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Teks -- Exodus 9:1-35 (NET)

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Konteks
The Fifth Blow: Disease
9:1 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, “Release my people that they may serve me! 9:2 For if you refuse to release them and continue holding them, 9:3 then the hand of the Lord will surely bring a very terrible plague on your livestock in the field, on the horses, the donkeys, the camels, the herds, and the flocks. 9:4 But the Lord will distinguish between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, and nothing will die of all that the Israelites have.”’” 9:5 The Lord set an appointed time, saying, “Tomorrow the Lord will do this in the land.” 9:6 And the Lord did this on the next day; all the livestock of the Egyptians died, but of the Israelites’ livestock not one died. 9:7 Pharaoh sent representatives to investigate, and indeed, not even one of the livestock of Israel had died. But Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, and he did not release the people.
The Sixth Blow: Boils
9:8 Then the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “Take handfuls of soot from a furnace, and have Moses throw it into the air while Pharaoh is watching. 9:9 It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt and will cause boils to break out and fester on both people and animals in all the land of Egypt.” 9:10 So they took soot from a furnace and stood before Pharaoh, Moses threw it into the air, and it caused festering boils to break out on both people and animals. 9:11 The magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils, for boils were on the magicians and on all the Egyptians. 9:12 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted to Moses.
The Seventh Blow: Hail
9:13 The Lord said to Moses, “Get up early in the morning, stand before Pharaoh, and tell him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: “Release my people so that they may serve me! 9:14 For this time I will send all my plagues on your very self and on your servants and your people, so that you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth. 9:15 For by now I could have stretched out my hand and struck you and your people with plague, and you would have been destroyed from the earth. 9:16 But for this purpose I have caused you to stand: to show you my strength, and so that my name may be declared in all the earth. 9:17 You are still exalting yourself against my people by not releasing them. 9:18 I am going to cause very severe hail to rain down about this time tomorrow, such hail as has never occurred in Egypt from the day it was founded until now. 9:19 So now, send instructions to gather your livestock and all your possessions in the fields to a safe place. Every person or animal caught in the field and not brought into the house– the hail will come down on them, and they will die!”’” 9:20 Those of Pharaoh’s servants who feared the word of the Lord hurried to bring their servants and livestock into the houses, 9:21 but those who did not take the word of the Lord seriously left their servants and their cattle in the field. 9:22 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward the sky that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt, on people and on animals, and on everything that grows in the field in the land of Egypt.” 9:23 When Moses extended his staff toward the sky, the Lord sent thunder and hail, and fire fell to the earth; so the Lord caused hail to rain down on the land of Egypt. 9:24 Hail fell and fire mingled with the hail; the hail was so severe that there had not been any like it in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation. 9:25 The hail struck everything in the open fields, both people and animals, throughout all the land of Egypt. The hail struck everything that grows in the field, and it broke all the trees of the field to pieces. 9:26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites lived, was there no hail. 9:27 So Pharaoh sent and summoned Moses and Aaron and said to them, “I have sinned this time! The Lord is righteous, and I and my people are guilty. 9:28 Pray to the Lord, for the mighty thunderings and hail are too much! I will release you and you will stay no longer.” 9:29 Moses said to him, “When I leave the city I will spread my hands to the Lord, the thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, so that you may know that the earth belongs to the Lord. 9:30 But as for you and your servants, I know that you do not yet fear the Lord God.” 9:31 (Now the flax and the barley were struck by the hail, for the barley had ripened and the flax was in bud. 9:32 But the wheat and the spelt were not struck, for they are later crops.) 9:33 So Moses left Pharaoh, went out of the city, and spread out his hands to the Lord, and the thunder and the hail ceased, and the rain stopped pouring on the earth. 9:34 When Pharaoh saw that the rain and hail and thunder ceased, he sinned again: both he and his servants hardened their hearts. 9:35 So Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, and he did not release the Israelites, as the Lord had predicted through Moses.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Aaron a son of Amram; brother of Moses,son of Amram (Kohath Levi); patriarch of Israel's priests,the clan or priestly line founded by Aaron
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Egyptians descendants of Mizraim
 · Goshen a region in Egypt,a region of Egypt in the eastern part of the Nile delta,a town in the hill country of Judah
 · Hebrew a person descended from Heber; an ancient Jew; a Hebrew speaking Jew,any Jew, but particularly one who spoke the Hebrew language
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Israelite a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Pharaoh the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Abraham's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Joseph's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who refused to let Israel leave Egypt,the title of the king of Egypt whose daughter Solomon married,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in the time of Isaiah,the title Egypt's ruler just before Moses' time


Topik/Tema Kamus: Moses | Plague | Quotations and Allusions | Lies and Deceits | GENESIS, 1-2 | Egyptians | PLAGUES OF EGYPT | Animals | Rulers | Judgments | Sin | PLAGUES, THE TEN | Hail | Thunder | Afflictions and Adversities | Intercession | Hypocrisy | Meteorology and Celestial Phenomena | Rain | BLAINS | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Exo 9:3 - The hand of the Lord Immediately, without the stretching out of Aaron's hand, is upon the cattle, many of which, some of all kinds, shall die by a sort of pestilence. The ...

Immediately, without the stretching out of Aaron's hand, is upon the cattle, many of which, some of all kinds, shall die by a sort of pestilence. The hand of God is to be acknowledged even in the sickness and death of cattle, or other damage sustained in them; for a sparrow falls not to the ground without our father. And his providence is to be acknowledged with thankfulness in the life of the cattle, for he preserveth man and beast, Psa 36:6.

Wesley: Exo 9:6 - All the cattle died All that were in the field. The creature is made subject to vanity by the sin of man, being liable, according to its capacity, both to serve his wicke...

All that were in the field. The creature is made subject to vanity by the sin of man, being liable, according to its capacity, both to serve his wickedness, and to share in his punishment. The Egyptians worshipped their cattle; it was among them that the Israelites learned to make a god of a calf; in that therefore this plague meets with them.

Wesley: Exo 9:6 - But not one of the cattle of the Israelites died Doth God take care for oxen? Yes, he doth, his providence extends itself to the meanest of his creatures.

Doth God take care for oxen? Yes, he doth, his providence extends itself to the meanest of his creatures.

Wesley: Exo 9:9 - A boil breaking forth with blains A burning scab, which quickly raised blisters and blains.

A burning scab, which quickly raised blisters and blains.

Wesley: Exo 9:10 - Ashes of the furnace Sometimes God shews men their sin in their punishment: they had oppressed Israel in the furnaces, and now the ashes of the furnace are made as much a ...

Sometimes God shews men their sin in their punishment: they had oppressed Israel in the furnaces, and now the ashes of the furnace are made as much a terror to them as ever their task - masters had been to the Israelites. This is afterwards called the botch of Egypt, Deu 28:27, as if it were some new disease, never heard of before, and known ever after by that name.

Wesley: Exo 9:11 - The magicians were forced to retreat, and could not stand before Moses To which the apostle refers, 2Ti 3:9, when he saith, that their folly was manifested unto all men.

To which the apostle refers, 2Ti 3:9, when he saith, that their folly was manifested unto all men.

Wesley: Exo 9:12 - Now the Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart Before he had hardened his own heart, and resisted the grace of God, and now God justly gave him up to his own heart's lusts, to strong delusions, per...

Before he had hardened his own heart, and resisted the grace of God, and now God justly gave him up to his own heart's lusts, to strong delusions, permitting Satan to blind and harden him. Wilful hardness is commonly punished with judicial hardness. Let us dread this as the sorest judgment a man can be under on this side hell.

Wesley: Exo 9:14 - I will find all my plagues upon thy heart Hitherto thou hast not felt my plagues on thy own person, the heart is put for the whole man.

Hitherto thou hast not felt my plagues on thy own person, the heart is put for the whole man.

Wesley: Exo 9:16 - For this cause have I raised thee up A most dreadful message Moses is here ordered to deliver to him, whether he will hear, or whether he will forbear. He must tell him, that he is marked...

A most dreadful message Moses is here ordered to deliver to him, whether he will hear, or whether he will forbear. He must tell him, that he is marked for ruin: that he now stands as the butt at which God would shoot all the arrows of his wrath. For this cause have I raised thee up to the throne at this time, and made thee to stand the shock of the plagues hitherto, to shew in thee my power - Providence so ordered it, that Moses should have a man of such a fierce and stubborn spirit to deal with, to make it a most signal and memorable instance of the power God has to bring down the proudest of his enemies; that my name, irresistable power, and my inflexible justice, might be declared throughout all the earth - Not only to all places, but through all ages while the earth remains. This will be the event. But it by no means follows, that this was the design of God. We have numberless instances in scripture of this manner of speaking, to denote not the design, but only the event.

Wesley: Exo 9:17 - As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people Wilt thou not yet submit?

Wilt thou not yet submit?

Wesley: Exo 9:18 - Since the foundation thereof Since it was a kingdom.

Since it was a kingdom.

Wesley: Exo 9:29 - The earth The world, the heaven and the earth.

The world, the heaven and the earth.

Wesley: Exo 9:30 - Bolled Grown up into a stalk.

Grown up into a stalk.

Wesley: Exo 9:33 - Moses went out of the city Not only for privacy in his communion with God, but to shew that he durst venture abroad into the field, notwithstanding the hail and lightning, knowi...

Not only for privacy in his communion with God, but to shew that he durst venture abroad into the field, notwithstanding the hail and lightning, knowing that every hail - stone had its direction from God.

Wesley: Exo 9:33 - Peace with God makes men thunder proof, for it is the voice of their father.

proof, for it is the voice of their father.

Wesley: Exo 9:33 - And spread abroad his hands unto the Lord An outward expression of earnest desire, and humble expectation. He prevailed with God; but he could not prevail with Pharaoh; he sinned yet more, and...

An outward expression of earnest desire, and humble expectation. He prevailed with God; but he could not prevail with Pharaoh; he sinned yet more, and hardened his heart - The prayer of Moses opened and shut heaven, like Elijah's. And such is the power of God's two witnesses, Rev 11:6. Yet neither Moses nor Elijah, nor those two witnesses, could subdue the hard hearts of men. Pharaoh was frighted into compliance by the judgment, but, when it was over, his convictions vanished.

JFB: Exo 9:3-5 - Behold, the hand of the Lord is upon thy cattle A fifth application was made to Pharaoh in behalf of the Israelites by Moses, who was instructed to tell him that, if he persisted in opposing their d...

A fifth application was made to Pharaoh in behalf of the Israelites by Moses, who was instructed to tell him that, if he persisted in opposing their departure, a pestilence would be sent among all the flocks and herds of the Egyptians, while those of the Israelites would be spared. As he showed no intention of keeping his promise, he was still a mark for the arrows of the Almighty's quiver, and the threatened plague of which he was forewarned was executed. But it is observable that in this instance it was not inflicted through the instrumentality or waving of Aaron's rod, but directly by the hand of the Lord, and the fixing of the precise time tended still further to determine the true character of the calamity (Jer 12:4).

JFB: Exo 9:6 - all the cattle of Egypt died Not absolutely every beast, for we find (Exo 9:19, Exo 9:21) that there were still some left; but a great many died of each herd--the mortality was fr...

Not absolutely every beast, for we find (Exo 9:19, Exo 9:21) that there were still some left; but a great many died of each herd--the mortality was frequent and widespread. The adaptation of this judgment consisted in Egyptians venerating the more useful animals such as the ox, the cow, and the ram; in all parts of the country temples were reared and divine honors paid to these domesticated beasts, and thus while the pestilence caused a great loss in money, it also struck a heavy blow at their superstition.

JFB: Exo 9:7 - Pharaoh sent . . . there was not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead The despatch of confidential messengers indicates that he would not give credit to vague reports, and we may conclude that some impression had been ma...

The despatch of confidential messengers indicates that he would not give credit to vague reports, and we may conclude that some impression had been made on his mind by that extraordinary exemption, but it was neither a good nor a permanent impression. His pride and obstinacy were in no degree subdued.

JFB: Exo 9:8 - Take to you handfuls of ashes, &c. The next plague assailed the persons of the Egyptians, and it appeared in the form of ulcerous eruptions upon the skin and flesh (Lev 13:20; 2Ki 20:7;...

The next plague assailed the persons of the Egyptians, and it appeared in the form of ulcerous eruptions upon the skin and flesh (Lev 13:20; 2Ki 20:7; Job 2:7). That this epidemic did not arise from natural causes was evident from its taking effect from the particular action of Moses done in the sight of Pharaoh. The attitude he assumed was similar to that of Eastern magicians, who, "when they pronounce an imprecation on an individual, a village, or a country, take the ashes of cows' dung (that is, from a common fire) and throw them in the air, saying to the objects of their displeasure, such a sickness or such a curse shall come upon you" [ROBERTS].

JFB: Exo 9:10 - Moses took ashes from the furnace Hebrew, "brick-kiln." The magicians, being sufferers in their own persons, could do nothing, though they had been called; and as the brick-kiln was on...

Hebrew, "brick-kiln." The magicians, being sufferers in their own persons, could do nothing, though they had been called; and as the brick-kiln was one of the principal instruments of oppression to the Israelites [Deu 4:20; 1Ki 8:51; Jer 11:4], it was now converted into a means of chastisement to the Egyptians, who were made to read their sin in their punishment.

JFB: Exo 9:18 - I will cause it to rain a very grievous hail, &c. The seventh plague which Pharaoh's hardened heart provoked was that of hail, a phenomenon which must have produced the greatest astonishment and const...

The seventh plague which Pharaoh's hardened heart provoked was that of hail, a phenomenon which must have produced the greatest astonishment and consternation in Egypt as rain and hailstones, accompanied by thunder and lightning, were very rare occurrences.

JFB: Exo 9:18 - such as hath not been in Egypt In the Delta, or lower Egypt, where the scene is laid, rain occasionally falls between January and March--hail is not unknown, and thunder sometimes h...

In the Delta, or lower Egypt, where the scene is laid, rain occasionally falls between January and March--hail is not unknown, and thunder sometimes heard. But a storm, not only exhibiting all these elements, but so terrific that hailstones of immense size fell, thunder pealed in awful volleys, and lightning swept the ground like fire, was an unexampled calamity.

JFB: Exo 9:20-21 - He that feared the word of the Lord . . . regarded not, &c. Due premonition, it appears, had been publicly given of the impending tempest--the cattle seem to have been sent out to graze, which is from January t...

Due premonition, it appears, had been publicly given of the impending tempest--the cattle seem to have been sent out to graze, which is from January to April, when alone pasturage can be obtained, and accordingly the cattle were in the fields. This storm occurring at that season, not only struck universal terror into the minds of the people, but occasioned the destruction of all--people and cattle--which, in neglect of the warning, had been left in the fields, as well as of all vegetation [Exo 9:25]. It was the more appalling because hailstones in Egypt are small and of little force; lightning also is scarcely ever known to produce fatal effects; and to enhance the wonder, not a trace of any storm was found in Goshen [Exo 9:26].

JFB: Exo 9:27-35 - Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, I have sinned This awful display of divine displeasure did seriously impress the mind of Pharaoh, and, under the weight of his convictions, he humbles himself to co...

This awful display of divine displeasure did seriously impress the mind of Pharaoh, and, under the weight of his convictions, he humbles himself to confess he has done wrong in opposing the divine will. At the same time he calls for Moses to intercede for cessation of the calamity. Moses accedes to his earnest wishes, and this most awful visitation ended. But his repentance proved a transient feeling, and his obduracy soon became as great as before.

JFB: Exo 9:31-32 - the flax and the barley was smitten, &c. The peculiarities that are mentioned in these cereal products arise from the climate and physical constitution of Egypt. In that country flax and barl...

The peculiarities that are mentioned in these cereal products arise from the climate and physical constitution of Egypt. In that country flax and barley are almost ripe when wheat and rye (spelt) are green. And hence the flax must have been "bolled"--that is, risen in stalk or podded in February, thus fixing the particular month when the event took place. Barley ripens about a month earlier than wheat. Flax and barley are generally ripe in March, wheat and rye (properly, spelt) in April.

Clarke: Exo 9:1 - The Lord God of the Hebrews The Lord God of the Hebrews - It is very likely that the term Lord, יויה Yehovah , is used here to point out particularly his eternal power and...

The Lord God of the Hebrews - It is very likely that the term Lord, יויה Yehovah , is used here to point out particularly his eternal power and Godhead; and that the term God, אלהי Elohey , is intended to be understood in the sense of Supporter, Defender, Protector, etc. Thus saith the self-existent, omnipotent, and eternal Being, the Supporter and Defender of the Hebrews, "Let my people go, that they may worship me.

Clarke: Exo 9:3 - The hand of the Lord The hand of the Lord - The power of God manifested in judgment

The hand of the Lord - The power of God manifested in judgment

Clarke: Exo 9:3 - Upon the horses Upon the horses - סוסים susim . This is the first place the horse is mentioned; a creature for which Egypt and Arabia were always famous. ס...

Upon the horses - סוסים susim . This is the first place the horse is mentioned; a creature for which Egypt and Arabia were always famous. סס sus is supposed to have the same meaning with שש sas , which signifies to be active, brisk, or lively, all which are proper appellatives of the horse, especially in Arabia and Egypt. Because of their activity and swiftness they were sacrificed and dedicated to the sun, and perhaps it was principally on this account that God prohibited the use of them among the Israelites

Clarke: Exo 9:3 - A very grievous murrain A very grievous murrain - The murrain is a very contagious disease among cattle, the symptoms of which are a hanging down and swelling of the head, ...

A very grievous murrain - The murrain is a very contagious disease among cattle, the symptoms of which are a hanging down and swelling of the head, abundance of gum in the eyes, rattling in the throat, difficulty of breathing, palpitation of the heart, staggering, a hot breath, and a shining tongue; which symptoms prove that a general inflammation has taken place. The original word דבר deber is variously translated. The Septuagint have θανατος, death; the Vulgate has pestis , a plague or pestilence; the old Saxon version, to die, any fatal disease. Our English word murrain comes either from the French mourir , to die, or from the Greek μαραινω maraino , to grow lean, waste away. The term mortality would be the nearest in sense to the original, as no particular disorder is specified by the Hebrew word.

Clarke: Exo 9:4 - The Lord shall sever The Lord shall sever - See Clarke on Exo 8:22 (note).

The Lord shall sever - See Clarke on Exo 8:22 (note).

Clarke: Exo 9:5 - To-morrow the Lord shall do this To-morrow the Lord shall do this - By thus foretelling the evil, he showed his prescience and power; and from this both the Egyptians and Hebrews mu...

To-morrow the Lord shall do this - By thus foretelling the evil, he showed his prescience and power; and from this both the Egyptians and Hebrews must see that the mortality that ensued was no casualty, but the effect of a predetermined purpose in the Divine justice.

Clarke: Exo 9:6 - All the cattle of Egypt died All the cattle of Egypt died - That is, All the cattle that did die belonged to the Egyptians, but not one died that belonged to the Israelites, Exo...

All the cattle of Egypt died - That is, All the cattle that did die belonged to the Egyptians, but not one died that belonged to the Israelites, Exo 9:4, Exo 9:6. That the whole stock of cattle belonging to the Egyptians did not die we have the fullest proof, because there were cattle both to be killed and saved alive in the ensuing plague, Exo 9:19-25. By this judgment the Egyptians must see the vanity of the whole of their national worship, when they found the animals which they not only held sacred but deified, slain without distinction among the common herd, by a pestilence sent from the hand of Jehovah. One might naturally suppose that after this the animal worship of the Egyptians could never more maintain its ground.

Clarke: Exo 9:7 - And Pharaoh sent, etc. And Pharaoh sent, etc. - Finding so many of his own cattle and those of his subjects slain, he sent to see whether the mortality had reached to the ...

And Pharaoh sent, etc. - Finding so many of his own cattle and those of his subjects slain, he sent to see whether the mortality had reached to the cattle of the Israelites, that he might know whether this were a judgment inflicted by their God, and probably designing to replace the lost cattle of the Egyptians with those of the Israelites

Clarke: Exo 9:8 - Handfuls of ashes of the furnace Handfuls of ashes of the furnace - As one part of the oppression of the Israelites consisted In their labor in the brick-kilns, some have observed a...

Handfuls of ashes of the furnace - As one part of the oppression of the Israelites consisted In their labor in the brick-kilns, some have observed a congruity between the crime and the punishment. The furnaces, in the labor of which they oppressed the Hebrews, now yielded the instruments of their punishment; for every particle of those ashes, formed by unjust and oppressive labor, seemed to be a boil or a blain on the tyrannical king and his cruel and hard-hearted people.

Clarke: Exo 9:9 - Shall be a boil Shall be a boil - שחין shechin . This word is generally expounded, an inflammatory swelling, a burning boil; one of the most poignant afflicti...

Shall be a boil - שחין shechin . This word is generally expounded, an inflammatory swelling, a burning boil; one of the most poignant afflictions, not immediately mortal, that can well affect the surface of the human body. If a single boil on any part of the body throws the whole system into a fever, what anguish must a multitude of them on the body at the same time occasion

Clarke: Exo 9:9 - Breaking forth with blains Breaking forth with blains - אבעבעת ababuoth , supposed to come from בעה baah , to swell, bulge out; any inflammatory swelling, node, or ...

Breaking forth with blains - אבעבעת ababuoth , supposed to come from בעה baah , to swell, bulge out; any inflammatory swelling, node, or pustule, in any part of the body, but more especially in the more glandular parts, the neck, arm-pits, groin, etc. The Septuagint translate it thus: Και εσται ἑλκη φλυκτιδες αναζεουσαι· And it shalt be an ulcer with burning pustules. It seems to have been a disorder of an uncommon kind, and hence it is called by way of distinction, the botch of Egypt, Deu 28:27, perhaps never known before in that or any other country. Orosius says that in the sixth plague "all the people were blistered, that the blisters burst with tormenting pain, and that worms issued out of them."Alfred’ s Oros., lib. i., c. vii.

Clarke: Exo 9:11 - The boil was upon the magicians The boil was upon the magicians - They could not produce a similar malady by throwing ashes in the air; and they could neither remove the plague fro...

The boil was upon the magicians - They could not produce a similar malady by throwing ashes in the air; and they could neither remove the plague from the people, nor from their own tormented flesh. Whether they perished in this plague we know not, but they are no more mentioned. If they were not destroyed by this awful judgment, they at least left the field, and no longer contended with these messengers of God. The triumph of God’ s power was now complete, and both the Hebrews and the Egyptians must see that there was neither might, nor wisdom, nor counsel against the Lord; and that, as universal nature acknowledged his power, devils and men must fail before him.

Clarke: Exo 9:15 - For now I will stretch out my hand For now I will stretch out my hand - In the Hebrew the verbs are in the past tense, and not in the future, as our translation improperly expresses t...

For now I will stretch out my hand - In the Hebrew the verbs are in the past tense, and not in the future, as our translation improperly expresses them, by which means a contradiction appears in the text: for neither Pharaoh nor his people were smitten by a pestilence, nor was he by any kind of mortality cut off from the earth. It is true the first-born were slain by a destroying angel, and Pharaoh himself was drowned in the Red Sea; but these judgments do not appear to be referred to in this place. If the words be translated, as they ought, in the subjunctive mood, or in the past instead of the future, this seeming contradiction to facts, as well as all ambiguity, will be avoided: For if now I Had Stretched Out ( שלהתי shalachti , had set forth) my hand, and had smitten thee ( ואך אותך vaach otheca ) and thy people with the pestilence, thou Shouldst Have Been cut off ( תכחד ticcached ) from the earth.

Clarke: Exo 9:16 - But truly, on this very account, have I caused thee to subsist But truly, on this very account, have I caused thee to subsist - ( העמדחיך heemadticha ), that I might cause thee to see my power, ( הרא...

But truly, on this very account, have I caused thee to subsist - ( העמדחיך heemadticha ), that I might cause thee to see my power, ( הראתך את כחי harotheca eth cochi ), and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth, (or, בכל הארץ becol haarets , in all this land). See Ainsworth and Houbigant

Thus God gave this impious king to know that it was in consequence of his especial providence that both he and his people had not been already destroyed by means of the past plagues; but God had preserved him for this very purpose, that he might have a farther opportunity of manifesting that he, Jehovah, was the only true God for the full conviction both of the Hebrews and Egyptians, that the former might follow and the latter fear before him. Judicious critics of almost all creeds have agreed to translate the original as above, a translation which it not only can bear but requires, and which is in strict conformity to both the Septuagint and Targum. Neither the Hebrew העמדחיך heemadticha , I have caused thee to stand; nor the apostle’ s translation of it, Rom 9:17, εξηγειρα σε, I have raised thee; nor that of the Septuagint, ἑνεκεν τουτου διετηρηθης, on this account art thou preserved, viz., in the past plagues; can countenance that most exceptionable meaning put on the words by certain commentators, viz., "That God ordained or appointed Pharaoh from all eternity, by certain means, to this end; that he made him to exist in time; that he raised him to the throne; promoted him to that high honor and dignity; that he preserved him, and did not cut him off as yet; that he strengthened and hardened his heart; irritated, provoked, and stirred him up against his people Israel, and suffered him to go all the lengths he did go in his obstinacy and rebellion; all which was done to show in him his power in destroying him in the Red Sea. The sum of which is, that this man was raised up by God in every sense for God to show his power in his destruction."So man speaks; thus God hath not spoken. See Henry on the place.

Clarke: Exo 9:17 - As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people - So it appears that at this time he might have submitted, and thus prevented his own destruction

As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people - So it appears that at this time he might have submitted, and thus prevented his own destruction

Clarke: Exo 9:18 - To-morrow about this time To-morrow about this time - The time of this plague is marked thus circumstantially to show Pharaoh that Jehovah was Lord of heaven and earth, and t...

To-morrow about this time - The time of this plague is marked thus circumstantially to show Pharaoh that Jehovah was Lord of heaven and earth, and that the water, the fire, the earth, and the air, which were all objects of Egyptian idolatry, were the creatures of his power; and subservient to his will; and that, far from being able to help them, they were now, in the hands of God, instruments of their destruction

Clarke: Exo 9:18 - To rain a very grievous hail To rain a very grievous hail - To rain hail may appear to some superficial observers as an unphilosophical mode of expression, but nothing can be mo...

To rain a very grievous hail - To rain hail may appear to some superficial observers as an unphilosophical mode of expression, but nothing can be more correct. "Drops of rain falling through a cold region of the atmosphere are frozen and converted into hail;"and thus the hail is produced by rain. When it begins to fall it is rain; when it is falling it is converted into hail; thus it is literally true that it rains hail. The farther a hail-stone falls the larger it generally is, because in its descent it meets with innumerable particles of water, which, becoming attached to it, are also frozen, and thus its bulk is continually increasing till it reaches the earth. In the case in question, if natural means were at all used, we may suppose a highly electrified state of an atmosphere loaded with vapors, which, becoming condensed and frozen, and having a considerable space to fall through, were of an unusually large size. Though this was a supernatural storm, there have been many of a natural kind, that have been exceedingly dreadful. A storm of hail fell near Liverpool, in Lancashire, in the year 1795, which greatly damaged the vegetation, broke windows, etc., etc. Many of the stones measured five inches in circumference. Dr. Halley mentions a similar storm of hail in Lancashire, Cheshire, etc., in 1697, April 29, that for sixty miles in length and two miles in breadth did immense damage, by splitting trees, killing fowls and all small animals, knocking down men and horses, etc., etc. Mezeray, in his History of France, says "that in Italy, in 1510, there was for some time a horrible darkness, thicker than that of night, after which the clouds broke into thunder and lightning, and there fell a shower of hail-stones which destroyed all the beasts, birds, and even fish of the country. It was attended with a strong smell of sulphur, and the stones were of a bluish color, some of them weighing one hundred pounds’ weight."The Almighty says to Job: "Hast thou seen the treasures of the hail, which I have reserved against the time of trouble, against the day of battle and war?"Job 38:22, Job 38:23. While God has such artillery at his command, how soon may he desolate a country or a world! See the account of a remarkable hail-storm in Jos 10:11.

Clarke: Exo 9:19 - Send - now, and gather thy cattle Send - now, and gather thy cattle - So in the midst of judgment, God remembered mercy. The miracle should be wrought that they might know he was the...

Send - now, and gather thy cattle - So in the midst of judgment, God remembered mercy. The miracle should be wrought that they might know he was the Lord; but all the lives both of men and beasts might have been saved, had Pharaoh and his servants taken the warning so mercifully given them. While some regarded not the word of the Lord, others feared it, and their cattle and their servants were saved, See Exo 9:20, Exo 9:21.

Clarke: Exo 9:23 - The Lord sent thunder The Lord sent thunder - קלת koloth , voices; but loud, repeated peals of thunder are meant

The Lord sent thunder - קלת koloth , voices; but loud, repeated peals of thunder are meant

Clarke: Exo 9:23 - And the fire ran along upon the ground And the fire ran along upon the ground - ותהלך אש ארצה vattihalac esh aretsah , and the fire walked upon the earth. It was not a sudden ...

And the fire ran along upon the ground - ותהלך אש ארצה vattihalac esh aretsah , and the fire walked upon the earth. It was not a sudden flash of lightning, but a devouring fire, walking through every part, destroying both animals and vegetables; and its progress was irresistible.

Clarke: Exo 9:24 - Hail, and fire mingled with the hail Hail, and fire mingled with the hail - It is generally allowed that the electric fluid is essential to the formation of hail. On this occasion it wa...

Hail, and fire mingled with the hail - It is generally allowed that the electric fluid is essential to the formation of hail. On this occasion it was supplied in a supernatural abundance; for streams of fire seem to have accompanied the descending hail, so that herbs and trees, beasts and men, were all destroyed by them.

Clarke: Exo 9:26 - Only in the land of Goshen - was there no hail Only in the land of Goshen - was there no hail - What a signal proof of a most particular providence! Surely both the Hebrews and Egyptians profited...

Only in the land of Goshen - was there no hail - What a signal proof of a most particular providence! Surely both the Hebrews and Egyptians profited by this display of the goodness and severity of God.

Clarke: Exo 9:27 - The Lord is righteous, and I and my people are wicked The Lord is righteous, and I and my people are wicked - The original is very emphatic: The Lord is The Righteous One, ( הצדיק hatstaddik ), an...

The Lord is righteous, and I and my people are wicked - The original is very emphatic: The Lord is The Righteous One, ( הצדיק hatstaddik ), and I and my people are The Sinners, ( הרשעים hareshaim ); i.e., He is alone righteous, and we alone are transgressors. Who could have imagined that after such an acknowledgment and confession, Pharaoh should have again hardened his heart?

Clarke: Exo 9:28 - It is enough It is enough - There is no need of any farther plague; I submit to the authority of Jehovah and will rebel no more

It is enough - There is no need of any farther plague; I submit to the authority of Jehovah and will rebel no more

Clarke: Exo 9:28 - Mighty thunderings Mighty thunderings - כלת אלהים koloth Elohim , voices of God; - that is, superlatively loud thunder. So mountains of God (Psa 36:6) means e...

Mighty thunderings - כלת אלהים koloth Elohim , voices of God; - that is, superlatively loud thunder. So mountains of God (Psa 36:6) means exceeding high mountains. So a prince of God (Gen 23:6) means a mighty prince. See a description of thunder, Psa 29:3-8 : "The Voice Of The Lord is upon the waters: the God of glory thundereth; the Lord is upon many waters. The voice of the Lord is powerful; the voice of the Lord is full of majesty. The voice of the Lord breaketh the cedars. The voice of the Lord divideth the flames of fire. The voice of the Lord shaketh the wilderness,"etc. The production of rain by the electric spark is alluded to in a very beautiful manner, Jer 10:13 : When he uttereth his voice, there is a multitude of waters in the heavens. See Clarke’ s note on Gen 7:11, and Gen 8:1 (note).

Clarke: Exo 9:29 - I will spread abroad my hands I will spread abroad my hands - That is, I will make supplication to God that he may remove this plague. This may not be an improper place to make s...

I will spread abroad my hands - That is, I will make supplication to God that he may remove this plague. This may not be an improper place to make some observations on the ancient manner of approaching the Divine Being in prayer. Kneeling down, stretching out the hands, and lifting them up to heaven, were in frequent use among the Hebrews in their religious worship. Solomon kneeled down on his knees, and spread forth his hands to heaven; 2Ch 6:13. So David, Psa 143:6 : I stretch forth my hands unto thee. So Ezra: I fell upon my knees, and spread out my hands unto the Lord my God; Ezr 9:5. See also Job Job 11:13 : If thou prepare thine heart, and stretch out thy hands towards him. Most nations who pretended to any kind of worship made use of the same means in approaching the objects of their adoration, viz., kneeling down and stretching out their hands; which custom it is very likely they borrowed from the people of God. Kneeling was ever considered to be the proper posture of supplication, as it expresses humility, contrition, and subjection. If the person to whom the supplication was addressed was within reach, the supplicant caught him by the knees; for as among the ancients the forehead was consecrated to genius, the ear to memory, and the right hand to faith, so the knees were consecrated to mercy. Hence those who entreated favor fell at and caught hold of the knees of the person whose kindness they supplicated. This mode of supplication is particularly referred to in the following passages in Homer: -

Των νυν μιν μνησασα παρεζεο, και λαβε γουνων

Iliad i., ver. 407

Now therefore, of these things reminding Jove

Embrace his knees

Cowper

To which the following answer is made: -

Και τοτ επειτα τοι ειμι Διος ποτι χαλκοβατες δω

Και μιν γουνασομαι, και μιν πεισεσθαι οΐω

Iliad i., ver. 426

Then will I to Jove’ s brazen-floor’ d abode, That I may clasp his knees; and much misdeem Of my endeavor, or my prayer shall speed. Id. See the issue of thus addressing Jove, Ibid., ver. 500-502, and ver. 511, etc

In the same manner we find our Lord accosted, Mat 17:14 : There came to him a certain man, kneeling down to him γονυπετων αυτον, falling down at his knees

As to the lifting up or stretching out of the hands, (often joined to kneeling), of which we have seen already several instances, and of which we have a very remarkable one in this book, Exo 17:11, where the lifting up or stretching out of the hands of Moses was the means of Israel’ s prevailing over Amalek; we find many examples of both in ancient authors. Thus Homer: -

Εσθλον γαρ Δυ χειρας ανασχεμεν, αι κ ελεησῃ

Iliad xxiv., ver. 301

For right it is to spread abroad the hands To Jove for mercy

Also Virgil: -

Corripio e stratis corpus,

Tendoque supinas ad coelu

cum voce manus, et munera libo

Aeneid iii., ver. 176

I started from my bed, and raised on hig

My hands and voice in rapture to the sky

And pour libations

Ptt

Dixerat: et Genua Amplexus,

genibusque volutans Haerebat

Ibid., ver. 607

Then kneel’ d the wretch, and suppliant clung aroun

My knees with tears, and grovell’ d on the ground

Id

- media inter numina divum Multa Jovem

Manibus Supplex orasse SUPINIS.

Ibid. iv., ver. 204

Amidst the statues of the gods he stands

And spreading forth to Jove his lifted hands

Id

Et Duplices cum voce Manus ad sidera

Tendit. Ibid. x., ver. 667

And lifted both his hands and voice to heaven

In some cases the person petitioning came forward, and either sat in the dust or kneeled on the ground, placing his left hand on the knee of him from whom he expected the favor, while he touched the person’ s chin with his right. We have an instance of this also in Homer

Και ρα παροιθ αυτοιο καθεζετο, και λαβε γουνων

Σκαιῃ· δεξιτερῃ δ αρ ὑπ ανθερεωνος ἑλουσα

Iliad i., ver. 500

Suppliant the goddess stood: one hand she place

Beneath his chin, and one his knee embraced

Pope

When the supplicant could not approach the person to whom he prayed, as where a deity was the object of the prayer, he washed his hands, made an offering, and kneeling down, either stretched out both his hands to heaven, or laid them upon the offering or sacrifice, or upon the altar. Thus Homer represents the priest of Apollo praying: -

Χερνιψαντο δ επειτα, και ουλοχυτας ανελοντο

Τοισιν δε Χρυσης μεγαλ ευχετο, χειρας ανασχων

Iliad i., ver. 449

With water purify their hands, and tak

The sacred offering of the salted cake

While thus, with arms devoutly raised in air

And solemn voice, the priest directs his prayer

Pope

How necessary ablutions of the whole body, and of the hands particularly, accompanied with offerings and sacrifices were, under the law, every reader of the Bible knows: see especially Exo 29:1-4, where Aaron and his sons were commanded to be washed, previously to their performing the priest’ s office; and Exo 30:19-21, where it is said: "Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands - that they die not."See also Lev 17:15. When the high priest among the Jews blessed the people, he lifted up his hands, Lev 9:22. And the Israelites, when they presented a sacrifice to God, lifted up their hands and placed them on the head of the victim: "If any man of you bring an offering unto the Lord - of the cattle of the herd, and of the flock - he shall put his hand upon the head of the burnt-offering, and it shall be accepted for him, to make atonement for him;"Lev 1:2-4. To these circumstances the apostle alludes, 1Ti 2:8 : "I will therefore that men pray everywhere, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting."In the apostle’ s word επαιροντας, lifting up, there is a manifest reference to stretching out the hands to place them either on the altar or on the head of the victim. Four things were signified by this lifting up of the hands. 1. It was the posture of supplication, and expressed a strong invitation - Come to my help; 2. It expressed the earnest desire of the person to lay hold on the help he required, by bringing him who was the object of his prayer to his assistance; 3. It showed the ardor of the person to receive the blessings he expected; and 4. By this act he designated and consecrated his offering or sacrifice to his God

From a great number of evidences and coincidences it is not unreasonable to conclude that the heathens borrowed all that was pure and rational, even in their mode of worship, from the ancient people of God; and that the preceding quotations are proofs of this.

Clarke: Exo 9:31 - The flax and the barley was smitten The flax and the barley was smitten - The word פשתה pishtah , flax, Mr. Parkhurst thinks, is derived from the root פשט pashat , to strip, b...

The flax and the barley was smitten - The word פשתה pishtah , flax, Mr. Parkhurst thinks, is derived from the root פשט pashat , to strip, because the substance which we term flax is properly the bark or rind of the vegetable, pilled or stripped off the stalks. From time immemorial Egypt was celebrated for the production and manufacture of flax: hence the linen and fine linen of Egypt, so often spoken of in ancient authors

Clarke: Exo 9:31 - Barley Barley - שערה seorah , from שער saar , to stand on end, to be rough, bristly, etc.; hence שער sear , the hair of the head, and שעי...

Barley - שערה seorah , from שער saar , to stand on end, to be rough, bristly, etc.; hence שער sear , the hair of the head, and שעיר sair , a he-goat, because of its shaggy hair; and hence also barley, because of the rough and prickly beard with which the ears are covered and defended

Dr. Pocock has observed that there is a double seed-time and harvest in Egypt: Rice, India wheat, and a grain called the corn of Damascus, and in Italian surgo rosso , are sown and reaped at a very different time from wheat, barley and flax. The first are sown in March, before the overflowing of the Nile, and reaped about October; whereas the wheat and barley are sown in November and December, as soon as the Nile is gone off, and are reaped before May

Pliny observes, Hist. Nat., lib. xviii., cap. 10, that in Egypt the barley is ready for reaping in six months after it is sown, and wheat in seven. In Aegypto Hordeum sexto a satu mense, Feumenta septimo metuntur

Clarke: Exo 9:31 - The flax was boiled The flax was boiled - Meaning, I suppose, was grown up into a stalk: the original is גבעל gibol , podded or was in the pod The word well expres...

The flax was boiled - Meaning, I suppose, was grown up into a stalk: the original is גבעל gibol , podded or was in the pod

The word well expresses that globous pod on the top of the stalk of flax which succeeds the flower and contains the seed, very properly expressed by the Septuagint, το δε λινον σπερματιζον, but the flax was in seed or was seeding.

Clarke: Exo 9:32 - But the wheat and the rye were not smitten But the wheat and the rye were not smitten - Wheat, חטה chittah , which Mr. Parkhurst thinks should be derived from the Chaldee and Samaritan ...

But the wheat and the rye were not smitten - Wheat, חטה chittah , which Mr. Parkhurst thinks should be derived from the Chaldee and Samaritan חטי chati , which signifies tender, delicious, delicate, because of the superiority of its flavor, etc., to every other kind of grain. But this term in Scripture appears to mean any kind of bread-corn. Rye, כסמת cussemeth , from כסם casam , to have long hair; and hence, though the particular species is not known, the word must mean some bearded grain. The Septuagint call it ολυρα, the Vulgate for, and Aquila ζεα, which signify the grain called spelt; and some suppose that rice is meant

Mr. Harmer, referring to the double harvest in Egypt mentioned by Dr. Pocock, says that the circumstance of the wheat and the rye being אפילת aphiloth , dark or hidden, as the margin renders it, (i.e., they were sown, but not grown up), shows that it was the Indian wheat or surgo rosso mentioned Exo 9:31, which, with the rye, escaped, while the barley and flax were smitten because they were at or nearly at a state of maturity. See Harmer’ s Obs., vol. iv., p. 11, edit 1808. But what is intended by the words in the Hebrew text we cannot positively say, as there is a great variety of opinions on this subject, both among the versions and the commentators. The Anglo-Saxon translator, probably from not knowing the meaning of the words, omits the whole verse.

Clarke: Exo 9:33 - Spread abroad his hands Spread abroad his hands - Probably with the rod of God in them. See what has been said on the spreading out of the hands in prayer, Exo 9:29. See Cl...

Spread abroad his hands - Probably with the rod of God in them. See what has been said on the spreading out of the hands in prayer, Exo 9:29. See Clarke on Exo 9:29 (note).

Clarke: Exo 9:34 - He sinned yet more, and hardened his heart He sinned yet more, and hardened his heart - These were merely acts of his own; "for who can deny,"says Mr. Psalmanazar, "that what God did on Phara...

He sinned yet more, and hardened his heart - These were merely acts of his own; "for who can deny,"says Mr. Psalmanazar, "that what God did on Pharaoh was much more proper to soften than to harden his heart; especially when it is observable that it was not till after seeing each miracle, and after the ceasing of each plague, that his heart is said to have been hardened? The verbs here used are in the conjugations pihel and hiphil, and often signify a bare permission, from which it is plain that the words should have been read, God suffered the heart of Pharaoh to be hardened."- Universal Hist., vol. i., p. 494. Note D.

Clarke: Exo 9:35 - And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened - In consequence of his sinning yet more, and hardening his own heart against both the judgments and mercies o...

And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened - In consequence of his sinning yet more, and hardening his own heart against both the judgments and mercies of God, we need not be surprised that, after God had given him the means of softening and repentance, and he had in every instance resisted and abused them, he should at last have been left to the hardness and darkness of his own obstinate heart, so as to fill up the measure of his iniquity, and rush headlong to his own destruction

In the fifth, sixth, and seventh plagues described in this chapter, we have additional proofs of the justice and mercy of God, as well as of the stupidity, rebellion, and wickedness of Pharaoh and his courtiers. As these continued to contradict and resist, it was just that God should continue to inflict those punishments which their iniquities deserved. Yet in the midst of judgment he remembers mercy; and therefore Moses and Aaron are sent to inform the Egyptians that such plagues would come if they continued obstinate. Here is mercy; the cattle only are destroyed, and the people saved! Is it not evident from all these messages, and the repeated expostulations of Moses and Aaron in the name and on the authority of God, that Pharaoh was bound by no fatal necessity to continue his obstinacy; that he might have humbled himself before God, and thus prevented the disasters that fell on the land, and saved himself and his people from destruction? But he would sin, and therefore he must be punished

In the sixth plague Pharaoh had advantages which he had not before. The magicians, by their successful imitations of the miracles wrought by Moses, made it doubtful to the Egyptians whether Moses himself was not a magician acting without any Divine authority; but the plague of the boils, which they could not imitate, by which they were themselves afflicted, and which they confessed to be the finger of God, decided the business

Pharaoh had no longer any excuse, and must know that he had now to contend, not with Moses and Aaron, mortals like himself, but with the living God. How strange, then, that he should continue to resist! Many affect to be astonished at this, and think it must be attributed only to a sovereign controlling influence of God, which rendered it impossible for him to repent or take warning. But the whole conduct of God shows the improbability of this opinion: and is not the conduct of Pharaoh and his courtiers copied and reacted by thousands who are never suspected to be under any such necessitating decree? Every sinner under heaven, who has the Bible in his hand, is acting the same part. God says to the swearer and the profane, Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain; and yet common swearing and profaneness are most scandalously common among multitudes who bear the Christian name, and who presume on the mercy of God to get at last to the kingdom of heaven! He says also, Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy; thou shalt not kill; thou shalt not commit adultery; thou shalt not steal; thou shalt not bear false witness; thou shalt not covet; and sanctions all these commandments with the most awful penalties: and yet, with all these things before them, and the professed belief that they came from God, Sabbath-breakers, men-slayers, adulterers, fornicators, thieves, dishonest men, false witnesses, liars, slanderers, backbiters, covetous men, lovers of the world more than lovers of God, are found by hundreds and thousands! What were the crimes of the poor half-blind Egyptian king when compared with these! He sinned against a comparatively unknown God; these sin against the God of their fathers - against the God and Father of Him whom they call their Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ! They sin with the Bible in their hand, and a conviction of its Divine authority in their hearts. They sin against light and knowledge; against the checks of their consciences, the reproofs of their friends, the admonitions of the messengers of God; against Moses and Aaron in the law; against the testimony of all the prophets; against the evangelists, the apostles, the Maker of heaven and earth, the Judge of all men, and the Savior of the world! What were Pharaoh’ s crimes to the crimes of these? On comparison, his atom of moral turpitude is lost in their world of iniquity. And yet who supposes these to be under any necessitating decree to sin on, and go to perdition? Nor are they; nor was Pharaoh. In all things God has proved both his justice and mercy to be clear in this point. Pharaoh, through a principle of covetousness, refused to dismiss the Israelites, whose services he found profitable to the state: these are absorbed in the love of the world, the love of pleasure, and the love of gain; nor will they let one lust go, even in the presence of the thunders of Sinai, or in sight of the agony, bloody sweat, crucifixion, and death of Jesus Christ! Alas! how many are in the habit of considering Pharaoh the worst of human beings, inevitably cut off from the possibility of being saved because of his iniquities, who outdo him so far in the viciousness of their lives, that Pharaoh, hardening his heart against ten plagues, appears a saint when compared with those who are hardening their hearts against ten millions of mercies. Reader, art thou of this number? Proceed no farther! God’ s judgments linger not. Desperate as thy state is, thou mayest return; and thou, even thou, find mercy through the blood of the Lamb

See the observations at the conclusion of the next chapter. See Clarke at Exo 10:29 (note).

Calvin: Exo 9:1 - Then the Lord said 1.Then the Lord said No complaint or expostulation of Moses is here recounted; and it is possible that he was quiet and silent, whilst God foresaw wh...

1.Then the Lord said No complaint or expostulation of Moses is here recounted; and it is possible that he was quiet and silent, whilst God foresaw what it was necessary to do, and even commanded what He would have done. But since he only gives a brief summary of occurrences, we may probably conjecture that, as the evil grew worse, he had recourse from time to time to the remedy. In the denunciation, “the Lord God of the Hebrews” is no unmeaning repetition, that Pharaoh may learn that he, whom he thought to have repelled in the abundance of his pride, was still in the field against him. For God insults his ferocity, and by setting forth his name contemptuously defies his wrath. We have already said that Pharaoh is convicted of sacrilege, both in his oppression of God’s people and in defrauding God Himself of His due honor; therefore those words, “Let my people go, that they may serve me,” have the force of aggravating his sin.

Calvin: Exo 9:2 - But if thou refuse 2.But if thou refuse God again urges him to obedience through fear of punishment, as He usually deals with the froward. Yet he permits him a short sp...

2.But if thou refuse God again urges him to obedience through fear of punishment, as He usually deals with the froward. Yet he permits him a short space of time for repentance, (as before,) if perchance he may lay aside his perverse determination to refuse. And this Moses now relates more distinctly in the fifth verse, both to show the extreme obstinacy of his malice, because the tyrant mocks at God’s forbearance, and follows his own lust; and also to manifest more clearly from the circumstance of time, that the cattle of Egypt were smitten not by chance but by the hand of God. There is also an implied reproof of his senseless obstinacy, as though Moses said, that God was already enough, and more than enough, provoked; and therefore, unless he should desist, that God had new and more terrible plagues at hand, whereby He would overwhelm him. The murrain is appositely called God’s “hand,” because it arose from His just judgment; for this expression is opposed to natural causes, to the arts and devices of men, and to accidental chances — as if Moses had said that the hand of God would appear in “the very grievous murrain,” that Pharaoh may perceive the Deity to be wroth with him. Moreover, though this might seem a lighter plague than those preceding it, yet it was doubtless more grievous and afflictive to the Egyptians, because it involved much greater injury at a future period. The hand of God had before been adverse to them for a short time, and the evil had been removed together with the infliction; but now the destruction of the cattle will affect them for many years. For this kind of gradation in the judgments of God must be observed, as the Law also denounces against transgressors punishments sevenfold greater, if they do not speedily return into the way. (See Lev 26:18.) As to his saying that “all the cattle died,” it is a comprehensive 103 expression, for immediately it will appear that a considerable number of animals still remained. But he means that the herds were everywhere destroyed, and the flocks smitten by the murrain; or, if you prefer it, that the murrain was general in its attack, and that it reduced Egypt to a state of poverty by the destruction of their cattle and other animals. Finally, the universal term merely refers to this plague having been a remarkable proof of God’s anger, because the pestilence did not only kill a few animals, as it usually does, but made havoc far and wide of a vast number of herds and flocks.

Calvin: Exo 9:7 - And Pharaoh sent 7.And Pharaoh sent I leave it undecided, whether he then first sent these inspectors; 104 it may be, that, in the blindness of his obstinacy he negle...

7.And Pharaoh sent I leave it undecided, whether he then first sent these inspectors; 104 it may be, that, in the blindness of his obstinacy he neglected this, until he was reminded by Moses; for we know how the reprobate shut their eyes against the manifest marks of God’s wrath, and willfully indulge in their errors. Certainly there is no doubt that Pharaoh, whilst he seeks to harden himself in every way, deliberately passed over what it was very useful for him to know; but, since he was informed by Moses of the distinction between the Egyptians and the Israelites, he is compelled, whether he will or no, to ascertain from actual inspection, what he would have gladly been in ignorance of. But this was no obscure demonstration of God’s paternal favor towards His chosen people; that the contagion should not have affected that part of Egypt, which was fullest of cattle, though it ravaged the whole surrounding neighborhood. Wherefore, the hardness of the king’s wicked heart was all the more base and marvelous, since he was not moved even by this extraordinary circumstance; for it was a token of horrible folly, that, when the matter was examined and discovered by his underlings, he still hardened his heart and would not obey God.

Calvin: Exo 9:8 - And the Lord said unto Moses 8.And the Lord said unto Moses God does not now postpone the time of the punishment, but redoubles the plagues in a continuous series; nor does he th...

8.And the Lord said unto Moses God does not now postpone the time of the punishment, but redoubles the plagues in a continuous series; nor does he threaten Pharaoh, but, leaving him, executes the judgment which He decreed; both because it was now more than sufficiently manifested that admonitions were of no avail with him, and also that his desperate wickedness might be reproved in every way. For although I have lately said that all which happened is not fully related, still the narrative of Moses rather leads us to infer, that nothing about the boils was previously told to Pharaoh, but that the ashes 105 were sprinkled, when he had no suspicion of anything of the kind. But it did not happen naturally that the heaven was darkened by the dust, and that the disease arose from thence; for how could a few ashes cover the whole air? But by this visible sign the tyrant was taught that the calamity which ensued was inflicted by Moses and Aaron. Moreover, God invested His servants with high and power, when He gave them command over the air, so that they should envelop it in darkness, and poison it with contagion. Hence we gather, that the devil’s are called the princes of the air, not because they govern it according to their will, but only so far as the permission 106 to wander in it is accorded to them.

Calvin: Exo 9:11 - And the magicians could not 11.And the magicians could not Since the magicians were now also at hand, doubtless they were possessed by their former folly, so that they stood in ...

11.And the magicians could not Since the magicians were now also at hand, doubtless they were possessed by their former folly, so that they stood in readiness, as it were, in case an opportunity of contention should be offered them. And, in fact, since Satan, although ten times conquered, is still perpetually hurried forward with indefatigable obstinacy, so neither do his ministers desist from their madness, notwithstanding they have experienced how unsuccessful are their battles. These enchanters had lately confessed that their art availed no farther, and yet they embolden themselves to try all extremities, until the disease of the boils drives them back in disgrace. Wherefore, that we may not betray our madness by similar audacity, let us learn to give God His full glory by voluntary submission. But that Pharaoh, when not only deprived of their assistance, but even when abandoned, and without their presence, is neither changed nor softened, proves that he was not so much deceived by the impostures of others, as stupefied by his own malice and perversity; although Moses here repeats that “his heart was hardened by God;” because He desired, as if by an opposing barrier, to have an opportunity for manifesting His power. And here their ignorance is refuted, who imagine that God is endued with mere prescience; for when “as the Lord has spoken” is added, He attributes both in conjunction to Himself, viz., the effect as well as the foreknowledge. On this point we shall enlarge a little further on; yet let us remark that at the same time the tyrant was not absolved from crime, for that his hardness of heart was voluntary. The blains, which were epidemic on the cattle, are a proof that they did not all die in the former catastrophe.

Calvin: Exo 9:13 - And the Lord said unto Moses, Rise up 13.And the Lord said unto Moses, Rise up God returns again to threats, to try the mind of the wicked king; not that there is any hope of a cure, but ...

13.And the Lord said unto Moses, Rise up God returns again to threats, to try the mind of the wicked king; not that there is any hope of a cure, but that his obstinacy may be more and more discovered. For it was desirable as an example, that it should be known openly how madly those, who are cast into a reprobate state of feeling, and who are possessed by a spirit of willfulness, rush upon their own destruction. Surely it would be incredible, that any human being should have ever resisted God with such headstrong folly and obstinacy, unless this picture had been presented to us. How often was Pharaoh commanded to send the people away, and on every occasion a ratification of the command 107 was added! So that God no less thundered from heaven than He spoke on earth by the mouth of His servant and ambassador; yet still the mind of the tyrant was not subdued into obedience, because Satan alienates the minds of those, whom by God’s permission he holds in devotion, and bondage, to himself. Meanwhile, they heap up more terrible vengeance against themselves by their impious contempt of warnings.

Calvin: Exo 9:14 - For I will at this time 14.For I will at this time The unexpressed condition is implied, “unless he should submit himself to God.” The meaning is, that although he had a...

14.For I will at this time The unexpressed condition is implied, “unless he should submit himself to God.” The meaning is, that although he had already chastised his pride, yet that this had been done gently and in moderation; but that He now would use a heavier scourge, since the lighter rods had been unavailing. Thus his ingratitude is reproved, because he had not acknowledged that he had been spared, in order that, having suffered only some trifling losses, 108 he might return to his right mind. Wherefore, because God had proceeded gradually with his punishments, He now threatens that He will inflict many on him at once; as he is wont to act with the rebellious. On which account also David exhorts us not to be

“as the horse and mule — whose mouth must be held in with bit and bridle when they are restive,” (Psa 32:9;)

whence he concludes, that “many sorrows shall be to the wicked” and rebellious. But Moses here denounces plagues, which shall not only affect the head and arms, but which shall reach to the heart itself, and inflict a deadly wound in his very bowels; for Pharaoh was so obstinate that it was not enough to batter his sides. In flue, he is enjoined to make haste and provide against the awful judgement which impended, unless he chose rather to perish with all his (servants.) The expression, “all my plagues,” embraces whatever chastisement we shall hereafter see inflicted on him; and therefore the word, דבר , deber, designates every kind of death; as much as to say, that He would heap punishment upon punishment, until He had destroyed the tyrant together with his whole nation. What is afterwards added, “that thou mayest know that there is none like me in all the earth,” implies that Pharaoh had hitherto struggled against Him, because he had never really and seriously apprehended the extent of the divine power; for wherever it is really felt, it is impossible but that pride must be humbled before it. And, doubtless, the reprobate, although in some measure they recognize the power of God, still rush on with a kind of frenzied impulse, and their wickedness is combined with blindness of heart, so that seeing, they do not see. Meantime we are reminded, that the reprobate only gain this by their stupidity, that God should proceed against them with all His forces, and drag and compel them against their will to understand His power, from which they fly. But that he may expect no longer truce, God affirms in the next verse that He is advancing with an outstretched hand. For God is not here commending His patience in the slowness of His procedure, as some prefer to explain it; but He rather admonishes him that the execution was nigh at hand, since He had armed Himself, and prepared His forces before He had spoken a word.

Calvin: Exo 9:16 - And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up 16.And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up The word, העמדתי , hagnemadthi, is variously explained; it properly signifies “to...

16.And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up The word, העמדתי , hagnemadthi, is variously explained; it properly signifies “to appoint;” some, therefore, refer it to his eminent position, as if God had placed Pharaoh on the throne, for the purpose of better manifesting His glory. 109 The Greek interpreter extends the meaning, translating it ἐξήγειρά σε, “I have stirred thee up, as much as to say, that Pharaoh had been chosen by the secret counsel and providence of God that His power might be exercised upon him; as He is constantly said to stir up those whom He brings forward, to apply them to those objects for which he has destined them. Others think that this sentence depends on what has gone before, and interpret it “I have preserved thee,” or “chosen that thou shouldest survive.” For the Hebrew verb, which is transitive in Hiphil, is derived from עמד , gnamod, which means “to stand up.” Since, therefore, God had restrained Himself, He now assigns the cause of His moderation, because if Pharaoh had fallen in one trifling engagement, the glory of His victory would have been less illustrious. In fine, lest Pharaoh should flatter himself, or harden himself by vain confidence, God affirms that He does not want strength to destroy him immediately, but that He had delayed his ultimate punishment for another purpose, viz., that Pharaoh might slowly learn that he strove in vain against His incomparable power; and that thus this remarkable history should be celebrated in all ages. But although Paul follows the Greek interpreter, there is no reason why we should not embrace this latter sense; for we know that the Apostles were not so particular in quoting the words, but that they rather considered the substance. But, although we admit that by God’s long-suffering Pharaoh continued to hold out, until he became a clear and notorious proof of the madness and folly of all those who resist God, yet this also has reference to the eternal prescience of God; for therefore did God spare Pharaoh to stand for a time, because, before he was born, he had been predestinated for this purpose. Wherefore, also, Paul rightly concludes, that

“it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth.”
(Rom 9:16.)

For whether God raises up or upholds the reprobate, He wonderfully manifests His glory by their perverseness. Thus is their ignorance refuted, who, by this cavil, endeavor to overturn the eternal predestination of God; because it is not said, that He created Pharaoh with this intention, but that he suspended His judgment for a. time. For this intermediate and progressive course of proceeding arose from this source, that Pharaoh was the organ or instrument of God’s wrath.

Calvin: Exo 9:17 - NO PHRASE 17. As yet exaltest thou thyself. The expression which Moses uses 110 denotes the pride of Pharaoh; because he too insolently exalted himself by tra...

17. As yet exaltest thou thyself. The expression which Moses uses 110 denotes the pride of Pharaoh; because he too insolently exalted himself by trampling on the people. God therefore inquires, as if in astonishment, what this blinded fury meant, that the tyrant should hope that the injuries whereby he undeservedly afflicted God’s people, would be permitted with impunity? For he was already taught, by many miracles, that God had, as their protector, undertaken the cause of His people, so that He would be the avenger of all their unjust treatment. At the same time He ironically reproves the tyrant’s folly, in that he was not humbled by so many chastisements; as if He had said, that although, when intoxicated by prosperity, he might have raged against the wretched people with tyrannical and persevering arbitrariness, yet, after undergoing so many plagues, it was surely time to cease.

Calvin: Exo 9:18 - Behold, tomorrow about this time 18.Behold, tomorrow about this time God now indicates the kind of punishment which He was prepared to inflict, viz., that He would smite with hail bo...

18.Behold, tomorrow about this time God now indicates the kind of punishment which He was prepared to inflict, viz., that He would smite with hail both man and beast, and a part of the crops. It sometimes, indeed, happens that the corn is destroyed by hail, and occasionally that great injury is thus inflicted even on men and beasts; nay, it is regarded as an unusual blessing if ten or fifteen years pass by without such a calamity. But God makes it apparent by certain signs in the judgment, which he has determined to execute, that the hail did not arise from natural causes, but that the atmosphere was manifestly armed by Him for the battle. First, the morrow is fixed; nor is this enough, the hour also is added. But what astronomer or philosopher could thus measure the moments for storms and tempests? Then again, its unusual violence, such as had never been seen before, is appointed. Fourthly, its extent, from the extreme boundaries of Egypt, from the one side to the other, as well as its expansion over its whole breadth. Scarcely once in twenty years will a storm so widely prevail, flying, as this did, like an arrow; but, restrained within narrow limits, it; will not thus diffuse itself far and wide. Lastly, the distinction is added between Goshen and the rest of Egypt. Hence it is plain, that this hail was not produced by an accidental impulse, but made to fall by God’s hand; in a word, that it was not the drops of moisture frozen in mid air, but a portent which transcended the bounds of nature.

Calvin: Exo 9:19 - Sealed therefore now 19.Sealed therefore now He does not give this counsel as if he would spare His professed enemy, but he insults his mad confidence, because hitherto i...

19.Sealed therefore now He does not give this counsel as if he would spare His professed enemy, but he insults his mad confidence, because hitherto in his supine security he had despised whatever punishments had been denounced against him. He indirectly hints, therefore, that now is the time for fear. Secondly, that when God contends, the event is not a doubtful one; because He not only openly challenges him to the combat, but assures him that He shall have no difficulty in putting him to the rout. Finally, he shows him, that He has no need of deceit, or of any stratagems to overtake His enemy, but that, although he grants him a way of escape, still He should be victorious.

Calvin: Exo 9:20 - He that feared the word of the Lord 20.He that feared the word of the Lord In these words Moses shows that there were some who were so far taught by experience as not altogether to desp...

20.He that feared the word of the Lord In these words Moses shows that there were some who were so far taught by experience as not altogether to despise what he had denounced; for hence arose their fear from the denunciation of the punishment, because they were persuaded that Moses was the servant of God, and a Prophet, as well as the herald of the Divine judgment. Although it likewise appears that they had not seriously repented so as to obey God, but were impelled to take these precautions by immediate and momentary terror. Thus, particular fear often makes the reprobate anxious either to deprecate or fly from the vengeance of God. Still Moses says, that their fear profited them, for they did not experience the same calamity as others, who were more insensible. In this way God bore witness, that in proportion as each one more obstinately despises His judgments, the more grievously and heavily is he afflicted; but that some unbelievers are in some degree spared from inconveniences, and more gently chastised, because they at least do not proudly exalt themselves to despise His power. Moreover, by this destruction the judgment of God more clearly shone forth, when among the Egyptians themselves, whosoever was most hardened received the sure reward of his contempt. Yet are we taught by this example, that it does not greatly profit unbelievers, though God may pardon them for a while when they are alarmed and humbled; because they ever remain under condemnation to eternal death.

Calvin: Exo 9:22 - And the Lord said 22.And the Lord said The rod of Moses is again employed to bring on the storm, not so much for Pharaoh’s sake, as that Moses may be the more encour...

22.And the Lord said The rod of Moses is again employed to bring on the storm, not so much for Pharaoh’s sake, as that Moses may be the more encouraged to the remaining contests, when he sees the proof of his vocation renewed. In the meanwhile, we may observe the trial of his faith, since before he had received the command to stretch forth his rod toward heaven, he had not hesitated to predict to Pharaoh the grievous and miraculous hall. But if any one thinks that this is an ὕστερον πρότερον, and that what was first in order of time is related last, I will not debate it; but this seems more probable to me, and also to be rightly gathered from the text, that when the day had elapsed, Moses was commanded to execute that of which the means was before unknown to him. Hence, also, both Moses himself learnt, and we also ought now to learn, that all the elements, although without sense, are still ready to render any kind of obedience to their Maker; since, at the stretching forth of the rod the air was troubled in an incredible manner, so that it hurled down an abundance of hail for the destruction of beasts and men.

Calvin: Exo 9:27 - And Pharaoh sent and called 27.And Pharaoh sent and called If this confession had proceeded from the heart, it would have betokened repentance; but Moses immediately perceived t...

27.And Pharaoh sent and called If this confession had proceeded from the heart, it would have betokened repentance; but Moses immediately perceived that fear in the heart of the wicked is not a principle which governs them in lasting duty; 111 and this was more manifest in the result.

Although we must, at the same time, recollect, what I have already touched upon, that Pharaoh did not lie designedly; for when seized by terror, he caught at every means to appease God, but soon after relapsed into his former state of mind. For although with fox-like cunning the wicked pretend submission, when they see themselves caught, in order to escape from the snare, still they do not mean to mock God by their soft words; but rather under the pressure of necessity they are ready to do anything, and therefore offer propitiation’s and satisfactions; but when their fear has departed, because whatever they promised was forcibly extorted from them, they directly break out afresh. A very similar circumstance is related of Saul. He confesses to his own disgrace the innocence of David, and yet, as soon as he has escaped from the danger, and is freed from fear, he does not cease to persecute him cruelly. (1Sa 24:18, and 1Sa 26:21.) But if we admit that this was mere dissimulation, Pharaoh had greater cause for fear, because, being experimentally convinced that God was his adversary, he was impelled by his fear to make any conditions whatever. But, first of all, he acknowledges that he had “sinned this time,” not to excuse the former cases, but. because, in such gross contempt, the crime of obstinacy was still more detestable. And this more fully appears in the following words, wherein he acknowledges the justice of God, and confesses the wickedness of himself and his people. It is just as if he had said, that he is deservedly punished, because he had too long provoked God, who is a just judge. Now since, as far as his words go, Pharaoh professes true repentance, we may gather from them, that, sinners do not attribute to God the honor due to His justice, unless they condemn themselves; and this must be more carefully observed, because there are few who think that, while they are endeavoring to rebut the accusations of guiltiness, they are dishonoring God. Yet, whosoever does not judge himself, and who does not frankly confess his sins, is assuredly murmuring against the judgment of God. Pharaoh, at length, has recourse to deprecation, in which he desires to have Moses and Aaron as his intercessors; not, I admit, without deception, (because hypocrites are always double-hearted;) yet it is certain, that because he was terrified by his troubles, he sought for peace with God, lest his rebellion should draw down upon him new and greater punishments; but as soon as, having obtained his desire, he ceased to be afraid, the secret wickedness which lay, as it were, stifled under the abundance of his miseries, burst forth out of the sense of security. What immediately follows is variously explained by the translators; some understand it negatively, “that there be not,” or “if there be not — thunderings;” and even these disagree among themselves; for some suppose that Pharaoh congratulates himself, because the thunders have ceased; but it is plain from the context that they are grossly mistaken. If, then, a negation is intended, the passage must necessarily refer to the future; as if Pharaoh had said, that he should be very graciously dealt with, if God should please to allay the thunderings. 112 But the various reading is equally probable; “It is much, or a great thing, that there are, or have been thunderings;” as though he said, that he had been punished enough, or more than enough for his folly; or (as best pleases myself) that he is now subdued by terror, whilst he is alarmed by the continual rollings of the thunder and the beating of the hail; for he seems to desire to prove the truth of his conversion, because he is conquered by the terrible power of God.

Calvin: Exo 9:29 - And Moses said 29.And Moses said In this answer Moses indirectly hints, that he leaves the presence of Pharaoh, in order duly and purely to supplicate God; since by...

29.And Moses said In this answer Moses indirectly hints, that he leaves the presence of Pharaoh, in order duly and purely to supplicate God; since by his unbelief he would in a manner pollute the sacrifices. For, as he had already shown, that legitimate worship could not be offered by the people except away from Egypt, so now he seeks to be alone for prayer; and thus, by this change of place, he indicates that the place, in which Pharaoh dwells, is unholy. We have already said, that Moses promises nothing out of mere rash impulse, but that, taught either by the inspiration of the Spirit, or by sure revelation, he pronounces, with the authority of a prophet, what God is about to do. Moreover, it is not without reason that Moses exhorts Pharaoh to learn from the remission of the punishment, that the God of Israel is the Lord of Egypt also; for the word earth seems here to be limited to Egypt; although I do not deny that it may be properly understood of the whole world; but, whichever you may prefer, Moses rightly concludes, that the glory and dominion of God is perfectly manifested, not only when he appears as an avenger in the infliction of punishment, but that He also shows it in an opposite way, when all the elements are subservient to His mercy. Besides, His power is still more clearly shown forth, when He himself heals the wounds which He has inflicted; and, therefore, in Isa 41:23, and Isa 45:7, in order to prove His divinity, He joins the two together, viz., that it is His prerogative and attribute both to “do good, or to do evil.”

Calvin: Exo 9:30 - But as for thee and thy servants, I know 30.But as for thee and thy servants, I know Such freedom of reproof plainly proves with what magnanimity the holy Prophet was endued, who, without ta...

30.But as for thee and thy servants, I know Such freedom of reproof plainly proves with what magnanimity the holy Prophet was endued, who, without taking any account of the wrath of the imperious and cruel tyrant, does not hesitate to condemn the impiety of himself and his whole court. Nor can it indeed be questioned, that God miraculously restrained so many wild beasts to keep their hands off Moses; for it cannot be attributed either to their moderation or humanity, that men, otherwise worse than bloody-minded, did not kill him a hundred times over, when he so bitterly provoked them. But, from his firmness, it also appears how much he had profited by his novitiate; 113 because he, who had before fled far for refuge in fear of their darts, now has no alarm in the hottest conflict. But he justly affirms that the Egyptians do not “fear the Lord;” because alarm and terror do not always lead the mind to reverence and due obedience. For Moses speaks of true fear, which altogether attaches us to God, wherefore it is called “wisdom,” and “the beginning of wisdom” (Pro 1:7, and Psa 111:10.) But hypocrites, although they fear the name of God, are very far from willingly desiring to serve Him. Wherefore, lest we be deceived by empty imaginations, let us learn honestly to sift all our feelings, and diligently to examine into all those winding 114 recesses, wherewith human hearts are filled and incredibly entangled. A question arises, why Moses undertook the part of an intercessor, when he sees no repentance? my reply is, that he was not thus ready to spare, as if he had been persuaded; but that he gave a short intermission, until the king’s impiety should again betray itself, and thus God should fulfill what he had predicted respecting all the plagues. It is, then, absurd to gather, as some do, from this passage, that ministers of the word and pastors should be satisfied with a mere verbal confession; for Moses did not so much intend to pardon as to open a way for the remaining judgments of God.

Calvin: Exo 9:31 - And the flax and the barley 31.And the flax and the barley He relates the calamity which the hail inflicted; and shows that a part of the fruits of the earth was destroyed, viz....

31.And the flax and the barley He relates the calamity which the hail inflicted; and shows that a part of the fruits of the earth was destroyed, viz., that which had already grown into stalk; but that the seeds which grow more slowly were spared. For God desired to give a remnant of hope, which might invite the king and his people to repentance, if only their wickedness were curable.

Calvin: Exo 9:34 - And when Pharaoh saw 34.And when Pharaoh saw Again, as usual, Pharaoh gathers audacity from the mitigation of his punishment, as security arms the reprobate against God; ...

34.And when Pharaoh saw Again, as usual, Pharaoh gathers audacity from the mitigation of his punishment, as security arms the reprobate against God; for as soon as the scourges of God rest for awhile, they cherish the presumption that they will be unpunished, and construe the short truce into an abiding peace. Pharaoh, then, hardens anew his heart, which he seemed to have somewhat changed, as soon as he is delivered from this infliction; as though he had not been warned that others remained behind, nay, that the hand of God was already stretched out against him. Therefore, at the end of the chapter, Moses amplifies the crime when he adds, that this had been foretold 115 “by the hand of Moses.” We have sometimes seen already that the wicked king was hardened, as God had said to Moses; now, more! is expressed, viz., that Moses had been the proclaimer of his indomitable and desperate obstinacy.

Defender: Exo 9:6 - died not one It is futile to attempt naturalistic explanations for these selective miracles. The plagues of flies, cattle murrain (probably anthrax), boils, hail, ...

It is futile to attempt naturalistic explanations for these selective miracles. The plagues of flies, cattle murrain (probably anthrax), boils, hail, thick darkness, and the death of the firstborn were all visited only on the Egyptians, sparing the Israelites (Exo 8:22; Exo 9:6, Exo 9:11; Exo 10:23; Exo 12:23). These were true miracles with the purpose of creating Israel as God's elect nation and of demonstrating this fact to all nations, both to Israel and the Gentiles."

TSK: Exo 9:1 - -- Exo 9:13, Exo 3:18, Exo 4:22, Exo 4:23, Exo 5:1, Exo 8:1, Exo 8:20, Exo 10:3

TSK: Exo 9:2 - -- Exo 4:23, Exo 8:2, Exo 10:4; Lev 26:14-16, Lev 26:23, Lev 26:24, Lev 26:27, Lev 26:28; Psa 7:11, Psa 7:12, Psa 68:21; Isa 1:20; Rom 2:8; Rev 2:21, Rev...

TSK: Exo 9:3 - the hand // murrain the hand : Exo 7:4, Exo 8:19; 1Sa 5:6-11, 1Sa 6:9; Act 13:11 murrain : We may observe a particular scope and meaning in this calamity, if we consider ...

the hand : Exo 7:4, Exo 8:19; 1Sa 5:6-11, 1Sa 6:9; Act 13:11

murrain : We may observe a particular scope and meaning in this calamity, if we consider it in regard to the Egyptians, which would not have existed in respect to any other people. They held in idolatrous reverence almost every animal, but some they held in particular veneration; as the ox, cow, and ram. Among these, Apis and Mnevis are well known; the former being a sacred bull, worshipped at Memphis, as the latter was at Heliopolis. A cow or heifer had the like honours at Momemphis; and the same practice seems to have been adopted in most of the Egyptian nomes . By the infliction of this judgment, the Egyptian deities sank before the God of the Hebrews. See Bryant, pp. 87-93. Exo 5:3

TSK: Exo 9:4 - -- Exo 8:22, Exo 10:23, Exo 12:13; Isa 65:13, Isa 65:14; Mal 3:18

TSK: Exo 9:5 - a set time a set time : Exo 9:18, Exo 8:23, Exo 10:4; Num 16:5; Job 24:1; Ecc 3:1-11; Jer 28:16, Jer 28:17; Mat 27:63, Mat 27:64

TSK: Exo 9:6 - -- Exo 9:19, Exo 9:25; Psa 78:48, Psa 78:50

TSK: Exo 9:7 - the heart the heart : Exo 9:12, Exo 7:14, Exo 8:32; Job 9:4; Pro 29:1; Isa 48:4; Dan 5:20; Rom 9:18

TSK: Exo 9:8 - Take to Take to : This was a significant command; not only referring to the fiery furnace, which was a type of the slavery of the Israelites, but to a cruel r...

Take to : This was a significant command; not only referring to the fiery furnace, which was a type of the slavery of the Israelites, but to a cruel rite common among the Egyptians. They had several cities styled Typhonian, in which at particular seasons they sacrificed men, who were burnt alive; and the ashes of the victim were scattered upwards in the air, with the view, probably, that where any atom of dust was carried, a blessing was entailed. The like, therefore, was done by Moses, though with a different intention, and more certain effect. See Bryant, pp. 93-106. Exo 8:16

TSK: Exo 9:9 - a boil a boil : Lev 13:18-20; Deu 28:27, Deu 28:35; Job 2:7; Rev 16:2

TSK: Exo 9:10 - a boil a boil : Deu 28:27

a boil : Deu 28:27

TSK: Exo 9:11 - -- Exo 7:11, Exo 7:12, Exo 8:18, Exo 8:19; Isa 47:12-14; 2Ti 3:8, 2Ti 3:9; Rev 16:2

TSK: Exo 9:12 - -- Exo 4:21, Exo 7:13, Exo 7:14; Psa 81:11, Psa 81:12; Rev 16:10, Rev 16:11; Hardness of heart is a figurative expression, denoting that insensibility of...

Exo 4:21, Exo 7:13, Exo 7:14; Psa 81:11, Psa 81:12; Rev 16:10, Rev 16:11; Hardness of heart is a figurative expression, denoting that insensibility of mind upon which neither judgments nor mercies make any abiding impressions; but the conscience being stupefied, the obdurate rebel persists in determined disobedience.

TSK: Exo 9:13 - -- Exo 9:1, Exo 7:15, Exo 8:20

TSK: Exo 9:14 - send all // that thou send all : Lev 26:18, Lev 26:21, Lev 26:28; Deu 28:15-17, Deu 28:59-61, Deu 29:20-22, Deu 32:39-42; 1Sa 4:8; 1Ki 8:38; Jer 19:8; Mic 6:13; Rev 18:8, R...

TSK: Exo 9:15 - stretch // that // cut off stretch : Exo 9:3, Exo 9:6, Exo 9:16, Exo 3:20 that : Exo 11:4-6, Exo 12:29, Exo 12:30 cut off : Exo 14:28; 1Ki 13:34; Pro 2:22

TSK: Exo 9:16 - deed // raised thee up // for to // that my deed : Exo 14:17; Psa 83:17, Psa 83:18; Pro 16:4; Rom 9:17, Rom 9:22; 1Pe 2:8, 1Pe 2:19; Jud 1:4 raised thee up : Heb. made thee stand for to : Exo 14...

TSK: Exo 9:17 - -- Job 9:4, Job 15:25, Job 15:26, Job 40:9; Isa 10:15, Isa 26:11, Isa 37:23, Isa 37:24, Isa 37:29, Isa 45:9; Act 12:23; 1Co 10:22

TSK: Exo 9:18 - to morrow // I will cause to morrow : 1Ki 19:2, 1Ki 20:6; 2Ki 7:1, 2Ki 7:18 I will cause : This must have been a circumstance of all others the most incredible to an Egyptian; ...

to morrow : 1Ki 19:2, 1Ki 20:6; 2Ki 7:1, 2Ki 7:18

I will cause : This must have been a circumstance of all others the most incredible to an Egyptian; for in Egypt there fell no rain, the want of which was supplied by dews, and the overflowing of the Nile. The Egyptians must, therefore, have perceived themselves particularly aimed at in these fearful events, especially as they were very superstitious. There seems likewise a propriety in their being punished by fire and water, as they were guilty of the grossest idolatry towards these elements. Scarcely anything could have distressed the Egyptians more than the destruction of the flax, as the whole nation wore linen garments. The ruin of their barley was equally fatal, both to their trade and to their private advantage. See Bryant, pp. 108-117. Exo 9:22-25; Psa 83:15

TSK: Exo 9:19 - and gather // the hail and gather : Hab 3:2 the hail : Exo 9:25

and gather : Hab 3:2

the hail : Exo 9:25

TSK: Exo 9:20 - -- Pro 16:16, Pro 22:3, Pro 22:23; Jon 3:5, Jon 3:6; Mar 13:14-16; Heb 11:7

TSK: Exo 9:21 - regarded not regarded not : Heb. set not his heart unto, Exo 7:23; 1Sa 4:20 *marg. 1Ch 22:19; Job 7:17, Job 34:14; Pro 24:32 *marg. Eze 40:4; Dan 10:12

regarded not : Heb. set not his heart unto, Exo 7:23; 1Sa 4:20 *marg. 1Ch 22:19; Job 7:17, Job 34:14; Pro 24:32 *marg. Eze 40:4; Dan 10:12

TSK: Exo 9:22 - -- Exo 7:19, Exo 8:5, Exo 8:16; Rev 16:21

TSK: Exo 9:23 - the Lord sent // and hail the Lord sent : Exo 19:16, Exo 20:18; 1Sa 12:17, 1Sa 12:18; Job 37:1-5; Psa 29:3, Psa 77:18; Rev 16:18, Rev 16:21 and hail : Jos 10:11; Job 38:22, Job...

TSK: Exo 9:24 - none like none like : Exo 9:23, Exo 10:6; Mat 24:21

none like : Exo 9:23, Exo 10:6; Mat 24:21

TSK: Exo 9:25 - smote every smote every : Psa 105:33

smote every : Psa 105:33

TSK: Exo 9:26 - -- Exo 8:22-32, Exo 9:4, Exo 9:6, Exo 10:23, Exo 11:7, Exo 12:13; Isa 32:18, Isa 32:19

TSK: Exo 9:27 - I have // the Lord I have : Exo 10:16; Num 22:34; 1Sa 15:24, 1Sa 15:30, 1Sa 26:21; Mat 27:4 the Lord : 2Ch 12:6; Psa 9:16, Psa 129:4, Psa 145:17; Lam 1:18; Dan 9:14; Rom...

TSK: Exo 9:28 - Entreat // mighty thunderings // ye shall Entreat : Exo 8:8, Exo 8:28, Exo 10:17; Act 8:24 mighty thunderings : Heb. voices of God, Psa 29:3, Psa 29:4 ye shall : Exo 11:1

Entreat : Exo 8:8, Exo 8:28, Exo 10:17; Act 8:24

mighty thunderings : Heb. voices of God, Psa 29:3, Psa 29:4

ye shall : Exo 11:1

TSK: Exo 9:29 - spread // that the earth spread : Exo 9:33; 1Ki 8:22, 1Ki 8:38; 2Ch 6:12, 2Ch 6:13; Ezr 9:5; Job 11:13; Psa 143:6; Isa 1:15 that the earth : Deu 10:14; Psa 24:1, Psa 24:2, Psa...

TSK: Exo 9:30 - -- Pro 16:6; Isa 26:10, Isa 63:17

TSK: Exo 9:31 - flax // the barley flax : The word pishteh , flax, Mr. Parkhurst thinks may be derived from pashat , to strip, because the substance which we call flax is properly t...

flax : The word pishteh , flax, Mr. Parkhurst thinks may be derived from pashat , to strip, because the substance which we call flax is properly the filaments of the bark or rind of the vegetable, stripped off the stalks. From time immemorial, Egypt was celebrated for the production and manufacture of flax; and hence the linen and fine linen of Egypt, so often spoken of in scripture and ancient authors.

the barley : The Hebrew seorah , barley, in Arabic shair , and shairat , is so called from its rough, bristly beard, with which the ears are covered and defended; from saâr , to stand on end as the hair of the headcaps1 . hcaps0 ence seâr , the hair of the head. So its Latin name hordeum is from horreo , to stand on end as the hair. Dr. Pococke has observed that there is a double seed time and harvest in Egypt; rice, India wheat, and a grain called the corn of Damascus, are sown and reaped at a very different time from wheat, barley, and flax. The first are sown in March, before the overflowing of the Nile, and reaped about October; whereas the wheat and barley are sown in November and December, as soon as the Nile has gone off, and reaped before May. Rth 1:22, Rth 2:23; Amo 4:9; Hab 3:17

TSK: Exo 9:32 - not grown up not grown up : Heb. hidden, or dark, Exo 10:22

not grown up : Heb. hidden, or dark, Exo 10:22

TSK: Exo 9:33 - spread // and the thunders spread : Exo 9:29, Exo 8:12 and the thunders : Exo 10:18, Exo 10:19; Jam 5:17, Jam 5:18

spread : Exo 9:29, Exo 8:12

and the thunders : Exo 10:18, Exo 10:19; Jam 5:17, Jam 5:18

TSK: Exo 9:34 - saw // and hardened saw : Exo 8:15; Ecc 8:11 and hardened : Exo 4:21, Exo 7:14; 2Ch 28:22, 2Ch 33:23, 2Ch 36:13; Rom 2:4, Rom 2:5

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Exo 9:3 - Thy cattle The hand of the Lord; in an immediate manner, not by my rod, that thou mayst know it is not I, but the Lord, which doth all these things to thee. T...

The hand of the Lord; in an immediate manner, not by my rod, that thou mayst know it is not I, but the Lord, which doth all these things to thee.

Thy cattle which they kept for their wool or milk, or manifold uses and services, though not for food and sacrifice.

Poole: Exo 9:6 - All the cattle All the cattle either of all sorts, or a very great number of them, as the word all is frequently used; or rather, all that were in the field, as i...

All the cattle either of all sorts, or a very great number of them, as the word all is frequently used; or rather, all that were in the field, as it is expressly limited, Exo 9:3 , but not all absolutely, as appears from Exo 9:9,19,25 14:23 .

Poole: Exo 9:8 - -- Take to you handfuls of ashes, to mind them of their cruel usage of the Israelites in their furnace, of which see Deu 4:20 Jer 11:4 . Both were to t...

Take to you handfuls of ashes, to mind them of their cruel usage of the Israelites in their furnace, of which see Deu 4:20 Jer 11:4 . Both were to take them up, but Moses only to sprinkle them, as at other times Aaron only did the work, to show that they were but instruments, which God could use as he pleased, and God was the principal author of it.

Poole: Exo 9:9 - -- A burning scab, which quickly raised blains and blisters; whereby they were both vehemently inclined to scratch themselves, and yet utterly disenabl...

A burning scab, which quickly raised blains and blisters; whereby they were both vehemently inclined to scratch themselves, and yet utterly disenabled from it by its great soreness.

Poole: Exo 9:10 - -- God multiplying that dust, and heating it, and then dispersing it over all the land, and causing it to fall and rest upon the bodies of the Egyptian...

God multiplying that dust, and heating it, and then dispersing it over all the land, and causing it to fall and rest upon the bodies of the Egyptians.

Poole: Exo 9:11 - Could not stand before Moses Could not stand before Moses as they hitherto had done, both as spies and as adversaries; for though their understandings were convinced of God’...

Could not stand before Moses as they hitherto had done, both as spies and as adversaries; for though their understandings were convinced of God’ s hand and infinite power, yet their hearts were not changed; but for their worldly interest they persisted to rebel against their light., and therefore are justly plagued. It was no favour to Pharaoh that the plague was not upon him, but only a reservation to a greater mischief, as it follows.

Poole: Exo 9:12 - -- Ver. 12

Ver. 12

Poole: Exo 9:14 - Upon thine heart Upon thine heart or, into thy heart : thou hast hitherto not felt my plagues upon thy own person or thy body, but I shall shortly reach and wound it...

Upon thine heart or, into thy heart : thou hast hitherto not felt my plagues upon thy own person or thy body, but I shall shortly reach and wound it, and that not only in the skin, as the magicians and others are now smitten, but even to thy heart, such as shall make thy heart sick , Mic 6:13 , such as shall give thee a mortal and irrecoverable wound. Some understand it of inward and spiritual judgments upon Pharaoh’ s heart, such as hardness of heart; but that plague had been inflicted upon him, and is recorded before this time. And Pharaoh’ s heart being here opposed to his servants and people , seems rather to denote his person, the heart or soul being often put synecdochically for the whole man.

Poole: Exo 9:15 - Pestilence Pestilence not properly so called, but largely, as the word is used Hos 13:14 , meaning with an utter and irrecoverable destruction. This relates par...

Pestilence not properly so called, but largely, as the word is used Hos 13:14 , meaning with an utter and irrecoverable destruction. This relates partly to the killing of the first-born, which plague did more immediately and nearly concern both him and his people, and principally to their destruction in the Red Sea .

Poole: Exo 9:16 - Raised thee up // To show in thee my power Raised thee up so the Hebrew word is translated, Rom 9:17 . I have raised thee up out of thy first nothing, into thy being, and life, and kingdom; an...

Raised thee up so the Hebrew word is translated, Rom 9:17 . I have raised thee up out of thy first nothing, into thy being, and life, and kingdom; and upheld thy being and reign even in the midst of thy tyranny. Heb. I have made thee to stand , i.e. to remain alive and untouched, when thy magicians could not stand, Exo 9:11 . I have preserved thee in life, not for want of power to destroy thee, as thou mayst fancy, nor for want of provocation from thee, but for my own glory.

To show in thee my power in those mighty works which have been occasioned by thy rebellion and obstinacy. My name; my being and providence, and my manifold perfections; my patience in bearing thee so long, my justice in punishing thee, my power in conquering thee, my wisdom in overruling thy pride, and tyranny, and cruelty, to thy own destruction, and the redemption of my oppressed people, and my faithfulness in making good my promises to them, and my threatenings to thee.

Poole: Exo 9:17 - -- Against my people, i.e. against me acting for my people. The gracious God takes what is done to or against his people as done to or against himself....

Against my people, i.e. against me acting for my people. The gracious God takes what is done to or against his people as done to or against himself. See Zec 2:8 Mat 25:40,45 Ac 9:4,5 .

Poole: Exo 9:18 - -- Since they were a kingdom or a nation.

Since they were a kingdom or a nation.

Poole: Exo 9:19 - -- This forewarning God gives, partly, to initiate the severity of the judgment; partly, that a considerable number of horses might be reserved for Pha...

This forewarning God gives, partly, to initiate the severity of the judgment; partly, that a considerable number of horses might be reserved for Pharaoh’ s expedition, Ex 14 ; partly, to show the justice of God in punishing so wicked and obstinate people, as would take no warning neither from God’ s words, nor from his former works; and partly, to make a difference between the penitent and the incorrigible Egyptians.

Poole: Exo 9:22 - Upon man Upon man i.e. upon those men that presumed to continue in the field after this admonition.

Upon man i.e. upon those men that presumed to continue in the field after this admonition.

Poole: Exo 9:23 - The fire ran along upon the ground The fire ran along upon the ground devouring both herbs and cattle which were upon it, Psa 78:47,48 105:32,33

The fire ran along upon the ground devouring both herbs and cattle which were upon it, Psa 78:47,48 105:32,33

Poole: Exo 9:24 - -- Which strange mixture much increased the miracle. That hail and rain did sometimes, though but seldom, fall in Egypt, is attested by divers eye-witn...

Which strange mixture much increased the miracle. That hail and rain did sometimes, though but seldom, fall in Egypt, is attested by divers eye-witnesses.

Poole: Exo 9:25 - -- i.e. Most of them; or herbs and trees of all sorts, as appears from Exo 10:12,15 . See Poole "Exo 9:6" .

i.e. Most of them; or herbs and trees of all sorts, as appears from Exo 10:12,15 . See Poole "Exo 9:6" .

Poole: Exo 9:26 - -- It seems the Egyptians that dwelt there were spared for the sake of their neighbours the Israelites; which great obligation probably made them more ...

It seems the Egyptians that dwelt there were spared for the sake of their neighbours the Israelites; which great obligation probably made them more willing to lend their jewels to them, Exo 12:35 .

Poole: Exo 9:27 - -- I now plainly see and freely acknowledge my sin in striving with God. He seems not to deny that he had sinned before, for even the light of nature w...

I now plainly see and freely acknowledge my sin in striving with God. He seems not to deny that he had sinned before, for even the light of nature would discover his sin, in breaking his faith, and the word of a King given to Moses for Israel’ s dismission.

Poole: Exo 9:28 - that there may be // no more Or, and let it be enough , (let God content himself that he hath punished me so long, and that I have confessed my sin, and promised amendment,) ...

Or, and let it be enough , (let God content himself that he hath punished me so long, and that I have confessed my sin, and promised amendment,)

that there may be hereafter

no more

Poole: Exo 9:29 - -- Or, that this land is the Lord’ s , even his whom thou deniedst to have any jurisdiction in it, or over thee, Exo 5:2 . Or the earth is put ...

Or, that this land is the Lord’ s , even his whom thou deniedst to have any jurisdiction in it, or over thee, Exo 5:2 . Or the earth is put for the world, the heaven and the earth: q. d. That thou mayst see that he can either cause the heavens to send forth such thunders and hails, or restrain them as he pleaseth.

Poole: Exo 9:31 - -- The flax and the barley were not so necessary for human life as the wheat and rye. Thus God still sends smaller judgments to usher in the greater.

The flax and the barley were not so necessary for human life as the wheat and rye. Thus God still sends smaller judgments to usher in the greater.

Poole: Exo 9:32 - -- The Hebrew word may be rendered either dark or hid , to wit, under the ground, whereby it was secured from this stroke; or late , as divers of t...

The Hebrew word may be rendered either dark or hid , to wit, under the ground, whereby it was secured from this stroke; or late , as divers of the Hebrews and other interpreters render it. This kind of corn coming later up, was now tender and hidden, either in the ground or in the herb; whereby it was in some measure secured both from the fire by its greenness and moisture, and from the hail by its pliableness and yielding to it, whereas the stalks of barley were more dry and stiff, and therefore more liable to the hail and fire.

Poole: Exo 9:33 - Moses went out of the city Moses went out of the city that, being solitary, he might pour forth his heart in fervent prayers.

Moses went out of the city that, being solitary, he might pour forth his heart in fervent prayers.

Haydock: Exo 9:1 - Lateward Lateward. The hail fell in February. (Bonfrere) Aristophanes (in Avibus) says, the Egyptians and Phenicians have their harvest when the cuckoo beg...

Lateward. The hail fell in February. (Bonfrere) Aristophanes (in Avibus) says, the Egyptians and Phenicians have their harvest when the cuckoo begins to sing. The month Nisan, which answers to part of March and April, was honoured with the first fruits, chap. xiii. 4. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 9:3 - My hand My hand. God inflicts the fourth, fifth, and tenth plagues without Moses.

My hand. God inflicts the fourth, fifth, and tenth plagues without Moses.

Haydock: Exo 9:5 - Land Land. Moses related all this to the king, according to the Samaritan copy.

Land. Moses related all this to the king, according to the Samaritan copy.

Haydock: Exo 9:6 - All the beasts All the beasts. That is, many of all kinds. (Challoner) --- So it is said, (Jeremias ix. 26,) all the nations are uncircumcised, though some f...

All the beasts. That is, many of all kinds. (Challoner) ---

So it is said, (Jeremias ix. 26,) all the nations are uncircumcised, though some few observed the rite of circumcision with the Jews. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 9:7 - Hardened Hardened. He did not beg for a deliverance, as the beasts were dead. (Menochius)

Hardened. He did not beg for a deliverance, as the beasts were dead. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 9:9 - Blains Blains. Pestiferous buboes or burning swellings. (Calmet) --- Thus were the pride and luxury of the Egyptians punished by Moses; and they who had ...

Blains. Pestiferous buboes or burning swellings. (Calmet) ---

Thus were the pride and luxury of the Egyptians punished by Moses; and they who had kept the Hebrews in an iron furnace, were themselves scorched with fiery ashes and ulcers. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 9:11 - Stand before Stand before to oppose Moses. They could not screen themselves. (Haydock)

Stand before to oppose Moses. They could not screen themselves. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 9:12 - Hardened // The wicked man, when he is come into the depth of sins, condemneth: but ignominy and reproach follow him Hardened, &c. See the annotations above, chap. v. 21, chap. vii. 3, and chap. viii. 15. (Challoner) --- The wicked man, when he is come into the d...

Hardened, &c. See the annotations above, chap. v. 21, chap. vii. 3, and chap. viii. 15. (Challoner) ---

The wicked man, when he is come into the depth of sins, condemneth: but ignominy and reproach follow him, Proverbs xviii. 3.

Haydock: Exo 9:14 - Plagues Plagues of fire and hail, that thy heart may relent. But as all my chastisements will not produce this effect, I will be glorified in thy fall. (...

Plagues of fire and hail, that thy heart may relent. But as all my chastisements will not produce this effect, I will be glorified in thy fall. (Haydock) ---

I could now strike thee dead; (ver. 15,) but I reserve thee for a more dreadful punishment, (ver. 17,) in the waters of the Red Sea. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 9:15 - Pestilence Pestilence, or various evils which now came fast upon Pharao. (Menochius)

Pestilence, or various evils which now came fast upon Pharao. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 9:16 - Raised thee Raised thee to the throne, or preserved thee hitherto from the former plagues. God disposes of things in such a manner, as to draw good out of the e...

Raised thee to the throne, or preserved thee hitherto from the former plagues. God disposes of things in such a manner, as to draw good out of the evil designs of men. (St. Augustine, City of God xi. 17; Romans ix. 17.) (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 9:19 - Cattle // Die Cattle. Some had escaped the former plague, or the Egyptians had purchased more from their neighbours, and in the land of Gessen. (Haydock) --- Go...

Cattle. Some had escaped the former plague, or the Egyptians had purchased more from their neighbours, and in the land of Gessen. (Haydock) ---

God tempers justice with mercy. (St. Augustine, q. 33.) ---

Die. This message was accordingly delivered to Pharao. (Samaritan copy) (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 9:24 - In all the land of // Founded In all the land of. So the Hebrew: but the Samaritan and some Hebrew manuscripts have simply in Egypt. (Kennicott) --- Founded, about 627 years b...

In all the land of. So the Hebrew: but the Samaritan and some Hebrew manuscripts have simply in Egypt. (Kennicott) ---

Founded, about 627 years before. Hence it appears, that the rain falls in some parts of Egypt, (Menochius) particularly about Tanis, ver. 18, 34. (Calmet) (Wisdom xvi. 17.)

Haydock: Exo 9:35 - Hard Hard. Hebrew, "and he hardened his heart." (Worthington)

Hard. Hebrew, "and he hardened his heart." (Worthington)

Gill: Exo 9:1 - Then the Lord said unto Moses // go in unto Pharaoh // and tell him, thus saith the Lord God of the Hebrews // let my people go Then the Lord said unto Moses,.... The same day the plague of the flies was removed: go in unto Pharaoh boldly, without any fear of him or his cour...

Then the Lord said unto Moses,.... The same day the plague of the flies was removed:

go in unto Pharaoh boldly, without any fear of him or his court:

and tell him, thus saith the Lord God of the Hebrews: speak in the name of Jehovah, the God whom the Hebrews worship, and who owns them for his people, and has a special love for them, and takes a special care of them, and is not ashamed to be called their God, as poor and as oppressed as they be:

let my people go, that they may serve me; this demand had been often made, and, though so reasonable, was refused.

Gill: Exo 9:2 - For if thou refuse to let them go // and wilt hold them still For if thou refuse to let them go,.... Continue to refuse, as he had done: and wilt hold them still; in the land, and under his dominion and oppres...

For if thou refuse to let them go,.... Continue to refuse, as he had done:

and wilt hold them still; in the land, and under his dominion and oppression.

Gill: Exo 9:3 - Behold, the hand of the Lord // is upon thy cattle which is in the field // upon the horses // upon the asses // and upon the camels // upon the oxen, and upon the sheep // a very grievous murrain Behold, the hand of the Lord,.... Which was stronger than his, with which he held the Israelites: is upon thy cattle which is in the field: this ta...

Behold, the hand of the Lord,.... Which was stronger than his, with which he held the Israelites:

is upon thy cattle which is in the field: this takes in all in general, of which the particulars follow, though limited to such as were in the field, and so did not take in what were at home in their out houses and stables:

upon the horses: of which there was great plenty in Egypt, as appears from various places of Scripture:

upon the asses; used for carrying burdens from place to place:

and upon the camels; used the like purposes, and to ride upon, and particularly to travel with through desert places for commerce, being able to proceed on without water for a considerable time:

upon the oxen, and upon the sheep; oxen were for labour to plough with, and sheep for their wool, and all of them to trade with: there shall be

a very grievous murrain: or "pestilence" y, a very noisome one, and which would carry off great numbers; the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan render it a "death", as the Jews commonly call a pestilence, whether on man or beast, because it generally sweeps away large numbers.

Gill: Exo 9:4 - And the Lord shall sever between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt // and there shall nothing die of all that is the children's of Israel And the Lord shall sever between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt,.... Make such a difference and distinction between them, that the murra...

And the Lord shall sever between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt,.... Make such a difference and distinction between them, that the murrain should not be on the one, when it was on the other, and which was a very marvellous thing; and especially in the land of Goshen, where the Egyptians had much cattle, and Pharaoh himself, see Gen 47:6 and yet, though the cattle of Israel breathed in the same air, drank of the same water, and fed in the same pastures, they had not the murrain as the cattle of Egypt had; and the word here used signifies a marvellous separation, as has been observed on Exo 7:22,

and there shall nothing die of all that is the children's of Israel; not an horse, nor an ass, nor an ox, nor a sheep.

Gill: Exo 9:5 - And the Lord appointed a set time // saying, tomorrow the Lord shall do this thing in the land And the Lord appointed a set time,.... For the coming of this plague, that it might plainly appear it came from him, and was not owing to any natural ...

And the Lord appointed a set time,.... For the coming of this plague, that it might plainly appear it came from him, and was not owing to any natural cause:

saying, tomorrow the Lord shall do this thing in the land; thus giving him time and space, as he had often done before, to consider the matter well, repent of his obstinacy, and dismiss the people of Israel, and so prevent the plague coming upon the cattle, as threatened.

Gill: Exo 9:6 - And the Lord did that thing on the morrow // and all the cattle of Egypt died // but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one And the Lord did that thing on the morrow,.... Brought a murrain, or a pestilential disease on the cattle. This, according to Bishop Usher, was on the...

And the Lord did that thing on the morrow,.... Brought a murrain, or a pestilential disease on the cattle. This, according to Bishop Usher, was on the second day of the seventh month, which afterwards became the first month, the month Abib, which answers to part of March and part of April, and seems to be about the seventeenth of March:

and all the cattle of Egypt died; not all absolutely, for we read of some afterwards, Exo 9:9 but all that were in the field, Exo 9:3 and it may be not strictly all of them, but the greatest part of them, as Aben Ezra interprets it; some, and a great many of all sorts, in which limited sense the word "all" is frequently used in Scripture:

but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one; at least of the murrain, or by the hand of God, and perhaps not otherwise, which was very wonderful, since such a disorder is usually catching and spreading.

Gill: Exo 9:7 - And Pharaoh sent // and inquire about this matter // and, behold, there was not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead // and the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the people go And Pharaoh sent,.... Messengers to the land of Goshen, to see whether the murrain was upon the cattle of Israel or not, and whether any of them died ...

And Pharaoh sent,.... Messengers to the land of Goshen, to see whether the murrain was upon the cattle of Israel or not, and whether any of them died or not. The Targum of Jonathan is,"he sent to Pelusium to see"

and inquire about this matter; that is, to Raamses, for so that paraphrase calls Raamses in Exo 1:11 a city built by the Israelites, and where many of them might dwell. This Pharaoh did, not merely out of curiosity, but to know whether the divine prediction was accomplished, and that he might have wherewith to confront it, could he find the murrain was upon any of the cattle of Israel, or any died of it; and if they did not, his view might be to convert them to his own use, and make up his loss, and the loss of his people, in a good measure in this way, and perhaps this may be the reason why he so little regarded this plague:

and, behold, there was not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead; which was very wonderful, and therefore a "behold", a note of admiration, is prefixed to it, yet it made no impression on Pharaoh:

and the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the people go; though this plague was so heavy upon him and his people, and the loss they sustained so great: in the other plagues of the water, the frogs, lice, and flies, though very troublesome and terrible, yet the loss was not very great; but here much damage was done to their property, yet this did not make his heart relent, or cause him to yield to let Israel go.

Gill: Exo 9:8 - And the Lord said unto Moses and unto Aaron // take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace // and let Moses sprinkle it towards the heaven, in the sight of Pharaoh And the Lord said unto Moses and unto Aaron,.... This very probably was the day following, on the third day of the month Abib, about the eighteenth of...

And the Lord said unto Moses and unto Aaron,.... This very probably was the day following, on the third day of the month Abib, about the eighteenth of March, that orders were given to bring on the following plague:

take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace; either in which the bricks were burnt, or rather in which food was boiled, since it can scarcely he thought there should be brickkiln furnaces so near Pharaoh's court; though perhaps some reference may be had to them, and to the labour of the children Israel at them, and as a just retaliation for their oppression of them in that way. These ashes were such as were blown off the coals, and though fresh, yet not so hot but that they could take and hold them in their hands:

and let Moses sprinkle it towards the heaven, in the sight of Pharaoh; this was to be done before Pharaoh, that he might be an eyewitness of the miracle, he himself seeing with his own eyes that nothing else were cast up into the air but a few light ashes; and this was to be done towards heaven, to show that the plague or judgment came down from heaven, from the God of heaven, whose wrath was now revealed from thence; and Moses he was to do this; he alone, as Philo z thinks, or rather both he and Aaron, since they were both spoken to, and both filled their hands with ashes; it is most likely that both cast them up into the air, though Moses, being the principal person, is only mentioned.

Gill: Exo 9:9 - And it shall become small dust in all the land of Egypt // and shall be a boil breaking forth with blains // upon man, and upon beast, throughout all the land of Egypt And it shall become small dust in all the land of Egypt,.... Which ashes, thrown up into the air, should be so multiplied and spread as to be over all...

And it shall become small dust in all the land of Egypt,.... Which ashes, thrown up into the air, should be so multiplied and spread as to be over all the land of Egypt, and come down like showers of snow or sleet everywhere, only of a hot and scalding nature; or these handfuls of ashes were to be cast up into the air, and come down in the above manner, about Pharaoh's court, as a sign and token of what would be the case all over the kingdom:

and shall be a boil breaking forth with blains; that is, these ashes becoming a small dust, and falling down like the dew, snow, or sleet, yet hot and burning, should produce sore boils, burning ulcers, hot carbuncles, rising up in pustules, blisters, and buboes, which last word is pretty near in sound with the Hebrew word here used:

upon man, and upon beast, throughout all the land of Egypt; so that, as the last plague affected their property, substance, and riches, which in those times greatly lay in cattle, this, besides that, would affect their persons, and give them exceeding great pain, though it might not issue in death.

Gill: Exo 9:10 - And they took ashes of the furnace // and stood before Pharaoh // and it became a boil breaking forth with blains, upon man, and upon beast And they took ashes of the furnace,.... Which was near at hand, perhaps in Pharaoh's kitchen: and stood before Pharaoh; not in his palace, or in an...

And they took ashes of the furnace,.... Which was near at hand, perhaps in Pharaoh's kitchen:

and stood before Pharaoh; not in his palace, or in any covered room, but in some place open to the heaven, a courtyard or garden adjoining to the palace: and Moses sprinkled it up towards heaven; cast it up in the air; this being again ascribed to Moses, seems to confirm the notion of those who think he only did it; but, for the reasons before given, both may be thought to be concerned:

and it became a boil breaking forth with blains, upon man, and upon beast; these failing down in the manner before described, on whomsoever they lighted, whether man or beast, produced sore boils and inflammations, and raised blisters and blotches; and hence arose those lying scandalous stories of the Israelites being a scabby people, and of their being driven out of Egypt on that account, affirmed by Manetho, Lysimachus, Diodorus Siculus, Tacitus, Justin, and others; See Gill on Exo 4:6 with this plague the first vial poured forth on mystical Egypt, or antichrist, has some agreement, Rev 16:2.

Gill: Exo 9:11 - And the magicians could not stand before Moses, because of the boils // for the boil was upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyptians And the magicians could not stand before Moses, because of the boils,.... Which were on them as on others, and which with all their art and skill they...

And the magicians could not stand before Moses, because of the boils,.... Which were on them as on others, and which with all their art and skill they could not keep off; and which were so sore upon them, and painful to them, that they were obliged to withdraw, and could not stand their ground, confronting Moses, contesting and litigating with him; for it seems, though they had not acted, nor attempted to act in imitation of Moses and Aaron, since the plague of the lice, yet they still continued about Pharaoh, lessening as much as in them lay the miracles wrought by them, and suggesting that they had done the most and the worst they could, and so contributing to harden the heart of Pharaoh against the people of Israel; wherefore they were righteously punished with boils for so doing, and for their contempt of the messengers and miracles of God, and for their imposition upon men, and their deception of them:

for the boil was upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyptians; but not upon Moses and Aaron, nor upon any of the Israelites, and was afterwards called peculiarly the botch of Egypt, Deu 28:27.

Gill: Exo 9:12 - And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh // and he hearkened not unto them // as the Lord had spoken to Moses And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh,.... He having often, and so long hardened his own heart, God gave him up to judicial hardness of heart, to...

And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh,.... He having often, and so long hardened his own heart, God gave him up to judicial hardness of heart, to his own corruptions, the temptations of Satan, and the lying magicians about him, to make an ill use of everything that offered to him, and put a wrong construction on all that befell him, so that whatever was said to him, or inflicted on him, made no impression to any purpose:

and he hearkened not unto them; to Moses and Aaron, and to the Lord by them:

as the Lord had spoken to Moses; both that he would harden his heart, and he should not hearken to them; all this was no other than what the Lord had said should be, Exo 4:21.

Gill: Exo 9:13 - And the Lord said unto Moses, rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh // and say unto him, thus saith the Lord God of the Hebrews, let my people go, that they may serve me And the Lord said unto Moses, rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh,.... Who it seems used to rise early in the morning, and so was a...

And the Lord said unto Moses, rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh,.... Who it seems used to rise early in the morning, and so was a fit time to meet with him, and converse with him; it might be one of the mornings in which he used to go to the water early, though not mentioned, unless that was every morning:

and say unto him, thus saith the Lord God of the Hebrews, let my people go, that they may serve me; thus had he line upon line, and precept upon precept, so that he was the more inexcusable, see Exo 9:1.

Gill: Exo 9:14 - For I will at this time send all my plagues upon thine heart // and upon thy servants, and upon thy people // that thou mayest know, that there is none like unto me in all the earth For I will at this time send all my plagues upon thine heart,.... Not meaning particularly the plague of the hail, which next follows, so called, beca...

For I will at this time send all my plagues upon thine heart,.... Not meaning particularly the plague of the hail, which next follows, so called, because it consisted of various things, as hail, rain, lightning, and thunder, as Aben Ezra, and who observes, that Pharaoh was more terrified with this plague than with any other; but rather all the plagues yet to come, for by them are not meant all the plagues that were in the power of God to inflict, which how many and great they are none can say, but all that he had determined in his mind to bring upon him; and these should not so much affect and afflict his body, as the boils and ulcers had the magicians, but should reach his heart, and fill him with horror and terror:

and upon thy servants, and upon thy people; even all that he intended to bring not only upon himself, but upon his subjects, both high and low:

that thou mayest know, that there is none like unto me in all the earth; for the perfections of his nature, and the works of his hands, particularly his providential dealings with the sons of men, and especially with him.

Gill: Exo 9:15 - For now will I stretch out my hand, that I may smite thee and thy people with pestilence // and thou shall be cut off from the earth For now will I stretch out my hand, that I may smite thee and thy people with pestilence,.... Which yet we never find was done; for though this by man...

For now will I stretch out my hand, that I may smite thee and thy people with pestilence,.... Which yet we never find was done; for though this by many is referred to the slaying of the firstborn, yet it is not certain that this was done by the pestilence: besides, Pharaoh was not then smitten, nor his people, only their firstborn; wherefore these words are to be rendered, not in the future, but in the imperfect or preterpluperfect tense, thus; "for when now I stretched out my hand, or if now I had stretched out my hand to smite thee and thy people with pestilence" a; that is, at the time when he smote the cattle with the murrain or pestilence, when he could as well have smote him and his people with it; there was no want of power in God to do it, and had he done it, it would have been all over with him and them:

and thou shall be cut off from the earth; or "thou hadst been, or wouldest have been cut off from the earth" b must have perished out of it, and been no more in the land of the living.

Gill: Exo 9:16 - And in very deed, for this cause have I raised thee up // for to shew in thee my power // and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth And in very deed, for this cause have I raised thee up,.... Or but truly or verily c; instead of smiting thee with the pestilence, and cutting thee of...

And in very deed, for this cause have I raised thee up,.... Or but truly or verily c; instead of smiting thee with the pestilence, and cutting thee off out of the land of the living, "I have raised thee up"; made thee to stand d, to continue in being; I have preserved thine from perishing by the former plagues, and have reserved thee for greater judgments and sorer punishments. It may take in all that God did to him; the constitution and appointment of him to all this in his eternal mind; his bringing him into being, and raising him up to kingly dignity; preserving him from perishing by the pestilence, boils and blains, and keeping him for future evils, and all upon this account for the following reasons:

for to shew in thee my power; in working miracles, inflicting judgments one after another, and especially in destroying him and his host in the Red sea:

and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth; as it has been more by that last action than by all the rest of the plagues; though, in all, his sovereignty, wisdom, power, patience, longsuffering, and justice, are most visibly displayed and glorified.

Gill: Exo 9:17 - As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people, that thou wilt not let them go? As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people, that thou wilt not let them go? And so against God himself, disobeying his commands, despising his mes...

As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people, that thou wilt not let them go? And so against God himself, disobeying his commands, despising his messengers, and slighting his miracles, and hardening his heart against him, and refusing to let Israel go, after all; thereby showing the most intolerable pride and insolence not only against the Lord's poor people, but against himself, for what is done to them he takes as done to himself; or "dost thou still tread upon my people?" e trample them under foot, and make an highway or causeway of them.

Gill: Exo 9:18 - Behold, tomorrow about this time // I will cause it to rain a very grievous hail // such as hath not been in Egypt since the foundation thereof, even until now Behold, tomorrow about this time,.... It was now the fourth day of the month Abib, and the fifth when the following was inflicted: I will cause it ...

Behold, tomorrow about this time,.... It was now the fourth day of the month Abib, and the fifth when the following was inflicted:

I will cause it to rain a very grievous hail; which should fall very thick, and the hailstones be very numerous and heavy, and the storm last long:

such as hath not been in Egypt since the foundation thereof, even until now; not since the earth or land itself was founded, for that was founded when the rest of the world was, and the sense then would be the same as since the foundation of the world; and so the Targum of Jonathan seems to understand it, paraphrasing the words,"from the day that men were made, even until now.''And a like expression is used of a storm of hail, thunder, and lightning, and earthquakes yet to come, which will be such as has not been since men were upon the earth, with which this plague may be compared, Rev 16:19, but here is meant since Egypt was inhabited, or rather formed into a kingdom, and founded as such, which had been many hundreds of years before this time; there was a king of Egypt in Abraham's time; the first founder of this empire, and king of it, was Mizraim, the son of Ham, from whom it had its name, by which it is usually called in Scripture. This supposes that it did sometimes rain in Egypt, contrary to a vulgar notion, or otherwise there would have been no room for the comparison; though it must be owned that rain is rare in Egypt, especially in some parts of it; See Gill on Zec 14:18.

Gill: Exo 9:19 - Send therefore now, and gather thy cattle, and all that thou hast in the field // for upon every man and beast which shall be found in the field, and shall not be brought home // the hail shall come down upon them, and they shall die Send therefore now, and gather thy cattle, and all that thou hast in the field,.... The servants that were at work there: this is said to denote both ...

Send therefore now, and gather thy cattle, and all that thou hast in the field,.... The servants that were at work there: this is said to denote both the certainty of the plague, and the terribleness of it, that all, both men and beast, would perish by it, if care was not taken to get them home; and also to show the wonderful clemency and mercy of God to such rebellious, hardened, and undeserving creatures, as Pharaoh and his people were; in the midst of wrath and judgment God remembers mercy:

for upon every man and beast which shall be found in the field, and shall not be brought home; and there sheltered in houses, barns, and stables:

the hail shall come down upon them, and they shall die; the hailstones that would fall would be so large and so heavy as to kill both men and beasts, like those which fell from heaven upon the Canaanites in the days of Joshua, which killed more than the sword did, Jos 10:11.

Gill: Exo 9:20 - He that feared the word of the Lord among the servants of Pharaoh // made his servants and cattle flee into the houses He that feared the word of the Lord among the servants of Pharaoh,.... Who, if they had not the true fear of God, and were not sincere proselytes, yet...

He that feared the word of the Lord among the servants of Pharaoh,.... Who, if they had not the true fear of God, and were not sincere proselytes, yet had a servile fear of him, and dreaded his word, his threatening, his denunciations of judgments and predictions of future punishments; of which they had had many instances wherein they were fulfilled, and therefore had reason to fear that this also would, even the word that had been just now spoken:

made his servants and cattle flee into the houses; called home his servants, and drove his cattle in great haste out of the fields, and brought them home as fast as he could, and housed them; in which he acted the wise and prudent part, and showed a concern for his servants and his cattle, as well as believed the word of the Lord.

Gill: Exo 9:21 - And he that regarded not the word of the Lord // left his servants and cattle in the field And he that regarded not the word of the Lord,.... Or "set not his heart" f "unto it", took no notice of it, but treated it with the utmost contempt; ...

And he that regarded not the word of the Lord,.... Or "set not his heart" f "unto it", took no notice of it, but treated it with the utmost contempt; and of this sort it may be thought there were the far greatest number: everyone of this cast

left his servants and cattle in the field; let them remain there, and took no care of them, nor thought about them, and so took no methods to preserve them; in which he acted a foolish part, to his own detriment and loss.

Gill: Exo 9:22 - And the Lord said unto Moses // stretch forth thine hand toward heaven // that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt // upon man and upon beast // and upon every herb of the field throughout the land of Egypt And the Lord said unto Moses,.... When the morrow was come, the fifth day of the month Abib: stretch forth thine hand toward heaven; with his rod i...

And the Lord said unto Moses,.... When the morrow was come, the fifth day of the month Abib:

stretch forth thine hand toward heaven; with his rod in it, as appears from the next verse, to show that the following plague would come from the heaven, that is, the air, and from God, who dwells in the heaven of heavens:

that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt; not only in that spot, and near it, where Moses stood, and from that part of the heaven towards which he stretched forth his hand, but from the whole heaven all over the land of Egypt; which shows it to be an unusual and extraordinary hail, for a hail storm seldom reaches far, a mile it may be, or some such space; but never was such an one heard of as to reach through a whole country, and so large an one as Egypt:

upon man and upon beast; such as belonged to those who would take no warning, nor attend to the word of the Lord to fetch home their servants and cattle:

and upon every herb of the field throughout the land of Egypt; it should fall so thick, that scarce an herb would escape it.

Gill: Exo 9:23 - And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven // and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground // and the Lord rained hail upon the land of Egypt And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven,.... The same which Aaron had made use of before, but was now in the hand of Moses, and whose rod it p...

And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven,.... The same which Aaron had made use of before, but was now in the hand of Moses, and whose rod it properly was:

and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground, hot thunderbolts, which struck their flocks, Psa 78:48 and hail which fell so thick and weighty as to destroy both men and cattle, and break trees in pieces, and spoil the corn, the grass, and the tender herb; and fire, that is lightning, which descended so low, and in such quantities, as ran along the ground, and consumed all it met with. Artapanus g, an Heathen writer, who speaks of this storm of hail, says, that Moses, besides the hail, caused earthquakes by night, so that those that escaped the earthquakes were taken away by the hail, and those that escaped the hail perished by the earthquakes, which he says overthrew all the houses, and most of the temples:

and the Lord rained hail upon the land of Egypt; upon Egypt, where rain was not common, and on all the land of Egypt, when in some parts of it it was scarce known, and hail as thick as rain; ice, snow, and hail, are most rarely if ever seen there, the air not being cold enough for the production of them h. This was the Lord's immediate doing, when there was no likelihood of it, nor any appearance of second causes concurring to produce it, and came at the exact time he had foretold it should; all which were very extraordinary.

Gill: Exo 9:24 - So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail // very grievous, such as there was none like it in all the land of Egypt, since it became a nation So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail,.... Which was a miracle within a miracle, as Aben Ezra observes; and very wonderful indeed it was, ...

So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail,.... Which was a miracle within a miracle, as Aben Ezra observes; and very wonderful indeed it was, that the hail did not quench the fire, nor the fire melt the hail, as Philo the Jew i remarks:

very grievous, such as there was none like it in all the land of Egypt, since it became a nation; See Gill on Exo 9:18.

Gill: Exo 9:25 - And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt // all that was in the field, both man and beast And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt,.... It was in all the land, and it smote and did mischief in all parts of it, only in Goshen, aft...

And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt,.... It was in all the land, and it smote and did mischief in all parts of it, only in Goshen, after excepted:

all that was in the field, both man and beast; which they that neglected the word of the Lord took no care to fetch home, these were all smitten and destroyed by the hail: and the hail smote every herb of the field; that is, the greatest part of them, for some were left, which the locusts afterwards ate, Exo 10:15, and brake every tree of the field; and the vines and fig trees, Psa 78:47.

Gill: Exo 9:26 - Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, was there no hail. Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, was there no hail. So that such Egyptians as might dwell among them, they, their serva...

Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, was there no hail. So that such Egyptians as might dwell among them, they, their servants, their cattle, and their fruits, escaped this plague; and oftentimes do wicked men fare the better for the people of God that are among them.

Gill: Exo 9:27 - And Pharaoh sent // and called Moses and Aaron // and said unto them, I have sinned this time // the Lord is righteous, and I and my people are wicked And Pharaoh sent,.... Not persons to observe whether there was any hail fell in the land of Goshen, though there are some k that so supply the words; ...

And Pharaoh sent,.... Not persons to observe whether there was any hail fell in the land of Goshen, though there are some k that so supply the words; but it cannot be thought that Pharaoh would send, or that any would go thither amidst such a storm of thunder and hail; but he sent messengers:

and called Moses and Aaron; who might be in his palace, at least not very far off:

and said unto them, I have sinned this time; not but that he had sinned before, and must be conscious of it, particularly in breaking his promise so often; but now he acknowledged his sin, which he had never done before: and this confession of sin did not arise from a true sense of it, from hatred of it, and sorrow for it as committed against God; but from the fright he was in, the horror of his mind, the dread of the present plague being continued; and the terror of death that seized him, the rebounding noise of the thunder in his ears, the flashes of lightning in his face, and the hailstones beating upon the top of his house, and against the windows and sides of it, frightened him exceedingly, and forced this confession from him:

the Lord is righteous, and I and my people are wicked; which was well spoken, had it been serious and from his heart; for God is righteous in his nature, and in all his works, and in all those judgments he had inflicted upon him; and he and his people were wicked in using the Israelites in such a cruel manner, and in detaining them when it had been promised them again and again that they should have leave to go, and especially in rebelling against God, and disobeying his commands.

Gill: Exo 9:28 - Entreat the Lord, for it is enough // that there be no more mighty thunderings and hail // and I will let you go, and ye shall stay no longer Entreat the Lord, for it is enough,.... Hail, thunder, and lightning enough; or pray that this may be enough, and thought sufficient, and that there m...

Entreat the Lord, for it is enough,.... Hail, thunder, and lightning enough; or pray that this may be enough, and thought sufficient, and that there may be no more; or "entreat the Lord, and much" l; pray, and pray much, pray earnestly and without intermission until the plague ceases:

that there be no more mighty thunderings and hail; or "voices of God" m; for thunder is the voice of God, and these thunderings or voices were very loud, the claps were very terrible to hear, and the hail was very grievous and heavy, and the whole was very amazing and frightful, and the more to Pharaoh, who perhaps had never heard the voice of thunder, or seen an hail storm before, even a common one, these being rare in the land of Egypt:

and I will let you go, and ye shall stay no longer; go the three days' journey into the wilderness, directly and immediately; he would not put it off, on any account, and much less refuse to let them go at all, as he had often done.

Gill: Exo 9:29 - And Moses said unto him, as soon as I am gone out of the city // I will spread abroad my hands unto the Lord // and the thunder shall cease, neither shall there be any more hail // that thou mayest know how that the earth is the Lord's And Moses said unto him, as soon as I am gone out of the city,.... Zoan or Tanis, for it was in the field of Zoan where these wonders were wrought, Ps...

And Moses said unto him, as soon as I am gone out of the city,.... Zoan or Tanis, for it was in the field of Zoan where these wonders were wrought, Psa 78:12, the reason why he went out of the city to pray, Jarchi says, was because it was full of idols; but the truer reason was, that he might be private and alone while he was praying to God; and perhaps he went out also to show that he was not frightened at the storm, or afraid of being destroyed by it, and was confident of preservation in the midst of it, in the open field, by the power of God, whom he served:

I will spread abroad my hands unto the Lord; which was a prayer gesture directed to by the light of nature, and was used very anciently, and by the Heathens, as well as others; of which the learned Rivet has given many instances in his comment on this text:

and the thunder shall cease, neither shall there be any more hail; this he had faith in, and full assurance of before he prayed for it; he knew the mind and will of God, and not only he knew what he could do, but what he would do, and which he tells Pharaoh of before hand; which was a full proof that he was a god to Pharaoh, as the Lord said he had made him, Exo 7:1.

that thou mayest know how that the earth is the Lord's; that the whole earth is his, and therefore he can do, and does in it whatever he pleases; as the heavens also are his, and therefore can cause thunder, lightning, hail, and rain, and stop them when he thinks fit; or that the land of Egypt particularly was his, and not Pharaoh's, and therefore could destroy, or save it at his pleasure; and particularly it being his, Pharaoh had no right to detain his people in it against his will, who was Lord of it.

Gill: Exo 9:30 - But as for thee, and thy servants // I know that ye will not yet fear the Lord God But as for thee, and thy servants,.... Notwithstanding the confession of sin he had made, and his earnest request that the Lord might be entreated to ...

But as for thee, and thy servants,.... Notwithstanding the confession of sin he had made, and his earnest request that the Lord might be entreated to remove this plague, and though he had been assured it would be removed:

I know that ye will not yet fear the Lord God: they had not feared him yet; the confession of sin made did not arise from the true fear of God, but from a dread of punishment, and when delivered from this plague, the goodness of God would have no such effect as to cause him and his servants to fear the Lord; or "I know, that before ye were afraid of the face of the Lord God" n, which Kimchi o and Ben Melech interpret thus,"I know that thou and thy servants, before I pray for you, are afraid of the face of the Lord God, but after I have prayed, and the thunders and rain are ceased, ye will sin again;''and so they did.

Gill: Exo 9:31 - And the flax and the barley was smitten // for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was bolled And the flax and the barley was smitten,.... With the hail, thunder, and lightning, and were beat down, bruised, broken, and blasted, and destroyed; o...

And the flax and the barley was smitten,.... With the hail, thunder, and lightning, and were beat down, bruised, broken, and blasted, and destroyed; of the former there were great quantities produced in Egypt, which was famous for linen, much was made there, and there were many that wrought in fine flax, see Isa 19:9 and the latter were used not only to feed their cattle, but to make a drink of, as we do, ale and strong beer; and so the Egyptians use it to this day, as Dr. Shaw p says, both to feed their cattle, and after it is dried and parched, to make a fermented, intoxicating liquor, called "bonzah"; probably the same with the barley wine of the ancients, and a species of the "sicar", or strong drink of the Scriptures:

for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was bolled; or in the stalk, quite grown up, and so the ears of the one were beat off, and the stalks of the other battered with the hail, and broken and destroyed.

Gill: Exo 9:32 - But the wheat and the rye were not smitten // for they were not grown up But the wheat and the rye were not smitten,.... Bruised, broken, beat down, and destroyed by hail: the word by us rendered "rye", and by other "fitche...

But the wheat and the rye were not smitten,.... Bruised, broken, beat down, and destroyed by hail: the word by us rendered "rye", and by other "fitches" or "spelt", is thought by Dr. Shaw q to be "rice", of which there were and still are plantations in Egypt; whereas rye is little, if at all known in those countries, and besides is of the quickest growth; and he observes that rice was the "olyra" of the ancient Egyptians, by which word the Septuagint render the Hebrew word here; and from Pliny r we learn, that "olyra", and "oryza", or rice, are the same, and which with the Greeks is "zea", by which some translate the word here:

for they were not grown up; and so their leaves, as the same traveller observes, were at that time of so soft and yielding a nature, that the hail by meeting with no resistance, as from the flax and barley, did them no harm; and so the Septuagint and Vulgate Latin versions render it: "they were late"; and so the Targum of Jonathan and Jarchi interpret it: for the wheat harvest with the Jews, and so with the Egyptians, was later than the barley harvest, there being about a month's difference between them: some render the word "dark or hidden" s because, as Aben Ezra says, they were now under ground; and if this was the case, indeed the reason is clear why they were not smitten; but this was not the case, for, according to Pliny t, there was but one month's difference in Egypt between the barley and the wheat; but rather they are said to be so, because the ear was as yet hid, and was not come forth; it just began to spindle, or, as the above traveller explains it, they were of a dark green colour, as young corn generally is, as contradistinction to its being of a bright yellow or golden colour, when it is ripe; for, adds he, the context supposes the wheat and the rice not only to have been sown, but to have been likewise in some forwardness, as they well might be in the month of Abib, answering to our March.

Gill: Exo 9:33 - And Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh // and spread abroad his hands unto the Lord // and the thunder and hail ceased And Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh,.... Into the field, where, being retired from company, he could freely, and without being disturbed, pray...

And Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh,.... Into the field, where, being retired from company, he could freely, and without being disturbed, pray unto God:

and spread abroad his hands unto the Lord; denoting the spreading of cases before God, and expectation, hope, and readiness to receive favours from him:

and the thunder and hail ceased; immediately upon the entreaty of Moses; see the power and prevalence of prayer: a like instance we have in Elijah, Jam 5:17 and the rain was not poured upon the earth; so that there was rain as well as hail, which was restrained and entirely ceased.

Gill: Exo 9:34 - And when Pharaoh saw that the rain, and the hail, and the thunders were ceased // he sinned yet more, and hardened his heart, he and his servants And when Pharaoh saw that the rain, and the hail, and the thunders were ceased,.... And there was a clear sky and a fine serene heaven, the black clou...

And when Pharaoh saw that the rain, and the hail, and the thunders were ceased,.... And there was a clear sky and a fine serene heaven, the black clouds were dispersed and gone, and he heard no more the clattering of the hailstones, and the terrible claps of thunder, and saw no more the flashes of lightning, but all was calm and composed:

he sinned yet more, and hardened his heart, he and his servants; instead of giving glory to God, who had heard the prayers of Moses and Aaron for them, and had delivered them from their frights and fears, and the terror and horror they were in, and of letting the people of Israel go, see Rev 16:21.

Gill: Exo 9:35 - And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened // neither would he let the children of Israel go // as the Lord had spoken by Moses And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened,.... Instead of being softened, as it seemed to be when under the plague, it became harder and harder when deliv...

And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened,.... Instead of being softened, as it seemed to be when under the plague, it became harder and harder when delivered from it:

neither would he let the children of Israel go; though he had so absolutely promised it, and assured them that he would not keep them, and that they should not stay any longer:

as the Lord had spoken by Moses; that so his heart would be hardened until the signs and wonders were multiplied upon him, God designed to perform, Exo 4:21.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Exo 9:1 This plague demonstrates that Yahweh has power over the livestock of Egypt. He is able to strike the animals with disease and death, thus delivering a...

NET Notes: Exo 9:2 עוֹד (’od), an adverb meaning “yet, still,” can be inflected with suffixes and used as a predicator of exist...

NET Notes: Exo 9:3 The older view that camels were not domesticated at this time (S. R. Driver, Exodus, 70; W. F. Albright, Archaeology and the Religion of Israel, 96; e...

NET Notes: Exo 9:4 The lamed preposition indicates possession: “all that was to the Israelites” means “all that the Israelites had.”

NET Notes: Exo 9:5 Heb “this thing.”

NET Notes: Exo 9:6 Heb “of Egypt.” The place is put by metonymy for the inhabitants.

NET Notes: Exo 9:7 Heb “and the heart of Pharaoh was hardened.” This phrase translates the Hebrew word כָּבֵד (kaved; see...

NET Notes: Exo 9:8 Heb “before the eyes of Pharaoh.”

NET Notes: Exo 9:9 The word שְׁחִין (shÿkhin) means “boils.” It may be connected to an Arabic cognate that mea...

NET Notes: Exo 9:12 This phrase translates the Hebrew word חָזַק (khazaq); see S. R. Driver, Exodus, 53.

NET Notes: Exo 9:13 Or “take your stand.”

NET Notes: Exo 9:14 Heb “to your heart.” The expression is unusual, but it may be an allusion to the hard heartedness of Pharaoh – his stubbornness and ...

NET Notes: Exo 9:15 The verb כָּחַד (kakhad) means “to hide, efface,” and in the Niphal it has the idea of “be effac...

NET Notes: Exo 9:16 Heb “in order to declare my name.” Since there is no expressed subject, this may be given a passive translation.

NET Notes: Exo 9:17 The infinitive construct with lamed here is epexegetical; it explains how Pharaoh has exalted himself – “by not releasing the people.̶...

NET Notes: Exo 9:18 The form הִוָּסְדָה (hivvasdah) is perhaps a rare Niphal perfect and not an infinitive (U....

NET Notes: Exo 9:19 Heb “[who] may be found.” The verb can be the imperfect of possibility.

NET Notes: Exo 9:20 Heb “his” (singular).

NET Notes: Exo 9:21 Heb “his servants and his cattle.”

NET Notes: Exo 9:22 The noun refers primarily to cultivated grains. But here it seems to be the general heading for anything that grows from the ground, all vegetation an...

NET Notes: Exo 9:23 This clause has been variously interpreted. Lightning would ordinarily accompany thunder; in this case the mention of fire could indicate that the lig...

NET Notes: Exo 9:24 A literal reading of the clause would be “which there was not like it in all the land of Egypt.” The relative pronoun must be joined to th...

NET Notes: Exo 9:25 Heb “all the cultivated grain of.”

NET Notes: Exo 9:27 The word רָשָׁע (rasha’) can mean “ungodly, wicked, guilty, criminal.” Pharaoh here is saying th...

NET Notes: Exo 9:28 The last clause uses a verbal hendiadys: “you will not add to stand,” meaning “you will no longer stay.”

NET Notes: Exo 9:29 This clause provides the purpose/result of Moses’ intention: he will pray to Yahweh and the storms will cease “that you might know…....

NET Notes: Exo 9:30 The adverb טֶרֶם (terem, “before, not yet”) occurs with the imperfect tense to give the sense of the English...

NET Notes: Exo 9:31 Flax was used for making linen, and the area around Tanis was ideal for producing flax. Barley was used for bread for the poor people, as well as beer...

NET Notes: Exo 9:32 Heb “for they are late.”

NET Notes: Exo 9:34 This phrase translates the Hebrew word כָּבֵד (kaved); see S. R. Driver, Exodus, 53.

NET Notes: Exo 9:35 The verb about Pharaoh’s heart in v. 35 is וַיֶּחֱזַק (vayyekhezaq), a Qal preterite...

Geneva Bible: Exo 9:4 And the LORD shall ( a ) sever between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt: and there shall nothing die of all [that is] the children's of Is...

Geneva Bible: Exo 9:7 And Pharaoh ( b ) sent, and, behold, there was not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let...

Geneva Bible: Exo 9:14 For I will at this time send all my plagues upon ( c ) thine heart, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people; that thou mayest know that [there is] ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 9:16 And in very deed for this [cause] have I raised thee up, for to shew [in] thee my power; and that my ( d ) name may be declared throughout all the ear...

Geneva Bible: Exo 9:19 Send therefore now, [and] ( e ) gather thy cattle, and all that thou hast in the field; [for upon] every man and beast which shall be found in the fie...

Geneva Bible: Exo 9:21 And he that regarded not the ( f ) word of the LORD left his servants and his cattle in the field. ( f ) The word of the minister is called the word ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 9:27 And Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, I ( g ) have sinned this time: the LORD [is] righteous, and I and my people [are...

Geneva Bible: Exo 9:30 But as for thee and thy servants, ( h ) I know that ye will not yet fear the LORD God. ( h ) Meaning that when they have their request, they are neve...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Exo 9:1-7 - --God will have Israel released, Pharaoh opposes it, and the trial is, whose word shall stand. The hand of the Lord at once is upon the cattle, many of ...

MHCC: Exo 9:8-12 - --When the Egyptians were not wrought upon by the death of their cattle, God sent a plague that seized their own bodies. If lesser judgments do not work...

MHCC: Exo 9:13-21 - --Moses is here ordered to deliver a dreadful message to Pharaoh. Providence ordered it, that Moses should have a man of such a fierce and stubborn spir...

MHCC: Exo 9:22-35 - --Woful havoc this hail made: it killed both men and cattle; the corn above ground was destroyed, and that only preserved which as yet was not come up. ...

Matthew Henry: Exo 9:1-7 - -- Here is, I. Warning given of another plague, namely, the murrain of beasts. When Pharaoh's heart was hardened, after he had seemed to relent under t...

Matthew Henry: Exo 9:8-12 - -- Observe here, concerning the plague of boils and blains, I. When they were not wrought upon by the death of their cattle, God sent a plague that sei...

Matthew Henry: Exo 9:13-21 - -- Here is, I. A general declaration of the wrath of God against Pharaoh for his obstinacy. Though God has hardened his heart (Exo 9:12), yet Moses mus...

Matthew Henry: Exo 9:22-35 - -- The threatened plague of hail is here summoned by the powerful hand and rod of Moses (Exo 9:22, Exo 9:23), and it obeys the summons, or rather the d...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 9:1-2 - -- The fifth plague consisted of a severe Murrain, which carried off the cattle ( מקנה , the living property) of the Egyptians, that were in the f...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 9:3-5 - -- " The hand of Jehovah will be ( הויה , which only occurs here, as the participle of היה , generally takes its form from הוה , Neh 6:6; E...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 9:6 - -- In the words " all the cattle of the Egyptians died, " all is not to be taken in an absolute sense, but according to popular usage, as denoting such...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 9:7 - -- But Pharaoh's heart still continued hardened, though he convinced himself by direct inquiry that the cattle of the Israelites had been spared.

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 9:8-12 - -- The sixth plague smote man and beast with Boils Breaking Forth in Blisters. - שׁחין (a common disease in Egypt, Deu 28:27) from the unusual wo...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 9:13-16 - -- As the plagues had thus far entirely failed to bend the unyielding heart of Pharaoh under the will of the Almighty God, the terrors of that judgment...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 9:17-18 - -- The seventh plague . - To break down Pharaoh's opposition, Jehovah determined to send such a Hail as had not been heard of since the founding of Eg...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 9:19-23 - -- The good advice to be given by Moses to the king, to secure the men and cattle that were in the field, i.e., to put them under shelter, which was fo...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 9:24 - -- " Fire mingled; "lit., collected together, i.e., formed into balls (cf. Eze 1:4). "The lightning took the form of balls of fire, which came down lik...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 9:25-28 - -- The expressions, " every herb, "and " every tree, "are not to be taken absolutely, just as in Exo 9:6, as we may see from Exo 10:5. Storms are not c...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 9:29-30 - -- Moses promised that his request should be granted, that he might know " that the land belonged to Jehovah, "i.e., that Jehovah ruled as Lord over Eg...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 9:31-32 - -- The account of the loss caused by the hail is introduced very appropriately in Exo 9:31 and Exo 9:32, to show how much had been lost, and how much t...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 9:33-35 - -- But even this plague did not lead Pharaoh to alter his mind. As soon as it had ceased on the intercession of Moses, he and his servants continued si...

Constable: Exo 1:1--15:22 - --I. THE LIBERATION OF ISRAEL 1:1--15:21 "The story of the first half of Exodus, in broad summary, is Rescue. The ...

Constable: Exo 5:1--11:10 - --B. God's demonstrations of His sovereignty chs. 5-11 God permitted the conflict between Moses and Pharao...

Constable: Exo 8:20--9:13 - --5. The fourth, fifth, and sixth plagues 8:20-9:12 "As the Egyptian magicians saw nothing more than the finger of God in the miracle which they could n...

Constable: Exo 9:13--11:1 - --6. The seventh, eighth, and ninth plagues 9:13-10:29 Moses announced the purpose of the following plagues to Pharaoh "in the morning" (cf. 7:15; 8:20)...

Guzik: Exo 9:1-35 - More Plagues Upon Egypt Exodus 9 - More Plagues Upon Egypt A. The fifth plague: Disease on livestock. 1. (1-4) God tells Moses to warn Pharaoh. Then the LORD said to Mose...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) EXODUS, a "going forth," derives its name from its being occupied principally with a relation of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, and the i...

JFB: Exodus (Garis Besar) INCREASE OF THE ISRAELITES. (Exo. 1:1-22) BIRTH AND PRESERVATION OF MOSES. (Exo 2:1-10) there went a man of the house of Levi, &c. Amram was the hus...

TSK: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The title of this Book is derived from the Septuagint; in which it is called ΕΞΟΔΟΣ , " Exodus;" or, as it is in the Codex Alexandrinus, Ε...

TSK: Exodus 9 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Exo 9:1, The murrain of beasts; Exo 9:8, The plague of boils and blains; Exo 9:13, The message of Moses about the hail; Exo 9:22, The pla...

Poole: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) SECOND BOOK OF MOSES CALLED EXODUS. THE ARGUMENT. AFTER the death of Joseph, who had sent for his father’ s house into Egypt, the children o...

Poole: Exodus 9 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 9 God threatens to smite his cattle with a pestilence, Exo 9:1-3 ; but spares Israel’ s, Exo 9:4 . Appoints a time for the execution h...

MHCC: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Exodus relates the forming of the children of Israel into a church and a nation. We have hitherto seen true religion shown in domestic lif...

MHCC: Exodus 9 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Exo 9:1-7) The murrain of beasts. (Exo 9:8-12) The plague of boils and blains. (Exo 9:13-21) The plague of hail threatened. (Exo 9:22-35) The plag...

Matthew Henry: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Second Book of Moses, Called Exodus Moses (the servant of the Lord in writing for him as well as ...

Matthew Henry: Exodus 9 (Pendahuluan Pasal) In this chapter we have an account of three more of the plagues of Egypt. I. Murrain among the cattle, which was fatal to them (Exo 9:1-7). II. B...

Constable: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The Hebrew title of this book (we'elleh shemot) originated from the...

Constable: Exodus (Garis Besar) Outline I. The liberation of Israel 1:1-15:21 A. God's preparation of Israel and Moses chs. ...

Constable: Exodus Exodus Bibliography Adams, Dwayne H. "The Building Program that Works (Exodus 25:4--36:7 [31:1-11])." Exegesis ...

Haydock: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF EXODUS. INTRODUCTION. The second Book of Moses is called Exodus from the Greek word Exodos, which signifies going out; becaus...

Gill: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS This book is called by the Jews Veelleh Shemoth, from the first words with which it begins, and sometimes Sepher Shemoth, an...

Gill: Exodus 9 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS 9 This chapter relates the plague of murrain upon the cattle, and which yet was not upon the cattle of the Israelites, Exo 9...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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