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Teks -- Exodus 28:1-43 (NET)

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Konteks
The Clothing of the Priests
28:1 “And you, bring near to you your brother Aaron and his sons with him from among the Israelites, so that they may minister as my priests– Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron’s sons. 28:2 You must make holy garments for your brother Aaron, for glory and for beauty. 28:3 You are to speak to all who are specially skilled, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, so that they may make Aaron’s garments to set him apart to minister as my priest. 28:4 Now these are the garments that they are to make: a breastpiece, an ephod, a robe, a fitted tunic, a turban, and a sash. They are to make holy garments for your brother Aaron and for his sons, that they may minister as my priests. 28:5 The artisans are to use the gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine linen. 28:6 “They are to make the ephod of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twisted linen, the work of an artistic designer. 28:7 It is to have two shoulder pieces attached to two of its corners, so it can be joined together. 28:8 The artistically woven waistband of the ephod that is on it is to be like it, of one piece with the ephod, of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twisted linen. 28:9 “You are to take two onyx stones and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel, 28:10 six of their names on one stone, and the six remaining names on the second stone, according to the order of their birth. 28:11 You are to engrave the two stones with the names of the sons of Israel with the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a seal; you are to have them set in gold filigree settings. 28:12 You are to put the two stones on the shoulders of the ephod, stones of memorial for the sons of Israel, and Aaron will bear their names before the Lord on his two shoulders for a memorial. 28:13 You are to make filigree settings of gold 28:14 and two braided chains of pure gold, like a cord, and attach the chains to the settings. 28:15 “You are to make a breastpiece for use in making decisions, the work of an artistic designer; you are to make it in the same fashion as the ephod; you are to make it of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twisted linen. 28:16 It is to be square when doubled, nine inches long and nine inches wide. 28:17 You are to set in it a setting for stones, four rows of stones, a row with a ruby, a topaz, and a beryl– the first row; 28:18 and the second row, a turquoise, a sapphire, and an emerald; 28:19 and the third row, a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst; 28:20 and the fourth row, a chrysolite, an onyx, and a jasper. They are to be enclosed in gold in their filigree settings. 28:21 The stones are to be for the names of the sons of Israel, twelve, according to the number of their names. Each name according to the twelve tribes is to be like the engravings of a seal. 28:22 “You are to make for the breastpiece braided chains like cords of pure gold, 28:23 and you are to make for the breastpiece two gold rings and attach the two rings to the upper two ends of the breastpiece. 28:24 You are to attach the two gold chains to the two rings at the ends of the breastpiece; 28:25 the other two ends of the two chains you will attach to the two settings and then attach them to the shoulder pieces of the ephod at the front of it. 28:26 You are to make two rings of gold and put them on the other two ends of the breastpiece, on its edge that is on the inner side of the ephod. 28:27 You are to make two more gold rings and attach them to the bottom of the two shoulder pieces on the front of the ephod, close to the juncture above the waistband of the ephod. 28:28 They are to tie the breastpiece by its rings to the rings of the ephod by blue cord, so that it may be above the waistband of the ephod, and so that the breastpiece will not be loose from the ephod. 28:29 Aaron will bear the names of the sons of Israel in the breastpiece of decision over his heart when he goes into the holy place, for a memorial before the Lord continually. 28:30 “You are to put the Urim and the Thummim into the breastpiece of decision; and they are to be over Aaron’s heart when he goes in before the Lord. Aaron is to bear the decisions of the Israelites over his heart before the Lord continually. 28:31 “You are to make the robe of the ephod completely blue. 28:32 There is to be an opening in its top in the center of it, with an edge all around the opening, the work of a weaver, like the opening of a collar, so that it cannot be torn. 28:33 You are to make pomegranates of blue, purple, and scarlet all around its hem and bells of gold between them all around. 28:34 The pattern is to be a gold bell and a pomegranate, a gold bell and a pomegranate, all around the hem of the robe. 28:35 The robe is to be on Aaron as he ministers, and his sound will be heard when he enters the Holy Place before the Lord and when he leaves, so that he does not die. 28:36 “You are to make a plate of pure gold and engrave on it the way a seal is engraved: “Holiness to the Lord.” 28:37 You are to attach to it a blue cord so that it will be on the turban; it is to be on the front of the turban, 28:38 It will be on Aaron’s forehead, and Aaron will bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the Israelites are to sanctify by all their holy gifts; it will always be on his forehead, for their acceptance before the Lord. 28:39 You are to weave the tunic of fine linen and make the turban of fine linen, and make the sash the work of an embroiderer. 28:40 “For Aaron’s sons you are to make tunics, sashes, and headbands for glory and for beauty. 28:41 “You are to clothe them– your brother Aaron and his sons with him– and anoint them and ordain them and set them apart as holy, so that they may minister as my priests. 28:42 Make for them linen undergarments to cover their naked bodies; they must cover from the waist to the thighs. 28:43 These must be on Aaron and his sons when they enter to the tent of meeting, or when they approach the altar to minister in the Holy Place, so that they bear no iniquity and die. It is to be a perpetual ordinance for him and for his descendants after him.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Aaron a son of Amram; brother of Moses,son of Amram (Kohath Levi); patriarch of Israel's priests,the clan or priestly line founded by Aaron
 · Abihu son of Aaron the high priest
 · Eleazar a son of Eliud; the father of Matthan; an ancestor of Jesus.,a chief priest; son of Aaron,son of Abinadab; caretaker of the Ark at Kiriath-Jearim,son of Dodo the Ahohite; one of David's military elite,son of Mahli the Levite,a priest who participated in the dedication of the wall,a priest under Ezra; son of Phinehas,a layman of the Parosh clan who put away his heathen wife
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Ithamar son of Aaron
 · Nadab son of Aaron,son and successor of King Jeroboam,son of Shammai of Judah,son of Jeiel of Benjamin
 · Thummim a system (or device) to obtain divine guidance (IBD)
 · Urim a device to discern divine guidance, used with the "Thummim"


Topik/Tema Kamus: Aaron | Linen | Priest | MITRE | High priest | Tabernacle | Israel | Embroider | PRIESTS AND LEVITES | Revelation | Ephod | PRIEST, HIGH | Breastplate | CARVING | Carve | Urim and Thummim | Stones | STONES, PRECIOUS | Onyx | Colors | selebihnya
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Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

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NET Notes , Geneva Bible

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Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Exo 28:1 - Aaron and his sons Hitherto every master of a family was priest to his own family. But now the families of Israel began to be incorporated into a nation, and a tabernacl...

Hitherto every master of a family was priest to his own family. But now the families of Israel began to be incorporated into a nation, and a tabernacle of the congregation was to be erected, as a visible centre of their unity, it was requisite there should be a publick priesthood instituted. Moses, who had hitherto officiated, and is therefore reckoned among the priests of the Lord, Psa 99:6, had enough to do as their prophet, to consult the oracle for them, and as their prince, to judge among them. Nor was he desirous to ingross all the honours to himself, or to entail that of the priesthood, which alone was hereditary, upon his own family; but was very well pleased to see his brother Aaron invested with this office, and his sons after him; while (how great soever he was) his sons after him would be but common Levites. It is an instance of the humility of that great man, and an evidence of his sincere regard to the glory of God, that he had so little regard to the preferment of his own family. Aaron, that had humbly served as a prophet to his younger brother Moses, and did not decline the office, is now advanced to be a priest to God. God had said to Israel in general, that they should be to him a kingdom of priests; but because it was requisite that those who ministered at the altar should give themselves wholly to the service, God here chose from among them one to be a family of priests, the father and his four sons; and from Aaron's loins descended all the priests of the Jewish church, whom we read of both in the Old Testament and in the New.

Wesley: Exo 28:2 - The priests garments were made for glory and beauty Some of the richest materials were to be provided, and the belt artists employed in making them, whose skill God, by a special gift, would improve to ...

Some of the richest materials were to be provided, and the belt artists employed in making them, whose skill God, by a special gift, would improve to a very high degree. Eminency, even in common arts, is a gift of God; it comes from him, and, ought to be used for him. The garments appointed were, Four, which both the high-priest and the inferior priests wore, viz. The linen breeches, the linen coat, the linen girdle which fastened it to them, and the bonnet; that which the high-priest wore is called a mitre. Four more which were peculiar to the high-priest, the ephod, with the curious girdle of it, the breast - plate of judgment, the long robe, and the golden plate on his forehead. These glorious garments, were appointed, That the priests themselves might be minded of the dignity of their office. That the people might thereby be possessed with a holy reverence of that God whose ministers appeared in such grandeur. That the priests might be types of Christ, and of all Christians who have the beauty of holiness put upon them.

Wesley: Exo 28:6 - -- The ephod, was the outmost garment of the high-priest; linen ephods were worn by the inferior priests, but this, which the high-priest wore, was calle...

The ephod, was the outmost garment of the high-priest; linen ephods were worn by the inferior priests, but this, which the high-priest wore, was called a golden ephod, because there was a great deal of gold woven into it. It was a short coat without sleeves, buttoned close to him with a curious girdle of the same stuff. The shoulder pieces were buttoned together with two precious stones set in gold, one on each shoulder. In allusion to this, Christ our high priest appeared to John, girt about the paps with a golden girdle, such as was the curious girdle of the ephod, Rev 1:13. Righteousness is the girdle of his loins. He is girt with strength for the work of our salvation. And as Aaron had the names of all Israel upon his shoulders in precious stones, so He presents to himself and to his Father a glorious church, Eph 5:27. He bears them before the Lord for a memorial, in token of his appearing before God as the representative of all Israel, and an advocate for them.

Wesley: Exo 28:11 - Ouches Hollow places, such as are made in gold rings, to receive and hold the precious stones.

Hollow places, such as are made in gold rings, to receive and hold the precious stones.

Wesley: Exo 28:15 - The most considerable of the ornaments of the high priest was this breast plate, a rich piece of cloth curiously wrought with gold and purple, two spans long, and a span broad; so that, being doubled, it was a span square.

plate, a rich piece of cloth curiously wrought with gold and purple, two spans long, and a span broad; so that, being doubled, it was a span square.

Wesley: Exo 28:15 - In this breast plate, the tribes of Israel were recommended to God's favour in twelve precious stones. Some question whether Levi had a precious stone with his name ...

plate, the tribes of Israel were recommended to God's favour in twelve precious stones. Some question whether Levi had a precious stone with his name on or no; if not Ephraim and Manasseh were reckoned distinct, as Jacob had said they should be, and the high priest himself being head of the tribe of Levi, sufficiently represented that tribe. Aaron was to bear their names for a memorial before the Lord continually, being ordained for men, to represent them in things pertaining to God; herein typifying our great High Priest, who always appears in the presence of God for us. The name of each tribe was engraven in a precious stone, to signify how precious, in God's sight, believers are, and how honourable, Isa 43:4. The high priest had the names of the tribes both on his shoulders and on his breast, noting both the power and the love with which our Lord Jesus interceeds for us. How near should Christ's name lie to our hearts, since he is pleased to lay our names so near his? And what a comfort is it to us, in all our addresses to God, that the great High Priest of our profession has the names of all his Israel upon his breast, before the Lord, for a memorial, presenting them to God?

Wesley: Exo 28:30 - The Urim and Thummim By which the will of God was made known in doubtful cases, was put in this breast - plate, which is therefore called the breast - plate of judgment. U...

By which the will of God was made known in doubtful cases, was put in this breast - plate, which is therefore called the breast - plate of judgment. Urim and Thummim signify light and integrity: many conjectures there are among the learned what they were: we have no reason to think they were any thing that Moses was to make, more than what was before ordered; so that either God made them himself, and gave them to Moses, for him to put into the breast - plate when other things were prepared; or, no more is meant but a declaration of the farther use of what was already ordered to be made. The words may be read thus, And thou shalt give, or add, to the breast - plate of judgment, the illuminations and perfections, and they shall be upon the heart of Aaron - That is, he shall be endued with a power of knowing and making known the mind of God in all difficult cases relating either to the civil or ecclesiastical state. Their government was a theocracy; God was their king, the high priest was, under God, their ruler, this Urim and Thummim were his cabinet council: probably Moses wrote upon the breast - plate, or wove into it, these words, Urim and Thummim, to signify, that the high-priest, having on him this breast - plate, and asking council of God in any emergency, should be directed to those measures, which God would own. If he were standing before the ark, probably he received instructions from off the mercy - seat, as Moses did, Exo 25:22. If he were at a distance from the ark, as Abiathar was when he enquired of the Lord for David, 1Sa 23:6, then the answer was given either by a voice from heaven, or by an impulse upon the mind of the high priest, which last is perhaps intimated in that expression, he shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart. This oracle was of great use to Israel, Joshua consulted it. Num 27:21, and it is likely, the judges after him. It was lost in the captivity, and never retrieved after. It was a shadow of good things to come, and the substance is Christ. He is our oracle; by him God in these last days, makes known himself and his mind to us. Divine revelation centers in him, and comes to us through him; he is the light, the true light, the faithful witness; and from him we receive the Spirit of truth, who leads into all truth.

Wesley: Exo 28:30 - The joining of the breast plate to the ephod notes, that his prophetical office was founded on his priesthood; and it was by the merit of his death that he purchased this honou...

plate to the ephod notes, that his prophetical office was founded on his priesthood; and it was by the merit of his death that he purchased this honour for himself, and this favour for us. It was the Lamb that had been slain that was worthy to take the book and to open the seals. Rev 5:9.

Wesley: Exo 28:30 - The judgment The breast - plate of judgment: That breast - plate which declared the judgment or mind of God to the Israelites.

The breast - plate of judgment: That breast - plate which declared the judgment or mind of God to the Israelites.

Wesley: Exo 28:31 - The robe of the ephod This was next under the ephod, and reached down to the knees, without sleeves, and was put on over their head, having holes on the sides to put the ar...

This was next under the ephod, and reached down to the knees, without sleeves, and was put on over their head, having holes on the sides to put the arms through, or, as Maimonides describes it, was not sewn together on the sides at all. The hole on the top through which the head was put was carefully bound about, that it might not tear in the putting on. The bells gave notice to the people in the outer court, when he went into the holy place to burn incense, that they might then apply themselves to their devotions at the same time, Luk 1:10, in token of their concurrence with him, and their hopes of the ascent of their prayers to God in the virtue of the incense he offered. Aaron must come near to minister in the garments that were appointed him, that he die not. 'Tis at his peril if he attend otherwise than according to the institution.

Wesley: Exo 28:32 - An habergeon A coat of armour.

A coat of armour.

Wesley: Exo 28:33 - Pomegranates The figures of Pomegranates, but flat and embroidered.

The figures of Pomegranates, but flat and embroidered.

Wesley: Exo 28:36 - On the golden plate fixed upon Aaron's forehead, like an half coronet, reaching, as the Jews say, from ear to ear, must be engraven, Holiness to the Lord Aaron must hereby be minded, that God is holy, and that his priests must be holy. The high priest must be consecrated to God, and so must all his mini...

Aaron must hereby be minded, that God is holy, and that his priests must be holy. The high priest must be consecrated to God, and so must all his ministrations. All that attend in God's house must have holiness to the Lord engraven upon their foreheads, that is, they must he holy, devoted to the Lord, and designing his glory in all they do. This must appear in their forehead, in an open profession of their relation to God, as those that are not ashamed to own it, and in a conversation answerable to it. It must likewise be engraven like the engravings of a signet, so deep, so durable; not painted, so as it may he washed off, but sincere and lasting.

Wesley: Exo 28:38 - Aaron must have this upon his forehead, that he may bear the iniquity of the holy things, and that they may be accepted before the Lord Herein he was a type of Christ, the great Mediator between God and man. Thro' him what is amiss in our services is pardoned: even this would be our ru...

Herein he was a type of Christ, the great Mediator between God and man. Thro' him what is amiss in our services is pardoned: even this would be our ruin, if God should enter into judgment with us: but Christ our high priest bears this iniquity; bears it for us, so as to bear it from us. Thro' him likewise what is good is accepted; our persons, our performances are pleasing to God upon the account of Christ's intercession, and not otherwise. His being holiness to the Lord, recommends all those to the divine favour that believe in him. Having such a high priest, we come boldly to the throne of grace.

Wesley: Exo 28:39 - The embroidered coat of fine linen Was the innermost of the priestly garments, it reached to the feet, and the sleeves to the wrists, and was bound to the body with a girdle or sash of ...

Was the innermost of the priestly garments, it reached to the feet, and the sleeves to the wrists, and was bound to the body with a girdle or sash of needlework. The mitre or diadem was of linen, such as kings anciently wore in the east, typifying the kingly office of Christ.

Wesley: Exo 28:43 - It shall be a statute for ever That is, It is to continue as long as the priesthood continues. And it is to have its perpetuity in the substance, of which these things were the shad...

That is, It is to continue as long as the priesthood continues. And it is to have its perpetuity in the substance, of which these things were the shadows.

JFB: Exo 28:1 - take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him Moses had hitherto discharged the priestly functions (Psa 99:6), and he evinced the piety as well as humility of his character, in readily complying w...

Moses had hitherto discharged the priestly functions (Psa 99:6), and he evinced the piety as well as humility of his character, in readily complying with the command to invest his brother with the sacred office, though it involved the perpetual exclusion of his own family. The appointment was a special act of God's sovereignty, so that there could be no ground for popular umbrage by the selection of Aaron's family, with whom the office was inalienably established and continued in unbroken succession till the introduction of the Christian era.

JFB: Exo 28:2-5 - holy garments No inherent holiness belonged either to the material or the workmanship. But they are called "holy" simply because they were not worn on ordinary occa...

No inherent holiness belonged either to the material or the workmanship. But they are called "holy" simply because they were not worn on ordinary occasions, but assumed in the discharge of the sacred functions (Eze 44:19).

JFB: Exo 28:2-5 - for glory and for beauty It was a grand and sumptuous attire. In material, elaborate embroidery, and color, it had an imposing splendor. The tabernacle being adapted to the in...

It was a grand and sumptuous attire. In material, elaborate embroidery, and color, it had an imposing splendor. The tabernacle being adapted to the infantine aid of the church, it was right and necessary that the priests' garments should be of such superb and dazzling appearance, that the people might be inspired with a due respect for the ministers as well as the rites of religion. But they had also a further meaning; for being all made of linen, they were symbolical of the truth, purity, and other qualities in Christ that rendered Him such a high priest as became us.

JFB: Exo 28:6-14 - ephod It was a very gorgeous robe made of byssus, curiously embroidered, and dyed with variegated colors, and further enriched with golden tissue, the threa...

It was a very gorgeous robe made of byssus, curiously embroidered, and dyed with variegated colors, and further enriched with golden tissue, the threads of gold being either originally interwoven or afterwards inserted by the embroiderer. It was short--reaching from the breast to a little below the loins--and though destitute of sleeves, retained its position by the support of straps thrown over each shoulder. These straps or braces, connecting the one with the back, the other with the front piece of which the tunic was composed, were united on the shoulder by two onyx stones, serving as buttons, and on which the names of the twelve tribes were engraved, and set in golden encasements. The symbolical design of this was, that the high priest, who bore the names along with him in all his ministrations before the Lord, might be kept in remembrance of his duty to plead their cause, and supplicate the accomplishment of the divine promises in their favor. The ephod was fastened by a girdle of the same costly materials, that is, dyed, embroidered, and wrought with threads of gold. It was about a handbreadth wide and wound twice round the upper part of the waist; it fastened in front, the ends hanging down at great length (Rev 1:13).|| 02309||1||15||0||@thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work==--a very splendid and richly embroidered piece of brocade, a span square, and doubled, to enable it the better to bear the weight of the precious stones in it. There were twelve different stones, containing each the name of a tribe, and arranged in four rows, three in each. The Israelites had acquired a knowledge of the lapidary's art in Egypt, and the amount of their skill in cutting, polishing, and setting precious stones, may be judged of by the diamond forming one of the engraved ornaments on this breastplate. A ring was attached to each corner, through which the golden chains were passed to fasten this brilliant piece of jewelry at the top and bottom tightly on the breast of the ephod.

JFB: Exo 28:30 - thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and Thummim The words signify "lights" and "perfections"; and nothing more is meant than the precious stones of the breastplate already described (compare Exo 39:...

The words signify "lights" and "perfections"; and nothing more is meant than the precious stones of the breastplate already described (compare Exo 39:8-21; Lev 8:8). They received the name because the bearing of them qualified the high priest to consult the divine oracle on all public or national emergencies, by going into the holy place--standing close before the veil and putting his hand upon the Urim and Thummim, he conveyed a petition from the people and asked counsel of God, who, as the Sovereign of Israel, gave response from the midst of His glory. Little, however, is known about them. But it may be remarked that Egyptian judges wore on the breast of their official robes a representation of Justice, and the high priest in Israel long officiated also as a judge; so that some think the Urim and Thummim had a reference to his judicial functions.

JFB: Exo 28:31-33 - the robe of the ephod all of blue It was the middle garment, under the ephod and above the coat. It had a hole through which the head was thrust, and was formed carefully of one piece,...

It was the middle garment, under the ephod and above the coat. It had a hole through which the head was thrust, and was formed carefully of one piece, such as was the robe of Christ (Joh 19:23). The high priest's was of a sky-blue color. The binding at the neck was strongly woven, and it terminated below in a fringe, made of blue, purple, and scarlet tassels, in the form of a pomegranate, interspersed with small bells of gold, which tinkled as the wearer was in motion.

JFB: Exo 28:34 - a golden bell and a pomegranate The bells were hung between the pomegranates, which were said to have amounted to seventy-two, and the use of them seems to have been to announce to t...

The bells were hung between the pomegranates, which were said to have amounted to seventy-two, and the use of them seems to have been to announce to the people when the high priest entered the most holy place, that they might accompany him with their prayers, and also to remind himself to be attired in his official dress, to minister without which was death.

JFB: Exo 28:36-38 - plate Literally, a petal of a flower, which seems to have been the figure of this golden plate, which was tied with a ribbon of blue on the front of the mit...

Literally, a petal of a flower, which seems to have been the figure of this golden plate, which was tied with a ribbon of blue on the front of the mitre, so that every one facing him could read the inscription.

JFB: Exo 28:37 - mitre Crown-like cap for the head, not covering the entire head, but adhering closely to it, composed of fine linen. The Scripture has not described its for...

Crown-like cap for the head, not covering the entire head, but adhering closely to it, composed of fine linen. The Scripture has not described its form, but from JOSEPHUS we may gather that it was conical in shape, as he distinguishes the mitres of the common priests by saying that they were not conical--that it was encircled with swathes of blue embroidered, and that it was covered by one piece of fine linen to hide the seams.

JFB: Exo 28:39 - coat of fine linen A garment fastened at the neck, and reaching far down the person, with the sleeves terminating at the elbow.

A garment fastened at the neck, and reaching far down the person, with the sleeves terminating at the elbow.

JFB: Exo 28:39 - girdle of needlework A piece of fine twined linen, richly embroidered, and variously dyed. It is said to have been very long, and being many times wound round the body, it...

A piece of fine twined linen, richly embroidered, and variously dyed. It is said to have been very long, and being many times wound round the body, it was fastened in front and the ends hung down, which, being an impediment to a priest in active duty, were usually thrown across the shoulders. This was the outer garment of the common priests.

JFB: Exo 28:40 - bonnets Turbans.

Turbans.

JFB: Exo 28:42 - linen breeches Drawers, which encompassed the loins and reached half way down the thighs. They are seen very frequently represented in Egyptian figures.

Drawers, which encompassed the loins and reached half way down the thighs. They are seen very frequently represented in Egyptian figures.

Clarke: Exo 28:1 - Aaron - and his sons Aaron - and his sons - The priesthood was to be restrained to this family because the public worship was to be confined to one place; and previously...

Aaron - and his sons - The priesthood was to be restrained to this family because the public worship was to be confined to one place; and previously to this the eldest in every family officiated as priest, there being no settled place of worship. It has been very properly observed that, if Moses had not acted by the Divine appointment, he would not have passed by his own family, which continued in the condition of ordinary Levites, and established the priesthood, the only dignity in the nation, in the family of his brother Aaron. "The priests, however, had no power of a secular nature, nor does it appear from history that they ever arrived at any till the time of the Asmoneans or Maccabees."See Clarke’ s note on Exo 19:22.

Clarke: Exo 28:2 - For glory and for beauty For glory and for beauty - Four articles of dress were prescribed for the priests in ordinary, and four more for the high-priest. Those for the prie...

For glory and for beauty - Four articles of dress were prescribed for the priests in ordinary, and four more for the high-priest. Those for the priests in general were a coat, drawers, a girdle, and a bonnet. Besides these the high-priest had a robe, an ephod, a breastplate, and a plate or diadem of gold on his forehead. The garments, says the sacred historian, were for honor and for beauty. They were emblematical of the office in which they ministered

1.    It was honorable. They were the ministers of the Most High, and employed by him in transacting the most important concerns between God and his people, concerns in which all the attributes of the Divine Being were interested, as well as those which referred to the present and eternal happiness of his creatures

2.    They were for beauty. They were emblematical of that holiness and purity which ever characterize the Divine nature and the worship which is worthy of him, and which are essentially necessary to all those who wish to serve him in the beauty of holiness here below, and without which none can ever see his face in the realms of glory. Should not the garments of all those who minister in holy things still be emblematical of the things in which they minister? Should they not be for glory and beauty, expressive of the dignity of the Gospel ministry, and that beauty of holiness without which none can see the Lord? As the high-priest’ s vestments, under the law, were emblematical of what was to come, should not the vestments of the ministers of the Gospel bear some resemblance of what is come? Is then the dismal black, now worn by almost all kinds of priests and ministers, for glory and for beauty? Is it emblematical of any thing that is good, glorious, or excellent? How unbecoming the glad tidings announced by Christian ministers is a color emblematical of nothing but mourning and wo, sin, desolation, and death! How inconsistent the habit and office of these men! Should it be said, "These are only shadows, and are useless because the substance is come."I ask, Why then is black almost universally worn? why is a particular color preferred, if there be no signification in any? Is there not a danger that in our zeal against shadows, we shall destroy or essentially change the substance itself? Would not the same sort of argumentation exclude water in baptism, and bread and wine in the sacrament of the Lord’ s Supper? The white surplice in the service of the Church is almost the only thing that remains of those ancient and becoming vestments, which God commanded to be made for glory and beauty. Clothing, emblematical of office, is of more consequence than is generally imagined. Were the great officers of the crown, and the great officers of justice, to clothe themselves like the common people when they appear in their public capacity, both their persons and their decisions would be soon held in little estimation.

Clarke: Exo 28:3 - Whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom Whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom - So we find that ingenuity in arts and sciences, even those of the ornamental kind, comes from God. It...

Whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom - So we find that ingenuity in arts and sciences, even those of the ornamental kind, comes from God. It is not intimated here that these persons were filled with the spirit of wisdom for this purpose only; for the direction to Moses is, to select those whom he found to be expert artists, and those who were such, God shows by these words, had derived their knowledge from himself. Every man should be permitted as far as possible to follow the bent or direction of his own genius, when it evidently leads him to new inventions, and improvements on old plans. How much has both the labor of men and cattle been lessened by improvements in machinery! And can we say that the wisdom which found out these improvements did not come from God? No man, by course of reading or study, ever acquired a genius of this kind: we call it natural, and say it was born with the man. Moses teaches us to consider it as Divine. Who taught Newton to ascertain the laws by which God governs the universe, through which discovery a new source of profit and pleasure has been opened to mankind through every part of the civilized world? No reading, no study, no example, formed his genius. God, who made him, gave him that compass and bent of mind by which he made those discoveries, and for which his name is celebrated in the earth. When I see Napier inventing the logarithms; Copernicus, Des Cartes, and Kepler contributing to pull down the false systems of the universe, and Newton demonstrating the true one; and when I see the long list of Patentees of useful inventions, by whose industry and skill long and tedious processes in the necessary arts of life have been shortened, labor greatly lessened, and much time and expense saved; I then see, with Moses, men who are wise-hearted, whom God has filled with the spirit of wisdom for these very purposes; that he might help man by man, and that, as time rolls on, he might give to his intelligent creatures such proofs of his Being, infinitely varied wisdom, and gracious providence, as should cause them to depend on him, and give him that glory which is due to his name

How pointedly does the Prophet Isaiah refer to this sort of teaching as coming from God, even in the most common and less difficult arts of life! The whole passage is worthy of the reader’ s most serious attention. "Doth the ploughman plough all day to sow? doth he open and break the clods of his ground? When he hath made plain the face thereof, doth he not cast abroad the fitches, and scatter the cummin, and cast in the principal wheat, and the appointed barley, and the rye, in their place? For His God Doth Instruct Him to discretion, and doth teach him. For the fitches are not threshed with a threshing-instrument, neither is a cart-wheel turned about upon the cummin; but the fitches are beaten out with a staff, and the cummin with a rod. Bread corn is bruised; because he will not ever be threshing it, nor break it with the wheel of his cart, nor bruise it with his horsemen. This also cometh forth from the Lord of hosts, who is wonderful in counsel, and excellent in working,"Isa 28:24-29

But let us take heed not to run into extremes here; machinery is to help man, not to render him useless. The human hand is the great and most perfect machine, let it not be laid aside. In our zeal for machinery we are rendering all the lower classes useless; filling the land with beggary and vice, and the workhouses with paupers; and ruining the husbandmen with oppressive poor-rates. Keep machinery as a help to the human hand, and to lighten the labor, but never let it supersede either

This principle, that God is the author of all arts and sciences, is too little regarded: Every good gift, and every perfect gift, says St. James, comes from above, from the Father of Lights. Why has God constructed every part of nature with such a profusion of economy and skill, if he intended this skill should never be discovered by man, or that man should not attempt to examine his works in order to find them out? From the works of Creation what proofs, astonishing and overwhelming proofs, both to believers and infidels, have been drawn both of the nature, being, attributes, and providence of God! What demonstrations of all these have the Archbishop of Cambray, Dr. Nieuwentyt, Dr. Derham, and Mr. Charles Bonnet, given in their philosophical works! And who gave those men this wisdom? God, from whom alone Mind, and all its attributes, proceed. While we see Count de Buffon and Swammerdam examining and tracing out all the curious relations, connections, and laws of the Animal kingdom; - Tournefort, Ray, and Linne, those of the Vegetable; - Theophrastus, Werner, Klaproth, Cronstedt, Morveau, Reamur, Kirwan, and a host of philosophical chemists, Boerhaave, Boyle, Stahl, Priestley, Lavoisier, Fourcroy, Black, and Davy, those of the Mineral; the discoveries they have made, the latent and important properties of vegetables and minerals which they have developed, the powerful machines which, through their discoveries, have been constructed, by the operations of which the human slave is restored to his own place in society, the brute saved from his destructive toil in our manufactories, and inanimate, unfeeling Nature caused to perform the work of all these better, more expeditiously, and to much more profit; shall we not say that the hand of God is in all this? Only I again say, let machinery aid man, and not render him useless. The nations of Europe are pushing mechanical power to a destructive extreme. He alone girded those eminent men, though many of them knew him not; he inspired them with wisdom and understanding; by his all-pervading and all-informing spirit he opened to them the entrance of the paths of the depths of science, guided them in their researches, opened to them successively more and more of his astonishing treasures, crowned their persevering industry with his blessing and made them his ministers for good to mankind. The antiquary and the medalist are also his agents; their discernment and penetration come from him alone. By them, how many dark ages of the world have been brought to light; how many names of men and places, how many customs and arts, that were lost, restored! And by their means a few busts, images, stones, bricks, coins, rings, and culinary utensils, the remaining wrecks of long-past numerous centuries have supplied the place of written documents, and cast a profusion of light on the history of man, and the history of providence. And let me add, that the providence which preserved these materials, and raised up men to decipher and explain them, is itself gloriously illustrated by them

Of all those men (and the noble list might be greatly swelled) we may say the same that Moses said of Bezaleel and Aholiab: "God hath filled them with the Spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge; and in all manner of workmanship, to devise cunning works; to work in gold and in silver, and in brass, in cutting of stones, carving of timber, and in all manner of workmanship;"Exo 31:3-6. "The works of the Lord are great, sought out of all them that have pleasure therein;"Psa 111:2.

Clarke: Exo 28:4 - Breastplate Breastplate - חשן choshen . See Clarke on Exo 25:7 (note)

Breastplate - חשן choshen . See Clarke on Exo 25:7 (note)

Clarke: Exo 28:4 - Ephod Ephod - אפד . See Clarke’ s note on Exo 25:7

Ephod - אפד . See Clarke’ s note on Exo 25:7

Clarke: Exo 28:4 - Robe Robe - מעיל meil , from עלה alah , to go up, go upon; hence the meil may be considered as an upper coat, a surtout. It is described by Jo...

Robe - מעיל meil , from עלה alah , to go up, go upon; hence the meil may be considered as an upper coat, a surtout. It is described by Josephus as a garment that reaches down to the feet, not made of two distinct pieces, but was one entire long garment, woven throughout. This was immediately under the ephod. See Clarke on Exo 28:31 (note), etc

Clarke: Exo 28:4 - Broidered coat Broidered coat - כתנת תשבץ kethoneth ,tashbets , what Parkhurst translates a close, strait coat or garment; according to Josephus, "a tunic...

Broidered coat - כתנת תשבץ kethoneth ,tashbets , what Parkhurst translates a close, strait coat or garment; according to Josephus, "a tunic circumscribing or closely encompassing the body, and having tight sleeves for the arms."This was immediately under the meil or robe, and answered the same purpose to the priests that our shirts do to us. See Clarke on Exo 28:13 (note)

Clarke: Exo 28:4 - Mitre Mitre - מצנפת mitsnepheth . As this word comes from the root צנף tsanaph , to roll or wrap round, it evidently means that covering of the...

Mitre - מצנפת mitsnepheth . As this word comes from the root צנף tsanaph , to roll or wrap round, it evidently means that covering of the head so universal in the eastern countries which we call turban or turband, corrupted from the Persian doolbend , which signifies what encompasses and binds the head or body; and hence is applied, not only to this covering of the head, but to a sash in general. As the Persian word is compounded of dool , or dawal , a revolution, vicissitude, wheel, etc., and binden , to bind; it is very likely that the Hebrew words דור dur , to go round, and בנט benet , a band, may have been the original of doolbend and turband. It is sometimes called serbend , from ser , the head, and binden , to bind. The turban consists generally of two parts: the cap, which goes on the head; and the long sash of muslin, linen, or silk, that is wrapped round the head. These sashes are generally several yards in length

Clarke: Exo 28:4 - A girdle A girdle - אבנט abnet , a belt or girdle; see before. This seems to have been the same kind of sash or girdle, so common in the eastern countri...

A girdle - אבנט abnet , a belt or girdle; see before. This seems to have been the same kind of sash or girdle, so common in the eastern countries, that confined the loose garments about the waist; and in which their long skirts were tucked up when they were employed in work, or on a journey. After being tied round the waist, the two ends of it fell down before, to the skirts of their robes.

Clarke: Exo 28:8 - The curious girdle of the ephod The curious girdle of the ephod - The word חשב chesheb , rendered here curious girdle, signifies merely a kind of diaper, or embroidered work; (...

The curious girdle of the ephod - The word חשב chesheb , rendered here curious girdle, signifies merely a kind of diaper, or embroidered work; (see Clarke’ s note on Exo 26:1); and it is widely different from אבנט abnet , which is properly translated girdle Exo 28:4. The meaning therefore of the text, according to some, is this, that the two pieces, Exo 28:7, which connected the parts of the ephod at the shoulders where the onyx stones were set, should be of the same texture with the ephod itself, i.e., of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen, embroidered together. But others suppose that some kind of a girdle is meant, different from the abnet , Exo 28:39, being only of plain workmanship.

Clarke: Exo 28:9 - Two onyx stones Two onyx stones - See Clarke on Exo 25:7 (note).

Two onyx stones - See Clarke on Exo 25:7 (note).

Clarke: Exo 28:11 - Like the engravings of a signet Like the engravings of a signet - So signets or seals were in use at this time, and engraving on precious stones was then an art, and this art, whic...

Like the engravings of a signet - So signets or seals were in use at this time, and engraving on precious stones was then an art, and this art, which was one of the most elegant and ornamental, was carried in ancient times to a very high pitch of perfection, and particularly among the ancient Greeks; such a pitch of perfection as has never been rivaled, and cannot now be even well imitated. And it is very likely that the Greeks themselves borrowed this art from the ancient Hebrews, as we know it flourished in Egypt and Palestine long before it was known in Greece.

Clarke: Exo 28:12 - Aaron shall bear their names before the Lord Aaron shall bear their names before the Lord - He was to consider that he was the representative of the children of Israel; and the stones on the ep...

Aaron shall bear their names before the Lord - He was to consider that he was the representative of the children of Israel; and the stones on the ephod and the stones on the breastplate were for a memorial to put Aaron in remembrance that he was the priest and mediator of the twelve tribes; and, speaking after the manner of men, God was to be put in mind of the children of Israel, their wants, etc., as frequently as the high priest appeared before him with the breastplate and the ephod. See Exo 28:29.

Clarke: Exo 28:13 - Ouches of gold Ouches of gold - משבצת mishbetsoth , strait places, sockets to insert the stones in, from שבץ shabats , to close, enclose, straiten Socket...

Ouches of gold - משבצת mishbetsoth , strait places, sockets to insert the stones in, from שבץ shabats , to close, enclose, straiten

Socket, in this place, would be a more proper translation, as ouch cannot be traced up to any legitimate authority. It appears sometimes to signify a hook, or some mode of attaching things together.

Clarke: Exo 28:15 - The breastplate of judgment The breastplate of judgment - חשן משפט choshen mishpat , the same as the חשן choshen , see Exo 25:7, but here called the breastplate of ...

The breastplate of judgment - חשן משפט choshen mishpat , the same as the חשן choshen , see Exo 25:7, but here called the breastplate of judgment, because the high priest wore it upon his breast when he went to ask counsel of the Lord, to give judgment in any particular case; as also when he sat as judge to teach the law, and to determine controversies. See Lev 10:11; Deu 17:8, Deu 17:9.

Clarke: Exo 28:16 - Four-square it shall be Four-square it shall be - Here we have the exact dimensions of this breastplate, or more properly breast-piece or stomacher. It was a span in length...

Four-square it shall be - Here we have the exact dimensions of this breastplate, or more properly breast-piece or stomacher. It was a span in length and breadth when doubled, and consequently two spans long one way before it was doubled. Between these doublings, it is supposed, the Urim and Thummim were placed. See Clarke on Exo 28:30 (note).

Clarke: Exo 28:17 - Four rows of stones Four rows of stones - With a name on each stone, making in all the twelve names of the twelve tribes. And as these were disposed according to their ...

Four rows of stones - With a name on each stone, making in all the twelve names of the twelve tribes. And as these were disposed according to their birth, Exo 28:10, we may suppose they stood in this order, the stones being placed also in the order in which they are produced, Exo 28:17-20 : -

First Row
Sons of Leah
Sardius or RubyReuben ראובן
TopazSimeon שמעון
CarbuncleLevi לוי
Second Row
EmeraldJudah יהודה
SapphireIssachar יששכר
DiamondZebulun זבולן
Third Row
Sons of Bilhah, Rachael’ s maid
Ligure or JacinthDan דן
AgateNaphtali נפתלי
Son of Zilpah, Leah’ s maid
AmethystGad גד
Fourth Row
Beryl or Crysolite
Asher אשר
Sons of Rachel
Onyx, or SardonyxJoseph יוסף
JasperBenjamin בנימין

In this order the Jews in general agree to place them. See the Jerusalem Targum on this place, and the Targum upon Son 5:14; and see also Ainsworth. The Targum of Jonathan says, "These four rows were placed opposite to the four quarters of the world; but this could only be when laid down horizontally, for when it hung on the breast of the high priest it could have had no such position. As it is difficult to ascertain in every case what these precious stones were, it may be necessary to consider this subject more at large

1.    A Sardius, מדם ,su odem , from the root adam , he was ruddy; the ruby, a beautiful gem of a fine deep red color. The sardius, or sardie stones, is defined to be a precious stone of a blood-red color, the best of which come from Babylon

2.    A Topaz, פטדה pitdah , a precious stone of a pale dead green, with a mixture of yellow, sometimes of a fine yellow; and hence it was called chrysolite by the ancients, from its gold color. It is now considered by mineralogists as a variety of the sapphire

3.    Carbuncle, ברקת bareketh , from ברק barak , to lighten, glitter, or glister; a very elegant gem of a deep red color, with an admixture of scarlet. From its bright lively color it had the name carbunculus, which signifies a little coal; and among the Greeks ανθραξ anthrax, a coal, because when held before the sun it appears like a piece of bright burning charcoal. It is found only in the East Indies, and there but rarely

4.    Emerald, נפך nophech , the same with the ancient smaragdus; it is one of the most beautiful of all the gems, and is of a bright green color, without any other mixture. The true oriental emerald is very scarce, and is only found at present in the kingdom of Cambay

5.    Sapphire, ספיר sappir . See this described, Exo 24:10

6.    Diamond, יהלם yahalom , from הלם halam , to beat or smite upon. The diamond is supposed to have this name from its resistance to a blow, for the ancients have assured us that if it be struck with a hammer, upon an anvil, it will not break, but either break them or sink into the surface of that which is softest. This is a complete fable, as it is well known that the diamond can be easily broken, and is capable of being entirely volatilized or consumed by the action of fire. It is, however, the hardest, as it is the most valuable, of all the precious stones hitherto discovered, and one of the most combustible substances in nature

7.    Ligure, לשם leshem , the same as the jacinth or hyacinth; a precious stone of a dead red or cinnamon color, with a considerable mixture of yellow

8.    Agate, שבו shebo . This is a stone that assumes such a variety of hues and appearances, that Mr. Parkhurst thinks it derives its name from the root שב shab , to turn, to change, "as from the circumstance of the agate changing its appearance without end, it might be called the varier."Agates are met with so variously figured in their substance, that they seem to represent the sky, the stars, clouds, earth, water, rocks, villages, fortifications, birds, trees, flowers, men, and animals of different kinds. Agates have a white, reddish, yellowish, or greenish ground. They are only varieties of the flint, and the lowest in value of all the precious stones

9.    Amethyst, אחלמה achlamah , a gem generally of a purple color, composed of a strong blue and deep red. The oriental amethyst is sometimes of a dove color, though some are purple, and others white like diamonds. The name amethyst is Greek, αμεθυστος, and it was so called because it was supposed that it prevented inebriation

10.    The Beryl, תרשיש tarshish . Mr. Parkhurst derives this name from תר tar , to go round, and שש shash , to be vivid or bright in color. If the beryl be intended, it is a pellucid gem of a bluish green color, found in the East Indies, and about the gold mines of Peru. But some of the most learned mineralogists and critics suppose the chrysolite to be meant. This is a gem of a yellowish green color, and ranks at present among the topazes. Its name in Greek, chrysolite, χρυσολιθος, literally signifies the golden stone

11.    The Onyx, שהם shoham . See Clarke’ s note on Gen 2:12; See Clarke’ s note on Exo 25:7. There are a great number of different sentiments on the meaning of the original; it has been translated beryl, emerald, prasius, sapphire, sardius, ruby, cornelian, onyx, and sardonyx. It is likely that the name may signify both the onyx and sardonyx. This latter stone is a mixture of the chalcedony and cornelian, sometimes in strata, at other times blended together, and is found striped with white and red strata or layers. It is generally allowed that there is no real difference, except in the degree of hardness, between the onyx, cornelian, chalcedony, sardonyx, and agate. It is well known that the onyx is of a darkish horny color, resembling the hoof or nail, from which circumstance it has its name. It has often a plate of a bluish white or red in it, and when on one or both sides of this white there appears a plate of a reddish color, the jewelers, says Woodward, call the stone a sardonyx

12.    Jasper, ישפה yashepheh . The similarity of the Hebrew name has determined most critics and mineralogists to adopt the jasper as intended by the original word. The jasper is usually defined a hard stone, of a beautiful bright green color, sometimes clouded with white, and spotted with red or yellow. Mineralogists reckon not less than fifteen varieties of this stone: 1. green; 2. red; 3. yellow; 4. brown; 5. violet; 6. black; 7. bluish grey; 8. milky white; 9. variegated with green, red, and yellow clouds; 10. green with red specks; 11. veined with various colors, apparently in the form of letters; 12. with variously coloured zones; 13. with various colors mixed without any order; 14. with many colors together; 15. mixed with particles of agate. It can scarcely be called a precious stone; it is rather a dull opaque rock

In examining what has been said on these different precious stones by the best critics, I have adopted such explanations as appeared to me to be best justified by the meaning and use of the original words; but I cannot say that the stones which I have described are precisely those intended by the terms in the Hebrew text, nor can I take upon me to assert that the tribes are arranged exactly in the manner intended by Moses; for as these things are not laid down in the text in such a way as to preclude all mistake, some things must be left to conjecture. Of several of these stones many fabulous accounts are given by the ancients, and indeed by the moderns also: these I have in general omitted because they are fabulous; as also all spiritual meanings which others have found so plentifully in each stone, because I consider some of them puerile, all futile, and not a few dangerous.

Clarke: Exo 28:30 - Thou shalt put in the breastplate - the Urim and the Thummim Thou shalt put in the breastplate - the Urim and the Thummim - What these were has, I believe, never yet been discovered 1.    They a...

Thou shalt put in the breastplate - the Urim and the Thummim - What these were has, I believe, never yet been discovered

1.    They are nowhere described

2.    There is no direction given to Moses or any other how to make them

3.    Whatever they were, they do not appear to have been made on this occasion

4.    If they were the work of man at all, they must have been the articles in the ancient tabernacle, matters used by the patriarchs, and not here particularly described, because well known

5.    It is probable that nothing material is designed. This is the opinion of some of the Jewish doctors. Rabbi Menachem on this chapter says, "The Urim and Thummim were not the work of the artificer; neither had the artificers or the congregation of Israel in them any work or any voluntary offering; but they were a mystery delivered to Moses from the mouth of God, or they were the work of God himself, or a measure of the Holy Spirit.

6.    That God was often consulted by Urim and Thummim, is sufficiently evident from several scriptures; but how or in what manner he was thus consulted appears in none

7.    This mode of consultation, whatever it was, does not appear to have been in use from the consecration of Solomon’ s temple to the time of its destruction; and after its destruction it is never once mentioned. Hence the Jews say that the five following things, which were in the first temple, were wanting in the second

"1.    The ark with the mercy-seat and cherubim

2.    The fire which came down from heaven

3.    The shechinah or Divine presence

4.    The Holy Spirit, i.e., the gift of prophecy; an

5.    The Urim and Thummim.

8.    As the word אורים urim signifies Lights, and the word תמים tummim , Perfections, they were probably designed to point out the light - the abundant information, in spiritual things, afforded by the wonderful revelation which God made of himself by and under the Law; and the perfection - entire holiness and strict conformity to himself, which this dispensation required, and which are introduced and accomplished by that dispensation of light and truth, the Gospel, which was prefigured and pointed out by the law and its sacrifices, etc.; and in this light the subject has been viewed by the Vulgate, where the words are translated doctrina et veritas , doctrine and truth - a system of teaching proceeding from truth itself. The Septuagint translate the original by δηλωσις και αληθεια, the manifestation and the truth; meaning probably the manifestation which God made of himself to Moses and the Israelites, and the truth which he had revealed to them, of which this breastplate should be a continual memorial

All the other versions express nearly the same things, and all refer to intellectual and spiritual subjects, such as light, truth, manifestation, doctrine, perfection, etc., etc., not one of them supposing that any thing material is intended. The Samaritan text is however different; it adds here a whole clause not found in the Hebrew: veasitha eth haurim veeth hattummim , Thou shalt make the Urim and the Thummim. If this reading be admitted, the Urim and Thummim were manufactured on this occasion as well as the other articles. However it be, they are indescribable and unknown

The manner in which the Jews suppose that the inquiry was made by Urim and Thummim is the following: "When they inquired the priest stood with his face before the ark, and he that inquired stood behind him with his face to the back of the priest; and the inquirer said, Shall I go up? or, Shall I not go up? And forthwith the Holy Ghost came upon the priest, and he beheld the breastplate, and saw therein by the vision of prophecy, Go up, or Go not up, in the letters which showed forth themselves upon the breastplate before his face."See Num 27:18, Num 27:21; Jdg 1:1; Jdg 20:18, Jdg 20:28; 1Sa 23:9-12; 1Sa 28:6; and see Ainsworth

It was the letters that formed the names of the twelve tribes upon the breastplate, which the Jews suppose were used in a miraculous way to give answers to the inquirers. Thus when David consulted the Lord whether he should go into a city of Judea, three letters which constituted the word עלה aloh , Go, rose up or became prominent in the names on the breastplate; ע ain , from the name of Simeon, ל lamed from the name of Levi, and ה he from the name of Judah. But this supposition is without proof

Among the Egyptians, a breastplate something like that of the Jewish high-priest was worn by the president of the courts of justice. Diodorus Siculus has these words: Εφορει δ οὑτος περι τον τραχηλον εκ χρυσης ἁλυσεως ηρτημενον ζωδιον των πολυτελων λιθων ὁ προσηγορευον ΑΛΗΘΕΙΑΝ . "He bore about his neck a golden chain, at which hung an image set about with or composed of precious stones, which was called Truth."- Bib. Hist., lib. i., chap. 75, p. 225. And he farther adds, "that as soon as the president put this gold chain about his neck, the legal proceedings commenced, but not before. And that when the case of the plaintiff and defendant had been fully and fairly heard, the president turned the image of truth, which was hung to the golden chain round his neck, toward the person whose cause was found to be just,"by which he seemed to intimate that truth was on his side

Aelian, in his Hist. Var., lib. xxxiv., gives the same account. "The chief justice or president,"he says, "was always a priest, of a venerable age and acknowledged probity. Ειχε δε και αγαλμα περι τον αυχενα εκ σαπφειρου λιθου, και εκαλειτο αγαλμα ΑΛΗΘΕΙΑ . And he had an image which was called Truth engraved on a sapphire, and hung about his neck with a gold chain.

Peter du Val mentions a mummy which he saw at Cairo, in Egypt, round the neck of which was a chain, having a golden plate suspended, which lay on the breast of the person, and on which was engraved the figure of a bird. This person was supposed to have been one of the supreme judges; and in all likelihood the bird, of what kind he does not mention, was the emblem of truth, justice, or innocence

I have now before me paintings, taken on the spot by a native Chinese, of the different courts in China where criminal causes were tried. In these the judge always appears with a piece of embroidery on his breast, on which a white bird of the ardea or heron kind is represented, with expanded wings. All these seem to have been derived from the same source, both among the Hebrews, the Egyptians, and the Chinese. And it is certainly not impossible that the two latter might have borrowed the notion and use of the breastplate of judgment from the Hebrews, as it was in use among them long before we have any account of its use either among the Egyptians or Chinese. The different mandarins have a breast-piece of this kind.

Clarke: Exo 28:31 - The robe of the ephod The robe of the ephod - See Clarke on Exo 28:4 (note). From this description, and from what Josephus says, who must have been well acquainted with i...

The robe of the ephod - See Clarke on Exo 28:4 (note). From this description, and from what Josephus says, who must have been well acquainted with its form, we find that this meil , or robe, was one long straight piece of blue cloth, with a hole or opening in the center for the head to pass through; which hole or opening was bound about, that it might not be rent in putting it on or taking it off, Exo 28:32.

Clarke: Exo 28:35 - His sound shall be heard His sound shall be heard - The bells were doubtless intended to keep up the people’ s attention to the very solemn and important office which t...

His sound shall be heard - The bells were doubtless intended to keep up the people’ s attention to the very solemn and important office which the priest was then performing, that they might all have their hearts engaged in the work; and at the same time to keep Aaron himself in remembrance that he ministered before Jehovah, and should not come into his presence without due reverence

Clarke: Exo 28:35 - That he die not That he die not - This seems an allusion to certain ceremonies which still prevail in the eastern countries. Jehovah appeared among his people in th...

That he die not - This seems an allusion to certain ceremonies which still prevail in the eastern countries. Jehovah appeared among his people in the tabernacle as an emperor in his tent among his troops. At the doors of the tents or palaces of grandees was generally placed some sonorous body, either of metal or wood, which was struck to advertise those within that a person prayed for admittance to the presence of the king, etc. As the tabernacle had no door, but a veil, and consequently nothing to prevent any person from going in, Aaron was commanded to put the bells on his robe, that his sound might be heard when he went into the holy place before the Lord.

Clarke: Exo 28:36 - Thou shalt make a plate of pure gold Thou shalt make a plate of pure gold - The word ציץ tsits , which we render plate, means a flower, or any appearance of this kind, The Septuagin...

Thou shalt make a plate of pure gold - The word ציץ tsits , which we render plate, means a flower, or any appearance of this kind, The Septuagint translate it by πεταλον, a leaf; hence we might be led to infer that this plate resembled a wreath of flowers or leaves; and as it is called, Exo 29:6, נזר nezer , a crown, and the author of the book of The Wisdom of Solomon 18:24, who was a Jew, and may be supposed to know well what it was, calls it διαδημα, it was probably of the form, not of the ancient diadem, but rather of the radiated crown worn by the ancient Roman emperors, which was a gold band that went round the head from the vertex to the occiput; but the position of the Jewish sacerdotal crown was different, as that went round the forehead, under which there was a blue lace or fillet, Exo 28:37, which was probably attached to the mitre or turban, and formed its lowest part or border

Clarke: Exo 28:36 - Holiness to the Lord Holiness to the Lord - This we may consider as the grand badge of the sacerdotal office 1.    The priest was to minister in holy thin...

Holiness to the Lord - This we may consider as the grand badge of the sacerdotal office

1.    The priest was to minister in holy things

2.    He was the representative of a holy God

3.    He was to offer sacrifices to make an atonement for and to put away Sin

4.    He was to teach the people the way of righteousness and true holiness

5.    As mediator, he was to obtain for them those Divine influences by which they should be made holy, and be prepared to dwell with holy spirits in the kingdom of glory

6.    In the sacerdotal office he was the type of that holy and just One who, in the fullness of time, was to come and put away sin by the sacrifice of himself

It is allowed on all hands that this inscription was, in the primitive Hebrew character, such as appears upon ancient shekels, and such as was used before the Babylonish captivity, and probably from the giving of the law on Mount Sinai. The קדש ליהוה Kodesh Laihovah , of the present Hebrew text, would in those ancient characters appear thus as this illustration, which, in the modern Samaritan character, evidently derived from that illustration. And the Samaritan word in this ancient and original character is the famous Tetragrammaton, or word of four letters, which, to the present day, the Jews will neither write nor pronounce. The Jews teach that these letters were embossed on the gold, and not engraven in it, and that the plate on which they were embossed was about two fingers broad, and that it occupied a space on the forehead between the hair and the eyebrows. But it is most likely that it was attached to the lower part of the mitre.

Clarke: Exo 28:38 - May bear the iniquity of the holy things May bear the iniquity of the holy things - ונשא אהרן את עון הקדשים venasa Aharon eth avon hakkodashim . And Aaron shall bear (i...

May bear the iniquity of the holy things - ונשא אהרן את עון הקדשים venasa Aharon eth avon hakkodashim . And Aaron shall bear (in a vicarious and typical manner) the sin of the holy or separated things - offerings or sacrifices. Aaron was, as the high priest of the Jews, the type or representative of our blessed Redeemer; and as he offered the sacrifices prescribed by the law to make an atonement for sin, and was thereby represented as bearing their sins because he was bound to make an atonement for them; so Christ is represented as bearing their sins, i.e., the punishment due to the sins of the world, in his becoming a sacrifice for the human race. See Isa 53:4, Isa 53:12, where the same verb, נשא nasa , is used; and see 1Pe 2:24. By the inscription on the plate on his forehead Aaron was acknowledged as the holy minister of the holy God. To the people’ s services and their offerings much imperfection was attached, and therefore Aaron was represented, not only as making an atonement in general for the sins of the people by the sacrifices they brought, but also as making an atonement for the imperfection of the atonement itself, and the manner in which it was brought

Clarke: Exo 28:38 - It shall be always upon his forehead It shall be always upon his forehead - The plate inscribed with Holiness to the Lord should be always on his forehead, to teach that the law require...

It shall be always upon his forehead - The plate inscribed with Holiness to the Lord should be always on his forehead, to teach that the law required holiness; that this was its aim, design, and end: and the same is required by the Gospel; for under this dispensation it is expressly said, Without holiness no man shall see the Lord; Heb 12:14.

Clarke: Exo 28:40 - For glory and for beauty For glory and for beauty - See Clarke’ s note on Exo 28:2.

For glory and for beauty - See Clarke’ s note on Exo 28:2.

Clarke: Exo 28:42 - Linen breeches Linen breeches - This command had in view the necessity of purity and decency in every part of the Divine worship, in opposition to the shocking ind...

Linen breeches - This command had in view the necessity of purity and decency in every part of the Divine worship, in opposition to the shocking indecency of the pagan worship in general, in which the priests often ministered naked, as in the sacrifices to Bacchus, etc

On the garments of the high priest some general reflections have already been made; see Exo 28:2 (note): and to what is there said it may be just necessary to add, that there can be no doubt of their being all emblematical of spiritual things; but of which, and in what way, no man can positively say. Many commentators have entered largely into this subject, and have made many edifying and useful remarks; but where no clue is given to guide us through a labyrinth in which the possibility of mistake is every moment occurring, it is much better not to attempt to be wise above what is written; for however edifying the reflections may be which are made on these subjects, yet, as they are not clearly deducible from the text itself, they can give little satisfaction to a sincere inquirer after truth. These garments were all made for glory and for beauty, and this is the general account that it has pleased God to give of their nature and design: in a general sense, they represented

1.    The necessity of purity in every part of the Divine worship

2.    The necessity of an atonement for sin

3.    The purity and justice of the Divine Majesty; and

4.    The absolute necessity of that holiness without which none can see the Lord. And these subjects should be diligently kept in view by all those who wish to profit by the curious and interesting details given in this chapter. In the notes these topics are frequently introduced.

Calvin: Exo 28:1 - And take thou unto thee Aaron 1.And take thou unto thee Aaron The calling of God is here alleged to prove the importance and dignity of the priesthood, and this too the Apostle ha...

1.And take thou unto thee Aaron The calling of God is here alleged to prove the importance and dignity of the priesthood, and this too the Apostle has well weighed in the words:

"And no man taketh the honor unto himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron.” (Heb 5:4.)

Among heathen nations the priests were appointed by popular election, so that ambition alone governed their appointment; but God would only have those accounted lawful priests whom He had selected at His own sole will; and surely the whole human race together had no power to obtrude any one on God, who should interpose himself to obtain pardon and peace; nay, not even Christ Himself would have been sufficient to propitiate God, unless He had undertaken the office by the decree and appointment of His Father. To which refers the famous oath, whereby His heavenly Father appointed Him to be priest; and so much the more vile and detestable was the sacrilege which afterwards prevailed in the Jewish nation, viz., that the successors of Aaron bought the priesthood! This unworthy traffic of the office, which Josephus relates, ought to awaken horror in us now, when we see that sacred honor profaned by the family which had been chosen by God to represent Christ. Nevertheless, however they may have violated all law and justice, still the counsel of God remained inviolable, that believers might know that the priesthood depended on His authority, just as reconciliation flows from His mere mercy. For in order that it should be lawful for men to establish a priest, it would be necessary that they should anticipate God by their own deservings; and from this they are very far distant. The case is different as to the election of the pastors of the Church; since, after Christ had instituted the order itself, He commanded that there should be chosen out of the Church those who by their doctrine and integrity of life were fitted to exercise the office. Still He does not thus resign His own right and power to men, for He does not cease through them to call those (by whom He would be served. 160) Wherefore, to shew that He is the sole author of the priesthood, God commands Aaron and his sons to be separated from among the others; and the performance of this He entrusts to Moses, whom, however, He does not elevate to the like honor. Moses consecrates Aaron, although he was never himself dedicated by anointing and investiture to the service of God; 161 whence we perceive that the sacraments have their power and effect not from the virtue of the minister, but only from the commandment of God; for Moses would not have given to others what he had not himself, if it had not so pleased God.

Calvin: Exo 28:2 - And thou shalt make holy garments 2.And thou shalt make holy garments These external ornaments denoted the want of those which are true and spiritual; for if the priest had been absol...

2.And thou shalt make holy garments These external ornaments denoted the want of those which are true and spiritual; for if the priest had been absolutely and entirely perfect, these typical accessories would have been superfluous. But God would shew by this symbol the more than angelical brightness of all virtues which was to be exhibited in Christ. Aaron was defiled by his own corruption, and therefore unworthy to appear in the presence of God; in order, then, that he might be a fit peacemaker between God and man, he put off his ordinary garments, and stood forth as a new man. Hence the holy garments were, first of all, supposed to conceal his faults; and, secondly, to represent the incomparable adornment of all virtues. The latter may indeed be in some measure applied to the pastors of the Church; nor will the comparison be absurd, if we say that no others are worthy of so excellent an honor, except those in whom surpassing and extraordinary virtue brightly manifests itself. But we must chiefly recollect what I have said, viz., that in these garments the supreme purity and wondrous glory of Christ were represented; as if God should promise that the Mediator would be far more august than the condition of man could produce. He therefore declares that they shall be “for glory and for beauty.” We shall speak more fully hereafter, what I will touch upon now, as to the wisdom of the artificers, viz., that all who from the foundation of the world have invented arts useful to the human race, have been imbued with the Spirit of God; so that even heathen authors have been compelled to call them the inventions of the gods. But inasmuch as in this Divine work there was need of rare and unwonted skill, it is expressly spoken of as a peculiar gift of the Spirit.

Calvin: Exo 28:4 - And these are the garments 4.And these are the garments Here again I must remind my readers, that they should abandon all subtle speculations, and be contented with simplicity....

4.And these are the garments Here again I must remind my readers, that they should abandon all subtle speculations, and be contented with simplicity. I might repeat many plausible allegories, which perhaps would find more favor with some than a sound knowledge of facts. If any should delight in this kind of child’s play, let him only read what Jerome wrote to Fabiola; in which he collected almost everything that he possibly could from the writings of others; but nothing will be found except dull trifling, the folly of which it is painful even to report, much more to refute. Those who are conversant with my writings, are aware that I do not willingly find fault with the opinions of others; but when I reflect how dangerous are those itching ears, with which many are troubled, I am obliged to prescribe this remedy. Six principal parts of the dress are enumerated. What the Greeks call the λογεῖον, and the Latins the pectorale, was like a square breastplate attached by small chains, so as to be connected with the ephod. Inclosed in it were twelve stones to represent the tribes of Israel; and the Urim and Thummim were also annexed to it. But what its form might be, cannot be certainly declared from the words of Moses; and since even the Jews also differ among themselves, let us be satisfied with its comparison to a breastplate. I have no objection to the opinion, that its name 162 was derived from strength, or a treasure. But this is worthy of the utmost attention, that the priest bore the sons of Abraham as it were upon his heart, not only that he might present them to God, but that he might be mindful of them, and anxious for their welfare. The twelve precious stones were by no means given to be symbols of the twelve tribes as a cause for awakening their pride, as if they were so highly esteemed on the score of their own dignity or excellence; but they were thus reminded that the whole value, in which believers are held by God, is derived from the sanctity of the priesthood. Therefore, let us learn from this figure, that:, however vile and abject we may be in ourselves, and so altogether worthless refuse, yet inasmuch as Christ deigned to ingraft us into this body, in Him we are precious stones. And to this Isaiah seems to allude in the passage before cited, where, speaking of the restoration of the Church, which was to take place under the reign of Christ, he says, “Behold, I will lay thy stones with fair colors, and lay thy foundations with sapphires; and I will make thy windows with carbuncles, and all thy borders with pleasant stones;” for immediately after the exposition follows, “And all thy children shall be taught of the Lord.” (Isa 54:11.) Therefore what was to be fulfilled in Christ, was typified by the external sign under the Law; viz., that though we sojourn in the world, yet are we united with Christ by faith, as if we were one with Him; and, besides, that He takes care for our welfare, as if He bore us enclosed in His heart; and, finally, that when our heavenly Father regards us in Him, He esteems us above all the wealth and splendor of the world.

As to the Urim and Thummim, it appears probable to me that they were two conspicuous marks on the breastplate, corresponding to these names; for the supposition of some of the Jews, 163 that the ineffable name of God was placed beneath its texture, is not free from foolish and dangerous superstition. I pass over other fancies, which are equally frivolous; nor am I anxious to know what was the form of either of them; the fact itself is sufficient for me. By the Urim, therefore, or splendors, I doubt not but that the light of doctrine, wherewith the true Priest illuminates all believers, was represented; first, because He is the one “light of the world,” without which all things are full of darkness; and because in Him “are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.” (Joh 8:12; Col 2:3.) Hence did Paul justly glory that he knew nothing but Jesus Christ, (1Co 2:2,) since His priesthood sufficiently and more than sufficiently enlightens us. As then the people were admonished that their eyes should be directed to the splendor of the priest, so now we must diligently remember what Christ Himself teaches, that “he that followeth him shall not walk in darkness.” (Joh 8:12.) On the other hand, the Thummim, which signifies perfections, was a symbol of the perfect and entire purity which is only to be sought in Christ; for He would not have been a meet high priest unless He had been perfect, free from every spot, and deficient in nothing which is required unto complete holiness. It is not, then, an improper distinction, that the Urim refers to the light of doctrine, and the Thummim to the life; and this is indeed in some measure applicable to the pastors of the Church, who ought to shine both in sound doctrine and in integrity of life. But it was God’s design to shew that neither of these things is to be sought anywhere except in Christ; since from Him we obtain both light and purity, when He deigns to make us partakers of them according to the measure of His free bounty. Whence it follows, that they who seek for the least spark of light or drop of purity out of Christ, plunge themselves into a labyrinth, where they wander in mortal darkness, and inhale the deadly fumes of false virtues unto their own destruction.

What the Scripture sometimes relates, as to the inquiries made by Urim and Thummim, it was a concession made by God to the rudeness of His ancient people. The true Priest had not yet appeared, the Angel of His Almighty counsel, by whose Spirit all the Prophets spoke, who, finally, is the fountain of all revelations, and the express image of the Father; in order then that the typical priest might be the messenger from God to man, it behooved him to be invested with the ornaments of Christ. Thus even then believers were taught in a figure, that Christ is the way by which we come to the Father, and that He also brings from the secret bosom of His Father whatever it is profitable for us to know unto salvation, hence that fiction of the Jews is contradicted, that the responses were given in this way: if a question was asked respecting a particular tribe, that the stone which represented it was lighted up; and that the colors of the stones were changed according as God refused or assented. For even if we allow that the Urim and Thummim were the rows of precious stones themselves, still this imagination is altogether unmeaning. But, as I have said, by the very form of the breastplate God would testify that the fulness of wisdom and integrity was contained in it; for which reason it is called “the breastplate of judgment,” i.e., of the most perfect rectitude, which left nothing to be desired; for the word משפט mishphot, often signifies in Scripture whatsoever is well and duly ordered. The interpretation which some give, that “judgment” means “inquiry,” because the priest only asked for responses when he had the breastplate on, is too restricted, and is even proved to be erroneous by sundry passages. Let this then be deemed settled, that this honorable appellation is meant to express a correct and infallible rule ( ordinem.) Because the breastplate was, as it were, a part of the ephod, it is therefore sometimes comprehended in that word; in which it may be well also to observe, that this peculiar ephod of the high priest’s was different from the others, of which mention is made elsewhere; for all of the sacerdotal lineage wore an ephod in the performance of religious duties. (1Sa 14:3.) Even David, when he danced before the Ark, wore his ephod, (2Sa 6:14;) and this custom is still retained by the Jews at their chief festivals. The rest I will introduce presently in their proper places.

Calvin: Exo 28:9 - And thou shalt take two onyx-stones 9.And thou shalt take two onyx-stones That the connection between the priest and the people might be made more plain, God not only placed on his brea...

9.And thou shalt take two onyx-stones That the connection between the priest and the people might be made more plain, God not only placed on his breast the memorials of the twelve tribes, but also engraved their names on his shoulders. Thus all occasion of envy was removed, since the people would understand that this one man was not separated from the others for the sake of private advantage, but that in his one person they were all a kingdom of priests, which Peter teaches to have been at length really fulfilled in Christ, (1Pe 2:5;) as Isaiah had foretold that there should be priests of God, and Levites brought from the Gentiles, (Isa 66:21;) to which John makes allusion in the Apocalypse, where he says that we are all priests in Christ, (Rev 1:6.) But we must remember the reason why our High Priest is said to bear us on His shoulders, for we not only crawl on earth, but we are plunged in the lowest depths of death; how then should we be able to ascend to heaven, unless the Son of God should raise us up with Him; Now, since there is no ability in us unto eternal life, but all our powers of mind and body lie prostrate, we must be borne up by His strength alone. Hence then arises our confidence of ascending to heaven, because Christ raises us up with Him; as Paul says, we “sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus,” (Eph 2:6;) however weak then we may be in ourselves, herein is all our strength, that we are His burden. Therefore in this old type was prefigured what Paul teaches, that the Church is “his body,” and “the fullness of him,” (Eph 1:22.) It remains that each of us, conscious of our own weakness, should rest on Christ; for when in foolish arrogance we exalt ourselves, we do not suffer ourselves to be lifted up by Him, to be borne and sustained by His power. Let the proud then, by lifting themselves on high, fall down in ruin, whilst Christ supports us upon His shoulders. These stones are called “stones of memorial;” and again, “for a memorial” to the children of Israel; as is also afterwards repeated of the twelve stones; which some expound, that “God may be mindful of the children of Israel;” others, that “the priest himself may remember them;” others, that “the children of Israel may remember that God is reconciled to them for the sake of the one Mediator;” but I simply interpret it, that they were a monument of the mutual agreement between God and them; as if God would shew by a visible sign that He embraced them and received them into His sanctuary, as often as they were offered in this manner.

Calvin: Exo 28:30 - And thou shalt put in the breastplate 30.And thou shalt put in the breastplate From these words some infer that the Urim and Thummim were distinct from the whole work, which is before...

30.And thou shalt put in the breastplate From these words some infer that the Urim and Thummim were distinct from the whole work, which is before described; others think that they were the twelve stones, because no mention will be made of them when Moses relates that the whole was completed. But nothing is more probable, as I have already said, than that on the breastplate itself some representation was given of light in doctrine, and of entire uprightness of life; and therefore after Moses has called it “the breastplate of judgment,” he also speaks of it as “the judgment of the children of Israel;” by which expression he means a certain and defined system, or an absolutely perfect rule, to which the children of Israel ought to direct and conform themselves.

Calvin: Exo 28:31 - And thou shalt make the robe 31.And thou shalt make the robe This robe was above the oblong coat between that and the ephod; and from its lower edge hung the bells and pomegranat...

31.And thou shalt make the robe This robe was above the oblong coat between that and the ephod; and from its lower edge hung the bells and pomegranates alternately. Although there was no smell in the pomegranates, 164 yet the type suggested this to the eyes; as if God required in that garment a sweet smell as well as a sound; and surely we who stink through the foulness of our sins, are only a sweet smell unto God as being covered with the garment of Christ. But God would have the bells give a sound; because the garment of Christ does not procure favor for us, except by the sound of the Gospel, which diffuses the sweet savor of the Head amongst all the members. In this allegory there is nothing too subtle or far-fetched; for the similitude of the smell and the sound naturally leads us to the honoring of grace, 165 and to the preaching of the Gospel. By the pomegranates, therefore, which were attached to the hem of the garment, God testified that whatever was in the priest smelt sweetly, and was acceptable to Him, provided the sound accompanied it; the necessity of which is declared, when God denounces death against the priest if He should enter the sanctuary without the sound. And assuredly it was a general invitation which awakened the peoples’ minds to attention, whilst the sacred offices were performed. There is no absurdity in the fact, that the punishment which God threatens does not properly apply to Christ; because it was necessary to issue severe injunctions to the Levitical priests, lest they should omit these external exercises of piety, until the truth was manifested. The ancients do not unwisely make a spiritual application of this to the ministers of the Church; for the priest is worthy of death, says Gregory, 166 from whom the voice of preaching is not heard; just as Isaiah reproves “the dumb dogs.” (Isa 56:10.) But this we must especially remember, that the garment of Christ is sonorous, since only faith, which cometh by hearing, clothes us with His righteousness.

Calvin: Exo 28:40 - And for Aaron’s sons 40.And for Aaron’s sons The sons of Aaron also are separated not only from the body of the people, but likewise from the Levites; for a peculiar di...

40.And for Aaron’s sons The sons of Aaron also are separated not only from the body of the people, but likewise from the Levites; for a peculiar dignity was attached to that family, from whom his successor was afterwards to be taken. 170 And since no single individual was able to perform all their offices, they were distributed amongst them. Hence it was that they were adorned with the coat, the girdle, and the bonnet, “for glory and for beauty.” We shall see as to their anointing in the next chapter. Their hands are said be filled, 171 when they are made fit for offering sacrifices, for as long as their hands are unconsecrated ( profanae) they are accounted empty, even though they may be very full, since no gift is acceptable to God except in right of the priesthood; consequently their fullness arose from consecration, whereby it came that the oblations duly made had access to God. But we must observe that it is not their father Aaron, but Moses, who sanctifies them, that the power itself, or effect of their sanctification, may rest in God, and may not be transferred to His ministers. Perhaps, too, God would anticipate the calumnies of the ungodly, lest any should afterwards object that Aaron had fraudulently and unjustly extended the honor conferred upon himself alone to his sons also, and thus had unlawfully made it hereditary. He was protected against this reproach by the fact, that the sacerdotal dignity came to them from elsewhere. Besides, by these means the posterity of Moses was more certainly deprived of the hope they may have conceived in consideration of what their father was. Therefore Moses, by inaugurating the children of Aaron, reduced his own to their proper place, lest ally ambition should hereafter tempt them, or lest envy should possess them when they saw themselves put below others.

Defender: Exo 28:30 - Urim and the Thummim The mysterious Urim and Thummim, set in the twelve-jeweled breastplate of the high priest (Lev 8:8), evidently had something to do with recognizing Go...

The mysterious Urim and Thummim, set in the twelve-jeweled breastplate of the high priest (Lev 8:8), evidently had something to do with recognizing God's will for the twelve tribes in their wanderings and conflicts (Num 27:21; Deu 33:8; 1Sa 28:6; Ezr 2:63; Neh 7:65). Exactly what they were and how they functioned has been the object of much speculation; if their meaning was something like "lights and perfections," as most scholars believe, they in some way must have been a medium of special divine guidance during this strategic period in God's plan for His people Israel."

TSK: Exo 28:1 - take // among // Nadab take : Lev 8:2; Num 16:9-11, Num 17:2-9; 2Ch 26:18-21; Heb 5:1-5 among : Exo 28:41, Exo 29:1, Exo 29:9, Exo 29:44, Exo 30:30, Exo 31:10, Exo 35:19; Nu...

TSK: Exo 28:2 - holy garments // glory holy garments : Exo 29:5-9, Exo 29:29, Exo 29:30, Exo 31:10, Exo 39:1, Exo 39:2, Exo 40:13; Lev 8:7-9, Lev 8:30; Num 20:26-28; Psa 132:9, Psa 132:16; ...

TSK: Exo 28:3 - wise hearted // filled wise hearted : Exo 31:3-6, Exo 35:30, Exo 35:35, Exo 36:1, Exo 36:2; Pro 2:6; Isa 28:24-26 filled : Deu 34:9; Isa 11:2; 1Co 12:7-11; Eph 1:17; Jam 1:1...

TSK: Exo 28:4 - a breastplate // ephod // a robe // broidered // a mitre // a girdle a breastplate : Choshen , in Hebrew is used for the square breast-plate of the high priest, in which were set twelve precious stones, each being eng...

a breastplate : Choshen , in Hebrew is used for the square breast-plate of the high priest, in which were set twelve precious stones, each being engraved with the name of one of the sons of Jacob. Exo 28:15, Exo 39:8-21; Isa 59:17; Eph 6:14; 1Th 5:8; Rev 9:17

ephod : The ephod seems to have been a short cloak, without sleeves. Exo 28:6-14, Exo 39:2-5, Exo 39:21, Exo 39:22; Lev 8:7, Lev 8:8; 1Sa 2:18, 1Sa 22:18, 1Sa 23:6, 1Sa 30:7; 2Sa 6:14

a robe : The word meil , from âlah , to ascend, go up on, may be considered as an upper garment that goes up or over the rest, a surtout. Exo 28:31-34, Exo 39:25, Exo 39:26

broidered : Exo 28:29, Exo 28:40; Lev 8:7

a mitre : Exo 39:28; Lev 8:9

a girdle : Isa 11:5

TSK: Exo 28:5 - gold gold : Exo 25:3, Exo 25:4, Exo 39:2, Exo 39:3

TSK: Exo 28:6 - linen linen : Exo 26:1

linen : Exo 26:1

TSK: Exo 28:7 - -- Exo 39:4

TSK: Exo 28:8 - curious curious : or, embroidered, Exo 28:27, Exo 28:28, Exo 29:5, Exo 39:20, Exo 39:21; Lev 8:7; Isa 11:5; 1Pe 1:13; Rev 1:13

TSK: Exo 28:9 - onyx // grave onyx : Exo 28:20, Exo 39:13; Gen 2:12; Job 28:16; Eze 28:13 grave : Exo 28:36, Exo 39:6; 2Ch 2:7; Son 8:6; Isa 49:16

TSK: Exo 28:10 - according to their birth according to their birth : Exo 1:1-4; Gen 43:33

according to their birth : Exo 1:1-4; Gen 43:33

TSK: Exo 28:11 - engravings of a signet // ouches of gold engravings of a signet : Exo 28:21, Exo 28:36; Jer 22:24; Zec 3:9; Eph 1:13, Eph 4:30; 2Ti 2:19; Rev 7:2 ouches of gold : Exo 28:13, Exo 28:14, Exo 28...

TSK: Exo 28:12 - the shoulders // Aaron shall bear // for a memorial the shoulders : Exo 28:7; Psa 89:19; Isa 9:6, Isa 12:2; Zec 6:13, Zec 6:14; Heb 7:25-28 Aaron shall bear : Exo 28:29, Exo 39:6, Exo 39:7 for a memoria...

TSK: Exo 28:14 - chains of // of wreathen chains of : Exo 28:24, Exo 39:15 of wreathen : Exo 28:22-25, Exo 39:17, Exo 39:18; 1Ki 7:17; 2Ki 25:17; 2Ch 4:12, 2Ch 4:13

TSK: Exo 28:15 - the breastplate // after the breastplate : Exo 28:4, Exo 28:30, Exo 39:8; Lev 8:8 after : Exo 28:6, Exo 26:1

the breastplate : Exo 28:4, Exo 28:30, Exo 39:8; Lev 8:8

after : Exo 28:6, Exo 26:1

TSK: Exo 28:17 - thou shalt // set in it settings of stones // the first row // a sardius // a topaz // a carbuncle thou shalt : Exo 28:9, Exo 28:11, Exo 39:10-21; Mal 3:17 set in it settings of stones : Heb. fill in its fillings of stone the first row : Eze 28:13; ...

thou shalt : Exo 28:9, Exo 28:11, Exo 39:10-21; Mal 3:17

set in it settings of stones : Heb. fill in its fillings of stone

the first row : Eze 28:13; Rev 21:19-21

a sardius : or, ruby, The Hebrew odem , from adam , to be red, ruddy, seems to denote the ruby; as adam does in Persian a beautiful gem, of a fine deep red colour, with a mixture of purple. Job 28:18; Pro 3:15, Pro 8:11, Pro 20:15, Pro 31:10; Lam 4:7

a topaz : Pitdah , is constantly rendered by the LXX τοπαζιον , and Vulgate, topazius , with which agrees Josephus. The topaz is a precious stone, of a pale, dead green, with a mixture of yellow, sometimes of a fine yellow; and hence called chrysolyte by the moderns, from its gold colour. Job 28:19; Rev 21:20

a carbuncle : Bareketh , from barak , to lighten, glitter, a very elegant gem, of a deep red colour, with a mixture of scarlet. Isa 54:11, Isa 54:12

TSK: Exo 28:18 - emerald // sapphire // diamond emerald : Nophech , an emerald, the same with the ancient smaragdus ; one of the most beautiful of all the gems, and of a bright green colour, wit...

emerald : Nophech , an emerald, the same with the ancient smaragdus ; one of the most beautiful of all the gems, and of a bright green colour, without any mixture. Exo 39:11; Eze 27:16

sapphire : Exo 24:10; Job 28:6, Job 28:16; Son 5:14; Eze 1:26, Eze 10:1; Rev 4:3

diamond : Jer 17:1; Eze 28:13

TSK: Exo 28:19 - a ligure // an agate a ligure : Exo 39:12 an agate : Isa 54:12

a ligure : Exo 39:12

an agate : Isa 54:12

TSK: Exo 28:20 - a beryl // an onyx // a jasper // enclosings a beryl : Eze 1:16, Eze 10:9; Dan 10:6; Rev 21:20 an onyx : Exo 28:9 a jasper : Rev 4:3, Rev 21:11, Rev 21:18-20 enclosings : Heb. fillings, Exo 28:13

a beryl : Eze 1:16, Eze 10:9; Dan 10:6; Rev 21:20

an onyx : Exo 28:9

a jasper : Rev 4:3, Rev 21:11, Rev 21:18-20

enclosings : Heb. fillings, Exo 28:13

TSK: Exo 28:21 - twelve // according to the twelve twelve : Exo 28:9-11 according to the twelve : 1Ki 18:31; Luk 22:30; Jam 1:1; Rev 7:4-8, Rev 21:12

twelve : Exo 28:9-11

according to the twelve : 1Ki 18:31; Luk 22:30; Jam 1:1; Rev 7:4-8, Rev 21:12

TSK: Exo 28:22 - -- Exo 28:14

TSK: Exo 28:23 - -- Exo 25:11-15

TSK: Exo 28:25 - wreathen chains // on the shoulder pieces // of the ephod wreathen chains : Exo 28:14, Exo 39:15 on the shoulder pieces : Exo 28:7 of the ephod : Exo 39:4

wreathen chains : Exo 28:14, Exo 39:15

on the shoulder pieces : Exo 28:7

of the ephod : Exo 39:4

TSK: Exo 28:27 - the curious girdle the curious girdle : Exo 28:8

the curious girdle : Exo 28:8

TSK: Exo 28:28 - a lace a lace : Exo 28:31, Exo 28:37, Exo 39:30, Exo 39:31; Num 15:38

TSK: Exo 28:29 - in the // upon // a in the : Exo 28:15, Exo 28:30 upon : Exo 28:12; Jer 30:21; Rom 10:1 a : Son 8:6; Isa 49:15, Isa 49:16

TSK: Exo 28:30 - bear the judgment // upon his heart the Urim and Thummim, את אורים ואת התמים the Urim and Thummim, lights and perfections; rendered by the LXX δηλωσιϚ κα...

the Urim and Thummim, את אורים ואת התמים the Urim and Thummim, lights and perfections; rendered by the LXX δηλωσιϚ και αληθεια , manifestation and truth; and, by the Vulgate, doctrina et veritas , doctrine and truth. Among the various and contradictory opinions respecting the form and substance of these mysterious appendages, the most probable seems to be that of Josephus, Philo, Bp. Patrick, Parkhurst, and the Jewish writers generally; who state, that they were no other than the twelve precious stones of the high priest’ s breastplate. In support of this statement, it is observed:

1.    That in the description of the high priest’ s breastplate, Exo 39:8, et seq. , the Urim and Thummim are not mentioned, but only the rows of stones; and on the contrary, in Lev 8:8, the Urim and Thummim are expressly mentioned, but not a word is said of the four rows of stones.

2.    As Moses has given such a particular description of every thing relative to the high priest’ s dress, these would certainly have been described had they been different from what was previously mentioned. Lev 8:8; Num 27:21; Deu 33:8; Jdg 1:1, Jdg 20:18, Jdg 20:23, Jdg 20:27, Jdg 20:28; 1Sa 23:9-12; 1Sa 28:6, 1Sa 30:7, 1Sa 30:8; Ezr 2:63; Neh 7:65

bear the judgment : Zec 6:13

upon his heart : 2Co 6:11, 2Co 6:12, 2Co 7:3, 2Co 12:15; Phi 1:7, Phi 1:8; Heb 2:17, Heb 4:15, Heb 9:12, Heb 9:24

TSK: Exo 28:31 - -- Exo 28:4, Exo 28:28, Exo 39:22; Lev 8:7

TSK: Exo 28:32 - as it were // that it be not rent as it were : Exo 39:28; 2Ch 26:14; Neh 4:16; Job 41:26 that it be not rent : Joh 19:23, Joh 19:24; Eph 4:3-16

as it were : Exo 39:28; 2Ch 26:14; Neh 4:16; Job 41:26

that it be not rent : Joh 19:23, Joh 19:24; Eph 4:3-16

TSK: Exo 28:33 - And // hem // pomegranates // bells And : Exo 39:24-26 hem : or, skirts pomegranates : 1Ki 7:18; 2Ki 25:17 bells : Zec 14:20

And : Exo 39:24-26

hem : or, skirts

pomegranates : 1Ki 7:18; 2Ki 25:17

bells : Zec 14:20

TSK: Exo 28:34 - -- Psa 89:15; Son 2:3, Son 4:3, Son 4:13, Son 6:7, Son 6:11, Son 8:2; Joh 15:4-8, Joh 15:16; Col 1:5, Col 1:6, Col 1:10

TSK: Exo 28:35 - goeth in goeth in : Lev 16:2; Heb 9:12

goeth in : Lev 16:2; Heb 9:12

TSK: Exo 28:36 - a plate of pure gold // grave upon it // HOLINESS a plate of pure gold : The word tzitz , which we translate a plate, properly signifies a flower. It is rendered by the LXX πεταλον , a lea...

a plate of pure gold : The word tzitz , which we translate a plate, properly signifies a flower. It is rendered by the LXX πεταλον , a leaf, and is called nezer , a crown in Exo 29:6 and διαδημα , a diadem, by the author of the book of Wisdom, 28:24. Josephus says that it was adorned with three rows of the flower which the Greeks call κυανος . It was two fingers broad, of a circular form, suited to the shape of the head, and so long that it reached from ear to ear, and was fastened upon a blue lace or ribband, which was tied behind the head; and as the plate reached only half round the head, the remaining part of the ribband was highly ornamented with artificial flowers.

grave upon it : Exo 28:9, Exo 28:11

HOLINESS : Exo 39:30; Lev 8:9, Lev 10:3, Lev 19:2; Psa 93:5; Eze 43:12; Zec 14:20; Heb 7:26; Heb 12:14; 1Pe 1:15, 1Pe 1:16, 1Pe 2:9; Rev 21:27

TSK: Exo 28:37 - blue // the mitre it blue : Exo 28:28, Exo 28:31; Num 15:38 the mitre it : Exo 28:4, Exo 29:6, Exo 39:30, Exo 39:31; Lev 8:9; Zec 3:5

TSK: Exo 28:38 - bear the iniquity // accepted bear the iniquity : Exo 28:43; Lev 10:17, Lev 22:9; Num 18:1; Isa 53:6, Isa 53:11, Isa 53:12; Eze 4:4-6; Joh 1:29; 2Co 5:21; Heb 9:28; 1Pe 2:24, 1Pe 3...

TSK: Exo 28:39 - embroider // the girdle // needlework embroider : Exo 28:4 the girdle : Exo 28:8 needlework : Psa 45:14

embroider : Exo 28:4

the girdle : Exo 28:8

needlework : Psa 45:14

TSK: Exo 28:40 - Aaron’ s // bonnets // glory Aaron’ s : Exo 28:4, Exo 39:27, Exo 39:29, Exo 39:41; Lev 8:13; Eze 44:17, Eze 44:18 bonnets : Exo 29:9 glory : Exo 28:2; 1Ti 2:9, 1Ti 2:10, 1Ti ...

TSK: Exo 28:41 - anoint them // and consecrate them // minister anoint them : Exo 29:7, Exo 30:23-30, Exo 40:15; Lev 10:7; Isa 10:27, Isa 61:1; Joh 3:34; 2Co 1:21, 2Co 1:22; 1Jo 2:20, 1Jo 2:27 and consecrate them :...

anoint them : Exo 29:7, Exo 30:23-30, Exo 40:15; Lev 10:7; Isa 10:27, Isa 61:1; Joh 3:34; 2Co 1:21, 2Co 1:22; 1Jo 2:20, 1Jo 2:27

and consecrate them : Heb. fill their hand, Exo 29:9, Exo 29:24, Exo 29:35; Lev. 8:1-36; Num 3:3; Eze 43:26; Heb 5:4, Heb 7:28

minister : Exo 28:1, Exo 28:4

TSK: Exo 28:42 - breeches // their nakedness // reach breeches : Exo 20:26, Exo 39:28; Lev 6:10, Lev 16:4; Eze 44:18; Rev 3:18 their nakedness : Heb. flesh of their nakedness reach : Heb. be.

breeches : Exo 20:26, Exo 39:28; Lev 6:10, Lev 16:4; Eze 44:18; Rev 3:18

their nakedness : Heb. flesh of their nakedness

reach : Heb. be.

TSK: Exo 28:43 - unto the altar // bear not iniquity // a statute unto the altar : Exo 20:26 bear not iniquity : Lev 5:1, Lev 5:17, Lev 20:19, Lev 20:20, Lev 22:9; Num 9:13, Num 18:22; Mat 22:12, Mat 22:13 a statute ...

unto the altar : Exo 20:26

bear not iniquity : Lev 5:1, Lev 5:17, Lev 20:19, Lev 20:20, Lev 22:9; Num 9:13, Num 18:22; Mat 22:12, Mat 22:13

a statute : Exo 27:21; Lev 17:7

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Exo 28:1 - Take thou unto thee Take thou unto thee cause them to come near unto thee, that thou mayst before them and before the people declare the will of God herein, and solemnl...

Take thou unto thee cause them to come near unto thee, that thou mayst before them and before the people declare the will of God herein, and solemnly set them apart for his office.

Poole: Exo 28:2 - -- Garments to be used only in holy ministrations, for glory and for beauty , i.e. such as are glorious and beautiful; partly to mind the people of th...

Garments to be used only in holy ministrations,

for glory and for beauty , i.e. such as are glorious and beautiful; partly to mind the people of the dignity and excellency of their office and employment; and principally to represent the glorious robes wherewith Christ is both clothed himself, and clotheth all his people, who are made priests unto God.

Poole: Exo 28:3 - All that are wise-hearted // Whom I have filled All that are wise-hearted , i.e. skilful artists. The Hebrews make the heart, not the brain, the seat of wisdom See Job 9:4 . Whom I have filled ; ei...

All that are wise-hearted , i.e. skilful artists. The Hebrews make the heart, not the brain, the seat of wisdom See Job 9:4 .

Whom I have filled ; either,

1. By my ordinary providence and assistance, giving them both ability and opportunity to learn the arts; or rather,

2. By extraordinary inspiration, which was necessary for the Israelites, whose base and laborious drudgery took off their minds and hands from all ingenious studies and arts. To consecrate him, i.e. to be an outward sign of my calling and consecration of him to my holy service. A metonymical expression.

Poole: Exo 28:4 - An ephod // A robe // A broidered coat // A mitre // girdle An ephod was a short upper garment, made without sleeves, which was girt about the body. And it was twofold; the one made of fine linen, which was co...

An ephod was a short upper garment, made without sleeves, which was girt about the body. And it was twofold; the one made of fine linen, which was common not only to all the priests, as 1Sa 2:18 22:18 ; but to some others also upon solemn and sacred occasions, as 2Sa 6:14 : the other made of divers stuffs and colours, peculiar to the high priest; the parts whereof were not sewed, but tied together.

A robe ; an upper garment like a surplice.

A broidered coat ; an under coat curiously wrought with circular works like eyes, as the word notes, and richly adorned with gems and other things.

A mitre ; a kind of bonnet or cap for the covering of the head, supposed to be something like a Turkish turban for the form of it. A

girdle , to enclose and fasten all the other garments, which were loose in themselves, that he might be more expeditious in his work.

Poole: Exo 28:6 - Of gold Of gold , beaten out into plates, and cut into wires.

Of gold , beaten out into plates, and cut into wires.

Poole: Exo 28:7 - The two shoulder-pieces The two shoulder-pieces were two parts of the ephod going up from the body of the ephod, the one before, the other behind, which when the priest had ...

The two shoulder-pieces were two parts of the ephod going up from the body of the ephod, the one before, the other behind, which when the priest had put over his head, were tied together, and covered the priest’ s shoulders, and part of his back and breast.

Poole: Exo 28:8 - The girdle of the ephod // Of the same The girdle of the ephod was for the closer fastening and girding of it. Which is upon it: this is added to distinguish it from the other girdle, Exo ...

The girdle of the ephod was for the closer fastening and girding of it. Which is upon it: this is added to distinguish it from the other girdle, Exo 28:4 , which was to gird all the garments, and was tied in a lower place.

Of the same ; either,

1. Of the same piece; or rather,

2. Of the same kind of materials and workmanship, as the following words explain it.

Poole: Exo 28:10 - -- Levi seems to be omitted here, as being sufficiently represented by the high priest himself.

Levi seems to be omitted here, as being sufficiently represented by the high priest himself.

Poole: Exo 28:11 - -- Hollow places, such as are made in golden rings to receive and hold the precious stones which are put in them.

Hollow places, such as are made in golden rings to receive and hold the precious stones which are put in them.

Poole: Exo 28:12 - Upon the shoulders of the ephod // Before the Lord // For a memorial Upon the shoulders of the ephod , i.e. in the place where the two shoulder-pieces were joined together. Before the Lord ; into the holy of holies: an...

Upon the shoulders of the ephod , i.e. in the place where the two shoulder-pieces were joined together.

Before the Lord ; into the holy of holies: an evident type of Christ’ s entering into heaven with the names and in the stead of his people, the true Israel, upon his shoulders, and presenting them to his Father with acceptance.

For a memorial ; not so much to the high priest, that he should not forget to pray for them, as to God, that he, beholding their names there, according to his order, might graciously remember them, and show mercy unto them. Such a memorial to God was the rainbow, Gen 9:13 . Such things are spoken of God after the manner of men.

Poole: Exo 28:14 - At the ends At the ends , or, with ends ; i.e. not like chains that are fastened about one’ s neck or arm, which seem to have no end; but two distinct chain...

At the ends , or, with ends ; i.e. not like chains that are fastened about one’ s neck or arm, which seem to have no end; but two distinct chains, with two several ends, both hanging downward: compare Exo 28:22 . The Syriac render it double , others equal , or of equal length.

Poole: Exo 28:15 - -- This was a square and curiously wrought piece put over the ephod upon one’ s breast, called of judgment , because from thence the Israelites w...

This was a square and curiously wrought piece put over the ephod upon one’ s breast, called of judgment , because from thence the Israelites were to expect and receive their judgment, and the mind of God in all those weighty matters of war or peace wherein they consulted God for direction.

Poole: Exo 28:16 - -- It was doubled for greater strength, that it might better support and secure the precious stones which were put into it, and that it might receive ...

It was doubled for greater strength, that it might better support and secure the precious stones which were put into it, and that it might receive the Urim and Thummim, Lev 8:8 .

Poole: Exo 28:17 - -- It is needless to trouble the reader with the explication of these stones, which the Jewish doctors themselves are not agreed in, seeing this use of...

It is needless to trouble the reader with the explication of these stones, which the Jewish doctors themselves are not agreed in, seeing this use of them is now abolished. It may suffice to know that they were precious stones severally allotted to the names of the several tribes, according to God’ s good pleasure, possibly with respect to some disposition or concernment of each tribe, which at this distance we cannot learn.

Poole: Exo 28:21 - -- i.e. According to the order of their birth, the first stone to the eldest, the second to the next, &c.

i.e. According to the order of their birth, the first stone to the eldest, the second to the next, &c.

Poole: Exo 28:22 - -- Some think these are the same with those mentioned Exo 28:14 . But it seems improbable and without example that God should in this short description...

Some think these are the same with those mentioned Exo 28:14 . But it seems improbable and without example that God should in this short description, and that within a few verses, give a new and second command concerning the same thing. It may rather seem that these are other chains fastened to the breastplate, as it follows, whereas those chains, Exo 28:14 , seem to have been fastened to the ephod, to those ouches made in it for that purpose, Exo 28:13 . And whereas these chains also are fastened in the said ouches, Exo 28:25 , two several chains may well enough be fastened in divers parts of each of the ouches; and there seems to be this difference between the chains, those chains mentioned Exo 28:14 are said to be fastened only at one end, even to the ouches of the ephod, whence they might hang down loosely, whereas these are manifestly fastened at both ends, Exo 28:24,25 .

Poole: Exo 28:25 - -- i.e. In the forepart of the ephod; or before him, i.e. the high priest, in his forepart, upon his breast.

i.e. In the forepart of the ephod; or before him, i.e. the high priest, in his forepart, upon his breast.

Poole: Exo 28:26 - Upon the two ends // In the side of the ephod inward Upon the two ends , to wit, upon the lower ends, for there were other rings put upon the upper ends, Exo 28:23-25 . In the side of the ephod inward ,...

Upon the two ends , to wit, upon the lower ends, for there were other rings put upon the upper ends, Exo 28:23-25 .

In the side of the ephod inward , i.e. in the inner side of the ephod, under which these rings were hid; for the ephod was double, Exo 28:16 .

Poole: Exo 28:27 - Two other rings // On the two sides of the ephod underneath // Toward the forepart thereof // Over-against the other coupling thereof Two other rings , to answer the two rings in the breastplate, that by all these the breastplate might be the better fastened to the ephod. On the two...

Two other rings , to answer the two rings in the breastplate, that by all these the breastplate might be the better fastened to the ephod.

On the two sides of the ephod underneath ; in the lower part of the ephod, or in that part of it which is under the lowest part of the breastplate.

Toward the forepart thereof ; towards the breast.

Over-against the other coupling thereof , i.e. over-against the ouches on the shoulder-pieces, where the upper part of the breastplate was fastened to the ephod.

Poole: Exo 28:29 - Unto the holy place Partly to admonish the high priest of that dear affection he should have to his people, and with what ardency he should pray for them, and principal...

Partly to admonish the high priest of that dear affection he should have to his people, and with what ardency he should pray for them, and principally to represent the tender compassions of Christ, the great High Priest, towards his people, and how mindful he is of them, and of all their concerns, even when he is in the holy of holies, that is, in heaven, where he remembers them still, and incessantly intercedes for them.

Unto the holy place , i.e. into the most holy place; the positive degree being put for the superlative.

Poole: Exo 28:30 - The judgment of the children of Israel // Before the Lord continually The words Urim and Thummim confessedly signify light , or illuminations and perfections , which may be understood either of two differing things,...

The words Urim and Thummim confessedly signify light , or illuminations and perfections , which may be understood either of two differing things, the one noting the knowledge, the other the perfection, to wit, of virtues and graces, which were required in the high priest, and which were in Christ in an eminent degree, and from him alone communicated to his people; or of one and the same thing, noting perfect light or illumination, by a figure called hendyadis , oft used in Scripture, as Deu 16:18 Mat 4:16 , compared with Job 10:21 Joh 3:5 Act 17:25 , compared with Gen 2:7 . Which may seem probable,

1. Because the great use of this instrument was to give light and direction in dubious and difficult cases, and not to confer any other perfection upon any person.

2. Because sometimes both these words and things are expressed only by one of them, and that is by Urim , Num 27:21 1Sa 28:6 , which signifies lights . And the name seems to be given from the effect, because hence the Israelites had clear light, and perfect or certain direction in dark and doubtful matters. But the great question is, what this Urim and Thummim was, and in what manner God answered by it; which God having on purpose concealed from us, and not set down the matter or form of it, as he hath done of all the other particulars, it may seem curiosity and presumption for men solicitously to inquire, and positively to determine. Many conceive it was nothing else but the twelve precious stones, wherein the names of the twelve tribes were engraven, and that the answer of God was composed out of those letters which either show more brightly, or thrust themselves further outward, than the rest did; which seems a frivolous and ungrounded conjecture, both because all the letters of the alphabet were not there, and so all answers could not be given by them; and because it was shut up within the duplicature of the breastplate, and therefore could not be seen by the high priest; and there is not a word to signify that he was to take it out thence, and look upon it, but rather the contrary is evident. And that this Urim and Thummim are not the same thing with those twelve stones may be easily proved:

1. Because the stones were set and engraven in the breastplate, Exo 28:17,21 , this was only put into it, which is a word of quite different and more loose and large signification, and therefore probably doth not design the same thing.

2. It is not likely that in such a brief account of the sacred utensils the same command would be repeated again, especially in more dark and general words than it was mentioned before. And how could Moses now put it in, when the workmen had fastened it there before? or why should he be required to put it in the breastplate, when it was fastened to it already, and could not without violence be taken from it?

3. Because the stones were put in by the workmen, Exo 39:10 , the Urim and Thummim by Moses himself, Lev 8:8 . It is objected, that where the stones are mentioned there is no mention of Urim and Thummim, as Ex 29 , and that where the Urim and Thummim are mentioned there is no mention of the stones, as Lev 8:8 , which shows they were one and the same thing. But that is not necessary, and there is an evident reason of both those omissions; of the former, Ex 39 , because he mentions only those things which were made by the workmen, whereas the Urium and Thummim seems to have been made immediately by God, or by Moses with God’ s direction; of the latter, Le 8 , because the stones are implied in the breastplate as a part of it, and being fastened to it, whereas there he only mentions what was put in by Moses himself. There are other conjectures, as that it; as the name Jehovah, or some visible representations, &c. But such conjectures are as easily denied as affirmed. It is therefore more modest and reasonable to be silent where God is silent, than to indulge ourselves in boundless and groundless fancies. It may suffice us to know that this was a singular piece of Divine workmanship, which the high priest was obliged to wear upon solemn occasions, as one of the conditions upon which God engaged to give him answers; which answers God might give to him either by inward suggestion to his mind, or by a vocal expression to his ear. But which of those ways, or whether by any other way, it is needless now to search, and impossible certainly to discover.

The judgment of the children of Israel . A short speech. As the testimony is oft put for the ark of the testimony , so is the judgment here for the breastplate of judgment , i.e. that breastplate which declared the judgment, or oracle, or mind of God to the Israelites in those cases which they brought to the Lord.

Before the Lord continually , i.e. at all times when he shall appear before the Lord in the holy place.

Poole: Exo 28:31 - -- Not the ephod itself, for that was prescribed before, Exo 28:6 , but a long and loose robe called the robe of the ephod , because it was worn next ...

Not the ephod itself, for that was prescribed before, Exo 28:6 , but a long and loose robe called the

robe of the ephod , because it was worn next under it, and was girded about the high priest’ s body with the curious girdle of the ephod.

Poole: Exo 28:33 - Pomegranates // bells Pomegranates ; the figures of pomegranates, but flat and embroidered. By the sound of the bells the people might be admonished of the work which the...

Pomegranates ; the figures of pomegranates, but flat and embroidered. By the sound of the

bells the people might be admonished of the work which the priest was employed in, and thereby be provoked to join their affections and devotions with his. These pomegranates and bells might note either,

1. The qualifications of the priest, who was both to declare or give forth the sound of pure and wholesome doctrine, and to adorn his doctrine with the fragrancy and fruitfulness of a good conversation. Or,

2. The glorious achievements of Christ, who caused the sound of his doctrine to be heard by all men, and offered up himself as a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling savour , Eph 5:2 .

Poole: Exo 28:35 - For his disobedience or carelessness For his disobedience or carelessness . For though the matter might seem small in itself, yet it was an error in God’ s worship, wherein God is mo...

For his disobedience or carelessness . For though the matter might seem small in itself, yet it was an error in God’ s worship, wherein God is more severe than in other things; and it was an error of the high priest, who had more knowledge of God’ s mind herein, and was obliged to more care and diligence, not only for himself, but for the influences of his bad example upon the people.

Poole: Exo 28:36 - Holiness to the Lord The plate of pure gold was like a half coronet, reaching, as the Jews say, from ear to ear. Holiness to the Lord , to mind the priest of his speci...

The plate of pure gold was like a half coronet, reaching, as the Jews say, from ear to ear.

Holiness to the Lord , to mind the priest of his special consecration to God, and of that singular holiness which was required of him, as at all times, so especially in his approaches to God. It might also represent Christ, who is called the Holy One of God , and who is a crowned Priest, or both King and Priest.

Poole: Exo 28:37 - -- The words may be rendered, thou shalt put it on , or, bind it , as the Vulgate renders it, with a blue lace , to wit, upon the mitre, as it follo...

The words may be rendered, thou shalt put it on , or, bind it , as the Vulgate renders it, with a blue lace , to wit, upon the mitre, as it follows.

Poole: Exo 28:38 - That Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things // Which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts // It shall be always upon his forehead That Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things ; either, 1. That he, being consecrated to God for this end, that he should take care as far as h...

That Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things ; either,

1. That he, being consecrated to God for this end, that he should take care as far as he could that both persons and things presented to God should be holy or agreeable to the mind of God, might bear the punishment for any miscarriage committed therein which he could have prevented. Or rather,

2. That he, being a holy person, and appointed by God to make a typical reconciliation for the sins of the people, and to intercede for them, might take away, or obtain from God the pardon of their iniquity , wherewith even their holy things are defiled, if God should severely mark what is amiss in them; which sense the last words of the verse favour. And the high priest was herein eminently a type of Christ, who properly and truly bare and took away the iniquity of his people’ s holy things by his sacrifice and intercession.

Which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts , i.e. shall separate or consecrate unto God in all their offerings or gifts. If there be any thing amiss either in the thing offered, or in the manner of offering, God upon the priest’ s intercession will pardon it.

It shall be always upon his forehead , i.e. at all times of his solemn appearance before God.

Poole: Exo 28:39 - The coat The coat was a loose and large garment made with sleeves, worn under the ephod, reaching down to the feet, which was girt with a girdle, Lev 8:7 .

The coat was a loose and large garment made with sleeves, worn under the ephod, reaching down to the feet, which was girt with a girdle, Lev 8:7 .

Poole: Exo 28:40 - -- The coats were not of woollen, Eze 44:17 , but of linen, Exo 39:27 . These were ephods, 1Sa 22:18 .

The coats were not of woollen, Eze 44:17 , but of linen, Exo 39:27 . These were ephods, 1Sa 22:18 .

Poole: Exo 28:41 - Consecrate them Consecrate them , Heb. fill their hand , i.e. present them to God with part of the sacrifice in their hands, as we find, Exo 29:24 , by that rite put...

Consecrate them , Heb. fill their hand , i.e. present them to God with part of the sacrifice in their hands, as we find, Exo 29:24 , by that rite putting them into their office.

Poole: Exo 28:42 - -- Including both. Compare Exo 20:26 .

Including both. Compare Exo 20:26 .

Haydock: Exo 28:1 - Take Take, &c. Priests must be called by God, as Aaron was, Hebrews v. (Worthington)

Take, &c. Priests must be called by God, as Aaron was, Hebrews v. (Worthington)

Haydock: Exo 28:2 - And beauty And beauty, that all may be filled with awe, and adore the majesty of God. (Calmet) --- Our priestly vestments, which are objects of derision to th...

And beauty, that all may be filled with awe, and adore the majesty of God. (Calmet) ---

Our priestly vestments, which are objects of derision to the ignorant, are made so rich and beautiful for the same purpose. They have the sanction of God, by a parity of reason; and the authority of his church. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 28:3 - Heart // Wisdom // Consecrated Heart. The Hebrews generally attributed to the heart, what we give to the head. --- Wisdom. All good, both inthe order of grace and of nature, pr...

Heart. The Hebrews generally attributed to the heart, what we give to the head. ---

Wisdom. All good, both inthe order of grace and of nature, proceeds from God. ---

Consecrated, as if they imparted a sort of virtue. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 28:4 - Rational and ephod // Tunic // Garment // Mitre // Girdle Rational and ephod. See chap. xxv. 7. --- Tunic, long robe or cloak of blue wool. --- Garment, next the body, and woven very close and thick. --...

Rational and ephod. See chap. xxv. 7. ---

Tunic, long robe or cloak of blue wool. ---

Garment, next the body, and woven very close and thick. ---

Mitre, like a tiara or turban of linen, or rather of byssus, or fine cotton. This was never laid aside in the temple; as, to appear uncovered was then esteemed a mark of insolence. Eneas introduced the Phrygian custom into Italy, of sacrificing with a cap on the head. ---

Girdle, for his under-garment, besides that which formed a part of the ephod. (Calmet) ---

By these vestments, we are admonished to exercise the virtues of discretion, &c. (St. Jerome, ep. ad Fab.)

Haydock: Exo 28:6 - Ephod Ephod, ( superhumerale. ) That of the other priests was made of linen; and such were worn by Samuel, and by David, when he danced before the ark. (...

Ephod, ( superhumerale. ) That of the other priests was made of linen; and such were worn by Samuel, and by David, when he danced before the ark. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 28:7 - Together Together, by the hooks, under the two precious stones. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] iii. 8.)

Together, by the hooks, under the two precious stones. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] iii. 8.)

Haydock: Exo 28:8 - Work Work. Hebrew, "all the work, and the girdle, shall be of the same" materials, and net sewed on afterwards. (Calmet)

Work. Hebrew, "all the work, and the girdle, shall be of the same" materials, and net sewed on afterwards. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 28:9 - Onyx Onyx. Septuagint, emeralds. (Calmet) --- Hebrew shoham, which the Protestants render onyx-stone. (Haydock)

Onyx. Septuagint, emeralds. (Calmet) ---

Hebrew shoham, which the Protestants render onyx-stone. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 28:10 - Birth Birth. On the right shoulder were engraven Ruben, Simeon, Juda, Dan, Nephtali, and Gad. On the left, Aser, Issachar, Zabulon, Ephraim, Manasses, an...

Birth. On the right shoulder were engraven Ruben, Simeon, Juda, Dan, Nephtali, and Gad. On the left, Aser, Issachar, Zabulon, Ephraim, Manasses, and Benjamin. The high priest himself represented the tribe of Levi. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 28:12 - Remembrance Remembrance, for both, ver. 29. The sins or burdens of the people, were thus to be borne by the high priest, and he was to make intercession for the...

Remembrance, for both, ver. 29. The sins or burdens of the people, were thus to be borne by the high priest, and he was to make intercession for them. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Exo 28:13 - Hooks // Gold Hooks. Septuagint aspidiscas, "imitating the form or biting of an asp." (Calmet) --- Gold, on the ephod, by which the rational was suspended ...

Hooks. Septuagint aspidiscas, "imitating the form or biting of an asp." (Calmet) ---

Gold, on the ephod, by which the rational was suspended from the shoulders. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 28:14 - Linked Linked, &c. The present Hebrew has "at the ends," migbaloth. But the Vulgate seems to have read more properly k instead of g, as in chap. xxv...

Linked, &c. The present Hebrew has "at the ends," migbaloth. But the Vulgate seems to have read more properly k instead of g, as in chap. xxvi. 4. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 28:15 - The rational of judgment The rational of judgment. This part of the high priest's attire, which he wore at his breast, was called the rational of judgment; partly because ...

The rational of judgment. This part of the high priest's attire, which he wore at his breast, was called the rational of judgment; partly because it admonished both priest and people of their duty to God; by carrying the names of all their tribes in his presence; and by the Urim and Thummim, that is, doctrine and truth, which were written upon it: and partly because it gave divine answers and oracles, as if it were rational and endowed with judgment.

Haydock: Exo 28:16 - Span Span, or half a cubit, (Ezechiel xliii. 13, 17,) formed like a purse, in which the Rabbins say the Urim and Thummim, were placed. (Calmet)

Span, or half a cubit, (Ezechiel xliii. 13, 17,) formed like a purse, in which the Rabbins say the Urim and Thummim, were placed. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 28:17 - Stones Stones. It is difficult to ascertain the true names of these stones, interpreters are so much at variance; as they are also respecting the name of ...

Stones. It is difficult to ascertain the true names of these stones, interpreters are so much at variance; as they are also respecting the name of the 12 patriarchs, which were engraven upon each. They probably stood according to the order of their birth, ver. 10, 21. Thus Ruben, Simeon, and Levi, would occupy the first places, upon the sardius, topaz, and emerald. See on these stones Pliny, Natural History xxvii. 5; xxxviii. 8.

Haydock: Exo 28:18 - -- The carbuncle, (ruby) sapphire, and jasper, (or diamond) had on them Juda, Dan, and Nephtali.

The carbuncle, (ruby) sapphire, and jasper, (or diamond) had on them Juda, Dan, and Nephtali.

Haydock: Exo 28:19 - Ligurius, agate Ligurius, agate, and amethyst, (or eumeces; Pliny, Natural History xxxvii. 7.) had Gad, Aser, and Issachar.

Ligurius, agate, and amethyst, (or eumeces; Pliny, Natural History xxxvii. 7.) had Gad, Aser, and Issachar.

Haydock: Exo 28:20 - Chrysolite Chrysolite, (beryl and opale,) onyx, (Septuagint, beryl; Chaldean, or emerald; Calmet) beryl, (Hebrew, jasper; Septuagint &c., onyx) were inscrib...

Chrysolite, (beryl and opale,) onyx, (Septuagint, beryl; Chaldean, or emerald; Calmet) beryl, (Hebrew, jasper; Septuagint &c., onyx) were inscribed with the names of Zabulon, Joseph, and Benjamin. In Ezechiel xxviii. 13, the jasper stone comes in the sixth place, as it does in the Vulgate here. (Calmet) ---

The mystical interpretation of these stones, may be seen in Cornelius a Lapide. St. Epiphanius has written a learned work on the 12 precious stones. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 28:28 - Another Another. Hence the ephod, rational, urim, &c., are used to denote the same thing. See 1 Kings xxx. 7. (Calmet)

Another. Hence the ephod, rational, urim, &c., are used to denote the same thing. See 1 Kings xxx. 7. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 28:30 - Doctrine and truth // Aurim // Judgment Doctrine and truth. Hebrew Urim and Thummim: illuminations and perfections. These words, written on the rational, seem to signify the light...

Doctrine and truth. Hebrew Urim and Thummim: illuminations and perfections. These words, written on the rational, seem to signify the light of doctrine, and the integrity of life, with which the priests of God ought to approach to him. (Challoner) ---

Aurim means things brilliant, "declarations," Septuagint, and thomim, "perfections," or "truths." Some imagine, that God required the stones of the rational to be of the utmost brilliancy and perfection; Oleaster and Josephus (Antiquities iii. 8,) say, it was by the appearance of those stones that the high priest was enlightened, when he consulted God. If God approved of what was in agitation, they assumed a surprising brightness, as well as those on the high priest's shoulders. But this had not happened for 200 years before he began his history. The Urim and Thummim were not in the second temple, 1 Esdras ii. 63. Some think these words were engraven on the stones in the rational. Whether God explained his will by articulate sounds, as (Matthew iii. 17,) this is my beloved son, or internally instructed the high priest, when he was consulted, cannot be determined. (Calmet) ---

St. Chrysostom is of the former opinion. "If any thing was to be known, a voice came from between the cherubim, from the propitiatory, to declare what would happen." As the Jews lost the propitiatory, when they were led captives to Babylon, it seems they never afterwards obtained this privilege of having an oracle. God sometimes instructed them by his prophets. But, for a long time, none had appeared; and all might attend more earnestly to the voice of the Messias. (Tirinus) ---

Judgment. He shall be the supreme judge in religious matters, and must strive to pass sentence according to the dictates of my law, with truth. (Haydock) ---

The chief judge in Egypt wore a golden chain, hanging from the neck on the breast, to which was attached the image of Truth, on a sapphire stone. Olian (Var. Hist. xxxiv. 14,) also observes, that this office was always held by a venerable and honest priest.

Haydock: Exo 28:33 - Bells Bells, to denote the harmony of the universe, (Philo) and that all the actions of a priest ought to give edification. (St. Jerome)

Bells, to denote the harmony of the universe, (Philo) and that all the actions of a priest ought to give edification. (St. Jerome)

Haydock: Exo 28:35 - Die Die, for coming in disrespectfully, without giving notice. See Judith xiv. 8.

Die, for coming in disrespectfully, without giving notice. See Judith xiv. 8.

Haydock: Exo 28:36 - Plate // Holy Plate; reaching from ear to ear, two fingers' breadth, tied behind like a diadem, Wisdom xviii. 24. --- Holy, or "sanctity, belongeth to the Lord...

Plate; reaching from ear to ear, two fingers' breadth, tied behind like a diadem, Wisdom xviii. 24. ---

Holy, or "sanctity, belongeth to the Lord," and all who approach to Him, ought to be holy. (Calmet) ---

Josephus represents the ornaments of the high priest's head, like the triple crown of the pope. (Antiquities iii. 8.)

Haydock: Exo 28:38 - Iniquities Iniquities. This means, perhaps, that he shall wear these grand vestments and crown only on the solemn day of expiation, when he makes atonement for ...

Iniquities. This means, perhaps, that he shall wear these grand vestments and crown only on the solemn day of expiation, when he makes atonement for all the sins of the people, as a figure of Jesus Christ. Josephus tells us, that on other occasions, he wore a less costly attire. (Jewish Wars v. 6. or 15.) (Calmet) ---

By bearing on his forehead kodesh la Yehovah, "Holiness to the Lord," he confessed that all mankind were sinners, and stood in need of pardon. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 28:40 - Linen Linen. In Ezechiel (xliv. 17,) woollen garments are forbidden to be worn by priests. Many of the pagans required their priests to be clothed in whi...

Linen. In Ezechiel (xliv. 17,) woollen garments are forbidden to be worn by priests. Many of the pagans required their priests to be clothed in white linen. All these prescriptions of God, which seem to us so minute, had a more sublime and mysterious meaning. For in the priestly robe....was the whole world, by the colours denoting the air, light, earth, and water: the two stones on his shoulders, signified the sun and moon, as the 12 did the signs of the zodiac, or the glory of the fathers; and thy majesty was written upon the diadem of his head, Wisdom xviii. 24. Thus the priest was a mediator between God and his people, and was to be solicitous for the welfare of all. (St. Thomas Aquinas, [Summa Theologiae] 1, 2, q. 102, a. 5; St. Augustine; St. Jerome; &c.

Haydock: Exo 28:41 - Consecrate Consecrate. Hebrew and Septuagint, "thou shalt anoint and fill their hands" with oil, and the instruments of their office.

Consecrate. Hebrew and Septuagint, "thou shalt anoint and fill their hands" with oil, and the instruments of their office.

Haydock: Exo 28:42 - Linen breeches Linen breeches, descending as far as the knees. (St. Jerome) In chap. xxxix. 29, they seem to have been made of byssus, or cotton. But as linen is...

Linen breeches, descending as far as the knees. (St. Jerome) In chap. xxxix. 29, they seem to have been made of byssus, or cotton. But as linen is prescribed in all other places, perhaps a word has crept in there, by mistake of the transcribers. They were intended to remind the priests of superior modesty, as they were not commonly worn. Homer never mentions them. Virgil only specifies the cloak and tunic of Evander. Augustus wore breeches and stockings in winter. (Suetonius) ---

But the ancient breeches were not like ours, but resembled rather an apron or girdle, enveloping both thighs, and hanging from the waist. (Calmet)

Gill: Exo 28:1 - And take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him // from among the children of Israel // that they may minister unto me in the priest's office // even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons And take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him,.... Moses is bid to fetch or send for Aaron and his sons to him: or "cause" them to ...

And take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him,.... Moses is bid to fetch or send for Aaron and his sons to him: or "cause" them to "draw near" n to him, and stand before him, that he might in the name of the Lord, and by his authority, distinguish and separate them

from among the children of Israel: and before them all invest them with the office of priesthood, as it follows:

that they may minister unto me in the priest's office, before this time every master of a family was a priest, and might and did offer sacrifice, and all the Israelites were a kingdom of priests; and Moses, as Aben Ezra calls him, was "a priest of priests"; but now it being enough for him to be the political ruler of the people, and the prophet of the Lord, the priestly office is bestowed on Aaron and his sons; nor might any afterwards officiate in it but such as were of his family; and a great honour this was that was conferred on him, and to which he was called of God, as in Heb 5:4 and it is greatly in the favour of Moses, and which shows him to be an upright and undesigning man, that sought not to aggrandize himself and his family; that though he had so much honour and power himself, he sought not to entail any upon his posterity. It is hinted in the latter part of the preceding chapter, that Aaron and his sons should minister in the sanctuary, and look after the candlestick, and its lamps; and here the design of God concerning them is more fully opened, which was, that they should be his peculiar ministers and servants in his house, to do all the business appertaining to it:

even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons: who were all the sons that Aaron had that we read of; though Aben Ezra thinks it probable that he might have other sons, and therefore the names of those are particularly mentioned, who were to be taken into the priest's office with him; the two first of these died very quickly after this, in a very awful manner, as the sacred story relates; and from the other two sprung all the priests that were in all successive generations.

Gill: Exo 28:2 - And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother // for glory and beauty And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother,.... Called so, because in these he was to minister in the holy place, and perform holy servic...

And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother,.... Called so, because in these he was to minister in the holy place, and perform holy service; and because typical of the holy human nature of Christ our great High Priest, and of his spotless righteousness, and of the garments of sanctification, both outward and inward, that all believers in him, who are made priests unto God, are arrayed with: Aaron and his sons being appointed priests, their garments are first described before their work and even before their consecration to their office; and there were some peculiar to Aaron, or the high priest, and different from those of his sons, or the common priests; and which are first treated of, as the breastplate, the robe of ephod, and the plate of gold; besides these, there were four more, common to all the priests, as the coat, the breeches, the girdle, and bonnet. Now whereas some of the Heathen priests performed their office, and offered their sacrifices, naked, which was very shameful and abominable, as Braunius o from various authors has shown, though this was not done by them all: in opposition to such a filthy practice, and to show his detestation of it, the Lord orders his priests to be clothed, and that in a very splendid manner, with garments

for glory and beauty; that is, with glorious and beautiful ones, and which would make his priests look so: and this was done, partly to point out the dignity of their office to themselves, that they might take care to behave suitable to it, and keep up the honour and credit of it; and partly to make them respectable unto men, and be honoured by them, none being clothed as they were, as Aben Ezra observes; but chiefly because they were typical of the glory and beauty of Christ's human nature, which was as a garment put on, and put off, and on again, and in which he officiated as a priest, and still does; and which is now very glorious, and in which he is fairer than any of the children of men; and of the garments of salvation, and robe of righteousness, in which all his people, his priests, appear exceeding glorious and beautiful, even in a perfection of beauty.

Gill: Exo 28:3 - And thou shall speak unto all that are wise hearted // whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom // that they may make Aaron's garments, to consecrate him // that he may minister unto me in the priest's office And thou shall speak unto all that are wise hearted,.... That have knowledge and understanding in mechanic arts, particularly in making garments; and ...

And thou shall speak unto all that are wise hearted,.... That have knowledge and understanding in mechanic arts, particularly in making garments; and it required men of more than ordinary skill to be employed in making these, because they were uncommon ones, and required a good deal of thought and judgment, and care and application, to make them exactly as they should be:

whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom; for besides a common understanding of things, these required a peculiar gift from God, which some men, as Bezaleel and Aholiab had:

that they may make Aaron's garments, to consecrate him to put upon him at the time of his consecration; and indeed this was one way, by which, as well as by sacrifices, that he was consecrated, see Exo 29:1,

that he may minister unto me in the priest's office for the priests, without having these garments on, might not minister in their office; for when these garments were off, as they were when they were out of their service, they were as other men, as laymen; see Gill on Eze 42:14.

Gill: Exo 28:4 - And these are the garments which they shall make // a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle // and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons // that he may minister unto me in the priest's office And these are the garments which they shall make,.... Some for Aaron and some for his sons, some peculiar to the high priest, and others in common to ...

And these are the garments which they shall make,.... Some for Aaron and some for his sons, some peculiar to the high priest, and others in common to him and other priests:

a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle; of each of which, with others, there is a more particular account in this chapter, and will be observed in their order:

and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons: as those before mentioned, with some others not mentioned; some for Aaron only, and others that were to be worn by his sons also:

that he may minister unto me in the priest's office; these were absolutely necessary to the execution of the priestly office, and an essential qualification for it, and without which it was not lawful to serve in it.

Gill: Exo 28:5 - And they shall take // gold, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen And they shall take,.... The Targum of Jonathan adds, out of their substance; that is, those that were wise hearted, and had knowledge and skill in ma...

And they shall take,.... The Targum of Jonathan adds, out of their substance; that is, those that were wise hearted, and had knowledge and skill in making such garments; these were to take, not out of their own personal substance, but they were to take or receive from Moses what the people freely offered for such service, Exo 36:3,

gold, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen; pieces of gold, which they beat into thin plates, and drew into wires, and which they worked into stuffs, woollen or linen, or both, of the colours here mentioned; all which were made use of in the ephod, girdle, breastplate, &c. see Exo 39:3 and had a mystical significance in them.

Gill: Exo 28:6 - And they shall make the ephod // gold, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work And they shall make the ephod,.... This was the outermost garment of, all, and was put over the robe; it was a short garment, reaching to the loins, a...

And they shall make the ephod,.... This was the outermost garment of, all, and was put over the robe; it was a short garment, reaching to the loins, as Kimchi p; or to the buttocks, as Abarbinel q; and not to the heels or feet, as Jarchi r, and Maimonides s; for Josephus t says it was but a cubit long, which was little more than half a yard; he means that part of it which was distinct from the shoulder pieces, and came down from thence: the hinder part of it covered the back, and reached to the middle of the buttocks; and the forepart covered the breast and belly, and with shoulder pieces under the arm holes was buttoned with onyx stones upon the top of the shoulders, and was girt about the breast with a curious girdle: it had no sleeves, though Josephus u says it had, as appears from the make of it; it was different from the linen ephod worn by the common priests and others, and was a symbol of the human nature of Christ, our great High Priest: it was made of

gold, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work; the stuff of which it was made was interwoven with threads of gold, and threads of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and threads of linen, wrought with divers figures in a curious manner, which looked very beautiful; and was a fit emblem of the glory, excellency, and purity of Christ's human nature; of the various graces of the Spirit in it; of his heavenly original; of his blood, sufferings, and death, and glorious exaltation; and of its being a curious piece of workmanship wrought by the Lord himself, Heb 10:5.

Gill: Exo 28:7 - It shall have the two shoulder pieces thereof // joined at the two edges thereof // and so it shall be joined together It shall have the two shoulder pieces thereof,.... Which were two pieces that joined to the ephod, reaching from the arm holes to the shoulders both o...

It shall have the two shoulder pieces thereof,.... Which were two pieces that joined to the ephod, reaching from the arm holes to the shoulders both on the right and left, coming from before and behind; and meeting on the shoulders, were buttoned with two onyx stones, and covering the shoulders are called by this name:

joined at the two edges thereof; the two edges of the ephod; not sewed thereunto with a needle, as Maimonides w and other Jewish writers think, but were woven along with it, and in the weaving was of the same with it:

and so it shall be joined together; that is, the hinder and fore parts of the ephod in the shoulder pieces of it, shall be joined together by the two onyx stones upon them, hereafter mentioned, with which they were buttoned.

Gill: Exo 28:8 - And the curious girdle of the ephod, which is upon it // shall be of the same // according to the work thereof // even of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen And the curious girdle of the ephod, which is upon it,.... Which was worn along with it, and went out from it like two thongs, as Jarchi says, which g...

And the curious girdle of the ephod, which is upon it,.... Which was worn along with it, and went out from it like two thongs, as Jarchi says, which girt the ephod close to the back and breast:

shall be of the same; of the same matter as the ephod, and woven in the same manner, and together with it:

according to the work thereof; wrought with the same coloured, curious, and cunning work:

even of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen; and from the gold in it, it was called a golden girdle, to distinguish it from others, and with it the priest was girt under the arm holes about the paps, to which the allusion is, Rev 1:13 and is an emblem of the close union of the human nature of Christ to his divine which is the effect of his love to his people; which, as it is seen in his incarnation, so more especially in his sufferings and death; and it may denote his strength to do his work as a priest, his readiness to perform it, and his faithfulness and integrity in it; righteousness being the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins.

Gill: Exo 28:9 - And thou shall take two onyx stones // and grave on them the names of the children of Israel And thou shall take two onyx stones,.... called from the colour of a man's nail, which they to resemble: the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan call them...

And thou shall take two onyx stones,.... called from the colour of a man's nail, which they to resemble: the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan call them stones of beryl, and so the Syriac version; the Septuagint, stones of emerald, and the Arabic version, crystal stones: but, according to Josephus x, they were sardonyx stones, and in which Brannius y thinks he was right:

and grave on them the names of the children of Israel; the names of the twelve sons of Jacob, six on one stone and six on the other, as often mentioned, for which onyx stones are very fit; and they must be very large to have so many letters graved upon them; for there is no reason to believe the initial letters of their names only were engraved, but their whole names at length. In the Museum at Dresden is an oriental onyx which cost 48,000 dollars; it is of an oval figure, and its longest diameter is almost six inches, and in such an one might easily be engraved so many names: and Wagenseil makes mention of one in the possession of the bishop of Bamberg, in which were represented Christ sitting, and teaching his twelve apostles standing round him, of which he has given the figure z: the onyx stone being of the colour observed, was a fit emblem of Christ in his human nature, and if the sardonyx, of him in both his natures; and as the twelve tribes of Israel were a figure of the church, their names being on two stones may denote both the Jewish and Gentile churches; these being precious stones on which they were engraven, may signify how valuable the church and its members are to Christ; and being alike there, their being equally loved of God, chosen in Christ, redeemed by his blood, interested in all the blessings of his grace, and shall enjoy the same glory; and their names being there, the distinct knowledge had of them by name, and being in ouches of gold, their dignity and safety, as afterwards declared.

Gill: Exo 28:10 - Six of their names on one stone // and the other six names of the rest on the other stone // according to their birth Six of their names on one stone,.... The names of the six eldest on the stone upon the right shoulder: and the other six names of the rest on the o...

Six of their names on one stone,.... The names of the six eldest on the stone upon the right shoulder:

and the other six names of the rest on the other stone: the names of the six youngest on the stone upon the left shoulder; for these stones, as afterwards said, were put on the shoulders of the priests:

according to their birth; the order of it; so that upon the first stone were engraven the names of Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, and Naphtali; and on the second stone the names of Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, and Benjamin; and so they are disposed by Jarchi, with whom Josephus agrees a; though some Jewish writers, and particularly Maimonides b, place them otherwise; but this seems most agreeable to the letter and sense of the text.

Gill: Exo 28:11 - With the work of an engraver in stone // like the engravings of a signet shall thou engrave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel // thou shalt make them to be set in ouches of gold With the work of an engraver in stone,.... Not in common but precious stones: Moses was not to do this himself, as it could not be supposed he should,...

With the work of an engraver in stone,.... Not in common but precious stones: Moses was not to do this himself, as it could not be supposed he should, but he was to employ an engraver, whose business it was, and one that was capable of doing it in a professional manner:

like the engravings of a signet shall thou engrave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel: as in signets or seals, by which impressions are made on wax, the letters or figures are cut deep, that they might on the wax stand out; so it seems the letters of the names of the children of Israel were cut in these stones: this shows that engraving on precious stones is very old, and the ancients indeed are said to excel in this art:

thou shalt make them to be set in ouches of gold; in beazils or sockets, such as precious stones in rings are set in; these with the stones in them served as buttons to fasten together the hinder and fore part of the ephod on the shoulder pieces of it.

Gill: Exo 28:12 - And thou shall put the stones upon the shoulders of the ephod // for stones of memorial unto the children of Israel // and Aaron shall bear their names before the Lord upon his two shoulders for a memorial And thou shall put the stones upon the shoulders of the ephod,.... That is, the shoulder pieces of it; these stones were put there, the names of the t...

And thou shall put the stones upon the shoulders of the ephod,.... That is, the shoulder pieces of it; these stones were put there, the names of the twelve sons of Israel being engraven on them, and they, set in rims or sockets of gold, and serving for buttons to the shoulder pieces: but chiefly the design of them was

for stones of memorial unto the children of Israel: not to put the Israelites in mind of the merits of their ancestors, as the Targum of Jonathan; for none of their works were meritorious, and some were not good, and not worthy of remembrance; but rather to put Aaron or the high priest in mind to pray and make intercession for the twelve tribes, whose names were on the stones; or rather to put God himself in remembrance of his promises made unto them, and that they were his dear, special, and peculiar people; just as the rainbow was to be a memorial to the Lord of the covenant he made with all flesh, and which is to be understood after the manner of men:

and Aaron shall bear their names before the Lord upon his two shoulders for a memorial; signifying his presentation of them to the Lord when he appeared before him on the mercy seat; his intercession for them, and his patient bearing all their infirmities and weaknesses; in which he was a type of Christ, who presents all his people to his divine Father, makes intercession for them, and bears all their burdens, the care and government of them being upon his shoulders, Isa 9:6.

Gill: Exo 28:13 - And thou shalt make ouches of gold. And thou shalt make ouches of gold. Or sockets of gold, to put the two onyx stones in, Exo 28:11 for of other ouches we read not, excepting the enclos...

And thou shalt make ouches of gold. Or sockets of gold, to put the two onyx stones in, Exo 28:11 for of other ouches we read not, excepting the enclosings, in which the twelve stones of the breastplate were set, Exo 28:20 and these are again mentioned because of the chains to be fastened to them, of which in the following verse.

Gill: Exo 28:14 - And two chains of pure gold at the ends // of wreathen work shall thou make them // and fasten the wreathen chains to the ouches And two chains of pure gold at the ends,.... The use of which was to hang the breast plate on, after described; one end of them was fastened to rings ...

And two chains of pure gold at the ends,.... The use of which was to hang the breast plate on, after described; one end of them was fastened to rings on the ouches in the shoulder pieces, and the other end to rings on the breastplate, and thus it hung:

of wreathen work shall thou make them; these chains were not made after the manner of circles or ringlets coupled together, as chains usually are, but of golden wires twisted together as a rope is twisted

and fasten the wreathen chains to the ouches; to the ouches on the shoulder pieces of the ephod, in which the onyx stones were set, very probably to rings that were in these ouches.

Gill: Exo 28:15 - And thou shall make the breastplate of judgment // with cunning work, after the work of the ephod thou shall make it // of gold, of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine twined linen, shalt thou make it And thou shall make the breastplate of judgment,.... Called a "breastplate", because worn upon the breast of the high priest; and a breastplate "of ju...

And thou shall make the breastplate of judgment,.... Called a "breastplate", because worn upon the breast of the high priest; and a breastplate "of judgment", because it was to put him in mind that he should do justice and judgment in the execution of his office, and that he should have at heart the judgment of the people of Israel; and in difficult cases should ask it of God, and faithfully declare it to them: it was, with the twelve stones in it, an emblem of the church and people of God, borne upon the heart of Christ our great High Priest, who are made righteous by him, yea, the righteousness of God in him, and are called by his name, the Lord our righteousness; the judgment or government of whom is committed to him, and which he exercises, by appointing laws and ordinances for them, by constituting and qualifying persons to act under him, to explain those laws, and see them put in execution, by vindicating and protecting them, and by the open justification of them at the last day:

with cunning work, after the work of the ephod thou shall make it; wrought with divers figures in a very curious manner:

of gold, of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine twined linen, shalt thou make it; a piece of stuff interwoven with threads of gold, or golden wires, and with threads of yarn, of blue, purple, and scarlet colours, and with threads of fine twined linen six times doubled; all which may signify the beautiful array of the saints, with the several graces of the Spirit; and especially their being clothed with fine linen, called the righteousness of the saints; that raiment of needlework, and clothing of wrought gold, the righteousness of Christ, consisting of his obedience, sufferings, and death, fitly expressed by these various colours.

Gill: Exo 28:16 - Four square it shall be, being doubled // a span shall be the length thereof, and a span shall be the breadth Four square it shall be, being doubled,.... That is, when it was doubled; for the length of it, according to Maimonides c, was a cubit, which is two ...

Four square it shall be, being doubled,.... That is, when it was doubled; for the length of it, according to Maimonides c, was a cubit, which is two spans, and so, when it was doubled, was but one, and its length and breadth being alike, as follows:

a span shall be the length thereof, and a span shall be the breadth thereof; a square, which is the measure, the form of the new Jerusalem, the church of Christ, Rev 21:16 and may denote the perfection, firmness, and immovableness of it, Psa 125:1. Some have thought that this breastplate was doubled, in order to have something enclosed in it: some imagine, that within this fold were put the Urim and Thummim, which they suppose to be two words engraved on a stone, and different from the twelve stones in it; others, that the name of Jehovah was written and put there, as the Targum of Jonathan and Jarchi on Exo 28:30 and other Jewish writers, and others, fancy some little images were put within these folds, the name with the teraphim, and supposed to be the Urim and Thummim; but if these were hid in the folds, they could not be seen when consulted; it is most probable there is nothing put within the double, which was not done for any such use; but most likely that it might be strong to bear the weight of the precious stones, put in ouches of gold upon it.

Gill: Exo 28:17 - And thou shalt set in it settings of stones // even four rows of stones // the first row shall be a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle // this shall be the first row And thou shalt set in it settings of stones,.... Or "fill in it fillings of stones" d; which shows that there were in it ouches, or sockets of gold, t...

And thou shalt set in it settings of stones,.... Or "fill in it fillings of stones" d; which shows that there were in it ouches, or sockets of gold, the hollows of which were to be filled up with precious stones:

even four rows of stones; making a four square, and so filling up the measure of the breastplate:

the first row shall be a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle; about these stones, and those that follow, there is a great variety of interpretations of them, both among Jews and Christians; and they seem to be little known: our translators upon the whole seem to be as right as any in giving the names of them; the first of these, the "sardius", is a red stone of a blood colour, as the "cornelian" or "ruby", and which some have thought is here meant, and has its name either from the place where it has been found, Sardis or Sardinia; or rather from its red colour; for "sered" signifies red in Eze 28:13 as Braunius e has observed from Kimchi; and so Odem, which is the word here used, signifies, and undoubtedly intends a stone of such a colour; and it is highly probable that this is the Demium of Pliny f, which is one of the three kinds of sardius in India; and the red is so called from its redness, as the same Braunius observes. The second stone, the "topaz", had its name, according to Pliny g, from an island in Arabia, in the Red sea, called Topazos; and the best topaz is the topaz of Cush or Arabia, as in Job 28:19. The topaz of the ancients was of a green colour; and so the three Targums call this stone Jarken or Jarketha, which signifies green; hence some have taken this to be the emerald, which is of a fine green colour: the third stone is the "carbuncle", as we render it; whatever stone is meant, it must be a bright and glittering one, like lightning, as the word signifies; wherefore some have taken it to be the emerald, so the Septuagint and Braunius h; it being a very radiant and glittering stone, of a grass green, and very refreshing to the sight; but Danaeus i says, that the carbuncle is that species of the ruby, which of all is most beautiful and excellent, and darts out light like lightning to those that look at it at a distance, and shines in the middle of the night and darkness, so that it enlightens places near it, as if it were a sun:

this shall be the first row; now upon these three stones were engraven the names of Reuben, Simeon, and Levi, as both the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem agree.

Gill: Exo 28:18 - And the second row shall be an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond. And the second row shall be an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond. The first of these stones is by both the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan rendered a...

And the second row shall be an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond. The first of these stones is by both the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan rendered an "emerald", as by us; and which is described by Pliny k as of a green colour, exceeding delightful and pleasant, and to which he gives the third place among precious stones; though by many the stone here called Nophec is thought to be the carbuncle, and is so rendered by the Septuagint; the carbuncle of the ancients is no other than what we call the, "ruby"; and which Braunius l thinks is here meant, and so Abarbinel, which is just making an exchange of the last stone of the first row for this; and De Dieu observes, that if any chooses to render the preceding stone an emerald, as Braunius does, he must render this a carbuncle or ruby; and if he renders that a carbuncle, then he must this for an emerald. The next stone is "the sapphire", of which one would think there could be no doubt, it is the very Hebrew word itself that is here used; which Ruaeus m says is of a sky colour, and sparkles with golden spots or specks, with which agrees Job 28:6. The third stone of this row is the "diamond" or adamant; and that this stone is meant seems clear from its name Jahalom, which comes from a word which signifies to break; and from hence a hammer has its name, because this stone pierces, cuts, and breaks other stones, but cannot be broken itself. On these three stones were engraved, according to the Jerusalem Targum, the names of the three tribes of Judah, Issachar and Zebulun; but more truly, according to the Targum of Jonathan, the names of the tribes of Judah, Dan and Naphtali, and so Jarchi; for the names here, as on the onyx stones, were according to the order of their birth.

Gill: Exo 28:19 - And the third row, a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst. And the third row, a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst. The first of these stones, the ligure or lyncurius, is said to be so called from the congealed...

And the third row, a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst. The first of these stones, the ligure or lyncurius, is said to be so called from the congealed urine of the lynx n, but rather from the spots of that creature; for, according to Danaeus o, it is the same stone with that called "stellina", from having many specks like stars spread about in it. Braunius p takes the "jacinth" stone to be here meant, and so does Ainsworth; see Rev 21:20, the second stone, the agate, is well known; and though now of little account, was formerly in great esteem, as Pliny q asserts, and therefore may well be thought to have a place among these stones. Pyrrhus king of Epirus had a very famous one, in which, not by art, but by nature, were seen the nine Muses, and Apollo holding an harp; the word for it here is "shebo", which comes from a word which signifies to captivate; because, as De Dieu observes, this stone is easily captivated under the hand of the artificer; there being no stone which so easily admits of engravings as this. The last of this row is the "amethyst"; which stone has its name either from its being of the colour of wine; or, as others, from its being a preservative from drunkenness: the Hebrew word "achlamah" seems to come from a word which signifies to dream; and this stone is supposed to cause persons to dream, as Aben Ezra, from one of their wise men, relates. On these three stones, according to the Jerusalem Targum, were written the names of the tribes of Dan, Naphtali, and Gad; but, according to the Targum of Jonathan, Gad, Asher, and Issachar, which is much better, for a reason before given.

Gill: Exo 28:20 - And the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper // they shall be set in gold in their enclosings And the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper,.... Whatever stone is meant by the first in this row, it must be of a sea green colour; for "ta...

And the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper,.... Whatever stone is meant by the first in this row, it must be of a sea green colour; for "tarshish", the word used, signifies the sea; and so the beryl, as Pliny r says, imitates the greenness of the pure sea. Braunius s takes it to be the chrysolite that is meant; and so does Ainsworth; and it is so rendered by the Septuagint; and this, according to Ruaeus t, is of a colour like the greenness of the sea: the "onyx" has its name from its being of the colour of a man's nail, as observed before; but here "shoham" is thought by Braunius u to be the "sardonyx", following Josephus, Jerom, and the Vulgate Latin version, which is a compound of the sardian and onyx stones: the last is undoubtedly rightly rendered the jasper, for the Hebrew word is "jaspeh": this stone is sometimes variegated with spots like a panther, and therefore is called by Onkelos "pantere"; the most valuable is the green spotted with red or purple:

they shall be set in gold in their enclosings; or be set and enclosed in ouches or sockets of gold, as the two onyx stones upon the shoulder pieces of the ephod: there were twelve of these ouches or sockets, which might be made out of one piece of gold, into which the twelve above stones were put. These stones were, no doubt, brought out of Egypt by the children of Israel, and were the gifts of their princes.

Gill: Exo 28:21 - And the stones shall be with the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names // like the engravings of a net, everyone with his name shall they be according to the twelve tribes And the stones shall be with the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names,.... And just so many are reckoned up in the preced...

And the stones shall be with the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names,.... And just so many are reckoned up in the preceding verses, each of which had one or other of the names of the children of Israel engraved on them, according to the order of their names in their birth. Some have thought that Levi's name was omitted, but their reason for it seems not sufficient; for why might not he bear the name of his own tribe, and represent that as well as the rest, since the whole Israel of God is represented by his antitype?

like the engravings of a net, everyone with his name shall they be according to the twelve tribes; not like the impression of a seal on wax, then the letters indeed would have been protuberant, as some have thought; but these were like the engravings of a seal, in which the letters or figures are cut within it: these twelve stones, with the names on them, represent the twelve tribes of Israel, and they the whole spiritual Israel of God; and being precious stones, show the excellency of the people of God, of what value, and in what esteem they are with God and Christ, being their jewels and peculiar treasure; and their names being in them, denote the special and particular knowledge God has of them, their names being written in heaven in the book of life; and they are called by name by the Lord; and being engraved as a signet, is an emblem of their being set as a seal on the arm and heart of Christ, and of their being as dear and precious to him as a signet on a man's right hand; and being set in ouches and enclosures of gold, express both the dignity and excellency, and the careful preservation of them: these were set in rows, as members of churches are, everyone in his order, rank, and station, 1Co 12:18.

Gill: Exo 28:22 - And thou shall make upon the breastplate chains at the ends // of wreathen work of pure gold And thou shall make upon the breastplate chains at the ends,.... One end of them to be put to the breastplate, and the other end to the ouches on the ...

And thou shall make upon the breastplate chains at the ends,.... One end of them to be put to the breastplate, and the other end to the ouches on the shoulder pieces of the ephod, by which the breastplate hung from thence: the Targum of Jonathan renders it, chains of a certain determined size, of length and thickness exactly alike; or terminable ones, as it may be rendered, not circular like a locket, or chain of gold worn about the neck, but that had ends to it: some interpret it chains, made like ropes, in the same manner as cables are, twisted together; and such it is certain they were, by what follows:

of wreathen work of pure gold; not of circles and ringlets of gold coupled together, but of golden wires twisted together, as ropes are.

Gill: Exo 28:23 - And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold // and shall put the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold,.... On the upper part of it, above, toward the two shoulder pieces of the ephod; these wer...

And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold,.... On the upper part of it, above, toward the two shoulder pieces of the ephod; these were to put one end of the chains into before mentioned:

and shall put the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate; the two upper ends or corners of it, the right and left.

Gill: Exo 28:24 - And thou shalt put two wreathen chains of gold in the two rings // which are on the ends of the breastplate And thou shalt put two wreathen chains of gold in the two rings,.... This expresses both how many chains were to be made, which is not before said, an...

And thou shalt put two wreathen chains of gold in the two rings,.... This expresses both how many chains were to be made, which is not before said, and the use of them, or where they were to be put, as well as the use of the rings:

which are on the ends of the breastplate; the two uppermost ends or corners of it.

Gill: Exo 28:25 - And the other two ends of the two wreathen chains thou shalt fasten in the two ouches // and put them in the shoulder pieces of the ephod before it And the other two ends of the two wreathen chains thou shalt fasten in the two ouches,.... In which the two onyx stones were set on the shoulder piece...

And the other two ends of the two wreathen chains thou shalt fasten in the two ouches,.... In which the two onyx stones were set on the shoulder pieces of the ephod, and were as buttons to them; probably there were rings to those ouches, into which these ends of the wreathen chains of gold, reaching from the breastplate, were put; or however, by some means or other they were fastened to these ouches or sockets:

and put them in the shoulder pieces of the ephod before it; that is, on the ouches upon them, as before observed: into that part or side of the ouches which was to be the fore part of the ephod; so that the breastplate hung by these chains from the shoulder pieces of the ephod, on the fore part of it, upon the breast of the high priest.

Gill: Exo 28:26 - And thou shall make two rings of gold // and thou shalt put them upon the two ends of the breastplate // in the border thereof which is in the side of the ephod inward And thou shall make two rings of gold,.... Two other rings besides those before mentioned: and thou shalt put them upon the two ends of the breastp...

And thou shall make two rings of gold,.... Two other rings besides those before mentioned:

and thou shalt put them upon the two ends of the breastplate; on the other two ends or corners of it:

in the border thereof which is in the side of the ephod inward: these were at the two lower ends of the breastplate, towards the ephod on the inside.

Gill: Exo 28:27 - And two other rings of gold thou shalt make // and shalt put them on the two sides of the ephod // underneath, towards the fore part thereof // over against the other coupling thereof // above the curious girdle of the ephod And two other rings of gold thou shalt make,.... This is the third pair of rings ordered to be made, the two other pair were for the four ends or corn...

And two other rings of gold thou shalt make,.... This is the third pair of rings ordered to be made, the two other pair were for the four ends or corners of the breastplate, but this pair was for the ephod:

and shalt put them on the two sides of the ephod; one on the right and the other on the left:

underneath, towards the fore part thereof; underneath the ephod, yet towards the fore part of it; or rather on the fore part of it, though so as the rings could not be seen:

over against the other coupling thereof; either so as to answer to the other coupling of the breastplate to the shoulder pieces of the ephod above; or to the rings at the ends of the breastplate below, with which these were to be coupled with a lace of blue; and so the word "other" here supplied may be left out:

above the curious girdle of the ephod; just above that these rings in the ephod were, to answer to the rings in the lower ends of the breastplate.

Gill: Exo 28:28 - And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof // unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue // that it may be above the curious girdle of the ephod // and that the breastplate be not loosed from the ephod And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof,.... By the rings at the lower ends of it, as it was by the rings at the upper ends of it to ...

And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof,.... By the rings at the lower ends of it, as it was by the rings at the upper ends of it to the shoulder pieces of the ephod; or "lift it up", so some interpret it w as if it was said, they shall lift up the breastplate to join it with the ephod that is above it:

unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue; this blue lace was put both into the rings of the breastplate and into the rings of the ephod, and so being tied in a knot, fastened them together, as the shoulder pieces of the ephod and the breastplate were coupled above, with wreathen chains of gold put into rings: now this was done:

that it may be above the curious girdle of the ephod: that the breastplate might be above it, or else the lace of blue:

and that the breastplate be not loosed from the ephod: but be kept tight and close to it by the wreathen chains above, and by the knots of blue lace below; which may denote the conjunction of the prophetic and priestly offices in Christ; the former being signified by the breastplate of judgment, in which the Urim and Thummim were, and the latter by the ephod; or else the union of the saints to Christ, the bond of which is everlasting love, from which there can be no separation; this union can never be dissolved, his people can never be loosed from him, they are members of his body, and one spirit with him.

Gill: Exo 28:29 - And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart // when he goeth in unto the holy place // for a memorial before the Lord continually And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart,.... Their names being engraven on the stones, ...

And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart,.... Their names being engraven on the stones, and the stones put into the breastplate of judgment, and this breastplate hanging down upon the breast and heart of Aaron, he was a representative of the twelve tribes of Israel, as Christ his antitype is the representative of the whole Israel of God; and who lie near the heart of Christ, are set as a seal upon it, are engraven on the palms of his hands, and carried in his bosom, and whom he always presents to his divine Father, and are accepted in him: he represented them in eternity, and in time; in his sufferings and death, in his burial and resurrection from the dead, when they were crucified, buried, and raised with him; and he represents them now in heaven, where they sit together in heavenly places in him, as it here follows in the type:

when he goeth in unto the holy place; to trim the lamps and offer incense, and especially when he went into the most holy place once a year:

for a memorial before the Lord continually; for a memorial to himself, to pray for them when he appeared before the Lord, to put the Lord in remembrance of his covenant with them, and promises to them; see Gill on Exo 28:12, Isa 43:26, the Targum of Jonathan is, "for a good memorial": not a memorial for evil, but for good.

Gill: Exo 28:30 - And thou shall put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim // and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in before the Lord // and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the Lord continually And thou shall put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim,.... What these interpreters are at a loss about, both Jewish and Christian...

And thou shall put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim,.... What these interpreters are at a loss about, both Jewish and Christian; some have confessed their ignorance of them, have conjectured they were only these two words and put in the duplicature of the breastplate; that the name of Jehovah, with other divine were put there and so called; and some have that they were little images, the same with the teraphim, the high priest carried in the folds of breastplate, by which consultation was made; others have thought them to be a work purely divine, of Jehovah's putting there; for my own part I am to follow Josephus x, who takes them to be the same with the twelve stones; and it is observable that where the stones are mentioned nothing is said of the Urim and Thummim, and where the Urim and Thummim are observed, no notice is taken of the stones, see Exo 39:10 the use of these was to have the names of the children of Israel engraven upon them, and so be borne on the heart of Aaron when he went into the holy place, as is here said of the Urim and Thummim; and that consultation might be made by them in matters of moment and difficulty, as appears from various other passages of the Scripture, Num 27:21 and but in what manner this was done, and in what way the answer was given and understood, are not easily accounted for: some say, by the brightness or protuberance of the letters on the stones; others, by the shining and splendour of the stones, which is more probable; others, by an inward impression on the mind of the priest; and others, by an articulate voice, which seems best of all: the Septuagint render these two words "manifestation and truth"; and Aelianus y reports, that the chief and oldest among the Egyptian priests and judges wore an image of a sapphire stone about his neck, which they called "truth": and, according to Diodorus Siculus z, this image was of more precious stones than one; for he says, the president in the Egyptian courts of judicature had on his neck, hanging on a golden chain, an image of precious stones, which they called truth: but there is no reason to believe that this custom was as ancient as the times of the Israelites in Egypt, or that they borrowed this from them; but rather, that the Egyptians did this in imitation of what the high priest among the Jews wore, which they might learn from the Jews in Solomon's time, or in later ages; the words Urim and Thummim signify "lights and perfections", agreeably to which is the paraphrase of Jonathan;"Urim, which enlighten their words, and manifest the hidden things of the house of Israel, and Thummim, which perfect their works, by the high priest, who seeks instruction from the Lord by them:''they were typical of Christ, in whom all lights and perfections are; all light is in him; the light of nature and reason is from him, as the Creator, and is given to every man that comes into the world; the light of grace is with him, and communicated to all his people at conversion, and in all the after degrees and supplies of it; all light and knowledge in divine things is from him, the knowledge of God, of himself, and of the Gospel, and the truths of it; and the light of glory will be from him: all the perfections of deity, the whole fulness of the Godhead, all human perfections, which make him as man in all things like unto us, but far exceeding us; as Mediator, all the blessings and promises of the covenant are in him; all the gifts of the Spirit, and a fulness of all grace; there are in him perfect righteousness, perfect holiness, all light, life, strength, wisdom, joy, and comfort a: and these stones, or Urim and Thummim, may be an emblem also of the saints, being made light and perfect righteousness in Christ, from whom they have both:

and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in before the Lord; either into the holy or into the most holy place, just as the names of the children of Israel on the stones are said to be; see Gill on Exo 28:29,

and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the Lord continually; not only bear their names and remember their cases, make intercession for them, and represent their persons, in all which he was a type of Christ, but bear their judgment, have that at heart, and administer it unto them; and in all doubtful and difficult cases inquire of God what was fit and right to do for them, or for them to do: so Christ has the government of his people both at heart and in his hands; all judgment is committed to him, and he is the righteousness of his people now, and will be their Judge hereafter.

Gill: Exo 28:31 - And thou shall make the robe of the ephod all of blue. And thou shall make the robe of the ephod all of blue. This was a different garment from the ephod, was longer than that, and was under it, and of dif...

And thou shall make the robe of the ephod all of blue. This was a different garment from the ephod, was longer than that, and was under it, and of different materials: that was made of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine linen; this only of linen, and wholly of a blue colour, without any curious figures upon it, as were on that: in Exo 39:22, it is said to be of woven work; it was woven from top to bottom, and had no seam in it: so Josephus says b,"the coat did not consist of two parts, nor was it sewed upon the shoulder, nor on the side, but was one long piece of woven work;''and such was the seamless coat our Lord Jesus Christ wore, literally understood, Joh 19:23 and both were an emblem of his perfect righteousness, which has nothing of the works of men joined to it, to justify them before God, and make them acceptable to him: for this robe signifies the robe of Christ's righteousness, the best robe; it has its name from a word which signifies prevarication or sin, because it covers the sins of God's people; the matter of it was linen, and so fitly points at the fine linen, that is the righteousness of the saints, and being blue or sky coloured may denote heaven and happiness, which that entitles to, see Mat 5:20, the Septuagint version calls it a garment down to the feet, using the same word as in Rev 1:13 and fitly agrees with that righteousness with which all Christ's members are covered and justified, Isa 45:24.

Gill: Exo 28:32 - And there shall be a hole in the top of it, in the midst thereof // it shall have a binding of woven work round about the hole of it // as it were the hole of an habergeon // that it be not rent And there shall be a hole in the top of it, in the midst thereof,.... At the neck of it, for the high priest to put his head through when he put it on...

And there shall be a hole in the top of it, in the midst thereof,.... At the neck of it, for the high priest to put his head through when he put it on:

it shall have a binding of woven work round about the hole of it; a large hem or selvage, perhaps of the same kind of woven stuff the robe itself was made of, and this was done to strengthen it:

as it were the hole of an habergeon; a corslet or coat of mail:

that it be not rent; when the high priest put it on; or through the weight of the ephod and the ouches of gold on the shoulder pieces of it, and the breastplate hanging down from thence; this may denote the strength and duration of Christ's righteousness, which is an everlasting one.

Gill: Exo 28:33 - And beneath upon the hem of it // thou shalt make pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem thereof // and bells of gold between them round about And beneath upon the hem of it,.... Or the skirts of it, at the bottom of the robe: thou shalt make pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of sca...

And beneath upon the hem of it,.... Or the skirts of it, at the bottom of the robe:

thou shalt make pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem thereof; these were figures made of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, in the form of pomegranates: Jarchi says they were round and hollow, and made like hens' eggs, about the size of them, and of an oval form:

and bells of gold between them round about; according to some, the bells were put into the pomegranates, which is supposed to be the meaning of the phrase "between them", or, "in the midst of them"; and so Aben Ezra observes, that some say the bells did not appear, they were only in the midst of the pomegranates, and there they caused their sound to be heard: but according to our version and others, the bells were placed between the pomegranates, between every pomegranate and pomegranate there was a golden bell; and this seems to be plainly the sense of the following verse.

Gill: Exo 28:34 - A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate // upon the hem of the robe round about A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate,.... First a golden bell and then a pomegranate, then a bell and then a pomegranate a...

A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate,.... First a golden bell and then a pomegranate, then a bell and then a pomegranate again, and so on:

upon the hem of the robe round about; all round the hem or skirts of the robe were they placed in this manner: the Targum of Jonathan says, the sum or number of them were seventy one; but Maimonides c says there were seventy two, thirty six in each skirt; and so says R. Levi Ben Gersom; but Clemens of Alexandria d has increased the number to three hundred and sixty six, according to the days of the year, and thinks they signified the acceptable year of the Lord proclaiming and resounding the great appearance of the Saviour: "golden bells" may denote either the intercession of Christ in heaven, which if not vocal, as on earth, has a speech or sound in it, which is understood: his blood, righteousness, and sacrifice, call aloud for peace and pardon, and it is a sound that is always heard with delight; the matter of them being gold may denote the preciousness and excellency of Christ's intercession, and the duration of it; and being on the hem of the robe shows that Christ's righteousness is that on which his intercession depends, and from whence it has its efficacy: or else these bells may be an emblem of the Gospel, as preached by Christ himself, and by his apostles and ministers, compared to "bells" for sound; the sound of the Gospel being a sound of love, grace, mercy, peace, pardon, righteousness, life, and salvation; a joyful sound, like that of the jubilee, an even and certain one, different from that of the law, and exceeding musical and delightful; and to "golden" bells for the preciousness of it, and its truths, and for its duration; and being on the hem of the robe may signify that in the Gospel the righteousness of Christ is revealed and pointed at, and that faith in this righteousness comes hereby; "the pomegranates" on Aaron might be an emblem of his priesthood, and of the ceremonial law, and of the good things they were shadows and types of; and of Christ himself, and of the virtue, odour, and fragrancy of his sufferings, sacrifice, and intercession; and also of the church, called an orchard of pomegranates, Son 4:13 consisting of various members, as the pomegranate of various grains; the juice of which the blood of Christ may resemble, in which those members swim and are washed; and who are of a grateful odour to God, and are surrounded by his power and love; and their hanging upon the hem of the robe may signify the acceptableness of them through the righteousness, sacrifice, and mediation of Christ, and the fruits of good works, which both the righteousness of Christ and the Gospel produce; and particularly the bells and pomegranates may signify that sound doctrine and a savoury life and conversation should go together in the priests of the Lord, in the ministers of his word.

Gill: Exo 28:35 - And it shall be upon Aaron to minister // and his sound shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the Lord, and when he cometh out // that he die not And it shall be upon Aaron to minister,.... That is, the robe before described shall be put upon him, that he might minister in the priest's office, f...

And it shall be upon Aaron to minister,.... That is, the robe before described shall be put upon him, that he might minister in the priest's office, for without this, as well as the other garments, he might not:

and his sound shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the Lord, and when he cometh out; by means of which the priests would have notice that they might depart, and he be alone in his ministrations; or rather, that the people might know his going out and coming in, and so give themselves up to prayer, while he was offering incense, see Luk 1:9 though the instance of Zacharias is not of an high priest, but of a common priest:

that he die not the Targum of Jonathan adds, with flaming fire. This is added, to make him, and all succeeding priests, careful that this robe, nor any other of the priestly garments, were wanting, when they ministered before the Lord; should any be wanting, it would be highly resented by the Lord: and such an one would be in danger of being cut off by death from the immediate hand of God, as Nadab and Abihu were for offering strange fire to the Lord; for, according to the Jewish writers e, a priest not rightly attired, either with more or fewer garments than he should have, his service was illegal, and he was as a stranger, and his service strange service, unacceptable to God, yea, provoking to him; and so Jarchi on the text says, if he wanted one of these garments, he was guilty of death by the hand of heaven, the immediate hand of God.

Gill: Exo 28:36 - And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold // and grave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold,.... It was, as Jarchi says, two fingers broad, and reached from ear to ear, and so Maimonides f; it is somet...

And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold,.... It was, as Jarchi says, two fingers broad, and reached from ear to ear, and so Maimonides f; it is sometimes called the holy crown, and the plate of the holy crown, Exo 29:6, this was a priestly crown, for priests were very honourable and dignified persons, especially the high priest among the Jews; and even among the Gentiles it was common for their kings to be priests: and though this crown may denote the kingly power of Christ, yet as residing in him who is a priest, for he is a priest on his throne, Zec 6:13, and so may signify the conjunction of the kingly and priestly offices in Christ, who has a crown of pure gold given him by his Father, and put upon him, and by his people, Psa 21:4 and being of pure gold, holy, and on the forehead, as this plate was, may signify the purity and holiness of Christ's kingdom and office, the glory, visibility, and perpetuity of it:

and grave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD; which words were written either in two lines, or in one. If in two, Maimonides g says, the word "holiness" was above, and to "the Lord" below: but it might be written in one line, and that seems most likely: he also says the letters were protuberant, or stood out; but then they would not be graved like the engravings of a signet, in which the letters or figures are engraved within, but like the impressions of a signet made on wax, or other things: in this the high priest was a type of Christ, who is holy in himself, in his person, in both his natures, divine and human, in his offices of prophet, priest, and King; and he is holiness itself, the most holy, essentially, infinitely, and perfectly so, as angels and men are not, and the source and spring of holiness to others: and he is holiness to the Lord for his people; he is so representatively; as their covenant head he has all grace in his hands for them, and they have it in him; this is sanctification in Christ, and is by virtue of union to him, and is complete and perfect, and the cause of holiness in his people; and he is so by imputation. The holiness of his human nature was not a mere qualification for his office, or only exemplary to us, but is with his obedience and sufferings imputed to us for justification. Moreover, Christ has by his blood sanctified his people, or made atonement for them, and procured the cleansing of them from their sins, or the expiation of them; and he is also the efficient cause of their internal holiness by his Spirit, without which there is no seeing God, 1Co 6:11.

Gill: Exo 28:37 - And thou shalt put it on a blue lace // that it may be upon the mitre // upon the forefront of the mitre it shall be And thou shalt put it on a blue lace,.... The plate of gold: that it may be upon the mitre; either the plate or the lace; the lace is the nearest a...

And thou shalt put it on a blue lace,.... The plate of gold:

that it may be upon the mitre; either the plate or the lace; the lace is the nearest antecedent, but it seems by what follows it should be the plate:

upon the forefront of the mitre it shall be; the plate of gold; the mitre was of linen, a wrap of linen about the head, and was like a turban on it, in the top of it; it did not come down low upon the forehead, but left that bare for this plate of gold to be put upon it. Jarchi seems to understand all this of the lace, by comparing it with the following verse, and Exo 39:31 as if the plate was represented as in the lace, and the lace upon the plate and upon the mitre above; all which he thinks is to be reconciled by observing, that the plate had three holes, and in every hole was a blue lace, and each lace was divided into two parts, so that there were six in all, two laces at each end of the plate, and two in the middle, by which they were fastened upon the top of the mitre, by which it was kept from falling off; and of this middle lace, he thinks, the text is to be understood. The Targum of Jonathan observes, that this plate was put on a blue lace, to make atonement for the impudent.

Gill: Exo 28:38 - And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead // that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts // and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the Lord And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead,.... That is, the plate of gold, with the inscription on it, holiness to the Lord, and so was very visible and l...

And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead,.... That is, the plate of gold, with the inscription on it, holiness to the Lord, and so was very visible and legible. The Targum of Jonathan adds, from temple to temple, that is, from the furthermost end of the one, to the furthermost end of the other, the same as from ear to ear; see Gill on Exo 28:36 the use of it follows:

that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts; this supposes that the sacrifices of the children of Israel, which they brought to the priests to offer for them, or the gifts they devoted to sacred use, might be attended with sin and blame, either in the matter of their offerings and gifts, or in the manner in which they brought them; and which through the high priest having this plate of gold, with the above inscription on it, were expiated; they were bore away from them, and were not placed to their account, but they were cleared and discharged of them: and so it is that there is sin in the best performances of the saints; there is not a just man that does good, but he sins in doing that good; the best righteousness of men is imperfect, and attended with sin; and this cannot be borne, or taken away by themselves; if God should mark such sins as these, they could not stand before him; now Christ, their High Priest, bears and takes away these, along with all others, which are laid upon him, and borne by him:

and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the Lord; not that he had always this plate of gold on his forehead, only in time of service; but then it was continually for the acceptance of them, though it was not upon his forehead, as Jarchi observes; at Maimonides h says, there was great necessity that the high priest should be always in the sanctuary, as it is said, "it shall be always upon his forehead", and therefore must be always there, for he might not wear it outside of it. This with respect to the antitype may signify, that the persons and services of the people of God are accepted with him through the holiness and righteousness of Christ, who is always in the presence of the Lord, ever appears in heaven for them, and is the Lamb of God, to whose person, blood, righteousness, and sacrifice, they are directed to look for the removal of their sins of every sort.

Gill: Exo 28:39 - And thou shall embroider the coat of fine linen // and thou shalt make the mitre of fine linen // and thou shall make the girdle of needlework And thou shall embroider the coat of fine linen,.... Which was a distinct garment from the ephod, and from the robe of the ephod, and was the innermos...

And thou shall embroider the coat of fine linen,.... Which was a distinct garment from the ephod, and from the robe of the ephod, and was the innermost of all; it was made of fine linen, curiously wrought in the weaving of it: according to some, it was full of a sort of eyelet holes; but as the word is that, from whence comes that for ouches, Exo 28:6. Jarchi thinks it was full of holes, like those ouches or sockets, in which the stones were set; and so this coat was decked and adorned with gems and precious stones stuck in those holes or ouches: but rather it was figured with such little cornered holes as are in the stomach of animals that chew the cud, called the "reticulum"; being in the form of network, as Maimonides i observes, and which is approved by Braunius k: this was an emblem of the righteousness of Christ, comparable to fine linen richly embroidered, decked and adorned with jewels, and curiously wrought, see Rev 19:8,

and thou shalt make the mitre of fine linen: which was a wrap of linen sixteen cubits long, as Maimonides l says, both for the high priest, and for common priests, which only differed in the manner of wrapping them; that for the high priest was wrapped fold upon fold, as a roller for a plaster, and so the mitre was flat upon the head, and was like a turban, and did not rise up into a point; but those of the common priests were so wrapped, as that they arose up like a night cap, or a high crowned hat. The mitre, hat, or cap, though a token of honour, yet also of servitude; and may denote, that the people of the Jews were in a state of servitude, and point at the obscurity and darkness of that dispensation; they not clearly discerning divine mysteries, and wanting boldness and freedom to look up to God; or it may denote that the priests under the law were servants, and that Christ, our great High Priest, should appear in the form of one; and may also point at the intenseness of the mind in them and him on business, being deaf to everything else. The Targum of Jonathan says, the coat of fine linen was to atone for the shedding of innocent blood, and the mitre to atone for those who have elated thoughts, are puffed up with pride and vain conceit:

and thou shall make the girdle of needlework; to gird about the embroidered coat, which Josephus m says was four fingers broad; but, according to Maimonides n, it was about three fingers broad, and thirty two cubits long, which they wound about and about; and though we translate it "needlework", it should rather be the "work of the embroiderer", as Ainsworth renders it: and this was not wrought by the needle, but in weaving; for, as Maimonides o observes,"they did not make any of the priests' garments with needlework, but the work of the weaver, according to Exo 39:27.''This girdle may denote the strength, readiness, faithfulness, and integrity of Christ in the performance of his priestly office; see Isa 11:5.

Gill: Exo 28:40 - And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make coats // and thou shall make for them girdles // and bonnets shall thou make for them // for glory and beauty And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make coats,.... Of fine linen, of woven work, as in Exo 39:27, these were different from the broidered coat of the hig...

And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make coats,.... Of fine linen, of woven work, as in Exo 39:27, these were different from the broidered coat of the high priest, and the blue robe of the ephod:

and thou shall make for them girdles; linen ones, to gird up their linen coats, which were long, that they might the more expeditiously perform their service; and which is an instruction to all the priests of the Lord, true believers in Christ, to be ready, forward, and diligent in the work of the Lord; and especially to ministers of the word, who, as their doctrines and lives ought to be pure, signified by the priest's linen garment, so they should be girt about with the girdle of truth, and ready upon all occasions to publish and defend it, and to do their work with cheerfulness and faithfulness:

and bonnets shall thou make for them: these were coverings for the head, and of the same kind with the mitre of the high priest, and of the same length, but differed from that in the manner of wrapping the linen, of which they were made; see Gill on Exo 28:39, and all these were to be made

for glory and beauty: to beautify and adorn them, to make them look like persons of some note and figure, and that they might be respectable among men, and typical, as they all were, of our great and glorious High Priest, the Son of God.

Gill: Exo 28:41 - And thou shall put them on Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him // and shall anoint them // and consecrate them // and sanctify them // that they may minister unto me in the priest's office And thou shall put them on Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him,.... And this putting on of their garments by Moses, under the authority of God, w...

And thou shall put them on Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him,.... And this putting on of their garments by Moses, under the authority of God, was a solemn investiture of them with the priestly office also; for from henceforward they had a right to exercise it, having those garments on, without which they were never to officiate:

and shall anoint them; with the anointing oil, of which afterwards a particular account is given, and how to be made, and for what use, Exo 30:22, typical of the holy graces of the Spirit of God:

and consecrate them; the consecration of them was by investing them with their garments, and by anointing them with oil; for this phrase does not intend the whole of their consecration, only another branch of it, and may be literally rendered, "fill their hand" p; that is, with sacrifices to be offered up by them, see Exo 29:1.

and sanctify them; by all this, set them apart, and devote them to the sacred office of priesthood:

that they may minister unto me in the priest's office; by offering sacrifices for the people, burning incense, and doing other things relative to the office.

Gill: Exo 28:42 - And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover their nakedness // from the loins even unto the thigh they shall reach And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover their nakedness,.... Or "the flesh of nakedness" q, that part of the body which ought not to be naked...

And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover their nakedness,.... Or "the flesh of nakedness" q, that part of the body which ought not to be naked and exposed to view, and which, when it is, causes shame and ridicule; what part is designed is easily gathered from the next clause; great care was taken, in the service of God's house, to preserve decency, prevent immodesty, and to guard against laughter and levity, and the like care should be always taken; see Gill on Exo 28:2,

from the loins even unto the thigh they shall reach; they were to reach above the navel near the heart, and to the end of the thigh, which is the knee, as Maimonides says r; who also observes, that they had strings, but had no opening before or behind, but were drawn up round like a purse; they were a sort of drawers, and somewhat like our sailors' trousers.

Gill: Exo 28:43 - And they shall be upon Aaron and upon his sons // when they come into the tabernacle of the congregation // or when they came near unto the altar to minister in the holy place // that they bear not iniquity and die // it shall be a statute for ever unto him, and his seed after him And they shall be upon Aaron and upon his sons,.... Not the linen breeches only, but all the other garments: when they come into the tabernacle of ...

And they shall be upon Aaron and upon his sons,.... Not the linen breeches only, but all the other garments:

when they come into the tabernacle of the congregation; even into that part of it where the people assembled, the court of the tabernacle, and where stood the altar of burnt offering, on which they offered the sacrifices of the people, but never without the priestly garments on:

or when they came near unto the altar to minister in the holy place; at the altar of incense which stood there; or when they came to trim the lamps of the candlestick, and set the shewbread on the table, and take away the old, which candlestick and shewbread table were both in the holy place:

that they bear not iniquity and die; be guilty of sin in not having their priestly garments on in time of service, and so bear the punishment of it and die for it; the Targum of Jonathan adds, with flaming fire, with fire from heaven, such as Nadab and Abihu were afterwards consumed with; an high priest that had not the eight garments on, or a common priest that had not his four garments, his service was illegal and rejected, and he was guilty of death by the hand of heaven, as Maimonides s says; that is, he was deserving of immediate death from the hand of God, and might expect it:

it shall be a statute for ever unto him, and his seed after him; as long as the Aaronic priesthood continued, until Christ should arise, made an high priest, not after the order of Aaron, but after the order of Melchizedek, and should put an end to the priesthood of the former, by answering and fulfilling all the types and shadows of it; this respects all that is said in this chapter concerning the vestments of the priests, one and another.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Exo 28:1 This entire clause is a translation of the Hebrew לְכַהֲנוֹ־לִי (lÿ...

NET Notes: Exo 28:2 The expression is לְכָבוֹד וּלְתִפְאר’...

NET Notes: Exo 28:3 Or “to sanctify him” (ASV) or “to consecrate him” (KJV, NASB, NRSV). It is the garments that will set Aaron apart, or sanctify...

NET Notes: Exo 28:4 The word תָּשְׁבֵּץ (tashbets), which describes the tunic and which appears only in this v...

NET Notes: Exo 28:5 Heb “receive” or “take.”

NET Notes: Exo 28:7 Here the Pual perfect with the vav (ו) consecutive provides the purpose clause (equal to a final imperfect); the form follows the use of the act...

NET Notes: Exo 28:8 Heb “from it” but meaning “of one [the same] piece”; the phrase “the ephod” has been supplied.

NET Notes: Exo 28:9 Although this is normally translated “Israelites,” here a more literal translation is clearer because it refers to the names of the twelve...

NET Notes: Exo 28:10 Heb “according to their begettings” (the major word in the book of Genesis). What is meant is that the names would be listed in the order ...

NET Notes: Exo 28:11 Or “rosettes,” shield-like frames for the stones. The Hebrew word means “to plait, checker.”

NET Notes: Exo 28:12 This was to be a perpetual reminder that the priest ministers on behalf of the twelve tribes of Israel. Their names would always be borne by the pries...

NET Notes: Exo 28:15 Heb “a breastpiece of decision” (חֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט...

NET Notes: Exo 28:16 The word זֶרֶת (zeret) is half a cubit; it is often translated “span.”

NET Notes: Exo 28:20 U. Cassuto (Exodus, 375-76) points out that these are the same precious stones mentioned in Ezek 28:13 that were to be found in Eden, the garden of Go...

NET Notes: Exo 28:21 The phrase translated “the engravings of a seal” is an adverbial accusative of manner here.

NET Notes: Exo 28:23 Here “upper” has been supplied.

NET Notes: Exo 28:25 Here “them” has been supplied.

NET Notes: Exo 28:26 Here “other” has been supplied.

NET Notes: Exo 28:27 Here “more” has been supplied.

NET Notes: Exo 28:29 So Aaron will have the names of the tribes on his shoulders (v. 12) which bear the weight and symbol of office (see Isa 9:6; 22:22), and over his hear...

NET Notes: Exo 28:30 Or “judgment” (KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV). The term is מִשְׁפָּט (mishpat), the same word...

NET Notes: Exo 28:31 The מְעִיל (mÿ’il), according to S. R. Driver (Exodus, 307), is a long robe worn over the ephod, perhap...

NET Notes: Exo 28:32 The verb is the Niphal imperfect, here given the nuance of potential imperfect. Here it serves in a final clause (purpose/result), introduced only by ...

NET Notes: Exo 28:33 The text repeats the idea: “you will make for its hem…all around its hem.”

NET Notes: Exo 28:34 The words “the pattern is to be” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons.

NET Notes: Exo 28:35 God would hear the bells and be reminded that this priest was in his presence representing the nation and that the priest had followed the rules of th...

NET Notes: Exo 28:36 The engraving was a perpetual reminder of the holiness that was due the Lord (Heb “Yahweh”), that all the clothing, the furnishings, and t...

NET Notes: Exo 28:37 Heb “it will be,” an instruction imperfect.

NET Notes: Exo 28:38 This clause is the infinitive construct with the lamed preposition, followed by the prepositional phrase: “for acceptance for them.” This ...

NET Notes: Exo 28:39 It is difficult to know how to translate וְשִׁבַּצְּתָּ (vÿsh...

NET Notes: Exo 28:40 This refers to a band of linen wrapped around the head, forming something like a brimless convex cap, resembling something like a half egg. It refers ...

NET Notes: Exo 28:41 Traditionally “sanctify them” (KJV, ASV).

NET Notes: Exo 28:42 Heb “be.”

NET Notes: Exo 28:43 So the priests were to make intercession for the people, give decisions from God’s revealed will, enter his presence in purity, and represent ho...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:2 And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother for ( a ) glory and for beauty. ( a ) By which his office may be known to be glorious and exc...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:3 And thou shalt speak unto all [that are] wise hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments to ( b ) cons...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:4 And these [are] the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ( c ) ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle: and th...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:8 And the ( d ) curious girdle of the ephod, which [is] upon it, shall be of the same, according to the work thereof; [even of] gold, [of] blue, and pur...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:10 Six of their names on one stone, and [the other] six names of the rest on the other stone, according to ( e ) their birth. ( e ) As they were in age,...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:12 And thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of the ephod [for] stones of ( f ) memorial unto the children of Israel: and Aaron shall bear the...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:14 And two chains [of] pure gold ( g ) at the ends; [of] wreathen work shalt thou make them, and fasten the wreathen chains to the ouches. ( g ) Of the ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:15 And thou shalt make the breastplate of ( h ) judgment with cunning work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; [of] gold, [of] blue, and [of...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:16 ( i ) Foursquare it shall be [being] doubled; a span [shall be] the length thereof, and a span [shall be] the breadth thereof. ( i ) The description ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:23 And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold, and shalt put the two rings on ( k ) the two ends of the breastplate. ( k ) Which are upm...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:26 And thou shalt make two rings of gold, and thou shalt put them upon the ( l ) two ends of the breastplate in the border thereof, which [is] in the sid...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:29 And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart, when he goeth in unto the holy [place], for a ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:30 And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the ( n ) Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in before the LO...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:36 And thou shalt make a plate [of] pure gold, and grave upon it, [like] the engravings of a signet, ( o ) HOLINESS TO THE LORD. ( o ) Holiness belongs ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:38 And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead, that Aaron may ( p ) bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow in all the...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:41 And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and ( q ) consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 28:43 And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they come in unto the tabernacle of the congregation, or when they come near unto the altar to m...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Exo 28:12-29 - The Names On Aaron's Breastplate Exodus 28:12-29 Every part of the elaborately prescribed dress of the high priest was significant. But the significance of the whole was concentrated ...

Maclaren: Exo 28:36 - Three Inscriptions With One Meaning Exodus 28:36, Zech. 14:20, Rev. 22:4. You will have perceived my purpose in putting these .three widely separated texts together. They all speak of in...

MHCC: Exo 28:1-5 - --Hitherto the heads of families were the priests, and offered sacrifices; but now this office was confined to the family of Aaron only; and so continue...

MHCC: Exo 28:6-14 - --This richly-wrought ephod was the outmost garment of the high priest; plain linen ephods were worn by the inferior priests. It was a short coat withou...

MHCC: Exo 28:15-30 - --The chief ornament of the high priest, was the breastplate, a rich piece of cloth, curiously worked. The name of each tribe was graven in a precious s...

MHCC: Exo 28:31-39 - --The robe of the ephod was under the ephod, and reached down to the knees, without sleeves. Aaron must minister in the garments appointed. We must serv...

MHCC: Exo 28:40-43 - --The priest's garments typify the righteousness of Christ. If we appear not before God in that, we shall bear our iniquity, and die. Blessed is he, the...

Matthew Henry: Exo 28:1-5 - -- We have here, I. The priests nominated: Aaron and his sons, Exo 28:1. Hitherto every master of a family was priest to his own family, and offered,...

Matthew Henry: Exo 28:6-14 - -- Directions are here given concerning the ephod, which was the outmost garment of the high priest. Linen ephods were worn by the inferior priests, ...

Matthew Henry: Exo 28:15-30 - -- The most considerable of the ornaments of the high priest was this breast-plate, a rich piece of cloth, curiously wrought with gold and purple, etc....

Matthew Henry: Exo 28:31-39 - -- Here is, 1. Direction given concerning the robe of the ephod, Exo 28:31-35. This was next under the ephod, and reached down to the knees, was with...

Matthew Henry: Exo 28:40-43 - -- We have here, 1. Particular orders about the vestments of the inferior priests. They were to have coats, and girdles, and bonnets, of the same mater...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 28:1-5 - -- (cf. Ex 39:1-31). Appointment and Clothing of the Priests. - Exo 28:1, Exo 28:5. "Let Aaron thy brother draw near to thee from among the children of...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 28:6-14 - -- The first part mentioned of Aaron's holy dress, i.e., of the official dress of the high priest, is the ephod . The etymology of this word is uncer...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 28:15-16 - -- The second ornament consisted of the choshen or breastplate . Chosen mishpat , λογειο͂ν τῶν κρίσεωον (lxx), rationale...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 28:17-19 - -- " And fill thereon (put on it) a stone-setting, four rows of stones, "i.e., fix four rows of set jewels upon it. The stones, so far as their names ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 28:20 - -- " Gold borders shall be on their settings "(see at Exo 28:11 and Exo 28:13). The golden capsules, in which the stones were "filled," i.e., set, were...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 28:21 - -- "And the stones shall be according to the names of the sons of Israel, twelve according to their names; seal-engraving according to each one's name ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 28:22-25 - -- To bind the choshen to the ephod there were to be two close, corded chains of pure gold, which are described here in precisely the same manner as ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 28:26 - -- Two other golden rings were to be " put at the two ends of the choshen, at its edge, which is on the opposite side (see at Exo 25:37) of the ephod ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 28:27-28 - -- Two golden rings were also to be put " upon the shoulder-pieces of the ephod underneath, toward the fore-part thereof, near the joining above the gi...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 28:29 - -- In this way Aaron was to bear upon his breast the names of the sons of Israel engraved upon this breastplate, as a memorial before Jehovah, whenever...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 28:30 - -- Into this choshen Moses was to put the Urim and Thummim , that they might be upon his heart when he came before Jehovah, and that he might thus ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 28:31-35 - -- The third portion of Aaron's official dress was the robe . To the ephod there also belonged a מעיל (from מעל to cover or envelope), an up...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 28:36-38 - -- The fourth article of the high priest's dress was the diadem upon his head-band. ציץ , from צוּץ to shine, a plate of pure gold, on which ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 28:39 - -- In addition to the distinguishing dress of the high priest, Aaron was also to wear, as the official costume of a priest, a body-coat ( cetoneth ) m...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 28:40-43 - -- The official dress of the sons of Aaron, i.e., of the ordinary priests, was to consist of just the same articles as Aaron's priestly costume (Exo 2...

Constable: Exo 15:22--Lev 1:1 - --II. THE ADOPTION OF ISRAEL 15:22--40:38 The second major section of Exodus records the events associated with Go...

Constable: Exo 24:12--32:1 - --C. Directions regarding God's dwelling among His people 24:12-31:18 Having given directions clarifying I...

Constable: Exo 27:20--29:1 - --6. The investiture of the priests 27:20-28:43 Here begins the revelation of those things that re...

Constable: Exo 28:1-5 - --The priests 28:1-5 Aaron had been functioning as a priest (Heb. cohen; 4:16). Now Moses ...

Constable: Exo 28:6-14 - --The ephod 28:6-14 The ephod was the most important and outermost garment of the high pri...

Constable: Exo 28:15-30 - --The breastplate 28:15-30 The breastplate was a pocket of material of the same fabric as ...

Constable: Exo 28:31-35 - --The robe 28:31-35 The high priest also wore this garment. It was his basic garment over ...

Constable: Exo 28:36-38 - --The gold plate 28:36-38 A plaque of pure gold attached to the front of the high priest's...

Constable: Exo 28:39 - --The tunic, turban, and sash 28:39 These items completed the high priest's wardrobe. The ...

Constable: Exo 28:40-43 - --The garments of the lesser priests 28:40-43 The clothing described in these verses appea...

Guzik: Exo 28:1-43 - Garments for Priests Exodus 28 - Garments for Priests A. The command to make garments for the priests. 1. (1-2) The purpose of the garments. "Now take Aaron your ...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) EXODUS, a "going forth," derives its name from its being occupied principally with a relation of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, and the i...

JFB: Exodus (Garis Besar) INCREASE OF THE ISRAELITES. (Exo. 1:1-22) BIRTH AND PRESERVATION OF MOSES. (Exo 2:1-10) there went a man of the house of Levi, &c. Amram was the hus...

TSK: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The title of this Book is derived from the Septuagint; in which it is called ΕΞΟΔΟΣ , " Exodus;" or, as it is in the Codex Alexandrinus, Ε...

TSK: Exodus 28 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Exo 28:1, Aaron and his sons are set apart for the priest’s office; Exo 28:2, Holy garments are appointed; Exo 28:6, The ephod and gird...

Poole: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) SECOND BOOK OF MOSES CALLED EXODUS. THE ARGUMENT. AFTER the death of Joseph, who had sent for his father’ s house into Egypt, the children o...

Poole: Exodus 28 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 28 Aaron and his sons ordained for the priest’ s office, Exo 28:1 . His holy garments, Exo 28:2-5 . The ephod, Exo 28:6 . Curious gird...

MHCC: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Exodus relates the forming of the children of Israel into a church and a nation. We have hitherto seen true religion shown in domestic lif...

MHCC: Exodus 28 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Exo 28:1-5) Aaron and his sons set apart for the priest's office, Their garments. (Exo 28:6-14) The ephod. (v. 15-30) The breastplate, The Urim and...

Matthew Henry: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Second Book of Moses, Called Exodus Moses (the servant of the Lord in writing for him as well as ...

Matthew Henry: Exodus 28 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Orders being given for the fitting up of the place of worship, in this and the following chapter care is taken about the priests that were to minis...

Constable: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The Hebrew title of this book (we'elleh shemot) originated from the...

Constable: Exodus (Garis Besar) Outline I. The liberation of Israel 1:1-15:21 A. God's preparation of Israel and Moses chs. ...

Constable: Exodus Exodus Bibliography Adams, Dwayne H. "The Building Program that Works (Exodus 25:4--36:7 [31:1-11])." Exegesis ...