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Teks -- Luke 1:1-80 (NET)

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Konteks
Explanatory Preface
1:1 Now many have undertaken to compile an account of the things that have been fulfilled among us, 1:2 like the accounts passed on to us by those who were eyewitnesses and servants of the word from the beginning. 1:3 So it seemed good to me as well, because I have followed all things carefully from the beginning, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus, 1:4 so that you may know for certain the things you were taught.
Birth Announcement of John the Baptist
1:5 During the reign of Herod king of Judea, there lived a priest named Zechariah who belonged to the priestly division of Abijah, and he had a wife named Elizabeth, who was a descendant of Aaron. 1:6 They were both righteous in the sight of God, following all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blamelessly. 1:7 But they did not have a child, because Elizabeth was barren, and they were both very old. 1:8 Now while Zechariah was serving as priest before God when his division was on duty, 1:9 he was chosen by lot, according to the custom of the priesthood, to enter the holy place of the Lord and burn incense. 1:10 Now the whole crowd of people were praying outside at the hour of the incense offering. 1:11 An angel of the Lord, standing on the right side of the altar of incense, appeared to him. 1:12 And Zechariah, visibly shaken when he saw the angel, was seized with fear. 1:13 But the angel said to him, “Do not be afraid, Zechariah, for your prayer has been heard, and your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son; you will name him John. 1:14 Joy and gladness will come to you, and many will rejoice at his birth, 1:15 for he will be great in the sight of the Lord. He must never drink wine or strong drink, and he will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even before his birth. 1:16 He will turn many of the people of Israel to the Lord their God. 1:17 And he will go as forerunner before the Lord in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers back to their children and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just, to make ready for the Lord a people prepared for him.” 1:18 Zechariah said to the angel, “How can I be sure of this? For I am an old man, and my wife is old as well.” 1:19 The angel answered him, “I am Gabriel, who stands in the presence of God, and I was sent to speak to you and to bring you this good news. 1:20 And now, because you did not believe my words, which will be fulfilled in their time, you will be silent, unable to speak, until the day these things take place.” 1:21 Now the people were waiting for Zechariah, and they began to wonder why he was delayed in the holy place. 1:22 When he came out, he was not able to speak to them. They realized that he had seen a vision in the holy place, because he was making signs to them and remained unable to speak. 1:23 When his time of service was over, he went to his home. 1:24 After some time his wife Elizabeth became pregnant, and for five months she kept herself in seclusion. She said, 1:25 “This is what the Lord has done for me at the time when he has been gracious to me, to take away my disgrace among people.”
Birth Announcement of Jesus the Messiah
1:26 In the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy, the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a town of Galilee called Nazareth, 1:27 to a virgin engaged to a man whose name was Joseph, a descendant descendant of David, and the virgin’s name was Mary. 1:28 The angel came to her and said, “Greetings, favored one, the Lord is with you!” 1:29 But she was greatly troubled by his words and began to wonder about the meaning of this greeting. 1:30 So the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God! 1:31 Listen: You will become pregnant and give birth to a son, and you will name him Jesus. 1:32 He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give him the throne of his father David. 1:33 He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and his kingdom will never end.” 1:34 Mary said to the angel, “How will this be, since I have not had sexual relations with a man?” 1:35 The angel replied, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore the child to be born will be holy; he will be called the Son of God. 1:36 “And look, your relative Elizabeth has also become pregnant with a son in her old age– although she was called barren, she is now in her sixth month! 1:37 For nothing will be impossible with God.” 1:38 So Mary said, “Yes, I am a servant of the Lord; let this happen to me according to your word.” Then the angel departed from her.
Mary and Elizabeth
1:39 In those days Mary got up and went hurriedly into the hill country, to a town of Judah, 1:40 and entered Zechariah’s house and greeted Elizabeth. 1:41 When Elizabeth heard Mary’s greeting, the baby leaped in her womb, and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit. 1:42 She exclaimed with a loud voice, “Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the child in your womb! 1:43 And who am I that the mother of my Lord should come and visit me? 1:44 For the instant the sound of your greeting reached my ears, the baby in my womb leaped for joy. 1:45 And blessed is she who believed that what was spoken to her by the Lord would be fulfilled.”
Mary’s Hymn of Praise
1:46 And Mary said, “My soul exalts the Lord, 1:47 and my spirit has begun to rejoice in God my Savior, 1:48 because he has looked upon the humble state of his servant. For from now on all generations will call me blessed, 1:49 because he who is mighty has done great things for me, and holy is his name; 1:50 from generation to generation he is merciful to those who fear him. 1:51 He has demonstrated power with his arm; he has scattered those whose pride wells up from the sheer arrogance of their hearts. 1:52 He has brought down the mighty from their thrones, and has lifted up those of lowly position; 1:53 he has filled the hungry with good things, and has sent the rich away empty. 1:54 He has helped his servant Israel, remembering his mercy, 1:55 as he promised to our ancestors, to Abraham and to his descendants forever.” 1:56 So Mary stayed with Elizabeth about three months and then returned to her home.
The Birth of John
1:57 Now the time came for Elizabeth to have her baby, and she gave birth to a son. 1:58 Her neighbors and relatives heard that the Lord had shown great mercy to her, and they rejoiced with her. 1:59 On the eighth day they came to circumcise the child, and they wanted to name him Zechariah after his father. 1:60 But his mother replied, “No! He must be named John.” 1:61 They said to her, “But none of your relatives bears this name.” 1:62 So they made signs to the baby’s father, inquiring what he wanted to name his son. 1:63 He asked for a writing tablet and wrote, “His name is John.” And they were all amazed. 1:64 Immediately Zechariah’s mouth was opened and his tongue released, and he spoke, blessing God. 1:65 All their neighbors were filled with fear, and throughout the entire hill country of Judea all these things were talked about. 1:66 All who heard these things kept them in their hearts, saying, “What then will this child be?” For the Lord’s hand was indeed with him.
Zechariah’s Praise and Prediction
1:67 Then his father Zechariah was filled with the Holy Spirit and prophesied, 1:68 “Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, because he has come to help and has redeemed his people. 1:69 For he has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David, 1:70 as he spoke through the mouth of his holy prophets from long ago, 1:71 that we should be saved from our enemies, and from the hand of all who hate us. 1:72 He has done this to show mercy to our ancestors, and to remember his holy covenant1:73 the oath that he swore to our ancestor Abraham. This oath grants 1:74 that we, being rescued from the hand of our enemies, may serve him without fear, 1:75 in holiness and righteousness before him for as long as we live. 1:76 And you, child, will be called the prophet of the Most High. For you will go before the Lord to prepare his ways, 1:77 to give his people knowledge of salvation through the forgiveness of their sins. 1:78 Because of our God’s tender mercy the dawn will break upon us from on high 1:79 to give light to those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace.” 1:80 And the child kept growing and becoming strong in spirit, and he was in the wilderness until the day he was revealed to Israel.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Aaron a son of Amram; brother of Moses,son of Amram (Kohath Levi); patriarch of Israel's priests,the clan or priestly line founded by Aaron
 · Abijah the son and successor of King Rehoboam
 · Abraham a son of Terah; the father of Isaac; ancestor of the Jewish nation.,the son of Terah of Shem
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel
 · Elijah a prophet from the 9th century B.C.,a prophet from Tishbe in Gilead to Israel in King Ahab's time,son of Jeroham of Benjamin,a priest of the Harim clan who put away his heathen wife,a layman of the Bani Elam clan who put away his heathen wife
 · Elizabeth the wife of Zacharias the priest; the mother of John the Baptist
 · Gabriel a specific angel,an angel who brought understanding to the prophet Daniel
 · Galilee the region of Palestine north of Sameria and west of the upper Jordan River,a region west of Lake Galilee and north of the Jezreel Valley
 · Herod son of Antipater; king over Judea when Christ was born,a son of Herod the Great,a grandson of Herod the Great and son of Aristobulus and Berenice
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · John a son of Zebedee; younger brother of James; the beloved disciple of Christ,a relative of Annas the high priest,a son of Mary the sister of Barnabas, and surnamed Mark,the father of Simon Peter
 · Joseph the husband of Mary and foster-father of Jesus,a Jewish man from Arimathea in whose grave the body of Jesus was laid,two different men listed as ancestors of Jesus,a man nominated with Matthias to take the place of Judas Iscariot as apostle,a son of Jacob and Rachel; the father of Ephraim and Manasseh and ruler of Egypt,a brother of Jesus; a son of Mary,a man who was a companion of Paul,son of Jacob and Rachel; patriarch of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh,a tribe, actually two tribes named after Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasseh,father of Igal, of Issachar, who helped spy out Canaan,son of Asaph the Levite; worship leader under Asaph and King David,a man who put away his heathen wife; an Israelite descended from Binnui,priest and head of the house of Shebaniah under High Priest Joiakim in the time of Nehemiah
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Judea a region that roughly corresponded to the earlier kingdom of Judah
 · Mary mother of Jesus and wife of Joseph,a woman from Magdala in Galilee,the mother of James and Joses,the wife of Cleophas,the sister of Lazarus and Martha in Bethany,the mother of John Mark who was a nephew of Barnabas,a Christian woman in Rome who helped Paul
 · Nazareth a town in lower Galilee about halfway between the Sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean Sea
 · Theophilus the man to whom the books of Luke and Acts were written
 · Zechariah the father of John the baptist,a son of Berekiah, a righteous man who was killed by the Jewish authorities,son and successor of King Jeroboam,father of Abi, the mother of King Hezekiah,a leader of the tribe of Reuben,son of Meshelemiah; a door keeper for the tent of meeting,son of Jeiel and Maacah of Gibeon,a Levite gate keeper and harpist in David's time,a priest and trumpeter in David's time,son of Isshiah (Uzziel Kohath Levi),son of Hosah; a pre-exile Levite gatekeeper,a man of Manasseh in Gilead in Saul and David's time,a prince whom Jehoshaphat sent to teach the law around Judah,son of Benaiah (Asaph Levi),son of King Jehoshaphat,son of Jehoiada the priest; a prophet,a man who influenced King Uzziah for good,a Levite (Asaph) who helped Hezekiah cleanse the temple,a Levite (Kohath) who helped King Josiah restore the temple,a chief officer of the house of God in Josiah's time,son of Berechiah; a priest; writer of the book of Zechariah,leader among the Parosh clansmen who returned from exile,son of Bebai; leader among Bebai clansmen returned from exile,a lay man of the Elam Clan who put away his heathen wife,a man who stood with Ezra when he read the law to the assembly,son of Amariah of Judah,a descendant of Shelah,son of Pashhur; a priest whose descendants returned from exile,son of Jonathan (Asaph Levi),son of Jeberechiah; a witness to Isaiah's prophesy


Topik/Tema Kamus: Elisabeth | Zacharias | Jonah, Book of | JESUS CHRIST, 4A | Joy | Miracles | Mary | Jesus, The Christ | Angel | JOSEPH, HUSBAND OF MARY | Women | Temple | Poetry | Psalms | Readings, Select | John | Songs | Barreess | ZACHARIAS (2) | Magnificat | selebihnya
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Robertson: Luk 1:1 - Forasmuch as Forasmuch as ( epeidēper ). Here alone in the N.T., though common in literary Attic. Appears in the papyri. A triple compound (epei = since, dē...

Forasmuch as ( epeidēper ).

Here alone in the N.T., though common in literary Attic. Appears in the papyri. A triple compound (epei = since, dē = admittedly true, per = intensive particle to emphasize importance).

Robertson: Luk 1:1 - Many Many ( polloi ). How many no one knows, but certainly more than two or three. We know that Luke used the Logia of Jesus written by Matthew in Aramaic...

Many ( polloi ).

How many no one knows, but certainly more than two or three. We know that Luke used the Logia of Jesus written by Matthew in Aramaic (Papias) and Mark’ s Gospel. Undoubtedly he had other written sources. Have taken in hand (epecheirēsan ). A literal translation of epicheireō (from cheir , hand and epi , upon). Both Hippocrates and Galen use this word in their introduction to their medical works. Here only in the N.T., though a common literary word. Common in the papyri for undertaking with no idea of failure or blame. Luke does not mean to cast reflection on those who preceded him. The apocryphal gospels were all much later and are not in his mind. Luke had secured fuller information and planned a book on a larger scale and did surpass them with the result that they all perished save Mark’ s Gospel and what Matthew and Luke possess of the Logia of Jesus. There was still room for Luke’ s book. That motive influences every author and thus progress is made.

Robertson: Luk 1:1 - To draw up, a narrative To draw up, a narrative ( anataxasthai diēgēsin ). Ingressive aorist middle infinitive. This verb anataxasthai has been found only in Plutarch&...

To draw up, a narrative ( anataxasthai diēgēsin ).

Ingressive aorist middle infinitive. This verb anataxasthai has been found only in Plutarch’ s Moral. 968 CD about an elephant "rehearsing"by moonlight certain tricks it had been taught (Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary ). That was from memory going regularly through the thing again. But the idea in the word is plain enough. The word is composed of tassō , a common verb for arranging things in proper order and ana , again. Luke means to say that those before him had made attempts to rehearse in orderly fashion various matters about Christ. "The expression points to a connected series of narratives in some order (taxis ), topical or chronological rather than to isolated narratives"(Bruce). "They had produced something more than mere notes or anecdotes"(Plummer). Diēgēsis means leading or carrying a thing through, not a mere incident. Galen applies this word some seventy-five times to the writing of Hippocrates.

Robertson: Luk 1:1 - Which have been fulfilled Which have been fulfilled ( tōn peplērōphorēmenōn ). Perfect passive participle from plērophoreō and that from plērēs (full) an...

Which have been fulfilled ( tōn peplērōphorēmenōn ).

Perfect passive participle from plērophoreō and that from plērēs (full) and pherō (to bring). Hence to bring or make full. The verb is rare outside of the lxx and the N.T. Papyri examples occur for finishing off a legal matter or a financial matter in full. Deissmann ( Light from the Ancient East , pp. 86f.) gives examples from the papyri and inscriptions for completing a task or being convinced or satisfied in mind. The same ambiguity occurs here. When used of persons in the N.T. the meaning is to be convinced, or fully persuaded (Rom 4:21; Rom 14:5; Heb 6:11; Heb 10:22). When used of things it has the notion of completing or finishing (2Ti 4:5, 2Ti 4:17). Luke is here speaking of "matters"(pragmatōn ). Luke may refer to the matters connected with Christ’ s life which have been brought to a close among us or accomplished. Bruce argues plausibly that he means fulness of knowledge "concerning the things which have become widely known among us Christians."In Col 2:2 we have "fulness of understanding"(tēs plērophorias tēs suneseōs ). In modern Greek the verb means to inform. The careful language of Luke here really pays a tribute to those who had preceded him in their narratives concerning Christ.

Robertson: Luk 1:2 - Even as Even as ( kathōs ). This particle was condemned by the Atticists though occurring occasionally from Aristotle on. It is in the papyri. Luke asserts...

Even as ( kathōs ).

This particle was condemned by the Atticists though occurring occasionally from Aristotle on. It is in the papyri. Luke asserts that the previous narratives had their sound basis. Delivered unto us (paredōsan hēmin ). Second aorist active indicative of paradidōmi . Luke received this tradition along with those who are mentioned above (the many). That is he was not one of the "eyewitnesses."He was a secondary, not a primary, witness of the events. Tradition has come to have a meaning of unreliability with us, but that is not the idea here. Luke means to say that the handing down was dependable, not mere wives’ fables. Those who drew up the narratives had as sources of knowledge those who handed down the data. Here we have both written and oral sources. Luke had access to both kinds.

Robertson: Luk 1:2 - Which from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word Which from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word ( hoi ap' archēs autoptai kai hupēretai genomenoi tou logou ). "Who"is bette...

Which from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word ( hoi ap' archēs autoptai kai hupēretai genomenoi tou logou ).

"Who"is better than "which"for the article here. The word for eyewitnesses (autoptai ) is an old Greek word and appears in the papyri also. It means seeing with one’ s own eyes. It occurs here only in the N.T. We have the very word in the medical term autopsy . Greek medical writers often had the word. It is a different word from epoptai (eyewitness) in 2Pe 1:16, a word used of those who beheld heavenly mysteries. The word for "ministers"(hupēretai ), under rowers or servants we have had already in Mat 5:25, Mat 26:58 and Mar 14:54, Mar 14:65. We shall see it again in Luk 4:20 of the attendant in the synagogue. In the sense of a preacher of the gospel as here, it occurs also in Act 26:16. Here "the word"means the gospel message, as in Act 6:4; Act 8:4, etc.

Robertson: Luk 1:2 - From the beginning From the beginning apparently refers to the beginning of the ministry of Jesus as was true of the apostles (Act 1:22) and of the early apostolic prea...

From the beginning

apparently refers to the beginning of the ministry of Jesus as was true of the apostles (Act 1:22) and of the early apostolic preaching (Act 10:37-43). The Gospel of Mark follows this plan. The Gospel of Luke goes behind this in chapters 1 and 2 as does Matthew in chapters 1 and 2. But Luke is not here referring to himself. The matters about the childhood of Jesus Christ would not form part of the traditional preaching for obvious reasons.

Robertson: Luk 1:3 - It seemed good to me also It seemed good to me also ( edoxe kamoi ). A natural conclusion and justification of Luke’ s decision to write his narrative. They had ample rea...

It seemed good to me also ( edoxe kamoi ).

A natural conclusion and justification of Luke’ s decision to write his narrative. They had ample reason to draw up their narratives. Luke has more reason to do so because of his fuller knowledge and wider scope.

Robertson: Luk 1:3 - Having traced the course of all things Having traced the course of all things ( parēkolouthēkoti pāsin ). The perfect active participle of a common verb of the ancient Greek. Literal...

Having traced the course of all things ( parēkolouthēkoti pāsin ).

The perfect active participle of a common verb of the ancient Greek. Literally it means to follow along a thing in mind, to trace carefully. Both meanings occur abundantly in the ancient Greek. Cadbury (Appendix C to Beginnings of Christianity , Vol. II, pp. 489ff.) objects to the translation "having traced"here as implying research which the word does not here mean. Milligan ( Vocabulary ) is somewhat impressed by this argument. See my discussion of the point in Chapter XVI of Studies in the Text of the N.T. (The Implications in Luke’ s Preface) where the point is made that Luke here claims fulness of knowledge before he began to write his book. He had the traditions of the eyewitnesses and ministers of the word and the narratives previously drawn up. Whether he was a personal contemporary with any or all of these events we do not know and it is not particularly pertinent. He had mentally followed along by the side of these events. Galen used this verb for the investigation of symptoms. Luke got himself ready to write before he began by full and accurate knowledge of the subject. Akribōs (accurately) means going into minute details, from akron , the topmost point. And he did it from the first (anōthen ). He seems to refer to the matters in Chapters 1:5-2:52, the Gospel of the Infancy.

Robertson: Luk 1:3 - In order In order ( kathexēs ). Chronological order in the main following Mark’ s general outline. But in 9:51-18:10 the order is often topical. He has...

In order ( kathexēs ).

Chronological order in the main following Mark’ s general outline. But in 9:51-18:10 the order is often topical. He has made careful investigation and his work deserves serious consideration.

Robertson: Luk 1:3 - Most excellent Theophilus Most excellent Theophilus ( kratiste Theophile ). The name means god-lover or god-beloved. He may have been a believer already. He was probably a Gen...

Most excellent Theophilus ( kratiste Theophile ).

The name means god-lover or god-beloved. He may have been a believer already. He was probably a Gentile. Ramsay holds that "most excellent"was a title like "Your Excellency"and shows that he held office, perhaps a Knight. So of Felix (Act 23:26) and Festus (Act 26:25). The adjective does not occur in the dedication in Act 1:1.

Robertson: Luk 1:4 - Mightest know Mightest know ( epignōis ). Second aorist active subjunctive of epiginōskō . Full knowledge (epi -), in addition to what he already has.

Mightest know ( epignōis ).

Second aorist active subjunctive of epiginōskō . Full knowledge (epi -), in addition to what he already has.

Robertson: Luk 1:4 - The certainty The certainty ( tēn asphaleian ). Make no slip (sphallō , to totter or fall, and a privative). Luke promises a reliable narrative. "Theophilus ...

The certainty ( tēn asphaleian ).

Make no slip (sphallō , to totter or fall, and a privative). Luke promises a reliable narrative. "Theophilus shall know that the faith which he has embraced has an impregnable historical foundation"(Plummer).

Robertson: Luk 1:4 - The things The things ( logōn ). Literally "words,"the details of the words in the instruction.

The things ( logōn ).

Literally "words,"the details of the words in the instruction.

Robertson: Luk 1:4 - Wast instructed Wast instructed ( katēchēthēs ). First aorist passive indicative. Not in O.T. and rare in ancient Greek. Occurs in the papyri. The word ēcheo...

Wast instructed ( katēchēthēs ).

First aorist passive indicative. Not in O.T. and rare in ancient Greek. Occurs in the papyri. The word ēcheō is our word echo (cf. 1Th 1:8 for exēchētai , has sounded forth). Katēcheō is to sound down, to din, to instruct, to give oral instruction. Cf. 1Co 14:9; Act 21:21, Act 21:24; Act 18:25; Gal 6:6. Those men doing the teaching were called catechists and those receiving it were called catechumens . Whether Theophilus was still a catechumen is not known. This Preface by Luke is in splendid literary Koiné and is not surpassed by those in any Greek writer (Herodotus, Thucydides, Polybius). It is entirely possible that Luke was familiar with this habit of Greek historians to write prefaces since he was a man of culture.

Robertson: Luk 1:5 - There was There was ( egeneto ). Not the usual en for "was,"but there arose or came into notice. With this verse the literary Koiné of Luk 1:1 to Luk 1:4 ...

There was ( egeneto ).

Not the usual en for "was,"but there arose or came into notice. With this verse the literary Koiné of Luk 1:1 to Luk 1:4 disappears. To the end of chapter 2 we have the most Hebraistic (Aramaic) passage in Luke’ s writings, due evidently to the use of documents or notes of oral tradition. Plummer notes a series of such documents ending with Luk 1:80, Luk 2:40, Luk 2:52. If the mother of Jesus was still alive, Luke could have seen her. She may have written in Aramaic an account of these great events. Natural reserve would keep her from telling too much and from too early publicity. Luke, as a physician, would take special interest in her birth report. The supernatural aspects disturb only those who do not admit the real Incarnation of Jesus Christ and who are unable to believe that God is superior to nature and that the coming of the Son of God to earth justifies such miraculous manifestations of divine power. Luke tells his story from the standpoint of Mary as Matthew gives his from the standpoint of Joseph. The two supplement each other. We have here the earliest documentary evidence of the origins of Christianity that has come down to us (Plummer).

Robertson: Luk 1:5 - Herod, King of Judea Herod, King of Judea ( Hērōidou basileōs tēs Ioudaias ). This note of time locates the events before the death of Herod the Great (as he was ...

Herod, King of Judea ( Hērōidou basileōs tēs Ioudaias ).

This note of time locates the events before the death of Herod the Great (as he was called later), appointed King of Judea by the Roman Senate b.c. 40 at the suggestion of Octavius and Antony. He died b.c. 4.

Robertson: Luk 1:5 - Of the course of Abijah Of the course of Abijah ( ex ephēmerias Abia ). Not in old Greek, but in lxx and modern Greek. Papyri have a verb derived from it, ephēmereō . ...

Of the course of Abijah ( ex ephēmerias Abia ).

Not in old Greek, but in lxx and modern Greek. Papyri have a verb derived from it, ephēmereō . Daily service (Neh 13:30; 1Ch 25:8) and then a course of priests who were on duty for a week (1Ch 23:6; 1Ch 28:13). There were 24 such courses and that of Abijah was the eighth (1Ch 24:10; 2Ch 8:14). Only four of these courses (Jedaiah, Immer, Pashur, Harim) returned from Babylon, but these four were divided into twenty-four with the old names. Each of these courses did duty for eight days, sabbath to sabbath, twice a year. On sabbaths the whole course did duty. At the feast of tabernacles all twenty-four courses were present.

Robertson: Luk 1:5 - Of the daughters of Aaron Of the daughters of Aaron ( ek tōn thugaterōn Aarōn ). "To be a priest and married to a priest’ s daughter was a double distinction"(Plumm...

Of the daughters of Aaron ( ek tōn thugaterōn Aarōn ).

"To be a priest and married to a priest’ s daughter was a double distinction"(Plummer). Like a preacher married to a preacher’ s daughter.

Robertson: Luk 1:6 - Righteous before God Righteous before God ( dikaioi enantion tou theou ). Old Testament conception and idiom. Cf. Luk 2:25 about Simeon. Expanded in Old Testament languag...

Righteous before God ( dikaioi enantion tou theou ).

Old Testament conception and idiom. Cf. Luk 2:25 about Simeon. Expanded in Old Testament language. Picture of "noblest product of Old Testament education"(Ragg) is Zacharias and Elisabeth, Mary and Joseph, Simeon and Anna who were "privileged to see with clear eyes the dawn of the New Testament revelation."

Robertson: Luk 1:7 - Because that Because that ( kathoti ). Good Attic word, according to what. Only in Luke and Acts in the N.T. In the papyri.

Because that ( kathoti ).

Good Attic word, according to what. Only in Luke and Acts in the N.T. In the papyri.

Robertson: Luk 1:7 - Well stricken in years Well stricken in years ( probebēkotes en tais hēmerais autōn ). Wycliff has it right: "Had gone far in their days."Perfect active participle. S...

Well stricken in years ( probebēkotes en tais hēmerais autōn ).

Wycliff has it right: "Had gone far in their days."Perfect active participle. See also Luk 1:18.

Robertson: Luk 1:8 - While he executed the priest’ s office While he executed the priest’ s office ( en tōi hierateuein auton ). A favourite idiom in Luke, en with the articular infinitive and the acc...

While he executed the priest’ s office ( en tōi hierateuein auton ).

A favourite idiom in Luke, en with the articular infinitive and the accusative of general reference where the genitive absolute could have been used or a temporal conjunction and finite verb. It is proper Greek, but occurs often in the lxx, which Luke read, particularly in imitation of the Hebrew infinitive construct. The word hierateuō does not appear in the ancient Greek, but in the lxx and this one example in Luke. It is on the Rosetta Stone and the early inscriptions so that the word was simply applied by the lxx translators from current usage.

Robertson: Luk 1:9 - His lot was His lot was ( elache ). Literally, he obtained the lot. Second aorist active indicative of lagchanō , to obtain by lot, a very old verb from Homer...

His lot was ( elache ).

Literally, he obtained the lot. Second aorist active indicative of lagchanō , to obtain by lot, a very old verb from Homer on. It is used either with the genitive as here, or the accusative as in Act 1:17; 2Pe 1:1. Papyri show examples with the accusative. It was only once in a lifetime that a priest obtained the lot of going (eiselthōn , here nominative aorist active participle agreeing with the subject of elache ) into the sanctuary (ton naon , not to hieron , the outer courts) and burning incense on the golden altar. "It was the great moment of Zacharias’ s life, and his heart was no doubt alert for the supernatural"(Ragg). The fortunate lot was "a white stone"to which Rev 2:17 may refer.

Robertson: Luk 1:9 - Burn incense Burn incense ( tou thumiasai ). Here only in the N.T. Occurs on inscriptions. Hobart finds it used by medical writers for fumigating herbs. "Ascendin...

Burn incense ( tou thumiasai ).

Here only in the N.T. Occurs on inscriptions. Hobart finds it used by medical writers for fumigating herbs. "Ascending the steps to the Holy Place, the priests spread the coals on the golden altar, and arranged the incense, and the chief operating priest was then left alone within the Holy Place to await the signal of the president to burn the incense. It was probably at this time that the angel appeared to Zacharias"(Vincent).

Robertson: Luk 1:10 - Were praying without Were praying without ( ēn proseuchomenon exō ). Periphrastic imperfect indicative picturing the posture of the people while the clouds of incense...

Were praying without ( ēn proseuchomenon exō ).

Periphrastic imperfect indicative picturing the posture of the people while the clouds of incense rose on the inside of the sanctuary.

Robertson: Luk 1:11 - Appeared Appeared ( ōphthē ). First aorist passive indicative. It is the form used by Paul of the resurrection appearances of Jesus (1Co 15:5-8). There is...

Appeared ( ōphthē ).

First aorist passive indicative. It is the form used by Paul of the resurrection appearances of Jesus (1Co 15:5-8). There is no use in trying to explain away the reality of the angel. We must choose between admitting an objective appearance and a myth (Plummer).

Robertson: Luk 1:13 - Is heard Is heard ( eisēkousthē ). First aorist passive indicative. A sort of timeless aorist, "was heard"when made, and so "is heard"now. Probably the pr...

Is heard ( eisēkousthē ).

First aorist passive indicative. A sort of timeless aorist, "was heard"when made, and so "is heard"now. Probably the prayer was for a son in spite of the great age of Elisabeth, though the Messianic redemption is possible also.

Robertson: Luk 1:13 - John John ( Iōanēn ). The word means that God is gracious. The mention of the name should have helped Zacharias to believe. The message of the angel (...

John ( Iōanēn ).

The word means that God is gracious. The mention of the name should have helped Zacharias to believe. The message of the angel (Luk 1:13-17) takes on a metrical form when turned into Hebrew (Ragg) and it is a prose poem in Greek and English like Luk 1:30-33, Luk 1:35-37, Luk 1:42-45, Luk 1:46-55, Luk 1:68-70; Luk 2:10-12, Luk 2:14, Luk 2:29-32, Luk 2:34-35. Certainly Luke has preserved the earliest Christian hymns in their oldest sources. He is the first critic of the sources of the Gospels and a scholarly one.

Robertson: Luk 1:14 - Gladness Gladness ( agalliasis ). Only in the lxx and N.T. so far as known. A word for extreme exultation.

Gladness ( agalliasis ).

Only in the lxx and N.T. so far as known. A word for extreme exultation.

Robertson: Luk 1:14 - Rejoice Rejoice ( charēsontai ). Second future passive indicative. The coming of a prophet will indeed be an occasion for rejoicing.

Rejoice ( charēsontai ).

Second future passive indicative. The coming of a prophet will indeed be an occasion for rejoicing.

Robertson: Luk 1:15 - Strong drink Strong drink ( sikera ). A Hebrew word transliterated into Greek, an intoxicating drink. Here only in the N.T. John was to be a personal "dry"or Naza...

Strong drink ( sikera ).

A Hebrew word transliterated into Greek, an intoxicating drink. Here only in the N.T. John was to be a personal "dry"or Nazarite (Num 6:3).

Robertson: Luk 1:15 - Shall not drink Shall not drink ( ou mē piēi ). Strong prohibition, double negative and second aorist subjunctive.

Shall not drink ( ou mē piēi ).

Strong prohibition, double negative and second aorist subjunctive.

Robertson: Luk 1:15 - The Holy Ghost The Holy Ghost ( pneumatos hagiou ). The Holy Spirit in contrast to the physical excitement of strong drink (Plummer). Luke uses this phrase 53 times...

The Holy Ghost ( pneumatos hagiou ).

The Holy Spirit in contrast to the physical excitement of strong drink (Plummer). Luke uses this phrase 53 times, 12 in the Gospel, Mark and John 4 each, Matthew 5 times.

Robertson: Luk 1:15 - Even from his mother’ s womb Even from his mother’ s womb ( eti ek koilias mētros autou ). A manifest Hebraism. Cf. Luk 1:41.

Even from his mother’ s womb ( eti ek koilias mētros autou ).

A manifest Hebraism. Cf. Luk 1:41.

Robertson: Luk 1:17 - Before his face Before his face ( enōpion autou ). Not in the ancient Greek, but common in the papyri as in lxx and N.T. It is a vernacular Koiné word, adverb u...

Before his face ( enōpion autou ).

Not in the ancient Greek, but common in the papyri as in lxx and N.T. It is a vernacular Koiné word, adverb used as preposition from adjective enōpios , and that from ho en ōpi ōn (the one who is in sight). Autou here seems to be "the Lord their God"in Luk 1:16 since the Messiah has not yet been mentioned, though he was to be actually the Forerunner of the Messiah.

Robertson: Luk 1:17 - In the spirit and power of Elijah In the spirit and power of Elijah ( en pneumati kai dunamei Eleiā ). See Isa 40:1-11; Mal 3:1-5. John will deny that he is actually Elijah in perso...

In the spirit and power of Elijah ( en pneumati kai dunamei Eleiā ).

See Isa 40:1-11; Mal 3:1-5. John will deny that he is actually Elijah in person, as they expected (Joh 1:21), but Jesus will call him Elijah in spirit (Mar 9:12; Mat 17:12).

Robertson: Luk 1:17 - Hearts of fathers Hearts of fathers ( kardias paterōn ). Paternal love had died out. This is one of the first results of conversion, the revival of love in the home.

Hearts of fathers ( kardias paterōn ).

Paternal love had died out. This is one of the first results of conversion, the revival of love in the home.

Robertson: Luk 1:17 - Wisdom Wisdom ( phronēsei ). Not sophia , but a word for practical intelligence.

Wisdom ( phronēsei ).

Not sophia , but a word for practical intelligence.

Robertson: Luk 1:17 - Prepared Prepared ( kateskeuasmenon ). Perfect passive participle, state of readiness for Christ. This John did. This is a marvellous forecast of the characte...

Prepared ( kateskeuasmenon ).

Perfect passive participle, state of readiness for Christ. This John did. This is a marvellous forecast of the character and career of John the Baptist, one that should have caught the faith of Zacharias.

Robertson: Luk 1:18 - Whereby Whereby ( kata ti ). According to what. It was too good to be true and Zacharias demanded proof and gives the reason (for, gar ) for his doubt. He h...

Whereby ( kata ti ).

According to what. It was too good to be true and Zacharias demanded proof and gives the reason (for, gar ) for his doubt. He had prayed for this blessing and was now sceptical like the disciples in the house of Mary about the return of Peter (Act 12:14.).

Robertson: Luk 1:19 - Gabriel Gabriel ( Gabriēl ). The Man of God (Dan 8:6; Dan 9:21). The other angel whose name is given in Scripture is Michael (Dan 10:13, Dan 10:21; Jud 1:9...

Gabriel ( Gabriēl ).

The Man of God (Dan 8:6; Dan 9:21). The other angel whose name is given in Scripture is Michael (Dan 10:13, Dan 10:21; Jud 1:9; Rev 12:7). The description of himself is a rebuke to the doubt of Zacharias.

Robertson: Luk 1:20 - Thou shalt be silent Thou shalt be silent ( esēi siōpōn ). Volitive future periphrastic.

Thou shalt be silent ( esēi siōpōn ).

Volitive future periphrastic.

Robertson: Luk 1:20 - Not able to speak Not able to speak ( mē dunamenos lalēsai ). Negative repetition of the same statement. His dumbness will continue "until"(achri hēs hēmeras ...

Not able to speak ( mē dunamenos lalēsai ).

Negative repetition of the same statement. His dumbness will continue "until"(achri hēs hēmeras ) the events come to pass "because"(anth' hōn ). The words were to become reality in due season (kairon , not chronos , time).

Robertson: Luk 1:21 - Were waiting Were waiting ( ēn prosdokōn ). Periphrastic imperfect again. An old Greek verb for expecting. Appears in papyri and inscriptions. It denotes ment...

Were waiting ( ēn prosdokōn ).

Periphrastic imperfect again. An old Greek verb for expecting. Appears in papyri and inscriptions. It denotes mental direction whether hope or fear.

Robertson: Luk 1:21 - They marvelled They marvelled ( ethaumazon ). Imperfect tense, were wondering. The Talmud says that the priest remained only a brief time in the sanctuary.

They marvelled ( ethaumazon ).

Imperfect tense, were wondering. The Talmud says that the priest remained only a brief time in the sanctuary.

Robertson: Luk 1:21 - While he tarried While he tarried ( en tōi chronizein ). See Luk 1:8 for the same idiom.

While he tarried ( en tōi chronizein ).

See Luk 1:8 for the same idiom.

Robertson: Luk 1:22 - Perceived Perceived ( epegnōsan ). Second aorist indicative. Clearly knew because he was not able to pronounce the benediction from the steps (Num 6:24-26).

Perceived ( epegnōsan ).

Second aorist indicative. Clearly knew because he was not able to pronounce the benediction from the steps (Num 6:24-26).

Robertson: Luk 1:22 - Continued making signs Continued making signs ( ēn dianeuōn ). Periphrastic imperfect again. He nodded and beckoned back and forth (dia , between). Further proof of a v...

Continued making signs ( ēn dianeuōn ).

Periphrastic imperfect again. He nodded and beckoned back and forth (dia , between). Further proof of a vision that caused his dumbness.

Robertson: Luk 1:23 - Ministration Ministration ( leitourgias ). Our word liturgy. A common word in ancient Greek for public service, work for the people (leōs ergon ). It is common...

Ministration ( leitourgias ).

Our word liturgy. A common word in ancient Greek for public service, work for the people (leōs ergon ). It is common in the papyri for the service of the Egyptian priesthood as we see it in the lxx of Hebrew priests (see also Heb 8:6; Heb 9:21; 2Co 9:12; Phi 2:17, Phi 2:30).

Robertson: Luk 1:24 - Conceived Conceived ( sunelaben ). Luke uses this word eleven times and it occurs only five other times in the N.T. It is a very old and common Greek word. He ...

Conceived ( sunelaben ).

Luke uses this word eleven times and it occurs only five other times in the N.T. It is a very old and common Greek word. He alone in the N.T. has it for conceiving offspring (Luk 1:24, Luk 1:31, Luk 1:36; Luk 2:21) though Jam 1:15 uses it of lust producing sin. Hobart ( Medical Language of Luke , p. 91) observes that Luke has almost as many words for pregnancy and barrenness as Hippocrates (en gastri echein , Luk 21:23; egkuos , Luk 2:5; steira , Luk 1:7; ateknos , Luk 20:28).

Robertson: Luk 1:24 - Hid Hid ( periekruben ). Only here in the N.T., but in late Koiné writers. Usually considered second aorist active indicative from perikruptō , thou...

Hid ( periekruben ).

Only here in the N.T., but in late Koiné writers. Usually considered second aorist active indicative from perikruptō , though it may be the imperfect indicative of a late form perikrubō . If it is aorist it is the constative aorist. The preposition peri makes it mean completely (on all sides) hid.

Robertson: Luk 1:25 - My reproach My reproach ( oneidos mou ). Keenly felt by a Jewish wife because the husband wanted an heir and because of the hope of the Messiah, and because of t...

My reproach ( oneidos mou ).

Keenly felt by a Jewish wife because the husband wanted an heir and because of the hope of the Messiah, and because of the mother’ s longing for a child.

Robertson: Luk 1:26 - Was sent Was sent ( apestalē ). Second aorist passive indicative of apostellō from which apostle comes. The angel Gabriel is God’ s messenger to...

Was sent ( apestalē ).

Second aorist passive indicative of apostellō from which apostle comes. The angel Gabriel is God’ s messenger to Mary as to Zacharias (Luk 1:19).

Robertson: Luk 1:27 - Betrothed Betrothed ( emnēsteumenēn ). Perfect passive participle. Betrothal usually lasted a year and unfaithfulness on the part of the bride was punished...

Betrothed ( emnēsteumenēn ).

Perfect passive participle. Betrothal usually lasted a year and unfaithfulness on the part of the bride was punished with death (Deu 23:24.).

Robertson: Luk 1:28 - Highly favoured Highly favoured ( kecharitōmenē ). Perfect passive participle of charitoō and means endowed with grace (charis ), enriched with grace as in ...

Highly favoured ( kecharitōmenē ).

Perfect passive participle of charitoō and means endowed with grace (charis ), enriched with grace as in Eph 1:6, non ut mater gratiae, sed ut filia gratiae (Bengel). The Vulgate gratiae plena "is right, if it means ‘ full of grace which thou hast received ’ ; wrong, if it means ‘ full of grace which thou hast to bestow ’ "(Plummer). The oldest MSS. do not have "Blessed art thou among women"here, but in Luk 1:42.

Robertson: Luk 1:29 - Cast in her mind Cast in her mind ( dielogizeto ). Imperfect indicative. Note aorist dietarachthē . Common verb for reckoning up different reasons. She was both ups...

Cast in her mind ( dielogizeto ).

Imperfect indicative. Note aorist dietarachthē . Common verb for reckoning up different reasons. She was both upset and puzzled.

Robertson: Luk 1:30 - Favour Favour ( charin ). Grace. Same root as chairō (rejoice) and charitoō in Luk 1:28. To find favour is a common O.T. phrase. Charis is a very ...

Favour ( charin ).

Grace. Same root as chairō (rejoice) and charitoō in Luk 1:28. To find favour is a common O.T. phrase. Charis is a very ancient and common word with a variety of applied meanings. They all come from the notion of sweetness, charm, loveliness, joy, delight, like words of grace, Luk 4:22, growing grace, Eph 4:29, with grace, Col 4:6. The notion of kindness is in it also, especially of God towards men as here. It is a favourite word for Christianity, the Gospel of the grace of God (Act 20:24) in contrast with law or works (Joh 1:16). Gratitude is expressed also (Luk 6:32), especially to God (Rom 6:17).

Robertson: Luk 1:30 - With God With God ( para tōi theōi ). Beside God.

With God ( para tōi theōi ).

Beside God.

Robertson: Luk 1:31 - Conceive in thy womb Conceive in thy womb ( sullēmpsēi en gastri ). Adding en gastri to the verb of Luk 1:24. Same idiom in Isa 7:14 of Immanuel.

Conceive in thy womb ( sullēmpsēi en gastri ).

Adding en gastri to the verb of Luk 1:24. Same idiom in Isa 7:14 of Immanuel.

Robertson: Luk 1:31 - Jesus Jesus ( Iēsoun ). As to Joseph in Mat 1:21, but without the explanation of the meaning. See note on Mat 1:21.

Jesus ( Iēsoun ).

As to Joseph in Mat 1:21, but without the explanation of the meaning. See note on Mat 1:21.

Robertson: Luk 1:32 - The Son of the Most High The Son of the Most High ( huios Hupsistou ). There is no article in the Greek, but the use of Most High in Luk 1:35 clearly of God as here. In Luk 6...

The Son of the Most High ( huios Hupsistou ).

There is no article in the Greek, but the use of Most High in Luk 1:35 clearly of God as here. In Luk 6:35 we find "sons of the Most High"(huioi Hupsistou ) so that we cannot insist on deity here, though that is possible. The language of 2Sa 7:14; Isa 9:7 is combined here.

Robertson: Luk 1:33 - Shall be no end Shall be no end ( ouk estai telos ). Luke reports the perpetuity of this Davidic kingdom over the house of Jacob with no Pauline interpretation of th...

Shall be no end ( ouk estai telos ).

Luke reports the perpetuity of this Davidic kingdom over the house of Jacob with no Pauline interpretation of the spiritual Israel though that was the true meaning as Luke knew. Joseph was of the house of David (Luk 1:27) and Mary also apparently (Luk 2:5).

Robertson: Luk 1:35 - Shall overshadow thee Shall overshadow thee ( episkiasei ). A figure of a cloud coming upon her. Common in ancient Greek in the sense of obscuring and with accusative as o...

Shall overshadow thee ( episkiasei ).

A figure of a cloud coming upon her. Common in ancient Greek in the sense of obscuring and with accusative as of Peter’ s shadow in Act 5:15. But we have seen it used of the shining bright cloud at the Transfiguration of Jesus (Mat 17:5; Mar 9:7; Luk 9:34). Here it is like the Shekinah glory which suggests it (Exo 40:38) where the cloud of glory represents the presence and power of God.

Robertson: Luk 1:35 - Holy, the Son of God Holy, the Son of God ( Hagion huios theou ). Here again the absence of the article makes it possible for it to mean "Son of God."See Mat 5:9. But thi...

Holy, the Son of God ( Hagion huios theou ).

Here again the absence of the article makes it possible for it to mean "Son of God."See Mat 5:9. But this title, like the Son of Man (Ho huios tou anthrōpou ) was a recognized designation of the Messiah. Jesus did not often call himself Son of God (Mat 27:43), but it is assumed in his frequent use of the Father, the Son (Mat 11:27; Luk 10:21; Joh 5:19.). It is the title used by the Father at the baptism (Luk 3:22) and on the Mount of Transfiguration (Luk 9:35). The wonder of Mary would increase at these words. The Miraculous Conception or Virgin Birth of Jesus is thus plainly set forth in Luke as in Matthew. The fact that Luke was a physician gives added interest to his report.

Robertson: Luk 1:36 - Kinswoman Kinswoman ( suggenis ). Not necessarily cousin, but simply relative.

Kinswoman ( suggenis ).

Not necessarily cousin, but simply relative.

Robertson: Luk 1:37 - No word No word ( ouk rhēma ). Rhēma brings out the single item rather than the whole content (logos ). So in Luk 1:38.

No word ( ouk rhēma ).

Rhēma brings out the single item rather than the whole content (logos ). So in Luk 1:38.

Robertson: Luk 1:39 - Arose Arose ( anastāsa ). Luke is very fond of this word, sixty times against twenty-two in the rest of the N.T.

Arose ( anastāsa ).

Luke is very fond of this word, sixty times against twenty-two in the rest of the N.T.

Robertson: Luk 1:39 - Into the hill country Into the hill country ( eis tēn orinēn ). Luke uses this adjective twice in this context (here and Luk 1:65) instead of to oros , the mountains. ...

Into the hill country ( eis tēn orinēn ).

Luke uses this adjective twice in this context (here and Luk 1:65) instead of to oros , the mountains. It is an old word and is in the lxx, but nowhere else in the N.T. The name of the city where Zacharias lived is not given unless Judah here means Juttah (Jos 15:55). Hebron was the chief city of this part of Judea.

Robertson: Luk 1:40 - Saluted Saluted ( ēspasato ). Her first glance at Elisabeth showed the truth of the angel’ s message. The two mothers had a bond of sympathy.

Saluted ( ēspasato ).

Her first glance at Elisabeth showed the truth of the angel’ s message. The two mothers had a bond of sympathy.

Robertson: Luk 1:41 - Leaped Leaped ( eskirtēsen ). A common enough incident with unborn children (Gen 25:22), but Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit to understand what ...

Leaped ( eskirtēsen ).

A common enough incident with unborn children (Gen 25:22), but Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit to understand what had happened to Mary.

Robertson: Luk 1:42 - With a loud cry With a loud cry ( kraugēi megalēi ). A moment of ecstatic excitement.

With a loud cry ( kraugēi megalēi ).

A moment of ecstatic excitement.

Robertson: Luk 1:42 - Blessed art thou Blessed art thou ( eulogēmenē ). Perfect passive participle. A Hebraistic equivalent for the superlative.

Blessed art thou ( eulogēmenē ).

Perfect passive participle. A Hebraistic equivalent for the superlative.

Robertson: Luk 1:43 - The mother of my Lord The mother of my Lord ( hē mētēr tou Kuriou mou ). See Psa 110:1. Only by the help of the Holy Spirit could Elisabeth know that Mary was to be ...

The mother of my Lord ( hē mētēr tou Kuriou mou ).

See Psa 110:1. Only by the help of the Holy Spirit could Elisabeth know that Mary was to be the mother of the Messiah.

Robertson: Luk 1:45 - For For ( hoti ). It is not certain whether hoti here is "that"or "because."It makes good sense either way. See also Luk 7:16. This is the first beatit...

For ( hoti ).

It is not certain whether hoti here is "that"or "because."It makes good sense either way. See also Luk 7:16. This is the first beatitude in the New Testament and it is similar to the last one in the Gospels spoken to Thomas to discourage his doubt (Joh 20:29). Elisabeth wishes Mary to have full faith in the prophecy of the angel. This song of Elisabeth is as real poetry as is that of Mary (Luk 1:47-55) and Zacharias (Luk 1:68-70). All three spoke under the power of the Holy Spirit. These are the first New Testament hymns and they are very beautiful. Plummer notes four strophes in Mary’ s Magnificat (Luk 1:46-48, Luk 1:49, Luk 1:50, Luk 1:51-53, Luk 1:54, Luk 1:55). Every idea here occurs in the Old Testament, showing that Mary’ s mind was full of the spiritual message of God’ s word.

Robertson: Luk 1:46 - Doth magnify Doth magnify ( megalunei ). Latin, magnificat . Harnack argues that this is also the song of Elisabeth because a few Latin MSS. have it so, but Mary...

Doth magnify ( megalunei ).

Latin, magnificat . Harnack argues that this is also the song of Elisabeth because a few Latin MSS. have it so, but Mary is correct. She draws her material from the O.T. and sings in the noblest strain.

Robertson: Luk 1:47 - Hath rejoiced Hath rejoiced ( ēgalliasen ). This is aorist active indicative. Greek tenses do not correspond to those in English. The verb agalliaō is a Hell...

Hath rejoiced ( ēgalliasen ).

This is aorist active indicative. Greek tenses do not correspond to those in English. The verb agalliaō is a Hellenistic word from the old Greek agallō . It means to exult. See the substantive agalliasis in Luk 1:14, Luk 1:44. Mary is not excited like Elisabeth, but breathes a spirit of composed rapture.

Robertson: Luk 1:47 - My spirit My spirit ( to pneuma mou ). One need not press unduly the difference between "soul"(psuchē ) in Luk 1:46 and "spirit"here. Bruce calls them synon...

My spirit ( to pneuma mou ).

One need not press unduly the difference between "soul"(psuchē ) in Luk 1:46 and "spirit"here. Bruce calls them synonyms in parallel clauses. Vincent argues that the soul is the principle of individuality while the spirit is the point of contact between God and man. It is doubtful, however, if the trichotomous theory of man (body, soul, and spirit) is to be insisted on. It is certain that we have an inner spiritual nature for which various words are used in Mar 12:30. Even the distinction between intellect, emotions, and will is challenged by some psychologists.

Robertson: Luk 1:47 - God my Saviour God my Saviour ( tōi theōi tōi sotēri mou ). Article with each substantive. God is called Saviour in the O.T. (Deu 32:15, Psa 24:5; Psa 95:1)...

God my Saviour ( tōi theōi tōi sotēri mou ).

Article with each substantive. God is called Saviour in the O.T. (Deu 32:15, Psa 24:5; Psa 95:1).

Robertson: Luk 1:48 - The low estate The low estate ( tēn tapeinōsin ). The bride of a carpenter and yet to be the mother of the Messiah. Literal sense here as in Luk 1:52.

The low estate ( tēn tapeinōsin ).

The bride of a carpenter and yet to be the mother of the Messiah. Literal sense here as in Luk 1:52.

Robertson: Luk 1:48 - Shall call me blessed Shall call me blessed ( makariousin me ). So-called Attic future of an old verb, to felicitate. Elisabeth had already given her a beatitude (makaria ...

Shall call me blessed ( makariousin me ).

So-called Attic future of an old verb, to felicitate. Elisabeth had already given her a beatitude (makaria , Luk 1:45). Another occurs in Luk 11:27. But this is a very different thing from the worship of Mary (Mariolatry) by Roman Catholics. See my The Mother of Jesus: Her Problems and Her Glory .

Robertson: Luk 1:50 - Fear Fear ( phoboumenois ). Dative of the present middle participle. Here it is reverential fear as in Act 10:2; Col 3:22. The bad sense of dread appears ...

Fear ( phoboumenois ).

Dative of the present middle participle. Here it is reverential fear as in Act 10:2; Col 3:22. The bad sense of dread appears in Mat 21:46; Mar 6:20; Luk 12:4.

Robertson: Luk 1:51 - Showed strength Showed strength ( epoiēsen kratos ). "Made might"(Wycliff). A Hebrew conception as in Psa 118:15. Plummer notes six aorist indicatives in this sent...

Showed strength ( epoiēsen kratos ).

"Made might"(Wycliff). A Hebrew conception as in Psa 118:15. Plummer notes six aorist indicatives in this sentence (Luk 1:51), neither corresponding to our English idiom, which translates here by "hath"each time.

Robertson: Luk 1:51 - Imagination Imagination ( dianoiāi ). Intellectual insight, moral understanding.

Imagination ( dianoiāi ).

Intellectual insight, moral understanding.

Robertson: Luk 1:52 - Princes Princes ( dunastas ). Our word dynasty is from this word. It comes from dunamai , to be able.

Princes ( dunastas ).

Our word dynasty is from this word. It comes from dunamai , to be able.

Robertson: Luk 1:54 - Hath holpen Hath holpen ( antelabeto ). Second aorist middle indicative. A very common verb. It means to lay hold of with a view to help or succour.

Hath holpen ( antelabeto ).

Second aorist middle indicative. A very common verb. It means to lay hold of with a view to help or succour.

Robertson: Luk 1:54 - Servant Servant ( paidos ). Here it means "servant,"not "son"or "child,"its usual meaning.

Servant ( paidos ).

Here it means "servant,"not "son"or "child,"its usual meaning.

Robertson: Luk 1:58 - Had magnified Had magnified ( emegalunen ). Aorist active indicative. Same verb as in Luk 1:46.

Had magnified ( emegalunen ).

Aorist active indicative. Same verb as in Luk 1:46.

Robertson: Luk 1:58 - Rejoiced with her Rejoiced with her ( sunechairon autēi ). Imperfect tense and pictures the continual joy of the neighbours, accented also by sun - (cf. Phi 2:18) i...

Rejoiced with her ( sunechairon autēi ).

Imperfect tense and pictures the continual joy of the neighbours, accented also by sun - (cf. Phi 2:18) in its mutual aspect.

Robertson: Luk 1:59 - Would have called Would have called ( ekaloun ). Conative imperfect, tried to call.

Would have called ( ekaloun ).

Conative imperfect, tried to call.

Robertson: Luk 1:62 - Made signs Made signs ( eneneuon ). Imperfect tense, repeated action as usual when making signs. In Luk 1:22 the verb used of Zacharias is dianeuōn .

Made signs ( eneneuon ).

Imperfect tense, repeated action as usual when making signs. In Luk 1:22 the verb used of Zacharias is dianeuōn .

Robertson: Luk 1:62 - What he would have him called What he would have him called ( to Ti an theloi kaleisthai auto ). Note article to with the indirect question, accusative of general reference. The...

What he would have him called ( to Ti an theloi kaleisthai auto ).

Note article to with the indirect question, accusative of general reference. The optative with an is here because it was used in the direct question (cf. Act 17:18), and is simply retained in the indirect.

Robertson: Luk 1:62 - What would he wish him to be called? What would he wish him to be called? ( if he could speak ) , a conclusion of the fourth-class condition.

What would he wish him to be called? ( if he could speak )

, a conclusion of the fourth-class condition.

Robertson: Luk 1:63 - Tablet Tablet ( pinakidion ). Diminutive of pinakis . In Aristotle and the papyri for writing tablet, probably covered with wax. Sometimes it was a little t...

Tablet ( pinakidion ).

Diminutive of pinakis . In Aristotle and the papyri for writing tablet, probably covered with wax. Sometimes it was a little table, like Shakespeare’ s "the table of my memory"(Hamlet, i.5). It was used also of a physician’ s note-book.

Robertson: Luk 1:63 - Wrote, saying Wrote, saying ( egrapsen legōn ). Hebrew way of speaking (2Ki 10:6).

Wrote, saying ( egrapsen legōn ).

Hebrew way of speaking (2Ki 10:6).

Robertson: Luk 1:64 - Immediately Immediately ( parachrēma ). Nineteen times in the N.T., seventeen in Luke.

Immediately ( parachrēma ).

Nineteen times in the N.T., seventeen in Luke.

Robertson: Luk 1:64 - Opened Opened ( aneōichthē ). First aorist passive indicative with double augment. The verb suits "mouth,"but not "tongue"(glōssa ). It is thus a zeu...

Opened ( aneōichthē ).

First aorist passive indicative with double augment. The verb suits "mouth,"but not "tongue"(glōssa ). It is thus a zeugma with tongue. Loosed or some such verb to be supplied.

Robertson: Luk 1:65 - Fear Fear ( phobos ). Not terror, but religious awe because of contact with the supernatural as in the case of Zacharias (Luk 1:12). Were noised abroad (d...

Fear ( phobos ).

Not terror, but religious awe because of contact with the supernatural as in the case of Zacharias (Luk 1:12). Were noised abroad (dielaleito ). Imperfect passive. Occurs in Polybius. In the N.T. only here and Luk 6:11. It was continuous talk back and forth between (dia ) the people.

Robertson: Luk 1:66 - What then What then ( ti ara ). With all these supernatural happenings they predicted the marvellous career of this child. Note Ti , what , not Tis , who. Cf...

What then ( ti ara ).

With all these supernatural happenings they predicted the marvellous career of this child. Note Ti , what , not Tis , who. Cf. Act 12:18.

Robertson: Luk 1:66 - They laid them up They laid them up ( ethento , second aorist middle indicative) as Mary did (Luk 2:19).

They laid them up ( ethento , second aorist middle indicative)

as Mary did (Luk 2:19).

Robertson: Luk 1:66 - The hand of the Lord The hand of the Lord ( cheir Kuriou ). Luke’ s explanation in addition to the supernatural events. The expression occurs only in Luke’ s wr...

The hand of the Lord ( cheir Kuriou ).

Luke’ s explanation in addition to the supernatural events. The expression occurs only in Luke’ s writing (Act 11:21; Act 13:11).

Robertson: Luk 1:67 - Prophesied Prophesied ( eprophēteusen ). Under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. This Benedictus (Eulogētos , Blessed ) of Zacharias (Luk 1:68) may be wh...

Prophesied ( eprophēteusen ).

Under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. This Benedictus (Eulogētos , Blessed ) of Zacharias (Luk 1:68) may be what is referred to in Luk 1:64 "he began to speak blessing God"(eulogōn ). Nearly every phrase here is found in the O.T. (Psalms and Prophets). He, like Mary, was full of the Holy Spirit and had caught the Messianic message in its highest meaning.

Robertson: Luk 1:68 - Hath visited Hath visited ( epeskepsato ). An old Greek word with a Hebraic colouring to look into with a view to help. The papyri have plenty of examples of the ...

Hath visited ( epeskepsato ).

An old Greek word with a Hebraic colouring to look into with a view to help. The papyri have plenty of examples of the verb in the sense of inspecting, examining.

Robertson: Luk 1:68 - Redemption Redemption ( lutrōsin ) here originally referred to political redemption, but with a moral and spiritual basis (Luk 1:75, Luk 1:77).

Redemption ( lutrōsin )

here originally referred to political redemption, but with a moral and spiritual basis (Luk 1:75, Luk 1:77).

Robertson: Luk 1:69 - Horn of salvation Horn of salvation ( keras sōtērias ). A common metaphor in the O.T. (1Sa 2:10; 2Sa 23:3, etc.). It represents strength like the horns of bulls. C...

Horn of salvation ( keras sōtērias ).

A common metaphor in the O.T. (1Sa 2:10; 2Sa 23:3, etc.). It represents strength like the horns of bulls. Cf. Psa 132:17.

Robertson: Luk 1:70 - Since the world began Since the world began ( ap' aiōnos ). Better "from of old"(Weymouth, American Revision).

Since the world began ( ap' aiōnos ).

Better "from of old"(Weymouth, American Revision).

Robertson: Luk 1:73 - The oath which he sware The oath which he sware ( horkon hon ōmosen ). Antecedent attracted to case of the relative. The oath appears in Gen 22:16-18. The oppression of th...

The oath which he sware ( horkon hon ōmosen ).

Antecedent attracted to case of the relative. The oath appears in Gen 22:16-18. The oppression of the Gentiles seems to be in the mind of Zacharias. It is not certain how clearly he grasped the idea of the spiritual Israel as Paul saw it in Galatians and Romans.

Robertson: Luk 1:74 - Delivered Delivered ( rhusthentas ). First aorist passive participle of an old verb, rhuomai . The accusative case appears, where the dative could have been us...

Delivered ( rhusthentas ).

First aorist passive participle of an old verb, rhuomai . The accusative case appears, where the dative could have been used to agree with hēmin , because of the infinitive latreuein (Luk 1:74) to serve (from latros , for hire). But Plato uses the word of service for God so that the bad sense does not always exist.

Robertson: Luk 1:75 - In holiness and righteousness In holiness and righteousness ( en hosiotēti kai dikaiosunēi ). Not a usual combination (Eph 4:24; Tit 1:8; 1Th 2:10). The Godward and the manwar...

In holiness and righteousness ( en hosiotēti kai dikaiosunēi ).

Not a usual combination (Eph 4:24; Tit 1:8; 1Th 2:10). The Godward and the manward aspects of conduct (Bruce). Hosios , the eternal principles of right, dikaios , the rule of conduct before men.

Robertson: Luk 1:76 - Yea and thou Yea and thou ( kai su de ). Direct address to the child with forecast of his life (cf. Luk 1:13-17).

Yea and thou ( kai su de ).

Direct address to the child with forecast of his life (cf. Luk 1:13-17).

Robertson: Luk 1:76 - Prophet Prophet ( prophētēs ). The word here directly applied to the child. Jesus will later call John a prophet and more than a prophet.

Prophet ( prophētēs ).

The word here directly applied to the child. Jesus will later call John a prophet and more than a prophet.

Robertson: Luk 1:76 - The Lord The Lord ( Kuriou ). Jehovah as in Luk 1:16.

The Lord ( Kuriou ).

Jehovah as in Luk 1:16.

Robertson: Luk 1:77 - Knowledge of salvation Knowledge of salvation ( gnōsin sōtērias ). "This is the aim and end of the work of the Forerunner"(Plummer).

Knowledge of salvation ( gnōsin sōtērias ).

"This is the aim and end of the work of the Forerunner"(Plummer).

Robertson: Luk 1:78 - Tender mercy Tender mercy ( splagchna eleous ). Bowels of mercy literally (1Pe 3:8; Jam 3:11). Revised margin has it, hearts of mercy.

Tender mercy ( splagchna eleous ).

Bowels of mercy literally (1Pe 3:8; Jam 3:11). Revised margin has it, hearts of mercy.

Robertson: Luk 1:78 - The dayspring from on high The dayspring from on high ( anatolē ex hupsous ). Literally, rising from on high, like the rising sun or stars (Isa 60:19). The word is used also ...

The dayspring from on high ( anatolē ex hupsous ).

Literally, rising from on high, like the rising sun or stars (Isa 60:19). The word is used also of a sprouting plant or branch (Jer 23:5; Zec 6:12), but that does not suit here.

Robertson: Luk 1:78 - Shall visit Shall visit ( epeskepsetai ) , correct text, cf. Luk 1:68.

Shall visit ( epeskepsetai )

, correct text, cf. Luk 1:68.

Robertson: Luk 1:79 - To shine upon To shine upon ( epiphānai ). First aorist active infinitive of epiphainō (liquid verb). An old verb to give light, to shine upon, like the sun ...

To shine upon ( epiphānai ).

First aorist active infinitive of epiphainō (liquid verb). An old verb to give light, to shine upon, like the sun or stars. See also Act 27:20; Tit 2:11; Tit 3:4.

Robertson: Luk 1:79 - The shadow of death The shadow of death ( skiāi thanatou ). See Psa 107:10, where darkness and shadow of death are combined as here. Cf. also Isa 9:1. See note on Mat ...

The shadow of death ( skiāi thanatou ).

See Psa 107:10, where darkness and shadow of death are combined as here. Cf. also Isa 9:1. See note on Mat 4:16. To guide (tou kateuthūnai ). Genitive of the articular infinitive of purpose. The light will enable them in the dark to see how to walk in a straight path that leads to "the way of peace."We are still on that road, but so many stumble for lack of light, men and nations.

Robertson: Luk 1:80 - Grew Grew ( ēuxane ). Imperfect active, was growing.

Grew ( ēuxane ).

Imperfect active, was growing.

Robertson: Luk 1:80 - Waxed strong Waxed strong ( ekrataiouto ). Imperfect again. The child kept growing in strength of body and spirit.

Waxed strong ( ekrataiouto ).

Imperfect again. The child kept growing in strength of body and spirit.

Robertson: Luk 1:80 - His shewing His shewing ( anadeixeōs autou ). Here alone in the N.T. It occurs in Plutarch and Polybius. The verb appears in a sacrificial sense. The boy, as h...

His shewing ( anadeixeōs autou ).

Here alone in the N.T. It occurs in Plutarch and Polybius. The verb appears in a sacrificial sense. The boy, as he grew, may have gone up to the passover and may have seen the boy Jesus (Luk 2:42-52), but he would not know that he was to be the Messiah. So these two boys of destiny grew on with the years, the one in the desert hills near Hebron after Zacharias and Elisabeth died, the other, the young Carpenter up in Nazareth, each waiting for "his shewing unto Israel."

Vincent: Luk 1:1 - Forasmuch as Forasmuch as ( ἐπειδὴπερ ) Only here in New Testament. A compound conjunction: ἐπεί , since, δή , as is well known, ...

Forasmuch as ( ἐπειδὴπερ )

Only here in New Testament. A compound conjunction: ἐπεί , since, δή , as is well known, and περ , giving the sense of certainty.

Vincent: Luk 1:1 - Have taken in hand Have taken in hand ( ἐπεχείρησαν ) Used by Luke only. A literal translation. The word carries the sense of a difficult undertaki...

Have taken in hand ( ἐπεχείρησαν )

Used by Luke only. A literal translation. The word carries the sense of a difficult undertaking (see Act 19:13), and implies that previous attempts have not been successful. It occurs frequently in medical language. Hippocrates begins one of his medical treatises very much as Luke begins his gospel. " As many as have taken in hand (ἐπεχείρησαν ) to speak or to write concerning the healing art."

Vincent: Luk 1:1 - To set forth in order To set forth in order ( ἀνατάξασθαι ) Only here in New Testament. The A. V. is true to the core of the word, which is τάσσω...

To set forth in order ( ἀνατάξασθαι )

Only here in New Testament. The A. V. is true to the core of the word, which is τάσσω , to put in order, or arrange. Rev. happily gives the force of the preposition ἀνὰ , up , by the rendering draw up.

Vincent: Luk 1:1 - A declaration A declaration ( διήγησιν ) Only here in New Testament. From διά , through, and ἡγέομαι , to lead the way. Hence som...

A declaration ( διήγησιν )

Only here in New Testament. From διά , through, and ἡγέομαι , to lead the way. Hence something which leads the reader through the mass of facts: a narrative, as A. V., with the accompanying idea of thoroughness. Note the singular number. Many took in hand to draw up, not narratives , but a narrative, embracing the whole of the evangelic matter. The word was particularly applied to a medical treatise. Galen applies it at least seventy-three times to the writings of Hippocrates.

Vincent: Luk 1:1 - Which are most surely believed Which are most surely believed ( τῶν πεπληροφορημένων ) From πλήρης , full, and φορέω , the frequentative...

Which are most surely believed ( τῶν πεπληροφορημένων )

From πλήρης , full, and φορέω , the frequentative form of φέρω , to bring, meaning to bring frequently or habitually. Hence, to bring full measure; to fulfil. Compare 2Ti 4:5, 2Ti 4:17. Also of full assurance. Applied to persons. Rom 4:21; Heb 10:22. As applied to things, therefore, the sense of the A. V. is inadmissible. Render as Rev., have been fulfilled. The word is chosen to indicate that these events happened in accordance with a preconceived design. Wyc., been filled in us.

Vincent: Luk 1:2 - Even as Even as Referring to the composition of the narrative.

Even as

Referring to the composition of the narrative.

Vincent: Luk 1:2 - Delivered Delivered ( παρέδοσαν ) Not necessarily excluding written traditions, but referring mainly to oral tradition. Note the distinction bet...

Delivered ( παρέδοσαν )

Not necessarily excluding written traditions, but referring mainly to oral tradition. Note the distinction between the many who attempted to draw up a narrative and the eye-witnesses and ministers who handed down the facts.

Vincent: Luk 1:2 - From the beginning From the beginning ( ἀπ ' ἀρχῆς ) The official beginning, the commencement of Jesus' ministry. Compare Act 1:1, Act 1:21, Act 1:22...

From the beginning ( ἀπ ' ἀρχῆς )

The official beginning, the commencement of Jesus' ministry. Compare Act 1:1, Act 1:21, Act 1:22; Joh 15:27.

Vincent: Luk 1:2 - Eye-witnesses and ministers Eye-witnesses and ministers Personal knowledge and practical experience were necessary elements of an apostle. Eye-witnesses (εὐτό...

Eye-witnesses and ministers

Personal knowledge and practical experience were necessary elements of an apostle. Eye-witnesses (εὐτόπται ) . Only here in New Testament. Peter uses another word, ἐπόπται (2Pe 1:16). Frequent in medical writers, of a personal examination of disease or of the parts of the body. Compare the modern medical term autopsy. Ministers (ὑπηρέται ) . See on Mat 5:25. In medical language denoting the attendants or assistants of the principal physician.

Vincent: Luk 1:3 - Having had perfect understanding Having had perfect understanding ( παρηκολουθηκότι ) Incorrect. The verb means to follow closely, and hence to trace accurate...

Having had perfect understanding ( παρηκολουθηκότι )

Incorrect. The verb means to follow closely, and hence to trace accurately. See 2Ti 3:10, where Rev. reads thou didst follow for thou hast fully known. Rev. renders here having traced the course. The word occurs frequently in medical writings, and sometimes, as here, with ἀκριβῶς , accurately. Tynd., having searched out diligently.

Vincent: Luk 1:3 - From the very first From the very first ( ἄνωθεν ) Lit., from above; the events being conceived in a descending series.

From the very first ( ἄνωθεν )

Lit., from above; the events being conceived in a descending series.

Vincent: Luk 1:3 - Accurately Accurately ( ἀκριβῶς ) From ἄκρον , the highest or farthest point. Hence to trace down to the last and minutest detail.

Accurately ( ἀκριβῶς )

From ἄκρον , the highest or farthest point. Hence to trace down to the last and minutest detail.

Vincent: Luk 1:3 - In order In order ( καθεξῆς ) Used by Luke only.

In order ( καθεξῆς )

Used by Luke only.

Vincent: Luk 1:4 - Mightest know Mightest know ( ἐπιγνῷς ) See on Mat 7:16. With the idea of full knowledge; or, as regards Theophilus, of more accurate knowledge ...

Mightest know ( ἐπιγνῷς )

See on Mat 7:16. With the idea of full knowledge; or, as regards Theophilus, of more accurate knowledge than is possible from the many who have undertaken the narration.

Vincent: Luk 1:4 - Certainty Certainty ( ἀσφάλειαν ) From ἀ , not, and σφάλλομαι , to fall. Hence steadfastness, stability, security against ...

Certainty ( ἀσφάλειαν )

From ἀ , not, and σφάλλομαι , to fall. Hence steadfastness, stability, security against error.

Vincent: Luk 1:4 - Wast instructed Wast instructed ( κατήχηθης ) From κατηχέω , to resound; to teach by word of mouth; and so, in Christian writers, to instru...

Wast instructed ( κατήχηθης )

From κατηχέω , to resound; to teach by word of mouth; and so, in Christian writers, to instruct orally in the elements of religion. It would imply that Theophilus had, thus far, been orally instructed. See on delivered, Luk 1:2. The word catechumen is derived from it.

Vincent: Luk 1:4 - Things Things ( λόγων ) Properly words (so Wyc.), which Rev. gives in margin. If the word can mean thing at all, it is only in the sense of ...

Things ( λόγων )

Properly words (so Wyc.), which Rev. gives in margin. If the word can mean thing at all, it is only in the sense of the thing spoken of; the subject or matter of discourse, in which sense it occurs often in classical Greek. Some render it accounts, histories; others, doctrines of the faith. Godet translates instruction, and claims that not only the facts of the gospel, but the exposition of the facts with a view to show their evangelical meaning and to their appropriation by faith, are included in the word. There is force in this idea; and if we hold to the meaning histories, or even words , this sense will be implied in the context. Luke has drawn up his account in order that Theophilus may have fuller knowledge concerning the accounts which he has heard by word of mouth. That his knowledge may go on from the facts, to embrace their doctrinal and evangelical import; that he may see the facts of Jesus' life and ministry as the true basis of the Gospel of salvation.

Vincent: Luk 1:5 - King King A title decreed to Herod by the Roman Senate on the recommendation of Antony and Octavius. The Greek style now gives place to the Hebraized ...

King

A title decreed to Herod by the Roman Senate on the recommendation of Antony and Octavius. The Greek style now gives place to the Hebraized style. See Introduction.

Vincent: Luk 1:5 - Course Course ( ἐφημερίας ) Lit., daily service. The college of priests was divided into twenty-four courses. Each of these did duty for ...

Course ( ἐφημερίας )

Lit., daily service. The college of priests was divided into twenty-four courses. Each of these did duty for eight days, from one Sabbath to another, once every six months. The service of the week was subdivided among the various families which constituted a course. On Sabbaths the whole course was on duty. On feast-days any priest might come up and join in the ministrations of the sanctuary; and at the Feast of Tabernacles all the twenty-four courses were bound to be present and officiate. The course of Abijah was the eighth of the twenty-four. See 1Ch 24:10.

Vincent: Luk 1:6 - Before God Before God A Hebrew expression. Compare Gen 7:1; Act 8:21.

Before God

A Hebrew expression. Compare Gen 7:1; Act 8:21.

Vincent: Luk 1:7 - Well stricken Well stricken ( προβεβηκότες ) Lit., advanced. Wyc., had gone far in their days.

Well stricken ( προβεβηκότες )

Lit., advanced. Wyc., had gone far in their days.

Vincent: Luk 1:9 - His lot was His lot was ( ἔλαχε ) Four lots were drawn to determine the order of the ministry of the day: the first, before daybreak, to designate t...

His lot was ( ἔλαχε )

Four lots were drawn to determine the order of the ministry of the day: the first, before daybreak, to designate the priests who were to cleanse the altar and prepare its fires; the second for the priest who was to offer the sacrifice and cleanse the candlestick and the altar of incense; the third for the priest who should burn incense; and the fourth appointing those who were to lay the sacrifice and meat-offering on the altar, and pour out the drink-offering. There are said to have been twenty thousand priests in Christ's time, so that no priest would ever offer incense more than once.

Vincent: Luk 1:9 - Temple Temple ( ναὸν ) The sanctuary. See on Mat 4:5.

Temple ( ναὸν )

The sanctuary. See on Mat 4:5.

Vincent: Luk 1:9 - Burn incense Burn incense ( θυμιᾶσαι ) Only here in New Testament. The incensing priest and his assistants went first to the altar of burnt-offering...

Burn incense ( θυμιᾶσαι )

Only here in New Testament. The incensing priest and his assistants went first to the altar of burnt-offering, and filled a golden censer with incense, and placed burning coals from the altar in a golden bowl. As they passed into the court from the Holy Place they struck a large instrument called the Magrephah, which summoned all the ministers to their places. Ascending the steps to the holy place, the priests spread the coals on the golden altar, and arranged the incense, and the chief officiating priest was then left alone within the Holy Place to await the signal of the president to burn the incense. It was probably at this time that the angel appeared to Zacharias. When the signal was given, the whole multitude withdrew from the inner court, and fell down before the Lord. Silence pervaded the temple, while within, the clouds of incense rose up before Jehovah. (For a more detailed account see Edersheim, " The Temple, its Ministry," etc.).

Vincent: Luk 1:13 - Is heard Is heard ( εἰσηκούσθη ) If we render the aorist literally, was heard, we avoid the question as to what prayer is referred to. The...

Is heard ( εἰσηκούσθη )

If we render the aorist literally, was heard, we avoid the question as to what prayer is referred to. The reference is to the prayer for offspring, which, owing to His extreme years, Zacharias had probably ceased to offer, and which he certainly would not be preferring in that public and solemn service. Hence the aorist is appropriate, referring back to the past acts of prayer. " That prayer, which thou no longer offerest, was heard ."

Vincent: Luk 1:13 - John John Meaning God is favorable, or Jehovah showeth grace.

John

Meaning God is favorable, or Jehovah showeth grace.

Vincent: Luk 1:14 - Joy and gladness ( καρά καὶ ἀγαλλίασις ) Joy and gladness ( καρά καὶ ἀγαλλίασις ̔͂̀ Language:English } ) The latter word expresses exultant joy. See on 1Pe ...

Joy and gladness ( καρά καὶ ἀγαλλίασις ̔͂̀ Language:English } )

The latter word expresses exultant joy. See on 1Pe 1:6.

Vincent: Luk 1:15 - Strong drink Strong drink ( σίκερα ) A Hebrew word, meaning any kind of intoxicating liquor not made from grapes. Wyc., sydir.

Strong drink ( σίκερα )

A Hebrew word, meaning any kind of intoxicating liquor not made from grapes. Wyc., sydir.

Vincent: Luk 1:15 - Even from his mother's womb Even from his mother's womb Ἔτι , yet, still, means while yet unborn. Tynd., even in his mother's womb. Compare Luk 1:41.

Even from his mother's womb

Ἔτι , yet, still, means while yet unborn. Tynd., even in his mother's womb. Compare Luk 1:41.

Vincent: Luk 1:17 - Wisdom Wisdom ( φρονήσει ) Wyc., prudence. This is a lower word than σοφία , wisdom (see on Jam 3:13). It is an attribute or res...

Wisdom ( φρονήσει )

Wyc., prudence. This is a lower word than σοφία , wisdom (see on Jam 3:13). It is an attribute or result of wisdom, and not necessarily in a good sense, though mostly so in the New Testament. Compare, however, the use of the kindred word φρόνιμος in Rom 11:25; Rom 12:16 : wise in your own conceits; and the adverb φρονίμως , wisely, of the unjust steward, Luk 16:8. It is practical intelligence, which may or may not be applied to good ends. Appropriate here as a practical term corresponding to disobedient.

Vincent: Luk 1:17 - Prepared Prepared ( κατασκευασμένον ) Adjusted, disposed, placed in the right moral state.

Prepared ( κατασκευασμένον )

Adjusted, disposed, placed in the right moral state.

Vincent: Luk 1:18 - Whereby Whereby ( κατὰ τί ) Lit., according to what? It demands a standard of knowledge, a sign.

Whereby ( κατὰ τί )

Lit., according to what? It demands a standard of knowledge, a sign.

Vincent: Luk 1:18 - For For I require a sign, for I am old.

For

I require a sign, for I am old.

Vincent: Luk 1:19 - Gabriel Gabriel Meaning man of God. In Jewish tradition the guardian of the sacred treasury. Michael (see on Jud 1:9) is the destroyer, the champion ...

Gabriel

Meaning man of God. In Jewish tradition the guardian of the sacred treasury. Michael (see on Jud 1:9) is the destroyer, the champion of God against evil, the minister of wrath. Gabriel is the messenger of peace and restoration. See Dan 8:16, Dan 9:21. " The former is the forerunner of Jehovah the Judge; the latter of Jehovah the Saviour" (Godet).

Vincent: Luk 1:20 - Thou shalt be silent Thou shalt be silent ( ἔσῃ σιωπῶν ) Lit., thou shalt be being silent. The finite verb and participle denote continuance.

Thou shalt be silent ( ἔσῃ σιωπῶν )

Lit., thou shalt be being silent. The finite verb and participle denote continuance.

Vincent: Luk 1:20 - Not able to speak Not able to speak Showing that the silence would not be voluntary.

Not able to speak

Showing that the silence would not be voluntary.

Vincent: Luk 1:20 - My words which My words which ( οἵτινες ) The pronoun is qualitative, denoting a class. " My words, which, incredible as they seem to you, are of a ...

My words which ( οἵτινες )

The pronoun is qualitative, denoting a class. " My words, which, incredible as they seem to you, are of a kind which shall be fulfilled.

Vincent: Luk 1:20 - In their season In their season ( εἰς τὸν καιρὸν ) The preposition implies exactness: at the completion of the appointed time. The process of...

In their season ( εἰς τὸν καιρὸν )

The preposition implies exactness: at the completion of the appointed time. The process of fulfilment, beginning now , will go on, εἰς , up to, the appointed time, and at the time will be consummated. Καιρὸν , season, is more specific than χρόνος , time. It is an a appointed, fitting time: the right point of time when circumstances shall concur.

Vincent: Luk 1:21 - Waited Waited ( ἦν προσδοκῶν ) The finite verb and participle, denoting protracted waiting. Hence, better as Rev., were waiting . Wy...

Waited ( ἦν προσδοκῶν )

The finite verb and participle, denoting protracted waiting. Hence, better as Rev., were waiting . Wyc., was abiding.

Vincent: Luk 1:21 - Marvelled Marvelled According to the Talmud, the priests, especially the chief priests, were accustomed to spend only a short time in the sanctuary, otherw...

Marvelled

According to the Talmud, the priests, especially the chief priests, were accustomed to spend only a short time in the sanctuary, otherwise it was feared that they had been Main by God for unworthiness or transgression.

Vincent: Luk 1:22 - They perceived They perceived ( ἐπέγνωσαν ) Clearly perceived. See on Mat 7:16, and Luk 1:4.

They perceived ( ἐπέγνωσαν )

Clearly perceived. See on Mat 7:16, and Luk 1:4.

Vincent: Luk 1:22 - He beckoned He beckoned ( ἦν διανεύων ) Better Rev., continued making signs. Again the participle with the finite verb, denoting frequent r...

He beckoned ( ἦν διανεύων )

Better Rev., continued making signs. Again the participle with the finite verb, denoting frequent repetition of the same signs. Wyc., was beckoning.

Vincent: Luk 1:23 - Ministration Ministration ( λειτουργίας ) From λεῖτος , belonging to the people, public, and ἔργον , a work. Hence service ...

Ministration ( λειτουργίας )

From λεῖτος , belonging to the people, public, and ἔργον , a work. Hence service of the state in a public office. Trench observes that " when the Christian Church was forming its terminology, which it did partly by shaping new words, and partly by elevating old ones to higher than their previous uses, of the latter it more readily adopted those before employed in civil and political life, than such as had played their part in religious matters." Hence it adopted this word, already in use in the Septuagint, as the constant word for performing priestly and ministerial functions; and so in the New Testament of the ministry of the apostles, prophets, and teachers.

Vincent: Luk 1:24 - Conceived Conceived ( συνέλαβεν ) Mr. Hobart (" Medical Language of Luke" ) says that the number of words referring to pregnancy, barrenness, et...

Conceived ( συνέλαβεν )

Mr. Hobart (" Medical Language of Luke" ) says that the number of words referring to pregnancy, barrenness, etc., used by Luke, is almost as large as that used by Hippocrates. Compare Luk 1:31; Luk 1:24; Luk 2:5; Luk 1:7; Luk 20:28. All of these, except Luk 1:24, are peculiar to himself, and all, of course, in common use among medical writers.

Vincent: Luk 1:24 - Hid Hid ( περιέκρυβεν ) Only here in New Testament. Περί signifies completely; entire seclusion.

Hid ( περιέκρυβεν )

Only here in New Testament. Περί signifies completely; entire seclusion.

Vincent: Luk 1:25 - Looked upon Neither A. V. nor Rev. render ὅτι ; taking it, as frequently, merely as recitative or equivalent to quotation marks. But it means because. E...

Neither A. V. nor Rev. render ὅτι ; taking it, as frequently, merely as recitative or equivalent to quotation marks. But it means because. Elizabeth assigns the reason for her peculiar seclusion. Her pregnancy was God's work, and she would leave it to him also to announce it and openly to take away her reproach. Hence the specification of five months, after which her condition would become apparent. Fully expressed, the sense would be: She hid herself, saying (I have hid myself) because, etc.

Looked upon ( ἐπεῖδεν )

Used by Luke only.

Vincent: Luk 1:26 - Gabriel Gabriel The annunciation and the angel Gabriel are favorite themes with Dante, and he pictures them with exquisite beauty. Thus both appear on th...

Gabriel

The annunciation and the angel Gabriel are favorite themes with Dante, and he pictures them with exquisite beauty. Thus both appear on the sculptured wall which flanks the inner side of the purgatorial ascent.

" The angel who came down to earth with tidings

Of peace that had been wept for many a year,

And opened heaven from its long interdict,

In front of us appeared so truthfully

There sculptured in a gracious attitude,

He did not seem an image that is silent.

One would have sworn that he was saying Ave !

For she was there in effigy portrayed

Who turned the key to ope the exalted love,

And in her mien this language had impressed,

Ecce ancilla Dei ! as distinctly

As any figure stamps itself in wax."

Purgatory, x., 34-35

In Paradise Gabriel appears as a light circling round the Virgin and singing:

" I am angelic love, that circle round

The joy sublime which breathes out from the womb

That was the hostelry of our desire;

And I shall circle, Lady of heaven, while

Thou followest thy Son, and mak'st diviner

The sphere supreme, because thou enterest there."

Paradise, xxiii., 103-108.

And again:

" And the same love that first descended then,

Ave Maria gratia plena singing,

In front of her his wings expanded wide."

Paradise, xxxii., 94-96.

Vincent: Luk 1:28 - Thou that art highly favored Thou that art highly favored ( κεχαριτωμένη ) Lit., as Rev. in margin, endued with grace. Only here and Eph 1:6. The rendering f...

Thou that art highly favored ( κεχαριτωμένη )

Lit., as Rev. in margin, endued with grace. Only here and Eph 1:6. The rendering full of grace , Vulgate, Wyc., and Tynd., is therefore wrong.

All the best texts omit blessed art thou among women.

Vincent: Luk 1:28 - Cast in her mind Cast in her mind ( διελογίζετο ) See on Jam 2:4. The imperfect tense, " began to reason."

Cast in her mind ( διελογίζετο )

See on Jam 2:4. The imperfect tense, " began to reason."

Vincent: Luk 1:30 - Grace Grace ( χάριν ) From the same root as χαίρω , to rejoice. I. Primarily that which gives joy or pleasure; and hence outward bea...

Grace ( χάριν )

From the same root as χαίρω , to rejoice. I. Primarily that which gives joy or pleasure; and hence outward beauty, loveliness, something which delights the beholder. Thus Homer, of Ulysses going to the assembly: " Athene shed down manly grace or beauty upon him" (" Odyssey," ii., 12); and Septuagint, Psalms 45:3, " grace is poured into thy liPsalms" See also Pro 1:9; Pro 3:22. Substantially the same idea, agreeableness, is conveyed in Luk 4:22, respecting the gracious words , lit., words of grace, uttered by Christ. So Eph 4:29. II. As a beautiful or agreeable sentiment felt and expressed toward another; kindness, favor, good-will. 2Co 8:6, 2Co 8:7, 2Co 8:9; 2Co 9:8; Luk 1:30; Luk 2:40; Act 2:47. So of the responsive sentiment of thankfulness. See Luk 6:32, Luk 6:33, Luk 6:34 :; Luk 17:9; but mostly in the formula thanks to God; Rom 6:17; 1Co 15:57; 2Co 2:14; 2Ti 1:3. III. The substantial expression of good-will; a boon, a favor, a gift; but not in New Testament. See Rom 5:15, where the distinction is made between χάρις , grace, and δωρεὰ ἐν χάριτι , a gift in grace. So a gratification or delight, in classical Greek only; as the delight in battle, in sleep, etc. IV. The higher Christian signification, based on the emphasis of freeness in the gift or favor, and, as commonly in New Testament, denoting the free, spontaneous, absolute loving-kindness of God toward men, and so contrasted with debt, law, works, sin. The word does not occur either in Matthew or Mark.

Vincent: Luk 1:31 - Thou shalt conceive Thou shalt conceive See on Luk 1:24.

Thou shalt conceive

See on Luk 1:24.

Vincent: Luk 1:31 - Jesus Jesus See on Mat 1:21.

Jesus

See on Mat 1:21.

Vincent: Luk 1:35 - Shall overshadow Shall overshadow " Denoting the mildest and most gentle operation of divine power, that the divine fire should not consume Mary, but make her fru...

Shall overshadow

" Denoting the mildest and most gentle operation of divine power, that the divine fire should not consume Mary, but make her fruitful" (Bengel). Compare Exo 33:22; Mar 9:7. Compare the classical legend of Semele, who, being beloved of Jove, besought him to appear to her as he appeared in heaven, in all the terrors of the thunderer, and was consumed by his lightning. The metaphor in the word is taken from a cloud, in which God had appeared (Exo 40:34; 1Ki 8:10).

Vincent: Luk 1:36 - Cousin Cousin ( συγγενής ) The nature of the relationship, however, is unknown. The word is a general term, meaning of the same family. The ...

Cousin ( συγγενής )

The nature of the relationship, however, is unknown. The word is a general term, meaning of the same family. The best texts substitute for it a feminine form, συγγενίς , which is condemned by the grammarians as unclassical, but rightly rendered by Rev., kinswoman. Wyc., cosyness, i.e., cousiness.

Vincent: Luk 1:37 - With God nothing shall be impossible With God nothing shall be impossible ( σὐκ ἀδυνατήσει παρὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ πᾶν ῥῆμα ) Ῥῆμα , w...

With God nothing shall be impossible ( σὐκ ἀδυνατήσει παρὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ πᾶν ῥῆμα )

Ῥῆμα , word, as distinguished from λόγος , word, in classical Greek, signifies a constituent part of a speech or writing, as distinguished from the contents as a whole. Thus it may be either a word or a saying. Sometimes a phrase , as opposed to ὄνομα , a single word. The distinction in the New Testament is not sharp throughout. It is maintained that ῥῆμα in the New Testament, like the Hebrew gabar , stands sometimes for the subject-matter of the word; the thing, as in this passage. But there are only two other passages in the New Testament where this meaning is at all admissible, though the word occurs seventy times. These are Luk 2:15; Act 5:32. " Kept all these things " (Luk 2:19), should clearly be sayings, as the A. V. itself has rendered it in the almost identical passage, Luk 2:51. In Act 5:32, Rev. gives sayings in margin. In Luk 2:15, though A. V. and Rev. render thing, the sense is evidently saying, as appears both from the connection with the angelic message and from the following words, which has come to pass: the saying which has become a fact. The Rev. rendering of this passage is, therefore, right, though a little stilted: No word of God shall be void of power; for the A. V. errs in joining οὐκ and πᾶν , not every, and translating nothing. The two do not belong together. The statement is, Every (πᾶν ) word of God shall not (οὐκ ) be powerless. The A. V. also follows the reading, παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ , with God; but all the later texts read παρὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ , from God, which fixes the meaning beyond question.

Vincent: Luk 1:40 - Entered into the house Entered into the house " This detail," says Godet, " serves to put the reader in sympathy with the emotion of Mary at the moment of her arrival....

Entered into the house

" This detail," says Godet, " serves to put the reader in sympathy with the emotion of Mary at the moment of her arrival. With her first glance at Elizabeth she recognized the truth of the sign that had been given her by the angel, and at this sight the promise she had herself received acquired a startling reality."

Vincent: Luk 1:41 - The babe The babe ( τὸ βρέφος ) See on 1Pe 2:2.

The babe ( τὸ βρέφος )

See on 1Pe 2:2.

Vincent: Luk 1:42 - She spake out with a loud voice She spake out with a loud voice ( ἀνεφώνησε φωνῇ μεγάλῃ ) For φωνῇ , voice, read κραυγῇ , cry: ...

She spake out with a loud voice ( ἀνεφώνησε φωνῇ μεγάλῃ )

For φωνῇ , voice, read κραυγῇ , cry: inarticulate, though φωνή may also be used of inarticulate utterance. Rev., rightly, She lifted up her voice with a loud cry; thus rendering in the verb the force of ἀνὰ , up, besides picturing the fact more naturally. Elizabeth's sudden and violent emotion at the appearance of Mary, and the movement of the child, prompted an exclamation which was followed by words (εἶπερ , said ) . The verb The verb ἀναφωνέω occurs only here in the New Testament. It was a medical term for a certain exercise of the voice.

Vincent: Luk 1:44 - For joy For joy ( ἐν ἀγαλλιάσει ) Lit., in joy. See on Luk 1:14.

For joy ( ἐν ἀγαλλιάσει )

Lit., in joy. See on Luk 1:14.

Vincent: Luk 1:45 - For For ( ὅτι ) Many, however, prefer that, referring to the substance of her belief: " She believed that there shall be a fulfilment," e...

For ( ὅτι )

Many, however, prefer that, referring to the substance of her belief: " She believed that there shall be a fulfilment," etc. It is urged that the conception, which was the principal point of faith, had already taken place, so that the fulfilment was no longer future. On the other hand, the angel's announcement to Mary included more than the fact of conception; and Elizabeth, in the spirit of prophecy, may have alluded to what is predicted in Luk 1:32, Luk 1:33.

Vincent: Luk 1:46 - Said Said ( εἶπεν ) Simply. Compare Luk 1:42. " Elizabeth's salutation was full of excitement, but Mary's hymn breathes a sentiment of deep i...

Said ( εἶπεν )

Simply. Compare Luk 1:42. " Elizabeth's salutation was full of excitement, but Mary's hymn breathes a sentiment of deep inward repose" (Godet). Compare the song of Hannah (1 Samuel 2). Hannah's song differs from Mary's in its sense of indignation and personal triumph compared with Mary's humility and calmness.

Vincent: Luk 1:46 - My soul - spirit My soul - spirit ( ψυχή - πνεῦμα ) See on Mar 12:30. The soul is the principle of individuality, the seat of personal impressio...

My soul - spirit ( ψυχή - πνεῦμα )

See on Mar 12:30. The soul is the principle of individuality, the seat of personal impressions, having a side in contact with the material element of humanity, as well as with the spiritual element. It is thus the mediating organ between the spirit and the body, receiving impressions from without and from within, and transmitting them by word or sign. Spirit is the highest, deepest, noblest part of our humanity, the point of contact between God and man.

Vincent: Luk 1:47 - God my Saviour God my Saviour ( τῷ θεῷ τῷ σωτῆρί μου ) Note the two articles. " The God who is the or my Saviour." The ti...

God my Saviour ( τῷ θεῷ τῷ σωτῆρί μου )

Note the two articles. " The God who is the or my Saviour." The title Saviour is often applied to God in the Old Testament. See Septuagint, Deuteronomy 32:15; Psalms 24:5; 25:5; 95:1.

Vincent: Luk 1:48 - Regarded Regarded ( ἐπέβλεψεν ) See on Jam 2:3. Compare 1 Samuel 1:11; Psalms 31:7; 119:132, Sept.

Regarded ( ἐπέβλεψεν )

See on Jam 2:3. Compare 1 Samuel 1:11; Psalms 31:7; 119:132, Sept.

Vincent: Luk 1:50 - Mercy Mercy ( ἔλεος ) The word emphasizes the misery with which grace (see on Luk 1:30) deals; hence, peculiarly the sense of human wretch...

Mercy ( ἔλεος )

The word emphasizes the misery with which grace (see on Luk 1:30) deals; hence, peculiarly the sense of human wretchedness coupled with the impulse to relieve it, which issues in gracious ministry. Bengel remarks, " Grace takes away the fault, mercy the misery. "

Vincent: Luk 1:50 - From generation to generation From generation to generation ( εἰς γενεὰς καὶ γενεὰς ) Lit., as Rev., unto generations and generations.

From generation to generation ( εἰς γενεὰς καὶ γενεὰς )

Lit., as Rev., unto generations and generations.

Vincent: Luk 1:50 - Fear Fear ( φοβουμένος ) The word is used in both a good and a bad sense in the New Testament. For the latter, see Mat 21:46; Mar 6:20; Ma...

Fear ( φοβουμένος )

The word is used in both a good and a bad sense in the New Testament. For the latter, see Mat 21:46; Mar 6:20; Mar 11:32; Luk 12:4 :. For the former, as here, in the sense of godly reverence, Act 10:2, Act 10:22, Act 10:35; Col 3:22; Rev 14:7; Rev 15:4.

Vincent: Luk 1:51 - Shewed strength Shewed strength ( ἐποίησεν ) Lit., made strength. So Wyc., made might . A Hebrew form of expression. Compare Psalms 118:15, Sept.:...

Shewed strength ( ἐποίησεν )

Lit., made strength. So Wyc., made might . A Hebrew form of expression. Compare Psalms 118:15, Sept.: " The right hand of the Lord doeth valiantly " (ἐποίησε δύναμιν , made strength ) .

Vincent: Luk 1:51 - In the imagination In the imagination ( διανοίᾳ ) The faculty of thought, understanding, especially moral understanding. Wyc. refers the word here to G...

In the imagination ( διανοίᾳ )

The faculty of thought, understanding, especially moral understanding. Wyc. refers the word here to God: with mind of his heart. Some prefer to render " by the imagination," thus making the proud the instrument of their own destruction. Compare 2Co 10:5.

Vincent: Luk 1:54 - Hath holpen Hath holpen ( ἀντελαβέτο ) The verb means to lay hold on: thence to grasp helpfully or to help. To lay hold in the sense of...

Hath holpen ( ἀντελαβέτο )

The verb means to lay hold on: thence to grasp helpfully or to help. To lay hold in the sense of partaking (1Ti 6:2), carries us back to the primitive meaning of the word according to its composition: to receive instead of, or in return (ἀντὶ ) , and suggests the old phrase to take up for, espouse the cause of. Wyc., has took up, but probably not in this sense.

Vincent: Luk 1:54 - Servant Servant ( παιδὸς ) Often child, son or daughter, but here servant , in allusion to Isa 41:8. Meyer truthfully says that the theocrati...

Servant ( παιδὸς )

Often child, son or daughter, but here servant , in allusion to Isa 41:8. Meyer truthfully says that the theocratic notion of sonship is never expressed by παῖς . See Rev., Act 3:13, Act 3:26; Act 4:27, Act 4:30.

Vincent: Luk 1:58 - Had shewed great mercy upon her Had shewed great mercy upon her ( ἐμεγάλυνεν τὸ ἔλεος αὐτοῦ μετ ' αὐτῆς ) Lit., magnified his me...

Had shewed great mercy upon her ( ἐμεγάλυνεν τὸ ἔλεος αὐτοῦ μετ ' αὐτῆς )

Lit., magnified his mercy with her. So Wyc. A Hebrew expression. See 1 Samuel 12:24, Sept.

Vincent: Luk 1:59 - They called They called ( ἐκάλουν ) The imperfect tense signifies, as Rev., they would have called: they were about to call: or, as Bishop Light...

They called ( ἐκάλουν )

The imperfect tense signifies, as Rev., they would have called: they were about to call: or, as Bishop Lightfoot has happily suggested, they were for calling.

Vincent: Luk 1:62 - They made signs They made signs ( ἐνένευον ) Imperfect tense. While the colloquy between Elizabeth and her friends was going on, they were consultin...

They made signs ( ἐνένευον )

Imperfect tense. While the colloquy between Elizabeth and her friends was going on, they were consulting Zacharias by signs.

Vincent: Luk 1:63 - Writing-table Writing-table ( πινακίδιον ) Table was formerly used in the sense of tablet. Thus Shakspeare: " Yea, from the table of my memory...

Writing-table ( πινακίδιον )

Table was formerly used in the sense of tablet. Thus Shakspeare:

" Yea, from the table of my memory,

I'll wipe away all trivial fond records."

Hamlet , i., 5.

Tynd., writing-tables. The meaning is a little writing-tablet, probably covered with wax. Only here in the New Testament. Used by medical writers of a physician's note-book. Wyc. has poyntel , i.e., a style for writing.

Vincent: Luk 1:63 - Wrote, saying Wrote, saying A Hebrew form of expression. See 2Ki 10:6.

Wrote, saying

A Hebrew form of expression. See 2Ki 10:6.

Vincent: Luk 1:64 - Immediately Immediately ( παραχρῆμα ) Occurring nineteen times in the New Testament, and seventeen of these in Luke. Thirteen of the seventeen are...

Immediately ( παραχρῆμα )

Occurring nineteen times in the New Testament, and seventeen of these in Luke. Thirteen of the seventeen are in connection with miracles of healing, or the infliction of disease or death. Used in a similar way by medical writers.

Vincent: Luk 1:65 - Were noised abroad Were noised abroad ( διαλελεῖτο ) Were mutually (διά ) talked of.

Were noised abroad ( διαλελεῖτο )

Were mutually (διά ) talked of.

Vincent: Luk 1:69 - Horn Horn Compare Psa 132:17.

Horn

Compare Psa 132:17.

Vincent: Luk 1:70 - That have been since the world began That have been since the world began ( ἀπ ' αἰῶνος ) A needlessly verbose rendering, retained by Rev. The American Rev. insists on ...

That have been since the world began ( ἀπ ' αἰῶνος )

A needlessly verbose rendering, retained by Rev. The American Rev. insists on of old.

Vincent: Luk 1:74 - Serve Serve ( λατρεύειν ) Originally to serve for hire, from λάτρον , hire. Plato uses it of the service of God.

Serve ( λατρεύειν )

Originally to serve for hire, from λάτρον , hire. Plato uses it of the service of God.

Vincent: Luk 1:75 - Holiness and righteousness Holiness and righteousness ( ὁσιότητι καὶ δικαιοσύνῃ ) The adjective ὅσιος , holy, is properly what is...

Holiness and righteousness ( ὁσιότητι καὶ δικαιοσύνῃ )

The adjective ὅσιος , holy, is properly what is confirmed by ancient sanction and precept. Ὁσία is used in classical Greek to denote the everlasting principles of right, not constituted by the laws or customs of men, but antedating them; such as the paying of the proper rites of sepulture. Compare the fine passage in the " Antigone" of Sophocles (453-55):

" Nor did I deem thy edicts strong enough,

That thou, a mortal man, shouldst overpass

The unwritten laws of God that know not change,

They are not of to-day nor yesterday,

But live forever, nor can man assign

When first they sprang to being."

Hence ὁσιότης is concerned primarily with the eternal laws of God. It is " the divine consecration and inner truth of righteousness " (Meyer). Throughout the New Testament its look is godward. In no case is it used of moral excellence as related to men, though it is to be carefully noted that δικαιοσύνη , righteousness, is not restricted to rightness toward men. Compare Eph 4:24; true holiness; literally, holiness of the truth.

Vincent: Luk 1:77 - Knowledge of salvation Knowledge of salvation Wyc. has the science of health.

Knowledge of salvation

Wyc. has the science of health.

Vincent: Luk 1:78 - Tender mercy Tender mercy ( σπλάγχνα ἐλέους ) Lit., bowels of mercy. See on 1Pe 3:8; and Jam 5:11. Rev. gives heart of mercy in margin...

Tender mercy ( σπλάγχνα ἐλέους )

Lit., bowels of mercy. See on 1Pe 3:8; and Jam 5:11. Rev. gives heart of mercy in margin. Wyc., frightfully, entrails of mercy.

Vincent: Luk 1:78 - The day-spring from on high The day-spring from on high ( ἀνατολὴ ἐξ ὕψους ) Lit., the rising. The word occurs in the Septuagint as a rendering of ...

The day-spring from on high ( ἀνατολὴ ἐξ ὕψους )

Lit., the rising. The word occurs in the Septuagint as a rendering of branch, as something rising or springing up, by which the Messiah is denoted (Jeremiah 23:5; Zechariah 6:12). Also of the rising of a heavenly body (Isaiah 60:19, Sept.). Compare the kindred verb arise (ἀνατέλλω ) in Isa 60:1; Mal 4:2. This latter is the sense here. See on Mat 2:2. Wyc. has he springing up from on high.

Vincent: Luk 1:78 - Hath visited Hath visited ( ἐπεσκέψατο ) See on Mat 25:36; and 1Pe 2:12. Some, however, read ἐπισκέψεται , shall visit. So Rev.

Hath visited ( ἐπεσκέψατο )

See on Mat 25:36; and 1Pe 2:12. Some, however, read ἐπισκέψεται , shall visit. So Rev.

Vincent: Luk 1:79 - To guide To guide ( κατευθῦναι ) From εὐθύς , straight. Wyc. has dress, which is formed through the old French dresser, to arr...

To guide ( κατευθῦναι )

From εὐθύς , straight. Wyc. has dress, which is formed through the old French dresser, to arrange, from the Latin dirigere, to set in a straight line, draw up . Hence the military term dress for arranging a line.

Vincent: Luk 1:80 - The deserts The deserts ( ταῖς ἐρήμοις ) The article indicating a well-known place.

The deserts ( ταῖς ἐρήμοις )

The article indicating a well-known place.

Vincent: Luk 1:80 - Shewing Shewing ( ἀναδείξεως ) The word was used of the public announcement of an official nomination; hence of the public inauguration of ...

Shewing ( ἀναδείξεως )

The word was used of the public announcement of an official nomination; hence of the public inauguration of John's ministry.

Wesley: Luk 1:1-2 - -- This short, weighty, artless, candid dedication, belongs to the Acts, as well as the Gospel of St. Luke.

This short, weighty, artless, candid dedication, belongs to the Acts, as well as the Gospel of St. Luke.

Wesley: Luk 1:1-2 - Many have undertaken He does not mean St. Matthew or Mark; and St. John did not write so early. For these were eye witnesses themselves and ministers of the word.

He does not mean St. Matthew or Mark; and St. John did not write so early. For these were eye witnesses themselves and ministers of the word.

Wesley: Luk 1:3 - To write in order St. Luke describes in order of time; first, The acts of Christ; his conception, birth, childhood, baptism, miracles, preaching, passion, resurrection,...

St. Luke describes in order of time; first, The acts of Christ; his conception, birth, childhood, baptism, miracles, preaching, passion, resurrection, ascension: then, The acts of the Apostles. But in many smaller circumstances he does not observe the order of time.

Wesley: Luk 1:3 - Most excellent Theophilus This was the appellation usually given to Roman governors. Theophilus (as the ancients inform us) was a person of eminent quality at Alexandria. In Ac...

This was the appellation usually given to Roman governors. Theophilus (as the ancients inform us) was a person of eminent quality at Alexandria. In Act 1:1, St. Luke does not give him that title. He was then probably a private man. After the preface St. Luke gives us the history of Christ, from his coming into the world to his ascension into heaven.

Wesley: Luk 1:5 - The course of Abia The priests were divided into twenty - four courses, of which that of Abia was the eighth, 1Ch 24:10. Each course ministered in its turn, for seven da...

The priests were divided into twenty - four courses, of which that of Abia was the eighth, 1Ch 24:10. Each course ministered in its turn, for seven days, from Sabbath to Sabbath. And each priest of the course or set in waiting, had his part in the temple service assigned him by lot.

Wesley: Luk 1:6 - Walking in all the moral commandments, and ceremonial ordinances, blameless How admirable a character! May our behaviour be thus unblamable, and our obedience thus sincere and universal!

How admirable a character! May our behaviour be thus unblamable, and our obedience thus sincere and universal!

Wesley: Luk 1:10 - The people were praying without, at the time of the incense So the pious Jews constantly did. And this was the foundation of that elegant figure, by which prayer is in Scripture so often compared to incense. Pe...

So the pious Jews constantly did. And this was the foundation of that elegant figure, by which prayer is in Scripture so often compared to incense. Perhaps one reason of ordaining incense might be, to intimate the acceptableness of the prayer that accompanied it; as well as to remind the worshippers of that sacrifice of a sweet - smelling savour, which was once to be offered to God for them, and of that incense, which is continually offered with the prayers of the saints, upon the golden altar that is before the throne, Rev 8:3-4.

Wesley: Luk 1:12 - Zacharias was troubled Although he was accustomed to converse with God, yet we see he was thrown into a great consternation, at the appearance of his angelical messenger, na...

Although he was accustomed to converse with God, yet we see he was thrown into a great consternation, at the appearance of his angelical messenger, nature not being able to sustain the sight. Is it not then an instance of the goodness is well as of the wisdom of God, that the services, which these heavenly spirits render us, are generally invisible?

Wesley: Luk 1:13 - Thy prayer is heard Let us observe with pleasure, that the prayers of pious worshippers come up with acceptance before God; to whom no costly perfume is so sweet, as the ...

Let us observe with pleasure, that the prayers of pious worshippers come up with acceptance before God; to whom no costly perfume is so sweet, as the fragrancy of an upright heart. An answer of peace was here returned, when the case seemed to be most helpless. Let us wait patiently for the Lord, and leave to his own wisdom the time and manner wherein he will appear for us.

Wesley: Luk 1:13 - Thou shalt call his name John John signifies the grace or favour of Jehovah. A name well suiting the person, who was afterward so highly in favour with God, and endued with abundan...

John signifies the grace or favour of Jehovah. A name well suiting the person, who was afterward so highly in favour with God, and endued with abundance of grace; and who opened a way to the most glorious dispensation of grace in the Messiah's kingdom. And so Zacharias's former prayers for a child, and the prayer which he, as the representative of the people, was probably offering at this very time, for the appearing of the Messiah, were remarkably answered in the birth of his forerunner.

Wesley: Luk 1:15 - He shall be great before the Lord God the Father: of the Holy Ghost and the Son of God mention is made immediately after.

God the Father: of the Holy Ghost and the Son of God mention is made immediately after.

Wesley: Luk 1:15 - And shall drink neither wine nor strong drink Shall be exemplary for abstemiousness and self - denial; and so much the more filled with the Holy Ghost.

Shall be exemplary for abstemiousness and self - denial; and so much the more filled with the Holy Ghost.

Wesley: Luk 1:16 - And many of the children of Israel shall he turn None therefore need be ashamed of "preaching like John the Baptist." To the Lord their God - To Christ.

None therefore need be ashamed of "preaching like John the Baptist." To the Lord their God - To Christ.

Wesley: Luk 1:17 - He shall go before him, Christ, in the power and spirit of Elijah With the same integrity, courage, austerity, and fervour, and the same power attending his word: to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children - T...

With the same integrity, courage, austerity, and fervour, and the same power attending his word: to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children - To reconcile those that are at variance, to put an end to the most bitter quarrels, such as are very frequently those between the nearest relations: and the hearts of the disobedient to the wisdom of the just - And the most obstinate sinners to true wisdom, which is only found among them that are righteous before God.

Wesley: Luk 1:18 - Zacharias said, Whereby shall I know this? In how different a spirit did he blessed virgin say, How shall this be? Zacharias disbelieved the fact: Mary had no doubt of the thing; but only inqui...

In how different a spirit did he blessed virgin say, How shall this be? Zacharias disbelieved the fact: Mary had no doubt of the thing; but only inquired concerning the manner of it.

Wesley: Luk 1:19 - I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God Seven angels thus stand before God, Rev 7:2; who seem the highest of all. There seems to be a remarkable gradation in the words, enhancing the guilt o...

Seven angels thus stand before God, Rev 7:2; who seem the highest of all. There seems to be a remarkable gradation in the words, enhancing the guilt of Zacharias's unbelief. As if he had said, I am Gabriel, a holy angel of God: yea, one of the highest order. Not only so, but am now peculiarly sent from God; and that with a message to thee in particular. Nay, and to show thee glad tidings, such as ought to be received with the greatest joy and readiness.

Wesley: Luk 1:20 - Thou shalt be dumb The Greek word signifies deaf, as well as dumb: and it seems plain, that he was as unable to hear, as he was to speak; for his friends were obliged to...

The Greek word signifies deaf, as well as dumb: and it seems plain, that he was as unable to hear, as he was to speak; for his friends were obliged to make signs to him, that he might understand them, Luk 1:62.

Wesley: Luk 1:21 - The people were waiting For him to come and dismiss them (as usual) with the blessing.

For him to come and dismiss them (as usual) with the blessing.

Wesley: Luk 1:24 - Hid herself She retired from company, that she might have the more leisure to rejoice and bless God for his wonderful mercy.

She retired from company, that she might have the more leisure to rejoice and bless God for his wonderful mercy.

Wesley: Luk 1:25 - He looked upon me to take away my reproach Barrenness was a great reproach among the Jews. Because fruitfulness was promised to the righteous.

Barrenness was a great reproach among the Jews. Because fruitfulness was promised to the righteous.

Wesley: Luk 1:26 - In the sixth month After Elisabeth had conceived.

After Elisabeth had conceived.

Wesley: Luk 1:27 - Espoused It was customary among the Jews, for persons that married to contract before witnesses some time before. And as Christ was to be born of a pure virgin...

It was customary among the Jews, for persons that married to contract before witnesses some time before. And as Christ was to be born of a pure virgin, so the wisdom of God ordered it to be of one espoused, that to prevent reproach he might have a reputed father, according to the flesh.

Wesley: Luk 1:28 - Hail, thou highly favoured; the Lord is with thee; blessed art thou among women Hail is the salutation used by our Lord to the women after his resurrection: thou art highly favoured, or hast found favour with God, Luk 1:30, is no ...

Hail is the salutation used by our Lord to the women after his resurrection: thou art highly favoured, or hast found favour with God, Luk 1:30, is no more than was said of Noah, Moses, and David. The Lord is with thee, was said to Gideon, Jdg 6:12; and blessed shall she be above women, of Jael, Jdg 5:24. This salutation gives no room for any pretence of paying adoration to the virgin; as having no appearance of a prayer, or of worship offered to her.

Wesley: Luk 1:32 - He shall be called the Son of the Highest In this respect also: and that in a more eminent sense than any, either man or angel, can be called so.

In this respect also: and that in a more eminent sense than any, either man or angel, can be called so.

Wesley: Luk 1:32 - The Lord shall give him the throne of his father David That is, the spiritual kingdom, of which David's was a type.

That is, the spiritual kingdom, of which David's was a type.

Wesley: Luk 1:33 - He shall reign over the house of Jacob In which all true believers are included.

In which all true believers are included.

Wesley: Luk 1:35 - The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee The power of God was put forth by the Holy Ghost, as the immediate Divine agent in this work: and so he exerted the power of the Highest as his own po...

The power of God was put forth by the Holy Ghost, as the immediate Divine agent in this work: and so he exerted the power of the Highest as his own power, who together with the Father and the Son is the most high God.

Wesley: Luk 1:35 - Therefore also Not only as he is God from eternity, but on this account likewise he shall be called the Son of God.

Not only as he is God from eternity, but on this account likewise he shall be called the Son of God.

Wesley: Luk 1:36 - And behold, thy cousin Elisabeth Though Elisabeth was of the house of Aaron, and Mary of the house of David, by the fathers side, they might be related by their mothers. For the law o...

Though Elisabeth was of the house of Aaron, and Mary of the house of David, by the fathers side, they might be related by their mothers. For the law only forbad heiresses marrying into another tribe. And so other persons continually intermarried; particularly the families of David and of Levi.

Wesley: Luk 1:38 - And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord It is not improbable, that this time of the virgin's humble faith, consent, and expectation, might be the very time of her conceiving.

It is not improbable, that this time of the virgin's humble faith, consent, and expectation, might be the very time of her conceiving.

Wesley: Luk 1:39 - A city of Judah Probably Hebron, which was situated in the hill country of Judea, and belonged to the house of Aaron.

Probably Hebron, which was situated in the hill country of Judea, and belonged to the house of Aaron.

Wesley: Luk 1:41 - When Elisabeth heard the salutation of Mary The discourse with which she saluted her, giving an account of what the angel had said, the joy of her soul so affected her body, that the very child ...

The discourse with which she saluted her, giving an account of what the angel had said, the joy of her soul so affected her body, that the very child in her womb was moved in an uncommon manner, as if it leaped for joy.

Wesley: Luk 1:45 - Happy is she that believed Probably she had in her mind the unbelief of Zacharias.

Probably she had in her mind the unbelief of Zacharias.

Wesley: Luk 1:46 - And Mary said Under a prophetic impulse, several things, which perhaps she herself did not then fully understand.

Under a prophetic impulse, several things, which perhaps she herself did not then fully understand.

Wesley: Luk 1:47 - My spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour She seems to turn her thoughts here to Christ himself, who was to be born of her, as the angel had told her, he should be the Son of the Highest, whos...

She seems to turn her thoughts here to Christ himself, who was to be born of her, as the angel had told her, he should be the Son of the Highest, whose name should be Jesus, the Saviour. And she rejoiced in hope of salvation through faith in him, which is a blessing common to all true believers, more than in being his mother after the flesh, which was an honour peculiar to her. And certainly she had the same reason to rejoice in God her Saviour hat we have: because he had regarded the low estate of his handmaid, in like manner as he regarded our low estate; and vouchsafed to come and save her and us, when we were reduced to the lowest estate of sin and misery.

Wesley: Luk 1:51 - He hath wrought strength with his arm That is, he hath shown the exceeding greatness of his power. She speaks prophetically of those things as already done, which God was about to do by th...

That is, he hath shown the exceeding greatness of his power. She speaks prophetically of those things as already done, which God was about to do by the Messiah.

Wesley: Luk 1:51 - He hath scattered the proud Visible and invisible.

Visible and invisible.

Wesley: Luk 1:52 - He hath put down the mighty Both angels and men.

Both angels and men.

Wesley: Luk 1:54 - He hath helped his servant Israel By sending the Messiah.

By sending the Messiah.

Wesley: Luk 1:55 - To his seed His spiritual seed: all true believers.

His spiritual seed: all true believers.

Wesley: Luk 1:56 - Mary returned to her own house And thence soon after to Bethlehem.

And thence soon after to Bethlehem.

Wesley: Luk 1:60 - His mother said Doubtless by revelation, or a particular impulse from God.

Doubtless by revelation, or a particular impulse from God.

Wesley: Luk 1:66 - The hand of the Lord The peculiar power and blessing of God.

The peculiar power and blessing of God.

Wesley: Luk 1:67 - And Zacharias prophesied Of things immediately to follow. But it is observable, he speaks of Christ chiefly; of John only, as it were, incidentally.

Of things immediately to follow. But it is observable, he speaks of Christ chiefly; of John only, as it were, incidentally.

Wesley: Luk 1:69 - A horn Signifies honour, plenty, and strength.

Signifies honour, plenty, and strength.

Wesley: Luk 1:69 - A horn of salvation That is, a glorious and mighty Saviour.

That is, a glorious and mighty Saviour.

Wesley: Luk 1:70 - His prophets, who have been since the world began For there were prophets from the very beginning.

For there were prophets from the very beginning.

Wesley: Luk 1:74 - To serve him without fear Without any slavish fear. Here is the substance of the great promise. That we shall be always holy, always happy: that being delivered from Satan and ...

Without any slavish fear. Here is the substance of the great promise. That we shall be always holy, always happy: that being delivered from Satan and sin, from every uneasy and unholy temper, we shall joyfully love and serve God, in every thought, word, and work.

Wesley: Luk 1:76 - And thou, child He now speaks to John; yet not as a parent, but as a prophet.

He now speaks to John; yet not as a parent, but as a prophet.

Wesley: Luk 1:77 - To give knowledge of salvation by the remission of sins The knowledge of the remission of our sins being the grand instrument of present and eternal salvation, Heb 8:11-12. But the immediate sense of the wo...

The knowledge of the remission of our sins being the grand instrument of present and eternal salvation, Heb 8:11-12. But the immediate sense of the words seems to be, to preach to them the Gospel doctrine of salvation by the remission of their sins.

Wesley: Luk 1:78 - The day spring Or the rising sun; that is, Christ.

Or the rising sun; that is, Christ.

JFB: Luk 1:1 - -- (Luk 1:1-4)

JFB: Luk 1:1 - set forth in order More simply, to draw up a narrative.

More simply, to draw up a narrative.

JFB: Luk 1:2 - from the beginning That is, of His public ministry, as is plain from what follows.

That is, of His public ministry, as is plain from what follows.

JFB: Luk 1:3 - from the very first That is, from the very earliest events; referring to those precious details of the birth and early life, not only of our Lord, but of His forerunner, ...

That is, from the very earliest events; referring to those precious details of the birth and early life, not only of our Lord, but of His forerunner, which we owe to Luke alone.

JFB: Luk 1:3 - in order Or "consecutively"--in contrast, probably, with the disjointed productions to which he had referred. But this must not be pressed too far; for, on com...

Or "consecutively"--in contrast, probably, with the disjointed productions to which he had referred. But this must not be pressed too far; for, on comparing it with the other Gospels, we see that in some particulars the strict chronological order is not observed in this Gospel.

JFB: Luk 1:3 - most excellent Or "most noble"--a title of rank applied by this same writer twice to Felix and once to Festus (Act 22:26; Act 24:3; Act 26:25). It is likely, therefo...

Or "most noble"--a title of rank applied by this same writer twice to Felix and once to Festus (Act 22:26; Act 24:3; Act 26:25). It is likely, therefore, that "Theophilus" was chief magistrate of some city in Greece or Asia Minor [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

JFB: Luk 1:4 - that thou mightest know "know thoroughly."

"know thoroughly."

JFB: Luk 1:4 - hast been instructed Orally instructed--literally, "catechized" or "catechetically taught," at first as a catechumen or candidate for Christian baptism.

Orally instructed--literally, "catechized" or "catechetically taught," at first as a catechumen or candidate for Christian baptism.

JFB: Luk 1:5 - Herod (See on Mat 2:1).

(See on Mat 2:1).

JFB: Luk 1:5 - course of Abia Or Abijah; the eighth of the twenty-four orders of courses into which David divided the priests (see 1Ch 24:1, 1Ch 24:4, 1Ch 24:10). Of these courses ...

Or Abijah; the eighth of the twenty-four orders of courses into which David divided the priests (see 1Ch 24:1, 1Ch 24:4, 1Ch 24:10). Of these courses only four returned after the captivity (Ezr 2:34-39), which were again subdivided into twenty-four--retaining the ancient name and order of each. They took the whole temple service for a week each.

JFB: Luk 1:5 - his wife was of the daughters of Aaron The priests might marry into any tribe, but "it was most commendable of all to marry one of the priests' line" [LIGHTFOOT].

The priests might marry into any tribe, but "it was most commendable of all to marry one of the priests' line" [LIGHTFOOT].

JFB: Luk 1:6 - commandments and ordinances The one expressing their moral--the other their ceremonial--obedience [CALVIN and BENGEL], (Compare Eze 11:20; Heb 9:1). It has been denied that any s...

The one expressing their moral--the other their ceremonial--obedience [CALVIN and BENGEL], (Compare Eze 11:20; Heb 9:1). It has been denied that any such distinction was known to the Jews and New Testament writers. But Mar 12:33, and other passages, put this beyond all reasonable doubt.

JFB: Luk 1:7 - -- So with Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Elkanah and Hannah, Manoah and his wife.

So with Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Elkanah and Hannah, Manoah and his wife.

JFB: Luk 1:9 - his lot was to burn incense The part assigned to each priest in his week of service was decided by lot. Three were employed at the offering of incense--to remove the ashes of the...

The part assigned to each priest in his week of service was decided by lot. Three were employed at the offering of incense--to remove the ashes of the former service; to bring in and place on the golden altar the pan filled with hot burning coals taken from the altar of burnt offering; and to sprinkle the incense on the hot coals; and, while the smoke of it ascended, to make intercession for the people. This was the most distinguished part of the service (Rev 8:3), and this was what fell to the lot of Zacharias at this time [LIGHTFOOT].

JFB: Luk 1:10 - praying without Outside the court in front of the temple, where stood the altar of burnt offering; the men and women in separate courts, but the altar visible to all.

Outside the court in front of the temple, where stood the altar of burnt offering; the men and women in separate courts, but the altar visible to all.

JFB: Luk 1:10 - the time of incense Which was offered along with the morning and evening sacrifice of every day; a beautiful symbol of the acceptableness of the sacrifice offered on the ...

Which was offered along with the morning and evening sacrifice of every day; a beautiful symbol of the acceptableness of the sacrifice offered on the altar of burnt offering, with coals from whose altar the incense was burnt (Lev 16:12-13). This again was a symbol of the "living sacrifice" of themselves and their services offered daily to God by the worshippers. Hence the language of Psa 141:2; Rev 8:3. But that the acceptance of this daily offering depended on the expiatory virtue presupposed in the burnt offering, and pointing to the one "sacrifice of a sweet-smelling savor" (Eph 5:2), is evident from Isa 6:6-7.

JFB: Luk 1:11 - right side The south side, between the altar and the candlestick, Zacharias being on the north side, in front of the altar, while offering incense [WEBSTER and W...

The south side, between the altar and the candlestick, Zacharias being on the north side, in front of the altar, while offering incense [WEBSTER and WILKINSON]. But why there? The right was the favorable side (Mat 25:33) [SCHOTTGEN and WESTEIN in MEYER]; compare Mar 16:5.

JFB: Luk 1:13 - thy prayer is heard Doubtless for offspring, which by some presentiment he even yet had not despaired of.

Doubtless for offspring, which by some presentiment he even yet had not despaired of.

JFB: Luk 1:13 - John The same as "Johanan," so frequent in the Old Testament, meaning "Jehovah's gracious gift."

The same as "Johanan," so frequent in the Old Testament, meaning "Jehovah's gracious gift."

JFB: Luk 1:14 - shall rejoice So they did (Luk 1:58, Luk 1:66); but the meaning rather is, "shall have cause to rejoice"--it would prove to many a joyful event.

So they did (Luk 1:58, Luk 1:66); but the meaning rather is, "shall have cause to rejoice"--it would prove to many a joyful event.

JFB: Luk 1:15 - great in the sight of the Lord Nearer to Him in official standing than all the prophets. (See Mat 11:10-11.)

Nearer to Him in official standing than all the prophets. (See Mat 11:10-11.)

JFB: Luk 1:15 - drink neither wine nor strong drink That is, shall be a Nazarite, or "a separated one" (Num 6:2, &c.). As the leper was the living symbol of sin, so was the Nazarite of holiness; nothing...

That is, shall be a Nazarite, or "a separated one" (Num 6:2, &c.). As the leper was the living symbol of sin, so was the Nazarite of holiness; nothing inflaming was to cross his lips; no razor to come on his head; no ceremonial defilement to be contracted. Thus was he to be "holy to the Lord [ceremonially] all the days of his separation." This separation was in ordinary cases temporary and voluntary: only Samson (Jdg 13:7), Samuel (1Sa 1:11), and John Baptist were Nazarites from the womb. It was fitting that the utmost severity of legal consecration should be seen in Christ's forerunner. HE was the REALITY and PERFECTION of the Nazarite without the symbol, which perished in that living realization of it: "Such an High Priest became us, who was SEPARATE FROM SINNERS" (Heb 7:26).

JFB: Luk 1:15 - filled with the Holy Ghost, from . . . womb A holy vessel for future service.

A holy vessel for future service.

JFB: Luk 1:16-17 - A religious and moral reformer, Elijah-like, he should be (Mal 4:6, where the "turning of the people's heart to the Lord" is borrowed from 1Ki 18:37). In both cases their success, though great, was partial The nation was not gained.

The nation was not gained.

JFB: Luk 1:17 - before him Before "the Lord their God" (Luk 1:16). By comparing this with Mal 3:1 and Isa 40:3, it is plainly "Jehovah" in the flesh of Messiah [CALVIN and OLSHA...

Before "the Lord their God" (Luk 1:16). By comparing this with Mal 3:1 and Isa 40:3, it is plainly "Jehovah" in the flesh of Messiah [CALVIN and OLSHAUSEN] before whom John was to go as a herald to announce His approach, and a pioneer o prepare His way.

JFB: Luk 1:17 - in the spirit After the model.

After the model.

JFB: Luk 1:17 - and power of Elias Not his miraculous power, for John did no miracle" (Joh 10:41), but his power "turning the heart," or with like success in his ministry. Both fell on ...

Not his miraculous power, for John did no miracle" (Joh 10:41), but his power "turning the heart," or with like success in his ministry. Both fell on degenerate times; both witnessed fearlessly for God; neither appeared much save in the direct exercise of their ministry; both were at the head of schools of disciples; the success of both was similar.

JFB: Luk 1:17 - fathers to the children Taken literally, this denotes the restoration of parental fidelity [MEYER and others], the decay of which is the beginning of religious and social cor...

Taken literally, this denotes the restoration of parental fidelity [MEYER and others], the decay of which is the beginning of religious and social corruption--one prominent feature of the coming revival being put for the whole. But what follows, explanatory of this, rather suggests a figurative sense. If "the disobedient" be "the children," and to "the fathers" belongs "the wisdom of the just" [BENGEL], the meaning will be, "he shall bring back the ancient spirit of the nation into their degenerate children" [CALVIN, &c.]. So Elijah invoked "the God Abraham, Isaac, and Israel," when seeking to "turn their heart back again" (1Ki 18:36-37).

JFB: Luk 1:17 - to make ready, &c. More clearly, "to make ready for the Lord a prepared people," to have in readiness a people prepared to welcome Him. Such preparation requires, in eve...

More clearly, "to make ready for the Lord a prepared people," to have in readiness a people prepared to welcome Him. Such preparation requires, in every age and every soul, an operation corresponding to the Baptist's ministry.

JFB: Luk 1:18 - Whereby, &c. Mary believed what was far harder without a sign. Abraham, though older, and doubtless Sarah, too, when the same promise was made to him, "staggered n...

Mary believed what was far harder without a sign. Abraham, though older, and doubtless Sarah, too, when the same promise was made to him, "staggered not at the promise of God through unbelief, but was strong in faith, giving glory to God." This was that in which Zacharias failed.

JFB: Luk 1:19 - Gabriel Signifying "man of God," the same who appeared to Daniel at the time of incense (Dan 9:21) and to Mary (Luk 1:26).

Signifying "man of God," the same who appeared to Daniel at the time of incense (Dan 9:21) and to Mary (Luk 1:26).

JFB: Luk 1:19 - stand, &c. As his attendant (compare 1Ki 17:1).

As his attendant (compare 1Ki 17:1).

JFB: Luk 1:20 - dumb Speechless.

Speechless.

JFB: Luk 1:20 - not able Deprived of the power of speech (Luk 1:64). He asked a sign, and now he got it.

Deprived of the power of speech (Luk 1:64). He asked a sign, and now he got it.

JFB: Luk 1:20 - until the day that these things shall be performed See on Luk 1:64.

See on Luk 1:64.

JFB: Luk 1:21 - waited To receive from him the usual benediction (Num 6:23-27).

To receive from him the usual benediction (Num 6:23-27).

JFB: Luk 1:21 - tarried so long It was not usual to tarry long, lest it should be thought vengeance had stricken the people's representative for something wrong [LIGHTFOOT].

It was not usual to tarry long, lest it should be thought vengeance had stricken the people's representative for something wrong [LIGHTFOOT].

JFB: Luk 1:22 - speechless Dumb, and deaf also (see Luk 1:62).

Dumb, and deaf also (see Luk 1:62).

JFB: Luk 1:24 - hid five months Till the event was put beyond doubt and became apparent.

Till the event was put beyond doubt and became apparent.

JFB: Luk 1:26 - sixth month Of Elisabeth's time.

Of Elisabeth's time.

JFB: Luk 1:26 - Joseph, of the house of David (See on Mat 1:16).

(See on Mat 1:16).

JFB: Luk 1:28 - highly favoured A word only once used elsewhere (Eph 1:6, "made accepted"): compare Luk 1:30, "Thou hast found favour with God." The mistake of the Vulgate's renderin...

A word only once used elsewhere (Eph 1:6, "made accepted"): compare Luk 1:30, "Thou hast found favour with God." The mistake of the Vulgate's rendering, "full of grace," has been taken abundant advantage of by the Romish Church. As the mother of our Lord, she was the most "blessed among women" in external distinction; but let them listen to the Lord's own words. "Nay, rather blessed are they that hear the word of God and keep it." (See on Luk 11:27).

JFB: Luk 1:31 - -- The angel purposely conforms his language to Isaiah's famous prophecy (Isa 7:14) [CALVIN].

The angel purposely conforms his language to Isaiah's famous prophecy (Isa 7:14) [CALVIN].

JFB: Luk 1:32-33 - -- This is but an echo of the sublime prediction in Isa 9:6-7.

This is but an echo of the sublime prediction in Isa 9:6-7.

JFB: Luk 1:34 - How, &c. Not the unbelief of Zacharias, "Whereby shall I know this?" but, taking the fact for granted, "How is it to be, so contrary to the unbroken law of hum...

Not the unbelief of Zacharias, "Whereby shall I know this?" but, taking the fact for granted, "How is it to be, so contrary to the unbroken law of human birth?" Instead of reproof, therefore, her question is answered in mysterious detail.

JFB: Luk 1:35 - Holy Ghost (See on Mat 1:18).

(See on Mat 1:18).

JFB: Luk 1:35 - power of the highest The immediate energy of the Godhead conveyed by the Holy Ghost.

The immediate energy of the Godhead conveyed by the Holy Ghost.

JFB: Luk 1:35 - overshadow A word suggesting how gentle, while yet efficacious, would be this Power [BENGEL]; and its mysterious secrecy, withdrawn, as if by a cloud, from human...

A word suggesting how gentle, while yet efficacious, would be this Power [BENGEL]; and its mysterious secrecy, withdrawn, as if by a cloud, from human scrutiny [CALVIN].

JFB: Luk 1:35 - that holy thing born of thee That holy Offspring of thine.

That holy Offspring of thine.

JFB: Luk 1:35 - therefore . . . Son of God That Christ is the Son of God in His divine and eternal nature is clear from all the New Testament; yet here we see that Sonship efflorescing into hum...

That Christ is the Son of God in His divine and eternal nature is clear from all the New Testament; yet here we see that Sonship efflorescing into human and palpable manifestation by His being born, through "the power of the Highest," an Infant of days. We must neither think of a double Sonship, as some do, harshly and without all ground, nor deny what is here plainly expressed, the connection between His human birth and His proper personal Sonship.

JFB: Luk 1:36 - thy cousin "relative," but how near the word says not.

"relative," but how near the word says not.

JFB: Luk 1:36 - conceived, &c. This was to Mary an unsought sign, in reward of her faith.

This was to Mary an unsought sign, in reward of her faith.

JFB: Luk 1:37 - For, &c. Referring to what was said by the angel to Abraham in like case (Gen 18:14), to strengthen her faith.

Referring to what was said by the angel to Abraham in like case (Gen 18:14), to strengthen her faith.

JFB: Luk 1:38 - -- Marvellous faith in such circumstances!

Marvellous faith in such circumstances!

JFB: Luk 1:39 - hill country The mountainous tract running along the middle of Judea, from north to south [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

The mountainous tract running along the middle of Judea, from north to south [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

JFB: Luk 1:39 - with haste Transported with the announcement to herself and with the tidings, now first made known to her, of Elisabeth's condition.

Transported with the announcement to herself and with the tidings, now first made known to her, of Elisabeth's condition.

JFB: Luk 1:39 - a city of Juda Probably Hebron (see Jos 20:7; Jos 21:11).

Probably Hebron (see Jos 20:7; Jos 21:11).

JFB: Luk 1:40 - saluted Elisabeth Now returned from her seclusion (Luk 1:24).

Now returned from her seclusion (Luk 1:24).

JFB: Luk 1:41 - babe leaped From Luk 1:44 it is plain that this maternal sensation was something extraordinary--a sympathetic emotion of the unconscious babe, at the presence of ...

From Luk 1:44 it is plain that this maternal sensation was something extraordinary--a sympathetic emotion of the unconscious babe, at the presence of the mother of his Lord.

JFB: Luk 1:42-44 - -- What beautiful superiority to envy have we here! High as was the distinction conferred upon herself, Elisabeth loses sight of it altogether, in presen...

What beautiful superiority to envy have we here! High as was the distinction conferred upon herself, Elisabeth loses sight of it altogether, in presence of one more honored still; upon whom, with her unborn Babe, in an ecstasy of inspiration, she pronounces a benediction, feeling it to be a wonder unaccountable that "the mother of her Lord should come to her." "Turn this as we will, we shall never be able to see the propriety of calling an unborn child "Lord," but by supposing Elisabeth, like the prophets of old, enlightened to perceive the Messiah's Divine nature" [OLSHAUSEN].

JFB: Luk 1:43 - "The mother of my Lord" But not "My Lady" (compare Luk 20:42; Joh 20:28)" [BENGEL].

But not "My Lady" (compare Luk 20:42; Joh 20:28)" [BENGEL].

JFB: Luk 1:45 - -- An additional benediction on the Virgin for her implicit faith, in tacit and delicate contrast with her own husband.

An additional benediction on the Virgin for her implicit faith, in tacit and delicate contrast with her own husband.

JFB: Luk 1:45 - for Rather, as in the Margin, "that."|| 24940||1||10||0||@A magnificent canticle, in which the strain of Hannah's ancient song, in like circumstances, is ...

Rather, as in the Margin, "that."|| 24940||1||10||0||@A magnificent canticle, in which the strain of Hannah's ancient song, in like circumstances, is caught up, and just slightly modified and sublimed. Is it unnatural to suppose that the spirit of the blessed Virgin had been drawn beforehand into mysterious sympathy with the ideas and the tone of this hymn, so that when the life and fire of inspiration penetrated her whole soul it spontaneously swept the chorus of this song, enriching the Hymnal of the Church with that spirit-stirring canticle which has resounded ever since from its temple walls? In both songs, those holy women, filled with wonder to behold "the proud, the mighty, the rich," passed by, and, in their persons the lowliest chosen to usher in the greatest events, sing of this as no capricious movement, but a great law of the kingdom of God, by which He delights to "put down the mighty from their seats and exalt them of low degree." In both songs the strain dies away on CHRIST; in Hannah's under the name of "Jehovah's King"==--to whom, through all His line, from David onwards to Himself, He will "give strength"; His "Anointed," whose horn He will exalt (1Sa 2:10); in the Virgin's song, it is as the "Help" promised to Israel by all the prophets.

JFB: Luk 1:45 - My soul . . . my spirit "all that is within me" (Psa 103:1).

"all that is within me" (Psa 103:1).

JFB: Luk 1:47 - my Saviour Mary, poor heart, never dreamt, we see, of her own "immaculate conception"--in the offensive language of the Romanists--any more than of her own immac...

Mary, poor heart, never dreamt, we see, of her own "immaculate conception"--in the offensive language of the Romanists--any more than of her own immaculate life.

JFB: Luk 1:54 - holpen Compare Psa 89:19, "I have laid help on One that is mighty."

Compare Psa 89:19, "I have laid help on One that is mighty."

JFB: Luk 1:55 - As he spake to our fathers The sense requires this clause to be read as a parenthesis. (Compare Mic 7:20; Psa 98:3).

The sense requires this clause to be read as a parenthesis. (Compare Mic 7:20; Psa 98:3).

JFB: Luk 1:55 - for ever The perpetuity of Messiah's kingdom, as expressly promised by the angel (Luk 1:33).

The perpetuity of Messiah's kingdom, as expressly promised by the angel (Luk 1:33).

JFB: Luk 1:56 - abode with her about three months What an honored roof was that which, for such a period, overarched these cousins! and yet not a trace of it is now to be seen, while the progeny of th...

What an honored roof was that which, for such a period, overarched these cousins! and yet not a trace of it is now to be seen, while the progeny of those two women--the one but the honored pioneer of the other--have made the world new.

JFB: Luk 1:56 - returned to her own house At Nazareth, after which took place what is recorded in Mat 1:18-25.

At Nazareth, after which took place what is recorded in Mat 1:18-25.

JFB: Luk 1:59 - eighth day The law (Gen 17:12) was observed, even though the eighth day after birth should be a sabbath (Joh 7:23; and see Phi 3:5).

The law (Gen 17:12) was observed, even though the eighth day after birth should be a sabbath (Joh 7:23; and see Phi 3:5).

JFB: Luk 1:59 - called him Literally, "were calling"--that is, (as we should say) "were for calling." The naming of children at baptism has its origin in the Jewish custom at ci...

Literally, "were calling"--that is, (as we should say) "were for calling." The naming of children at baptism has its origin in the Jewish custom at circumcision (Gen 21:3-4); and the names of Abram and Sarai were changed at its first performance (Gen 17:5, Gen 17:15).

JFB: Luk 1:62 - made signs Showing he was deaf, as well as dumb.

Showing he was deaf, as well as dumb.

JFB: Luk 1:63 - marvelled all At his giving the same name, not knowing of any communication between them on the subject.

At his giving the same name, not knowing of any communication between them on the subject.

JFB: Luk 1:64 - mouth opened immediately On thus palpably showing his full faith in the vision, for disbelieving which he had been struck dumb (Luk 1:13, Luk 1:20).

On thus palpably showing his full faith in the vision, for disbelieving which he had been struck dumb (Luk 1:13, Luk 1:20).

JFB: Luk 1:65 - fear Religious awe; under the impression that God's hand was specially in these events (compare Luk 5:26; Luk 7:16; Luk 8:37).

Religious awe; under the impression that God's hand was specially in these events (compare Luk 5:26; Luk 7:16; Luk 8:37).

JFB: Luk 1:66 - hand of the Lord was with him By special tokens marking him out as one destined to some great work (1Ki 18:46; 2Ki 3:15; Act 11:21).|| 24962||1||12||0||There is not a word in this ...

By special tokens marking him out as one destined to some great work (1Ki 18:46; 2Ki 3:15; Act 11:21).|| 24962||1||12||0||There is not a word in this noble burst of divine song about his own child; like Elisabeth losing sight entirely of self, in the glory of a Greater than both.

JFB: Luk 1:66 - Lord God of Israel The ancient covenant God of the peculiar people.

The ancient covenant God of the peculiar people.

JFB: Luk 1:66 - visited and redeemed That is, in order to redeem: returned after long absence, and broken His long silence (see Mat 15:31). In the Old Testament, God is said to "visit" ch...

That is, in order to redeem: returned after long absence, and broken His long silence (see Mat 15:31). In the Old Testament, God is said to "visit" chiefly for judgment, in the New Testament for mercy. Zacharias would, as yet, have but imperfect views of such "visiting and redeeming," "saving from and delivering out of the hand of enemies" (Luk 1:71, Luk 1:74). But this Old Testament phraseology, used at first with a lower reference, is, when viewed in the light of a loftier and more comprehensive kingdom of God, equally adapted to express the most spiritual conceptions of the redemption that is in Christ Jesus.

JFB: Luk 1:69 - horn of salvation That is "strength of salvation," or "mighty Salvation," meaning the Saviour Himself, whom Simeon calls "Thy Salvation" (Luk 2:30). The metaphor is tak...

That is "strength of salvation," or "mighty Salvation," meaning the Saviour Himself, whom Simeon calls "Thy Salvation" (Luk 2:30). The metaphor is taken from those animals whose strength is in their horns (Psa 18:2; Psa 75:10; Psa 132:17).

JFB: Luk 1:69 - house of . . . David This shows that Mary must have been known to be of the royal line, independent of Joseph; of whom Zacharias, if he knew anything, could not know that ...

This shows that Mary must have been known to be of the royal line, independent of Joseph; of whom Zacharias, if he knew anything, could not know that after this he would recognize Mary.

JFB: Luk 1:70 - since the world began Or, "from the earliest period."

Or, "from the earliest period."

JFB: Luk 1:72 - -- The mercy promised . . . his holy covenant . . .

The mercy promised . . . his holy covenant . . .

JFB: Luk 1:73 - the oath . . . to . . . Abraham The whole work and kingdom of Messiah is represented as a mercy pledged on oath to Abraham and his seed, to be realized at an appointed period; and at...

The whole work and kingdom of Messiah is represented as a mercy pledged on oath to Abraham and his seed, to be realized at an appointed period; and at length, in "the fulness of the time," gloriously made good. Hence, not only "grace," or the thing promised; but "truth," or fidelity to the promise, are said to "come by Jesus Christ" (Joh 1:17).

JFB: Luk 1:74-75 - That he would grant us, &c. How comprehensive is the view here given! (1) The purpose of all redemption--"that we should serve Him"--that is, "the Lord God of Israel" (Luk 1:68)....

How comprehensive is the view here given! (1) The purpose of all redemption--"that we should serve Him"--that is, "the Lord God of Israel" (Luk 1:68). The word signifies religious service distinctively--"the priesthood of the New Testament" [BENGEL]. (2) The nature of this service--"in holiness and righteousness before Him" (Luk 1:75) --or, as in His presence (compare Psa 56:13). (3) Its freedom--"being delivered out of the hand of our enemies." (4) Its fearlessness--"might serve Him without fear." (5) Its duration--"all the days of our life."

JFB: Luk 1:76-79 - Here are the dying echoes of this song; and very beautiful are these closing notes Like the setting sun, shorn indeed of its noontide radiance, but skirting the horizon with a wavy and quivering light--as of molten gold--on which the...

Like the setting sun, shorn indeed of its noontide radiance, but skirting the horizon with a wavy and quivering light--as of molten gold--on which the eye delights to gaze, till it disappears from the view. The song passes not here from Christ to John, but only from Christ direct to Christ as heralded by His forerunner.

JFB: Luk 1:76-79 - thou child Not "my son"--this child's relation to himself being lost in his relation to a Greater than either.

Not "my son"--this child's relation to himself being lost in his relation to a Greater than either.

JFB: Luk 1:76-79 - prophet of the Highest; for thou shalt go before him That is, "the Highest." As "the Most High" is an epithet in Scripture only of the supreme God, it is inconceivable that inspiration should apply this ...

That is, "the Highest." As "the Most High" is an epithet in Scripture only of the supreme God, it is inconceivable that inspiration should apply this term, as here undeniably, to Christ, unless He were "God over all blessed for ever" (Rom 9:5).

JFB: Luk 1:77 - to give knowledge of salvation To sound the note of a needed and provided "salvation" was the noble office of John, above all that preceded him; as it is that of all subsequent mini...

To sound the note of a needed and provided "salvation" was the noble office of John, above all that preceded him; as it is that of all subsequent ministers of Christ; but infinitely loftier was it to be the "Salvation" itself (Luk 1:69 and Luk 2:30).

JFB: Luk 1:77 - by the remission of . . . sins This stamps at once the spiritual nature of the salvation here intended, and explains Luk 1:71, Luk 1:74.

This stamps at once the spiritual nature of the salvation here intended, and explains Luk 1:71, Luk 1:74.

JFB: Luk 1:78 - Through the tender mercy of our God The sole spring, necessarily, of all salvation for sinners.

The sole spring, necessarily, of all salvation for sinners.

JFB: Luk 1:78 - dayspring from on high Either Christ Himself, as the "Sun of righteousness" (Mal 4:2), arising on a dark world [BEZA, GROTIUS, CALVIN, DE WETTE, OLSHAUSEN, &c.], or the ligh...

Either Christ Himself, as the "Sun of righteousness" (Mal 4:2), arising on a dark world [BEZA, GROTIUS, CALVIN, DE WETTE, OLSHAUSEN, &c.], or the light which He sheds. The sense, of course, is one.

JFB: Luk 1:79 - (Compare Isa 9:2; Mat 4:13-17). "That St. Luke, of all the Evangelists, should have obtained and recorded these inspired utterances of Zacharias and Mary Is in accordance with his character and habits, as indicated in Luk 1:1-4" [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

Is in accordance with his character and habits, as indicated in Luk 1:1-4" [WEBSTER and WILKINSON].

JFB: Luk 1:80 - And the child, &c. "a concluding paragraph, indicating, in strokes full of grandeur, the bodily and mental development of the Baptist; and bringing his life up to the pe...

"a concluding paragraph, indicating, in strokes full of grandeur, the bodily and mental development of the Baptist; and bringing his life up to the period of his public appearance" [OLSHAUSEN].

JFB: Luk 1:80 - in the deserts Probably "the wilderness of Judea" (Mat 3:1), whither he had retired early in life, in the Nazarite spirit, and where, free from rabbinical influences...

Probably "the wilderness of Judea" (Mat 3:1), whither he had retired early in life, in the Nazarite spirit, and where, free from rabbinical influences and alone with God, his spirit would be educated, like Moses in the desert, for his future high vocation.

JFB: Luk 1:80 - his showing unto Israel The presentation of himself before his nation, as Messiah's forerunner.

The presentation of himself before his nation, as Messiah's forerunner.

Clarke: Luk 1:1 - Many have taken in hand Many have taken in hand - Great and remarkable characters have always many biographers. So it appears it was with our Lord: but as most of these acc...

Many have taken in hand - Great and remarkable characters have always many biographers. So it appears it was with our Lord: but as most of these accounts were inaccurate, recording as facts things which had not happened; and through ignorance or design mistaking others, especially in the place where St. Luke wrote; it seemed good to the Holy Spirit to inspire this holy man with the most correct knowledge of the whole history of our Lord’ s birth, preaching, miracles, sufferings, death, resurrection, and ascension, that the sincere, upright followers of God might have a sure foundation, on which they might safely build their faith. See the note on Luk 9:10

Clarke: Luk 1:1 - Most surely believed among us Most surely believed among us - Facts confirmed by the fullest evidence - των πεπληροφορημενων πραγματων . Every thing ...

Most surely believed among us - Facts confirmed by the fullest evidence - των πεπληροφορημενων πραγματων . Every thing that had been done or said by Jesus Christ was so public, so plain, and so accredited by thousands of witnesses, who could have had no interest in supporting an imposture, as to carry the fullest conviction, to the hearts of those who heard and saw him, of the divinity of his doctrine, and the truth of his miracles.

Clarke: Luk 1:2 - Even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were eye-witnesses Even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were eye-witnesses - Probably this alludes to the Gospels of Matthew and Mark, which i...

Even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were eye-witnesses - Probably this alludes to the Gospels of Matthew and Mark, which it is likely were written before St. Luke wrote his, and on the models of which he professes to write his own; and απ αρχης, from the beginning, must mean, from the time that Christ first began to proclaim the glad tidings of the kingdom; and αυτοπται, eye-witnesses, must necessarily signify, those who had been with him from the beginning, and consequently had the best opportunities of knowing the truth of every fact

Clarke: Luk 1:2 - Ministers of the word Ministers of the word - Του λογου . Some suppose that our blessed Lord is meant by this phrase; as ὁ Λογος, the Word or Logos, is ...

Ministers of the word - Του λογου . Some suppose that our blessed Lord is meant by this phrase; as ὁ Λογος, the Word or Logos, is his essential character in Joh 1:1, etc.; but it does not appear that any of the inspired penmen ever use the word in this sense except John himself; for here it certainly means the doctrine of Christ; and in this sense λογος is frequently used both by the evangelists and apostles.

Clarke: Luk 1:3 - Having had perfect understanding Having had perfect understanding - Παρηκολουθηκοτι ανωθεν, Having accurately traced up - entered into the very spirit of the w...

Having had perfect understanding - Παρηκολουθηκοτι ανωθεν, Having accurately traced up - entered into the very spirit of the work, and examined every thing to the bottom; in consequence of which investigation, I am completely convinced of the truth of the whole. Though God gives his Holy Spirit to all them who ask him, yet this gift was never designed to set aside the use of those faculties with which he has already endued the soul, and which are as truly his gifts as the Holy Spirit itself is. The nature of inspiration, in the case of St. Luke, we at once discover: he set himself, by impartial inquiry and diligent investigation, to find the whole truth, and to relate nothing but the truth; and the Spirit of God presided over and directed his inquiries, so that he discovered the whole truth, and was preserved from every particle of error

Clarke: Luk 1:3 - From the very first From the very first - Ανωθεν, from their origin. Some think ανωθεν should, in this place, be translated from above; and that it refer...

From the very first - Ανωθεν, from their origin. Some think ανωθεν should, in this place, be translated from above; and that it refers to the inspiration by which St. Luke wrote. I prefer our translation, or, from the origin, which several good critics contend for, and which meaning it has in some of the best Greek writers. See Kypke

Clarke: Luk 1:3 - Theophilus Theophilus - As the literal import of this word is friend of God, Θεου φιλος, some have supposed that under this name Luke comprised all t...

Theophilus - As the literal import of this word is friend of God, Θεου φιλος, some have supposed that under this name Luke comprised all the followers of Christ, to whom, as friends of God, he dedicated this faithful history of the life, doctrine, death, and resurrection of our Lord. But this interpretation appears to have little solidity in it; for, if all the followers of Christ are addressed, why is the singular number used? and what good end could there be accomplished by using a feigned name? Besides, κρατιϚε, most excellent, could never be applied in this way, for it evidently designates a particular person, and one probably distinguished by his situation in life; though this does not necessarily follow from the title, which was often given in the way of friendship. Theophilus appears to have been some very reputable Greek or Roman, who was one of St. Luke’ s disciples. The first four verses seem a private epistle, sent by the evangelist with this history, which, having been carefully preserved by Theophilus, was afterwards found and published with this Gospel.

Clarke: Luk 1:4 - Wherein thou hast been instructed Wherein thou hast been instructed - Κατηχηθης - In which thou hast been catechized. It appears that Theophilus had already received the f...

Wherein thou hast been instructed - Κατηχηθης - In which thou hast been catechized. It appears that Theophilus had already received the first elements of the Christian doctrine, but had not as yet been completely grounded in them. That he might know the certainty of the things in which he had been thus catechized, by having all the facts and their proofs brought before him in order, the evangelist sent him this faithful and Divinely inspired narrative. Those who content themselves with that knowledge of the doctrines of Christ which they receive from catechisms and schoolmasters, however important these elementary instructions may be, are never likely to arrive at such a knowledge of the truth as will make them wise unto salvation, or fortify them against the attacks of infidelity and irreligion. Every man should labor to acquire the most correct knowledge, and indubitable certainty, of those doctrines on which he stakes his eternal salvation. Some suppose that St. Luke refers here to the imperfect instruction which Theophilus had received from the defective Gospels to which he refers in Luk 1:1.

Clarke: Luk 1:5 - In the days of Herod, the king In the days of Herod, the king - This was Herod, surnamed the Great, the son of Antipater, an Idumean by birth, who had professed himself a proselyt...

In the days of Herod, the king - This was Herod, surnamed the Great, the son of Antipater, an Idumean by birth, who had professed himself a proselyte to the Jewish religion, but regarded no religion, farther than it promoted his secular interests and ambition. Thus, for the first time, the throne of Judah was filled by a person not of Jewish extraction, who had been forced upon the people by the Roman government. Hence it appears plain that the prophecy of Jacob, Gen 49:10, was now fulfilled; for the scepter had departed from Judah: and now was the time, according to another prophecy, to look for the governor from Bethlehem, who should rule and feed the people of Israel: Mic 5:1, Mic 5:2. See a large account of the family of the Herods, in the note on Mat 2:1 (note). This was before Christ six years

Clarke: Luk 1:5 - The course of Abiah The course of Abiah - When the sacerdotal families grew very numerous, so that all could not officiate together at the tabernacle, David divided the...

The course of Abiah - When the sacerdotal families grew very numerous, so that all could not officiate together at the tabernacle, David divided them into twenty-four classes, that they might minister by turns, 1Ch 24:1, etc., each family serving a whole week, 2Ki 11:7; 2Ch 23:8. Abiah was the eighth in the order in which they had been originally established: 1Ch 24:10. These dates and persons are particularly mentioned as a full confirmation of the truth of the facts themselves; because any person, at the time this Gospel was written, might have satisfied himself by applying to the family of John the Baptist, the family of our Lord, or the surrounding neighbors. What a full proof of the Gospel history! It was published immediately after the time in which these facts took place; and among the very people, thousands of whom had been eye-witnesses of them; and among those, too, whose essential interest it was to have discredited them if they could; and yet, in all that age, in which only they could have been contradicted with advantage, no man ever arose to call them in question! What an absolute proof was this that the thing was impossible; and that the truth of the Gospel history was acknowledged by all who paid any attention to the evidences it produced

Clarke: Luk 1:5 - Of the daughters of Aaron Of the daughters of Aaron - That is, she was of one of the sacerdotal families. This shows that John was most nobly descended: his father was a prie...

Of the daughters of Aaron - That is, she was of one of the sacerdotal families. This shows that John was most nobly descended: his father was a priest and his mother the daughter of a priest; and thus, both by father and mother, he descended from the family of Amram, of whom came Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, the most illustrious characters in the whole Jewish history.

Clarke: Luk 1:6 - They were both righteous They were both righteous - Upright and holy in all their outward conduct in civil life

They were both righteous - Upright and holy in all their outward conduct in civil life

Clarke: Luk 1:6 - Before God Before God - Possessing the spirit of the religion they professed; exercising themselves constantly in the presence of their Maker, whose eye, they ...

Before God - Possessing the spirit of the religion they professed; exercising themselves constantly in the presence of their Maker, whose eye, they knew, was upon all their conduct, and who examined all their motives

Clarke: Luk 1:6 - Walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless Walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless - None being able to lay any evil to their charge. They were as exemplary and c...

Walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless - None being able to lay any evil to their charge. They were as exemplary and conscientious in the discharge of their religious duties as they were in the discharge of the offices of civil life. What a sacred pair! they made their duty to God, to their neighbor, and to themselves, walk constantly hand in hand. See the note on Mat 3:15. Perhaps εντολαι, commandments, may here mean the decalogue; and δικαιωματα, ordinances, the ceremonial and judicial laws which were delivered after the decalogue: as all the precepts delivered from Exo 21:1 to Exo 24:1 are termed δικαιωματα, judgments or ordinances.

Clarke: Luk 1:7 - Both were now well stricken in years Both were now well stricken in years - By the order of God, sterility and old age both met in the person of Elisabeth, to render the birth of a son ...

Both were now well stricken in years - By the order of God, sterility and old age both met in the person of Elisabeth, to render the birth of a son (humanly speaking) impossible. This was an exact parallel to the case of Sarah and Abraham, Gen 11:30; Gen 17:17. Christ must (by the miraculous power of God) be born of a virgin: whatever was connected with, or referred to, his incarnation must be miraculous and impressive. Isaac was his grand type, and therefore must be born miraculously - contrary to the common course and rule of nature: Abraham was a hundred years of age, Sarah was ninety, Gen 17:17, and it had Ceased to be with Sarah After The Manner Of Women, Gen 18:11, and therefore, from her age and state, the birth of a child must, according to nature, have been impossible; and it was thus; that it might be miraculous. John the Baptist was to be the forerunner of Christ; his birth, like that of Isaac, must be miraculous, because, like the other, it was to be a representation of the birth of Christ; therefore his parents were both far advanced in years, and besides, Elisabeth was naturally barren. The birth of these three extraordinary persons was announced nearly in the same way. God himself foretells the birth of Isaac, Gen 17:16. The angel of the Lord announces the birth of John the Baptist, Luk 1:13; and six months after, the angel Gabriel, the same angel, proclaims to Mary the birth of Christ! Man is naturally an inconsiderate and incredulous creature: he must have extraordinary things to arrest and fix his attention; and he requires well-attested miracles from God, to bespeak and confirm his faith. Every person who has properly considered the nature of man must see that the whole of natural religion, so termed, is little else than a disbelief of all religion.

Clarke: Luk 1:8 - Before God Before God - In the temple, where God used to manifest his presence, though long before this time he had forsaken it; yet, on this important occasio...

Before God - In the temple, where God used to manifest his presence, though long before this time he had forsaken it; yet, on this important occasion, the angel of his presence had visited it.

Clarke: Luk 1:9 - His lot was, etc. His lot was, etc. - We are informed in the Talmud, that it was the custom of the priests to divide the different functions of the sacerdotal office ...

His lot was, etc. - We are informed in the Talmud, that it was the custom of the priests to divide the different functions of the sacerdotal office among themselves by lot: and, in this case, the decision of the lot was, that Zacharias should at that time burn the incense before the Lord, in the holy place.

Clarke: Luk 1:10 - The whole multitude - were praying The whole multitude - were praying - The incense was itself an emblem of the prayers and praises of the people of God: see Psa 141:2; Rev 8:1. While...

The whole multitude - were praying - The incense was itself an emblem of the prayers and praises of the people of God: see Psa 141:2; Rev 8:1. While, therefore, the rite is performing by the priest, the people are employed in the thing signified. Happy the people who attend to the spirit as well as the letter of every divine institution! Incense was burnt twice a day in the temple, in the morning and in the evening, Exo 30:7, Exo 30:8; but the evangelist does not specify the time of the day in which this transaction took place. It was probably in the morning.

Clarke: Luk 1:11 - There appeared - an angel of the Lord There appeared - an angel of the Lord - There had been neither prophecy nor angelic ministry vouchsafed to this people for about 400 years. But now,...

There appeared - an angel of the Lord - There had been neither prophecy nor angelic ministry vouchsafed to this people for about 400 years. But now, as the Sun of righteousness is about to arise upon them, the day-spring from on high visits them, that they may be prepared for that kingdom of God which was at hand. Every circumstance here is worthy of remark

1.    That an angel should now appear, as such a favor had not been granted for 400 years

2.    The person to whom this angel was sent - one of the priests. The sacerdotal office itself pointed out the Son of God till he came: by him it was to be completed, and in him it was to be eternally established: - Thou art a priest for ever, Psa 110:4

3.    The place in which the angel appeared - Jerusalem; out of which the word of the Lord should go forth, Isa 2:3, and not at Hebron, in the hill country of Judea, where Zacharias lived, Luk 1:39, which was the ordinary residence of the priests, Jos 21:11, where there could have been few witnesses of this interposition of God, and the effects produced by it

4.    The place where he was when the angel appeared to him - in the temple, which was the place where God was to be sought; the place of his residence, and a type of the human nature of the blessed Jesus, Joh 2:21

5.    The time in which this was done - the solemn hour of public prayer. God has always promised to be present with those who call upon him. When the people and the priest go hand in hand, and heart with heart, to the house of God, the angel of his presence shall surely accompany them, and God shall appear among them

6.    The employment of Zacharias when the angel appeared - he was burning incense, one of the most sacred and mysterious functions of the Levitical priesthood, and which typified the intercession of Christ: confer Heb 7:25, with Heb 9:24

7.    The long continued and publicly known dumbness of the priest, who doubted the word thus miraculously sent to him from the Lord: a solemn intimation of what God would do to all those who would not believe in the Lord Jesus. Every mouth shall be stopped.

Clarke: Luk 1:12 - Zacharias - was troubled Zacharias - was troubled - Or, confounded at his sudden and unexpected appearance; and fear fell upon him, lest this heavenly messenger were come to...

Zacharias - was troubled - Or, confounded at his sudden and unexpected appearance; and fear fell upon him, lest this heavenly messenger were come to denounce the judgments of God against a faithless and disobedient people, who had too long and too well merited them.

Clarke: Luk 1:13 - Thy prayer is heard Thy prayer is heard - This probably refers 1st, to the frequent prayers which he had offered to God for a son; an 2dly, to those which he had offere...

Thy prayer is heard - This probably refers

1st, to the frequent prayers which he had offered to God for a son; an

2dly, to those which he had offered for the deliverance and consolation of Israel

They are all heard - thou shalt have a son, and Israel shall be saved. If fervent faithful prayers be not immediately answered, they should not be considered as lost; all such are heard by the Lord, are registered in heaven, and shall be answered in the most effectual way, and in the best time. Answers to prayer are to be received by faith; but faith should not only accompany prayer while offered on earth, but follow it all its way to the throne of grace, and stay with it before the throne till dismissed with its answer to the waiting soul

Clarke: Luk 1:13 - Thou shalt call his name John Thou shalt call his name John - For the proper exposition of this name, see on Mar 1:4 (note).

Thou shalt call his name John - For the proper exposition of this name, see on Mar 1:4 (note).

Clarke: Luk 1:14 - Thou shalt have joy, etc. Thou shalt have joy, etc. - ΕϚαι χαρα σοι, He will be joy and gladness to thee. A child of prayer and faith is likely to be a source of ...

Thou shalt have joy, etc. - ΕϚαι χαρα σοι, He will be joy and gladness to thee. A child of prayer and faith is likely to be a source of comfort to his parents. Were proper attention paid to this point, there would be fewer disobedient children in the world; and the number of broken-hearted parents would be lessened. But what can be expected from the majority of matrimonial connections, connections begun without the fear of God, and carried on without his love

Clarke: Luk 1:14 - Many shall rejoice at his birth Many shall rejoice at his birth - He shall be the minister of God for good to multitudes, who shall, through his preaching, be turned from the error...

Many shall rejoice at his birth - He shall be the minister of God for good to multitudes, who shall, through his preaching, be turned from the error of their ways, and converted to God their Savior.

Clarke: Luk 1:15 - He shall be great in the sight of the Lord He shall be great in the sight of the Lord - That is, before Jesus Christ, whose forerunner he shall be; or he shall be a truly great person, for so...

He shall be great in the sight of the Lord - That is, before Jesus Christ, whose forerunner he shall be; or he shall be a truly great person, for so this form of speech may imply

Clarke: Luk 1:15 - Neither wine nor strong drink Neither wine nor strong drink - Σικερα, i.e. all fermented liquors which have the property of intoxicating, or producing drunkenness. The ori...

Neither wine nor strong drink - Σικερα, i.e. all fermented liquors which have the property of intoxicating, or producing drunkenness. The original word σικερα, sikera , comes from the Hebrew, שכר shakar , to inebriate. "Any inebriating liquor,"says St. Jerome, (Epis. ad Nepot)."is called sicera, whether made of corn, apples, honey, dates, or any other fruits."One of the four prohibited liquors among the East Indian Moslimans is called sikkir . "Sikkir is made by steeping fresh dates in water till they take effect in sweetening it: this liquor is abominable and unlawful."Hedaya, vol. iv. p. 158. Probably this is the very liquor referred to in the text. In the Institutes of Menu it is said, "Inebriating liquor may be considered as of three principal sorts: that extracted from dregs of sugar, that extracted from bruised rice, and that extracted from the flowers of the madhuca: as one, so are all; they shall not be tasted by the chief of the twice-born."Chap. xi. Inst. 95. Twice-born is used by the Brahmins in the same sense as being born again is used by Christians. It signifies a spiritual regeneration. From this word comes our English term cyder, or sider, a beverage made of the fermented juice of apples. See the note on Lev 10:9

Clarke: Luk 1:15 - Shall be filled with the Holy Ghost Shall be filled with the Holy Ghost - Shall be Divinely designated to this particular office, and qualified for it, from his mother’ s womb - f...

Shall be filled with the Holy Ghost - Shall be Divinely designated to this particular office, and qualified for it, from his mother’ s womb - from the instant of his birth. One MS., two versions, and four of the primitive fathers read εν τῃ κοιλιᾳ, In the womb of his mother - intimating that even before he should be born into the world the Holy Spirit should be communicated to him. Did not this take place on the salutation of the Virgin Mary? - and is not this what is intended, Luk 1:44? To be filled with the Holy Ghost, implies having the soul influenced in all its powers, with the illuminating, strengthening, and sanctifying energy of the Spirit.

Clarke: Luk 1:16 - Many of the children of Israel shall he turn Many of the children of Israel shall he turn - See this prediction fulfilled, Luk 3:10-18.

Many of the children of Israel shall he turn - See this prediction fulfilled, Luk 3:10-18.

Clarke: Luk 1:17 - He shall go before him He shall go before him - Jesus Christ, in the spirit and power of Elijah; he shall resemble Elijah in his retired and austere manner of life, and in...

He shall go before him - Jesus Christ, in the spirit and power of Elijah; he shall resemble Elijah in his retired and austere manner of life, and in his zeal for the truth, reproving even princes for their crimes; compare 1Ki 21:17-24, with Mat 14:4. It was on these accounts that the Prophet Malachi, Mal 4:6, had likened John to this prophet. See also Isa 40:3; and Mal 4:5, Mal 4:6

Clarke: Luk 1:17 - To turn the hearts of the fathers To turn the hearts of the fathers - Gross ignorance had taken place in the hearts of the Jewish people; they needed a Divine instructer: John is ann...

To turn the hearts of the fathers - Gross ignorance had taken place in the hearts of the Jewish people; they needed a Divine instructer: John is announced as such; by this preaching and manner of life, all classes among the people should be taught the nature of their several places, and the duties respectively incumbent upon them, See Luk 3:10, etc. In these things the greatness of John, mentioned Luk 1:15, is pointed out, Nothing is truly great but what is so in the sight of God. John’ s greatness arose

1.    From the plenitude of God’ s Spirit which dwelt in him

2.    From his continual self-denial, and taking up his cross

3.    From his ardent zeal to make Christ known

4.    From his fidelity and courage in rebuking vice

5.    From the reformation which he was the instrument of effecting among the people; reviving among them the spirit of the patriarchs, and preparing their hearts to receive the Lord Jesus

To turn the hearts of the fathers to their children. By a very expressive figure of speech, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and the rest of the patriarchs, are represented here as having their hearts alienated from the Jews, their children, because of their unbelief and disobedience; but that the Baptist should so far succeed in converting them to the Lord their God, that these holy men should again look upon them with delight, and acknowledge them for their children. Some think that by the children, the Gentiles are meant, and by the fathers, the Jews

Clarke: Luk 1:17 - The disobedient The disobedient - Or unbelieving, απειθεις, the persons who would no longer credit the predictions of the prophets, relative to the manifes...

The disobedient - Or unbelieving, απειθεις, the persons who would no longer credit the predictions of the prophets, relative to the manifestation of the Messiah. Unbelief and disobedience are so intimately connected, that the same word in the sacred writings often serves for both.

Clarke: Luk 1:18 - Whereby shall I know this? Whereby shall I know this? - All things are possible to God: no natural impediment can have any power when God has declared he will accomplish his p...

Whereby shall I know this? - All things are possible to God: no natural impediment can have any power when God has declared he will accomplish his purpose. He has a right to be believed on his own word alone; and it is impious, when we are convinced that it is his word, to demand a sign or pledge for its fulfillment.

Clarke: Luk 1:19 - I am Gabriel I am Gabriel - This angel is mentioned, Dan 8:16; Dan 9:21. The original גבריאל is exceedingly expressive: it is compounded of גבורה g...

I am Gabriel - This angel is mentioned, Dan 8:16; Dan 9:21. The original גבריאל is exceedingly expressive: it is compounded of גבורה geburah , and אל el , the might of the strong God. An angel with such a name was exceedingly proper for the occasion; as it pointed out that all-prevalent power by which the strong God could accomplish every purpose, and subdue all things to himself

Clarke: Luk 1:19 - That stand in the presence of God That stand in the presence of God - This is in allusion to the case of the prime minister of an eastern monarch, who alone has access to his master ...

That stand in the presence of God - This is in allusion to the case of the prime minister of an eastern monarch, who alone has access to his master at all times; and is therefore said, in the eastern phrase, to see the presence, or to be in the presence. From the allusion we may conceive the angel Gabriel to be in a state of high favor and trust before God.

Clarke: Luk 1:20 - Thou shalt be dumb Thou shalt be dumb - Σιωπων silent; this translation is literal; the angel immediately explains it, thou shalt not be able to speak. Dumbnes...

Thou shalt be dumb - Σιωπων silent; this translation is literal; the angel immediately explains it, thou shalt not be able to speak. Dumbness ordinarily proceeds from a natural imperfection or debility of the organs of speech; in this case there was no natural weakness or unfitness in those organs; but, for his rash and unbelieving speech, silence is imposed upon him by the Lord, and he shall not be able to break it, till the power that has silenced him gives him again the permission to speak! Let those who are intemperate in the use of their tongues behold here the severity and mercy of the Lord; nine months’ silence for one intemperate speech! Many, by giving way to the language of unbelief, have lost the language of praise and thanksgiving for months, if not years!

Clarke: Luk 1:21 - The people waited The people waited - The time spent in burning the incense was probably about half an hour, during which there was a profound silence, as the people ...

The people waited - The time spent in burning the incense was probably about half an hour, during which there was a profound silence, as the people stood without engaged in mental prayer. To this there is an allusion in Rev 8:1-5. Zacharias had spent not only the time necessary for burning the incense, but also that which the discourse between him and the angel took up.

Clarke: Luk 1:22 - They perceived that he had seen a vision They perceived that he had seen a vision - As the sanctuary was separated from the court by a great veil, the people could not see what passed, but ...

They perceived that he had seen a vision - As the sanctuary was separated from the court by a great veil, the people could not see what passed, but they understood this from Zacharias himself, who, ην διανευων, made signs, or nodded unto them to that purpose. Signs are the only means by which a dumb man can convey his ideas to others.

Clarke: Luk 1:23 - As soon as the days of his ministration were accomplished As soon as the days of his ministration were accomplished - Each family of the priesthood officiated one whole week, 2Ki 11:17 There is something ve...

As soon as the days of his ministration were accomplished - Each family of the priesthood officiated one whole week, 2Ki 11:17

There is something very instructive in the conduct of this priest; had he not loved the service he was engaged in, he might have made the loss of his speech a pretext for immediately quitting it. But as he was not thereby disabled from fulfilling the sacerdotal function, so he saw he was bound to continue till his ministry was ended; or till God had given him a positive dismission. Preachers who give up their labor in the vineyard because of some trifling bodily disorder by which they are afflicted, or through some inconvenience in outward circumstances, which the follower of a cross-bearing, crucified Lord should not mention, show that they either never had a proper concern for the honor of their Master or for the salvation of men, or else that they have lost the spirit of their Master, and the spirit of their work. Again, Zacharias did not hasten to his house to tell his wife the good news that he had received from heaven, in which she was certainly very much interested: the angel had promised that all his words should be fulfilled in their season, and for this season he patiently waited in the path of duty. He had engaged in the work of the Lord, and must pay no attention to any thing that was likely to mar or interrupt his religious service. Preachers who profess to be called of God to labor in the word and doctrine, and who abandon their work for filthy lucre’ s sake, are the most contemptible of mortals, and traitors to their God.

Clarke: Luk 1:24 - Hid herself five months Hid herself five months - That she might have the fullest proof of the accomplishment of God’ s promise before she appeared in public, or spoke...

Hid herself five months - That she might have the fullest proof of the accomplishment of God’ s promise before she appeared in public, or spoke of her mercies. When a Hindoo female is pregnant of her first child, she avoids the presence of those with whom she was before familiar, as a point of delicacy.

Clarke: Luk 1:25 - To take away my reproach To take away my reproach - As fruitfulness was a part of the promise of God to his people, Gen 17:6, and children, on this account, being considered...

To take away my reproach - As fruitfulness was a part of the promise of God to his people, Gen 17:6, and children, on this account, being considered as a particular blessing from heaven, Exo 23:20; Lev 26:9 : Psa 127:3; so barrenness was considered among the Jews as a reproach, and a token of the disapprobation of the Lord. 1Sa 1:6. But see Luk 1:36.

Clarke: Luk 1:26 - A city of Galilee A city of Galilee - As Joseph and Mary were both of the family of David, the patrimonial estate of which lay in Bethlehem, it seems as if the family...

A city of Galilee - As Joseph and Mary were both of the family of David, the patrimonial estate of which lay in Bethlehem, it seems as if the family residence should have been in that city, and not in Nazareth; for we find that, even after the return from the captivity, the several families went to reside in those cities to which they originally belonged. See Neh 11:3. But it is probable that the holy family removed to Galilee for fear of exciting the jealousy of Herod, who had usurped that throne to which they had an indisputable right. See on Luk 2:39 (note). Thus, by keeping out of the way, they avoided the effects of his jealousy.

Clarke: Luk 1:27 - To a virgin espoused, etc. To a virgin espoused, etc. - See on Mat 1:18, Mat 1:23 (note). The reflections of pious father Quesnel on this subject are worthy of serious regard....

To a virgin espoused, etc. - See on Mat 1:18, Mat 1:23 (note). The reflections of pious father Quesnel on this subject are worthy of serious regard. At length the moment is come which is to give a son to a virgin, a saviour to the world, a pattern to mankind, a sacrifice to sinners, a temple to the Divinity, and a new principle to the new world. This angel is sent from God, not to the palaces of the great, but to a poor maid, the wife of a carpenter. The Son of God comes to humble the proud, and to honor poverty, weakness, and contempt. He chooses an obscure place for the mystery which is most glorious to his humanity, its union with the Divinity, and for that which is most degrading (his sufferings and death) he will choose the greatest city! How far are men from such a conduct as this!

Clarke: Luk 1:28 - And the angel came in unto her And the angel came in unto her - Some think that all this business was transacted in a vision; and that there was no personal appearance of the ange...

And the angel came in unto her - Some think that all this business was transacted in a vision; and that there was no personal appearance of the angel. When Divine visions were given, they are announced as such, in the sacred writings; nor can we with safety attribute any thing to a vision, where a Divine communication is made, unless it be specified as such in the text

Clarke: Luk 1:28 - Hail Hail - Analogous to, Peace be to thee - May thou enjoy all possible blessings

Hail - Analogous to, Peace be to thee - May thou enjoy all possible blessings

Clarke: Luk 1:28 - Highly favored Highly favored - As being chosen in preference to all the women upon earth, to be the mother of the Messiah. Not the mother of God, for that is blas...

Highly favored - As being chosen in preference to all the women upon earth, to be the mother of the Messiah. Not the mother of God, for that is blasphemy

Clarke: Luk 1:28 - The Lord is with thee The Lord is with thee - Thou art about to receive the most convincing proofs of God’ s peculiar favor towards thee

The Lord is with thee - Thou art about to receive the most convincing proofs of God’ s peculiar favor towards thee

Clarke: Luk 1:28 - Blessed art thou among women Blessed art thou among women - That is, thou art favored beyond all others.

Blessed art thou among women - That is, thou art favored beyond all others.

Clarke: Luk 1:29 - She was troubled at his saying She was troubled at his saying - The glorious appearance of the heavenly messenger filled her with amazement; and she was puzzled to find out the pu...

She was troubled at his saying - The glorious appearance of the heavenly messenger filled her with amazement; and she was puzzled to find out the purport of his speech.

Clarke: Luk 1:31 - Thou - shalt call his name Jesus Thou - shalt call his name Jesus - See on Mat 1:20, Mat 1:21 (note), and here, on Luk 2:21 (note), and Joh 1:29 (note).

Thou - shalt call his name Jesus - See on Mat 1:20, Mat 1:21 (note), and here, on Luk 2:21 (note), and Joh 1:29 (note).

Clarke: Luk 1:32 - He shall be great He shall be great - Behold the greatness of the man Christ Jesus 1st. Because that human nature that should be born of the virgin was to be united w...

He shall be great - Behold the greatness of the man Christ Jesus

1st. Because that human nature that should be born of the virgin was to be united with the Divine nature

2dly. In consequence of this, that human nature should be called in a peculiar sense the Son of the most high God; because God would produce it in her womb without the intervention of man

3rdly. He shall be the everlasting Head and Sovereign of his Church

4thly. His government and kingdom shall be eternal

Revolutions may destroy the kingdoms of the earth, but the powers and gates of hell and death shall never be able to destroy or injure the kingdom of Christ. His is the only dominion that shall never have an end. The angel seems here to refer to Isa 9:7; Isa 16:5; Jer 23:5; Dan 2:44; Dan 7:14. All which prophecies speak of the glory, extent, and perpetuity of the evangelical kingdom. The kingdom of grace and the kingdom of glory form the endless government of Christ.

Clarke: Luk 1:33 - The house of Jacob The house of Jacob - All who belong to the twelve tribes, the whole Israelitish people.

The house of Jacob - All who belong to the twelve tribes, the whole Israelitish people.

Clarke: Luk 1:34 - Seeing I know not a man Seeing I know not a man - Or, husband. As she was only contracted to Joseph, and not as yet married, she knew that this conception could not have ye...

Seeing I know not a man - Or, husband. As she was only contracted to Joseph, and not as yet married, she knew that this conception could not have yet taken place; and she modestly inquires by what means the promise of the angel is to be fulfilled in order to regulate her conduct accordingly.

Clarke: Luk 1:35 - The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee - This conception shall take place suddenly, and the Holy Spirit himself shall be the grand operator. The power,...

The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee - This conception shall take place suddenly, and the Holy Spirit himself shall be the grand operator. The power, δυναμις, the miracle-working power, of the Most High shall overshadow thee, to accomplish this purpose, and to protect thee from danger. As there is a plain allusion to the Spirit of God brooding over the face of the waters, to render them prolific, Gen 1:2, I am the more firmly established in the opinion advanced on Mat 1:20, that the rudiments of the human nature of Christ was a real creation in the womb of the virgin, by the energy of the Spirit of God

Clarke: Luk 1:35 - Therefore also that holy thing (or person) - shall be called the Son of God Therefore also that holy thing (or person) - shall be called the Son of God - We may plainly perceive here, that the angel does not give the appella...

Therefore also that holy thing (or person) - shall be called the Son of God - We may plainly perceive here, that the angel does not give the appellation of Son of God to the Divine nature of Christ; but to that holy person or thing, το ἁγιον, which was to be born of the virgin, by the energy of the Holy Spirit. The Divine nature could not be born of the virgin; the human nature was born of her. The Divine nature had no beginning; it was God manifested in the flesh, 1Ti 3:16; it was that Word which being in the beginning (from eternity) with God, Joh 1:2, was afterwards made flesh, (became manifest in human nature), and tabernacled among us, Joh 1:14. Of this Divine nature the angel does not particularly speak here, but of the tabernacle or shrine which God was now preparing for it, viz. the holy thing that was to be born of the virgin. Two natures must ever be distinguished in Christ: the human nature, in reference to which he is the Son of God and inferior to him, Mar 13:32; Joh 5:19; Joh 14:28, and the Divine nature which was from eternity, and equal to God, Joh 1:1; Joh 10:30; Rom 9:5; Col 1:16-18. It is true, that to Jesus the Christ, as he appeared among men, every characteristic of the Divine nature is sometimes attributed, without appearing to make any distinction between the Divine and human natures; but is there any part of the Scriptures in which it is plainly said that the Divine nature of Jesus was the Son of God? Here, I trust, I may be permitted to say, with all due respect for those who differ from me, that the doctrine of the eternal Sonship of Christ is, in my opinion, anti-scriptural, and highly dangerous. This doctrine I reject for the following reasons: -

1st. I have not been able to find any express declaration in the Scriptures concerning it

2dly. If Christ be the Son of God as to his Divine nature, then he cannot be eternal; for son implies a father; and father implies, in reference to son, precedency in time, if not in nature too. Father and son imply the idea of generation; and generation implies a time in which it was effected, and time also antecedent to such generation

3dly. If Christ be the Son of God, as to his Divine nature, then the Father is of necessity prior, consequently superior to him

4thly. Again, if this Divine nature were begotten of the Father, then it must be in time; i.e. there was a period in which it did not exist, and a period when it began to exist. This destroys the eternity of our blessed Lord, and robs him at once of his Godhead

5thly. To say that he was begotten from all eternity, is, in my opinion, absurd; and the phrase eternal Son is a positive self-contradiction. Eternity is that which has had no beginning, nor stands in any reference to Time. Son supposes time, generation, and father; and time also antecedent to such generation. Therefore the conjunction of these two terms, Son and eternity is absolutely impossible, as they imply essentially different and opposite ideas

The enemies of Christ’ s Divinity have, in all ages, availed themselves of this incautious method of treating this subject, and on this ground, have ever had the advantage of the defenders of the Godhead of Christ. This doctrine of the eternal Sonship destroys the deity of Christ; now, if his deity be taken away, the whole Gospel scheme of redemption is ruined. On this ground, the atonement of Christ cannot have been of infinite merit, and consequently could not purchase pardon for the offenses of mankind, nor give any right to, or possession of, an eternal glory. The very use of this phrase is both absurd and dangerous; therefore let all those who value Jesus and their salvation abide by the Scriptures. This doctrine of the eternal Sonship, as it has been lately explained in many a pamphlet, and many a paper in magazines, I must and do consider as an awful heresy, and mere sheer Arianism; which, in many cases, has terminated in Socinianism, and that in Deism. From such heterodoxies, and their abetters, may God save his Church! Amen!

Clarke: Luk 1:36 - Thy cousin Elisabeth Thy cousin Elisabeth - Thy kinswoman, συγγενης . As Elisabeth was of the tribe of Levi, Luk 1:5, and Mary of the tribe of Judah, they could...

Thy cousin Elisabeth - Thy kinswoman, συγγενης . As Elisabeth was of the tribe of Levi, Luk 1:5, and Mary of the tribe of Judah, they could not be relatives but by the mother’ s side

Clarke: Luk 1:36 - She hath also conceived She hath also conceived - And this is wrought by the same power and energy through which thou shalt conceive. Thus God has given thee a proof and pl...

She hath also conceived - And this is wrought by the same power and energy through which thou shalt conceive. Thus God has given thee a proof and pledge, in what he has done for Elisabeth, of what he will do for thyself; therefore, have faith in God

Clarke: Luk 1:36 - Who was called barren Who was called barren - It is probable that Elisabeth got this appellative by way of reproach; or to distinguish her from some other Elisabeth also ...

Who was called barren - It is probable that Elisabeth got this appellative by way of reproach; or to distinguish her from some other Elisabeth also well known, who had been blessed with children. Perhaps this is the reproach which Elisabeth speaks of, Luk 1:25, her common name among men, among the people who knew her, being Elisabeth the barren.

Clarke: Luk 1:37 - For with God nothing shall be impossible For with God nothing shall be impossible - Words of the very same import with those spoken by the Lord to Sarah, when he foretold the birth of Isaac...

For with God nothing shall be impossible - Words of the very same import with those spoken by the Lord to Sarah, when he foretold the birth of Isaac, Gen 18:14, Is any thing too hard for the Lord? As there can be no doubt that Mary perceived this allusion to the promise and birth of Isaac, so she must have had her faith considerably strengthened by reflecting on the intervention of God in that case.

Clarke: Luk 1:38 - Behold the handmaid of the Lord Behold the handmaid of the Lord - I fully credit what thou sayest, and am perfectly ready to obey thy commands, and to accomplish all the purposes o...

Behold the handmaid of the Lord - I fully credit what thou sayest, and am perfectly ready to obey thy commands, and to accomplish all the purposes of thy grace concerning me. It appears that at the instant of this act of faith, and purposed obedience, the conception of the immaculate humanity of Jesus took place; and it was Done unto her according to his word. See Luk 1:35.

Clarke: Luk 1:39 - In those days In those days - As soon as she could conveniently fit herself out for the journey

In those days - As soon as she could conveniently fit herself out for the journey

Clarke: Luk 1:39 - Hill country Hill country - Hebron, the city of the priests, Jos 21:11, which was situated in the tribe of Judah, about forty miles south of Jerusalem, and upwar...

Hill country - Hebron, the city of the priests, Jos 21:11, which was situated in the tribe of Judah, about forty miles south of Jerusalem, and upwards of seventy from Nazareth

Clarke: Luk 1:39 - With haste With haste - This probably refers to nothing else than the earnestness of her mind to visit her relative Elisabeth, and to see what the Lord had wro...

With haste - This probably refers to nothing else than the earnestness of her mind to visit her relative Elisabeth, and to see what the Lord had wrought for her.

Clarke: Luk 1:41 - Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost - This seems to have been the accomplishment of the promise made by the angel, Luk 1:15, He shall be filled...

Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost - This seems to have been the accomplishment of the promise made by the angel, Luk 1:15, He shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother’ s womb. The mother is filled with the Holy Spirit, and the child in her womb becomes sensible of the Divine influence.

Clarke: Luk 1:42 - Blessed art thou among women Blessed art thou among women - Repeating the words of the angel, Luk 1:28, of which she had probably been informed by the holy virgin, in the presen...

Blessed art thou among women - Repeating the words of the angel, Luk 1:28, of which she had probably been informed by the holy virgin, in the present interview.

Clarke: Luk 1:43 - The mother of my Lord The mother of my Lord - The prophetic spirit, which appears to have overshadowed Elisabeth, gave her a clear understanding in the mystery of the bir...

The mother of my Lord - The prophetic spirit, which appears to have overshadowed Elisabeth, gave her a clear understanding in the mystery of the birth of the promised Messiah.

Clarke: Luk 1:45 - Blessed is she that believed; for there shall be, etc. Blessed is she that believed; for there shall be, etc. - Or, Blessed is she who hath believed that there shall be, etc. This I believe to be the pro...

Blessed is she that believed; for there shall be, etc. - Or, Blessed is she who hath believed that there shall be, etc. This I believe to be the proper arrangement of the passage, and is thus noticed in the marginal reading. Faith is here represented as the foundation of true happiness, because it receives the fulfillment of God’ s promises. Whatever God has promised, he intends to perform. We should believe whatever he has spoken - his own authority is a sufficient reason why we should believe. Let us only be convinced that God has given the promise, and then implicit faith becomes an indispensable duty: in this case not to believe implicitly would be absurd and unreasonable - God will perform his promise, for He cannot lie.

Clarke: Luk 1:46 - And Mary said And Mary said - Two copies of the Itala, and some books mentioned by Origen, give this song to Elisabeth. It is a counterpart of the song of Hannah,...

And Mary said - Two copies of the Itala, and some books mentioned by Origen, give this song to Elisabeth. It is a counterpart of the song of Hannah, as related in 1Sa 2:1-10

This is allowed by many to be the first piece of poetry in the New Testament; but the address of the angel to Zacharias, Luk 1:13-17, is delivered in the same way; so is that to the virgin, Luk 1:30-33, and so also is Elisabeth’ s answer to Mary, Luk 1:42-45. All these portions are easily reducible to the hemistich form in which the Hebrew poetry of the Old Testament is found in many MSS., and in which Dr. Kennicott has arranged the Psalms, and other poetical parts of the Sacred Writings. See his Hebrew Bible

Clarke: Luk 1:46 - My soul doth magnify the Lord My soul doth magnify the Lord - The verb μεγαλυνειν, Kypke has proved, signifies to celebrate with words, to extol with praises. This is ...

My soul doth magnify the Lord - The verb μεγαλυνειν, Kypke has proved, signifies to celebrate with words, to extol with praises. This is the only way in which God can be magnified, or made great; for, strictly speaking, nothing can be added to God, for he is infinite and eternal; therefore the way to magnify him is to show forth and celebrate those acts in which he has manifested his greatness.

Clarke: Luk 1:47 - My spirit hath rejoiced My spirit hath rejoiced - Exulted. These words are uncommonly emphatical - they show that Mary’ s whole soul was filled with the Divine influen...

My spirit hath rejoiced - Exulted. These words are uncommonly emphatical - they show that Mary’ s whole soul was filled with the Divine influence, and wrapped up in God.

Clarke: Luk 1:48 - He hath regarded He hath regarded - Looked favorably, etc., επεβλεψεν . In the most tender and compassionate manner he has visited me in my humiliation, dr...

He hath regarded - Looked favorably, etc., επεβλεψεν . In the most tender and compassionate manner he has visited me in my humiliation, drawing the reasons of his conduct, not from any excellence in me, but from his own eternal kindness and love

Clarke: Luk 1:48 - All generations shall call me blessed All generations shall call me blessed - This was the character by which alone she wished to be known; viz. The blessed or happy virgin. What dishono...

All generations shall call me blessed - This was the character by which alone she wished to be known; viz. The blessed or happy virgin. What dishonor do those do to this holy woman, who give her names and characters which her pure soul would abhor; and which properly belong to God her Savior! By her votaries she is addressed as Queen of Heaven, Mother of God, etc., titles both absurd and blasphemous.

Clarke: Luk 1:49 - He that is mighty hath done to me great things He that is mighty hath done to me great things - Or, miracles, μεγαλεια . As God fills her with his goodness, she empties herself to him in...

He that is mighty hath done to me great things - Or, miracles, μεγαλεια . As God fills her with his goodness, she empties herself to him in praises; and, sinking into her own nothingness, she ever confesses that God alone is all in all

Clarke: Luk 1:49 - Holy is his name Holy is his name - Probably the word which Mary used was חסד chesed , which though we sometimes translate holy, see Psa 86:2; Psa 145:17, yet th...

Holy is his name - Probably the word which Mary used was חסד chesed , which though we sometimes translate holy, see Psa 86:2; Psa 145:17, yet the proper meaning is abundant goodness, exuberant kindness; and this well agrees with the following clause.

Clarke: Luk 1:50 - His mercy is on them that fear him His mercy is on them that fear him - His exuberant kindness manifests itself in acts of mercy to all those who fear or reverence his name; and this ...

His mercy is on them that fear him - His exuberant kindness manifests itself in acts of mercy to all those who fear or reverence his name; and this is continued from generation to generation, because he is abundant in goodness, and because he delighteth in mercy. This is a noble, becoming, and just character of the God of the Christians; a being who delights in the salvation and happiness of all his creatures, because his name is mercy, and his nature love.

Clarke: Luk 1:51 - He hath showed strength He hath showed strength - Or, He hath gained the victory, εποιησε κρατος . The word κρατος is used for victory, by Homer, Hesi...

He hath showed strength - Or, He hath gained the victory, εποιησε κρατος . The word κρατος is used for victory, by Homer, Hesiod, Sophocles, Euripides, and others

Clarke: Luk 1:51 - With his arm With his arm - Grotius has well observed, that God’ s efficacy is represented by his finger, his great power by his hand, and his omnipotence b...

With his arm - Grotius has well observed, that God’ s efficacy is represented by his finger, his great power by his hand, and his omnipotence by his arm. The plague of lice was the finger of God, Exo 7:18. The plagues in general were wrought by his hand, Exo 3:20, And the destruction of Pharaoh’ s host in the Red Sea, which was effected by the omnipotence of God, is called the act of his arm, Exo 15:16

Clarke: Luk 1:51 - He hath scattered He hath scattered - Διεσκορπισεν, hath scattered abroad; as a whirlwind scatters dust and chaff

He hath scattered - Διεσκορπισεν, hath scattered abroad; as a whirlwind scatters dust and chaff

Clarke: Luk 1:51 - The proud The proud - Or haughty, ὑπερηφανους ; from ὑπερ above, and φαινω I show - the haughty men, who wish to be noticed in pr...

The proud - Or haughty, ὑπερηφανους ; from ὑπερ above, and φαινω I show - the haughty men, who wish to be noticed in preference to all others, and feel sovereign contempt for all but themselves. These God scatters abroad - instead of being in his sight, as in their own, the most excellent of the earth, he treats them as straw, stubble, chaff, and dust

Clarke: Luk 1:51 - In the imagination of their hearts In the imagination of their hearts - While they are forming their insolent, proud, and oppressive projects - laying their plans, and imagining that ...

In the imagination of their hearts - While they are forming their insolent, proud, and oppressive projects - laying their plans, and imagining that accomplishment and success are waiting at their right hand, the whirlwind of God’ s displeasure blows, and they and their machinations are dissipated together.

Clarke: Luk 1:52 - He hath put down the mighty from their seats He hath put down the mighty from their seats - Or, He hath taken down potentates from their thrones. This probably alludes to the removal of Saul fr...

He hath put down the mighty from their seats - Or, He hath taken down potentates from their thrones. This probably alludes to the removal of Saul from the throne of Israel, and the establishment of the kingdom in the person and family of David. And as Mary spoke prophetically, this saying may also allude to the destruction of the kingdom of Satan and his allies, and the final prevalence of the kingdom of Christ.

Clarke: Luk 1:53 - Filled the hungry - the rich he hath sent empty away Filled the hungry - the rich he hath sent empty away - God is here represented under the notion of a person of unbounded benevolence, who is daily f...

Filled the hungry - the rich he hath sent empty away - God is here represented under the notion of a person of unbounded benevolence, who is daily feeding multitudes at his gates. The poor and the rich are equally dependent upon him; to the one he gives his affluence for a season, and to the other his daily bread. The poor man comes through a sense of his want to get his daily support, and God feeds him; the rich man comes through the lust of gain, to get more added to his abundance, and, God sends him empty away - not only gives him nothing more, but often deprives him of that which he has, because he has not improved it to the honor of the giver. There is an allusion here, as in several other parts of this song, to the case of Hannah and Peninah, as related 1Sa 1:2, etc.; 1Sa 2:1-10.

Clarke: Luk 1:54 - He hath holpen [supported, αντελαβετο ] his servant Israel He hath holpen [supported, αντελαβετο ] his servant Israel - Israel is here represented as falling, and the Lord comes speedily in and pr...

He hath holpen [supported, αντελαβετο ] his servant Israel - Israel is here represented as falling, and the Lord comes speedily in and props him up. The house of David was now ready to fall and rise no more; Jesus, being born of the very last branch of the regal line, revived the family, and restored the dominion

Clarke: Luk 1:54 - In remembrance of his mercy In remembrance of his mercy - By mercy, the covenant which God made with Abraham, Gen 15:18, is intended; which covenant proceeded from God’ s ...

In remembrance of his mercy - By mercy, the covenant which God made with Abraham, Gen 15:18, is intended; which covenant proceeded from God’ s eternal mercy, as in it salvation was promised to all the nations of the earth. See Gen 17:19, and Gen 22:18, and this promise was, in one form or other, given to all the fathers, Luk 1:55

This song properly consists of three parts

1.    In the first part Mary praises God for what he had done for herself, Luk 1:46-50

2.    In the second, she praises him for what he had done, and would do, against the oppressors of his people, Luk 1:51-53

3.    In the third, she praises him for what he had done, and would do, for his Church, Luk 1:53-56.

Clarke: Luk 1:56 - And Mary abode with her about three months And Mary abode with her about three months - According to some, the departure of Mary from Hebron must have been but a few days before the birth of ...

And Mary abode with her about three months - According to some, the departure of Mary from Hebron must have been but a few days before the birth of John; as nine months had now elapsed since Elisabeth’ s conception; see Luk 1:36. Hence it immediately follows: -

Clarke: Luk 1:57 - Now Elisabeth’ s full time came, etc. Now Elisabeth’ s full time came, etc. - But, according to others, we are to understand the three months of Mary’ s visit as preceding the ...

Now Elisabeth’ s full time came, etc. - But, according to others, we are to understand the three months of Mary’ s visit as preceding the birth of John, which would complete the time of Elisabeth’ s pregnancy, according to Luk 1:36, and the only difficulty is to ascertain whether Mary went immediately to Hebron after her salutation, or whether she tarried nearly three months before she took the journey.

Clarke: Luk 1:58 - And her neighbors and her cousins - rejoiced with her. And her neighbors and her cousins - rejoiced with her. - Because sterility was a reproach; and they now rejoiced with their relative, from whom that...

And her neighbors and her cousins - rejoiced with her. - Because sterility was a reproach; and they now rejoiced with their relative, from whom that reproach was now rolled away. To rejoice with those whom God has favored, and to congratulate them on the advantages which he has granted to them, is a duty which humanity, charity, and religion call upon us to fulfill

1.    It is a duty of humanity, which should be punctually performed. We are all members of each other, and should rejoice in the welfare of the whole. He who rejoices in his neighbor’ s prosperity increases his neighbor’ s happiness, and gets an addition to his own

2.    It is a duty which charity or brotherly love requires us to perform with sincerity. In the polite world, there is no duty better fulfilled in word than this is; but sincerity is utterly banished, and the giver and receiver are both convinced that compliments and good wishes mean - nothing. He who does not endeavor to take a sincere part in his neighbor’ s prosperity will soon feel ample punishment in the spirit of jealousy and envy

3.    It is a duty of religion, which should be fulfilled with piety. These neighbors and relatives saw that God had magnified his mercy towards Elisabeth, and they acknowledged his hand in the work. God is the dispenser of all good - he distributes his favors in mercy, judgment, and justice. Let us honor him in his gifts; and honor those, for his sake, who are objects of his favor. The society of believers are but one body; the talents, etc., of every individual are profitable to the whole community; at least none ate deprived of a share in the general welfare, but those who, through jealousy or envy, refuse to rejoice with him towards whom God hath magnified his mercy.

Clarke: Luk 1:59 - On the eighth day they came to circumcise On the eighth day they came to circumcise - See an account of this institution in the note on Gen 17:10-14 (note). Had circumcision been essential t...

On the eighth day they came to circumcise - See an account of this institution in the note on Gen 17:10-14 (note). Had circumcision been essential to an infant’ s salvation, God would not have ordered it to be delayed to the eighth day, because, in all countries, multitudes die before they arrive at that age. Baptism, which is generally allowed to have been substituted for circumcision, is no more necessary to the salvation of an infant than circumcision was. Both are signs of the covenant - circumcision, of the putting away the impurity of the flesh; and baptism, of the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost, producing the answer of a good conscience towards God. Confer 1Pe 3:21, with Tit 3:5. This should never be neglected: it is a sign and token of the spiritual grace

Clarke: Luk 1:59 - They called him Zacharias They called him Zacharias - Among the Jews, the child was named when it was circumcised, and ordinarily the name of the father was given to the firs...

They called him Zacharias - Among the Jews, the child was named when it was circumcised, and ordinarily the name of the father was given to the first-born son.

Clarke: Luk 1:60 - Not so; but he shall be called John Not so; but he shall be called John - This is the name which the angel desired should be given him, Luk 1:13, and of which Zacharias by writing had ...

Not so; but he shall be called John - This is the name which the angel desired should be given him, Luk 1:13, and of which Zacharias by writing had informed his wife. There is something very remarkable in the names of this family. Zachariah, זכריהו the memory or memorial of Jehovah; יהו yeho , at the end of the word, being contracted for יהוה Yehovah , as in many other names. Elisabeth, אליסבה the Sabbath or rest of my strong God: names probably given them by their parents, to point out some remarkable circumstance in their conception or birth. And John, which should always be written Jehochanan or Yehochanan, יהוחנן the grace or mercy of Jehovah: so named, because he was to go before and proclaim the God of all grace, and the mercy granted through him to a lost world. See Joh 1:29; see also Luk 3:16, and Mar 1:4.

Clarke: Luk 1:61 - None of thy kindred None of thy kindred - As the Jewish tribes and families were kept sacredly distinct, it appears the very names of the ancestors were continued among...

None of thy kindred - As the Jewish tribes and families were kept sacredly distinct, it appears the very names of the ancestors were continued among their descendants, partly through reverence for them, and partly to avoid confusion in the genealogical tables, which, for the sake of distinguishing the inheritances, were carefully preserved in each of the families. It seems to be on this account that the neighbors and relatives objected to a name which had not before existed in any branch of the family.

Clarke: Luk 1:62 - They made signs to his father They made signs to his father - Who, it appears from this, was deaf as well as dumb; otherwise they might have asked him, and obtained his answer in...

They made signs to his father - Who, it appears from this, was deaf as well as dumb; otherwise they might have asked him, and obtained his answer in this way.

Clarke: Luk 1:63 - A writing table A writing table - Πινακιδιον, a tablet, a diminutive of πιναξ, a table. "The boys in Barbary are taught to write upon a smooth thin...

A writing table - Πινακιδιον, a tablet, a diminutive of πιναξ, a table. "The boys in Barbary are taught to write upon a smooth thin board, slightly daubed over with whiting, which may be rubbed off or renewed at pleasure. Such probably (for the Jewish children use the same) was the little board, or writing table, as we render it Luk 1:63, that was called for by Zacharias."Shaw’ s Travels, p. 194. My old MS. considers the word as meaning the instrument of writing, rather than the tablet on which he wrote: and he aringe a poyntel, wroot seyinge, Joon is his name

A thin board, made out of the pine tree, smeared over with wax, was used among the ancients; and to this the Anglo-Saxon version seems to refer, as it translates πινακιδιον, a wax board or cloth

An intelligent friend has suggested a different mode of reading the 62nd and 63rd verses: Luk 1:62. And they asked his father how he would have him called? Luk 1:63. And he made signs for a writing table and wrote, His name is John: "For,"says my friend, "the 64th verse proves his mouth was not opened, neither his tongue loosed, till after the child was named; therefore he could not ask for the table; and it is more reasonable that he, being dumb, should make signs, than that those should who had the use of their tongues."But, howsoever ingenious this may be, neither the words of the Greek text, nor their construction, will bear this version.

Clarke: Luk 1:64 - And he spake, and praised God And he spake, and praised God - In his nine months’ silence, he had learned the proper use of his tongue; and God, whose power was discredited ...

And he spake, and praised God - In his nine months’ silence, he had learned the proper use of his tongue; and God, whose power was discredited by it, is now magnified. Happy they who, in religious matters, only break silence in order to speak of the loving-kindness of the Lord!

Clarke: Luk 1:65 - And fear came And fear came - Seeing what they might have thought a paralytic affection so suddenly and effectually healed. Φοβος - This word certainly mea...

And fear came - Seeing what they might have thought a paralytic affection so suddenly and effectually healed. Φοβος - This word certainly means in several places, religious fear or reverence; and in this sense it is used Act 9:31; Rom 3:18; Rom 13:7; 1Pe 1:17; 1Pe 2:18; 1Pe 3:2. The meaning of it here is plainly this: The inhabitants of Hebron and its environs, who were well acquainted with the circumstances of Zacharias and Elisabeth, perceived that God had in a remarkable manner visited them; and this begot in their minds a more than ordinary reverence for the Supreme Being. Thus the salvation of one often becomes an instrument of good to the souls of many. The inhabitants of this hill country seem to have been an open, honest-hearted, generous people; who were easily led to acknowledge the interposition of God, and to rejoice in the comfort and welfare of each other. The people of the country are more remarkable for these qualities than those in towns and cities. The latter, through that evil communication which corrupts good manners, are generally profligate, selfish, regardless of God, and inattentive to the operation of his hands.

Clarke: Luk 1:66 - What manner of child shall this be! What manner of child shall this be! - As there have been so many extraordinary things in his conception and birth, surely God has designed him for s...

What manner of child shall this be! - As there have been so many extraordinary things in his conception and birth, surely God has designed him for some extraordinary purpose. These things they laid up in their heart, patiently waiting to see what God would work

Clarke: Luk 1:66 - The hand of the Lord was with him The hand of the Lord was with him - God defended and prospered him in all things, and the prophetic spirit began to rest upon him.

The hand of the Lord was with him - God defended and prospered him in all things, and the prophetic spirit began to rest upon him.

Clarke: Luk 1:67 - Zacharias - prophesied Zacharias - prophesied - The word prophesy is to be taken here in its proper acceptation, for the predicting or foretelling future events Zacharias ...

Zacharias - prophesied - The word prophesy is to be taken here in its proper acceptation, for the predicting or foretelling future events

Zacharias speaks, not only of what God had already done, but also of what he was about to do, in order to save a lost world.

Clarke: Luk 1:68 - Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for, etc. Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for, etc. - Zacharias praises God for two grand benefits which he had granted to his people. 1. He has visited th...

Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for, etc. - Zacharias praises God for two grand benefits which he had granted to his people. 1. He has visited them. 2. He has ransomed them

1.    He speaks by the spirit of prophecy, which calls things that are not, as though they were; because they are absolutely determined by the Most High, and shall be all fulfilled in their season. God visits his people in the incarnation of Jesus Christ; therefore this Christ is called by him, Κυριος ὁ Θεος, Jehovah the God of Israel. Here the highest and most glorious character of the Supreme Being is given to Christ

2.    This God redeems his people: it is for this end that he visits them. His soul is about to be made a sacrifice for sin: he becomes flesh, that he may suffer and die for the sin of the world. God, by taking upon him the nature of man, has redeemed that nature from eternal ruin

Clarke: Luk 1:68 - He hath - redeemed He hath - redeemed - Εποιησε λυτρωσιν, he hath made a ransom - laid down the ransom price. Λυτροω signifies particularly to ...

He hath - redeemed - Εποιησε λυτρωσιν, he hath made a ransom - laid down the ransom price. Λυτροω signifies particularly to ransom a captive from the enemy, by paying a price. The following remarkable passage from Josephus, Ant. b. xiv. c. 14, sect. 1, fully illustrates this meaning of the original. "Herod, not knowing what had happened to his brother, hastened λυτρωσασθαι, to ransom him from the enemy, and was willing to pay λυτρον ὑπερ αυτου, a ransom for him, to the amount of three hundred talents."Sinners are fallen into the hands of their enemies, and are captives to sin and death. Jesus ransoms them by his own blood, and restores them to life, liberty, and happiness. This truth the whole Bible teaches: this truth God has shown in certain measures, even to those nations who have not been favored with the light of his written word: for Christ is that true light, which enlightens every man that cometh into the world

How astonishing is the following invocation of the Supreme Being, (translated from the original Sanscreet by Dr. C. Wilkins), still existing on a stone, in a cave near she ancient city of Gya, in the East Indies

"The Deity, who is the Lord, the possessor of all, appeared in this ocean of natural beings, at the beginning of the Kalee Yoog (the age of contention and baseness). He who is omnipresent and everlastingly to be contemplated, the Supreme Being, the Eternal One, the Divinity worthy to be adored - Appeared here with a Portion of his Divine Nature. Reverence be unto thee in the form of ( a ) Bood-dha! Reverence be unto the Lord of the earth! Reverence be unto thee, an Incarnation of the Deity, and the Eternal One! Reverence be unto thee, O God, in the form of the God of mercy; the dispeller of pain and trouble, the Lord of all things, the Deity who overcometh the sins of the Kalee Yoog; the guardian of the universe, the emblem of mercy toward those who serve thee - ( b ) O’ M! the possessor of all things in Vital Form! Thou art ( c ) Brahma, Veeshnoo, and Mahesa! Thou art Lord of the universe! Thou art under the form of all things, movable and immovable, the possessor of the whole! and thus I adore thee. Reverence be unto the Bestower Of Salvation, and the Ruler of the faculties! Reverence be unto thee, the Destroyer of the Evil Spirit! O Damordara, ( d ) show me favor! I adore thee, who art celebrated by a thousand names, and under various forms, in the shape of Bood-dha, the God of Mercy! Be propitious, O Most High God!"- Asiatic Researches, vol. i. pp. 284, 285

(a)    Bood-dha. The name of the Deity, as author of happiness

(b)    O’ M. A mystic emblem of the Deity, forbidden to be pronounced but in silence. It is a syllable formed of the Sanscreet letters a, o o, which in composition coalesce, and make o, and the nasal consonant m. The first letter stands for the Creator, the second for the Preserver and the third for the Destroyer. It is the same among the Hindoos as יהוה Yehovah is among the Hebrews

©    Brahma, the Deity in his creative quality. Veeshnoo, he who filleth all space, the Deity in his preserving quality. Mahesa, the Deity in his destroying quality. This is properly the Hindoo Trinity: for these three names belong to the same Being. See the notes to the Bhagvat Geeta

(d)    Damordara, or Darmadeve, the Indian God of Virtue.

Clarke: Luk 1:69 - And hath raised up a horn of salvation And hath raised up a horn of salvation - That is, a mighty and glorious Savior: a quotation from Psa 18:2. Horns are the well known emblems of stren...

And hath raised up a horn of salvation - That is, a mighty and glorious Savior: a quotation from Psa 18:2. Horns are the well known emblems of strength, glory, and power, both in the sacred and profane writers, because the strength and beauty of horned animals consist in their horns. Horns have also been considered as emblems of light; therefore the heathen god Apollo is represented with horns, to point out the power, glory, and excellence of the solar light. The Chaldee paraphrast sometimes translates קרן keren , horn, by מלכות malcuth , or מלכותא malcutha , 1Sa 2:10; Jer 48:25, which signify a kingdom: but it is likely that the allusion is here made to the horns of the altar; and as the altar was a place of refuge and safety, and those who laid hold on its horns were considered to be under the protection of the Lord, so, according to the expression of Zacharias, Jesus Christ is a new altar, to which whosoever flees shall find refuge

Some imagine that this form of speech is taken from the custom of ancient warriors, who had a horn of steel on the top of their helmets, which ordinarily lay flat, till the person came victorious from battle, and then it was erected, as emblematical of the victory gained. Such a horn as this is represented on the helmet of the Abyssinian kings and warriors: see the plates in Bruce’ s Travels. To this custom of wearing or lifting up the horn, the following scriptures are thought to allude: 1Sa 2:10; Psa 112:9; Psa 148:4; Lam 2:17. In ancient gems and coins, this form of the horn on helmets is easily discernible, sometimes flat, sometimes erected. A horn, filled with various fruits, was also the emblem of abundance among the ancients: hence their cornu copia , or horn of plenty. From all this we may learn that the Lord Jesus gives a luminous, powerful, prevalent, glorious, and abundant Salvation or Refuge to mankind

Clarke: Luk 1:69 - In the house of his servant David In the house of his servant David - Or, in the family: so the word οικος, house, is often used in the Sacred Writings. In Luk 1:32, the angel ...

In the house of his servant David - Or, in the family: so the word οικος, house, is often used in the Sacred Writings. In Luk 1:32, the angel states that Mary was of the family of David; and Zacharias, who, from the nature of his office, must have been well acquainted with the public genealogical tables, attests the same thing. This is a matter of considerable importance; because it shows forth the truth of all the prophetic declarations, which uniformly state that the Messiah should come from the family and sit on the throne of David.

Clarke: Luk 1:71 - That we should be saved (literally, a salvation) from our enemies That we should be saved (literally, a salvation) from our enemies - As Zacharias spoke by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, the salvation which he...

That we should be saved (literally, a salvation) from our enemies - As Zacharias spoke by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, the salvation which he mentions here must necessarily be understood in a spiritual sense. Satan, death, and sin are the enemies from whom Jesus came to deliver us. Sin is the most dangerous of all, and is properly the only enemy we have to fear. Satan is without us, and can have no power over us, but what he gets through sin. Death is only in our flesh, and shall be finally destroyed (as it affects us) on the morning of the resurrection

Jesus redeems from sin; this is the grand, the glorious, the important victory. Let us get sin cast out, and then we need, fear neither death, nor the devil.

Clarke: Luk 1:72 - His holy covenant His holy covenant - See the note on Luk 1:54.

His holy covenant - See the note on Luk 1:54.

Clarke: Luk 1:74-75 - Being delivered, etc. Being delivered, etc. - The salvation brought by Jesus Christ, consists in the following things: - 1.    We are to be delivered out o...

Being delivered, etc. - The salvation brought by Jesus Christ, consists in the following things: -

1.    We are to be delivered out of the hand of our enemies, and from all that hate us; so that sin shall neither have dominion over us, nor existence in us

2.    We are to worship God, λατρευειν, to render him that service and adoration which the letter and spirit of his religion require

3.    Ye are to live in holiness, a strict inward conformity to the mind of Christ - and righteousness, a full outward conformity to the precepts of the Gospel

4.    This is to be done before God, under the continual influence and support of his grace, and with a constant evidence of his presence and approbation

5.    This state is a state of true happiness - it is without fear. Sin is all cast out, holiness is brought in; God’ s power upholds, and his approbation cheers and comforts, the believing heart. Thus misery is precluded, and happiness established

6.    This blessedness is to continue as long as we exist - all the days of our life, in all ages, in all situations, and in all circumstances. What a pity to have lived so long without God in the world, when so much happiness and glory are to be enjoyed in union with him

Της ζωης, in the last clause, is omitted by many MSS., versions, and fathers. Griesbach has left it out of the text: however, it is but of small importance whether we read all our days, or, all the days of our life.

Clarke: Luk 1:76 - And thou, child, etc. And thou, child, etc. - Zacharias proclaims the dignity, employment, doctrine, and success of his son; and the ruin and recovery of the Jews and the...

And thou, child, etc. - Zacharias proclaims the dignity, employment, doctrine, and success of his son; and the ruin and recovery of the Jews and the Gentiles

1.    His dignity. Thou shalt be called (constituted) a prophet of the Most High. Prophet has two acceptations: -

1st. A person who foretells future events; and

2dly. A teacher of men in the things of God, 1Co 14:3

    John was a prophet in both senses: he proclaimed the mercy which should be communicated; announced the baptism of the Holy Spirit; and taught men how to leave their sins, and how to find the salvation of God. See Luk 3:5-14. His very name, Jehochanan, the grace or mercy of Jehovah, (see Luk 1:60), was a constant prediction of the salvation of God. Our Lord terms him the greatest prophet which had ever appeared in the world. He had the honor of being the last and clearest prophet of the old covenant, and the first of the new

2.    His employment. Thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways. He should be the immediate forerunner of Jesus Christ, none being capable of succeeding him in his ministry but Christ himself. He was to prepare his ways, to be the honored instrument, in the hands of God, of disposing the hearts of multitudes of the Israelites to believe in and follow the Lord Jesus

3.    Zacharias points out the doctrine or teaching of John. It should be γνωσις σωτηριας, the science of salvation. Men are ignorant, and they must be instructed. Human sciences may be profitable in earthly matters, but cannot profit the soul. The science that teaches God must come from God. No science is of any avail to the soul that does not bring salvation with it: this is the excellence of heavenly science, and an excellence that is peculiar to itself. No science but that which comes from God can ever save a soul from the power, the guilt, and the pollution of sin

4.    Zacharias predicts the success of his son’ s ministry. Under his preaching, the people should be directed to that tender mercy of God, through which they might obtain the remission of their sins, Luk 1:77, Luk 1:78. Those who are sent by God, and preach his truth, and his only, shall always be successful in their work; for it is for this very purpose that God has sent them; and it would be a marvelous thing, indeed, should they labor in vain. But there never was such a case, since God made man, in which a preacher was Divinely commissioned to preach Jesus and his salvation, and yet had no fruit of his labor

5.    Zacharias points out the wretched state in which the inhabitants of Judea and the Gentile world were then found

1.    Their feet had wandered out of the way of peace, (Luk 1:79), of temporal and spiritual prosperity

2.    They had got into a state of darkness - they were blind concerning the things of God, and the things which belonged to their salvation

3.    They had become contented inhabitants of this land of intellectual darkness - they had sat down in it, and were not concerned to get out of it

4.    They were about to perish in it - death had his dominion there; and his swift approaches to them were now manifested to the prophet by seeing his shadow cast upon them

    Ignorance of God and salvation is the shadow of death; and the substance, eternal ruin, is essentially connected with the projected shadow. See these phrases explained at large on Mat 4:16 (note)

6.    Zacharias proclaims the recovery of a lost world. As the removal of this darkness, and redemption from this death, were now at hand, John is represented as being a day-spring from on high, a morning star, that foretold the speedy approach of the day, and the rising of the Sun of righteousness. That these words should be applied to John, and not to Christ, I am fully satisfied; and cannot give my reasons better for the arrangement I have made in the preceding notes, than in the words of an eminent critic, who, I find, has adopted nearly the same plan with myself. The passage, as I read it, is as follows: Through the tender mercy of our God, by which he hath visited us: a day-spring from on high, to give light to them that sit in the darkness and in the shadow of death, etc. "Let the reader judge, whether my arrangement of this passage, which much better suits the original, be not far more elegant, and in all respects superior to the old translation. Thou, child! wilt be a teacher - Thou Wilt Be a day-spring from the sky. And with what beauty and propriety is John, the forerunner of our Lord, styled the dawn of day, that ushers in the rising of the Sun of righteousness! And the concluding words - to guide our feet into the way of peace - is a comprehensive clause, after the manner of Hebrew poetry, belonging equally to the former sentence, beginning at - And thou, child! - and the latter, beginning at - A day-spring from the sky: for the people spoken of in the former are the Jews; and in the latter, the Gentiles."- Wakefield.

Clarke: Luk 1:80 - The child grew The child grew - Increased in stature and bodily vigor. And waxed strong in spirit - had his understanding Divinely illuminated and confirmed in the...

The child grew - Increased in stature and bodily vigor. And waxed strong in spirit - had his understanding Divinely illuminated and confirmed in the truths of God. And was in the deserts - the city of Hebron, the circumjacent hill country, and in or near Nazareth. Till the time of his showing, or manifestation - till he was thirty years of age, before which time the law did not permit a man to enter into the public ministry, Num 4:3. See also Luk 3:23

So much has already been said, by way of practical improvement of the different subjects in this important chapter, as to preclude the necessity of any addition here.