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Teks -- The Song of Songs 2:1-17 (NET)

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Konteks
The Lily among the Thorns and the Apple Tree in the Forest
2:1 The Beloved to Her Lover: I am a meadow flower from Sharon, a lily from the valleys. 2:2 The Lover to His Beloved: Like a lily among the thorns, so is my darling among the maidens. 2:3 The Beloved about Her Lover: Like an apple tree among the trees of the forest, so is my beloved among the young men. I delight to sit in his shade, and his fruit is sweet to my taste.
The Banquet Hall for the Love-Sick
2:4 The Beloved about Her Lover: He brought me into the banquet hall, and he looked at me lovingly. 2:5 Sustain me with raisin cakes, refresh me with apples, for I am faint with love. The Double Refrain: Embracing and Adjuration 2:6 His left hand caresses my head, and his right hand stimulates me. 2:7 The Beloved to the Maidens: I adjure you, O maidens of Jerusalem, by the gazelles and by the young does of the open fields: Do not awaken or arouse love until it pleases!
The Arrival of the Lover
2:8 The Beloved about Her Lover: Listen! My lover is approaching! Look! Here he comes, leaping over the mountains, bounding over the hills! 2:9 My lover is like a gazelle or a young stag. Look! There he stands behind our wall, gazing through the window, peering through the lattice.
The Season of Love and the Song of the Turtle-Dove
2:10 The Lover to His Beloved: My lover spoke to me, saying: “Arise, my darling; My beautiful one, come away with me! 2:11 Look! The winter has passed, the winter rains are over and gone. 2:12 The pomegranates have appeared in the land, the time for pruning and singing has come; the voice of the turtledove is heard in our land. 2:13 The fig tree has budded, the vines have blossomed and give off their fragrance. Arise, come away my darling; my beautiful one, come away with me!”
The Dove in the Clefts of En-Gedi
2:14 The Lover to His Beloved: O my dove, in the clefts of the rock, in the hiding places of the mountain crags, let me see your face, let me hear your voice; for your voice is sweet, and your face is lovely.
The Foxes in the Vineyard
2:15 The Beloved to Her Lover: Catch the foxes for us, the little foxes, that ruin the vineyards– for our vineyard is in bloom.
Poetic Refrain: Mutual Possession
2:16 The Beloved about Her Lover: My lover is mine and I am his; he grazes among the lilies.
The Gazelle and the Rugged Mountains
2:17 The Beloved to Her Lover: Until the dawn arrives and the shadows flee, turn, my beloved– be like a gazelle or a young stag on the mountain gorges.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Jerusalem the capital city of Israel,a town; the capital of Israel near the southern border of Benjamin
 · Sharon a region of large coastal plain in northern Palestine,rich coastal plain in North Palestine (IBD),the unsettled plains country (IBD)


Topik/Tema Kamus: Song | Fellowship | Personification | Lovers | LILY | PALESTINE, 3 | GAZELLE | VINE | Spring | Flagon | Rose | Bether | Winter | ROE, ROEBUCK | Sharon | TENDER | Fox | FIG, FIG-TREE | DEER | Apple | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Sos 2:1 - I These are the words of the bridegroom. He compares himself to the rose and lilly, for fragrancy and beauty. Sharon, was a very fruitful place, and fam...

These are the words of the bridegroom. He compares himself to the rose and lilly, for fragrancy and beauty. Sharon, was a very fruitful place, and famous for roses.

Wesley: Sos 2:2 - Among Compared with thorns, which it unspeakably exceeds in glory and beauty.

Compared with thorns, which it unspeakably exceeds in glory and beauty.

Wesley: Sos 2:2 - So So far, doth my church or people, excel all other assemblies. The title of daughter, is often given to whole nations. These are Christ's words, to whi...

So far, doth my church or people, excel all other assemblies. The title of daughter, is often given to whole nations. These are Christ's words, to which the spouse makes the following reply.

Wesley: Sos 2:3 - The apple tree - Whose fruit is very pleasant and wholesome.

tree - Whose fruit is very pleasant and wholesome.

Wesley: Sos 2:3 - The trees Which are barren.

Which are barren.

Wesley: Sos 2:3 - I sat I confidently reposed myself under his protection.

I confidently reposed myself under his protection.

Wesley: Sos 2:3 - His fruit The benefits which I received by him, remission of sins, faith, grace, and assurance of glory.

The benefits which I received by him, remission of sins, faith, grace, and assurance of glory.

Wesley: Sos 2:4 - Banquetting house The places in which believers receive the graces and blessings of Christ.

The places in which believers receive the graces and blessings of Christ.

Wesley: Sos 2:4 - His banner By the lifting up whereof I was invited to come to him, and to list myself under him.

By the lifting up whereof I was invited to come to him, and to list myself under him.

Wesley: Sos 2:4 - Love The love of Christ crucified, which, like a banner, is displayed in the gospel.

The love of Christ crucified, which, like a banner, is displayed in the gospel.

Wesley: Sos 2:5 - Stay me Or, support me, keep me from fainting.

Or, support me, keep me from fainting.

Wesley: Sos 2:5 - The spouse speaks this to her bride maids, the daughters of Jerusalem: or to the bridegroom himself.

maids, the daughters of Jerusalem: or to the bridegroom himself.

Wesley: Sos 2:5 - Flaggons With wine, which is a good cordial.

With wine, which is a good cordial.

Wesley: Sos 2:5 - Apples With odoriferous apples, the smell whereof was grateful to persons ready to faint. By this understand the application of the promises, and the quicken...

With odoriferous apples, the smell whereof was grateful to persons ready to faint. By this understand the application of the promises, and the quickening influences of the Spirit.

Wesley: Sos 2:6 - His hand No sooner did I cry out for help, but he was at hand to succour me.

No sooner did I cry out for help, but he was at hand to succour me.

Wesley: Sos 2:7 - I charge you This is spoken by the bride.

This is spoken by the bride.

Wesley: Sos 2:7 - By the roes By the example of those creatures, which are pleasant and loving in their carriage towards one another.

By the example of those creatures, which are pleasant and loving in their carriage towards one another.

Wesley: Sos 2:7 - Nor awake That you do not disturb nor offend him.

That you do not disturb nor offend him.

Wesley: Sos 2:7 - 'Till Never, as this word, until, in such phrases, is commonly used. For neither can sin ever please him, nor can the church bear it that Christ should ever...

Never, as this word, until, in such phrases, is commonly used. For neither can sin ever please him, nor can the church bear it that Christ should ever be offended.

Wesley: Sos 2:8 - The voice Christ's voice, the word of grace revealed outwardly in the gospel, and inwardly by the Spirit of God.

Christ's voice, the word of grace revealed outwardly in the gospel, and inwardly by the Spirit of God.

Wesley: Sos 2:8 - Leaping He saith, leaping and skipping, to denote that Christ came readily, and swiftly, with great desire and pleasure and adds, upon the mountains and hills...

He saith, leaping and skipping, to denote that Christ came readily, and swiftly, with great desire and pleasure and adds, upon the mountains and hills, to signify Christ's resolution to come in spite of all difficulties.

Wesley: Sos 2:9 - Like a roe In swiftness. He is coming to me with all speed and will not tarry a moment beyond the proper season.

In swiftness. He is coming to me with all speed and will not tarry a moment beyond the proper season.

Wesley: Sos 2:9 - He standeth behind And while he doth for wise reasons forbear to come; he is not far from us. Both this and the following phrases may denote the obscure manner of Christ...

And while he doth for wise reasons forbear to come; he is not far from us. Both this and the following phrases may denote the obscure manner of Christ's manifesting himself to his people, under the law, in comparison of his discoveries in the gospel.

Wesley: Sos 2:9 - The window This phrase, and that through the lattess, intimate that the church does indeed see Christ, but, as through a glass, darkly, as it is said even of gos...

This phrase, and that through the lattess, intimate that the church does indeed see Christ, but, as through a glass, darkly, as it is said even of gospel - revelations, 1Co 13:12, which was much more true of legal administrations.

Wesley: Sos 2:10 - Spake Invited me outwardly by his word, and inwardly by his Spirit.

Invited me outwardly by his word, and inwardly by his Spirit.

Wesley: Sos 2:10 - Rise up Shake off sloth, and disentangle thyself more fully from all the snares of this world.

Shake off sloth, and disentangle thyself more fully from all the snares of this world.

Wesley: Sos 2:10 - Come Unto me, and with me; follow me fully, serve me perfectly, labour for a nearer union, and more satisfying communion with me.

Unto me, and with me; follow me fully, serve me perfectly, labour for a nearer union, and more satisfying communion with me.

Wesley: Sos 2:11 - The winter Spiritual troubles arising from a deep sense of the guilt of sin, the wrath of God, the curse of the law; all which made them afraid to come unto God....

Spiritual troubles arising from a deep sense of the guilt of sin, the wrath of God, the curse of the law; all which made them afraid to come unto God. But, saith Christ, I have removed these impediments, God is reconciled; therefore cast off all discouragements, and excuses, and come to me.

Wesley: Sos 2:12 - The flowers The communications of God's grace, the gifts, and graces, and comforts of the Holy Spirit, are vouchsafed unto, and appear in believers, as buds and b...

The communications of God's grace, the gifts, and graces, and comforts of the Holy Spirit, are vouchsafed unto, and appear in believers, as buds and blossoms do in the spring.

Wesley: Sos 2:12 - The turtle This seems particularly to be mentioned because it not only gives notice of the spring, but aptly represents the Spirit of God, which even the Chaldee...

This seems particularly to be mentioned because it not only gives notice of the spring, but aptly represents the Spirit of God, which even the Chaldee paraphrast understands by this turtle, which appeared in the shape of a dove, and which worketh a dove - like meekness, and chastity, and faithfulness, in believers.

Wesley: Sos 2:13 - Her figs Which it shoots forth in the spring.

Which it shoots forth in the spring.

Wesley: Sos 2:14 - My dove So the church is called, for her dove - like temper, and for her dove - like condition, because she is weak, and exposed to persecution, and therefore...

So the church is called, for her dove - like temper, and for her dove - like condition, because she is weak, and exposed to persecution, and therefore forced to hide herself in rocks.

Wesley: Sos 2:14 - The stairs In the holes of craggy and broken rocks, which resemble stairs.

In the holes of craggy and broken rocks, which resemble stairs.

Wesley: Sos 2:14 - Let me see Be not afraid to appear before me.

Be not afraid to appear before me.

Wesley: Sos 2:14 - Hear Thy prayers and praises.

Thy prayers and praises.

Wesley: Sos 2:14 - For Thy person and services are amiable in my sight.

Thy person and services are amiable in my sight.

Wesley: Sos 2:15 - Take us The bridegroom gives this charge to his bridemen or friends. By whom he understands those magistrates and ministers to whom, under Christ, the custody...

The bridegroom gives this charge to his bridemen or friends. By whom he understands those magistrates and ministers to whom, under Christ, the custody of the vineyards, the churches, principally belong. These he commands to take the foxes, to restrain them from doing this mischief.

Wesley: Sos 2:15 - Foxes The disturbers of the vineyard, or the church, seducers or false teachers.

The disturbers of the vineyard, or the church, seducers or false teachers.

Wesley: Sos 2:15 - Little foxes This he adds for more abundant caution, to teach the church to prevent errors and heresies in the beginnings.

This he adds for more abundant caution, to teach the church to prevent errors and heresies in the beginnings.

Wesley: Sos 2:15 - Spoil vines Which foxes do many ways, by gnawing and breaking the little branches and leaves, by digging holes in the vineyards, and so spoiling the roots.

Which foxes do many ways, by gnawing and breaking the little branches and leaves, by digging holes in the vineyards, and so spoiling the roots.

Wesley: Sos 2:15 - Tender grapes Which are easily spoiled, if great care be not used to prevent it.

Which are easily spoiled, if great care be not used to prevent it.

Wesley: Sos 2:16 - My beloved These are the words of the bride, who having come to him upon his gracious invitation, now maketh her boast of him.

These are the words of the bride, who having come to him upon his gracious invitation, now maketh her boast of him.

Wesley: Sos 2:16 - He feedeth Abideth and refresheth himself amongst his faithful people, who are compared to lillies, Son 2:2.

Abideth and refresheth himself amongst his faithful people, who are compared to lillies, Son 2:2.

Wesley: Sos 2:17 - Until Until the morning of that blessed day of the general resurrection, when all the shadows, not only of ignorance, and sin, and calamity, but even of out...

Until the morning of that blessed day of the general resurrection, when all the shadows, not only of ignorance, and sin, and calamity, but even of outward administrations, shall cease.

Wesley: Sos 2:17 - Turn Return to me. For although Christ had come to her, and she had gladly received him, yet he was gone again, as is here implied, and evidently appears f...

Return to me. For although Christ had come to her, and she had gladly received him, yet he was gone again, as is here implied, and evidently appears from the following verse. Which sudden change is very agreeable to the state of God's people in this world, where they are subject to frequent changes.

Wesley: Sos 2:17 - A roe In swiftness; make haste to help me.

In swiftness; make haste to help me.

Wesley: Sos 2:17 - Of Bether A place in the land of promise, where it seems those creatures were in great abundance.

A place in the land of promise, where it seems those creatures were in great abundance.

JFB: Sos 2:1 - rose If applied to Jesus Christ, it, with the white lily (lowly, 2Co 8:9), answers to "white and ruddy" (Son 5:10). But it is rather the meadow-saffron: th...

If applied to Jesus Christ, it, with the white lily (lowly, 2Co 8:9), answers to "white and ruddy" (Son 5:10). But it is rather the meadow-saffron: the Hebrew means radically a plant with a pungent bulb, inapplicable to the rose. So Syriac. It is of a white and violet color [MAURER, GESENIUS, and WEISS]. The bride thus speaks of herself as lowly though lovely, in contrast with the lordly "apple" or citron tree, the bridegroom (Son 2:3); so the "lily" is applied to her (Son 2:2),

JFB: Sos 2:1 - Sharon (Isa 35:1-2). In North Palestine, between Mount Tabor and Lake Tiberias (1Ch 5:16). Septuagint and Vulgate translate it, "a plain"; though they err i...

(Isa 35:1-2). In North Palestine, between Mount Tabor and Lake Tiberias (1Ch 5:16). Septuagint and Vulgate translate it, "a plain"; though they err in this, the Hebrew Bible not elsewhere favoring it, yet the parallelism to valleys shows that, in the proper name Sharon, there is here a tacit reference to its meaning of lowliness. Beauty, delicacy, and lowliness, are to be in her, as they were in Him (Mat 11:29).

JFB: Sos 2:2 - -- Jesus Christ to the Bride (Mat 10:16; Joh 15:19; 1Jo 5:19). Thorns, equivalent to the wicked (2Sa 23:6; Psa 57:4).

Jesus Christ to the Bride (Mat 10:16; Joh 15:19; 1Jo 5:19). Thorns, equivalent to the wicked (2Sa 23:6; Psa 57:4).

JFB: Sos 2:2 - daughters Of men, not of God; not "the virgins." "If thou art the lily of Jesus Christ, take heed lest by impatience, rash judgments, and pride, thou thyself be...

Of men, not of God; not "the virgins." "If thou art the lily of Jesus Christ, take heed lest by impatience, rash judgments, and pride, thou thyself become a thorn" [LUTHER].

JFB: Sos 2:3 - Her reply. apple Generic including the golden citron, pomegranate, and orange apple (Pro 25:11). He combines the shadow and fragrance of the citron with the sweetness ...

Generic including the golden citron, pomegranate, and orange apple (Pro 25:11). He combines the shadow and fragrance of the citron with the sweetness of the orange and pomegranate fruit. The foliage is perpetual; throughout the year a succession of blossoms, fruit, and perfume (Jam 1:17).

JFB: Sos 2:3 - among the sons Parallel to "among the daughters" (Son 2:2). He alone is ever fruitful among the fruitless wild trees (Psa 89:6; Heb 1:9).

Parallel to "among the daughters" (Son 2:2). He alone is ever fruitful among the fruitless wild trees (Psa 89:6; Heb 1:9).

JFB: Sos 2:3 - I sat . . . with . . . delight Literally, "I eagerly desired and sat" (Psa 94:19; Mar 6:31; Eph 2:6; 1Pe 1:8).

Literally, "I eagerly desired and sat" (Psa 94:19; Mar 6:31; Eph 2:6; 1Pe 1:8).

JFB: Sos 2:3 - shadow (Psa 121:5; Isa 4:6; Isa 25:4; Isa 32:2). Jesus Christ interposes the shadow of His cross between the blazing rays of justice and us sinners.

(Psa 121:5; Isa 4:6; Isa 25:4; Isa 32:2). Jesus Christ interposes the shadow of His cross between the blazing rays of justice and us sinners.

JFB: Sos 2:3 - fruit Faith plucks it (Pro 3:18). Man lost the tree of life (Gen 3:22-23). Jesus Christ regained it for him; he eats it partly now (Psa 119:103; Joh 6:55, J...

Faith plucks it (Pro 3:18). Man lost the tree of life (Gen 3:22-23). Jesus Christ regained it for him; he eats it partly now (Psa 119:103; Joh 6:55, Joh 6:57; 1Pe 2:3); fully hereafter (Rev 2:7; Rev 22:2, Rev 22:14); not earned by the sweat of his brow, or by his righteousness (Rom. 10:1-21). Contrast the worldling's fruit (Deu 32:32; Luk 15:16).

JFB: Sos 2:4 - -- Historically fulfilled in the joy of Simeon and Anna in the temple, over the infant Saviour (Luk 2:25-38), and that of Mary, too (compare Luk 1:53); t...

Historically fulfilled in the joy of Simeon and Anna in the temple, over the infant Saviour (Luk 2:25-38), and that of Mary, too (compare Luk 1:53); typified (Exo 24:9-11). Spiritually, the bride or beloved is led (Son 2:4) first into the King's chambers, thence is drawn after Him in answer to her prayer; is next received on a grassy couch under a cedar kiosk; and at last in a "banqueting hall," such as, JOSEPHUS says, Solomon had in his palace, "wherein all the vessels were of gold" (Antiquities, 8:5,2). The transition is from holy retirement to public ordinances, church worship, and the Lord's Supper (Psa 36:8). The bride, as the queen of Sheba, is given "all her desire" (1Ki 10:13; Psa 63:5; Eph 3:8, Eph 3:16-21; Phi 4:19); type of the heavenly feast hereafter (Isa 25:6, Isa 25:9).

JFB: Sos 2:4 - his banner . . . love After having rescued us from the enemy, our victorious captain (Heb 2:10) seats us at the banquet under a banner inscribed with His name, "love" (1Jo ...

After having rescued us from the enemy, our victorious captain (Heb 2:10) seats us at the banquet under a banner inscribed with His name, "love" (1Jo 4:8). His love conquered us to Himself; this banner rallies round us the forces of Omnipotence, as our protection; it marks to what country we belong, heaven, the abode of love, and in what we most glory, the cross of Jesus Christ, through which we triumph (Rom 8:37; 1Co 15:57; Rev 3:21). Compare with "over me," "underneath are the everlasting arms" (Deu 33:27).

JFB: Sos 2:5 - flagons MAURER prefers translating, "dried raisin cakes"; from the Hebrew root "fire," namely, dried by heat. But the "house of wine" (Son 2:4, Margin) favors...

MAURER prefers translating, "dried raisin cakes"; from the Hebrew root "fire," namely, dried by heat. But the "house of wine" (Son 2:4, Margin) favors "flagons"; the "new wine" of the kingdom, the Spirit of Jesus Christ.

JFB: Sos 2:5 - apples From the tree (Son 2:3), so sweet to her, the promises of God.

From the tree (Son 2:3), so sweet to her, the promises of God.

JFB: Sos 2:5 - sick of love The highest degree of sensible enjoyment that can be attained here. It may be at an early or late stage of experience. Paul (2Co 12:7). In the last si...

The highest degree of sensible enjoyment that can be attained here. It may be at an early or late stage of experience. Paul (2Co 12:7). In the last sickness of J. Welch, he was overheard saying, "Lord, hold thine hand, it is enough; thy servant is a clay vessel, and can hold no more" [FLEMING, Fulfilling of the Scriptures]. In most cases this intensity of joy is reserved for the heavenly banquet. Historically, Israel had it, when the Lord's glory filled the tabernacle, and afterwards the temple, so that the priests could not stand to minister: so in the Christian Church on Pentecost. The bride addresses Christ mainly, though in her rapture she uses the plural, "Stay (ye) me," speaking generally. So far from asking the withdrawal of the manifestations which had overpowered her, she asks for more: so "fainteth for" (Psa 84:2): also Peter, on the mount of transfiguration (Luk 9:33), "Let us make . . . not knowing what he said."

JFB: Sos 2:6 - -- The "stay" she prayed for (Son 2:5) is granted (Deu 33:12, Deu 33:27; Psa 37:24; Isa 41:16). None can pluck from that embrace (Joh 10:28-30). His hand...

The "stay" she prayed for (Son 2:5) is granted (Deu 33:12, Deu 33:27; Psa 37:24; Isa 41:16). None can pluck from that embrace (Joh 10:28-30). His hand keeps us from falling (Mat 14:30-31); to it we may commit ourselves (Psa 31:5).

JFB: Sos 2:6 - left hand The left is the inferior hand, by which the Lord less signally manifests His love, than by the right; the secret hand of ordinary providence, as disti...

The left is the inferior hand, by which the Lord less signally manifests His love, than by the right; the secret hand of ordinary providence, as distinguished from that of manifested grace (the "right"). They really go together, though sometimes they seem divided; here both are felt at once. THEODORET takes the left hand, equivalent to judgment and wrath; the right, equivalent to honor and love. The hand of justice no longer is lifted to smite, but is under the head of the believer to support (Isa 42:21); the hand of Jesus Christ pierced by justice for our sin supports us. The charge not to disturb the beloved occurs thrice: but the sentiment here, "His left hand," &c., nowhere else fully; which accords with the intensity of joy (Son 2:5) found nowhere else; in Son 8:3, it is only conditional, "should embrace," not "doth."

JFB: Sos 2:7 - by the roes Not an oath but a solemn charge, to act as cautiously as the hunter would with the wild roes, which are proverbially timorous; he must advance with br...

Not an oath but a solemn charge, to act as cautiously as the hunter would with the wild roes, which are proverbially timorous; he must advance with breathless circumspection, if he is to take them; so he who would not lose Jesus Christ and His Spirit, which is easily grieved and withdrawn, must be tender of conscience and watchful (Eze 16:43; Eph 4:30; Eph 5:15; 1Th 5:19). In Margin, title of Psa 22:1, Jesus Christ is called the "Hind of the morning," hunted to death by the dogs (compare Son 2:8-9, where He is represented as bounding on the hills, Psa 18:33). Here He is resting, but with a repose easily broken (Zep 3:17). It is thought a gross rudeness in the East to awaken one sleeping, especially a person of rank.

JFB: Sos 2:7 - my love In Hebrew, feminine for masculine, the abstract for concrete, Jesus Christ being the embodiment of love itself (Son 3:5; Son 8:7), where, as here, the...

In Hebrew, feminine for masculine, the abstract for concrete, Jesus Christ being the embodiment of love itself (Son 3:5; Son 8:7), where, as here, the context requires it to be applied to Him, not her. She too is "love" (Son 7:6), for His love calls forth her love. Presumption in the convert is as grieving to the Spirit as despair. The lovingness and pleasantness of the hind and roe (Pro 5:19) is included in this image of Jesus Christ.

JFB: Sos 2:8 - -- (CANTICLE II)--JOHN THE BAPTIST'S MINISTRY. (Son. 2:8-3:5)

(CANTICLE II)--JOHN THE BAPTIST'S MINISTRY. (Son. 2:8-3:5)

JFB: Sos 2:8 - voice An exclamation of joyful surprise, evidently after a long silence. The restlessness of sin and fickleness in her had disturbed His rest with her, whic...

An exclamation of joyful surprise, evidently after a long silence. The restlessness of sin and fickleness in her had disturbed His rest with her, which she had professed not to wish disturbed "till He should please." He left her, but in sovereign grace unexpectedly heralds His return. She awakes, and at once recognizes His voice (1Sa 3:9-10; Joh 10:4); her sleep is not so sinfully deep as in Son 5:2.

JFB: Sos 2:8 - leaping Bounding, as the roe does, over the roughest obstacles (2Sa 2:18; 1Ch 12:8); as the father of the prodigal "had compassion and ran" (Luk 15:20).

Bounding, as the roe does, over the roughest obstacles (2Sa 2:18; 1Ch 12:8); as the father of the prodigal "had compassion and ran" (Luk 15:20).

JFB: Sos 2:8 - upon the hills As the sunbeams glancing from hill to hill. So Margin, title of Jesus Christ (Psa 22:1), "Hind of the morning" (type of His resurrection). Historicall...

As the sunbeams glancing from hill to hill. So Margin, title of Jesus Christ (Psa 22:1), "Hind of the morning" (type of His resurrection). Historically, the coming of the kingdom of heaven (the gospel dispensation), announced by John Baptist, is meant; it primarily is the garden or vineyard; the bride is called so in a secondary sense. "The voice" of Jesus Christ is indirect, through "the friend of the bridegroom" (Joh 3:29), John the Baptist. Personally, He is silent during John's ministration, who awoke the long slumbering Church with the cry. "Every hill shall be made low," in the spirit of Elias, on the "rent mountains" (1Ki 19:11; compare Isa 52:7). Jesus Christ is implied as coming with intense desire (Luk 22:15; Heb 10:7), disregarding the mountain hindrances raised by man's sin.

JFB: Sos 2:9 - he standeth After having bounded over the intervening space like a roe. He often stands near when our unbelief hides Him from us (Gen 28:16; Rev 3:14-20). His usu...

After having bounded over the intervening space like a roe. He often stands near when our unbelief hides Him from us (Gen 28:16; Rev 3:14-20). His usual way; long promised and expected; sudden at last: so, in visiting the second temple (Mal 3:1); so at Pentecost (Act 2:1-2); so in visiting an individual soul, Zaccheus (Luk 19:5-6; Joh 3:8); and so, at the second coming (Mat 24:48, Mat 24:50; 2Pe 3:4, 2Pe 3:10). So it shall be at His second coming (1Th 5:2-3).

JFB: Sos 2:9 - wall Over the cope of which He is first seen; next, He looks through (not forth; for He is outside) at the windows, glancing suddenly and stealthily (not a...

Over the cope of which He is first seen; next, He looks through (not forth; for He is outside) at the windows, glancing suddenly and stealthily (not as English Version, "showing Himself") through the lattice. The prophecies, types, &c., were lattice glimpses of Him to the Old Testament Church, in spite of the wall of separation which sin had raised (Joh 8:56); clearer glimpses were given by John Baptist, but not unclouded (Joh 1:26). The legal wall of partition was not to be removed until His death (Eph 2:14-15; Heb 10:20). Even now, He is only seen by faith, through the windows of His Word and the lattice of ordinances and sacraments (Luk 24:35; Joh 14:21); not full vision (1Co 13:12); an incentive to our looking for His second coming (Isa 33:17; Tit 2:13).

JFB: Sos 2:10-11 - -- Loving reassurance given by Jesus Christ to the bride, lest she should think that He had ceased to love her, on account of her unfaithfulness, which h...

Loving reassurance given by Jesus Christ to the bride, lest she should think that He had ceased to love her, on account of her unfaithfulness, which had occasioned His temporary withdrawal. He allures her to brighter than worldly joys (Mic 2:10). Not only does the saint wish to depart to be with Him, but He still more desires to have the saint with Him above (Joh 17:24). Historically, the vineyard or garden of the King, here first introduced, is "the kingdom of heaven preached" by John the Baptist, before whom "the law and the prophets were" (Luk 16:16).

JFB: Sos 2:11 - the winter The law of the covenant of works (Mat 4:16).

The law of the covenant of works (Mat 4:16).

JFB: Sos 2:11 - rain is over (Heb 12:18-24; 1Jo 2:8). Then first the Gentile Church is called "beloved, which was not beloved" (Rom 9:25). So "the winter" of estrangement and sin...

(Heb 12:18-24; 1Jo 2:8). Then first the Gentile Church is called "beloved, which was not beloved" (Rom 9:25). So "the winter" of estrangement and sin is "past" to the believer (Isa 44:22; Jer 50:20; 2Co 5:17; Eph 2:1). The rising "Sun of righteousness" dispels the "rain" (2Sa 23:4; Psa 126:5; Mal 4:2). The winter in Palestine is past by April, but all the showers were not over till May. The time described here is that which comes directly after these last showers of winter. In the highest sense, the coming resurrection and deliverance of the earth from the past curse is here implied (Rom 8:19; Rev 21:4; Rev 22:3). No more "clouds" shall then "return after the rain" (Ecc 12:2; Rev 4:3; compare Gen 9:13-17); "the rainbow round the throne" is the "token" of this.

JFB: Sos 2:12 - flowers Tokens of anger past, and of grace come. "The summoned bride is welcome," say some fathers, "to weave from them garlands of beauty, wherewith she may ...

Tokens of anger past, and of grace come. "The summoned bride is welcome," say some fathers, "to weave from them garlands of beauty, wherewith she may adorn herself to meet the King." Historically, the flowers, &c., only give promise; the fruit is not ripe yet; suitable to the preaching of John the Baptist, "The kingdom of heaven is at hand"; not yet fully come.

JFB: Sos 2:12 - the time of . . . singing The rejoicing at the advent of Jesus Christ. GREGORY NYSSENUS refers the voice of the turtledove to John the Baptist. It with the olive branch announc...

The rejoicing at the advent of Jesus Christ. GREGORY NYSSENUS refers the voice of the turtledove to John the Baptist. It with the olive branch announced to Noah that "the rain was over and gone" (Gen 8:11). So John the Baptist, spiritually. Its plaintive "voice" answers to his preaching of repentance (Jer 8:6-7). Vulgate and Septuagint translate, "The time of pruning," namely, spring (Joh 15:2). The mention of the "turtle's" cooing better accords with our text. The turtledove is migratory (Jer 8:7), and "comes" early in May; emblem of love, and so of the Holy Ghost. Love, too, shall be the keynote of the "new song" hereafter (Isa 35:10; Rev 1:5; Rev 14:3; Rev 19:6). In the individual believer now, joy and love are here set forth in their earlier manifestations (Mar 4:28).

JFB: Sos 2:13 - putteth forth Rather, "ripens," literally, "makes red" [MAURER]. The unripe figs, which grow in winter, begin to ripen in early spring, and in June are fully mature...

Rather, "ripens," literally, "makes red" [MAURER]. The unripe figs, which grow in winter, begin to ripen in early spring, and in June are fully matured [WEISS].

JFB: Sos 2:13 - vines with the tender grape Rather, "the vines in flower," literally, "a flower," in apposition with "vines" [MAURER]. The vine flowers were so sweet that they were often put, wh...

Rather, "the vines in flower," literally, "a flower," in apposition with "vines" [MAURER]. The vine flowers were so sweet that they were often put, when dried, into new wine to give it flavor. Applicable to the first manifestations of Jesus Christ, "the true Vine," both to the Church and to individuals; as to Nathanael under the fig tree (Joh 1:48).

JFB: Sos 2:13 - Arise, &c. His call, described by the bride, ends as it began (Son 2:10); it is a consistent whole; "love" from first to last (Isa 52:1-2; 2Co 6:17-18). "Come," ...

His call, described by the bride, ends as it began (Son 2:10); it is a consistent whole; "love" from first to last (Isa 52:1-2; 2Co 6:17-18). "Come," in the close of Rev 22:17, as at His earlier manifestation (Mat 11:28).

JFB: Sos 2:14 - dove Here expressing endearment (Psa 74:19). Doves are noted for constant attachment; emblems, also, in their soft, plaintive note, of softened penitents (...

Here expressing endearment (Psa 74:19). Doves are noted for constant attachment; emblems, also, in their soft, plaintive note, of softened penitents (Isa 59:11; Eze 7:16); other points of likeness are their beauty; "their wings covered with silver and gold" (Psa 68:13), typifying the change in the converted; the dove-like spirit, breathed into the saint by the Holy Ghost, whose emblem is the dove; the messages of peace from God to sinful men, as Noah's dove, with the olive branch (Gen 8:11), intimated that the flood of wrath was past; timidity, fleeing with fear from sin and self to the cleft Rock of Ages (Isa 26:4, Margin; Hos 11:11); gregarious, flocking together to the kingdom of Jesus Christ (Isa 60:8); harmless simplicity (Mat 10:16).

JFB: Sos 2:14 - clefts The refuge of doves from storm and heat (Jer 48:28; see Jer 49:16). GESENIUS translates the Hebrew from a different root, "the refuges." But see, for ...

The refuge of doves from storm and heat (Jer 48:28; see Jer 49:16). GESENIUS translates the Hebrew from a different root, "the refuges." But see, for "clefts," Exo 33:18-23. It is only when we are in Christ Jesus that our "voice is sweet (in prayer, Son 4:3, Son 4:11; Mat 10:20; Gal 4:6, because it is His voice in us; also in speaking of Him, Mal 3:16); and our countenance comely" (Exo 34:29; Psa 27:5; Psa 71:3; Isa 33:16; 2Co 3:18).

JFB: Sos 2:14 - stairs (Eze 38:20, Margin), a steep rock, broken into stairs or terraces. It is in "secret places" and rugged scenes that Jesus Christ woos the soul from th...

(Eze 38:20, Margin), a steep rock, broken into stairs or terraces. It is in "secret places" and rugged scenes that Jesus Christ woos the soul from the world to Himself (Mic 2:10; Mic 7:14). So Jacob amid the stones of Beth-el (Gen 28:11-19); Moses at Horeb (Exo. 3:1-22); so Elijah (1Ki 19:9-13); Jesus Christ with the three disciples on a "high mountain apart," at the transfiguration (Mat 17:1); John in Patmos (Rev 1:9). "Of the eight beatitudes, five have an afflicted condition for their subject. As long as the waters are on the earth, we dwell in the ark; but when the land is dry, the dove itself will be tempted to wander" [JEREMY TAYLOR]. Jesus Christ does not invite her to leave the rock, but in it (Himself), yet in holy freedom to lay aside the timorous spirit, look up boldly as accepted in Him, pray, praise, and confess Him (in contrast to her shrinking from being looked at, Son 1:6), (Eph 6:19; Heb 13:15; 1Jo 4:18); still, though trembling, the voice and countenance of the soul in Jesus Christ are pleasant to Him. The Church found no cleft in the Sinaitic legal rock, though good in itself, wherein to hide; but in Jesus Christ stricken by God for us, as the rock smitten by Moses (Num 20:11), there is a hiding-place (Isa 32:2). She praised His "voice" (Son 2:8, Son 2:10); it is thus that her voice also, though tremulous, is "sweet" to Him here.

JFB: Sos 2:15 - -- Transition to the vineyard, often formed in "stairs" (Son 2:14), or terraces, in which, amidst the vine leaves, foxes hid.

Transition to the vineyard, often formed in "stairs" (Son 2:14), or terraces, in which, amidst the vine leaves, foxes hid.

JFB: Sos 2:15 - foxes Generic term, including jackals. They eat only grapes, not the vine flowers; but they need to be driven out in time before the grape is ripe. She had ...

Generic term, including jackals. They eat only grapes, not the vine flowers; but they need to be driven out in time before the grape is ripe. She had failed in watchfulness before (Son 1:6); now when converted, she is the more jealous of subtle sins (Psa 139:23). In spiritual winter certain evils are frozen up, as well as good; in the spring of revivals these start up unperceived, crafty, false teachers, spiritual pride, uncharitableness, &c. (Psa 19:12; Mat 13:26; Luk 8:14; 2Ti 2:17; Heb 12:15). "Little" sins are parents of the greatest (Ecc 10:1; 1Co 5:6). Historically, John the Baptist spared not the fox-like Herod (Luk 13:32), who gave vine-like promise of fruit at first (Mar 6:20), at the cost of his life; nor the viper-Sadducees, &c.; nor the varied subtle forms of sin (Luk 3:7-14).

JFB: Sos 2:16 - mine . . . his Rather, "is for me . . . for Him" (Hos 3:3), where, as here, there is the assurance of indissoluble union, in spite of temporary absence. Son 2:17, en...

Rather, "is for me . . . for Him" (Hos 3:3), where, as here, there is the assurance of indissoluble union, in spite of temporary absence. Son 2:17, entreating Him to return, shows that He has gone, perhaps through her want of guarding against the "little sins" (Son 2:15). The order of the clauses is reversed in Son 6:3, when she is riper in faith: there she rests more on her being His; here, on His being hers; and no doubt her sense of love to Him is a pledge that she is His (Joh 14:21, Joh 14:23; 1Co 8:3); this is her consolation in His withdrawal now.

JFB: Sos 2:16 - I am his By creation (Psa 100:3), by redemption (Joh 17:10; Rom 14:8; 1Co 6:19).

By creation (Psa 100:3), by redemption (Joh 17:10; Rom 14:8; 1Co 6:19).

JFB: Sos 2:16 - feedeth As a "roe," or gazelle (Son 2:17); instinct is sure to lead him back to his feeding ground, where the lilies abound. So Jesus Christ, though now withd...

As a "roe," or gazelle (Son 2:17); instinct is sure to lead him back to his feeding ground, where the lilies abound. So Jesus Christ, though now withdrawn, the bride feels sure will return to His favorite resting-place (Son 7:10; Psa 132:14). So hereafter (Rev 21:3). Psa 45:1, title, terms his lovely bride's "lilies" [HENGSTENBERG] pure and white, though among thorns (Son 2:2).

JFB: Sos 2:17 - Night Is the image of the present world (Rom 13:12). "Behold men as if dwelling in subterranean cavern" [PLATO, Republic, 7.1].

Is the image of the present world (Rom 13:12). "Behold men as if dwelling in subterranean cavern" [PLATO, Republic, 7.1].

JFB: Sos 2:17 - Until That is, "Before that," &c.

That is, "Before that," &c.

JFB: Sos 2:17 - break Rather, "breathe"; referring to the refreshing breeze of dawn in the East; or to the air of life, which distinguishes morning from the death-like stil...

Rather, "breathe"; referring to the refreshing breeze of dawn in the East; or to the air of life, which distinguishes morning from the death-like stillness of night. MAURER takes this verse of the approach of night, when the breeze arises after the heat of day (compare Gen 3:8, Margin, with Gen 18:1), and the "shadows" are lost in night (Psa 102:11); thus our life will be the day; death, the night (Joh 9:4). The English Version better accords with (Son 3:1). "By night" (Rom 13:12).

JFB: Sos 2:17 - turn To me.

To me.

JFB: Sos 2:17 - Bether Mountains of Bithron, separated from the rest of Israel by the Jordan (2Sa 2:29), not far from Bethabara, where John baptized and Jesus was first mani...

Mountains of Bithron, separated from the rest of Israel by the Jordan (2Sa 2:29), not far from Bethabara, where John baptized and Jesus was first manifested. Rather, as Margin, "of divisions," and Septuagint, mountains intersected with deep gaps, hard to pass over, separating the bride and Jesus Christ. In Son 8:14 the mountains are of spices, on which the roe feeds, not of separation; for at His first coming He had to overpass the gulf made by sin between Him and us (Zec 4:6-7); in His second, He will only have to come down from the fragrant hill above to take home His prepared bride. Historically, in the ministry of John the Baptist, Christ's call to the bride was not, as later (Son 4:8), "Come with me," but "Come away," namely, to meet Me (Son 2:2, Son 2:10, Son 2:13). Sitting in darkness (Mat 4:16), she "waited" and "looked" eagerly for Him, the "great light" (Luk 1:79; Luk 2:25, Luk 2:38); at His rising, the shadows of the law (Col 2:16-17; Heb 10:1) were to "flee away." So we wait for the second coming, when means of grace, so precious now, shall be superseded by the Sun of righteousness (1Co 13:10, 1Co 13:12; Rev 21:22-23). The Word is our light until then (2Pe 1:19).

Clarke: Sos 2:1 - I am the rose of Sharon I am the rose of Sharon - Sharon was a very fruitful place, where David’ s cattle were fed, 1Ch 27:29. It is mentioned as a place of excellence...

I am the rose of Sharon - Sharon was a very fruitful place, where David’ s cattle were fed, 1Ch 27:29. It is mentioned as a place of excellence, Isa 35:2, and as a place of flocks, Isa 65:10, Perhaps it would be better, with almost all the versions, to translate, "I am the rose of the field."The bridegroom had just before called her fair; she with a becoming modesty, represents her beauty as nothing extraordinary, and compares herself to a common flower of the field. This, in the warmth of his affection, he denies, insisting that she as much surpasses all other maidens as the flower of the lily does the bramble, Son 2:2.

Clarke: Sos 2:3 - As the apple tree As the apple tree - The bride returns the compliment, and says, As the apple or citron tree is among the trees of the wood, so is the bridegroom amo...

As the apple tree - The bride returns the compliment, and says, As the apple or citron tree is among the trees of the wood, so is the bridegroom among all other men

Clarke: Sos 2:3 - I sat down under his shadow I sat down under his shadow - I am become his spouse, and my union with him makes me indescribably happy.

I sat down under his shadow - I am become his spouse, and my union with him makes me indescribably happy.

Clarke: Sos 2:4 - He brought me to the banqueting house He brought me to the banqueting house - Literally, the house of wine. The ancients preserved their wine, not in barrels or dark cellars under ground...

He brought me to the banqueting house - Literally, the house of wine. The ancients preserved their wine, not in barrels or dark cellars under ground, as we do, but in large pitchers, ranged against the wall in some upper apartment in the house, the place where they kept their most precious effects. We have a proof of this in Homer: -

Ως φαν· ὁ δὑψοραφον θαλομον κατεβησατο πατρο

Ευρυν, ὁθι νητος χρυσος και χαλκος εκειτο

Εσθης τεν χηλοισιν, ἁλις τευωδες ελαιον

Εν δε πιθοι οινοιο παλαιου ἡδυποτοι

Εστασαν, ακρητον θειον ποτον εντος εχοντες

Ἑξειης ποτε τοιχον αρηροτες· ειποτΟδυσσευ

Οικαδε νοστησειε, και αλγεα πολλα μογησας

Κληΐσται δεπεσαν σανιδες πυκινως αραρυιαι

Δικλιδες· εν δε γυνη ταμιη νυκτας τε και ημα

Εσχ, κ. τ. λ. . Od. lib. ii., ver. 337

Meantime the lofty rooms the prince surveys

Where lay the treasures of th’ Ithacian race

Here, ruddy brass and gold refulgent blazed

There, polished chests embroider’ d gestures graced

Here, pots of oil breathed forth a rich perfume

There, jars of wine in rows adorn’ d the dome

(Pure flavorous wine, by gods in bounty given

And worthy to exalt the feasts of heaven)

Untouch’ d they stood, till, his long labors o’ er

The great Ulysses reach’ d his native shore

A double strength of bars secured the gates

Fast by the door wise Euryclea waits, etc

Pope.

||&&$

Clarke: Sos 2:5 - Stay me with flagons Stay me with flagons - I believe the original words mean some kind of cordials with which we are unacquainted. The versions in general understand so...

Stay me with flagons - I believe the original words mean some kind of cordials with which we are unacquainted. The versions in general understand some kind of ointment or perfumes by the first term. I suppose the good man was perfectly sincere who took this for his text, and, after having repeated, Stay me with flagons, comfort me with apples, for I am sick of love sat down, perfectly overwhelmed with his own feelings, and was not able to proceed! But while we admit such a person’ s sincerity, who can help questioning his judgment?

Clarke: Sos 2:7 - I charge you - by the roes I charge you - by the roes - This was probably some rustic mode of adjuration. The verses themselves require little comment. With this verse the fir...

I charge you - by the roes - This was probably some rustic mode of adjuration. The verses themselves require little comment. With this verse the first night of the first day is supposed to end.

Clarke: Sos 2:8 - Behold, he cometh leaping Behold, he cometh leaping - This appears to be highly characteristic of the gambols of the shepherds, and points out the ecstasy with which those wh...

Behold, he cometh leaping - This appears to be highly characteristic of the gambols of the shepherds, and points out the ecstasy with which those who were enamoured ran to their mates. It is supposed that the second day’ s eclogue begins at this verse. The author of what was then called A New Translation of Solomon’ s Song, observes

1.    The bride relates how the bridegroom, attended by his companions, had come under her window, and called upon her to come forth and enjoy the beauties of the spring, Son 2:9-11, etc

2.    She then returns to her narration, Son 3:1. The bridegroom did not come according to her wishes. Night came on; she did not find him in her bed; she went out to seek him; found him, and brought him to her mother’ s pavilion, Son 3:4; and then, as before, conjures the virgins not to disturb his repose, Son 3:5.

Clarke: Sos 2:9 - He standeth behind our wall He standeth behind our wall - This may refer to the wall by which the house was surrounded, the space between which and the house constituted the co...

He standeth behind our wall - This may refer to the wall by which the house was surrounded, the space between which and the house constituted the court. He was seen first behind the wall, and then in the court; and lastly came to the window of his bride’ s chamber.

Clarke: Sos 2:11 - The winter is past The winter is past - Mr. Harmer has made some good collections on this part, from Drs. Shaw and Russet, which I shall transcrilbe. One part of the w...

The winter is past - Mr. Harmer has made some good collections on this part, from Drs. Shaw and Russet, which I shall transcrilbe. One part of the winter is distinguished from the rest of it by the people of the East, on account of the severity of the cold. At Aleppo it lasts about forty days, and is called by the natives maurbanie. I would propose it to the consideration of the learned, whether the word here used, and translated winter, may not be understood to mean what the Aleppines express by the term maurbanie. It occurs nowhere else in the Old Testament; and another word is used for the rainy part of the year in general. If this thought be admitted, it will greatly illustrate the words of the bridegroom: Lo, the winter is past; the rain is over, and gone. For then the last clause will not be explanatory of the first, and signify that the moist part of the year was entirely past; with which, Dr. Russel assures us, all pleasantness withdraws at Aleppo; but the words will import: "The maurbanie is past and over; the weather is become agreeably warm; the rain too is just ceased, and consequently hath left us the prospect of several days of serenity and undisturbed pleasantness.

The weather of Judea was in this respect, I presume, like that at Algiers; where, after two or three days of rain, there is usually, according to Dr. Shaw, "a week, a fortnight, or more, of fair and good weather. Of such a sort of cessation of rain alone, the bridegroom, methinks, is here to be understood; not of the absolute termination of the rainy season, and the summer droughts being come on. And if so, what can the time that is past mean but the maurbanie? Indeed, Dr. Russel, in giving us an account of the excursions of the English merchants at Aleppo, has undesignedly furnished us with a good comment on this and the two following verses. These gentlemen, it seems, dine abroad under a tent, in spring and autumn on Saturdays, and often on Wednesdays. They do the same during the good weather in winter; but they live at the gardens in April, and part of May. In the heat of the summer they dine at the gardens, as once or twice a week they dine under a tent in autumn and spring."The cold weather is not supposed by Solomon to have been long over, since it is distinctly mentioned; and the Aleppines make these incursions very early; the narcissus flowers during the whole of the maurbanie; the hyacinths and violets at least before it is quite over. The appearing of flowers, then, doth not mean the appearing of the first and earliest flowers, but must rather be understood of the earth’ s being covered with them; which at Aleppo is not till after the middle of February, a small crane’ s bill appearing on the banks of the river there about the middle of February, quickly after which comes a profusion of flowers. The nightingales, too, which are there in abundance, not only afford much pleasure by their songs in the gardens, but are also kept tame in the houses, and let out at a small rate to divert such as choose it in the city; so that no entertainments are made in the spring without a concert of these birds. No wonder, then, that Solomon makes the bridegroom speak of the singing of birds; and it teaches us what these birds are, which are expressly distinguished from turtle doves.

Clarke: Sos 2:13 - The fig tree putteth forth her green figs The fig tree putteth forth her green figs - The fig tree in Judea bears double crops; the first of which is ripe in spring. But the tree, as I have ...

The fig tree putteth forth her green figs - The fig tree in Judea bears double crops; the first of which is ripe in spring. But the tree, as I have elsewhere observed, bears figs all the year through, in the climes congenial to it. That is, the fig tree has always ripe or unripe fruit on it. I never saw a healthy tree naked. But in the beginning of spring they grow fast, and become turgid

Clarke: Sos 2:13 - The vines with the tender grape The vines with the tender grape - The versions understand this of the flowers of the vine. These were formerly put into the new wine (2 lbs. to ever...

The vines with the tender grape - The versions understand this of the flowers of the vine. These were formerly put into the new wine (2 lbs. to every cask) to give it a fine flavour.

Clarke: Sos 2:14 - My dove - in the clefts of the rock My dove - in the clefts of the rock - He compares his bride hiding herself in her secret chambers and closets to a dove in the clefts of the rock.

My dove - in the clefts of the rock - He compares his bride hiding herself in her secret chambers and closets to a dove in the clefts of the rock.

Clarke: Sos 2:15 - Take us the foxes Take us the foxes - That these were ruinous to vines all authors allow. They love the vine, and they are eaten in autumn in some countries, accordin...

Take us the foxes - That these were ruinous to vines all authors allow. They love the vine, and they are eaten in autumn in some countries, according to Galen, when they are very fat with eating the grapes. They abounded in Judea; and did most damage when the clusters were young and tender. It is likely that these are the words of the bridegroom to his companions, just as he was entering the apartment of his spouse. "Take care of the vineyard: set the traps for the foxes, which are spoiling the vines; and destroy their young as far as possible."

Clarke: Sos 2:16 - My beloved is mine My beloved is mine - The words of the bride on his entering: "I am thy own; thou art wholly mine.

My beloved is mine - The words of the bride on his entering: "I am thy own; thou art wholly mine.

Clarke: Sos 2:16 - He feedeth among the lilies He feedeth among the lilies - The odor with which he is surrounded is as fine as if he passed the night among the sweetest scented flowers.

He feedeth among the lilies - The odor with which he is surrounded is as fine as if he passed the night among the sweetest scented flowers.

Clarke: Sos 2:17 - Until the day break Until the day break - Literally, until the day breathe; until the first dawn, which is usually accompanied with the most refreshing breezes

Until the day break - Literally, until the day breathe; until the first dawn, which is usually accompanied with the most refreshing breezes

Clarke: Sos 2:17 - The shadows flee away The shadows flee away - Referring to the evening or setting of the sun, at which all shadows vanish

The shadows flee away - Referring to the evening or setting of the sun, at which all shadows vanish

Clarke: Sos 2:17 - The mountains of Bether The mountains of Bether - Translated also mountains of division, supposed to mean the mountains of Beth-horon There was a place called Bithron, 2Sa ...

The mountains of Bether - Translated also mountains of division, supposed to mean the mountains of Beth-horon

There was a place called Bithron, 2Sa 2:29, on the other side of Jordan; and as the name signifies Partition, it might have had its name from the circumstance of its being divided or separated from Judea by the river Jordan

With this chapter the second night is supposed to end.

Defender: Sos 2:1 - rose of Sharon Although these terms are often applied to Christ by modern writers, it is actually the bride who is speaking, in effect deprecating herself as like tw...

Although these terms are often applied to Christ by modern writers, it is actually the bride who is speaking, in effect deprecating herself as like two very common wildflowers. The bridegroom, however, rejects this comparison, saying she is like "a lily among thorns" (Son 2:2)."

Defender: Sos 2:4 - banner The "banner" metaphor envisions a flag on a flagpole, depicting ownership and protection. The bride's "banner" is the love of her bridegroom, just as ...

The "banner" metaphor envisions a flag on a flagpole, depicting ownership and protection. The bride's "banner" is the love of her bridegroom, just as our eternal security is in the undying love of Christ. Except for Son 2:2, it is the bride who is speaking throughout this chapter."

Defender: Sos 2:7 - charge This charge is given three times to the "daughters of Jerusalem," urging them to premarital chastity (Son 3:5; Son 8:4). The word "my" is not in the o...

This charge is given three times to the "daughters of Jerusalem," urging them to premarital chastity (Son 3:5; Son 8:4). The word "my" is not in the original, so the charge is really: "Stir not up, nor awake love, until he please (please can mean 'is proper').""

Defender: Sos 2:8 - behold, he cometh Although the bride is still speaking, the occasion is different. She is no longer in Jerusalem, but perhaps in their country palace, and her beloved i...

Although the bride is still speaking, the occasion is different. She is no longer in Jerusalem, but perhaps in their country palace, and her beloved is away. But then she cries: "Behold, he cometh," and she rises to meet him, as she sees him rapidly approaching. This perhaps speaks, in type, of the signs of the imminent return of Christ, after His long absence (compare Mat 25:6; Mat 24:33)."

Defender: Sos 2:10 - Rise up The king, after a long time away from his beloved during a busy winter, returns in the spring for a happy reunion. In type, the call to "rise up and c...

The king, after a long time away from his beloved during a busy winter, returns in the spring for a happy reunion. In type, the call to "rise up and come away" may foreshadow the wonderful rapture of the church when Christ returns (1Th 4:16, 1Th 4:17)."

Defender: Sos 2:11 - winter is past Typologically, "the winter" perhaps refers to the long period of Christ's absence, between His ascension and the second coming."

Typologically, "the winter" perhaps refers to the long period of Christ's absence, between His ascension and the second coming."

Defender: Sos 2:12 - turtle "Turtle" also means "turtledove." When Christ comes again and establishes His reign of righteousness on earth, it will be like a glorious springtime a...

"Turtle" also means "turtledove." When Christ comes again and establishes His reign of righteousness on earth, it will be like a glorious springtime after a long winter."

Defender: Sos 2:13 - fig tree The budding of the "fig tree" (Israel) is given by Christ as a sign of His imminent return (Luk 13:6-9; Luk 21:29-31)."

The budding of the "fig tree" (Israel) is given by Christ as a sign of His imminent return (Luk 13:6-9; Luk 21:29-31)."

Defender: Sos 2:15 - Take us the foxes Evidently both bride and bridegroom here realize there is a need to "take" - that is, "capture" - the little foxes infesting the vineyards before the ...

Evidently both bride and bridegroom here realize there is a need to "take" - that is, "capture" - the little foxes infesting the vineyards before the grapes have ripened. There are "little" things that can come in and destroy even the happiest marriage if they are allowed to remain, just as "little" sins (ingratitude, impatience, etc.) may hurt our relationship with the Lord. Sadly, Solomon himself soon allowed the little sins of political expedience, preoccupation with business affairs and, finally, the greater sins of lust and idolatry, to ruin his idyllic relation with his first love."

TSK: Sos 2:1 - the rose // lily the rose : Psa 85:11; Isa 35:1, Isa 35:2 lily : Son 2:16, Son 6:3; Isa 57:15

TSK: Sos 2:2 - -- Isa 55:13; Mat 6:28, Mat 6:29, Mat 10:16; Phi 2:15, Phi 2:16; 1Pe 2:12

TSK: Sos 2:3 - the apple tree // my beloved // I sat // his fruit // taste the apple tree : Son 8:5; Isa 4:2; Eze 17:23, Eze 17:24; Joh 15:1-8 my beloved : Son 5:9, Son 5:10, Son 5:16; Psa 45:2, Psa 89:6; Joh 1:14-18, Joh 3:2...

TSK: Sos 2:4 - brought // banqueting house // his banner brought : Son 1:4, Son 5:1; Psa 63:2-5, Psa 84:10; Joh 14:21-23; Rev 3:20 banqueting house : Heb. house of wine, Son 1:1, Son 1:4; Est 7:7 his banner ...

brought : Son 1:4, Son 5:1; Psa 63:2-5, Psa 84:10; Joh 14:21-23; Rev 3:20

banqueting house : Heb. house of wine, Son 1:1, Son 1:4; Est 7:7

his banner : Son 6:4; Job 1:10; Psa 60:4; Isa 11:10; Joh 15:9-15; Rom 5:8-10, Rom 8:28-39

TSK: Sos 2:5 - Stay // flagons // comfort me // for Stay : Psa 4:6, Psa 4:7, Psa 42:1, Psa 42:2, Psa 63:1-3, Psa 63:8; Isa 26:8, Isa 26:9; Luk 24:32; Phi 1:23 flagons : 2Sa 6:19; Hos 3:1 comfort me : He...

TSK: Sos 2:6 - -- Son 8:3-5; Isa 54:5-10, Isa 62:4, Isa 62:5; Jer 32:41; Zep 3:17; Joh 3:29; Eph 5:25-29

TSK: Sos 2:7 - charge you // O ye // by the roes // ye stir charge you : Heb. adjure you, Mat 26:63 O ye : Son 1:5, Son 5:8, Son 5:16 by the roes : Son 3:5; Pro 5:19 ye stir : Son 8:4; Eph 5:22-33

charge you : Heb. adjure you, Mat 26:63

O ye : Son 1:5, Son 5:8, Son 5:16

by the roes : Son 3:5; Pro 5:19

ye stir : Son 8:4; Eph 5:22-33

TSK: Sos 2:8 - voice // leaping // the mountains voice : Son 5:2; Joh 3:29, Joh 10:4, Joh 10:5, Joh 10:27; Rev 3:20 leaping : 2Sa 6:16; Isa 35:6; Jer 48:27; Luk 6:23; Act 3:8, Act 14:10 the mountains...

TSK: Sos 2:9 - like // he standeth // showing like : Son 2:17, Son 8:14 he standeth : 1Co 13:12; 2Co 3:13-18; Eph 2:14, Eph 2:15; Col 2:17; Heb 9:8, Heb 9:9; Heb 10:1, Heb 10:19, Heb 10:20 showing...

TSK: Sos 2:10 - spake // Rise spake : Son 2:8; 2Sa 23:3; Psa 85:8; Jer 31:3 Rise : Son 2:13, Son 4:7, Son 4:8, Son 5:2; Gen 12:1-3; Psa 45:10, Psa 45:11; Mat 4:19-22, Mat 9:9; 2Co ...

TSK: Sos 2:11 - -- Ecc 3:4, Ecc 3:11; Isa 12:1, Isa 12:2, Isa 40:2, Isa 54:6-8, Isa 60:1, Isa 60:2; Mat 5:4; Eph 5:8; Rev 11:14, Rev 11:15

TSK: Sos 2:12 - flowers // time // of the turtle flowers : Son 6:2, Son 6:11; Isa 35:1, Isa 35:2; Hos 14:5-7 time : Psa 40:1-3, Psa 89:15, Psa 148:7-13; Isa 42:10-12, Isa 55:12; Eph 5:18-20; Col 3:16...

TSK: Sos 2:13 - fig tree // Arise fig tree : Son 6:11, Son 7:8, Son 7:11-13; Isa 18:5, Isa 55:10, Isa 55:11, Isa 61:11; Hos 14:6; Hag 2:19; Luk 13:6, Luk 13:7 Arise : Son 2:10; Luk 19:...

TSK: Sos 2:14 - my dove // that art // clefts // let me hear // for sweet // thy countenance my dove : Son 5:2, Son 6:9; Psa 68:13, Psa 74:19; Isa 60:8; Eze 7:16; Mat 3:16, Mat 10:16 that art : Exo 3:6, Exo 4:11-13; Ezr 9:5, Ezr 9:6; Job 9:16;...

TSK: Sos 2:15 - the foxes // tender the foxes : Psa 80:13; Eze 13:4-16; Luk 13:32; 2Pe 2:1-3; Rev 2:2 tender : Son 2:13, Son 7:12

TSK: Sos 2:16 - beloved // he beloved : Son 6:3, Son 7:10, Son 7:13; Psa 48:14, Psa 63:1; Jer 31:33; 1Co 3:21-23; Gal 2:20; Rev 21:2, Rev 21:3 he : Son 2:1, Son 1:7, Son 6:3

TSK: Sos 2:17 - the day // the shadows // beloved // Bether the day : Son 4:6; Luk 1:78; Rom 13:12; 2Pe 1:19 the shadows : Heb 8:5, Heb 10:1 beloved : Son 2:9, Son 8:14 Bether : or, division

the day : Son 4:6; Luk 1:78; Rom 13:12; 2Pe 1:19

the shadows : Heb 8:5, Heb 10:1

beloved : Son 2:9, Son 8:14

Bether : or, division

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Poole: Sos 2:2 - As the lily among thorns As the lily among thorns compared with thorns, which it unspeakably exceeds in glory and beauty; so is my love among the daughters so far, and much...

As the lily among thorns compared with thorns, which it unspeakably exceeds in glory and beauty;

so is my love among the daughters so far, and much more, doth my church or people excel all other assemblies or people. The title of daughter is oft given to whole nations; whence we read of the daughter of Babylon , and of Egypt , and of Edom , &c., Isa 47:1 Jer 46:11 Lam 4:21 . These are Christ’ s words, to which the spouse makes the following reply. And it is observable here, that as Christ is here represented as a shepherd, and the spouse as a country virgin, so the similitudes here used are agreeable to that estate.

Poole: Sos 2:3 - As the apple tree // among the trees of the wood // I sat down under his shadow As the apple tree whose fruit is very pleasant and wholesome, among the trees of the wood which are either barren, or bear ungrateful and worthless...

As the apple tree whose fruit is very pleasant and wholesome,

among the trees of the wood which are either barren, or bear ungrateful and worthless fruit.

I sat down under his shadow being weary and heavy laden with manifold sins and troubles, inward and outward, I confidently reposed myself under his protection, (which is commonly signified by a shadow, as Isa 4:6 25:4 , &c.,) and by him was defended from the scorching heat of God’ s wrath and from the curse of his fiery law, and from the mischief or hurt of all sorts of distresses. His fruit ; the benefits which I received by him, the clear, and full, and certain knowledge of God’ s will, and the way of salvation, adoption, and remission of sins, faith and repentance, and all manner of grace, and assurance of glory. Thus he was to me both a sun and a shield , as is said, Psa 84:11 .

Poole: Sos 2:4 - Banqueting-house // His banner over me // Was love Banqueting-house Heb. house of wine , or, by a common synecdoche, of feasting. By which he understands the places in which, or the means and instrum...

Banqueting-house Heb. house of wine , or, by a common synecdoche, of feasting. By which he understands the places in which, or the means and instruments by which, believers receive the graces and blessings of Christ, to wit, the Holy Scriptures, ministers, and public assemblies, and all Christ’ s institutions.

His banner over me or, to or towards me ; by the lifting up or displaying whereof I was invited and encouraged to come in to him, and to list myself under him, as soldiers are by the lifting up of a banner or ensign, of which see Isa 11:10 49:22 .

Was love the love of Christ crucified, which, like a banner, is displayed in the gospel, whereby sinners are drawn and engaged to come to Christ: see Joh 3:14 12:32 2Co 5:14 . The motto or device of Christ’ s banner was not like those of other great generals, a lion, or leopard, or eagle, but love, by which alone Christ made all his conquests.

Poole: Sos 2:5 - Stay me // With flagons // Comfort me with apples // I am sick of love Stay me or, support me ; keep me from sinking or fainting. The spouse speaks this to her bridemaids, the daughters of Jerusalem , as it is expresse...

Stay me or, support me ; keep me from sinking or fainting. The spouse speaks this to her bridemaids, the daughters of Jerusalem , as it is expressed, Son 2:7 , or to the servants or friends of the Bridegroom there waiting, and to the Bridegroom himself; as a person ready to faint cries to any or all that are near to him or her for help.

With flagons with wine, which is a good cordial, Psa 104:15 Pro 31:6,7 , and which was there present, Son 2:4 . Flagons are here, and 1Ch 16:3 , put for flagons of wine , as it is fully expressed, Hos 3:1 , or for the wine contained in them, as the cup is put for wine, Luk 22:20 , by a common metonymy.

Comfort me with apples with odoriferous apples, such as pomegranates, or the like, the smell whereof was grateful and useful to persons ready to faint. By these metaphors understand the application of the promises, and the comfortable and quickening influences of the Spirit.

I am sick of love either,

1. With transports of joy, which sometimes causes a fainting of the spirits, as Gen 45:26 1Ki 10:5 . Or,

2. With grief for his departure from her, of which we read Son 3:1,2 , or for fear of it. Or rather,

3. With ardent desire of a stricter union, and clearer discoveries of his love, and perfect and uninterrupted communion with him in glory. That sickness is sometimes the effect of love hath been oft observed by physicians.

Poole: Sos 2:6 - Is under my head Is under my head as a pillow for me to rest upon. No sooner did I cry out for help, but he was at hand to succour me, and did manifest his tender car...

Is under my head as a pillow for me to rest upon. No sooner did I cry out for help, but he was at hand to succour me, and did manifest his tender care and dear love to me.

Poole: Sos 2:7 - the daughters of Jerusalem // By the hinds This verse is spoken either, 1. By the Bridegroom, who having reposed the sick church in his arms, chargeth them not to disturb her till she pleas...

This verse is spoken either,

1. By the Bridegroom, who having reposed the sick church in his arms, chargeth them not to disturb her till she please , as the last clause in this case must be rendered. Or rather,

2. By the bride, as may be gathered,

1. From the connexion, because both the foregoing and following words are hers.

2. Because it was more decent for the bride than for the Bridegroom to give this charge to the bridemaids,

the daughters of Jerusalem and therefore in all places in this book where they are mentioned the person speaking to them is the bride, and not the Bridegroom, and particularly Son 3:5 8:4 , where this verse is repeated, and is confessedly and evidently spoken by the spouse. Daughters of Jerusalem ; my bridemaids, friends, and members, over whom I have authority.

By the hinds either,

1. By the kindness you have to those pretty and amiable creatures, as

you would not injure nor disturb them, nor drive them away, but please yourselves with the sight of them, as shepherds and country damsels commonly do. Or,

2. By the example of those creatures, which are pleasant and loving in

their carriage towards one another. Of the field ; which have their usual abode in the fields. That ye stir not up, nor awake ; that you do not disturb nor offend him by your miscarriages, but permit him and me to enjoy a quiet repose. Do nothing to grieve him, or molest me. My love ; my dearly beloved, called love emphatically, to express her great passion for him. So love is used Son 7:6 , and in other authors. Till he please , i.e. never, as this word until , in such like phrases, is commonly used, as Gen 28:15 2Sa 6:23 Isa 22:14 . For neither can sin ever please him, nor can the church bear it that Christ should ever be offended, or that her sweet fellowship with him should be interrupted.

Poole: Sos 2:8 - The voice of my Beloved! // Behold, he cometh // Leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills // upon the mountains and hills The voice of my Beloved! methinks I hear his voice. The spouse being now refreshed and revived with Christ’ s presence, awakes out of sleep, and...

The voice of my Beloved! methinks I hear his voice. The spouse being now refreshed and revived with Christ’ s presence, awakes out of sleep, and breaks forth into this joyful exclamation. Christ’ s voice is nothing else but the word of grace revealed outwardly in the gospel, or the evangelical passages of the Old Testament, and inwardly to the heart of the spouse by the Spirit of God.

Behold, he cometh either,

1. He is coming, or will shortly come, into the world; which Solomon and the rest of the Old Testament prophets and saints did earnestly desire and confidently expect. Or,

2. He is coming to me for my support and comfort.

Leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills he saith leaping and skipping , to note that Christ came readily and swiftly, with great desire and pleasure; and he adds,

upon the mountains and hills either with respect to Mount Zion or Jerusalem, in and from which Christ first discovered himself; or to signify Christ’ s fixed resolution to come, in spite of all discouragements and difficulties which stood in his way; or to show that his coming was manifest and visible to the eye of her faith. Or in this phrase he may have a respect to the roes and harts here following.

Poole: Sos 2:9 - Like a roe or a young hart // He standeth behind our wall // He looketh forth // At the window // through the lattice Like a roe or a young hart either, 1. In loveliness. Or rather, 2. In swiftness, by comparing this verse with the former. The swiftness of roes is ...

Like a roe or a young hart either,

1. In loveliness. Or rather,

2. In swiftness, by comparing this verse with the former. The swiftness of roes is noted 2Sa 2:18 1Ch 12:8 . He is coming to me with all speed, and will not tarry a moment beyond the appointed and proper season.

He standeth behind our wall and whilst he doth for wise and just reasons forbear to come, he is not far from us. Though he be not yet come into the door of our house, yet he stands behind the wall of our house, and is always at hand, to give me that succour and comfort which I do or may need or desire. Both this and the following phrases seem to note the obscure and imperfect manner and degree of Christ’ s manifesting himself to his people, either,

1. Under the law, in comparison of his discoveries in the gospel. Or,

2. In this life, in comparison of what he will do in the future life.

He looketh forth from his high and heavenly palace, towards me, to watch over me, and refresh me with the prospect of his favour.

At the window: this phrase, and that,

through the lattice intimate that the church doth indeed see Christ, but, as through a glass, darkly , as it is said even of gospel revelations, 1Co 13:12 , and was much more true of legal administrations.

Poole: Sos 2:10 - My Beloved spake // Rise up // Come away My Beloved spake invited and called me outwardly by his word, and inwardly by his Spirit. Rise up shake off sloth and security, and disentangle thy...

My Beloved spake invited and called me outwardly by his word, and inwardly by his Spirit.

Rise up shake off sloth and security, and disentangle thyself more fully from all the snares of this world, and of thy own lusts, that thou mayst be more ready to come to me, and more fit for my embraces.

Come away unto me, and with me; follow me fully, serve me more perfectly, labour for a nearer union and more satisfying communion with me.

Poole: Sos 2:11 - The winter // winter The winter which made the ways in some sort unpassable, and so might seem to hinder or affright thee from coming to me. This winter and the followi...

The winter which made the ways in some sort unpassable, and so might seem to hinder or affright thee from coming to me. This

winter and the following

rain may be understood either,

1. Of worldly tribulations, which he intimates to be past and gone, to wit, so far that they shall not destroy nor hurt the church, but, on the contrary, do her much good, both by multiplying her members, and increasing her graces; and promoting her eternal happiness. Or rather,

2. Of spiritual troubles arising in the minds and consciences of sinners, from a deep sense of the guilt of sin, the justice and wrath of God, the sentence and curse of the law; all which made them afraid to come unto God, and desirous, if possible, to run away from him. But, saith Christ, I have removed this great impediment, God is ready to be reconciled, and therefore cast off all discouragements and excuses, and come unto me.

Poole: Sos 2:12 - The flowers appear on the earth // The time of the singing of birds // The turtle // In our land The flowers appear on the earth: this and the following clauses are here alleged as evidences of the spring time, which in the mystical and principal...

The flowers appear on the earth: this and the following clauses are here alleged as evidences of the spring time, which in the mystical and principal sense seems to signify the day of grace, or the glad tidings of salvation proposed to sinners in the time of the law, by types, and shadows, and promises, but much more clearly and fully in the gospel, and all the discoveries and communications of God’ s grace to mankind in holy ordinances, in the gifts, and graces, and comforts of the Holy Spirit, vouchsafed unto and appearing in believers, as buds and blossoms do in the spring time.

The time of the singing of birds when birds sing most freely and sweetly, as they do in the spring. Or, as the ancient translator’ s render it, of cutting or cropping , not trees, which agrees not with that season, but the flowers, last mentioned, for nosegays, or other uses.

The turtle which changeth its place according to the season, as is observed. Jer 8:7 , and by all other writers, who affirm that it disappears in winter, and appears in the spring, as some other birds also do; but this seems particularly to be mentioned, because it doth not only give notice of the spring, but also doth aptly represent the Spirit of God, which even the Chaldee paraphrast understands by this turtle , which appeared in the shape of a dove, and which worketh a dove-like meekness, and chastity, and faithfulness in believers.

In our land in Immanuel’ s land , as Canaan is called, Isa 8:8 , in the church.

Poole: Sos 2:13 - Green figs // A good smell // Come away Green figs which it shooteth forth as soon as it doth leaves, in the spring time, Mat 24:32 . A good smell which, though not strong, is pleasant an...

Green figs which it shooteth forth as soon as it doth leaves, in the spring time, Mat 24:32 .

A good smell which, though not strong, is pleasant and grateful, and given by it in the progress of the spring.

Come away: these words are here repeated, to show both the church’ s infirmity and indisposition, which needs so many calls and arguments to press so necessary and advantageous a duty; and Christ’ s tender compassion to her weakness, and fervent desire of converse with her.

Poole: Sos 2:14 - My dove // In the secret places of the stairs // Let me see thy countenance // Thy voice // Sweet is thy voice, and thy countenance is comely My dove so the church is called, partly for her dove-like temper and disposition, because she is chaste, and mild, and harmless, &c.; and partly for ...

My dove so the church is called, partly for her dove-like temper and disposition, because she is chaste, and mild, and harmless, &c.; and partly for her dove-like condition, because she is weak, and exposed to persecution, and given to mourning, as doves are, Isa 38:14 59:11 Eze 7:16 , and subject to many fears, and therefore forced to hide herself in rocks, as it follows, in the clefts of the rock ; where she hid herself, either,

1. For fear of her enemies, whom to avoid she puts herself into the protection of the Almighty. Or,

2. Out of modesty, and a humble sense of her own deformities and, infirmities, which makes her endeavour to hide herself even from her Beloved, as ashamed to appear, in his presence, which is frequently the case of God’ s people, especially after falls into sin. And this sense seems to be favoured by the following words, in which Christ relieveth her against such discouraging thoughts.

In the secret places of the stairs in the holes of craggy and broken rocks, which resemble stairs. So the same thing is here repeated in other words.

Let me see thy countenance be not afraid nor ashamed to appear before me; come boldly into my presence, and acquaint thyself with me.

Thy voice thy prayers and praises.

Sweet is thy voice, and thy countenance is comely thy person and services are accepted by me, and are amiable in my sight.

Poole: Sos 2:15 - Us // The foxes // The little foxes // That spoil the vines // Have tender grapes The Bridegroom gives this charge to his bridemen or friends, whose office it is to attend upon him, and to observe his commands; by whom he understa...

The Bridegroom gives this charge to his bridemen or friends, whose office it is to attend upon him, and to observe his commands; by whom he understands those magistrates and ministers to whom, under Christ, the custody of the vineyards, to wit, the churches, principally belong. These he commands to take the

foxes i.e. to restrain them from doing this mischief.

Us Heb. for us , i.e. at our instance, and for our common good, as this spoiling of the vines was injurious and grievous to them both.

The foxes the disturbers of the vineyard, or the church; seducers or false teachers, who are fitly compared to foxes here, and Eze 13:4 , partly to distinguish them from great tyrants and persecutors, who are compared to wild boars , or other wild beasts , Psa 80:13 , as to lions , 2Ti 4:17 ; and partly for their fox-like qualities and actions, because they are very crafty and deceitful, 2Co 11:13,14 Eph 4:14 , and very mischievous also, Eze 34:2,3 2Ti 4:17 Tit 1:10,11 2Pe 2:2 . He mentions foxes , because these abounded in that country, as is manifest from Jud 15:4 Psa 63:10 Lam 5:18 , &c., but under them he comprehends all noxious creatures, upon the same reason.

The little foxes: this he adds, not as if the great foxes were excused or exempted, but for more abundant caution, to teach the church to prevent errors and heresies in the beginnings of them, before they spread and grow strong and incurable.

That spoil the vines which foxes do many ways, as those who write of them have observed, by gnawing and breaking the little branches and leaves, and the bark, by digging holes in the vineyards, and so spoiling the roots, by eating the grapes, and other ways.

Have tender grapes which gives us hopes of a good vintage, and which are easily spoiled, if great care be not used to prevent it.

Poole: Sos 2:16 - My Beloved is mine, and I am his // He feedeth among the lilies My Beloved is mine, and I am his: these are the words of the bride, who having come to him upon his gracious invitation, now maketh her boast of him,...

My Beloved is mine, and I am his: these are the words of the bride, who having come to him upon his gracious invitation, now maketh her boast of him, and of that intimate union and communion which was between them.

He feedeth among the lilies either,

1. He feedeth his flock in sweet and lovely pastures, where there is not only herbage to feed them, but lilies to delight them. Or rather,

2. He feedeth himself, i.e. he abideth and refresheth himself amongst his faithful people, which are compared to lilies, above, Son 2:2 , and Hos 14:5 , as Christ also is here, Son 2:1 .

Poole: Sos 2:17 - Until the day break, and the shadows flee away // Turn thou, my Beloved, until the day break // Turn // Like a roe or a young hart // Bether Until the day break, and the shadows flee away until the morning of that great and blessed day of the general resurrection and judgment, when all the...

Until the day break, and the shadows flee away until the morning of that great and blessed day of the general resurrection and judgment, when all the shadows, not only of ignorance, and sin, and calamity, but even of all ordinances and outward administrations, shall cease, and make way for the immediate enjoyment of my Beloved. And this clause may be joined either,

1. With the foregoing words; and so the sense is, Christ doth and will abide with his church as long as this life and world lasts; which agrees with Christ’ s promises of being with his church to the end of the world, Mat 28:20 . But neither that nor this place imply that Christ will then forsake his people, but only secures God’ s people against that which was the chief, if not only, matter of their fear, to wit, lest Christ should leave them, and cast them off in this life, which, if he did not, they were assured that hereafter they should be

ever with the Lord 1Th 4:17 . For it is well known, and hath been oft observed already, that the word until doth not always exclude the time to come. Or,

2. With the following words,

Turn thou, my Beloved, until the day break & c.

Turn return to me. For although Christ had come to her, and she had gladly received and embraced him, yet he was gone again, as is here implied, and evidently appears from the next following verse; which sudden change is very agreeable both to the nature and method of such dramatical writings and amatorious transactions, and to the state of God’ s people in this world, where they are subject to frequent changes and vicissitudes of Christ’ s withdrawing from them, and returning to them again.

Like a roe or a young hart in swiftness; make haste to help me, for I am ready to faint.

Bether a place in the Land of Promise, possibly the same called Bithron , 2Sa 2:29 , where it seems those creatures were in great abundance, or where they were commonly hunted, and so being pursued, they made all possible haste to escape.

PBC: Sos 2:1 - -- Christ is the lily of the valleys. If you don’t go through the valley, you’ll never find that lily. He’s also the God of the mountain-top but th...

Christ is the lily of the valleys. If you don’t go through the valley, you’ll never find that lily. He’s also the God of the mountain-top but there’s an experience with Him in the valley that’s different than the experience on the mountain-top. And, it’s a sweet experience. When the Lord takes us by the hand in the midst of our trials and troubles and guides us through them and delivers us from them or carries us out of them—whatever He chooses to do, what a sweet time that is.

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Haydock: Sos 2:1 - Feedeth Feedeth. "His flock." (Septuagint) He still retains the fragrancy of lilies. As married people are two in one flesh, (Ephesians v. 31.) Christ an...

Feedeth. "His flock." (Septuagint) He still retains the fragrancy of lilies. As married people are two in one flesh, (Ephesians v. 31.) Christ and his Church are irrevocably united. (Calmet) ---

She reposes in him. (Worthington)

Haydock: Sos 2:1 - I am I am. The spouse compares herself to a lily, as she is the fairest flower on the bed, (Calmet) or Christ may here speak. (Worthington) (Isaias xi....

I am. The spouse compares herself to a lily, as she is the fairest flower on the bed, (Calmet) or Christ may here speak. (Worthington) (Isaias xi. 1.) (Origen) ---

He praises himself first, that his spouse may hear her own eulogy. (Menochius)

Haydock: Sos 2:2 - Thorns Thorns. The bridegroom enhances the praise of his spouse. The Church, surrounded by infidels and persecutors, maintains her beauty and station. He...

Thorns. The bridegroom enhances the praise of his spouse. The Church, surrounded by infidels and persecutors, maintains her beauty and station. Heretics, &c., are no better than thorns. (Origen) (Calmet) ---

The Church excels all other societies. In her communion the innocent are preferred before sinners, and among the former, the blessed Virgin [Mary] surpasses all.

Haydock: Sos 2:3 - As As. The Church praises Christ, resting secure under his protection. (Worthington)

As. The Church praises Christ, resting secure under his protection. (Worthington)

Haydock: Sos 2:4 - Cellar // In me Cellar. This was not under ground. Homer (Odyssey b. 237.) places the wine near the nuptial bed. (Calmet) --- In me. Hebrew, "he brought me to ...

Cellar. This was not under ground. Homer (Odyssey b. 237.) places the wine near the nuptial bed. (Calmet) ---

In me. Hebrew, "he brought me to the banquetting-house, and his banner over me was love." (Protestants) (Haydock) ---

He has shewn me the greatest tenderness. Only the religion of Christ lays before us our duties to God, to ourselves, and neighbours. (Calmet) (St. Thomas Aquinas, [Summa Theologiae] ii. 2. q. 26.) (Haydock) ---

The holy Spirit came on the assembled disciples, who were deemed to be drunk, and Christ nourishes the pious soul with the wine of his own blood. (Menochius)

Haydock: Sos 2:5 - Flowers // Languish Flowers. Hebrew, "bottles." --- Languish. Septuagint, "am wounded." (Haydock) --- Those who enter upon the paths of virtue, are often deprived ...

Flowers. Hebrew, "bottles." ---

Languish. Septuagint, "am wounded." (Haydock) ---

Those who enter upon the paths of virtue, are often deprived of consolations. (Calmet) ---

They must support themselves by reflecting on the words and sufferings of Christ. (St. Ambrose, psalm cxviii. ser. 5.) (Bossuet)

Haydock: Sos 2:6 - Hand Hand. After peace comes affliction: grace is followed by glory, Proverbs iii. 16. (Calmet)

Hand. After peace comes affliction: grace is followed by glory, Proverbs iii. 16. (Calmet)

Haydock: Sos 2:7 - I // Roes I. Christ permits not his Church to be persecuted, till she be able to bear it. (Worthington) --- Roes. Septuagint, "armies and power;" the ange...

I. Christ permits not his Church to be persecuted, till she be able to bear it. (Worthington) ---

Roes. Septuagint, "armies and power;" the angels and apostles, who have spread the gospel through the world. It would seem that the Jewish women loved hunting, (Calmet) like those of Phœnicia and Lacedæmon. (Virgil, Æneid i.) They were going to sing, (Calmet) the morning epithalamium, (Theocrit. xviii.) after the first night of the marriage. The second meeting takes place, ver. 8, 17. (Haydock)

Haydock: Sos 2:8 - The // Hills The. Feeling the protection of Christ, the Church preacheth boldly the truth against pagans and heretics. (Worthington) --- She knows the voice of...

The. Feeling the protection of Christ, the Church preacheth boldly the truth against pagans and heretics. (Worthington) ---

She knows the voice of the shepherd, (John viii. 47., and x. 2.) and keeps at a distance the wolves in sheep's clothing, or pretended reformers, who would scatter the flock. ---

Hills. She sees him returning in the evening with the utmost speed of a stag, as the Hebrew implies, chap. ii. 9., and viii. 14.

Haydock: Sos 2:9 - Hart // Wall Hart, (Proverbs v. 18.) which is swifter that the dogs. (Xenophon, Cuneg.) --- This animal is said to destroy serpents, as Christ did the power of ...

Hart, (Proverbs v. 18.) which is swifter that the dogs. (Xenophon, Cuneg.) ---

This animal is said to destroy serpents, as Christ did the power of the devil. (Theodoret) ---

Wall. Under the old law, Christ was only seen in figure. He manifested himself in the new. Yet our sins separate him from us, Isaias lix. 2. He is concealed in the sacred mysteries, (Calmet) and his humanity keeps from our sight the glory of his divinity, which alone can impart full content. (St. Ambrose; St. Bernard) ---

He shewed a glimpse of it at his transfiguration, and by his miracles. (Menochius)

Haydock: Sos 2:10 - Arise // My dove Arise. He sings under the window, to ver. 16. --- My dove, is taken from the Septuagint. (Calmet) --- Christ invites his spouse to approach, tho...

Arise. He sings under the window, to ver. 16. ---

My dove, is taken from the Septuagint. (Calmet) ---

Christ invites his spouse to approach, though he shews not himself as yet; and orders his pastors to root out heresies, ver. 25. (Worthington) ---

She is ever faithful, and rejoices in him, 2 Corinthians xi. 2., Matthew ix. 15., and Ephesians v. 26. (Calmet)

Haydock: Sos 2:11 - Winter Winter. The rigour and darkness of the old law give place to that of light and love. (Origen) --- After persecution had ceased, pruning became mor...

Winter. The rigour and darkness of the old law give place to that of light and love. (Origen) ---

After persecution had ceased, pruning became more necessary. (Calmet) ---

The Israelites and the world were redeemed in spring, and the ceremonies of the law were abolished at the same season. (Menochius)

Haydock: Sos 2:12 - Pruning // Turtle Pruning. Protestants, "singing of birds. " (Haydock) --- But the former version is better. (Septuagint, Symmachus, &c.) --- Turtle. Which ret...

Pruning. Protestants, "singing of birds. " (Haydock) ---

But the former version is better. (Septuagint, Symmachus, &c.) ---

Turtle. Which returns in spring, Isaias viii. 9. (Calmet) ---

It denotes the preaching of the gospel, (St. Cyril, ador. 15.) or rather the sighs of a holy soul in exile.

Haydock: Sos 2:14 - Rock // Wall Rock. Wild pigeons retire thither. (Varro, iii. 7.) Greek: Koilen eiseptato petren. (Il. 20. Ser. xlviii. 28.) (Calmet) --- Holy souls seek p...

Rock. Wild pigeons retire thither. (Varro, iii. 7.) Greek: Koilen eiseptato petren. (Il. 20. Ser. xlviii. 28.) (Calmet) ---

Holy souls seek protection in the wounds of their Saviour. (St. Gregory; St. Bernard, ser. lxi.) ---

Wall. In the holy Scriptures, which defend the Church. She is brought to light for the edification of all. (Menochius)

Haydock: Sos 2:15 - Foxes // For Foxes. They hurt vines, (Theoc. 5.) and denote false prophets, Ezechiel xiii. 4. (St. Augustine) (Psalm lxxx.) --- For. Hebrew, "and our vines ...

Foxes. They hurt vines, (Theoc. 5.) and denote false prophets, Ezechiel xiii. 4. (St. Augustine) (Psalm lxxx.) ---

For. Hebrew, "and our vines of Semadar," ver. 13. (Calmet) ---

Foxes breed in spring, and greatly infested the country, Judges xv. 4.

Haydock: Sos 2:17 - Break // Bether Break. Or "yield a refreshing air," ( aspiret ) in the morning, (Haydock) and evening, when she begs he will return, (Theodoret) as she could not ...

Break. Or "yield a refreshing air," ( aspiret ) in the morning, (Haydock) and evening, when she begs he will return, (Theodoret) as she could not enjoy his company in the day-time, chap. i. 1., and iv. 6. ---

Bether. Or the lower Bethoron, near Jerusalem. These short visits in the night, shew the vicissitudes of comfort and dryness in the most perfect. Those who are still addicted to their passions, and to the world, can have no pretensions to such favours, which amply repay any passing desolation. (St. Bernard, ser. lxxiv.) (Calmet)

Gill: Sos 2:1 - I am the rose of Sharon, and the lily of the valleys. I am the rose of Sharon, and the lily of the valleys. Whether Christ, or the church, is here speaking, is not certain: most of the Jewish writers t,...

I am the rose of Sharon, and the lily of the valleys. Whether Christ, or the church, is here speaking, is not certain: most of the Jewish writers t, and some Christian interpreters u, take them to be the words of the church, expressing the excellency of her grace, loveliness, and beauty, she had from Christ; and intimating also her being in the open fields, exposed to many dangers and enemies, and so needed his protection. The church may be compared to a "rose", for its beautiful colour and sweet odour w, and for its delight in sunny places, where it thrives best, and is most fragrant. This figure is exceeding just; not only the beauty of women is expressed by the colour of the rose x, as is common in poems of this kind; to give instances of it would be endless y; some have had the name of Rhoda from hence; see Act 12:13. No rose can be more beautiful in colour, and delightful to the eye, than the church is in the eyes of Christ, as clothed with his righteousness, and adorned with the graces of his Spirit: nor is any rose of a more sweet and fragrant smell than the persons of believers are to God and Christ, being considered in him; and even their graces, when in exercise, yea, their duties and services, when performed in faith; and, as the rose, they grow and thrive under the warming, comforting, and refreshing beams of the sun of righteousness, where they delight to be. The church may also be compared to a "lily of the valleys", as she is, in the next verse, to one among thorns. This is a very beautiful flower; Pliny z says it is next in nobleness to the rose; its whiteness is singularly excellent; no plant more fruitful, and no flower exceeds it in height; in some countries, it rises up three cubits high; has a weak neck or body, insufficient to bear the weight of its head. The church may be compared to a lily, for her beauty and fragrance, as to a rose; and the redness of the rose, and the whiteness of the lily, meeting in her, make her somewhat like her beloved, white and ruddy; like the lily, being arrayed in fine linen, clean and white, the righteousness of the saints; and like it for fruitfulness, as it is in good works, under the influence of divine grace, and grows up on high into her head, Christ Jesus; and though weak in herself, yet strong in him, who supports her, and not she him: and the church may be compared to a "lily of the valleys"; which may not describe any particular lily, and what we now call so; but only expresses the place where it grows, in low places, where plants are in danger of being plucked and trodden upon; though they may have more moisture and verdure than those in higher places; so the church of Christ is sometimes in a low estate, exposed to enemies, and liable to be trampled and trodden under foot by them, and to be carried away with the flood of persecution, were it not guarded by divine power; and, being watered with the dews of grace, it becomes flourishing and fruitful. But the more commonly received opinion is, that these are the words of Christ concerning himself; and which indeed best become him, and are more agreeable to his style and language, Joh 14:6; and suit best with the words in the Son 2:2, as one observes a; nor is it unfitly taken by the bridegroom to himself, since it is sometimes given by lovers to men b. Christ may be compared to a rose for its colour and smell; to the rose for its red colour: and which may be expressive of the truth of his humanity, and of his bloody sufferings in it; and this, with the whiteness of the lily, finishes the description of him for his beauty, Son 5:10; and for its sweet smell; which denotes the same things for which he is before compared to spikenard, myrrh, and camphire. The rose, as Pliny says c, delights not in fat soils and rich clays, but in rubbish, and roses that grow there are of the sweetest smell; and such was the earth about Sharon d; and to a rose there Christ is compared, to show the excellency and preferableness of him to all others. The word is only used here and in Isa 35:1. Where it is in many versions rendered a "lily": it seems to be compounded of two words; one which signifies to "cover" and hide, and another which signifies a "shadow"; and so may be rendered, "the covering shadow": but for what reason a rose should be so called is not easy to say; unless it can be thought to have the figure of an umbrella; or that the rose tree in those parts was so large, as to be remarkable for its shadow; like that Montfaucon e saw, in a garden at Ravenna, under the shadow of the branches of which more than forty men could stand: Christ is sometimes compared to trees for their shadow, which is pleasant and reviving, as in Son 2:3. Some render it, "the flower of the field" f; which may be expressive of the meanness of Christ in the eyes of men; of his not being of human production; of his being accessible; and of his being liable to be trampled upon, as he has been. And as he is compared to a rose, so to a "lily", for its colour, height, and fruitfulness; expressive of his purity in himself, of his superiority to angels and men, and of his being filled with the fruits and blessings of grace; and to a lily of the valleys, denoting his wonderful condescension in his low estate of humiliation, and his delight in dwelling with the humble and lowly: some render the words, "I am the rose of Sharon, with the lily of the valleys" g; by the former epithet meaning himself; and by the latter his church, his companion, in strict union and communion with him; of whom the following words are spoken.

Gill: Sos 2:2 - As the lily among thorns, so is my love among the daughters. As the lily among thorns, so is my love among the daughters. These are manifestly the words of Christ concerning his church, whom he calls "my love";...

As the lily among thorns, so is my love among the daughters. These are manifestly the words of Christ concerning his church, whom he calls "my love"; see Gill on Son 1:9; and was his love still, though in such company, and in such an uncomfortable condition. In what sense she is comparable to a lily has been shown in Son 2:1; but here she is compared to one among "thorns": by which may be meant wicked men, comparable to thorns for their unfruitfulness and unprofitableness; for their being hurtful and pernicious to good men; and for their end, which is to be burned; especially persecutors of religion, who are very distressing to the saints who dwell among them; see 2Sa 23:6; and her being among such serves for a foil, to set off her excellency the more: and the simile is designed, not so much to observe that Christ's lily grows among thorns, as to show that the church is as preferable to such persons as a lily is to thorns; which is justly remarked by Carolus Maria de Veil; and which sense the comparison requires, as appears by the reddition, so is "my love among the daughters": the nations and men of the world, and even carnal professors, members of the visible church, whom she as much exceeds in beauty, grace, and fruitfulness, as the lily exceeds thorns. Ainsworth thinks the "woodbind" or "honeysuckle" is meant, which grows in thorn hedges, and is sometimes called "lilium inter spinas", as Mercer observes; this is indeed of a sweet smell, yet very weak, and cannot support itself; and therefore twists and wraps itself about other trees, their twigs and branches, "convolvens se adminiculis quibuscunque", as Pliny h says; hence we call it "woodbind", and for the same reason its name in Greek is "periclymenon"; so saints are of a sweet fragrance to Christ, and, weak in themselves, cannot support themselves; yet they twine about Christ, lean on him, and are upheld by him, and depend on him for all good things. But it is the same word as in Son 2:1, and may be rendered "lily" here as there; and not a "rose", as it is in the Targum, from which it is there distinguished. The lily is often mentioned in this love song; it is said to be the delight of Verus i. Some call it "ambrosia".

Gill: Sos 2:3 - As the apple tree among the trees of the wood, so is my beloved among the sons // I sat down under his shadow with great delight // and his fruit was sweet to my taste As the apple tree among the trees of the wood, so is my beloved among the sons,.... As the apple tree, in a garden or orchard, excels and is preferab...

As the apple tree among the trees of the wood, so is my beloved among the sons,.... As the apple tree, in a garden or orchard, excels and is preferable to the wild barren trees of a forest k, especially it appears so when laden with choice fruit; so the church, who here returns the commendation to Christ, asserts, that he as much excels all the "sons", the creatures of God, angels or men: angels, as the Targum, who, though sons of God by creation, Christ is the Son of God, in a higher sense; he is their Creator, and the object of their worship; they are confirmed by him in the estate they are, and are ministering spirits to him; and he is exalted above them in human nature: men also, the greatest princes and monarchs of the earth, are sometimes compared to large and lofty trees; but Christ is higher than they, and is possessed of far greater power, riches, glory, and majesty. All the sons of Adam in general may be meant; wicked men, who are like forest trees, wild, barren, and unfruitful; yea, even good men, Christ has the pre-eminence of them, the sons of God by adopting grace; for he is so in such a sense they are not; he is their Creator, Lord, Head, Husband, and Saviour, and they have all their fruit from him; and so ministers of the word have their gifts and grace from him, and therefore Christ excels all that come under this appellation of sons. Christ may be compared to an apple tree, which is very fruitful; and, when full of fruit, very beautiful; and whose fruit is very cooling, comforting, and refreshing. Christ is full of the fruits and blessings of grace, which are to be reached by the hand of faith, and enjoyed; and as he is full of grace and truth, he looks very beautiful and glorious in the eye of faith; and which blessings of grace from him, being applied to a poor sensible sinner, inflamed by the fiery law, and filled with wrath and terror, sweetly cool, refresh, and comfort him. The apple tree has been accounted an hieroglyphic of love, under which lovers used to meet, and sit under its delightful shade, and entertain each other with its fruit; to which the allusion may be; see Son 8:5; the apple was sacred to love l. The Targum renders it, the pome citron, or citron apple tree; which is a tree very large and beautiful; its fruit is of a bitter taste, but of a good smell; always fruit on it; is an excellent remedy against poison, and good for the breath, as naturalists m observe; and so is a fit emblem of Christ, in the greatness of his person, in the fulness, of his grace, in the virtue of his blood, and righteousness and grace, which are a sovereign antidote against the poison of sin; and whose presence, and communion with him, cure panting souls, out of breath in seeking him; and whose mediation perfumes their breath, their prayers, whereby they become grateful to God, which otherwise would be strange and disagreeable;

I sat down under his shadow with great delight: under the shadow of the apple tree, to which Christ is compared; whose person, blood, and righteousness, cast a shadow, which is a protecting one, from the heat of divine wrath, from the curses of a fiery law, from the fiery darts of Satan, and from the fury of persecutors, Isa 25:4; and is a cooling, comforting, and refreshing one, like the shadow of a great rock to a weary traveller, Isa 32:2; and though the shadow of some trees, as Pliny n observes, is harmful to plants that grow under them, others are fructifying; and such is Christ; "they that dwell under his shadow shall revive and grow", &c. Hos 14:7. "Sitting" here supposes it was her choice; that she preferred Christ to any other shadow, looking upon him to be a suitable one in her circumstances, Son 1:6; it intimates that peace, quietness, satisfaction, and security, she enjoyed under him; it denotes her continuance, and desire of abiding there, Psa 91:1; for the words may be rendered, "I desired, and I sat down" o; she desired to sit under the shade of this tree, and she did; she had what she wished for; and she sat "with great delight": having the presence of Christ, and fellowship with him in his word and ordinances, where Christ is a delightful shade to his people;

and his fruit was sweet to my taste; the fruit of the apple tree, to which the allusion is. Solon p advised the bride to eat a quince apple before she went into the bridegroom, as leaving an agreeable savour; and intimating how graceful the words of her mouth should be. By "his fruit" here are meant the blessings of grace, which are Christ's in a covenant way, come through his sufferings and death, and are at his dispose; such as peace, pardon, justification, &c. and fresh discoveries and manifestations of his love, of which the apple is an emblem: and these are sweet, pleasant, and delightful, to those that have tasted that the Lord is gracious; whose vitiated taste is changed by the grace of God, and they savour the things of the Spirit of God.

Gill: Sos 2:4 - He brought me to the banqueting house // and his banner over me was love He brought me to the banqueting house,.... Or "into" it q. The "house of wine" r, as it is literally in the original; either the "wine cellar" s, as s...

He brought me to the banqueting house,.... Or "into" it q. The "house of wine" r, as it is literally in the original; either the "wine cellar" s, as some, where stores of it were kept; or, the "place of fasting" t, as others, and, as we render it, a "banqueting house"; where it was distributed and drank; a banquet of wine being put for a feast, and here the nuptial feast; and may design the Gospel feast in the house of God, where there is plenty of the wine of Gospel truths, and provisions of rich food, with which believers are sweetly refreshed and delightfully regaled: and to be brought hither, under the drawings and influences of divine grace, is a special privilege, a distinguishing layout; and show a great condescension in Christ, the King of kings, and Lord of lords, to take his people by the hand, as it were, and introduce them into his house, so well furnished, and to a table so well spread: and so the church relates it as an instance of divine favour, and as a fresh token of Christ's love to her; which further appears by what follows: the covenant of grace and the Scriptures of truth may be thought of as a banqueting house, well stored with blessings, and promises, and rich provisions; which, to be led and let into, is a singular kindness;

and his banner over me was love; signifying, that she was brought into the banqueting house in a grand, stately, and majestic manner, with flying colours; the motto on which inscribed was "love"; the allusion may be to the names of generals being inscribed on the banners of their armies; so Vespasian's name was inscribed on the banners throughout his armies u. Christ's name, inscribed on his, was "love", his church's love; and by which his company or band was distinguished from all others, even by electing, redeeming, calling love. It may signify the security and protection of the saints, while in the house of God, and enjoying communion with him, being under the banner of love, with which they are encompassed as a shield; and it may denote the very manifest and visible displays of it, which the church now experienced.

Gill: Sos 2:5 - Stay me with flagons // comfort me with apples // for I am sick of love Stay me with flagons,.... Of wine, which is a supporter of the animal spirits w. The church was now in a house of wine, where was plenty of it; even o...

Stay me with flagons,.... Of wine, which is a supporter of the animal spirits w. The church was now in a house of wine, where was plenty of it; even of the love of Christ, compared to wine, and preferred unto it, Son 1:2; the church though she had had large discoveries of it, desired more; and such that have once tasted of this love are eagerly desirous of it, and cannot be satisfied until they have their fill of it in heaven: the flagons, being vessels in which wine is put, and from thence poured out, may signify the word and ordinances, in which the love of Christ is displayed and manifested; the church desires she might be stayed and supported hereby, while she was attending on Christ in them;

comfort me with apples; with exceeding great and precious promises; which, when fitly spoken and applied, are "like apples of gold in pictures of silver", Pro 25:11; and are very comforting: or rather, with fresh and greater manifestations of his love still; for the apple is an emblem of love, as before observed; for one to send or throw an apple to another indicated love x. It may be rendered, "strew me with apples" y; in great quantities, about me, before me, and under me, and all around me, that I may lie down among them, and be sweetly refreshed and strengthened: the words, both in this and the former clause, are in the plural number; and so may be an address to the other two divine Persons, along with Christ, to grant further manifestations of love unto her, giving the following reason for it:

for I am sick of love; not as loathing it, but as wanting, and eagerly desirous of more of it; being, as the Septuagint version is, "wounded" z with it; love's dart stuck in her, and she was inflamed therewith: and "languished" a; as the Vulgate Latin version is; with earnest desires after it; nor could she be easy without it, as is the case of lovers.

Gill: Sos 2:6 - His left hand is under my head, and his right hand doth embrace me. His left hand is under my head, and his right hand doth embrace me. The church, having desired to be stayed, supported, strengthened, and comforted, ...

His left hand is under my head, and his right hand doth embrace me. The church, having desired to be stayed, supported, strengthened, and comforted, presently found her beloved with her, who with both hands sustained her; which shows his tender love to her, care of her, and regard for her; and is expressive of the near and intimate communion she had with him, as the effect of union to him, often enjoyed in his house and ordinances; likewise of blessings of every kind she received from him; temporal, mercies, or left hand blessings, which are necessary to support and carry through this wilderness; and spiritual, or right hand blessings, as justification, pardon, adoption, &c. and, moreover, may denote the safety and security of the church, being encircled in the arms of her beloved, sustained by Christ's left hand, and embraced by his right hand, out of whose hands none can pluck. Some read the words prayer wise, "let his left hand be", &c. b; still desiring further tokens of his love to her, and more and nearer communion with him: others read it in the future, "his left hand will be", &c. c; "his right hand shall embrace", &c. expressing the strength of her faith that she should for the future enjoy his gracious presence; and that he would support her, that she should not sink and faint.

Gill: Sos 2:7 - I charge you, O ye daughters of Jerusalem // by the roes, and by the hinds of the field // that ye stir not up, nor awake my love, till he please I charge you, O ye daughters of Jerusalem,.... Of whom, see Son 1:5. There is some difficulty in these words, whether they are spoken by the church, o...

I charge you, O ye daughters of Jerusalem,.... Of whom, see Son 1:5. There is some difficulty in these words, whether they are spoken by the church, or by Christ: according to our version, they are the words of the church, and bids fair to be the sense; since they are spoken to the virgins, her companions, that waited on her; and the manner of speech is not by way of command, as by way of adjuration; and the matter, style, and language of it, Christ being the church's love; and the phrase, "till he please", best agrees with his sovereignty and authority, who is at liberty to stay with, and remove from, his people at pleasure; and the context and scope of the place seem to confirm it; the church, enjoying communion with Christ, chooses not that he should be disturbed, and by any means be caused to depart from her. Others think they are the words of Christ, and not without reason; since it was the church that was in Christ's arms, and fallen asleep in them; and the phrase, "my love", is used by Christ concerning his church, Son 7:6; and not this, but another, is used by her concerning him; and besides, both the word for "my love", and that which is rendered "he please", are feminine, and best agree with her, "that ye stir not up, the" or "this love, until she please"; so Michaelis d interprets and renders the word for "love by this lovely one"; the word is very emphatic, the love, the famous love, the well known love e: add to which, the following words seem to confirm this sense, "the voice of my beloved", which she had heard, adjuring the daughters of Jerusalem. This charge is made,

by the roes, and by the hinds of the field; not that either Christ or his church swore by them; but the words may be descriptive of the persons addressed by the creatures, among whom they were feeding their flocks, or whom they delighted to hunt f; or were loving and lovely creatures, as they: and the charge is, that they would continue among them, and mind their business, and give no disturbance to Christ or the church; or these creatures are called as witnesses to this charge, which, if not observed, would be brought against them: or the charge is made by all that is dear, these being pleasant and lovely creatures, that they would not interrupt the mutual communion of Christ and his church; or it may be a severe threatening, that, should they disregard the charge, they should become food as common as roes and hinds; and that they should be as cautious of stirring up and awaking the person meant as they would be of starting those timorous creatures. The charge is,

that ye stir not up, nor awake my love, till he please; or, "till she please"; if it is the charge of the church, it may lead to observe, that Christ is the object of the church's love; and that she is his resting place; that he may not be disturbed and raised up from it by an unfriendly behavior toward him, or by animosities among themselves; that saints should be very careful that they do not provoke Christ to depart from them; and that communion with him is entirely at his pleasure, when and how long it shall continue; it depends as much upon his sovereign will as the first acts of his grace towards them. But if this is the charge of Christ, not to disturb his church, then it may be observed, that the church is the object of Christ's love, and always continues so; that the church sleeps and takes her rest in Christ's arms; which is not to be understood of a criminal drowsiness and sleep, but of comfortable repose and rest, Christ gives his beloved ones, in communion with himself; that he loves and delights in the company of his people, and would not have them disturbed in their fellowship with him; and though, while grace is in exercise, saints are desirous of enjoying Christ's presence always; yet, when it is otherwise, they become indifferent to it, which provokes Christ to depart from them; and therefore it is said, "till she please": and as this charge is given to the "daughters of Jerusalem", young converts, or weak believers; it suggests, that they are apt to disturb both Christ and his church; to disturb Christ by their impatience and frowardness, like children; hence the church acts the part of a mother charging her children to be quiet, and not disturb her loving husband, while she enjoyed his company; and to disturb the church, through their weakness, not being able to bear the sublime doctrines of the Gospel, and through their ignorance of Gospel order.

Gill: Sos 2:8 - The voice of my beloved // behold, he cometh, leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills The voice of my beloved!.... So says the church, who well knew Christ her beloved's voice; which is known by all believers in him, and is distinguishe...

The voice of my beloved!.... So says the church, who well knew Christ her beloved's voice; which is known by all believers in him, and is distinguished by them from the voice of others; by the majesty and authority of it; by the power and efficacy of it; by its directing them to himself, and by the pleasure it gives them: and she speaks of it as being very delightful to her; it being the voice of him whom she loved, and a voice of love, grace, and mercy, of peace, pardon, righteousness, and salvation; and, being observed before, what follows shows that Christ is heard before he is seen; he is first heard of in the Gospel, before he is seen, by an eye of faith: and such would have others observe the voice of Christ as well as they, for here the church speaks to the daughters of Jerusalem; and it seems by this, that, by some means or another, Christ had been disturbed, and had departed from the church for a while, and was now upon the return to her, which made his voice the more joyful to her;

behold, he cometh, leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills; this may be, understood, either of Christ's first coming in the flesh, much prophesied of, long expected, and was very welcome: this was attended with many difficulties, comparable to mountains and hills; that he the Son of God should become man; that he should obey, suffer, and die for men, fulfil the law, satisfy justice, atone for sin, and save from all enemies; but those which seemed insuperable were easily surmounted by Christ: or of his spiritual coming; sometimes he withdraws himself, and then returns again, and faith, spying him at a distance, rejoices at his nearer approach; for impediments in his way, occasioned by the unbelief, carnality, lukewarmness, backslidings, and ingratitude of his people, are removed and got over by him, nothing being able to separate from his love; and his coming, either way, is with all readiness, swiftness, speed, and haste. And a "behold" is prefixed to this, as a note of admiration and attention; and is so, whether applied to the one or other. Christ's incarnation was matter of wonder, "behold, a virgin", &c. Isa 7:14; and so his manifestation of himself to his people, and not to others, is marvellous, "Lord, how is it", &c. Joh 14:22; and both comings are visible, glorious, and delightful. Ambrose g has these remarkable words, by way of paraphrase, on this passage,

"Let us see him leaping; he leaped out of heaven into the virgin, out of the womb into the manger, out of the manger into Jordan, out of Jordan to the cross, from the cross into the tomb, out of the grave into heaven.''

The allusion is to the leaping of a roe, or a young hart, as in Son 2:9, which is remarkable for its leaping, even one just yeaned h; so a young hart is described, by the poet i, as leaping to its dam the leap of one of these creatures is very extraordinary k.

Gill: Sos 2:9 - My beloved is like a roe, or a young hart // behold, he standeth behind our wall // he looketh forth at the windows // showing himself through the lattice My beloved is like a roe, or a young hart,.... The church, upon the swift and speedy approach of Christ unto her, compares him to these creatures; whi...

My beloved is like a roe, or a young hart,.... The church, upon the swift and speedy approach of Christ unto her, compares him to these creatures; which are well known for their swiftness l in running, and agility in leaping, as before observed: and, besides these things, Christ may be compared to them on other accounts; they are pleasant and lovely, choice and valuable; bear an antipathy to serpents, which they easily overcome; are very good for food, and very agreeable, and are long lived creatures m; Christ is lovely and amiable in his person, and high in the esteem of his divine Father, angels and men; is choice and excellent in his nature, offices, and grace; bears an antipathy to the old serpent, the devil, whose works and powers he came to destroy, and has got an entire victory over them; and is very agreeable food to faith; his flesh is meat indeed, and the more so through his sufferings and death; as the flesh of those creatures is said to be the more tender and agreeable, by being hunted; and Christ, though dead, is alive, and lives for evermore;

behold, he standeth behind our wall; not the middle wall of the ceremonial law, behind which, Christ, under the Old Testament dispensation, stood, showing himself to believers; nor the wall of our humanity he partook of, when he came in the flesh, and under which his glorious deity was in some measure covered and hid; but rather the wall of our hearts, Jer 4:19; the hardness, infidelity, and carnal reasonings of it, which are so many walls of separation between Christ and his people; behind which he stands, showing his resentment of them, and in order to demolish them, and get admittance: he is represented here, as nearer than when she first saw him, even at her very home;

he looketh forth at the windows; this is coming nearer still; for, by the manner of the expression, it seems that he was within doors, since he is said, not to look through the windows, but to look forth at them, meaning the ordinances; which are that to the church as windows to a house, the means of letting in light into the souls of men; and where Christ shows himself, in his glory and beauty, as kings and great personages look out at windows to show themselves to their people: though Christ may also be said to look in at, those windows, to observe the behaviour of his people in his house and ordinances, with what attention, affection, faith, and reverence, they wait upon him in them;

showing himself through the lattice; by which may be meant the same things, only a larger and clearer discovery of Christ in them, of which ordinances are the means; and yet, unless Christ shows himself through them, he cannot be seen in them: and a "behold" being prefixed to these gradual discoveries of himself, show them to be wonderful! a glance of him behind the wall is surprising; his looking in at the windows still more so; but his showing himself, in all his glories and excellencies, through the lattice, is enough to throw into the greatest rapture, to fill with joy unspeakable and full of glory! Some render the word "flourishing" n, like a rose or lily, or like a vine, or jessamine; which grow up by a window or lattice, and, seen through them, took very pleasant and delightful. But the allusion is rather to the quick sighted roe, or young hart; which, as it is remarkable for its swiftness, referred to, Son 2:8, so for the sharpness of its sight; Pliny o says it is never dim sighted; it has its name "dorcas", in Greek, from its sight.

Gill: Sos 2:10 - My beloved spake, and said unto me // Rise up, my love, my fair one, and come away My beloved spake, and said unto me,.... Christ, the church's beloved, being so near her, she could distinctly hear and understand what he spoke, and r...

My beloved spake, and said unto me,.... Christ, the church's beloved, being so near her, she could distinctly hear and understand what he spoke, and relate the very words: or, "he answered to me" p; to a secret petition, put up to him for a more full enjoyment of him; for there is mental as well as vocal prayer, which Christ, as God omniscient, knows full well, and gives answer to: of this may be an answer to her petitions in Son 2:5; and as some in Son 2:6; however, Christ said something after related, that she well knew he spake, and not another, and to her in particular. What he said follows:

Rise up, my love, my fair one, and come away; the affectionate and endearing titles of "love" and "fair one", have been met with and explained, on Son 1:5; and are repeated to show his ardent love to her, notwithstanding the frame she was in, which was very probably a slothful one, by the exhortations given; and to remove her discouragements, arising from her present state; and to prevail upon her to get up from her bed of carnal sloth and security, at least to shake off her indolence; and to quit her seat and company, and go along with him, or where he should direct, since it would be to her own advantage: for the words may be rendered, "rise up for thyself, and come away for thyself" q; it will turn to thy account, and to do otherwise will be detrimental to thee. The arguments follow.

Gill: Sos 2:11 - For, lo, the winter is past, the rain is over and gone. For, lo, the winter is past, the rain is over and gone. A season of the year which keeps persons within doors, makes going abroad unsafe, unpleasant,...

For, lo, the winter is past, the rain is over and gone. A season of the year which keeps persons within doors, makes going abroad unsafe, unpleasant, and uncomfortable; very unfit for travelling, roads bad, rivers impassable, and journeying very difficult; but now this season being over, and the spring come, the weather fair, and every thing gay and pleasant, it is inviting to be abroad; winter is by some writers r used not for the season of the year, but for a storm or tempest. Thus the winter and rain may be descriptive of the state and condition of Jews and Gentiles before the coming of Christ s, and which then ceased; it having been a stormy dispensation with the one, and a time of darkness and ignorance with the other, Heb 12:18; or rather it may in general represent the state of God's people both before and after conversion; before conversion it is a time of darkness, coldness, barrenness, and unfruitfulness; and which are removed by the powerful and efficacious grace of Christ: and after conversion it is often a winter season with them, through the blustering winds of Satan's temptations; the storms of impending wrath for sin, as they imagine; the nipping blasts of persecution, and sharp and severe afflictions they are at times exposed unto: moreover, they are often in great darkness of soul, clouds interpose between Christ and them; a great deal of coldness attends them, their hearts are frozen up and hard, and no impression made on them by the preaching of the word, or by the providences of God; there is a coolness in their love to God and Christ, his people, ordinances, cause, and interest; great barrenness and unfruitfulness in them, they look like trees in winter, and no appearance of fruit on them; their hands are sealed up from working, and they become indolent and inactive; and by all these fellowship with Christ is greatly interrupted: but, when the spring returns again, light breaks in upon them, and their hearts are melted with a sense of love; they become lively in their frames, and in the exercise of grace, and are fruitful in good works; and enjoy much calmness and serenity, peace and joy in the Holy Ghost: sometimes they think the winter is not over when it is, and fear more storms are behind, even of divine wrath and vengeance, though without reason; since Christ has bore all wrath for them, and has satisfied law and justice, and has delivered them from wrath to come; and he that has done this says, "the winter is past", &c.

Gill: Sos 2:12 - The flowers appear on the earth // the time of the singing of birds is come // and the voice of the turtle is heard in our land The flowers appear on the earth,.... One of the first signs of the spring being come t; and make the season delightful and pleasant; the sun returning...

The flowers appear on the earth,.... One of the first signs of the spring being come t; and make the season delightful and pleasant; the sun returning with its warming influences, herbs and plants are quickened and spring up; fields and meadows, as well as gardens, are covered with a variety of beautiful flowers, which make walking abroad very delightful. By these "flowers" may be meant either the graces of the spirit in the saints, which, when a wintertime with them, seem to be dead, at least are hid; but, upon a return of the sun of righteousness, revive and are seen again: or the saints themselves, when in a flourishing condition, and in the exercise of grace; who may be compared to the flowers of the field for the production of them in the spring, which is a kind of re-creation of them, Psa 104:30; and fitly expresses the renovation of the Holy Ghost, to which the revival of them is owing; and for the fragrancy of them, their persons and services being of a sweet savour through the grace and righteousness of Christ; and for their beauty and ornament to the fields in which they grow, as saints are through Christ in themselves, and to the churches and interest of Christ; and for the gaiety and cheerfulness in which the flowers appear in the spring season, and so a proper emblem of the joy and consolation of the saints; where grace revives, Christ returns, and they are favoured with communion with him. It may not be improper to observe, that this may represent the large conversions of souls to Christ, and the numerous appearance of so many beautiful flowers in the church of Christ in the first ages of Christianity, after a long winter of Jewish and Gentile darkness;

the time of the singing of birds is come; another sign of spring, and suits the Gospel dispensation, in which the churches of Christ, and the members of them, sing the praises of the Lord in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs; and particularly young converts, those little birds that sing in warbling notes and tuneful lays the songs of electing, redeeming, calling, justifying, pardoning, and adopting grace, to the glory of God, and to their mutual comfort and edification. Some render it, "the time of the branch" u, of the vine putting forth its branches; or "the time of cutting" w, of pruning vines, of lopping trees, and cutting off unfruitful branches; as in the Gospel dispensation, when the Jewish branches were broken off, and the Gentiles were ingrafted in, and being pruned brought forth more fruit; and this agrees with the season of the year, the spring being the time of cutting and pruning vines x; though this is by some objected to as unseasonable;

and the voice of the turtle is heard in our land; so one part of rural pleasures is described by the poet y, not only by the singing of birds of various kinds, but particularly by the note of the turtle; which is a kind of dove that lies hid in the wintertime, or is gone, being a bird of passage, and appears and returns at the spring, when its voice is heard again z; see Jer 8:7; for its voice is never heard in winter, unless on a fine day a; by which may be meant, not the voice of the law, as the Jewish writers b, rather of the Gospel, the joyful sound, which for a while was heard only in the land of Judea, called by way of specialty "our land": but either of the voice of the Messiah himself c, preaching the everlasting Gospel in the land of Israel when here on earth; or of John the Baptist his forerunner; and so Alshech interprets it of Elijah, who was to come before the Messiah, and refers to Mal 4:5. It may design the voice of all the apostles of Christ, and first ministers of the Gospel d; or of the Holy Ghost, as the Targum, who appeared as a dove at Christ's baptism; and whose voice in the hearts of his people, speaking peace and pardon, and witnessing their adoption, causes joy and gladness; or of the church itself, compared to a turtledove for its harmlessness, meekness, chastity, &c. whose voice in prayer and praise is heard, and is acceptable to Christ, Son 2:14.

Gill: Sos 2:13 - The fig tree putteth forth her green figs // and the vines with the tender grape give a good smell // Arise, my love, my fair one, and come away The fig tree putteth forth her green figs,.... Another sign of spring being come, nay, of its being pretty much advanced, since Christ makes this a to...

The fig tree putteth forth her green figs,.... Another sign of spring being come, nay, of its being pretty much advanced, since Christ makes this a token of summer being at hand, Mat 24:32. Theopompus e speaks of figs in the middle of the spring. This tree puts forth its fruit at once, and does not flower or blossom f, wherefore Hab 3:17 is wrongly translated; See Gill on Hab 3:17, though Arianus g speaks of its flowering: Aben Ezra thinks the word signifies the sweetening of the figs, and so points at the time when they are sweet and eatable. By the "fig tree" may be meant the saints putting forth their grace in exercise on Christ, who may be compared to fig trees for their leaves and fruit, and for the putting forth the latter before the former h; for the fig tree is a tree full of large leaves, which may be an emblem of a profession of religion, and of a conversation agreeably to it, which yet are no covering, only the righteousness of Christ is that, yet ought to be and are ornamental; and for the fruit of it, which is wholesome, pleasant, and delightful, as are the fruits of the Spirit, the fruits of grace and righteousness, fruits meet for repentance, which ought to appear before a profession of religion is made. If the Egyptian fig tree is meant, that is a very fruitful tree; it is said to bear fruit seven times a year, but ripens no other way than by scratching it with iron hooks i; and its wood cut down and cast into water, being dry, sinks, but when thoroughly wet will swim. Saints should bear fruit always, and ever continue to do so, even to old age; nor do any ever become fruitful until their hearts have been pricked and cut by the word of God; and they never grow better, or are more fruitful, than when attended with afflictions and tribulations; when they first enter into the waters of affliction, like Peter, they sink, but, when more used to them, they lift up their heads above them, and bear up with great courage and resolution. By the "green figs" may be meant the beginnings of grace in the soul, some stirrings of affection to Christ, desires of knowledge of him, pantings and breathings after his ordinances, love to his people; all which appear soon, are very imperfect, and, like unripe figs, liable to be shaken off; and it is a miracle of grace that the first impressions of it are not destroyed by the force of corruption and temptation; and it may be observed, that grace in its first appearance, though but small, is not despised, but taken notice of by Christ: yea, he makes use of it as exercised by young converts to stir up old professors, as here the church, to be more active and vigorous in it;

and the vines with the tender grape give a good smell; or "being in flower give a good smell" k, as the word is used in the Targum in Isa 18:5; and that vines do flower appears from the same place, and from Gen 40:10; as well as is observed by naturalists and others l; and these flowers, and not the tender grapes, emit a sweet smell; and, as some say m, not in the vineyards only, but in the country round about; and these are fitly mentioned next to figs, since the black fig is by some called the sister of the vine n. By the vines may be intended distinct congregated churches of Christ, or particular believers; vines are very weak; and cannot bear up of themselves, must be fixed to some place, and be supported by something else; and being supported, will run up a great height, and bring forth much fruit. So saints are weak in themselves, and cannot support themselves; their strength is in Christ, and they are upheld by him, and have their dependence on him; and being supported by him they grow up to the stature of the fulness of Christ; and through their grafting into him, and abiding in him the true vine, bring forth much fruit to the glory of God, and such as is not to be found in others. The wood of the vine is of very little worth or use, Eze 15:2; and yet is very lasting. Pliny o ascribes a sort of an eternity to it. Believers in Christ, however weak and worthless they are in themselves, as are their best works and services, yet being in Christ they shall abide in him for ever, and never perish, but have everlasting life. And by the "tender grapes", or "flowers", may be designed either the graces of the spirit, as before; or rather young converts, the fruit of Christ's vines, the churches, who, though weak and tender, yet are dear to Christ; and when there is a large appearance of them, it is a great encouragement to churches, and promises a glorious vintage. And the "smell" of these vines, with their grapes and flowers, may intend the fragrancy, of believers through the righteousness of Christ on them, and the odour of their graces, as exercised on him; and the sweet savour of their godly conversation, observed by all about them.

Arise, my love, my fair one, and come away; repeated from Son 2:10; which shows sluggishness on the part of the church, that she needed one exhortation after another; and great love on the part of Christ, that notwithstanding this he persists in calling her; and even importunity in him, that he will have no denial p: and it may be observed, that what is entertaining to most of the senses is mentioned to engage the church to arise and go along with her beloved; the flowery fields would be pleasing to her eye, the chirping birds to her ear, the sweet and ripening figs to her taste, and the refreshing odour of the vines to her smell.

Gill: Sos 2:14 - O my dove // in the clefts of the rock // in the secret places of the stairs // let me see thy countenance // let me hear thy voice // for sweet is thy voice // and thy countenance is comely O my dove,.... An epithet sometimes used by lovers q, and is a new title Christ gives to his church, to express his affection for her and interest in ...

O my dove,.... An epithet sometimes used by lovers q, and is a new title Christ gives to his church, to express his affection for her and interest in her; and to draw her out of her retirement, to go along with him. The dove is a creature innocent and harmless, beautiful, cleanly, and chaste; sociable and fruitful, weak and timorous, of a mournful voice, and swift in flying; all which is suitable to the church and people of God: they are harmless and inoffensive in their lives and conversations; they are beautiful through the righteousness of Christ on them, and the grace of the Spirit in them; they are clean through the word Christ has spoken, and having their hearts purified by faith; they are as chaste virgins espoused to Christ, and their love to him is single and unfeigned; they cleave to him, are fruitful in grace and good works; and the church being espoused to Christ brings forth many souls unto him in regeneration; saints carry on a social worship and delight in each other's company; they are weak and timorous, being persecuted and oppressed by the men of the world; and mourn for their own sins and others, and often for the loss of Christ's presence; and are swift in flying to him for safety and protection. Under this character the church is said to be

in the clefts of the rock, the usual place where the dove makes its nest, Jer 48:28; or retires to it for safety r. Adrichomius says s, there was a stone tower near Jerusalem, to the south of the mount of Olives, called "petra columbarum", "the rock of the doves", where often five thousand were kept at once, to which there may be an allusion here; or else it may have respect to the place where doves are forced to fly when pursued by the hawk, even into a hollow rock, as described by Homer t; and may be expressive of the state of the church under persecution, when obliged to flee into holes and corners, and caves of the earth; when the Lord is a hiding place to her, in his love, and grace, and power; and particularly Christ is the Rock of his people, so called for height, strength, and duration, and they are the inhabitants of this Rock; and who was typified by the rock in the wilderness, and particularly by that into the clefts of which Moses was put, when the glory of the Lord passed before him: moreover, the clefts of this rock may design the wounds of Christ, which are opened for the salvation of men; and where saints dwell by faith, and are secure from every enemy u. The Ethiopic version is, "in the shadow of the rock", to which Christ is compared, Isa 32:2; and so the Septuagint version, "in the covering of the rock", which is no other than the shade of it. Likewise the church is said to be

in the secret places of the stairs; Christ is the stairs or steps by which saints ascend up to God, have access to and communion with him; and the secret places may have respect to the justifying righteousness of Christ, and atonement by him, hidden to other men, but revealed to them; and whither in distress they betake themselves, and are sheltered from sin, law, hell, and death, and dwell in safety. Though as such places are dark and dusty, and whither the dove, or any other creature, may in danger betake itself, so upon the whole both this and the preceding clause may design the dark, uncomfortable, and solitary condition the church was in through fear of enemies; in which situation Christ addresses her, saying,

let me see thy countenance, or "face"; and encourages her to appear more publicly in, his house and courts for worship, and present herself before him, and look him full in the face, and with open face behold his glory, and not be shamefaced and fearful; not to be afraid of any thing, but come out of her lurking holes, and be seen abroad by himself and others, since the stormy weather was over, and everything was pleasant and agreeable;

let me hear thy voice; in prayer to him and praise of him, commending the glories and: excellencies of his person, and giving thanks to him for the blessings of his grace;

for sweet is thy voice; pleasant, harmonious, melodious, having a mixture of notes in it, as the word signifies; and so exceeds the voice of a natural dove, which is not very harmonious: Herodotus w makes mention of a dove that spoke with a human voice; and such a voice Christ's dove speaks with, and it is sweet; that is, pleasant and delightful to him, who loves to hear his people relate the gracious experiences of his goodness, and speak well of his truths and ordinances; prayer is sweet music to him, and praise pleases him better than all burnt offerings;

and thy countenance is comely; fair and beautiful, and therefore need not cover her face, or hang down her head, as if ashamed to be seen, since she was in the eye of Christ a perfection of beauty.

Gill: Sos 2:15 - Take us the foxes // the little foxes // that spoil the vines // for our vines have tender grapes Take us the foxes,.... Of which there were great numbers in Judea; see Jdg 15:4; these words are directed not to angels, nor to civil magistrates, but...

Take us the foxes,.... Of which there were great numbers in Judea; see Jdg 15:4; these words are directed not to angels, nor to civil magistrates, but to ministers of the word; but whether the words of Christ, or the church, is not easy to determine; some think they are the words of the church, who had hitherto been relating what Christ said to her, and who, having neglected her vineyard, Son 1:6; and now stirred up by Christ to a greater care of it, expresses her concern for its flourishing; and therefore calls upon her attendants and companions, to assist in taking and destroying those which were harmful to it: but rather they seem to be the words of Christ continued; since they not only show the care of his vines, the churches; but express power and authority over those they are spoken to: and perhaps they may be the words of them both jointly; since the church, with Christ, and under him, has a right to stir up her officers to do their work, and fulfil their ministry, they have received of Christ for her service. By foxes may be meant false teachers, to whom the false prophets of old were compared, Eze 13:3; foxes are crafty and subtle creatures, malignant and mischievous, hungry and voracious, full of deceit and dissimulation, are of an ill smell, and abominably filthy; so false teachers walk in craftiness, use good words and fair speeches, and thereby deceive the hearts of the simple; their doctrines are pernicious, their heresies damnable, and they bring destruction on themselves and others; they are hungry after worldly substance, are greedy of it, and can never have enough; devour widows' houses, and make merchandise of men, to enrich themselves; they put on sheep's clothing, transform themselves into angels of light, mimic the voice of Gospel ministers, use their phrases and expressions, that they may not be easily discovered; and are abominable in their principles and practices, and to be shunned by all good men. Now ministers of the Gospel are ordered to take these, to detect them, and refute their errors, and reprove them sharply for them; and, after proper steps taken, to reject them, to cast them out of the vineyards, the churches, and keep them out. Even

the little foxes; heresies and heretics are to be nipped in the bud, before they increase to more ungodliness; otherwise errors, which may seem small at first, soon grow larger and spread themselves, and become fatal to the churches:

that spoil the vines; as foxes do, by gnawing the branches, biting the bark, making bare the roots, devouring the ripe grapes, and infecting all with their noxious teeth and vicious breath x: so false teachers make divisions and schisms in churches; disturb their peace; unsettle some, and subvert others; sap the foundation of religion, and corrupt the word of God; and therefore by all means to be taken, and the sooner the better;

for our vines have tender grapes: or "flowers"; See Gill on Son 2:13. The "vines" are the churches; the "tender grapes", or "flowers", young converts, which Christ has a particular regard unto, Isa 40:11; and these, having but a small degree of knowledge, are more easily imposed upon and seduced by false teachers; and therefore, for their sakes, should be carefully watched, and vigorously opposed, since otherwise a promising vintage is in danger of being spoiled. Christ, in this address, intimates, that not only he and the church, but, he ministers also, had an interest in the vines and tender grapes, as they have; see Son 8:11; and therefore should be the more concerned for their welfare; hence he calls them "ours"; interest carries a powerful argument in it.

Gill: Sos 2:16 - My beloved is mine, and I am his // he feedeth among the lilies My beloved is mine, and I am his,.... These are the words of the church; who, having had such evidences of Christ's love to her, and care of her, ex...

My beloved is mine, and I am his,.... These are the words of the church; who, having had such evidences of Christ's love to her, and care of her, expresses her faith of interest in him, and suggests the obligations she lay under to observe his commands. The words are expressive of the mutual interest had property Christ and his church have in each other: Christ is the church's, by the Father's gift of him to her, to be her Head, Husband, and Saviour; and by the gift of himself unto her, to be her Redeemer and ransom price; and by marriage, having espoused her to himself, in righteousness and lovingkindness; and by possession, he living and dwelling in her, by his Spirit and grace: the church also acknowledges herself to be his, as she was, by the Father's gift of her to Christ, as his spouse and bride, his portion and inheritance; and by purchase, he having bought her with his precious blood; and by the conquest of her, by his grace in effectual calling; and by a voluntary surrender of herself unto him, under the influence of his grace: hence all he is, and has, are hers, his person, fulness, blood, and righteousness; and therefore can want no good thing. Moreover, these words suggest the near union there is between Christ and his church; they are one in a conjugal relation, as husband and wife are one; which union is personal, of the whole person of Christ to the whole persons of his people; it is a spiritual one, they having the same Spirit, the one without measure, the other in measure; it is a vital one, as is between the vine and its branches; and it is a mysterious one, next to that of the union of the three Persons in the Godhead, and of the two natures in Christ; it is an indissoluble one, the everlasting love of Christ being the bond of it, which call never be dissolved; and from this union flow a communication of the names of Christ to his church, conformity to him, communion with him, and an interest in all he has. Likewise these phrases express the mutual affliction, complacency, and delight, Christ and his church have in each other; he is beloved by his church, and she by him; she seems to have a full assurance of interest in him, and to make her boast of him; excluding all other beloveds, as unworthy to be mentioned with him: of whom she further says,

he feedeth among the lilies; which is either an apostrophe to him, "O thou that feedest", &c. thou only art my beloved; or is descriptive of him to others, inquiring who he was, and where to be seen: the answer is, he is the person that is yonder, feeding among the lilies; either recreating and delighting himself in his gardens, the churches, where his saints are, comparable to lilies; See Gill on Son 2:1, and See Gill on Son 2:2; or feeding his sheep in fields where lilies grow: and it may be observed, it is not said, he feedeth on, or feeds his flock with lilies, but among them; for it is remarked y, that sheep will not eat them: or the sense may be, Christ feeds himself, and feeds his people, and feeds among them, as if he was crowned with lilies, and anointed with the oil of them; as was the custom of the ancients at festivals z, thought to be here alluded to by some who read the words, "that feeds"; that is, sups in or with lilies, being anointed and crowned with them. The lily is a summer flower a; the winter was now past, Son 2:11.

Gill: Sos 2:17 - Until the day break, and the shadows flee away // turn, my beloved // and be thou like a roe, or a young hart upon the mountains of Bether Until the day break, and the shadows flee away,.... Which may be connected with Son 2:16; either with the former part, "my beloved is mine", &c. Son 2...

Until the day break, and the shadows flee away,.... Which may be connected with Son 2:16; either with the former part, "my beloved is mine", &c. Son 2:16; and then the sense is, as long as night and day continue, and God's covenant with both stands sure; so long union to Christ, and covenant interest in him, will abide: or with the latter part, "he feedeth among the lilies until", &c. even until his second coming: or with the next clause in this verse,

turn, my beloved; and so is a prayer for Christ's speedy coming to her, and continued presence with her, until the day should break: which may be understood either of the Gospel day made by the rising of Christ, the sun of righteousness, at his first coming in the flesh; when the shadows of the ceremonial law disappeared, Christ, the body and substance of them, being come, and the darkness of the Gentile world was scattered, through the light of the Gospel being sent into it: the words may be rendered, "until the day breathe", or "blow" b; and naturalists observe c, that, upon the sun's rising, an air or wind has been excited, and which ceases before the middle of the day, and never lasts so long as that; and on Christ's, the sun of righteousness, arising with healing in his wings, some cool, gentle, and refreshing breezes of divine grace and consolation were raised, which were very desirable and grateful: or this may be understood of Christ's second coming; which will make the great day of the Lord, so often spoken of in Scripture: and which suits as well with the Hebrew text, and the philosophy of it, as the former; for, as the same naturalists d observe, the wind often blows fresh, and fine breezes of air spring up at the setting as well as at the rising of the sun; see Gen 3:8; and may very well be applied to Christ's second coming, at the evening of the world; which will be a time of refreshing to the saints, and very desirable by them; and though it will be an evening to the world, which will then come to an end, with them there will be no more night of darkness, desertion, affliction, and persecution; the shadows of ignorance, infidelity, doubts, and fears, will be dispersed, and there will be one pure, clear, unbeclouded, and everlasting day; and till then the church prays, as follows:

turn, my beloved; that is, to her; who seemed to be ready to depart from her, or was gone; and therefore she desires he would turn again, and continue with her, until the time was come before mentioned: or, "turn about" e; surround me with thy favour and lovingkindness, and secure me from all enemies, until the glorious and wished for day comes, when I shall be out of fear and danger; or, "embrace me" f; as in Son 2:6; during the present dispensation, which was as a night in comparison of the everlasting day;

and be thou like a roe, or a young hart upon the mountains of Bether; the same with Bethel, according to Adrichomius g; where were mountains, woody, set with trees, full of grass and aromatic plants; and so may be the same with the mountains of spices, Son 8:14; where the Ethiopic version has Bethel; and so that and the Septuagint version, in an addition to Son 2:9; here; see 2Ki 2:23; unless Bithron is meant, 2Sa 2:29; a place in Gilead, beyond Jordan, so called, because it was parted from Judea by the river Jordan: and the words are by some rendered, "the mountains of division or separation" h; which, if referred to Christ's first coming, may regard the ceremonial law, the wall of partition between Jew and Gentile, broke down by Christ, and the two people divided by it, which were reconciled by him; if to his spiritual coming, the same things may be intended by them as on Son 2:9; but if to his second coming, the spacious heavens may be meant, in which Christ will appear, and which now interpose and separate from his bodily presence; and therefore the church importunately desires his coming with speed and swiftness, like a roe or a young hart, and be seen in them; see Rev 22:10.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Sos 2:1 There is debate about the referent of שׁוֹשַׁנָּת (shoshannat, “lily”) b...

NET Notes: Sos 2:2 The Lover accommodates her self-denigrating comparison, but heightens it to praise her: If she insisted that she was nothing more than a common flower...

NET Notes: Sos 2:3 Heb “my palate.” The term חִכִּי (khikki, “my palate”) is used metonymically in reference ...

NET Notes: Sos 2:4 The syntax of the noun אַהֲבָה (’ahavah, “love”) has been taken as: (1) predicate nominati...

NET Notes: Sos 2:5 Heb “sick of love.” The expression חוֹלַת אַהֲבָה (kholat &#...

NET Notes: Sos 2:6 Heb “embraces.” Alternately, “May his left hand be under my head, and [may] his right hand embrace me.” The verb חָ...

NET Notes: Sos 2:7 Heb “If you arouse or if you awaken love before it pleases….” Paraphrase: “Promise that you will not arouse or awaken love unt...

NET Notes: Sos 2:8 The exclamation הִנֵּה־זֶה (hinneh-zeh, “Look!”) is used of excited speech whe...

NET Notes: Sos 2:9 Gazelles are often associated with sensuality and masculine virility in ancient Near Eastern love literature. Gazelles were often figures in Hebrew, A...

NET Notes: Sos 2:12 Alternately, “the time of singing” or “the time of pruning.” The homonymic root זָמִיר (za...

NET Notes: Sos 2:14 The dove was a common figure for romantic love in ancient Near Eastern love literature. This emphasis seems to be suggested by his use of the term ...

NET Notes: Sos 2:15 The term “vineyard” is also a figure. In 1:6 she used the vineyard motif as a metaphor for her physical appearance, but here it is “...

NET Notes: Sos 2:16 This line may be translated either as “the one who grazes among the lilies” or as “the one who feeds [his flock] among the lilies.&#...

NET Notes: Sos 2:17 Scholars offer three interpretations of her figurative request: (1) The Beloved desires her Lover to embrace her breasts, like a gazelle romping over ...

Geneva Bible: Sos 2:2 As the lily among thorns, so [is] my ( a ) love among the daughters. ( a ) Thus Christ prefers his Church above all other things.

Geneva Bible: Sos 2:3 ( b ) As the apple tree among the trees of the wood, so [is] my beloved among the sons. I sat down under his shadow with great delight, and his fruit ...

Geneva Bible: Sos 2:7 ( c ) I charge you, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, by the roes, and by the hinds of the field, that ye stir not, nor awake [my] love, till he please. (...

Geneva Bible: Sos 2:8 ( d ) The voice of my beloved! behold, he cometh leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills. ( d ) This is spoken of Christ who took on our ...

Geneva Bible: Sos 2:9 My beloved is like a roe or a young hart: behold, he ( e ) standeth behind our wall, he looketh forth at the windows, gazing himself through the ( f )...

Geneva Bible: Sos 2:11 For, lo, the ( g ) winter is past, the rain is over [and] gone; ( g ) That is, sin and error is driven back by the coming of Christ, who is here desc...

Geneva Bible: Sos 2:14 O my dove, [that art] in the ( h ) clefts of the rock, in the secret [places] of the stairs, let me see thy countenance, let me hear thy voice; for sw...

Geneva Bible: Sos 2:15 Take for us the foxes, the ( i ) little foxes, that spoil the vines: for our vines [have] tender grapes. ( i ) Suppress the heretics while they are y...

Geneva Bible: Sos 2:17 Until the day shall break, and the shadows flee away, turn, my beloved, and be thou like a ( k ) roe or a young hart upon the mountains of Bether. ( ...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Sos 2:1-7 - --Believers are beautiful, as clothed in the righteousness of Christ; and fragrant, as adorned with the graces of his Spirit; and they thrive under the ...

MHCC: Sos 2:8-13 - --The church pleases herself with thoughts of further communion with Christ. None besides can speak to the heart. She sees him come. This may be applied...

MHCC: Sos 2:14-17 - --The church is Christ's dove; she returns to him, as her Noah. Christ is the Rock, in whom alone she can think herself safe, and find herself easy, as ...

Matthew Henry: Sos 2:1-2 - -- See here, I. What Christ is pleased to compare himself to; and he condescends very much in the comparison. He that is the Son of the Highest, the br...

Matthew Henry: Sos 2:3-7 - -- Here, I. The spouse commends her beloved and prefers him before all others: As the apple-tree among the trees of the wood, which perhaps does not ...

Matthew Henry: Sos 2:8-13 - -- The church is here pleasing herself exceedingly with the thoughts of her further communion with Christ after she has recovered from her fainting fit...

Matthew Henry: Sos 2:14-17 - -- Here is, I. The encouraging invitation which Christ gives to the church, and every believing soul, to come into communion with him, Son 2:14. 1. His...

Keil-Delitzsch: Sos 2:1 - -- What Shulamith now further says confirms what had just been said. City and palace with their splendour please her not; forest and field she delights...

Keil-Delitzsch: Sos 2:2 - -- 2 As a lily among thorns, So is my love among the daughters. By החוחים are not meant the thorns of the plant itself, for the lily has no th...

Keil-Delitzsch: Sos 2:3 - -- 3a As an apple-tree among the trees of the wood, So is my beloved among the sons. The apple-tree, the name of which, תּפּוּח , is formed from...

Keil-Delitzsch: Sos 2:4 - -- 4 He has brought me into the wine-house, And his banner over me is love. After we have seen the ladies of the palace at the feast, in which wine i...

Keil-Delitzsch: Sos 2:5 - -- 5 Support me with grape-cakes, Refresh me with apples: For I am sick with love. She makes use of the intensive form as one in a high degree in ne...

Keil-Delitzsch: Sos 2:6 - -- 6 His left hand is under my head, And his right hand doth embrace me. With his left hand he supports her head that had fallen backwards, and with ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Sos 2:7 - -- 7 I adjure you, ye daughters of Jerusalem, By the gazelles or the hinds of the field, That ye arouse not and disturb not love Till she pleases. ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Sos 2:8 - -- 8 Hark, my beloved! lo, there he comes! Springs over the mountains, Bounds over the hills. The word קול , in the expression דּודי קו...

Keil-Delitzsch: Sos 2:9 - -- 9 My beloved is like a gazelle, Or a young one of the harts. Lo, there he stands behind our wall! He looks through the windows, Glances through ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Sos 2:10 - -- When now Shulamith continues: 10 a My beloved answered and said to me, Arise, my love, my fair one, and go forth! the words show that this first ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Sos 2:11-13 - -- 11 For, lo! the winter is past, The rain is over, is gone. 12 The flowers appear in the land; The time of song has come, And the voice of the tu...

Keil-Delitzsch: Sos 2:14 - -- Solomon further relates how he drew her to himself out of her retirement: My dove in the clefts of the rock, In the hiding-place of the cliff; Le...

Keil-Delitzsch: Sos 2:15-16 - -- There now follows a cantiuncula . Shulamith comes forward, and, singing, salutes her beloved. Their love shall celebrate a new spring. Thus she wi...

Keil-Delitzsch: Sos 2:17 - -- Shulamith now further relates, in a dramatic, lively manner, what she said to her beloved after she had saluted him in a song: 17 Till the day cool...

Constable: Sos 1:2--3:6 - --II. THE COURTSHIP 1:2--3:5 Perhaps the outstanding characteristic of this first major section of the book is the...

Constable: Sos 1:12--2:8 - --1. Mutual admiration 1:12-2:7 In this section the love of Solomon and his beloved continues to i...

Constable: Sos 1:12--2:7 - --Praise of one another 1:12-2:6 1:12-14 The Shulammite girl (6:3) described the effect that seeing Solomon had on her as he reclined at his banquet "ta...

Constable: Sos 2:7 - --The refrain 2:7 This charge by Solomon occurs again later (3:5; 8:4) and serves as an in...

Constable: Sos 2:8-17 - --2. Increased longing 2:8-17 Whereas the setting so far had been Israel, it now shifts to the Shulammite's home that was evidently in Lebanon (cf. 4:8,...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: The Song of Songs (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Song of Solomon, called in the Vulgate and Septuagint, "The Song of Songs," from the opening words. This title denotes its superior excellence, ac...

TSK: The Song of Songs 2 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Son 2:1, The mutual love of Christ and his church; Son 2:8, The hope, Son 2:10, and calling of the church; Son 2:14, Christ’s care of t...

Poole: The Song of Songs 2 (Pendahuluan Pasal) OF SOLOMON CHAPTER 2 The excellency of the majesty of Christ, Son 2:1 , and of his church, Son 2:2 . The benefits which the church receives from hi...

MHCC: The Song of Songs (Pendahuluan Kitab) This book is a Divine allegory, which represents the love between Christ and his church of true believers, under figures taken from the relation and a...

MHCC: The Song of Songs 2 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Son 2:1-7) The mutual love of Christ and his church. (Son 2:8-13) The hope and calling of the church. (Son 2:14-17) Christ's care of the church, He...

Matthew Henry: The Song of Songs (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Song of Solomon All scripture, we are sure, is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable f...

Matthew Henry: The Song of Songs 2 (Pendahuluan Pasal) In this chapter, I. Christ speaks both concerning himself and concerning his church (Son 2:1, Son 2:2). II. The church speaks 1. Remembering the...

Constable: The Song of Songs (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title In the Hebrew Bible the title of this book is "The Song of Songs." ...

Constable: The Song of Songs (Garis Besar) Outline I. The superscription 1:1 II. The courtship 1:2-3:5 A. The begin...

Constable: The Song of Songs Song of Solomon Bibliography Baxter, J. Sidlow. Explore the Book. 6 vols. London: Marshall, Morgan, and Scott, ...

Haydock: The Song of Songs (Pendahuluan Kitab) SOLOMON'S CANTICLE OF CANTICLES. INTRODUCTION. This book is called the Canticle of Canticles, that is to say, the most excellent of all cantic...

Gill: The Song of Songs (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO THE SONG OF SOLOMON This book is entitled, in the Hebrew copies, "Shir Hashirim", the Song of Songs. The Septuagint and Vulgate Lat...

Gill: The Song of Songs 2 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO SONG OF SOLOMON 2 Here begins a new colloquy between Christ and his church; in which they alternately set forth the excellencies of...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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