that were present, who followed him wherever he went, and were his implacable enemies; these were confounded and silenced; shame appeared in their countenances; they could not lift up their heads, and look him in the face.

And all the people rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him; for the doctrines he taught, and the miracles he wrought, and his wise and close reasonings at this time, to the shame and confusion of all that opposed him: for his audience consisted of different sorts, and what he said, and did, had different effects upon them. Some were filled with joy, and others with wrath, malice, and envy. And this is true with respect to spiritual and eternal things. Glorious things have been done by Christ in eternity, by becoming the surety of his people, by entering into a covenant with his Father on their account, and by taking the care and charge of their persons, and of all grace, blessings, and promises for them; and in time, by assuming their nature, fulfilling the law, bringing in an everlasting righteousness, making peace and reconciliation, procuring pardon, and finishing the work of redemption and salvation; and now in heaven, by entering as the forerunner for them, appearing in the presence of God on their account, presenting their prayers, and making intercession for them: and these are glorious things; they make for the glory of all the divine perfections; they issue in the glory of Christ himself; and in consequence of them, the saints enjoy eternal glory and happiness: these are things of the greatest importance, are wonderful and amazing, and for which saints and angels will glorify God both here and hereafter; and these occasion joy, and gladness in the Lord's people now. For not carnal and profane persons, or hypocrites, and formal professors, or Pharisees, and self-righteous persons rejoice at these things; but such as are the Lord's own people, who are openly his; who have passed under a work of the Spirit of God, who have seen their need of these things, and are sensible of the value of them; who know Christ, and love him, and believe in him.

Gill: Luk 13:18 - Then said he, unto what is the kingdom of God like Then said he, unto what is the kingdom of God like?.... The same with the kingdom of heaven, in Mat 13:31 and so the Ethiopic version reads it here, "...

Then said he, unto what is the kingdom of God like?.... The same with the kingdom of heaven, in Mat 13:31 and so the Ethiopic version reads it here, "and whereunto shall I resemble it?" of this way of speaking; see Gill on Mar 4:30.

Gill: Luk 13:19 - It is like a grain of mustard seed // which a man took and cast into his garden // and it grew and waxed a great tree // And the fowls of the air lodged in the branches of it It is like a grain of mustard seed,.... Both for its smallness at first, and its after increase; wherefore both the Evangelists Matthew and Mark obser...

It is like a grain of mustard seed,.... Both for its smallness at first, and its after increase; wherefore both the Evangelists Matthew and Mark observe, that it "is the least of all seed": which is true of the ministry of the Gospel, of the Gospel church state, and of the grace of God in the hearts of his people:

which a man took and cast into his garden; the Ethiopic version renders it, "and sowed in his field", as in Mat 13:31 though mustard used to be sowed in gardens as well as in fields. x Says R. Simeon ben Chelphetha, I have one stalk of mustard seed, בתוד שלי, "in my garden": so y Buxtorf translates it. And by the place in the text, where this seed is cast, may be meant, either the "field" of the world, where the Gospel is preached, and churches are raised; or the "garden" of the church, where the word and ordinances are administered, and in the hearts of the members of it, the grace of God is implanted and increased; see Son 4:12

and it grew and waxed a great tree, which may design the spread of the Gospel in the world, the flourishing state of the church of Christ, and the growth of grace in the hearts of believers.

And the fowls of the air lodged in the branches of it; the Syriac version reads in the singular number, "the fowl of the air"; not Satan, and his principalities and powers, which devour the seed sown by the wayside; nor the angels of heaven; but rather gracious men on earth, who sit under the shadow of a Gospel ministry with great delight; and "make their nests", as the Persic version here renders the words, and take up their residence in Gospel churches; See Gill on Mat 13:31, Mat 13:32, Mar 4:31, Mar 4:32.

Gill: Luk 13:20 - And again he said // whereunto shall I liken the kingdom of God And again he said,.... That is, Jesus, as the Syriac and Persic versions express it; besides the parable of the grain of mustard seed, that also of th...

And again he said,.... That is, Jesus, as the Syriac and Persic versions express it; besides the parable of the grain of mustard seed, that also of the leaven hid in three measures of meal:

whereunto shall I liken the kingdom of God; either the Gospel of the kingdom, and the mysteries of it; or the church, which is Christ's kingdom; or the grace of God in the heart, which makes meet for the kingdom of glory; the first seems rather to be intended; See Gill on Mat 13:33.

Gill: Luk 13:21 - It is like leaven // which a woman took // and hid in three measures of meal // till the whole was leavened It is like leaven,.... Which is small in quantity, but is of a swelling, spreading quality; and fitly expresses the small beginnings of the Gospel min...

It is like leaven,.... Which is small in quantity, but is of a swelling, spreading quality; and fitly expresses the small beginnings of the Gospel ministry, and its increase, also the state and case of Gospel churches, and the nature of the grace of God; unless false doctrine should rather be meant, which privately, secretly, and by little and little, got into the churches of Christ, the kingdom of God, and spread itself all over them, as in the times of the papacy:

which a woman took; Christ, and his ministers, Wisdom, and her maidens, understanding it of the Gospel; but if the leaven of error is intended, that woman, Jezebel, is meant, who calls herself a prophetess, and teaches, and seduces the servants of God, Rev 2:20

and hid in three measures of meal: among a few of God's people at first, both among Jews and Gentiles,

till the whole was leavened; until all the elect of God are gathered in, and evangelized by it; even the whole fulness of the Gentiles, and all the people of the Jews, which shall be saved in the latter day; but if the parable is to be understood of the false doctrine and discipline of the Antichristian and apostate church of Rome, it may denote the small beginnings of the mystery of iniquity, which began to work in the apostle's time by the errors and heresies then propagated, and the manner in which the man of sin was privately introduced; whose coming is after the working of Satan, with signs and lying wonders, and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness, first among a few, and then more, until at length the whole world wondered after the beast, 2Th 2:7.

Gill: Luk 13:22 - And he went through the cities and villages // teaching and journeying toward Jerusalem And he went through the cities and villages,.... Either of Galilee, or of Judea, or both; since he was upon his journey from Galilee, through Judea, t...

And he went through the cities and villages,.... Either of Galilee, or of Judea, or both; since he was upon his journey from Galilee, through Judea, to Jerusalem, as it follows:

teaching and journeying toward Jerusalem; as he was journeying he taught in every place he came, where he could have an opportunity; his delight was to do good both to the bodies and souls of men; and he was constant and assiduous in it.

Gill: Luk 13:23 - Then said one unto him // are there few that be saved // And he said unto them Then said one unto him,.... Not one of his disciples, but one of the company, in some one of the cities or villages he passed through, or as he was in...

Then said one unto him,.... Not one of his disciples, but one of the company, in some one of the cities or villages he passed through, or as he was in the road to Jerusalem:

are there few that be saved? It is a received opinion among the Jews z, that all Israel shall have a part in the world to come; and this man might put the question to know whether Christ was of this sentiment or not. And by some things he had observed drop from him, and it may be the foregoing parables, which express the small beginnings of his kingdom, and seem to signify, that at first his Gospel should be received but by a few, though it should afterwards spread, he might collect, that his sense was, there would be but a few saved; or this might be a question of mere curiosity and speculation, as it seems to be, by Christ's treatment of it, who does not give a direct answer to it, but puts him and others upon showing a concern for their own salvation.

And he said unto them; not to the man only that put the question, but to the whole company; though the Persic and Ethiopic versions read, "he said unto him", as follows.

Gill: Luk 13:24 - Strive to enter in at the strait gate // for many I say unto you, will seek to enter in, and shall not be able Strive to enter in at the strait gate,.... What is meant by the strait gate, and by entering in at it; see Gill on Mat 7:13. To "strive", is to be dil...

Strive to enter in at the strait gate,.... What is meant by the strait gate, and by entering in at it; see Gill on Mat 7:13. To "strive", is to be diligent in the use of means; to search the Scriptures with care; to attend on the preaching of the word with constancy, neglecting no opportunity; to pray earnestly for spiritual light, knowledge, and grace; to contend with every enemy that opposes the salvation of the soul, as sin, Satan, and the world; to bear all reproaches and persecutions, and press through all difficulties, for the prize of the incorruptible crown: the metaphor seems to be taken from the striving, wrestling, and combat in the Olympic games, for a corruptible crown:

for many I say unto you, will seek to enter in, and shall not be able: either when it is too late, when the door is shut; or else before, very faintly, in a superficial manner, from a mere natural affection, from a principle of self-love, which leads every one to desire happiness; and by very indirect and improper methods, by their own civility, morality, and righteousness; by works of the law, moral, or ceremonial; or by a profession of religion, and an outward compliance with the ordinances of the Gospel, and not by Christ, and faith in him.

Gill: Luk 13:25 - When once the master of the house is risen up // and hath shut to the door // and ye begin to stand without // and to knock at the door // saying, Lord, Lord, open unto us // and he shall answer and say unto you // I know you not, whence you are When once the master of the house is risen up,.... From table, or off of his couch, the entertainment being over: and so here, the Gospel feast, or di...

When once the master of the house is risen up,.... From table, or off of his couch, the entertainment being over: and so here, the Gospel feast, or dispensation, being at an end, and all the guests come in, who were effectually called, and long patience and forbearance being used towards others; or has entered in, as the Vulgate Latin version reads, and so Beza's ancient copy, and one of Stephens's; is come from the wedding; see Luk 12:36 Christ having espoused all his elect to himself, by the ministry of the word: for by "the master of the house" is meant, the bridegroom of the church, the head of the body, the King of saints, who is Son over his own house, and high priest there; of whom the whole family in heaven and earth, is named:

and hath shut to the door; the door of mercy and of hope; the door of faith; the preaching of the word, and the administration of ordinances, when these shall be no more:

and ye begin to stand without; or "do stand without"; without the holy city, where dogs are; having no admittance to the nuptial chamber, to the marriage supper of the Lamb, and the joys of heaven:

and to knock at the door; which shows how near some persons may come to heaven, and yet not enter there, even to the very door; and what an expectation, yea, an assurance they may have, of admission into it, not at all doubting of it; and therefore knock as if they were some of the family, and had a right to enter; but not finding the door opened to them, so soon as they imagined, they begin to call as well as knock:

saying, Lord, Lord, open unto us; they acknowledge Christ to be Lord, as all will at the last day, to the glory of God the Father, even professors and profane; they repeat the word, to show the vehemency and earnestness of their entreaty; and according to the Syriac and, Persic versions, they claim an interest in Christ, which read, "our Lord, our Lord"; and on account of which they doubted not, but the door would be opened: but alas! he was only their Lord in a professional way; they had only called him Lord, Lord, but had never truly and heartily yielded obedience to him; their hearts had never been opened to him, and he had never had a place there, nor his Gospel; wherefore though they knock, he will not open;

and he shall answer and say unto you. The Persic version adds, "nay, but be ye gone hence", for the following reason,

I know you not, whence you are: not but that Christ being the omniscient God, will know who they are, from whence they come, of what country and place they be, and to whom they belong; but the sense is, that he will not own them, and express any approbation of them, as his; but will treat them as strangers, that come, it is not known, from whence; he will reject them, as not being born from above, as not being the sheep of his fold, or members of his true church: they did not come from heaven, they were not heaven born souls, or partakers of the heavenly calling, and therefore shall not be received there; they belonged to the men of the world, and were of their father the devil, and shall be sent to him: so the foolish virgins, or formal professors of religion, and such as have been preachers of the Gospel, will entreat Christ at the last day, and shall have such an answer as this returned to them, which will be very awful and startling; See Gill on Mat 7:23, Mat 25:12.

Gill: Luk 13:26 - Then shall ye begin to say // we have eaten and drank in thy presence // and thou hast taught in our streets Then shall ye begin to say,.... Or ye shall say; in favour of themselves, and in order to be admitted within, the following pleas will be made by them...

Then shall ye begin to say,.... Or ye shall say; in favour of themselves, and in order to be admitted within, the following pleas will be made by them:

we have eaten and drank in thy presence: which may be understood both literally of many, who were miraculously led by Christ, or at whose tables he had ate and drank, and they with him; as did not only publicans and sinners, but some of the Pharisees, who invited him to their houses; and in a religious sense, of many who eat of the legal sacrifices; and of others, who eat the bread, and drink the wine at the Lord's table; all which will be insufficient to introduce men into the kingdom and glory of Christ: natural relation to Christ, which the Jews may claim, being born of them, and personal acquaintance with him, and a bare profession of him, will be of no avail another day:

and thou hast taught in our streets; in the streets of many cities in Galilee and Judea: it was customary with the Jewish doctors to teach in the streets:

"says Rabba, behold I am as Ben Azzai, in the streets of Tiberias a;''

the gloss upon it is,

"who was דורש בשוקי, "expounding in the streets of Tiberias."''

And it is said b of Rabban Jochanan ben Zaccai,

"that he was sitting in the shade of the temple, and expounding all the whole day;''

the gloss on the place is,

"the temple being an hundred cubits high, its shade went very far "in the street", which is before the mountain of the house; and because "the street" was large, and held abundance of men, he was expounding there by reason of the heat, for no school could hold them:''

and it is also said of R. Chija c, that

"he went out and taught his brother's two sons, בשוק, "in the street".''

So that what our Lord did, was no other than what was usual with their doctors; nor is this contrary to what is said in See Gill on Mat 12:19, this is also a fruitless plea and which will be of no service; it will signify nothing, to have heard Christ preached, or Christ himself preach, unless there is faith in him, which works by love; for not hearers of the word only, but doers of it are regarded.

Gill: Luk 13:27 - But he shall say // I tell you, I know you not whence you are // depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity But he shall say, &c. The Persic version adds, "be gone from my sight, and be far from my door"; expressing indignation at them, an abhorrence of them...

But he shall say, &c. The Persic version adds, "be gone from my sight, and be far from my door"; expressing indignation at them, an abhorrence of them, as not being able to bear them in his sight, or near unto him:

I tell you, I know you not whence you are; this is repeated, and with a strong asseveration, to denote the certainty of the truth expressed, and to cast off all hope in them, of ever succeeding by their entreaties and importunity:

depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity; or "of a lie", as the Syriac and Persic versions render it: for they were deceitful workers, they professed what they did not from the heart believe; they said they were Christians, but were not, and now are found liars; they only attended on the word and ordinances in an hypocritical way, and trusted in, and depended upon, their outward profession of religion, and subjection to ordinances; and by so doing, instead of working righteousness, wrought iniquity; and so as they did not submit to Christ and his righteousness, they are bid to depart from him, as wicked and unrighteous men, as they were: the word "all" is here used, which is not in Mat 7:23 which agrees with Psa 6:8 to which there seems to be a reference, though it is omitted here, in the Syriac, Arabic, and Persic versions; See Gill on Mat 7:23.

Gill: Luk 13:28 - There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth // when ye shall see Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob // and all the prophets in the kingdom of God // you yourselves thrust out There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth,.... See Gill on Mat 8:12. This will be upon hearing the above sentence and character, "depart from me", ...

There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth,.... See Gill on Mat 8:12. This will be upon hearing the above sentence and character, "depart from me", &c. and will be increased,

when ye shall see Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: whose offspring they were, and to whom they stood related according to the flesh; and of descent, from whom they boasted, and even trusted in it, thinking themselves the favourites of heaven, and expecting to be admitted into the kingdom of God, on account of it: sad will be the disappointment of such persons; a being born of religious parents, will neither give right unto, nor meetness for eternal glory; regeneration is not of blood:

and all the prophets in the kingdom of God; whose prophecies were transmitted to them, and whose books they had in their hands, and read; and who desired to see and hear what they did, and which they now plead, and yet they did not enjoy, but were nevertheless happy: and

you yourselves thrust out: with indignation and contempt, with shame and "ignominy", as the Persic version adds; not suffered to go in with them, though their sons and successors; but bid to depart, and ordered to be for ever separated from them, as only fit company for devils and damned spirits.

Gill: Luk 13:29 - And they shall come // come from the east and from the west // and from the north, and from the south // and shall sit down in the kingdom of God And they shall come,.... From all parts the world, from every nation under the heavens; meaning the Gentiles, and which will be a greater aggravation ...

And they shall come,.... From all parts the world, from every nation under the heavens; meaning the Gentiles, and which will be a greater aggravation of the punishment of the Jews, and cause still more rage and madness: these shall

come from the east and from the west; from the rising of the sun, to the going down of the same, Isa 45:6

and from the north, and from the south; from the most distant parts of the world inhabited by men; see Isa 43:5. God has his chosen ones, and Christ has a people in all parts of the world; and therefore his Gospel must be preached to all nations, for the gathering of them in, which will be done in the latter day; and in the resurrection morn, as these will be raised in the several places where they will have been buried, they will come from thence, and make one body, and will be caught up to meet the Lord in the air, and will be for ever with him:

and shall sit down in the kingdom of God; in Christ's kingdom, in the new heavens, and new earth, as persons that sit down at a table, to partake of a feast; see Luk 22:30 and in the ultimate glory, where they shall have rest, peace, and joy, for evermore. The Ethiopic version renders it, "they shall rejoice in the kingdom of God"; they shall partake of the joys of heaven; everlasting joy shall be upon their heads, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away; and the Persic version, "and they shall take a repose, and sit and rest"; they shall rest from all their labour, and be in perfect ease and peace; See Gill on Mat 8:11.

Gill: Luk 13:30 - And behold, there are last which shall be first // and there are first which shall be last And behold, there are last which shall be first,.... The Gentiles, the most mean and abject, afar from God, aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, ca...

And behold, there are last which shall be first,.... The Gentiles, the most mean and abject, afar from God, aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, called last of all; these shall be first, and sit down among patriarchs and prophets, men of the first rank here on earth, in the kingdom of heaven, and enjoy the same glory and happiness with them:

and there are first which shall be last: the Jews, who were first the visible professing people of God, to whom the oracles of God, and outward privileges and ordinances were given; who had the Messiah first sent to them, and the Gospel first preached among them; these shall be last, be rejected and despised, and shut out of the kingdom of heaven, they thought themselves heirs of, and expected to enjoy; see Mat 19:30.

Gill: Luk 13:31 - The same day there came certain of the Pharisees // saying, get thee out and depart hence // for Herod will kill thee The same day there came certain of the Pharisees,.... Who dwelt in Galilee, for they were in all parts of the country: these being nettled and filled ...

The same day there came certain of the Pharisees,.... Who dwelt in Galilee, for they were in all parts of the country: these being nettled and filled with indignation at Christ, because of the parables he had that day delivered, the miracles he had wrought, and the several awful and striking things which dropped from him, and which they knew respected them; contrived to get rid of him, by frightening him with a design of Herod's, to take away his life, should he continue there: for this seems to be rather a stratagem of theirs, than of Herod's; though it may he, that Herod might take this method, and make use of these men in this way, to terrify him; fearing to lay hold on him, and put him to death; partly because of the people, and partly because of the remaining uneasiness and terror of his mind, for taking off the head of John the Baptist:

saying, get thee out and depart hence; in all haste, as soon as possible:

for Herod will kill thee: he is resolved upon it, he has formed a design, and will quickly take methods to execute it. This was Herod the tetrarch, of Galilee; from whence we learn, that Christ was as yet in Galilee, though he was journeying towards Jerusalem, Luk 13:22 for Herod's jurisdiction reached no further than Galilee: this was either a device of Herod's, or of the Pharisees, or of both, to get rid of Christ in the easiest manner.

Gill: Luk 13:32 - And he said unto them, go ye and tell that fox // behold, I cast out devils // and I do cures today and tomorrow // and the third day I shall be perfected And he said unto them, go ye and tell that fox,.... Herod, who it may be sent them, of which Christ was not ignorant, nor of his design in it; and who...

And he said unto them, go ye and tell that fox,.... Herod, who it may be sent them, of which Christ was not ignorant, nor of his design in it; and who, as Nero, for his cruelty, is compared to a lion, so he for his subtlety in this instance, as well as in the whole of his conduct, to a fox; though some think Christ has a regard to the Pharisees, and their craftiness, in forming this story, pretending good will to him, by acquainting him of Herod's malicious designs, when their view was only to scare him out of their country; so the false prophets and teachers, are for their cunning, subtlety, and flattery, compared to foxes, Son 2:15 as well as for their greediness and voraciousness: the word is used with the Jews, for a vain and empty man, in opposition to a good man; as in that saying d of R. Jannai,

"be thou the tail of lions, and not the head of "foxes;"''

or "vain men", as the gloss explains it:

behold, I cast out devils; or "I will cast out devils", as the Ethiopic version reads, in spite of him, let him do his worst:

and I do cures today and tomorrow; and so for some time to come; and which was doing good, and was what Herod and the Pharisees, had they any humanity in them, would have rejoiced at, and have chose that he should have continued with them, and not have threatened him with his life, or have took any methods to send him from them:

and the third day I shall be perfected; that is, in a little time after, I shall be made perfect by sufferings, my course will be finished, and I shall have done all the work completely, I came about; and till that time come, it is not in his power, nor yours, nor all the men on earth, or devils in hell, to take away my life, or hinder me doing what I am about.

Gill: Luk 13:33 - Nevertheless, I must walk // today and tomorrow, and the day following // for it cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem Nevertheless, I must walk,.... The Syriac version reads, "I must work", and so the Arabic: as going about doing good, casting out devils, and healing ...

Nevertheless, I must walk,.... The Syriac version reads, "I must work", and so the Arabic: as going about doing good, casting out devils, and healing diseases:

today and tomorrow, and the day following: a few days more in Galilee, and towards Jerusalem: all the Oriental versions read, "the day following I shall depart"; either out of this world; or out of Galilee, and go to Jerusalem, and there suffer and die:

for it cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem; because the great sanhedrim only sat at Jerusalem, to whom it belonged to try and judge a prophet; and if found false, to condemn him, and put him to death; the rule is this e;

"they do not judge, neither a tribe, nor a false prophet, nor an high priest, but by the sanhedrim of seventy and one.''

Not but that prophets sometimes perished elsewhere, as John the Baptist in Galilee; but not according to a judicial process, in which way Christ the prophet was to be cut off, nor was it common; instances of this kind were rare, and always in a violent way; and even such as were sentenced to death by the lesser sanhedrim, were brought to Jerusalem, and publicly executed there, whose crimes were of another sort; for so runs the canon f;

"they do not put any one to death by the sanhedrim, which is in his city, nor by the sanhedrim in Jabneh; but they bring him to the great, sanhedrim in Jerusalem, and keep him till the feast, and put him to death on a feast day, as it is said Deu 17:13 "and all the people shall hear and fear."''

And since Jerusalem was the place where the prophets were usually put to death, it follows,

Gill: Luk 13:34 - O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killest the prophets // and stonest them that are sent unto thee // how often would I have gathered thy children together, as a hen doth gather her brood under her wings, and ye would not O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killest the prophets,.... These words, with what follow, as they stand in Mat 23:37 were delivered by Christ, when he wa...

O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killest the prophets,.... These words, with what follow, as they stand in Mat 23:37 were delivered by Christ, when he was in the temple at Jerusalem; but here they were spoken by him when in Galilee, in Herod's jurisdiction; so that it appears, that the same words were spoken by Christ at different times, in different places, and to different persons: unless it can be thought, that Luke transcribed them from Matthew, and inserts them here, on occasion of Christ's having mentioned the perishing of a prophet in Jerusalem; where many had been killed and put to death, in one way or another, and particularly in the following:

and stonest them that are sent unto thee; as Zechariah, 2Ch 24:20

how often would I have gathered thy children together, as a hen doth gather her brood under her wings, and ye would not? and therefore ought not to have been condemned as a false prophet by their sanhedrim, as he suggests he should be, and as he afterwards was; See Gill on Mat 23:37.

Gill: Luk 13:35 - Behold, your house is left unto you desolate // and verily I say unto you // ye shall not see me // until the time come // when ye shall say, blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord Behold, your house is left unto you desolate,.... That is, would be in a little time, both city and temple; See Gill on Mat 23:38. and verily I say...

Behold, your house is left unto you desolate,.... That is, would be in a little time, both city and temple; See Gill on Mat 23:38.

and verily I say unto you; affirm in the strongest manner:

ye shall not see me; the Arabic version adds, "from henceforth", and so some copies, as in Mat 23:39 and so the Ethiopic version, "from this time"; that he spoke these words, whether in Galilee, or in the temple:

until the time come; or "until he shall come", meaning himself, and his second coming:

when ye shall say, blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; not they themselves in person, but their posterity, who will be converted in the latter day: and shall acknowledge the Messiah, the blessed of the Lord, who will come in his name, to judge the world in righteousness: or else the meaning is, that when Christ shall come a second time, and every eye shall see him, these Jews, among the rest, shall behold him, whom they have pierced, and mourn; and wish themselves among those, that shall receive him with joyful acclamations; and however, will be obliged to own him as the Messiah, and to confess that he comes in the name, and with the authority of the Lord, and that he is blessed for evermore.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Luk 13:1 This is an event that otherwise is unattested, though several events similar to it are noted in Josephus (J. W. 2.9.2-4 [2.169-177]; Ant. 13.13.5 [13....

NET Notes: Luk 13:2 Jesus did not want his hearers to think that tragedy was necessarily a judgment on these people because they were worse sinners.

NET Notes: Luk 13:3 Or “you will all likewise perish,” but this could be misunderstood to mean that they would perish by the same means as the Galileans. Jesu...

NET Notes: Luk 13:4 For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

NET Notes: Luk 13:5 Grk “similarly.”

NET Notes: Luk 13:6 The fig tree is a variation on the picture of a vine as representing the nation; see Isa 5:1-7.

NET Notes: Luk 13:7 Such fig trees would deplete the soil, robbing it of nutrients needed by other trees and plants.

NET Notes: Luk 13:8 Grk “toss manure [on it].” This is a reference to manure used as fertilizer.

NET Notes: Luk 13:9 This is a first class condition in the Greek text, showing which of the options is assumed.

NET Notes: Luk 13:10 See the note on synagogues in 4:15.

NET Notes: Luk 13:11 Or “and could not straighten herself up at all.” If εἰς τὸ παντελές (ei...

NET Notes: Luk 13:12 Or “sickness.”

NET Notes: Luk 13:13 The healing took place immediately.

NET Notes: Luk 13:14 The participle ἐρχόμενοι (ercomenoi) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemp...

NET Notes: Luk 13:15 The charge here is hypocrisy, but it is only part one of the response. Various ancient laws detail what was allowed with cattle; see Mishnah, m. Shabb...

NET Notes: Luk 13:16 Or “bondage”; Grk “bond.”

NET Notes: Luk 13:17 Grk “that were being done by him.” The passive has been converted to an active construction in the translation.

NET Notes: Luk 13:18 Grk “And to.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

NET Notes: Luk 13:19 The point of the parable seems to be that while the kingdom of God may appear to have insignificant and unnoticeable beginnings (i.e., in the ministry...

NET Notes: Luk 13:20 The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-...

NET Notes: Luk 13:21 The parable of the yeast and the dough teaches that the kingdom of God will start small but eventually grow to permeate everything. Jesus’ point...

NET Notes: Luk 13:22 For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

NET Notes: Luk 13:23 Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ reply was triggered by the preceding question.

NET Notes: Luk 13:24 Or “Make every effort” (L&N 68.74; cf. NIV); “Do your best” (TEV); “Work hard” (NLT); Grk “Struggle.R...

NET Notes: Luk 13:25 For the imagery behind the statement “I do not know where you come from,” see Ps 138:6; Isa 63:16; Jer 1:5; Hos 5:3.

NET Notes: Luk 13:26 This term refers to wide streets, and thus suggests the major streets of a city.

NET Notes: Luk 13:27 Grk “all you workers of iniquity.” The phrase resembles Ps 6:8.

NET Notes: Luk 13:28 Or “being thrown out.” The present accusative participle, ἐκβαλλομένους ...

NET Notes: Luk 13:29 The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-...

NET Notes: Luk 13:30 Some are last who will be first, and some are first who will be last. Jesus’ answer is that some who are expected to be there (many from Israel)...

NET Notes: Luk 13:31 Herod refers here to Herod Antipas. See the note on Herod Antipas in 3:1.

NET Notes: Luk 13:32 Or “I reach my goal.” The verb τελειόω (teleiow) is a key NT term for the completion of God’s pla...

NET Notes: Luk 13:33 For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

NET Notes: Luk 13:34 Grk “you were not willing.”

NET Notes: Luk 13:35 A quotation from Ps 118:26. The judgment to come will not be lifted until the Lord returns. See Luke 19:41-44.

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:1 There ( 1 ) were present at that season some that told him of the Galilaeans, whose blood ( a ) Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. ( 1 ) We mu...

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:4 Or those eighteen, upon whom the tower in ( b ) Siloam fell, and slew them, think ye that they were sinners above all men that dwelt in Jerusalem? ( ...

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:6 ( 2 ) He spake also this parable; A certain [man] had a fig tree planted in his vineyard; and he came and sought fruit thereon, and found none. ( 2 )...

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:7 Then said he unto the dresser of his vineyard, Behold, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none: cut it down; why ( c ) ...

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:10 ( 3 ) And he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the sabbath. ( 3 ) Christ came to deliver us from the hand of Satan.

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:11 And, behold, there was a woman which had a ( d ) spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and was bowed together, and could in no wise lift up [herself]. ...

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:12 And when Jesus saw her, he called [her to him], and said unto her, Woman, thou art ( e ) loosed from thine infirmity. ( e ) For Satan had the woman b...

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:14 ( 4 ) And the ( f ) ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation, because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath day, and said unto the people, Ther...

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:19 ( 5 ) It is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and cast into his garden; and it grew, and waxed a great tree; and the fowls of the air lo...

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:22 ( 6 ) And he went through the cities and villages, teaching, and journeying toward Jerusalem. ( 6 ) Against those who had rather err with many than g...

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:26 ( 7 ) Then shall ye begin to say, We have eaten and drunk in thy presence, and thou hast taught in our streets. ( 7 ) It is vain to be in the Church ...

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:28 ( 8 ) There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, and ...

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:29 And they shall come from the ( g ) east, and [from] the west, and from the north, and [from] the south, and shall sit down in the kingdom of God. ( g...

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:31 ( 9 ) The same day there came certain of the Pharisees, saying unto him, Get thee out, and depart hence: for Herod will kill thee. ( 9 ) We must go f...

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:32 And he said unto them, Go ye, and tell that ( h ) fox, Behold, I cast out devils, and I do cures ( i ) to day and to morrow, and the third [day] I sha...

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:33 ( 10 ) Nevertheless I must walk to day, and to morrow, and the [day] following: for it cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem. ( 10 ) Nowhe...

Geneva Bible: Luk 13:34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killest the prophets, and stonest them that are sent unto thee; how often would I have gathered thy children together, a...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Luk 13:10-17 - A Libation To Jehovah True Sabbath Observance And He was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath. 11. And, behold, there was a woman which had a spirit of infirmi...

Maclaren: Luk 13:22-30 - A Libation To Jehovah The Strait Gate And He went through the cities and villages, teaching, and journeying toward Jerusalem. 23. Then said one unto Him, Lord, are there f...

Maclaren: Luk 13:24 - A Libation To Jehovah II. We Note The Reason For The Exhortation. It is briefly given in Luke 13:24 (last clause), and both parts of the reason there are expanded in the f...

Maclaren: Luk 13:32-33 - A Libation To Jehovah Christ's Message To Herod And he said unto them, Go ye, and tell that fox, Behold, I cast out devils, and I do cures to-day and to-morrow, and the th...