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Teks -- Exodus 15:1-27 (NET)

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Konteks
The Song of Triumph
15:1 Then Moses and the Israelites sang this song to the Lord. They said, “I will sing to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously, the horse and its rider he has thrown into the sea. 15:2 The Lord is my strength and my song, and he has become my salvation. This is my God, and I will praise him, my father’s God, and I will exalt him. 15:3 The Lord is a warrior, the Lord is his name. 15:4 The chariots of Pharaoh and his army he has thrown into the sea, and his chosen officers were drowned in the Red Sea. 15:5 The depths have covered them, they went down to the bottom like a stone. 15:6 Your right hand, O Lord, was majestic in power, your right hand, O Lord, shattered the enemy. 15:7 In the abundance of your majesty you have overthrown those who rise up against you. You sent forth your wrath; it consumed them like stubble. 15:8 By the blast of your nostrils the waters were piled up, the flowing water stood upright like a heap, and the deep waters were solidified in the heart of the sea. 15:9 The enemy said, ‘I will chase, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil; my desire will be satisfied on them. I will draw my sword, my hand will destroy them.’ 15:10 But you blew with your breath, and the sea covered them. They sank like lead in the mighty waters. 15:11 Who is like you, O Lord, among the gods? Who is like you?– majestic in holiness, fearful in praises, working wonders? 15:12 You stretched out your right hand, the earth swallowed them. 15:13 By your loyal love you will lead the people whom you have redeemed; you will guide them by your strength to your holy dwelling place. 15:14 The nations will hear and tremble; anguish will seize the inhabitants of Philistia. 15:15 Then the chiefs of Edom will be terrified, trembling will seize the leaders of Moab, and the inhabitants of Canaan will shake. 15:16 Fear and dread will fall on them; by the greatness of your arm they will be as still as stone until your people pass by, O Lord, until the people whom you have bought pass by. 15:17 You will bring them in and plant them in the mountain of your inheritance, in the place you made for your residence, O Lord, the sanctuary, O Lord, that your hands have established. 15:18 The Lord will reign forever and ever! 15:19 For the horses of Pharaoh came with his chariots and his footmen into the sea, and the Lord brought back the waters of the sea on them, but the Israelites walked on dry land in the middle of the sea.” 15:20 Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a hand-drum in her hand, and all the women went out after her with hand-drums and with dances. 15:21 Miriam sang in response to them, “Sing to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously; the horse and its rider he has thrown into the sea.”
The Bitter Water
15:22 Then Moses led Israel to journey away from the Red Sea. They went out to the Desert of Shur, walked for three days into the desert, and found no water. 15:23 Then they came to Marah, but they were not able to drink the waters of Marah, because they were bitter. (That is why its name was Marah.) 15:24 So the people murmured against Moses, saying, “What can we drink?” 15:25 He cried out to the Lord, and the Lord showed him a tree. When Moses threw it into the water, the water became safe to drink. There the Lord made for them a binding ordinance, and there he tested them. 15:26 He said, “If you will diligently obey the Lord your God, and do what is right in his sight, and pay attention to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, then all the diseases that I brought on the Egyptians I will not bring on you, for I, the Lord, am your healer.” 15:27 Then they came to Elim, where there were twelve wells of water and seventy palm trees, and they camped there by the water.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Aaron a son of Amram; brother of Moses,son of Amram (Kohath Levi); patriarch of Israel's priests,the clan or priestly line founded by Aaron
 · Canaan the region ofeast Mediterranean coastal land from Arvad (modern Lebanon) south to Gaza,the coast land from Mt. Carmel north to the Orontes River
 · Edom resident(s) of the region of Edom
 · Egyptians descendants of Mizraim
 · Elim a place (an oasis)
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Marah an encampment site where Moses made bitter water sweet
 · Miriam daughter of Amram the Levite; sister of Moses and Aaron,child of Mered (Judah) and wife Bithiah (Pharaoh's daughter)
 · Moab resident(s) of the country of Moab
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Pharaoh the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Abraham's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Joseph's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who refused to let Israel leave Egypt,the title of the king of Egypt whose daughter Solomon married,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in the time of Isaiah,the title Egypt's ruler just before Moses' time
 · Philistia the country of the Philistines which was the coastal plain of southwestern Palestine
 · Red Sea the ocean between Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula,the sea between Egypt and Arabia
 · sea the Dead Sea, at the southern end of the Jordan River,the Mediterranean Sea,the Persian Gulf south east of Babylon,the Red Sea
 · Shur the wilderness region in the NW part of the Sinai isthmus


Topik/Tema Kamus: Moses | Music | Poetry | Red Sea | Faith | Songs | GLASS, SEA OF | ISRAEL, HISTORY OF, 1 | OMNIPOTENCE | NUMBERS, BOOK OF | NUMBER | TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT | POETRY, HEBREW | EXODUS, THE BOOK OF, 3-4 | Miriam | Joy | Thankfulness | Exodus | Praise | Song | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Exo 15:1 - Then sang Moses Moses composed this song, and sang it with the children of Israel. Doubtless he wrote it by inspiration, and sang it on the spot. By this instance it ...

Moses composed this song, and sang it with the children of Israel. Doubtless he wrote it by inspiration, and sang it on the spot. By this instance it appears that the singing of psalms, as an act of religious worship, was used in the church of Christ before the giving of the ceremonial law, therefore it is no part of it, nor abolished with it: singing is as much the language of holy joy, as praying is of holy desire.

Wesley: Exo 15:1 - I will sing unto the Lord All our joy must terminate in God, and all our praises be offered up to him,

All our joy must terminate in God, and all our praises be offered up to him,

Wesley: Exo 15:1 - for he hath triumphed All that love God triumph in his triumphs.

All that love God triumph in his triumphs.

Wesley: Exo 15:2 - Israel rejoiceth in God, as their strength, song, and salvation Happy therefore the people whole God is the Lord: They are weak themselves, but he strengthens them, his grace is their strength: they are oft in sorr...

Happy therefore the people whole God is the Lord: They are weak themselves, but he strengthens them, his grace is their strength: they are oft in sorrow, but in him they have comfort, he is their song: sin and death threaten them, but he is, and will be, their salvation.

Wesley: Exo 15:2 - He is their fathers God This they take notice of, because being conscious of their own unworthiness, they had reason to think that what God had now done for them was for thei...

This they take notice of, because being conscious of their own unworthiness, they had reason to think that what God had now done for them was for their fathers sake, Deu 4:37.

Wesley: Exo 15:3 - The Lord is a man of war Able to deal with all those that strive with their maker.

Able to deal with all those that strive with their maker.

Wesley: Exo 15:4 - He hath cast With great force, as an arrow out of a bow, so the Hebrew word signifies.

With great force, as an arrow out of a bow, so the Hebrew word signifies.

Wesley: Exo 15:7 - In the greatness of thine excellency By thy great and excellent power.

By thy great and excellent power.

Wesley: Exo 15:8 - With the blast of thy nostrils By thine anger:

By thine anger:

Wesley: Exo 15:8 - The depths were congealed Stood still, as if they had been frozen:

Stood still, as if they had been frozen:

Wesley: Exo 15:8 - In the heart of the sea The midst of it.

The midst of it.

Wesley: Exo 15:9 - My lust My desire both of revenge and gain.

My desire both of revenge and gain.

Wesley: Exo 15:11 - The gods So called: Idols, or Princes:

So called: Idols, or Princes:

Wesley: Exo 15:11 - Glorious in holiness In justice, mercy and truth:

In justice, mercy and truth:

Wesley: Exo 15:11 - Fearful in praises To be praised with reverence.

To be praised with reverence.

Wesley: Exo 15:12 - The earth swallowed them Their dead bodies sunk into the sands on which they were thrown, which sucked them in.

Their dead bodies sunk into the sands on which they were thrown, which sucked them in.

Wesley: Exo 15:13 - Thou in thy mercy hast led forth the People Out of the bondage of Egypt, and out of the perils of the Red-sea.

Out of the bondage of Egypt, and out of the perils of the Red-sea.

Wesley: Exo 15:13 - Thou hast guided them to thy holy habitation Thou hast put them into the way to it, and wilt in due time bring them to the end of that way.

Thou hast put them into the way to it, and wilt in due time bring them to the end of that way.

Wesley: Exo 15:17 - Thou shalt bring them in If he thus bring them out of Egypt, he will bring them into Canaan; for has he begun, and will he not make an end?

If he thus bring them out of Egypt, he will bring them into Canaan; for has he begun, and will he not make an end?

Wesley: Exo 15:17 - Thou wilt plant them in the place which thou hast made for thee to dwell in It is good dwelling where God dwells, in his church on earth, and in his church in heaven.

It is good dwelling where God dwells, in his church on earth, and in his church in heaven.

Wesley: Exo 15:17 - In the mountains In the mountainous country of Canaan:

In the mountainous country of Canaan:

Wesley: Exo 15:17 - The sanctuary which thy hands have established Will as surely establish as if it was done already.

Will as surely establish as if it was done already.

Wesley: Exo 15:18 - The Lord shall reign for ever and ever They had now seen an end of Pharaoh's reign, but time itself shall not put a period to Jehovah's reign, which like himself is eternal.

They had now seen an end of Pharaoh's reign, but time itself shall not put a period to Jehovah's reign, which like himself is eternal.

Wesley: Exo 15:20 - -- Miriam (or Mary, it is the same name) presided in an assembly of the women, who (according to the common usage of those times) with timbrels and dance...

Miriam (or Mary, it is the same name) presided in an assembly of the women, who (according to the common usage of those times) with timbrels and dances, sung this song. Moses led the psalm, and gave it out for the men, and then Miriam for the women. Famous victories were wont to be applauded by the daughters of Israel, 1Sa 18:6-7, so was this. When God brought Israel out of Egypt, it is said, Mic 6:4, he sent before them Moses, Aaron, and Miriam; though we read not of any thing remarkable that Miriam did but this. But those are to be reckoned great blessings to a people, that go before them in praising God.

Wesley: Exo 15:21 - And Miriam answered them The men: They sung by turns, or in parts.

The men: They sung by turns, or in parts.

Wesley: Exo 15:23 - The name of it was called Marah That is, Bitterness.

That is, Bitterness.

Wesley: Exo 15:25 - And he cried unto the Lord It is the greatest relief of the cares of magistrates and ministers, when those under their charge make them uneasy, that they may have recourse to Go...

It is the greatest relief of the cares of magistrates and ministers, when those under their charge make them uneasy, that they may have recourse to God by prayer; he is the guide of the church's guides, and to the chief shepherd, the under shepherds must on all occasions apply themselves:

Wesley: Exo 15:25 - And the Lord directed Moses to a tree, which he cast into the waters, and they were made sweet Some think this wood had a peculiar virtue in it for this purpose, because it is said, God shewed him the tree. God is to be acknowledged, not only in...

Some think this wood had a peculiar virtue in it for this purpose, because it is said, God shewed him the tree. God is to be acknowledged, not only in the creating things useful for man, but in discovering their usefulness. But perhaps this was only a sign, and not a means of the cure, no more than the brazen serpent.

Wesley: Exo 15:25 - There he made a statute and an ordinance, and there he proved them That is, there he put them upon trial, admitted them as probationers for his favour. In short he tells them, Exo 15:26, what he expected from them, an...

That is, there he put them upon trial, admitted them as probationers for his favour. In short he tells them, Exo 15:26, what he expected from them, and that was, in one word, obedience. They must diligently hearken to his voice, and give ear to his commandments, and must take care, in every thing, to do that which was right in God's sight, and to keep all his statutes.

Wesley: Exo 15:25 - Then I will put none of these diseases upon thee That is, I will not bring upon thee any of the plagues of Egypt. This intimates, that if they were disobedient, the plagues which they had seen inflic...

That is, I will not bring upon thee any of the plagues of Egypt. This intimates, that if they were disobedient, the plagues which they had seen inflicted on their enemies should be brought on them. But if thou wilt be obedient, thou shalt be safe, the threatening is implied, but the promise is expressed,

Wesley: Exo 15:25 - I am the Lord that healeth thee And will take care of thee wherever thou goest.

And will take care of thee wherever thou goest.

JFB: Exo 15:1 - Then sang Moses and the children of Israel The scene of this thanksgiving song is supposed to have been at the landing place on the eastern shore of the Red Sea, at Ayoun Musa, "the fountains o...

The scene of this thanksgiving song is supposed to have been at the landing place on the eastern shore of the Red Sea, at Ayoun Musa, "the fountains of Moses." They are situated somewhat farther northward along the shore than the opposite point from which the Israelites set out. But the line of the people would be extended during the passage, and one extremity of it would reach as far north as these fountains, which would supply them with water on landing. The time when it was sung is supposed to have been the morning after the passage. This song is, by some hundred years, the oldest poem in the world. There is a sublimity and beauty in the language that is unexampled. But its unrivalled superiority arises not solely from the splendor of the diction. Its poetical excellencies have often drawn forth the admiration of the best judges, while the character of the event commemorated, and its being prompted by divine inspiration, contribute to give it an interest and sublimity peculiar to itself.

JFB: Exo 15:1 - I will sing unto the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously Considering the state of servitude in which they had been born and bred, and the rude features of character which their subsequent history often displ...

Considering the state of servitude in which they had been born and bred, and the rude features of character which their subsequent history often displays, it cannot be supposed that the children of Israel generally were qualified to commit to memory or to appreciate the beauties of this inimitable song. But they might perfectly understand its pervading strain of sentiment; and, with the view of suitably improving the occasion, it was thought necessary that all, old and young, should join their united voices in the rehearsal of its words. As every individual had cause, so every individual gave utterance to his feelings of gratitude.

JFB: Exo 15:20 - Miriam the prophetess So called from her receiving divine revelations (Num 12:1; Mic 6:4), but in this instance principally from her being eminently skilled in music, and i...

So called from her receiving divine revelations (Num 12:1; Mic 6:4), but in this instance principally from her being eminently skilled in music, and in this sense the word "prophecy" is sometimes used in Scripture (1Ch 25:1; 1Co 11:5).

JFB: Exo 15:20 - took a timbrel Or "tabret"--a musical instrument in the form of a hoop, edged round with rings or pieces of brass to make a jingling noise and covered over with tigh...

Or "tabret"--a musical instrument in the form of a hoop, edged round with rings or pieces of brass to make a jingling noise and covered over with tightened parchment like a drum. It was beat with the fingers, and corresponds to our tambourine.

JFB: Exo 15:20 - all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances We shall understand this by attending to the modern customs of the East, where the dance--a slow, grave, and solemn gesture, generally accompanied wit...

We shall understand this by attending to the modern customs of the East, where the dance--a slow, grave, and solemn gesture, generally accompanied with singing and the sound of the timbrel, is still led by the principal female of the company, the rest imitating her movements and repeating the words of the song as they drop from her lips.

JFB: Exo 15:21 - Miriam answered them "them" in the Hebrew is masculine, so that Moses probably led the men and Miriam the women--the two bands responding alternately, and singing the firs...

"them" in the Hebrew is masculine, so that Moses probably led the men and Miriam the women--the two bands responding alternately, and singing the first verse as a chorus.

JFB: Exo 15:22 - wilderness of Shur Comprehending all the western part of Arabia-Petræa. The desert of Etham was a part of it, extending round the northern portion of the Red Sea, and a...

Comprehending all the western part of Arabia-Petræa. The desert of Etham was a part of it, extending round the northern portion of the Red Sea, and a considerable distance along its eastern shore; whereas the "wilderness of Shur" (now Sudhr) was the designation of all the desert region of Arabia-Petræa that lay next to Palestine.

JFB: Exo 15:23 - when they came to Marah, they could not drink of the waters Following the general route of all travellers southward, between the sea and the tableland of the Tih ("valley of wandering"), Marah is almost univers...

Following the general route of all travellers southward, between the sea and the tableland of the Tih ("valley of wandering"), Marah is almost universally believed to be what is now called Howarah, in Wady Amarah, about thirty miles from the place where the Israelites landed on the eastern shore of the Red Sea--a distance quite sufficient for their march of three days. There is no other perennial spring in the intermediate space. The water still retains its ancient character, and has a bad name among the Arabs, who seldom allow their camels to partake of it.

JFB: Exo 15:25 - the Lord showed him a tree, which when he had cast into the waters, the waters were made sweet Some travellers have pronounced this to be the Elvah of the Arabs--a shrub in form and flower resembling our hawthorn; others, the berries of the Ghur...

Some travellers have pronounced this to be the Elvah of the Arabs--a shrub in form and flower resembling our hawthorn; others, the berries of the Ghurkhud--a bush found growing around all brackish fountains. But neither of these shrubs are known by the natives to possess such natural virtues. It is far more likely that God miraculously endowed some tree with the property of purifying the bitter water--a tree employed as the medium, but the sweetening was not dependent upon the nature or quality of the tree, but the power of God (compare Joh 9:6). And hence the "statute and ordinance" that followed, which would have been singularly inopportune if no miracle had been wrought.

JFB: Exo 15:25 - and there he proved them God now brought the Israelites into circumstances which would put their faith and obedience to the test (compare Gen 22:1).

God now brought the Israelites into circumstances which would put their faith and obedience to the test (compare Gen 22:1).

JFB: Exo 15:27 - they came to Elim, where were twelve wells of water Supposed to be what is now called Wady-Ghurandel, the most extensive watercourse in the western desert--an oasis, adorned with a great variety of tree...

Supposed to be what is now called Wady-Ghurandel, the most extensive watercourse in the western desert--an oasis, adorned with a great variety of trees, among which the palm is still conspicuous, and fertilized by a copious stream. It is estimated to be a mile in breadth, but stretching out far to the northeast. After the weary travel through the desert, this must have appeared a most delightful encampment from its shade and verdure, as well as from its abundant supply of sweet water for the thirsty multitude. The palm is called "the tree of the desert," as its presence is always a sign of water. The palms in this spot are greatly increased in number, but the wells are diminished.

Clarke: Exo 15:1 - Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song - Poetry has been cultivated in all ages and among all people, from the most refined to the mos...

Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song - Poetry has been cultivated in all ages and among all people, from the most refined to the most barbarous; and to it principally, under the kind providence of God, we are indebted for most of the original accounts we have of the ancient nations of the universe. Equally measured lines, with a harmonious collocation of expressive, sonorous, and sometimes highly metaphorical terms, the alternate lines either answering to each other in sense, or ending with similar sounds, were easily committed to memory, and easily retained. As these were often accompanied with a pleasing air or tune, the subject being a concatenation of striking and interesting events, histories formed thus became the amusement of youth, the softeners of the tedium of labor, and even the solace of age. In such a way the histories of most nations have been preserved. The interesting events celebrated, the rhythm or metre, and the accompanying tune or recitativo air, rendered them easily transmissible to posterity; and by means of tradition they passed safely from father to son through the times of comparative darkness, till they arrived at those ages in which the pen and the press have given them a sort of deathless duration and permanent stability, by multiplying the copies. Many of the ancient historic and heroic British tales are continued by tradition among the aboriginal inhabitants of Ireland to the present day; and the repetition of them constitutes the chief amusement of the winter evenings. Even the prose histories, which were written on the ground of the poetic, copied closely their exemplars, and the historians themselves were obliged to study all the beauties and ornaments of style, that their works might become popular; and to this circumstance we owe not a small measure of what is termed refinement of language. How observable is this in the history of Herodotus, who appears to have closely copied the ancient poetic records in his inimitable and harmonious prose; and, that his books might bear as near a resemblance as possible to the ancient and popular originals, he divided them into nine, and dedicated each to one of the muses! His work therefore seems to occupy the same place between the ancient poetic compositions and mere prosaic histories, as the polype does between plants and animals. Much even of our sacred records is written in poetry, which God has thus consecrated to be the faithful transmitter of remote and important events; and of this the song before the reader is a proof in point. Though this is not the first specimen of poetry we have met with in the Pentateuch, (see Lamech’ s speech to his wives, Gen 4:23, Gen 4:24; Noah’ s prophecy concerning his sons, Gen 9:25-27; and Jacob’ s blessing to the twelve patriarchs, Genesis 49:2-27 (note)), yet it is the first regular ode of any considerable length, having but one subject; and it is all written in hemistichs, or half lines, the usual form in Hebrew poetry; and though this form frequently occurs, it is not attended to in our common printed Hebrew Bibles, except in this and three other places, (Deuteronomy 32, Judges 5, and 2 Samuel 22)., all of which shall be noticed as they occur. But in Dr. Kennicott’ s edition of the Hebrew Bible, all the poetry, wheresoever it occurs, is printed in its own hemistich form

After what has been said it is perhaps scarcely necessary to observe, that as such ancient poetic histories commemorated great and extraordinary displays of providence, courage, strength, fidelity, heroism, and piety; hence the origin of Epic poems, of which the song in this chapter is the earliest specimen. And on the principle of preserving the memory of such events, most nations have had their epic poets, who have generally taken for their subject the most splendid or most remote events of their country’ s history, which either referred to the formation or extension of their empire, the exploits of their ancestors, or the establishment of their religion. Hence the ancient Hebrews had their Shir Mosheh, the piece in question: the Greeks, their Ilias; the Hindoos, their Mahabarat; the Romans, their Aeneid; the Norwegians, their Edda; the Irish and Scotch, their Fingal and Chronological poems; the Welsh, their Taliessin and his Triads; the Arabs, their Nebiun-Nameh (exploits of Mohammed) and Hamleh Heedry, (exploits of Aly); the Persians, their Shah Nameh, (book of kings); the Italians, their Gerusalemme Liberata; the Portuguese, their Lusiad; the English, their Paradise Lost; and, in humble imitation of all the rest, ( etsi non passibus aequis ), the French, their Henriade

The song of Moses has been in the highest repute in the Church of God from the beginning; the author of the Book of The Wisdom of Solomon attributes it in a particular manner to the wisdom of God, and says that on this occasion God opened the mouth of the dumb, and made the tongues of infants eloquent; The Wisdom of Solomon 10:21. As if he had said, Every person felt an interest in the great events which had taken place, and all labored to give Jehovah that praise which was due to his name. "With this song of victory over Pharaoh,"says Mr. Ainsworth, "the Holy Ghost compares the song of those who have gotten the victory over the spiritual Pharaoh, the beast, (Antichrist), when they stand by the sea of glass mingled with fire, (as Israel stood here by the Red Sea), having the harps of God, (as the women here had timbrels, Exo 15:20), and they sing the song of Moses the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, the Son of God,"Rev 15:2-4

Clarke: Exo 15:1 - I will sing unto the Lord I will sing unto the Lord - Moses begins the song, and in the two first hemistichs states the subject of it; and these two first lines became the gr...

I will sing unto the Lord - Moses begins the song, and in the two first hemistichs states the subject of it; and these two first lines became the grand chorus of the piece, as we may learn from Exo 15:21. See Dr. Kennicott’ s arrangement and translation of this piece at the end of this chapter. See Clarke’ s note on Exo 15:26

Clarke: Exo 15:1 - Triumphed gloriously Triumphed gloriously - כי גאה גאה ki gaoh gaah , he is exceedingly exalted, rendered by the Septuagint, Ενδοξως γαρ δεδοξα...

Triumphed gloriously - כי גאה גאה ki gaoh gaah , he is exceedingly exalted, rendered by the Septuagint, Ενδοξως γαρ δεδοξασται, He is gloriously glorified; and surely this was one of the most signal displays of the glorious majesty of God ever exhibited since the creation of the world. And when it is considered that the whole of this transaction shadowed out the redemption of the human race from the thraldom and power of sin and iniquity by the Lord Jesus, and the final triumph of the Church of God over all its enemies, we may also join in the song, and celebrate Him who has triumphed so gloriously, having conquered death, and opened the kingdom of heaven to all believers.

Clarke: Exo 15:2 - The Lord is my strength and song The Lord is my strength and song - How judiciously are the members of this sentence arranged! He who has God for his strength, will have him for his...

The Lord is my strength and song - How judiciously are the members of this sentence arranged! He who has God for his strength, will have him for his song; and he to whom Jehovah is become salvation, will exalt his name. Miserably and untunably, in the ears of God, does that man sing praises, who is not saved by the grace of Christ, nor strengthened by the power of his might

It is worthy of observation that the word which we translate Lord here, is not יהוה JEHOVAH in the original, but יה Jah ; "as if by abbreviation,"says Mr. Parkhurst, "for יהיה yeheieh or יהי yehi . It signifies the Essence Ὁ ΩΝ, He who Is, simply, absolutely, and independently. The relation between יה Jah and the verb היה to subsist, exist, be, is intimated to us the first time יה Jah is used in Scripture, (Exo 15:2): ‘ My strength and my song is יה Jah , and he is become ( ויהי vajehi ) to me salvation.’ "See Psa 68:5; Psa 89:6; Psa 94:7; Psa 115:17, Psa 115:18; Psa 118:17

Jah יה is several times joined with the name Jehovah יהוה so that we may be sure that it is not, as some have supposed, a mere abbreviation of that word. See Isa 12:2; Isa 26:4. Our blessed Lord solemnly claims to himself what is intended in this Divine name יה Jah , Joh 8:58 : "Before Abraham was, ( γενεσθαι, was born), εγω ειμι, I Am,"not I was, but I am, plainly intimating his Divine eternal existence. Compare Isa 43:13. And the Jews appear to have well understood him, for then took they up stones to cast at him as a blasphemer. Compare Col 1:16, Col 1:17, where the Apostle Paul, after asserting that all things that are in heaven and that are in earth, visible and invisible, were created, εκτισται, by and for Christ, adds And He Is ( αυτος εστι, not ην, was) before all things, and by him all things συνεστηκε, have subsisted, and still subsist. See Parkhurst

From this Divine name יה Jah the ancient Greeks had their Ιη, Ιη, in their invocations of the gods, particularly of Apollo (the uncompounded One) the light; and hence ei, written after the oriental manner from right to left, afterwards ie, was inscribed over the great door of the temple at Delphi! See Clarke’ s note on Exo 3:14, and the concluding observations there

Clarke: Exo 15:2 - I will prepare him a habitation I will prepare him a habitation - ואנוהו veanvehu . It has been supposed that Moses, by this expression, intended the building of the tabern...

I will prepare him a habitation - ואנוהו veanvehu . It has been supposed that Moses, by this expression, intended the building of the tabernacle; but it seems to come in very strangely in this place. Most of the ancient versions understood the original in a very different sense. The Vulgate has et glorificabo eum ; the Septuagint δοξασω αυτον, I will Glorify him; with which the Syriac, Coptic, the Targum of Jonathan, and the Jerusalem Targum, agree. From the Targum of Onkelos the present translation seems to have been originally derived; he has translated the place ואבני לה מקדש veebnei leh makdash , "And I will build him a sanctuary,"which not one of the other versions, the Persian excepted, acknowledges. Our own old translations are generally different from the present: Coverdale, "This my God, I will magnify him;"Matthew’ s, Cranmer’ s, and the Bishops’ Bible, render it glorify, and the sense of the place seems to require it. Calmet, Houbigant, Kennicott, and other critics, contend for this translation

Clarke: Exo 15:2 - My father’ s God My father’ s God - I believe Houbigant to be right, who translates the original, אלהי אבי Elohey abi , Deus meus, pater meus est , "My ...

My father’ s God - I believe Houbigant to be right, who translates the original, אלהי אבי Elohey abi , Deus meus, pater meus est , "My God is my Father."Every man may call the Divine Being his God; but only those who are his children by adoption through grace can call him their Father. This is a privilege which God has given to none but his children. See Gal 4:6.

Clarke: Exo 15:3 - The Lord is a man of war The Lord is a man of war - Perhaps it would be better to translate the words, Jehovah is the man or hero of the battle. As we scarcely ever apply th...

The Lord is a man of war - Perhaps it would be better to translate the words, Jehovah is the man or hero of the battle. As we scarcely ever apply the term to any thing but first-rate armed vessels, the change of the translation seems indispensable, though the common rendering is literal enough. Besides, the object of Moses was to show that man had no part in this victory, but that the whole was wrought by the miraculous power of God, and that therefore he alone should have all the glory

Clarke: Exo 15:3 - The Lord is his name The Lord is his name - That is, Jehovah. He has now, as the name implies, given complete existence to all his promises. See Clarke on Gen 2:4 (note)...

The Lord is his name - That is, Jehovah. He has now, as the name implies, given complete existence to all his promises. See Clarke on Gen 2:4 (note), and Exo 6:3 (note).

Clarke: Exo 15:4 - Pharaoh’ s chariots - his host - his chosen captains Pharaoh’ s chariots - his host - his chosen captains - On such an expedition it is likely that the principal Egyptian nobility accompanied thei...

Pharaoh’ s chariots - his host - his chosen captains - On such an expedition it is likely that the principal Egyptian nobility accompanied their king, and that the overthrow they met with here had reduced Egypt to the lowest extremity. Had the Israelites been intent on plunder, or had Moses been influenced by a spirit of ambition, how easily might both have gratified themselves, as, had they returned, they might have soon overrun and subjugated the whole land.

Clarke: Exo 15:6 - Thy right hand Thy right hand - Thy omnipotence, manifested in a most extraordinary way.

Thy right hand - Thy omnipotence, manifested in a most extraordinary way.

Clarke: Exo 15:7 - In the greatness of thine excellency In the greatness of thine excellency - To this wonderful deliverance the Prophet Isaiah refers, Isa 63:11-14 : "Then he remembered the days of old, ...

In the greatness of thine excellency - To this wonderful deliverance the Prophet Isaiah refers, Isa 63:11-14 : "Then he remembered the days of old, Moses and his people, saying, Where is he that brought them up out of the sea with the shepherd of his flock? Where is he that put his Holy Spirit within him? That led them by the right hand of Moses with his glorious arm, dividing the water before them, to make himself an everlasting name? That led them through the deep, as a horse in the wilderness, that they should not stumble? As a beast goeth down into the valley, the Spirit of the Lord caused him to rest; so didst thou lead thy people, to make thyself a glorious name."

Clarke: Exo 15:8 - The depths were congealed The depths were congealed - The strong east wind (Exo 14:21) employed to dry the bottom of the sea, is here represented as the blast of God’ s ...

The depths were congealed - The strong east wind (Exo 14:21) employed to dry the bottom of the sea, is here represented as the blast of God’ s nostrils that had congealed or frozen the waters, so that they stood in heaps like a wall on the right hand and on the left.

Clarke: Exo 15:9 - The enemy said The enemy said - As this song was composed by Divine inspiration, we may rest assured that these words were spoken by Pharaoh and his captains, and ...

The enemy said - As this song was composed by Divine inspiration, we may rest assured that these words were spoken by Pharaoh and his captains, and the passions they describe felt, in their utmost sway, in their hearts; but how soon was their boasting confounded? "Thou didst blow with thy wind, and the sea covered them: they sank as lead in the mighty waters!"

Clarke: Exo 15:11 - Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods? Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods? - We have already seen that all the Egyptian gods, or the objects of the Egyptians’ idolatry, w...

Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods? - We have already seen that all the Egyptian gods, or the objects of the Egyptians’ idolatry, were confounded, and rendered completely despicable, by the ten plagues, which appear to have been directed principally against them. Here the people of God exult over them afresh: Who among these gods is like unto Thee? They can neither save nor destroy; Thou dost both in the most signal manner

As the original words מי כמכה באלם יהוה mi chamochah baelim Yehovah are supposed to have constituted the motto on the ensign of the Asmoneans, and to have furnished the name of Maccabeus to Judas, their grand captain, from whom they were afterwards called Maccabeans, it may be necessary to say a few words on this subject It is possible that Judas Maccabeus might have had this motto on his ensign, or at least the initial letters of it, for such a practice was not uncommon. For instance, on the Roman standard the letters S. P. Q. R. stood for Senatus Populus Que Romanus, i.e. the Senate and Roman People, and מ כ ב י M. C. B. I. might have stood for Mi Chamochah Baelim Jehovah , "Who among the gods (or strong ones) is like unto thee, O Jehovah!"But it appears from the Greek Μακκαβαιος, and also the Syriac makabi , that the name was written originally with ק koph , not כ caph . It is most likely, as Michaelis has observed, that the name must have been derived from מקב makkab , a hammer or mallet; hence Judas, because of his bravery and success, might have been denominated the hammer or mallet by which the enemies of God had been beaten, pounded, and broken to pieces. Judas, the hammer of the Lord

Clarke: Exo 15:11 - Glorious in holiness Glorious in holiness - Infinitely resplendent in this attribute, essential to the perfection of the Divine nature

Glorious in holiness - Infinitely resplendent in this attribute, essential to the perfection of the Divine nature

Clarke: Exo 15:11 - Fearful in praises Fearful in praises - Such glorious holiness cannot be approached without the deepest reverence and fear, even by angels, who veil their faces before...

Fearful in praises - Such glorious holiness cannot be approached without the deepest reverence and fear, even by angels, who veil their faces before the majesty of God. How then should man, who is only sin and dust, approach the presence of his Maker

Clarke: Exo 15:11 - Doing wonders? Doing wonders? - Every part of the work of God is wonderful; not only miracles, which imply an inversion or suspension of the laws of nature, but ev...

Doing wonders? - Every part of the work of God is wonderful; not only miracles, which imply an inversion or suspension of the laws of nature, but every part of nature itself. Who can conceive how a single blade of grass is formed; or how earth, air, and water become consolidated in the body of the oak? And who can comprehend how the different tribes of plants and animals are preserved, in all the distinctive characteristics of their respective natures? And who can conceive how the human being is formed, nourished, and its different parts developed? What is the true cause of the circulation of the blood? or, how different ailments produce the solids and fluids of the animal machine? What is life, sleep, death? And how an impure and unholy soul is regenerated, purified, refined, and made like unto its great Creator? These are wonders which God alone works, and to himself only are they fully known.

Clarke: Exo 15:12 - The earth swallowed them The earth swallowed them - It is very likely there was also an earthquake on this occasion, and that chasms were made in the bottom of the sea, by w...

The earth swallowed them - It is very likely there was also an earthquake on this occasion, and that chasms were made in the bottom of the sea, by which many of them were swallowed up, though multitudes were overwhelmed by the waters, whose dead bodies were afterward thrown ashore. The psalmist strongly intimates that there was an earthquake on this occasion: The voice of thy thunder was in the heaven; the lightnings lightened the world; the Earth Trembled and Shook; Psa 77:18.

Clarke: Exo 15:13 - Thou hast guided them in thy strength unto thy holy habitation Thou hast guided them in thy strength unto thy holy habitation - As this ode was dictated by the Spirit of God, It is most natural to understand thi...

Thou hast guided them in thy strength unto thy holy habitation - As this ode was dictated by the Spirit of God, It is most natural to understand this and the following verses, to the end of the 18th, as containing a prediction of what God would do for this people which he had so miraculously redeemed. On this mode of interpretation it would be better to read several of the verbs in the future tense.

Clarke: Exo 15:15 - The dukes of Edom The dukes of Edom - Idumea was governed at this time by those called אלפים alluphim , heads, chiefs, or captains. See Clarke’ s note on G...

The dukes of Edom - Idumea was governed at this time by those called אלפים alluphim , heads, chiefs, or captains. See Clarke’ s note on Gen 36:15.

Clarke: Exo 15:16 - Till thy people pass over Till thy people pass over - Not over the Red Sea, for that event had been already celebrated; but over the desert and Jordan, in order to be brought...

Till thy people pass over - Not over the Red Sea, for that event had been already celebrated; but over the desert and Jordan, in order to be brought into the promised land.

Clarke: Exo 15:17 - Thou shalt bring them in Thou shalt bring them in - By thy strength and mercy alone shall they get the promised inheritance

Thou shalt bring them in - By thy strength and mercy alone shall they get the promised inheritance

Clarke: Exo 15:17 - And plant them And plant them - Give them a fixed habitation in Canaan, after their unsettled wandering life in the wilderness

And plant them - Give them a fixed habitation in Canaan, after their unsettled wandering life in the wilderness

Clarke: Exo 15:17 - In the mountain In the mountain - Meaning Canaan, which was a very mountainous country, Deu 11:11; or probably Mount Zion, on which the temple was built. Where the ...

In the mountain - Meaning Canaan, which was a very mountainous country, Deu 11:11; or probably Mount Zion, on which the temple was built. Where the pure worship of God was established, there the people might expect both rest and safety. Wherever the purity of religion is established and preserved, and the high and the low endeavor to regulate their lives according to its precepts, the government of that country is likely to be permanent.

Clarke: Exo 15:18 - The Lord shall reign for ever and ever The Lord shall reign for ever and ever - This is properly the grand chorus in which all the people joined. The words are expressive of God’ s e...

The Lord shall reign for ever and ever - This is properly the grand chorus in which all the people joined. The words are expressive of God’ s everlasting dominion, not only in the world, but in the Church; not only under the law, but also under the Gospel; not only in time, but through eternity. The original לעלם ועד leolam vaed may be translated, for ever and onward; or, by our very expressive compound term, for Evermore, i.e. for ever and more - not only through time, but also through all duration. His dominion shall be ever the same, active and infinitely extending. With this verse the song seems to end, as with it the hemistichs or poetic lines terminate. The 20th and beginning of the 21st are in plain prose, but the latter part of the 21st is in hemistichs , as it contains the response made by Miriam and the Israelitish women at different intervals during the song. See Dr. Kennicott’ s arrangement of the parts at the end of this chapter.

Clarke: Exo 15:20 - And Miriam the prophetess And Miriam the prophetess - We have already seen that Miriam was older than either Moses or Aaron: for when Moses was exposed on the Nile, she was a...

And Miriam the prophetess - We have already seen that Miriam was older than either Moses or Aaron: for when Moses was exposed on the Nile, she was a young girl capable of managing the stratagem used for the preservation of his life; and then Aaron was only three years and three months old, for he was fourscore and three years old when Moses was but fourscore, (see Exo 7:7); so that Aaron was older than Moses, and Miriam considerably older than either, not less probably than nine or ten years of age. See Clarke’ s notes on Exo 2:2. There is great diversity of opinion on the origin of the name of Miriam, which is the same with the Greek Μαριαμ, the Latin Maria , and the English Mary. Some suppose it to be compounded of מר mar , a drop, (Isa 40:15), and ים yam , the sea, and that from this etymology the heathens formed their Venus, whom they feign to have sprung from the sea. St. Jerome gives several etymologies for the name, which at once show how difficult it is to ascertain it: she who enlightens me, or she who enlightens them, or the star of the sea. Others, the lady of the sea, the bitterness of the sea, etc. It is probable that the first or the last is the true one, but it is a matter of little importance, as we have not the circumstance marked, as in the case of Moses and many others, that gave rise to the name

Clarke: Exo 15:20 - The prophetess The prophetess - הנביאה hannebiah . For the meaning of the word prophet, נביא nabi , see the note on Gen 20:7. It is very likely that M...

The prophetess - הנביאה hannebiah . For the meaning of the word prophet, נביא nabi , see the note on Gen 20:7. It is very likely that Miriam was inspired by the Spirit of God to instruct the Hebrew women, as Moses and Aaron were to instruct the men; and when she and her brother Aaron sought to share in the government of the people with Moses, we find her laying claim to the prophetic influence, Num 12:2 : Hath the Lord indeed spoken only by Moses? Hath he not Spoken Also By Us? And that she was constituted joint leader of the people with her two brothers, we have the express word of God by the Prophet Micah, Mic 6:4 : For I brought thee up out of the land of Egypt - and I sent before thee Moses, Aaron, and Miriam. Hence it is very likely that she was the instructress of the women, and regulated the times, places, etc., of their devotional acts; for it appears that from the beginning to the present day the Jewish women all worshipped apart

Clarke: Exo 15:20 - A timbrel A timbrel - תף toph , the same word which is translated tabret, Gen 31:27, on which the reader is desired to consult the note. See Clarke’ s...

A timbrel - תף toph , the same word which is translated tabret, Gen 31:27, on which the reader is desired to consult the note. See Clarke’ s note on Gen 31:27

Clarke: Exo 15:20 - And with dances And with dances - מחלת mecholoth . Many learned men suppose that this word means some instruments of wind music, because the word comes from t...

And with dances - מחלת mecholoth . Many learned men suppose that this word means some instruments of wind music, because the word comes from the root חלל chalal , the ideal meaning of which is to perforate, penetrate, pierce, stab, and hence to wound. Pipes or hollow tubes, such as flutes, hautboys, and the like, may be intended. Both the Arabic and Persian understand it as meaning instruments of music of the pipe, drum, or sistrum kind; and this seems to comport better with the scope and design of the place than the term dances. It must however be allowed that religious dances have been in use from the remotest times; and yet in most of the places where the term occurs in our translation, an instrument of music bids as fair to be its meaning as a dance of any kind. Miriam is the first prophetess on record, and by this we find that God not only poured out his Spirit upon men, but upon women also; and we learn also that Miriam was not only a prophetess, but a poetess also, and must have had considerable skill in music to have been able to conduct her part of these solemnities. It may appear strange that during so long an oppression in Egypt, the Israelites were able to cultivate the fine arts; but that they did so there is the utmost evidence from the Pentateuch. Not only architecture, weaving, and such necessary arts, were well known among them, but also the arts that are called ornamental, such as those of the goldsmith, lapidary, embroiderer, furrier, etc., of which we have ample proof in the construction of the tabernacle and its utensils. However ungrateful, rebellious, etc., the Jews may have been, the praise of industry and economy can never be denied them. In former ages, and in all places even of their dispersions, they appear to have been frugal and industrious, and capable of great proficiency in the most elegant and curious arts; but they are now greatly degenerated.

Clarke: Exo 15:22 - The wilderness of Shur The wilderness of Shur - This was on the coast of the Red Sea on their road to Mount Sinai. See the map.

The wilderness of Shur - This was on the coast of the Red Sea on their road to Mount Sinai. See the map.

Clarke: Exo 15:23 - Marah Marah - So called from the bitter waters found there. Dr. Shaw conjectures that this place is the same as that now called Corondel, where there is s...

Marah - So called from the bitter waters found there. Dr. Shaw conjectures that this place is the same as that now called Corondel, where there is still a small rill which, if not diluted with dews or rain, continues brackish. See his account at the end of Exodus (Exo 40:38 (note)).

Clarke: Exo 15:24 - The people murmured The people murmured - They were in a state of great mental degradation, owing to their long and oppressive vassalage, and had no firmness of charact...

The people murmured - They were in a state of great mental degradation, owing to their long and oppressive vassalage, and had no firmness of character. See Clarke’ s note on Exo 13:17.

Clarke: Exo 15:25 - He cried unto the Lord He cried unto the Lord - Moses was not only their leader, but also their mediator. Of prayer and dependence on the Almighty, the great mass of the I...

He cried unto the Lord - Moses was not only their leader, but also their mediator. Of prayer and dependence on the Almighty, the great mass of the Israelites appear to have had little knowledge at this time. Moses, therefore, had much to bear from their weakness, and the merciful Lord was long-suffering

Clarke: Exo 15:25 - The Lord showed him a tree The Lord showed him a tree - What this tree was we know not: some think that the tree was extremely bitter itself, such as the quassia; and that God...

The Lord showed him a tree - What this tree was we know not: some think that the tree was extremely bitter itself, such as the quassia; and that God acted in this as he generally does, correcting contraries by contraries, which, among the ancient physicians, was a favourite maxim, Clavus clavo expellitur . The Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem say that, when Moses prayed, "the Word of the Lord showed him the tree ארדפני ardiphney , on which he wrote the great and precious name of (Jehovah), and then threw it into the waters, and the waters thereby became sweet"But what the tree ardiphney was we are not informed

Many suppose that this tree which healed the bitter waters was symbolical of the cross of our blessed Redeemer, that has been the means of healing infected nature, and through the virtue of which the evils and bitters of life are sweetened, and rendered subservient to the best interests of God’ s followers. Whatever may be in the metaphor, this is true in fact; and hence the greatest of apostles gloried in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by which the world was crucified to him and he unto the world

It appears that these waters were sweetened only for that occasion, as Dr. Shaw reports them to be still brackish, which appears to be occasioned by the abundance of natron which prevails in the surrounding soil. Thus we may infer that the natural cause of their bitterness or brackishness was permitted to resume its operations, when the occasion that rendered the change necessary had ceased to exist. Thus Christ simply changed that water into wine which was to be drawn out to be carried to the master of the feast; the rest of the water in the pots remaining as before. As the water of the Nile was so peculiarly excellent, to which they had been long accustomed, they could not easily put up with what was indifferent. See Clarke’ s note on Exo 7:18

Clarke: Exo 15:25 - There he made for them There he made for them - Though it is probable that the Israelites are here intended, yet the word לו lo should not be translated for them, but...

There he made for them - Though it is probable that the Israelites are here intended, yet the word לו lo should not be translated for them, but to him, for these statutes were given to Moses that he might deliver them to the people

Clarke: Exo 15:25 - There he proved them There he proved them - נסהו nissahu , he proved Him. By this murmuring of the people he proved Moses, to see, speaking after the manner of men,...

There he proved them - נסהו nissahu , he proved Him. By this murmuring of the people he proved Moses, to see, speaking after the manner of men, whether he would be faithful, and, in the midst of the trials to which he was likely to be exposed, whether he would continue to trust in the Lord, and seek all his help from him.

Clarke: Exo 15:26 - If thou wilt diligently hearken If thou wilt diligently hearken - What is contained in this verse appears to be what is intended by the statute and ordinance mentioned in the prece...

If thou wilt diligently hearken - What is contained in this verse appears to be what is intended by the statute and ordinance mentioned in the preceding: If thou wilt diligently hearken unto the voice of the Lord thy God, and wilt do that which is right in his sight, and wilt give ear to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, I will put none of these diseases upon thee, etc. This statute and ordinance implied the three following particulars

1.    That they should acknowledge Jehovah for their God, and thus avoid all idolatry

2.    That they should receive his word and testimony as a Divine revelation, binding on their hearts and lives, and thus be saved from profligacy of every kind, and from acknowledging the maxims or adopting the customs of the neighboring nations

3.    That they should continue to do so, and adorn their profession with a holy life.

hese things being attended to, then the promise of God was, that they should have none of the diseases of the Egyptians put on them; that they should be kept in a state of health of body and peace of mind; and if at any time they should be afflicted, on application to God the evil should be removed, because he was their healer or physician - I am the Lord that healeth thee. That the Israelites had in general a very good state of health, their history warrants us to believe; and when they were afflicted, as in the case of the fiery serpents, on application to God they were all healed. The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel states that the statutes which Moses received at this time were commandments concerning the observance of the Sabbath, duty to parents, the ordinances concerning wounds and bruises, and the penalties which sinners should incur by transgressing them. But it appears that the general ordinances already mentioned are those which are intended here, and this seems to be proved beyond dispute by Jer 7:22, Jer 7:23 : "For I spake not unto your fathers, nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt-offerings or sacrifices: but this thing commanded I them, saying, Obey my voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be my people; walk ye in all the ways that I have commanded you, that it may be well unto you."

Clarke: Exo 15:27 - They came to Elim They came to Elim - This was in the desert of Sin, and, according to Dr. Shaw, about two leagues from Tor, and thirty from Marah or Corondel

They came to Elim - This was in the desert of Sin, and, according to Dr. Shaw, about two leagues from Tor, and thirty from Marah or Corondel

Clarke: Exo 15:27 - Twelve wells of water Twelve wells of water - One for each of the tribes of Israel, say the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem

Twelve wells of water - One for each of the tribes of Israel, say the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem

Clarke: Exo 15:27 - And threescore and ten palm trees And threescore and ten palm trees - One for each of the seventy elders - Ibid Dr. Shaw found nine of the twelve wells, the other three having been c...

And threescore and ten palm trees - One for each of the seventy elders - Ibid

Dr. Shaw found nine of the twelve wells, the other three having been choked up with sand; and the seventy palm trees multiplied into more than 2000, the dates of which bring a considerable revenue to the Greek monks at Tor. See his account at the end of this book, (Exo 40:38 (note)) and see also the map. Thus sufficient evidence of the authenticity of this part of the sacred history remains, after the lapse of more than 3000 years

In the preceding notes the reader has been referred to Dr. Kennicott’ s translation and arrangement of the song of Moses. To this translation he prefixes the following observations: -

"This triumphant ode was sung by Moses and the sons of Israel: and the women, headed by Miriam, answered the men by repeating the two first lines of the song, altering only the first word, which two lines were probably sung more than once as a chorus

"The conclusion of this ode seems very manifest; and yet, though the ancient Jews had sense enough to write this song differently from prose; and though their authority has prevailed even, to this day in this and three other poems in the Old Testament, (Deut. 22; Judges 5; and 2 Sam. 22)., still expressed by them as poetry; yet have these critics carried their ideas of the song here to the end of Exo 15:19. The reason why the same has been done by others probably is, they thought that the particle כי for, which begins Exo 15:19, necessarily connected it with the preceding poetry. But this difficulty is removed by translating כי when, especially if we take Exo 15:19-21 as being a prose explanation of the manner in which this song of triumph was performed. For these three verses say that the men singers were answered in the chorus by Miriam and the women, accompanying their words with musical instruments. ‘ When the horse of Pharaoh had gone into the sea, and the Lord had brought the sea upon them; and Israel had passed, on dry land, in the midst of the sea; then Miriam took a timbrel, and all the women went out after her with timbrels and dances; and Miriam (with the women) answered them ( להם lahem , the men, by way of chorus) in the words, O sing ye, etc.’ That this chorus was sung more than Once is thus stated by Bishop Lowth: Maria, cum mulieribus, virorum choro identidem succinebat - Praelect. 19

"I shall now give what appears to me to be an exact translation of this whole song: -

Moses. Part

1.    I will sing to Jehovah, for he hath triumphed gloriously;
The horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea

2.    My strength and my song is Jehovah;
And he is become to me for salvation:
This is my God, and I will celebrate him;
The God of my father, and I will exalt him

3.    (Perhaps a chorus sung by the men)
Jehovah is mighty in battle
Jehovah is his name!

(Chorus, by Miriam and the women.
Perhaps sung first in this place. )
O sing ye to Jehovah, for he hath triumphed gloriously:
The horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.

Moses. Part I

4.    Pharaoh’ s chariots and his host hath he cast into the sea;
And his chosen captains are drowned in the Red Sea

5.    The depths have covered them, they went down;
(They sank) to the bottom as a stone

6.    Thy right hand, Jehovah, is become glorious in power;
Thy right hand, Jehovah, dasheth in pieces the enemy

7.    And in the greatness of thine excellence thou overthrowest them that rise against thee.
Thou sendest forth thy wrath, which consumeth them as stubble

8.    Even at the blast of thy displeasure the waters are gathered together;
The floods stand upright as a heap,
Congealed are the depths in the very heart of the sea.

O sing ye to Jehovah, etc. Chorus by the women.

Moses. Part II

9.    The enemy said: ‘ I will pursue, I shall overtake;
I shall divide the spoil, my soul shall be satiated with them;
I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them.’

10.    Thou didst blow with thy wind, the sea covered them;
They sank as lead in the mighty waters

11.    Who is like thee among the gods, O Jehovah?
Who is like thee, glorious in holiness

12.    Fearful in praises; performing wonders!
Thou stretchest out thy right hand, the earth swalloweth them

13.    Thou in thy mercy leadest the people whom thou hast redeemed;
Thou in thy strength guidest to the habitation of thy holiness!

O sing ye to Jehovah, etc. Chorus by the women.

Moses. Part I

14.    The nations have heard, and are afraid;
Sorrow hath seized the inhabitants of Palestine

15.    Already are the dukes of Edom in consternation,
And the mighty men of Moab, trembling hath seized them;
All the inhabitants of Canaan do faint

16.    Fear and dread shall fall upon them;
Through the greatness of thine arm they shall be still as a stone

17.    Till thy people, Jehovah, pass over [Jordan];
Till the people pass over whom thou hast redeemed

18.    Thou shalt bring them and plant them in the mount of thine inheritance:
The place for thy rest which thou, Jehovah, hast made;
The sanctuary, Jehovah, which thy hands have established.

Grand Chorus by All

Jehovah for ever and ever shall reign.

1.    When poetry is consecrated to the service of God, and employed as above to commemorate his marvellous acts, it then becomes a very useful handmaid to piety, and God is honored by his gifts. God inspired the song of Moses, and perhaps from this very circumstance it has passed for current among the most polished of the heathen nations, that a poet is a person Divinely inspired; and hence the epithet of προφητης, prophet, and vates, of the same import, was given them among the Greeks and Romans

2.    The song of Moses is a proof of the miraculous passage of the Israelites through the Red Sea. There has been no period since the Hebrew nation left Egypt in which this song was not found among them, as composed on that occasion, and to commemorate that event. It may be therefore considered as completely authentic as any living witness could be who had himself passed through the Red Sea, and whose life had been protracted through all the intervening ages to the present day

3.    We have already seen that it is a song of triumph for the deliverance of the people of God, and that it was intended to point out the final salvation and triumph of the whole Church of Christ; so that in the heaven of heavens the redeemed of the Lord, both among the Jews and the Gentiles, shall unite together to sing the song of Moses and the song of the Lamb. See Rev 15:2-4. Reader, implore the mercy of God to enable thee to make thy calling and election sure, that thou mayest bear thy part in this glorious and eternal triumph.

Calvin: Exo 15:1 - Then sang Moses 1.Then sang Moses Moses introduced this song not only in testimony of his gratitude, but also in confirmation of the history; for the song which he d...

1.Then sang Moses Moses introduced this song not only in testimony of his gratitude, but also in confirmation of the history; for the song which he dictated to the Israelites was not concerning an unknown event, but he brought them forward as eye-witnesses, that all ages might know that nothing thus far had been written which had not openly been declared by 600,000 men, besides their wives and children. Moses, therefore, set the example in accordance with his office, whilst the people, by singing with him, testified their approbation in a manner which admits of no contradiction. For’ to whom could they have lied, since they were each other’s witnesses, and the song was listened to by no strangers? Moses seems to mark their confidence by the repetition in the Hebrew, they “spoke, saying.” On this account, too, their confession, pronounced by all their mouths, deserves more credit, because the greater part of them soon after yielded to ingratitude: from whence we gather that it was only on compulsion that they gave God glory. But, although Moses was the author of the song, yet he does not say “I will sing” in his own person, but prescribes to all what each individual ought heartily to do.

Calvin: Exo 15:2 - The Lord is my strength 2.The Lord is my strength In this expression they acknowledge that they have a sufficient defense in God; and afterwards they add, that His grace fur...

2.The Lord is my strength In this expression they acknowledge that they have a sufficient defense in God; and afterwards they add, that His grace furnishes them with just ground for praise. The sum is, that they were strong in God, and had not conquered their enemies by their own bravery; and that, therefore, it is not lawful to glory save in God alone. But we must observe that the help of God is conjoined with His praise, because this is the end of all His benefits, that we should hold our salvation as received from Him, which is here mentioned in the third place, for to say that God had “become their salvation,” was as much as to say that the people were saved by His grace. In the second clause there is an antithesis between the true God and all false ones; for there is much emphasis in the declaration, “he is my God,” as by it Moses excludes all that multitude of gods which then were everywhere worshipped in the world. To the same effect he adds, “my father’s God,” thus distinguishing the faith of Abraham from all the superstitions of the Gentiles. The faithful then declare that it is safe for them to repose in this One God, and that His praises are worthy of celebration. Isaiah imitates this figure. Isa 25:9,

“Lo, this is our God; we have waited for him, and he will save us: this is the Lord; we have waited for him.”

What follows in the next verse — “The Lord is a man of war,” is to the same purpose, for although at first sight the phrase may seem a harsh one, still it is not without beauty: that God is armed in military attire, to contend with all the forces of His foes. Therefore, says Moses, the name of the Lord belongs to Him alone, because His hand awaits to destroy whatever lifts itself up against Him.

Calvin: Exo 15:4 - Pharaoh’s chariots 4.Pharaoh’s chariots Moses in these words only meant to assert, that the drowning of Pharaoh was manifestly God’s work. Therefore, he now illustr...

4.Pharaoh’s chariots Moses in these words only meant to assert, that the drowning of Pharaoh was manifestly God’s work. Therefore, he now illustrates in more glowing terms the transaction which he had before simply narrated; as also when he compares the Egyptians to stones and lead, as if he had said that they were hurled by God’s mighty hand into the deep, so that they had no power to swim out. On this score, he repeats twice the mention of God’s “right hand;” as much as to say that such a miracle could not be ascribed either to fortune or to the efforts of man. We must take notice of what he soon after says, that the Egyptians “rose up against” God; because they had treated His people with injustice and cruelty. Thence we gather, that God’s majesty is violated by the wicked, whenever His Church, whose safety He has undertaken to preserve by His faithful patronage, is assailed by them. “Thou sentest forth thy wrath,” and “with the blast of thy nostrils the waters were gathered together,” are to be read in conjunction; for their meaning is that God, without any instrumentality, but by His simple volition, and in manifestation of His wrath, had brought the enemy to. destruction.

Calvin: Exo 15:9 - The enemy said 9.The enemy said He relates the boast of Pharaoh not merely in exultation over him, but to magnify the miracle, whereby God gives over to destruction...

9.The enemy said He relates the boast of Pharaoh not merely in exultation over him, but to magnify the miracle, whereby God gives over to destruction this wolf intent upon his prey. But there is more force in the language when he introduces the Egyptians as speakers, than as if he had described their plans; for thus does the marvelous catastrophe more strikingly affect our minds, when the Egyptians, brought as it were on the stage, not only trumpet forth their victory, but insolently give vent to their arrogance and cruelty. But, presently, the Lord is introduced on the other side, dissipating by a single blast their terrible audacity. For whence came this great confidence to the Egyptians, promising themselves that they should be satisfied with the spoils, and that they should have nothing more to do in order to put the people to death than to draw their swords, but from the fact of their being very well armed against this unwarlike multitude? Hence, then, God’s power shone forth more brightly, when He put them out of the way by “blowing with His wind.”

Calvin: Exo 15:11 - Who is like unto thee? 11.Who is like unto thee? Moses concludes this song of praise with an ejaculation, because the grandeur of the subject transcends the power of words....

11.Who is like unto thee? Moses concludes this song of praise with an ejaculation, because the grandeur of the subject transcends the power of words. The interrogation expresses more than as if he had simply asserted that none can be compared with God; because it marks both admiration and assured confidence in the truth of what he says; for he exclaims, as if overwhelmed with astonishment, “Who is like unto thee, O Lord?” The notion of some that by the word “gods” he means the angels, is more suitable to other passages; for instance, (Psa 89:6,) “Who in heaven can be compared unto the Lord; who among the sons 162 of the mighty can be likened unto the Lord?” for it immediately follows, “God is greatly to be feared in the assembly of the saints, and to be had in reverence of all them that are round about him.” (Exo 15:7, etc.) The meaning then is, 163 that, although there be excellence in the angels, still God is exalted far above them all; but here it may be more properly referred to idols, for Moses (as has been said) is professedly contrasting’ the one true God, whose religion and worship existed among the children of Abraham, with the delusions of the Gentiles. The word “sanctitas,” holiness, expresses that glory which separates God from all His creatures; and therefore, in a manner, it degrades all the other deities which the world has invented for itself; since the majesty of the one only God is thus eminent and honorable. He adds, “fearful in praises;” because He cannot be duly praised, without ravishing us with astonishment. Moses afterwards explains himself, by saying that God’s works are wonderful. In my opinion, their explanation is a poor one, who think that He is said to be “fearful in praises,” because He is to be praised with fear; and theirs is farfetched, who say that he is terrible, even when he is praised.

Calvin: Exo 15:13 - Thou in thy mercy hast led them forth 13.Thou in thy mercy hast led them forth 164 The verb in Hebrew is indeed in the past tense; but, since it is plain from the context that their hope ...

13.Thou in thy mercy hast led them forth 164 The verb in Hebrew is indeed in the past tense; but, since it is plain from the context that their hope for what was to come was founded on God’s former mercies, I have preferred making the meaning clearer by translating it in the future. 165 Moses, therefore, exhorts the people to proceed to their promised land boldly and joyfully; because God will not forsake His work in the midst of it. And on this account he expressly mentions their redemption; as though he had said, that the people were not in vain delivered from impending death, but that God, as He had begun, would be their constant guide. David uses the same argument, (Psa 31:5,)

“Into thine hand I commit my spirit; thou hast redeemed me,
O Lord God of truth.”

For, as the beginning of their redemption has proceeded from God’s mere mercy, so he says that for this same reason He will lead them even to their promised inheritance. But, since the many obstacles might impress them with alarm, he at the same time sets before them the “strength” of God; for the whole praise is given to God, who had both been freely gracious to His people, and, asking assistance from no other source, but contented with His own power, had supplied what would have been otherwise incredible.

Calvin: Exo 15:14 - The people shall hear 14.The people shall hear Again in this place I have not scrupled to change the tenses; for it is plain that Moses is speaking of things future; altho...

14.The people shall hear Again in this place I have not scrupled to change the tenses; for it is plain that Moses is speaking of things future; although I do not deny, that by verbs of the past tense he confirms the certainty of the matter; which is a common figure with the Prophets. This boast depends on the mention of God’s “strength;” for it was impossible for the Israelites to make their way through so many adverse nations into the land of Canaan, unless God had, as it were, put forth His hand from heaven and fought for them. Lest, then, their numerous difficulties should dishearten them, Moses declares that, although many powerful enemies should endeavor to oppose them, terror shall possess them all from heaven, so that, in their confusion and astonishment, they shall have no power of resistance.

Calvin: Exo 15:16 - Fear and dread shall fall upon them 16.Fear and dread shall fall upon them Some read this in the optative mood, but with little probability, as it seems to me; for Moses is not so much ...

16.Fear and dread shall fall upon them Some read this in the optative mood, but with little probability, as it seems to me; for Moses is not so much expressing wishes or prayers, as animating the Israelites to have a good hope, and to be firmly convinced that God would not make an end until He had finished the course of His grace. And this we may fairly apply to ourselves at this time, viz., that God will continue His calling in the elect, until they are brought on to the goal. For the heavenly inheritance, (to which we are called,) answers to “the mountain” of His holiness. 166 The same reason, which was just before advanced, is again repeated, viz., that God would not fail His people until the end, because He had “purchased” them to Himself. For the translation “which thou hast possessed” is not so suitable; because although Moses signifies that they are God’s peculiar people, yet is their deliverance undoubtedly alleged as the cause of their full redemption; as if he had said, that the people whom God had once undertaken to protect would always be dear to Him.

Calvin: Exo 15:17 - Thou shalt bring them in 17.Thou shalt bring them in The metaphor of planting denotes a firm habitation; as also in Psa 44:2, “Thou didst drive out the heathen with thine h...

17.Thou shalt bring them in The metaphor of planting denotes a firm habitation; as also in Psa 44:2, “Thou didst drive out the heathen with thine hand, and plantedst” our fathers, and causedst them to take root. Moreover, by his commendatory allusion to the temple, Moses excites in the people’s hearts a desire for the land, which was to be God’s “Sanctuary;” and by this secret thought attracts them, indifferent as they were, to seek the enjoyment of this great blessing. He also prophesies of Mount Sion many ages before the temple was erected there; from whence we gather that it was not chosen by man’s will, but consecrated by the eternal counsel and predestination of God. For it behooved that the gratuitous favor of God should manifest itself as to this place, as well as to men’s persons. Thus, in Psa 78:67, it is said,

“He refused the tabernacle of Joseph, and chose not the tribe of Ephraim; but chose the of Judah,” etc.

Elsewhere also, (Psa 132:13,)

“For the Lord hath chosen Zion; he hath desired it for his habitation: this is my rest for ever; here will I dwell, for I have desired it.”

But the stability of the temple is also foretold; as in another passage, 167 “Thy hand hath founded Zion.” (Psa 87:1.) And God himself declares by Isaiah that He will not suffer Jerusalem to be laid waste, (Isa 37:26,) because of ancient times He had formed it. But although the whole land of Canaan is elsewhere called God’s rest, and the people was never collected into one city, yet, because God blessed the whole nation and land out c f His sanctuary, therefore is special mention made of His holy mountain. But this prophecy was very needful for the support of their minds, because Jerusalem only came into their power at a late period; and doubtless their posterity would have been still more slow to take possession of it had not their hearts been stimulated by this promise. A short sentence follows concerning God’s eternal reign, on which the perpetuity of the Church is founded. Thus David, (Psa 102:27,) after having said that God would always be the, same, and His years would have no end, thus concludes, “The children of thy servants shall continue, and their deed shall be established before thee.” (Psa 102:28.) Moses, then, would extend the hope of the people to all ages, because of God’s kingdom there is no end.

Calvin: Exo 15:19 - For the horse of Pharaoh went in 19.For the horse of Pharaoh went in This verse does not; seem to be suited to the song, and therefore I am rather of opinion that Moses returns here ...

19.For the horse of Pharaoh went in This verse does not; seem to be suited to the song, and therefore I am rather of opinion that Moses returns here to the history, and assigns the reason why the Israelites so magnificently celebrated the praises of God. For the sake of avoiding ambiguity, it would perhaps be better thus to render it, — “For the horse of Pharaoh had gone in, and the Lord had brought again the waters of the sea upon them, but; the children of Israel had gone on dry land.” 168

Calvin: Exo 15:20 - And Miriam the prophetess 20.And Miriam the prophetess Moses here introduces in his song the ἀντιστροφὴ, such as were constantly used by the lyric poets. For God w...

20.And Miriam the prophetess Moses here introduces in his song the ἀντιστροφὴ, such as were constantly used by the lyric poets. For God would have not only men to be the proclaimers of this great miracle, but associated the women with them. When, therefore, the men had finished their song, the women followed in order. Although it is not certain whether the first verse was intercalary, (as the sacred history testifies the following sentence to have been in a solemn hymn: — “For his mercy endureth for ever,” 1Ch 16:34, which is also intercalated in Psa 136:0), or whether the women repeated alternately what the men had sung. It little matters which opinion you prefer, except that the former is more probable. But although Moses honors his sister by the title of “prophetess,” he does not say that she assumed to herself the office of public teaching, but only that she was the leader and directress of the others in praising God. The beating of timbrels may indeed appear absurd to some, but the custom of the nation excuses it, which David witnesses to have existed also in his time, where he enumerates, together with the singers, “the damsels playing with timbrels,” ( Psa 68:25,) evidently in accordance with common and received custom. Yet must it be observed, at the same time, that musical instruments were among the legal ceremonies which Christ at His coming abolished; and therefore we, under the Gospel, must maintain a greater simplicity. 169

Calvin: Exo 15:22 - So Moses brought 22.So Moses brought Moses now relates that, from the time, of their passage through the sea, they had been suffering for three days from the want of ...

22.So Moses brought Moses now relates that, from the time, of their passage through the sea, they had been suffering for three days from the want of water, that the first they discovered was bitter, and that thence the name was given to the place. This was indeed no light temptation, to suffer thirst for three days in a dry land, and nowhere to meet with relief or remedy. No wonder, then, that they should have groaned with anxiety; but grief, when it is full of contumacy, deserves no pardon. In such an emergency, they should have directed their prayers to God; whereas they not only neglected to pray, but violently assailed Moses, and demanded of him the drink which they knew could only be given them by God. But because they had not yet learnt to trust in Him, they fly not to Him for aid, except by imperiously commanding Him, in the person of His servant, to obey their wishes; for this interrogation, “What shall we drink?” is as much as to say, “Arrange with God to supply us with drink.” But they do not directly address God, of whose assistance they feel that they have need, because unbelief is ever proud.

Calvin: Exo 15:25 - And he cried 25.And he cried Hence we gather that Moses alone duly prayed when the people tumultuously rose against him, and that they who were not worthy of the ...

25.And he cried Hence we gather that Moses alone duly prayed when the people tumultuously rose against him, and that they who were not worthy of the common air itself were abundantly supplied with sweet water. Herein shone forth the inestimable mercy of God, who deigned to change the nature of the water for the purpose of supplying such wicked, and rebellious, and ungrateful men. He might have given them sweet water to drink at first, but He wished by the bitter to make prominent the bitterness which lurked in their hearts. He might, too, have corrected by His mere will the evil in the waters, so that they should have grown sweet spontaneously. It is not certain why He preferred to apply the tree, except to reprove their foolish impiety by showing that He has many remedies in His power for every evil. A question also arises as to the tree, whether it inherently possessed the property which it there exercised. But although probable arguments may be adduced on both sides, I rather incline to the opinion that there was indeed a natural power concealed in the tree, and yet that the taste of the water was miraculously corrected; because it would have been difficult so speedily to collect a sufficient quantity of the tree for purifying a river; for 600,000 men, together with their wives and children and cattle, would not have been contented with a little streamlet. But I am led by no trifling reason to think that this property was previously existing in the tree; because it is plain that a particular species was pointed out to Moses, yet does not that prevent us from believing that a greater efficacy than usual was imparted to it, so that the waters should be immediately sweetened by its being put into them. What follows in the second part of the verse admits of a double signification, viz., either that, whereas God had there ordained a statute, yet that He was tempted by the people; or, because God was tempted by the people, therefore He had ordained the statute. If the first sense be preferred, their crime will be augmented by the comparison; for the impiety of the people was all the worse because, being taught by the voice of God, yet in the very same place they gave the reins to their rebellious spirit. But I rather embrace the latter sense, viz., that God chastised the sin of the people by whom He had been tempted. It was in fact a kind of tempting of God, because they not only doubtingly inquired who should give them water, but in these words manifested their despair. But because in the same context it is said, “there he made for them a statute, and there he tempted (or proved) them,” the name of God appears to be the subject in both clauses, and it is predicated of the people that they received the ordinance and were proved. Thus the meaning will be, that after God had tried His people, by the want of water, He at the same time admonished them by His word, that hereafter they should submit themselves more teachably and obediently to His commands.

Calvin: Exo 15:26 - If thou wilt diligently hearken 26.If thou wilt diligently hearken Moses now unfolds what was the statute or ordinance which God promulgated. For here the reference is not to the wh...

26.If thou wilt diligently hearken Moses now unfolds what was the statute or ordinance which God promulgated. For here the reference is not to the whole law which was afterwards given on mount Sinai, but to the special admonition which served to chastise the wickedness of the people. The sum of it is, that if the Israelites were tractable and, obedient to God, He on the other hand would be kind and. bountiful to them. And it is an implied rebuke, that they might know whatever troubles they experienced to be, brought upon them by their sins. He proposes the Egyptians to them as an example, whose rebellion they had seen punished by God with such severe and heavy calamities. “I am the Lord that healeth thee,” is immediately added in confirmation, as if he had said, that the Israelites were liable to the same plagues which had been inflicted on the Egyptians, and were only exempt from them because God performed the office of a healer. And truly whatsoever diseases afflict the human race, we may see in them, as in so many mirrors, our own, miseries, that, we may perceive that there is no health in us, except in so far as God spares us. We are also taught in this verse that this is the rule of a good life, when we obey God’s voice and study to please Him. But because the will of God was soon after to be proclaimed in the law, He expressly commands them to “give ear to His commandments, and to keep His statutes.” 170 I know not whether there is any force in the opinion of some who distinguish the word חקים , chokim, (which it is usual to translate “statutes,”) from precepts, as if they were mere declarations of His pleasure to which no reason is attached. Let it suffice that God’s law is commended under many names, to take away all pretext of ignorance.

Calvin: Exo 15:27 - And they came to Elim 27.And they came to Elim Moses here relates that a more pleasant station was granted to the people, when they were led to a well-watered spot, even p...

27.And they came to Elim Moses here relates that a more pleasant station was granted to the people, when they were led to a well-watered spot, even planted with palm-trees, which do not usually grow in a dry soil. But we learn from what precedes, that this was a concession to their infirmity, because they had borne their thirst so impatiently.

Defender: Exo 15:24 - the people murmured Note God's responses to the murmurings (complaining) of Israel, acting for a while in grace and patience but eventually acting in judgment. He first p...

Note God's responses to the murmurings (complaining) of Israel, acting for a while in grace and patience but eventually acting in judgment. He first provided pure water (Exo 15:25); next He provided food (Exo 16:2, Exo 16:7, Exo 16:8, Exo 16:9, Exo 16:12), and then a continuous water supply (Exo 17:3). But eventually God sent them into exile in the wilderness (Num 14:2, Num 14:27, Num 14:29, Num 14:36), and even put many to death (Num 16:11, Num 16:41). Finally, their murmurings ceased after the miracle of the budding of Aaron's rod, which was a symbol of the resurrection (Num 17:5, Num 17:10). God's attitude toward murmuring on the part of believers today is indicated in 1Co 10:10 and Phi 2:14."

Defender: Exo 15:25 - shewed him a tree The miracle here may be simply that of revealing to Moses a tree whose bark or leaves had the ability to react chemically with the noxious waters of M...

The miracle here may be simply that of revealing to Moses a tree whose bark or leaves had the ability to react chemically with the noxious waters of Marah (meaning "bitter") to make them potable. This possibility cannot be pursued in the present absence of knowledge concerning the nature of either the waters or the tree. Of course, the phenomenon could also have been an actual physical miracle. In any case, the complaints of the people gave God an occasion to again show Himself able to meet their needs but also to urge them henceforth to be obedient and believing people."

TSK: Exo 15:1 - Then // for Then : Judg. 5:1-31; 2Sam. 22:1-51; Psa 106:12, Psa 107:8, Psa 107:15, Psa 107:21, Psa 107:22; Isa 12:1-6; Isa 51:10, Isa 51:11; Rev 15:3 for : Exo 15...

TSK: Exo 15:2 - strength // song // my salvation // my God // an habitation // my father’ s God // exalt him strength : Psa 18:1, Psa 18:2, Psa 27:1, Psa 28:8, Psa 59:17, Psa 62:6, Psa 62:7, Psa 118:14; Hab 3:17-19; Phi 4:13 song : Deu 10:21; Psa 22:3, Psa 10...

TSK: Exo 15:3 - a man // name a man : Psa 24:8, Psa 45:3; Rev 19:11-21 name : Exo 3:13, Exo 3:15, Exo 6:3, Exo 6:6; Psa 83:18; Isa 42:8

TSK: Exo 15:4 - chosen Exod. 14:13-28 chosen : Exo 14:7

Exod. 14:13-28

chosen : Exo 14:7

TSK: Exo 15:5 - depths // they depths : Exo 14:28; Eze 27:34; Jon 2:2; Mic 7:19; Mat 18:6 they : Neh 9:11; Jer 51:63, Jer 51:64; Rev 18:21

TSK: Exo 15:6 - right hand // dashed right hand : Exo 15:11; 1Ch 29:11, 1Ch 29:12; Psa 17:7, Psa 44:3, Psa 60:5, Psa 74:11, Psa 77:10, Psa 89:8-13; Psa 98:1, Psa 118:15, Psa 118:16; Isa 5...

TSK: Exo 15:7 - the greatness // them that // consumed the greatness : Exo 9:16; Deu 33:26; Psa 68:33, Psa 148:13; Isa 5:16; Jer 10:6 them that : Isa 37:17, Isa 37:23, Isa 37:29, Isa 37:36, Isa 37:38; Mic ...

TSK: Exo 15:8 - blast // the floods blast : Exo 14:21; 2Sa 22:16; Job 4:9; Isa 11:4, Isa 37:7; 2Th 2:8 the floods : Exo 14:22; Psa 78:13; Hab 3:10

TSK: Exo 15:9 - I will pursue // destroy I will pursue : Gen 49:27; Jdg 5:30; 1Ki 19:2, 1Ki 20:10; Isa 10:8-13, Isa 36:20, Isa 53:12; Hab 3:14; Luk 11:22 destroy : or, repossess, Exo 14:5, Ex...

TSK: Exo 15:10 - blow // the sea // they sank blow : Exo 14:21; Gen 8:1; Psa 74:13, Psa 74:14, Psa 135:7, Psa 147:18; Isa 11:15; Jer 10:13; Amo 4:13; Mat 8:27 the sea : Exo 14:28; Deu 11:4 they sa...

TSK: Exo 15:11 - like unto thee // gods // glorious // fearful like unto thee : Deu 3:24, Deu 33:26; 1Sa 2:2; 2Sa 7:22; 1Ki 8:23; Psa 35:10, Psa 77:19, Psa 86:8; Psa 89:6-8; Isa 40:18, Isa 40:25; Jer 10:6, Jer 10:...

TSK: Exo 15:12 - stretchedst stretchedst : Exo 15:6

stretchedst : Exo 15:6

TSK: Exo 15:13 - Thou // led // guided // holy Thou : Gen 19:16; Eph 2:4 led : Psa 77:14, Psa 77:15, Psa 77:20, Psa 78:52, Psa 78:53, Psa 80:1, Psa 106:9; Isa 63:12, Isa 63:13; Jer 2:6 guided : 1Pe...

TSK: Exo 15:14 - hear // of Palestina hear : Num 14:14, Num 22:5; Deu 2:4, Deu 2:5; Jos 2:9, Jos 2:10, Jos 9:24; Psa 48:6 of Palestina : Isa 14:29, Isa 14:31

TSK: Exo 15:15 - dukes // Moab // all the // melt dukes : Gen 36:40; Num 20:14-21; Deu 2:4; 1Ch 1:51-54 Moab : Num 22:3-5; Hab 3:7 all the : Jos 2:11, Jos 5:1 melt : Deu 20:8; Jos 2:9 *marg. Jos 14:8;...

TSK: Exo 15:16 - dread // still // which thou dread : Deu 2:25, Deu 11:25; Jos 2:9 still : Exo 11:7; 1Sa 2:9, 1Sa 25:37 which thou : Exo 19:5, Exo 19:6; Deu 32:6, Deu 32:9; 2Sa 7:23; Psa 74:2; Isa...

TSK: Exo 15:17 - plant // mountain plant : Psa 44:2, Psa 78:54, Psa 78:55, Psa 80:8; Isa 5:1-4; Jer 2:21, Jer 32:41 mountain : Psa 78:54, Psa 78:68, Psa 78:69; Jer 31:23

TSK: Exo 15:18 - -- Psa 10:16, Psa 29:10, Psa 146:10; Isa 57:15; Dan 2:44, Dan 4:3, Dan 7:14, Dan 7:27; Mat 6:13; Rev 11:15-17

TSK: Exo 15:19 - horse // brought horse : Exo 14:23; Pro 21:31 brought : Exo 14:28, Exo 14:29; Heb 11:29

TSK: Exo 15:20 - prophetess // sister // a timbrel // all the prophetess : Jdg 4:4; 1Sa 10:5; 2Ki 22:14; Luk 2:36; Act 21:9; 1Co 11:5, 1Co 14:34 sister : Exo 2:4; Num 12:1, Num 20:1, Num 26:59; Mic 6:4 a timbrel ...

prophetess : Jdg 4:4; 1Sa 10:5; 2Ki 22:14; Luk 2:36; Act 21:9; 1Co 11:5, 1Co 14:34

sister : Exo 2:4; Num 12:1, Num 20:1, Num 26:59; Mic 6:4

a timbrel : Toph , in Arabic called duff or diff , and in Spanish adduffa , is the tabret used in the East; being a thin, broad, wooden hoop, with parchment extended over one side of it, to which small pieces of brass, tin, etc., are attached, which make a jingling noisecaps1 . icaps0 t is held up with one hand and beaten upon with the other, and is precisely the same as the tambourine.

all the : Jdg 11:34, Jdg 21:21; 1Sa 18:6; 2Sa 6:5, 2Sa 6:14, 2Sa 6:16; Psa 68:11, Psa 68:25, Psa 81:2, Psa 149:3; Psa 150:4

TSK: Exo 15:21 - answered // Sing ye answered : 1Sa 18:7; 2Ch 5:13; Psa 24:7-10, Psa 134:1-3 Sing ye : Exo 15:1; Jdg 5:3; Isa. 5:1-30; Rev 7:10-12, Rev 5:9, Rev 14:3, Rev 15:3, Rev 19:1-6

TSK: Exo 15:22 - wilderness of Shur // three days wilderness of Shur : This lay on the eastern shore of the Heroopolitic gulf of the Red Sea, and is still called the desert of Shur, according to Dr. S...

wilderness of Shur : This lay on the eastern shore of the Heroopolitic gulf of the Red Sea, and is still called the desert of Shur, according to Dr. Shaw. Gen 16:7, Gen 25:18; 1Sa 15:7

three days : Exo 3:18

TSK: Exo 15:23 - Marah // Marah Marah : Num 33:8 Marah : i.e. bitterness, Rth 1:20

Marah : Num 33:8

Marah : i.e. bitterness, Rth 1:20

TSK: Exo 15:24 - What Exo 14:11, Exo 16:2, Exo 16:8, Exo 16:9, Exo 17:3, Exo 17:4; Num 11:1-6, Num 14:1-4, Num 16:11, Num 16:41, Num 17:10; Num 20:2-5, Num 21:5; 1Co 10:10;...

TSK: Exo 15:25 - cried // a tree // a statute // proved cried : Exo 14:10, Exo 17:4; Psa 50:15, Psa 91:15, Psa 99:6; Jer 15:1 a tree : 2Ki 2:21, 2Ki 4:41; 1Co 1:18 a statute : Jos 24:21-25 proved : Exo 16:4...

TSK: Exo 15:26 - If thou // and wilt // diseases // for I am If thou : Lev 26:3, Lev 26:13; Deu 7:12, Deu 7:13, Deu 7:15, Deu 28:1-15 and wilt : Deu 12:28, Deu 13:18; 1Ki 11:33, 1Ki 11:38; 2Ki 22:2; Eze 18:5 dis...

TSK: Exo 15:27 - Elim Elim : This was on the northern skirts of the desert of Sin, and, according to Dr. Shaw, two leagues from Tor, and near 30 from Corondel, which he con...

Elim : This was on the northern skirts of the desert of Sin, and, according to Dr. Shaw, two leagues from Tor, and near 30 from Corondel, which he conjectures to be Marah, where there is a small rill, which is brackish. He found but nine of the wells, the other three being filled up with sand; but the 70 palm trees had increased into more than 2,000. Num 33:9; Isa 12:3; Eze 47:12; Rev 7:17, Rev 22:2

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Exo 15:2 - My strength and song // An habitation My strength and song the matter or subject of the present song of praise. An habitation a place for his service and worship, where he will dwell by...

My strength and song the matter or subject of the present song of praise.

An habitation a place for his service and worship, where he will dwell by his special presence.

Poole: Exo 15:3 - A man of war A man of war an eminent warrior; as the phrase is used 1Sa 17:33 . Thus an eloquent man is called a man of words , Exo 4:10 , and a mighty man, a m...

A man of war an eminent warrior; as the phrase is used 1Sa 17:33 . Thus an eloquent man is called a man of words , Exo 4:10 , and a mighty man, a man of arm , Job 22:8 .

Poole: Exo 15:4 - -- With great force, like an arrow out of a bow; as the Hebrew word signifies.

With great force, like an arrow out of a bow; as the Hebrew word signifies.

Poole: Exo 15:7 - In the greatness of thine excellency // As stubble In the greatness of thine excellency by thy great and glorious power. As stubble as easily, and as speedily, and as irrecoverably.

In the greatness of thine excellency by thy great and glorious power.

As stubble as easily, and as speedily, and as irrecoverably.

Poole: Exo 15:8 - Of thy nostrils // The floods // Were congealed // In the heart of the sea Of thy nostrils or, of thine anger , to wit. that vehement east wind, Exo 15:10 14:21 , which was raised by thine anger in order to the ruin of thin...

Of thy nostrils or, of thine anger , to wit. that vehement east wind, Exo 15:10 14:21 , which was raised by thine anger in order to the ruin of thine enemies.

The floods Heb. the streams , or the flowing waters , whose nature it is to be constantly in motion.

Were congealed i.e. hardened, stood still, as if they had been frozen, and so they were a wall on both hands, Exo 14:22 .

In the heart of the sea i.e. the midst; as that word is used, Psa 18:16 46:2 Eze 28:2 .

Poole: Exo 15:9 - My lust My lust the lust of covetousness and revenge too. Shall destroy them ; or, take possession of them and theirs: see of this word, Num 14:12,24 .

My lust the lust of covetousness and revenge too. Shall destroy them ; or, take possession of them and theirs: see of this word, Num 14:12,24 .

Poole: Exo 15:10 - -- Heb. Magnificent or honourable waters , made so by being the instrument of thy glorious work.

Heb. Magnificent or honourable waters , made so by being the instrument of thy glorious work.

Poole: Exo 15:11 - Glorious in holiness // Fearful in praises Amongst the gods , so called and esteemed; or prince or potentates , as Psa 29:1 Eze 32:21 . Glorious in holiness or, righteousness : thy pow...

Amongst the gods , so called and esteemed; or prince or potentates , as Psa 29:1 Eze 32:21 .

Glorious in holiness or, righteousness : thy power is great and glorious; but thou dost not abuse it to unrighteous and unworthy purposes, but to holy and honourable designs; to the punishment of wicked tyrants, and to the vindication of thy oppressed and holy people.

Fearful in praises in praise-worthy actions; the act being put for the object, as fear is put for a thing to be feared, as Psa 14:5 1Pe 3:14 . Or, to be feared or had in reverence when thou art praised; to be both loved and feared at the same time.

Poole: Exo 15:12 - -- Either, 1. The globe, consisting of earth and water, which is here called earth as it is called the deep , and the water s, Gen 1:2 . Or, 2. T...

Either,

1. The globe, consisting of earth and water, which is here called earth as it is called the deep , and the water s, Gen 1:2 . Or,

2. The earth is here put for the sea , the other part of the same globe; as the soul is put for the body , or the dead carcass , the other part of the man, Lev 19:28 21:1 Num 6:6,9,11 . Or,

3. The earth properly, either because many of them sunk into the mud at the bottom of the sea, and were buried in it; or because, after they were cast up upon the shore, they were buried by the Israelites in the earth.

Poole: Exo 15:13 - -- i.e. Canaan, the place where not only they shall dwell, but thou in and with them. See Psa 78:52 , &c.

i.e. Canaan, the place where not only they shall dwell, but thou in and with them. See Psa 78:52 , &c.

Poole: Exo 15:16 - Be as still Be as still , or, be as silent ; they shall be so struck. with amazement, that they shall be impotent both for speech and motion.

Be as still , or, be as silent ; they shall be so struck. with amazement, that they shall be impotent both for speech and motion.

Poole: Exo 15:17 - In the mountain of thine inheritance // Have established In the mountain of thine inheritance either, 1. In the country of Canaan, which is a mountainous country, full of hills and valleys, Deu 11:11 ; not...

In the mountain of thine inheritance either,

1. In the country of Canaan, which is a mountainous country, full of hills and valleys, Deu 11:11 ; not like Egypt, a plain and low country. Or,

2. In and about the mount of Moriah, where the temple was to be built, which is here put for the whole land, it being the most eminent part of it, round about which the people were planted, and to which they were frequently to resort.

Have established will certainly build and establish, i.e. cause to be built and established. The past tense for the future, to note the certainty of it, according to the style of the prophets.

Poole: Exo 15:20 - Miriam the prophetess // The sister of Aaron // Quest // Answ // With timbrels and with dances Miriam the prophetess so called, either in a general sense, because she was an instructer of other women in the praise and service of God; or in a mo...

Miriam the prophetess so called, either in a general sense, because she was an instructer of other women in the praise and service of God; or in a more special sense, because she had the Spirit of prophecy. See Num 12:2 Mic 6:4 .

The sister of Aaron

Quest. Why not of Moses also?

Answ 1. She might be Moses’ s sister only by one parent, Aaron’ s by both.

2. She was best known to the people by her relation to Aaron, with whom she had lived for many years, when Moses was banished.

With timbrels and with dances according to their ancient custom in public solemnities. See Jud 11:34 21:21 1Sa 18:6 2Sa 6:14,21 Jer 31:4,13 .

Poole: Exo 15:21 - -- Miriam addressed either , 1. The women, last spoken of, and then it is an enallage of the gender. Or, 2. The men spoken of before. They sung by t...

Miriam addressed either ,

1. The women, last spoken of, and then it is an enallage of the gender. Or,

2. The men spoken of before. They sung by turns, or by parts, either the same words being repeated, or some other words of a like nature added. See 1Ch 16:41 2Ch 5:13 Ezr 3:11 .

Poole: Exo 15:22 - Shur Shur so usually called, Gen 16:7 ; and by the Israelites, Etham, as may be gathered by comparing this place with Num 33:8 , for both there and here i...

Shur so usually called, Gen 16:7 ; and by the Israelites, Etham, as may be gathered by comparing this place with Num 33:8 , for both there and here it is said they went three days in this wilderness.

Poole: Exo 15:25 - The waters were made sweet // There he made for them a statute // He proved them The waters were made sweet not so much by any virtue in that tree, as by the power of God, who used this rather as a sign to the Israelites, than as ...

The waters were made sweet not so much by any virtue in that tree, as by the power of God, who used this rather as a sign to the Israelites, than as an instrument to himself in this work.

There he made for them a statute: God, or Moses in God’ s name, and by his order, constituted and published to them a statute. Which seems to be understood not of any, particular statute or law, as that concerning the sabbath, or their duty to their parents, or the like; for the specifying of their duties is reserved to another time and place; but of a general law or rule formerly given, and now solemnly renewed by Moses at God’ s command, like that given to Abraham their father, Gen 17:1 , Walk before me, and be perfect . God having thus far performed his part of that covenant made with Abraham and his seed, to bring them out of Egypt towards Canaan, tells them that he expects and requires of them their observance of the condition of that covenant, and gives them this indefinite and universal law or precept, that they should obey and fulfil all the commands which God had already laid upon them or their parents, and which he should hereafter reveal to them. This sense may be gathered out of the following verse, wherein he explains what he meant by this

statute even all God’ s statutes or commandments , which if they would keep, he engageth himself to preserve and deliver them. So it is only a change of the number, the singular, statute, being put for the plural, statutes, which is a figure very frequently used both in Scripture and in other authors. God having now eased them of the hard and iron yoke of the Egyptians, puts his sweet and easy yoke upon them; and having undertaken to be their King, and Protector, and Captain, he claims their subjection to himself, and to his laws or statutes.

He proved them or, tried them , i.e. the Israelites. There he tried both their faith by the difficulty now mentioned, viz. their want of water, and their future obedience by this general command, which he is about to branch forth into divers particulars.

Poole: Exo 15:26 - None of these diseases upon thee // That healeth thee None of these diseases upon thee nor other evils or plagues; but, on the contrary, I will bless thee with all manner of blessings. Under one branch o...

None of these diseases upon thee nor other evils or plagues; but, on the contrary, I will bless thee with all manner of blessings. Under one branch or part of the blessings of God’ s covenant, he includes all the rest by a very common synecdoche.

That healeth thee or, thy physician , for all thy maladies both of soul and body.

Poole: Exo 15:27 - Palm trees Palm trees were both pleasant for their shade, and refreshing for their sweet fruit. Thus the Israelites are obliged and encouraged to the obedience ...

Palm trees were both pleasant for their shade, and refreshing for their sweet fruit. Thus the Israelites are obliged and encouraged to the obedience commanded, by being put into better circumstances than they were under in their last station.

PBC: Exo 15:23 - -- THE BITTER WATERS SWEETENED

THE BITTER WATERS SWEETENED

Haydock: Exo 15:1 - Canticle // Let us sing Canticle. Origen reckons this to be the most ancient piece of poetry. It is truly sublime, and calculated to fill the souls of those, who say their...

Canticle. Origen reckons this to be the most ancient piece of poetry. It is truly sublime, and calculated to fill the souls of those, who say their late cruel masters, now prostrate at their feet in death, with sentiments of the greatest gratitude and piety towards their almighty benefactor. (Haydock) ---

God miraculously gave utterance to the dumb on this occasion, (Widsom x. 21.) and taught the whole congregation of Israel to join in harmonious concert. (De Mirab. S. S. inter. op. St. Augustine) This mode of perpetuating the memory of past benefits by canticles, is very common in Scripture. (Calmet) ---

Let us sing. So the Septuagint The Hebrew has "I will sing....for he hath triumphed gloriously." This canticle was composed by Moses, about 1491 years B.C. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 15:2 - Praise // God Praise. The printed Hebrew is here irregular, but some manuscripts agree with the Vulgate, Chaldean, and Arabic. (Kennicott, i. p. 400.) --- To hi...

Praise. The printed Hebrew is here irregular, but some manuscripts agree with the Vulgate, Chaldean, and Arabic. (Kennicott, i. p. 400.) ---

To him my praise is due on all titles. (Haydock) ---

God . Hebrew el, "the strong one." (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 15:3 - The Lord // Almighty The Lord. Septuagint, "breaking wars in pieces," a man of war , a conqueror. (Calmet) --- Almighty. Jehova, I am. This is the most awful and i...

The Lord. Septuagint, "breaking wars in pieces," a man of war , a conqueror. (Calmet) ---

Almighty. Jehova, I am. This is the most awful and incommunicable name. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 15:4 - Captains Captains. Literally, Princes. Hebrew shalishim, chiefs. The three great officers, chap. xiv. 7. We find three were entrusted with the highest po...

Captains. Literally, Princes. Hebrew shalishim, chiefs. The three great officers, chap. xiv. 7. We find three were entrusted with the highest power in the empire of Chaldea, (Ezechiel xxiii. 15; Daniel v. 7.) as well as at the court of David. (2 Kings xxiii. 8; 1 Paralipomenon xi. 10. Hadino, Eleazar, and Semma, had various other princes under them. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 15:7 - Wrath Wrath. A tempest of lightning. See Isaias lxiii. 11; Habacuc iii. 15.

Wrath. A tempest of lightning. See Isaias lxiii. 11; Habacuc iii. 15.

Haydock: Exo 15:8 - Together Together. "Congealed on either side," as the Chaldean and Septuagint express it. (Calmet)

Together. "Congealed on either side," as the Chaldean and Septuagint express it. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 15:9 - Enemy // Slay Enemy. Miracles make but small impression upon the wicked. They pursue their schemes of destruction, which end in their own ruin! --- Slay. Hebr...

Enemy. Miracles make but small impression upon the wicked. They pursue their schemes of destruction, which end in their own ruin! ---

Slay. Hebrew, "despoil." Septuagint, "bring them into subjection." (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 15:10 - Wind Wind. Septuagint, "spirit," which St. Ambrose and St. Augustine understand as the Holy Ghost. (Calmet)

Wind. Septuagint, "spirit," which St. Ambrose and St. Augustine understand as the Holy Ghost. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 15:11 - Who....Lord // Strong // Terrible and Who....Lord. The initials of these four Hebrew letters, which the Maccabees placed on their banners, (m c b i) probably gave that title to those sto...

Who....Lord. The initials of these four Hebrew letters, which the Maccabees placed on their banners, (m c b i) probably gave that title to those stout heroes, who rose up in defence of their religion. (Haydock) ---

Strong, may be applied either to men, or to the pretended gods of the Gentiles, which seems to agree best with the sequel. Septuagint, "among the gods....wonderful in praises." ---

Terrible and. Hebrew, "terrible to praise," requiring that we should perform that duty with awe. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 15:12 - Earth Earth. When their carcasses were corrupted, such as were not eaten by fishes, mixed with the earth at the bottom, or on the shore of the sea.

Earth. When their carcasses were corrupted, such as were not eaten by fishes, mixed with the earth at the bottom, or on the shore of the sea.

Haydock: Exo 15:13 - Hast been // Holy Hast been. This is a prophecy of what should happen to the Hebrews till they should be put in quiet possession of Chanaan, (Calmet) of which they ha...

Hast been. This is a prophecy of what should happen to the Hebrews till they should be put in quiet possession of Chanaan, (Calmet) of which they had an earnest, in the protection which they had already experienced. (Haydock) ---

Holy, on account of the temple, and of the patriarchs, and Jesus Christ, who dwelt there. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 15:15 - Stiff Stiff, with consternation. See Josue ix. 9. The nations of Chanaan found auxiliaries even among the near relations of the Hebrews, the children of ...

Stiff, with consternation. See Josue ix. 9. The nations of Chanaan found auxiliaries even among the near relations of the Hebrews, the children of Esau, (who were not governed by princes, Alphim, as Genesis xxxvi.) and of Lot. We easily forget our relations, when our interest is at stake! Hebrew, instead of being stiff, says, they "melted away." Both words insinuate, that their heart was under such a violent struggle, that they could perform no duty.

Haydock: Exo 15:16 - In the // Let them In the, &c. When they shall behold thy wonders, wrought in our defence. --- Let them cease to make opposition. Hebrew, "let them be silent as a s...

In the, &c. When they shall behold thy wonders, wrought in our defence. ---

Let them cease to make opposition. Hebrew, "let them be silent as a stone." (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 15:17 - Mountain Mountain. Chanaan was very mountainous, and different from Egypt. (Calmet) --- Sion was the peculiar mountain of God, consecrated to his worship. ...

Mountain. Chanaan was very mountainous, and different from Egypt. (Calmet) ---

Sion was the peculiar mountain of God, consecrated to his worship. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 15:18 - And ever And ever. Literally, et ultra, "and beyond;" holam, which denotes a long duration, is often used to mean a time that will have an end. To add th...

And ever. Literally, et ultra, "and beyond;" holam, which denotes a long duration, is often used to mean a time that will have an end. To add the greater emphasis to it, the latter term is sometimes used when eternity is meant. The Septuagint, " The Lord shall reign over this generation, or age of the Mosaic law, and over an age lasting from Christ to the end, and still ." His kingdom shall extend over all eternity. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 15:19 - For For, &c. He is not tired with repeating this wonderful judgment, which gave him reason to hope that God would complete his work; and at the same tim...

For, &c. He is not tired with repeating this wonderful judgment, which gave him reason to hope that God would complete his work; and at the same time, give a sanction to his mission. If the most potent of the monarchs of the earth could so little withstand his power, what had he to fear from a few jarring clans of barbarians and shepherds? (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 15:20 - Mary // Prophetess // Of Aaron // Timbrels // And dances Mary, or Mariam, as it was formerly pronounced, though the Masorets now read Miriam: may signify one "exalted, lady, star, bitterness of the sea." --...

Mary, or Mariam, as it was formerly pronounced, though the Masorets now read Miriam: may signify one "exalted, lady, star, bitterness of the sea." ---

Prophetess; having revelations from God, (Numbers xii. 1,) and singing his praises. ---

Of Aaron. Moses passes over himself out of modesty. She is known by this title, whence it is supposed she never married. (St. Ambrose) (Calmet) ---

Timbrels, which were already used in solemn worship. ---

And dances. Choris may mean companies of women, singing and dancing in honour of God. The men repeated what Moses had entoned, and the women did the same after Mary; unless, perhaps, the multitude of both sexes, respectively, repeated only the first verse by way of chorus; or Mary and her band took up each verse "in answer" to the men, as the Hebrew insinuates. This divine canticle will afford joy even to the elect, Apocalypse xv. 3.

Haydock: Exo 15:22 - Sur Sur, which is called Etham, " Pough, " (Numbers xxxiii. 7,) on which account both sides of the Red Sea are described by the same name; hence some hav...

Sur, which is called Etham, " Pough, " (Numbers xxxiii. 7,) on which account both sides of the Red Sea are described by the same name; hence some have groundlessly asserted that the Hebrews came out of the Red Sea by the same way they entered it. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 15:23 - Mara Mara, about halfway between Suez and Mt. Sinai. The waters are said to be still potable, though of a disagreeable nitrous taste. (Calmet)

Mara, about halfway between Suez and Mt. Sinai. The waters are said to be still potable, though of a disagreeable nitrous taste. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 15:25 - A tree // Him A tree, (lignum,) or piece of wood, which had the natural property here ascribed to it, Ecclesiasticus xxxviii. 4. (Calmet) --- Though we can hardly...

A tree, (lignum,) or piece of wood, which had the natural property here ascribed to it, Ecclesiasticus xxxviii. 4. (Calmet) ---

Though we can hardly suppose, that all the collection of waters would be thus rendered sweet, unless God had given it a miraculous efficacy. (Haydock) ---

It foreshewed the virtue of the cross. (Theodoret, ix. 26.) ---

Him, Moses, and the people of Israel, of which he was now the sole head or king. (Haydock) ---

God proved on this occasion the disposition of the Hebrews to enter into the alliance, of which he proposes to them the heads, ver. seq. [ver. 26.?] Josue xxiv. 25, makes use of nearly the same words. God begins to take upon himself the administration of the republic, appointing the forms of judicature, Jeremias vii. 22. What regarded sacrifices, was given upon occasion of their idolatry. (Du Hamel)

Haydock: Exo 15:26 - Healer Healer. God delivered his people from every infirmity, which might prevent any one from joining the rest of their tribes on the night of the exit, P...

Healer. God delivered his people from every infirmity, which might prevent any one from joining the rest of their tribes on the night of the exit, Psalm civ. 37.

Haydock: Exo 15:27 - Elim Elim, to the north-west of Sinai. Shaw says there are now only nine fountains. (Haydock) --- Strabo mentions a place of this description, five day...

Elim, to the north-west of Sinai. Shaw says there are now only nine fountains. (Haydock) ---

Strabo mentions a place of this description, five days' journey from Jericho, which was consecrated to the gods. (B. xvi. p. 511.) (Calmet) ---

We might here, (at the conclusion of the third age, according to those who call the deluge the first, and Abraham's call, the second,) pause, with Dr. Worthington, to take a view of the progress of the Church, and of the true doctrine, which has at all times been believed. But the attentive reader of the sacred text, and of these notes, will find this to his hand almost every page. Meditate upon these things....Take heed to thyself and to doctrine, be earnest in them, 1 Timothy iv. 15. The holy Job probably lived about this time, so that his book may serve to corroborate those truths, which were the objects of faith to some good men living among the Gentiles, as well as to the more favoured nation of the Jews. (Haydock)

Gill: Exo 15:1 - Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the Lord // and spake, saying, I will sing unto the Lord // for he hath triumphed gloriously // the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the Lord,.... Which is the first song recorded in Scripture, though no doubt before this tim...

Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the Lord,.... Which is the first song recorded in Scripture, though no doubt before this time songs of praise were sung to the Lord; the people of God having occasion in all ages more or less to sing his praises. The Jews n speak of ten songs, the first of which was sung by Adam, when his sins were forgiven him, and this song of Moses is the second; though sometimes they say o, from the creation of the world to the standing of Israel by the Red sea, we do not find that ever any man sung a song but Israel; God created the first man, but he sang no song: however, this is the first on record, and is a typical one; Moses the composer of it, and who bore a principal part in it, and was the deliverer of the people of Israel, was a type of Christ, the Redeemer of his church: and Israel that joined with him in it, and were the persons delivered, were typical of the spiritual Israel of God redeemed by Christ; and the deliverance here celebrated bore a great resemblance to the redemption wrought out by him; and Christ, the Angel of the Lord, that went before the Israelites through the Red sea, and fought for them, is the principal person concerned in it, and who is meant by the Lord throughout the whole of it, and to whom it is sung; and a song upon a similar occasion to this will be sung in the latter day, upon the destruction of spiritual Egypt, or antichrist, and is called the song of Moses and the Lamb in allusion to it, Rev 15:3 The Jews p say, this shall be sung at the time, when the wicked shall perish out of the world, and observe that it is not written שר, "then sung", but ישיר, "then shall sing", &c. Moses had reason to sing, since God had heard his prayer, and had done him honour before the people, and he was both an instrument of and a sharer in the salvation wrought; and the children of Israel had reason to sing, inasmuch as they were a people chosen of God, and distinguished by him; were redeemed from bondage, called out of Egypt, and now saved out of the hands of their enemies, who were all destroyed, and they brought safely through the Red sea, and landed on firm ground. And the time when they sung this song was then, when they had passed through the sea on dry land; and when they had seen the Egyptians their enemies dead on the sea shore; and when they were in a proper frame of spirit to sing, when they had taken notice of and considered what great and wonderful things the Lord had done for them, and their minds were suitably impressed with a sense of them; when they were in the exercise of the graces of the fear of God, and faith in him, and which is necessary to the performance of all religious duties, and particularly this of singing the praises of God:

and spake, saying, I will sing unto the Lord: that went before them in a pillar of cloud and fire; who had led them safely through the Red sea, and troubled and destroyed the host of the Egyptians; even the same Jehovah, who has undertook the salvation of his people, is become the author of it, and to whom the song of redeeming grace is due:

for he hath triumphed gloriously; over Pharaoh and all the Egyptians, the enemies of Israel, as Christ has over sin, in the destruction of it by his sacrifice, and over Satan, and his principalities and powers, when he spoiled them on the cross, and over death the last enemy, and all others; over whom he has made his people more than conquerors, through himself: or, "in excelling he excels" q; all the angels of heaven, in his name, and nature, relation, and office; and all the sons of men, even the greatest among them, being King of kings, and Lord of lords; in the wonderful things done by him, no such achievements having ever been wrought by any of them: or, "in magnifying, he is magnified" r; appears to be what he is, great in his nature, perfections, and works; and to be magnified, or declared to be great, and extolled as such by all that know and fear him:

the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea; the horses and horsemen of Pharaoh; and which is not amiss allegorically applied, by Tertullian s, to the world and the devil; the world is the horse, and the rider the devil; that being under his power and direction, he being the god of it, and working effectually in it; spurring and exciting the men of it to every sinful lust and pleasure; and may be put for all the spiritual enemies of God's people, especially their sins; which are cast by the Lord into the midst of the sea, never to be seen and remembered any more, and which is to them matter of a song of praise and thanksgiving.

Gill: Exo 15:2 - The Lord is my strength and song // and he is become my salvation // he is my God, and I will prepare him an habitation The Lord is my strength and song,..... The strength of Moses and the children of Israel against the fears of the Egyptians, and of entrance into the R...

The Lord is my strength and song,..... The strength of Moses and the children of Israel against the fears of the Egyptians, and of entrance into the Red sea; who inspired them with courage, and strengthened their faith, neither to fear being destroyed by the one, or drowned in the other; and so in the glory of his nature, and of his divine perfections, of his justice, holiness, faithfulness, truth, and goodness, he was the subject matter of their song. As Christ is the strength of his spiritual Israel, the author and giver of strength unto them, the strength of their lives, their hearts, and graces; and who strengthens them to do his will and work, to exercise every grace, withstand corruptions, resist temptations, bear afflictions, and overcome every enemy; and who on the account of the glory of his person, the beauty, fitness, and fulness of it, and because of his offices of Mediator, Saviour, prophet, priest, and King, as well as by reason of what he has done for them, the righteousness he has brought in, and the salvation he has wrought out, is the sum and substance of their song of praise:

and he is become my salvation; the salvation of Israel in a temporal sense, having saved them out of the hands of the Egyptians their enemies; and the salvation or Saviour of his spiritual Israel, who are saved by him with an everlasting salvation; he is not only their Saviour, but salvation itself; being not only the author of it, and that being in him for them, but made that itself unto them, even their all in all; their righteousness, atonement, peace, light, life, food, health, comfort, and joy; all their grace being in him, and from him, as well as their eternal glory and happiness: and this he is to them now, he is their salvation by impetration having obtained it by his obedience, sufferings, and death; and by application, they being convinced of their need of salvation by him, and the suitableness of it to them, seek to him for it, desire that and no other, which is brought nigh unto them by the Spirit of God, and witnessed to by him as theirs; so that they are already saved by grace, through faith and hope in Christ; and of their particular interest in it, they have knowledge by the same Spirit, which fills them with joy unspeakable and full of glory. This and the preceding clause are words so very expressive, and contain such fulness of matter, and such interesting things, that both the psalmist David, and the church, in the times of the evangelic prophet Isaiah, have borrowed them to express their sense of the great things the Lord was to them, and had done for them, Psa 118:14.

he is my God, and I will prepare him an habitation; Christ is God, truly God, as appears from the names given him, particularly Jehovah; from the perfections ascribed to him, from the works done by him, and from the worship of him both by angels and men; and he is his people's God, their Immanuel, God in their nature, the God in whom they believe, and in whom they have an interest; he is the God of their salvation, the Lord their righteousness; their Lord, head, and King; their husband, beloved, Father, brother, friend; their God and guide, even unto death; their portion and exceeding great reward, now and hereafter: wherefore Moses, or the people of Israel, or both, determine to "prepare" him an "habitation", being concerned that he had no better dwelling place among them than he had; and seem to have some respect unto, and knowledge of an habitation hereafter to be built, the tabernacle and temple; which were typical of the human nature of Christ, and of his church; but then they were both of God's preparing, and not men's; wherefore an habitation in the hearts of, his people may be chiefly designed; the preparation of which, though it is principally and efficaciously of the Spirit of God, yet in some sense may be said to be prepared by the saints, when they show a concern for grace to be in exercise; to have duty regularly and constantly performed in a manner acceptable to him, and that no disturbance be given to occasion his departure from them. The Septuagint version is, "I will glorify him"; with soul and body, which are both his; and so much to the same purpose other versions, "I will decorate or beautify" t him; declare his beauty and glory, and speak in praise of it: "my father's God, and I will exalt him"; Christ was not only the God of Amram, the father of Moses, who was a good man; but the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as he declared himself to be, Exo 3:6, the ancestors not only of Moses, but of all the children of Israel. This shows the antiquity of Christ, that he was their fathers' God, and that he is to be trusted and depended on, as he was by their fathers, and to be regarded, and highly valued and esteemed, having been their fathers' friend, and is a reason why he should be exalted by them; for though he cannot be raised higher than he is, being the Son of the Highest, God over all, blessed for ever, whose kingdom ruleth over all, and is now as man ascended on high, and is highly exalted by his Father, and at his right hand, and glorified by him with himself; yet he may be said to be exalted and lifted up by us, when we celebrate and set forth the height of his glory and excellency, by asserting his proper deity, ascribing the same perfections, worlds, and worship to him, as to his Father, by attributing distinct divine personality to him, confessing his eternal sonship, owning him in all his offices, and giving him the glory due unto him on account of them, and for salvation wrought out by him; the whole honour and praise of it belong to him: he may and should be exalted in the hearts of his people, in their thoughts and affections, and with their lips in songs of praise; and in the house of God, and the ordinances of it, where everyone should speak of his glory; the reasons are, because he is above all in his person and perfections, is the only Mediator, Saviour, and Redeemer, and to exalt him is the way to be exalted, Pro 4:8.

Gill: Exo 15:3 - The Lord is a man of war // the Lord is his name The Lord is a man of war,.... A "man", which has respect to the future incarnation of Christ, for as yet he was not really man; though it was purposed...

The Lord is a man of war,.... A "man", which has respect to the future incarnation of Christ, for as yet he was not really man; though it was purposed, covenanted, agreed to, and prophesied of, that he should, as he after was; not a mere man, as appears by the following clause: "a man of war"; or a warrior; being engaged in war, and inured to it; having to do with very powerful enemies, Satan and his principalities and powers, the world, and the great men of it, antichrist, and all the antichristian states. A warrior well versed in all the arts of war, and abundantly qualified for it, having consummate wisdom, strength, and courage, and thoroughly furnished and accoutred for it; having on the breastplate of righteousness, the helmet of salvation, the garment of vengeance, and cloak of zeal, and a vesture dipped in blood; and with a sword girt on his thigh, or drawn, or coming out of his mouth; and with a bow and arrows, going forth conquering, and to conquer; for he is a victorious one, who has conquered sin, Satan, and the world, and will subdue all others, and make his people more than conquerors, through him. He is not a common man of war or warrior; he is the Captain of the Lord's host, the Leader and Commander of the people, the Generalissimo of the armies in heaven and earth, and is a Prince and King at the head of them:

the Lord is his name; or Jehovah, which proves him to be more than a man; and being so, it is no wonder that he is so mighty, powerful, and victorious.

Gill: Exo 15:4 - Pharaoh's chariots and his hosts hath he cast into the sea // his chosen captains also are drowned in the Red sea Pharaoh's chariots and his hosts hath he cast into the sea,.... Which was done by the Angel of the Lord, who was Jehovah himself, our Immanuel, and ma...

Pharaoh's chariots and his hosts hath he cast into the sea,.... Which was done by the Angel of the Lord, who was Jehovah himself, our Immanuel, and man of war, as appears from Exo 14:17, an emblem of the destruction of antichrist, and all the antichristian states, of which Pharaoh and his host were types:

his chosen captains also are drowned in the Red sea: who were appointed over his chosen chariots, which all perished in the sea together. In the carnage that will be made by Christ, the warrior and conqueror, among the followers of antichrist, the man of "sin", the antitypical Pharaoh, the flesh of captains is mentioned for the fowls of heaven to feed upon, Rev 19:18.

Gill: Exo 15:5 - The depths have covered them // they sunk into the bottom as a stone // their persecutors thou threwest into the deep, as a stone into the mighty waters The depths have covered them,.... The depths of the sea covered Pharaoh and his host, so as to be seen no more; and in like manner will mystical Babyl...

The depths have covered them,.... The depths of the sea covered Pharaoh and his host, so as to be seen no more; and in like manner will mystical Babylon, or antichrist, be destroyed, and be no more found and seen; as likewise the sins of God's people, being cast into the depths of the sea, and covered with the blood of Christ, will be seen no more; when they are sought for, they shall not be found:

they sunk into the bottom as a stone; into the bottom of the sea, as a stone thrown into anybody of water sinks and rises not up again; this circumstance is observed by Neh 9:11.

their persecutors thou threwest into the deep, as a stone into the mighty waters; and thus a stone like a millstone being taken by an angel and cast into the sea, is made an emblem of the irrecoverable ruin and destruction of Babylon, or antichrist, Rev 18:21.

Gill: Exo 15:6 - Thy right hand, O Lord, is become glorious in power // thy right hand, O Lord, hath dashed in pieces the enemy Thy right hand, O Lord, is become glorious in power,.... In bringing the children of Israel out of Egypt, and through the Red sea, and in the destruct...

Thy right hand, O Lord, is become glorious in power,.... In bringing the children of Israel out of Egypt, and through the Red sea, and in the destruction of Pharaoh and the Egyptians; and so the right hand of Christ, expressive of his power, he has in and of himself, and is the same with his Father's, and is mighty, yea, almighty, is become glorious, famous, and illustrious, in the redemption and salvation of his people, by bearing their sins, and working out a righteousness for them; and in the destruction of their enemies, sin, Satan, the world, and death, as is more fully expressed in the next clause:

thy right hand, O Lord, hath dashed in pieces the enemy; in a literal sense, Pharaoh and his host, the avowed enemies of Israel; and, in a spiritual sense, those before named, together with all the antichristian party, those enemies of Christ, and his people, whom he wilt break to shivers as a potter's vessel, Rev 2:27.

Gill: Exo 15:7 - And in the greatness of thine excellency // thou hast overthrown them that rose up against thee // thou sentest forth thy wrath, which consumed them as stubble And in the greatness of thine excellency,.... Christ has an excellency in him, a greatness of excellency, a superlative one; he has a more excellent n...

And in the greatness of thine excellency,.... Christ has an excellency in him, a greatness of excellency, a superlative one; he has a more excellent name and nature than the angels, being a divine Person; and a more excellent ministry, as man and Mediator, than any of the sons of men, as prophet, priest, and King; and is superlatively excellent in his operations, has wrought out a most excellent righteousness, offered up a more excellent sacrifice than ever was offered, and obtained a great, glorious, and excellent salvation for his people; in consequence of which is what is next asserted:

thou hast overthrown them that rose up against thee; against his person and his people, who are in such strict union with him as to be reckoned as himself; and those that rise up against them, he reckons as rising up against him, or as his enemies; and both the one and the other are overthrown by him, as were those that rose up against him in person when on earth, as Herod, Pontius Pilate, the people of the Jews, with the Gentiles, and as will be antichrist and his followers, and all the spiritual enemies of the people of God:

thou sentest forth thy wrath, which consumed them as stubble; the wrath of the Lord God Almighty is like fire, and wicked men are as chaff and stubble; and as those cannot stand before fire, but are suddenly and quickly consumed with it; so neither can the wicked, the enemies of Christ and his people, stand before the wrath of the Lamb, when the great day of it is come, but must be presently destroyed by it; see Isa 51:20.

Gill: Exo 15:8 - And with the blast of thy nostrils the waters were gathered together // the floods stood upright as an heap And with the blast of thy nostrils the waters were gathered together,.... From the bottom of the sea, and divided and laid on heaps; and this by a str...

And with the blast of thy nostrils the waters were gathered together,.... From the bottom of the sea, and divided and laid on heaps; and this by a strong east wind, called the blast of the nostrils of the Lord, because as easily brought by him as a man's breath or wind is drawn through his nostrils; and thus Christ with the breath of his mouth, and the brightness of his coming, will destroy antichrist, 2Th 2:8.

the floods stood upright as an heap; though a fluid body, yet by the power of Christ were raised up and continued upright, firm and consistent; as things dry and solid may be laid and heaped up on one another, and remain firm and stable; and so did the waters of the sea, they stood like a wall, and were as firm as a rock; while the Israelites passed between them, they stood upright, and lift up their hands, as if they blessed them; or blessed God for the deliverance of them, or in admiration of it; see Exo 14:22,

Gill: Exo 15:9 - The enemy said // I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil // my lust shall be satified upon them // I will draw my sword // my hand shall destroy them The enemy said,.... That is, Pharaoh, who repented that he had let Israel go; an emblem of Satan, who when the people of God are taken out of his hand...

The enemy said,.... That is, Pharaoh, who repented that he had let Israel go; an emblem of Satan, who when the people of God are taken out of his hands is uneasy at it, and seeks to recover them again into his possession; or of antichrist breathing out threatening and slaughter to the saints, the reformers departed from him, and delivered out of his captivity:

I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil; which words being expressed without the copulative "and", show the passion he was in, the hastiness of his expressions, and the eagerness of his mind; and being delivered in such an absolute manner, "I will", "I will", &c. denote not only the fixed resolution and determination he had made to pursue, but the assurance he had of carrying his point; he thought as surely, as he pursued he should overtake, and overtaking should conquer, and get into his hands all the riches the people of Israel went out of Egypt with:

my lust shall be satified upon them; both his lust of covetousness to possess himself of the wealth the people had of their own, and which they had spoiled the Egyptians of, by borrowing of them; and also his lust of revenge and cruelty upon them; as appears from what follows:

I will draw my sword; out of its scabbard, and sheathe it in them:

my hand shall destroy them; which he made no doubt of, they being an unarmed people; and therefore, though numerous, were unable to engage with him, and defend themselves; see Rev 6:14 and with it compare Isa 10:11.

Gill: Exo 15:10 - Thou didst blow with thy wind // the sea covered them // they sunk as lead in the mighty waters Thou didst blow with thy wind,.... A strong east wind, Exo 14:22 which is the Lord Christ's, who has it in his treasury, holds it in his fists, sends ...

Thou didst blow with thy wind,.... A strong east wind, Exo 14:22 which is the Lord Christ's, who has it in his treasury, holds it in his fists, sends it out as he pleases, and it fulfils his word and will:

the sea covered them; which stood up in an heap as a wall to let Israel pass through, and fell down with all its waves and billows with great force upon the Egyptians, and covered and drowned them:

they sunk as lead in the mighty waters; which is a very heavy metal, and, being cast into the water, sinks to the bottom at once, as did the Egyptians in the Red sea, and as Babylon the great will, and never rise more, Rev 18:21.

Gill: Exo 15:11 - Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods // who is like thee, glorious in holiness // fearful in praises // doing wonders Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods?.... For the perfections of his nature, for the blessings of his goodness, and for the works of his hand...

Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods?.... For the perfections of his nature, for the blessings of his goodness, and for the works of his hands; and especially for the greatness and excellency of his power, seen in the salvation of his people, and the ruin of their enemies: there is none like him "among the mighty ones", as it may be rendered; among the mighty angels, who excel in strength, and are sometimes called gods; or among the mighty ones on earth; or the sons of the mighty, kings, princes, judges, and civil magistrates of every rank and order; especially for the following things:

who is like thee, glorious in holiness? some understand this of the holy place, either heaven, where Christ is glorious above all created beings; or the church, where he shows himself glorious to his people: others, of holy persons, either holy angels, among whom he was at Sinai, and when he ascended on high, and will be when he comes again, in his own and his Father's glory; or the saints, when he will bring them with him, and be glorified in them; but rather it is to be understood of the attribute of his holiness, which is eminently and perfectly in him; in his person, with respect to both his natures, divine and human; the glory of which is displayed in all the works he has wrought, especially in the great work of redemption, which was undertook both for the honour of the holiness and righteousness of God, and to redeem his people from sin, and make them righteous and holy: it appears in the holy doctrines he taught, and in the holy commandments and ordinances he enjoined his people, and in his judgments on his enemies; in all which it is plainly seen that he loves righteousness and hates iniquity, and there is none like him for it; there is none holy as the Lord among angels or men, 1Sa 2:2.

fearful in praises; or, in the things for which he is to be praised; as the glories and excellencies of his person, the blessings received from him, and through him, both temporal and spiritual; grace, and all the blessings of it here, now communicated, and glory and happiness promised and expected: and many things, for which he is to be praised, he is "fearful", awful, and tremendous in them; there are some things his right hand teaches him, and it does, deserving of praise, which yet are terrible, and such were they which are here literally, referred to; the plagues upon the Egyptians, and the destruction of Pharaoh and his host, called the wondrous works done in the land of Ham, and terrible things by the Red sea, Psa 106:22 and yet these were matter of praise to Israel, and gave occasion for this song; and such are they, in a spiritual sense, which he has done to his and our enemies: when the year of his redeemed was come, it was a day of vengeance in his heart, and he exercised it; he made an end of sin, abolished death, destroyed him which had the power of it, and spoiled principalities and powers; and a dreadful slaughter will be made of antichrist and his followers, when the song of Moses and the Lamb will be sung on account of it; and such dispensations of Providence, and judgments on men, as on Pharaoh and antichrist, as they are terrible to wicked men, they strike an awe on the people of God, at the same time they furnish out a song of praise to them: moreover, this may respect not only the matter of praise, but the reverend manner in which it is performed by good men; who, as they have a concern that they cannot sufficiently praise the Lord, and fear they shall not perform it aright, and sensible of their weakness and imperfection, like the seraphim, cover their faces while they applaud his perfections, particularly that of his holiness, and declare the earth is full of his glory; so they desire to perform this, as all their other services, with a holy fear and trembling, with reverence and godly fear since holy and reverend is his name: it follows:

doing wonders; and for which there is none like him; wonders Christ did before his incarnate state, both in eternity, in the goings forth of his heart, in acts of love to his people, in asking for them, and betrothing them, in becoming the surety of them, in proposing to be a sacrifice in their stead, in entering into a covenant with his Father on their account, in taking the care and charge of their persons, and in being the treasury of all grace and glory for them; and likewise in time, being concerned in the wondrous works of creation, which are a wonderful display of divine wisdom, power, and goodness, and in all the affairs of Providence; for there was not any remarkable occurrence, from the beginning of the world to the time of his coming in the flesh, but he was concerned therein; as the drowning of the old world, to whom previously he preached by his Spirit in Noah; the burning of Sodom and Gomorrah, the plagues of Egypt, and the destruction of Pharaoh and his host, the deliverance of the children of Israel, both out of Egypt and Babylon, and many others: and when he became incarnate, how many wonders were wrought by him? the incarnation itself was a wonderful instance of his grace and condescension, to take upon him the nature of man, be made flesh, and dwell among them; and during his incarnate state on earth many wonders were done by him; the doctrines he taught, the miracles he wrought, and especially the great work of our redemption and salvation, which will be for ever the wonder of men and angels; his raising himself from the dead, his ascension to heaven, and his appearance there for his people, as well as his second coming to judgment, are all marvellous things; and on account of all this, and more, he may well be called "wonderful"; for working wonders there is none like him.

Gill: Exo 15:12 - Thou stretchedst out thy right hand // the earth swallowed them Thou stretchedst out thy right hand,.... That is, exerted his power, and gave a display and proof of it; of which the right hand is an emblem: the ...

Thou stretchedst out thy right hand,.... That is, exerted his power, and gave a display and proof of it; of which the right hand is an emblem:

the earth swallowed them; meaning Pharaoh and his host; for though they were drowned in the sea, that being a part of the terraqueous globe, they may be said to be swallowed in the earth; as Jonah, when in the depth of the sea, the earth and its bars are said to be about him, Jon 2:6 and besides, many of Pharaoh's army might be swallowed up in the mud at the bottom of the sea: nor is it improbable that those that were cast upon the banks and sand, whom the Israelites stripped, might be afterwards swallowed up therein.

Gill: Exo 15:13 - Thou in thy mercy hast led forth the people which thou hast redeemed // thou hast guided them in thy strength unto thy holy habitation Thou in thy mercy hast led forth the people which thou hast redeemed,.... From their servitude and bondage in Egypt; and so they were the Lord's peopl...

Thou in thy mercy hast led forth the people which thou hast redeemed,.... From their servitude and bondage in Egypt; and so they were the Lord's people, peculiar to him, and distinct from all others: those he led forth, as out of Egypt, so through the Red sea onward towards Canaan's land; which was owing to his mercy, pity, and compassion to them in their affliction and distress: thus the spiritual Israel are a people redeemed by Christ from the bondage of sin, Satan, and the law, and are his property, special and peculiar to him, and distinguished from all others: those he leads forth out of the state of nature in which they are, which is a very uncomfortable one, dark, bewildered, and forlorn, and out of their own ways, both of sin and self-righteousness; he leads them in himself the true way to eternal life, and in the paths of faith, truth, and holiness; and he leads to himself, his blood, righteousness, and fulness, and into his Father's presence, into his house and ordinances, and at last to heaven, the city of their habitation: and though it is sometimes in a rough way he leads them thither, yet always in a right one; and this must be ascribed to his grace and mercy, and not to the merits of his people: it was owing to his mercy he engaged for them as a surety, and came into this world to be their Saviour, in his love and pity he redeemed them; and it is according to abundant mercy they are regenerated, and called, and saved:

thou hast guided them in thy strength unto thy holy habitation; or rather, "art guiding them" w; for as yet they were not brought to their rest, the land of Canaan, where God had chosen a place for his people and himself to dwell in; nor was the tabernacle as yet made, much less the temple, where Jehovah took up his residence; but as he had brought out his people Israel from Egypt with a strong hand, and mighty arm, he was guiding and directing them onward in their journey, in the same greatness of his strength, which he would and did continue, until he brought them to the place he had chosen for his habitation; which was typical, both tabernacle and temple, of the human nature of Christ, in which the fulness of the Godhead dwells, and which is holy, being perfectly free from sin, and to which the people of God are guided as the new and living way to the Father, and whereby they have communion with him: likewise they were an emblem of the church of God, where Jehovah, Father, Son, and Spirit, dwell, and which consists of holy persons, and where holy services are performed; and hither the Lord guides and directs his people, and where he gives them a nature and a place better than that of sons and daughters; and also of heaven, where the Lord dwells, and which is the habitation of his holiness, where are holy angels, and the spirits of just men made perfect, and into which none shall enter but those that are holy; and hither the Lord guides all his people, with his counsel, and by his Spirit and word, and by his almighty power brings them thither;

Gill: Exo 15:14 - And the people shall hear, and be afraid // sorrow shall take hold of the inhabitants of Palestina And the people shall hear, and be afraid,.... What follows from hence to the end of the song is plainly prophetic, a prediction of future events; and ...

And the people shall hear, and be afraid,.... What follows from hence to the end of the song is plainly prophetic, a prediction of future events; and this clause respects the case of all the nations of the earth, who should hear the report of the plagues, brought upon the Egyptians for the sake of Israel, and of their being brought out of Egypt, and of their being led through the Red sea as on dry land, and of the destruction of Pharaoh and his host in it, which report would strike a panic in all that heard it, throughout the whole world; as well as of what the Lord would after this do for them in the wilderness, see Deu 2:25.

sorrow shall take hold of the inhabitants of Palestina; which was adjoining to the land of Canaan, and through which in the common way their road lay to it.

Gill: Exo 15:15 - Then the dukes of Edom shall be amazed // the mighty men of Moab, trembling shall take hold upon them // all the inhabitants of Canaan shall melt away Then the dukes of Edom shall be amazed, Of which there were many, see Gen 36:15 the land being first governed by dukes, as perhaps it was at this tim...

Then the dukes of Edom shall be amazed, Of which there were many, see Gen 36:15 the land being first governed by dukes, as perhaps it was at this time, though in some few years after it had a king, Num 20:14 now these, when they heard of the wonderful things that were done for Israel in Egypt, at the Red sea, and in the wilderness, were astonished and surprised, and filled with fear and dread, see Deu 2:4,

the mighty men of Moab, trembling shall take hold upon them: as did on Balak the king of Moab, and his people, Num 22:2, where may be observed a literal accomplishment of this prophecy:

all the inhabitants of Canaan shall melt away; as their hearts did, through fear, when they heard what God did for Israel against the Egyptians and the Amorites, and understood that they were upon the march to their land to invade it and dispossess them of it: see the fulfilment of this prediction in Jos 2:9 thus when Babylon shall be destroyed, as Pharaoh and his host were, and the people of God saved out of the midst of her, as Israel was, the kings of the earth will stand afar off for fear of her torment, and bewail and lament for her, Rev 18:9.

Gill: Exo 15:16 - Fear and dread shall fall upon them // by the greatness of thine arm they shall be as still as a stone // till thy people pass over, O Lord, till the people pass over Fear and dread shall fall upon them.... On the several nations and people before mentioned, especially the Canaanites, which the Targums of Jonathan a...

Fear and dread shall fall upon them.... On the several nations and people before mentioned, especially the Canaanites, which the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem interpret of the fear of death, lest the Israelites should fall upon them and destroy them, or God should fight for them, against them, and bring ruin and destruction on them:

by the greatness of thine arm they shall be as still as a stone; awed by the power of God, visible in what he had done for the Israelites, and upon their enemies; they should be like stocks and stones, immovable, have no power to act, nor stir a foot in their own defence, and against Israel, come to invade and possess their land; nor in the least molest them, or stop them in their passage over Jordan, or dispute it with them, but stand like persons thunderstruck, and as stupid as stones, not having any spirit or courage left in them:

till thy people pass over, O Lord, till the people pass over, which thou hast purchased; pass over the brook of Arnon, and the ford of Jabbok, according to the Targum of Jonathan; or the ford of Jabbok, and the ford of Jordan, according to the Jerusalem Targum; the river of Jordan is doubtless literally meant, at least chiefly; and the accomplishment of this prediction may be seen in Jos 3:15 which was an emblem of the quiet passage of Christ's purchased people, through the ford or river of death, to the Canaan of everlasting rest and happiness: Christ's people are purchased by him, who is able to make the purchase, and had a right to do it, and has actually made it, by giving his flesh, shedding his blood, laying down his life, and giving himself a ransom price for them: these do, and must pass over Jordan, or go through the cold stream of death; it is the way of all the earth, of good men as well as others; it is a passage from one world to another; and there is no getting to the heavenly Canaan without going this way, or through this ford; and all the Lord's purchased people, like Israel, clean pass over through it, not one are left in it; their bodies are raised again, their souls are reunited to them, and both come safe to heaven and happiness: and, for the most part, they have a quiet and easy passage, the enemy is not suffered to disturb them, neither the sins and corruptions of their nature, nor an evil heart of unbelief, nor Satan with his temptations; and the terrors of death are taken away from them; so that they can sit and sing on the shores of eternity, in the view of death and another world, saying, death, where is thy sting? grave, where is thy victory? &c. and this is to be ascribed to the greatness of Jehovah's arm, to his almighty power, on which they lean, and go on comfortably in the wilderness; and by this they are carried safely through death to glory, and it is owing to this that the enemy and the avenger are stilled.

Gill: Exo 15:17 - Thou shalt bring them in // and plant them in the mountain of thine inheritance // in the place, O Lord, which thou hast made for thee to dwell in // in the sanctuary, O Lord, which thy hands have established Thou shalt bring them in,.... Into the land of Canaan, which is often ascribed to the Lord, as well as his bringing them out of the land of Egypt, see...

Thou shalt bring them in,.... Into the land of Canaan, which is often ascribed to the Lord, as well as his bringing them out of the land of Egypt, see Deu 8:8,

and plant them in the mountain of thine inheritance; in the country which he chose for the inheritance of his people and himself; one part of which was very mountainous, called the hill country of Judea, and especially Jerusalem, round about which mountains were; and particular respect may be had to Mount Moriah and Zion, on which the temple afterwards stood, and which was called the mountain of the Lord's house, and seems to be pointed at in the following account: here Israel is compared to a vine as elsewhere, which the Lord took out of Egypt and planted in the land of Canaan, where it took root and was settled, see Psa 80:8.

in the place, O Lord, which thou hast made for thee to dwell in; that is, which he had appointed for his habitation; for as yet neither the tabernacle nor temple were built, in which he afterwards dwelt: in this sense the word "made" is used in Pro 16:4.

in the sanctuary, O Lord, which thy hands have established; that is, which he intended to establish, and would, and did establish; meaning, more especially, the temple, and the holy of holies in it, which he directed Solomon to build, and was a settled dwelling place for him, 1Ki 8:13, now all this may be considered as typical of the church of Christ, and of his bringing and planting his people there, which is a "mountain", and often signified by Mount Zion; is visible and immovable, the true members of it being interested in the love of God, on the sure foundation of electing grace, secured in the everlasting covenant, and built on the rock Christ Jesus; and is the Lord's "inheritance", chosen by him to be so, given to Christ, and possessed by him as such, and as dear to him, and more so, than a man's inheritance is to him: this is a "place" he has appointed, prepared, and made for himself to dwell in, and is the habitation of Father, Son, and Spirit; and is a "sanctuary" or holy place, consisting of holy persons established in Christ, as particular believers are, and the church in general is; and though now sometimes in an unsettled state as to outward things, yet ere long will be established on the top of the mountains: and hither the Lord brings his purchased people, as sheep into his fold, as children to his house, fitted up for them, as guests to partake of his entertainments; and this is an act of his powerful grace upon them, and of his distinguished goodness to them: and here he also plants them, for the church is a plantation, a garden, an orchard of pomegranates, with pleasant fruits; and such as are planted here are transplanted out of the world, and are first planted in Christ, and receive the ingrafted word; and though ministers may be instruments in planting, the Lord is the efficient; and those that are planted by him are choice pleasant plants, fruitful ones, and shall never be plucked up: but as this follows the passage of the Lord's people over Jordan into Canaan land, it may rather be considered as an emblem of the heavenly state, and of the Lord's bringing and planting his people there; which, like a mountain, is an immovable and unalterable state, an inheritance incorruptible and eternal, the dwellingplace of Jehovah, a sanctuary or holy place, which his hand prepared from the foundation of the world; and which he has established as everlasting habitations for his people, where he brings their souls at death, and both souls and bodies in the resurrection morn to dwell with him for ever; and which is a paradise, an Eden of pleasure, where he plants them as trees of righteousness, next to Christ the tree of life, and where they are always green, fruitful, flourishing, and shall never be hurt by any scorching heat or blasting wind, or be trodden under foot or plucked up.

Gill: Exo 15:18 - The Lord shall reign for ever and ever. The Lord shall reign for ever and ever. Even that same Lord that is spoken of throughout this song, and to whom everything in it is ascribed, and who ...

The Lord shall reign for ever and ever. Even that same Lord that is spoken of throughout this song, and to whom everything in it is ascribed, and who is no other than the Lord Jesus Christ; his reign began in eternity, when he was set up and anointed as King over God's holy hill of Zion, his church, the elect, who were a kingdom put under his care and charge, and which he will deliver up again one day, complete and perfect: he reigned throughout the whole Old Testament dispensation, and was acknowledged as well as prophesied of as a King; in his state of humiliation he had a kingdom, though not of this world, and upon his ascension to heaven he was made and declared Lord and Christ; and thenceforward his kingdom became very visible in the Gentile world, through the ministration of his word, accompanied by his almighty power; and ever since, more or less, he has ruled by his Spirit and grace in the hearts of many of the children of men, and, ere long, will take upon him his great power, and reign, in a more visible, spiritual, and glorious manner, in the midst of his churches, in the present state of things; and then he will reign with all his saints raised from the dead, for the space of a thousand years on earth, and after that will reign with them for ever in heaven, in the ultimate state of glory and happiness: the reigns of all others are but short, or, however, but for a time, but the reign of Christ is for ever and ever; the reigns of sin, and of Satan, and of death, have an end, but of the government of Christ, and the peace thereof, there will be no end; the reigns of the greatest potentates, emperors, and kings, of cruel and tyrannical princes, such as Pharaoh, are limited to a certain time, as is the reign of antichrist, which when ended, and the saints will have got the victory over him, the song of Moses and the Lamb will be sung; but Christ's kingdom is an everlasting kingdoms, and his dominion is evermore: the Targum of Jonathan is,"let us set a crown on the head of our Redeemer, whose is the royal crown, and he is King of kings in this world, and whose is the kingdom in the world to come, and whose it is and will be for ever and ever;''and to the same purpose is the Jerusalem Targum.

Gill: Exo 15:19 - For the horse of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea // and the Lord brought again the waters of the sea upon them // but the children of Israel went on dry land in the midst of the sea; For the horse of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea,.... Meaning not that particular and single horse on which Phara...

For the horse of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea,.... Meaning not that particular and single horse on which Pharaoh was carried, but all the horses of his that drew in his chariots, and all on which his cavalry was mounted; these all went into the Red sea, following the Israelites thither: these words are either the concluding part of the song, recapitulating and reducing into a compendium the subject matter of it; or are a reason why Moses and the children of Israel sung it; or else they are to be connected more strictly with the preceding verse, and give a reason why the Lord reigns over his people for ever; because he has destroyed their enemies, and delivered them out of their hands:

and the Lord brought again the waters of the sea upon them; after he had divided them, for the Israelites to pass through them, he caused them to close again, and to fall upon the Egyptians and cover and drown them:

but the children of Israel went on dry land in the midst of the sea; which was a very wonderful thing, and was a just and sufficient reason for singing the above song to the Lord, see Exo 14:29.

Gill: Exo 15:20 - And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron // took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron,.... The same, it is highly probable, that is called the sister of Moses, Exo 2:3, her name Miriam is t...

And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron,.... The same, it is highly probable, that is called the sister of Moses, Exo 2:3, her name Miriam is the same as Mary with us, and signifies bitterness; and, as the Hebrews x observe, had it from the bitterness of the times, and the afflictions the Israelites endured and groaned under when she was born; which is a much more probable signification and reason of her name than what is given by others, that it is the same with Marjam, which signifies a drop of the sea; from whence, they fancy, came the story of Venus, and her name of Aphrodite, the froth of the sea: Miriam was a prophetess, and so called, not from this action of singing, here recorded of her, for so all the women that sung with her might be called prophetesses, though sometimes in Scripture prophesying intends singing; but rather from her having a gift of teaching and instructing, and even of foretelling things to come; for the Lord spoke by her as well as by Moses and Aaron, and she, with them, were the leaders of the people of Israel, sent to them of the Lord, see Num 12:2, she is particularly called the sister of Aaron, though she was likewise the sister of Moses; the reason is, that being older than Moses, she was Aaron's sister before his, and having lived all her days with Aaron almost, and very little with Moses, was best known by being the sister of Aaron; and it is possible she might be his own sister by father and mother's side, when Moses was by another woman; however, it is said of her, she

took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances; timbrels were a sort of drums or tabrets, which being beat upon gave a musical sound, somewhat perhaps like our kettledrums; and though dances were sometimes used in religious exercises, yet the word may signify another kind of musical instruments, as "pipes" or "flutes" y, as it is by some rendered; and by the Syriac and Arabic versions, "sistrums"; which were musical instruments much used by the Egyptians, and from whom the Israelitish women had these; and as they were going to keep a feast in the wilderness, they lent them to them, it is very probable, on that account; otherwise it is not easy to conceive what use the Israelites could have for them, and put them to during their hard bondage and sore affliction in Egypt: now with these they went out of the camp or tents into the open fields, or to the shore of the Red sea, and sung as Moses and the men of Israel did: to this the psalmist seems to refer in Psa 68:25.

Gill: Exo 15:21 - And Miriam answered them // sing ye to the Lord // for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea And Miriam answered them,.... The men, for the word is masculine; that is, repeated, and sung the same song word for word after them, as they had done...

And Miriam answered them,.... The men, for the word is masculine; that is, repeated, and sung the same song word for word after them, as they had done, of which a specimen is given by reciting the first clause of the song:

sing ye to the Lord; which is by way of exhortation to the women to sing with her, as Moses begins the song thus: "I will sing unto the Lord":

for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea; See Gill on Exo 15:1, the manner of their singing, according to the Jews z, was, Moses first said, "I will sing", and they said it after him.

Gill: Exo 15:22 - So Moses brought Israel from the Red sea // and they went out into the wilderness of Shur // and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water So Moses brought Israel from the Red sea,.... Or "caused them to journey" a, which some think was done with difficulty, they being so eager and intent...

So Moses brought Israel from the Red sea,.... Or "caused them to journey" a, which some think was done with difficulty, they being so eager and intent upon the spoil and plunder of the Egyptians cast upon the sea shore, the harness of their horses being, as Jarchi observes, ornamented with gold and silver, and precious stones; or as others, they had some inclination to return to Egypt, and take possession of the country for themselves; the inhabitants of it, at least its military force, being destroyed, and their armour in their possession; but the truer meaning of the word is, that Moses, as their general, gave them the word of command to march, and till they had it they stayed at the Red sea refreshing themselves, taking the spoils of the enemy, and singing the praises of God; but when Moses gave them orders to set forward, they proceeded on their journey:

and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; the same with the wilderness of Etham, as appears from Num 33:8 there might be, as Aben Ezra conjectures, two cities in or near this wilderness, of those two names, from whence it might be called: for, as Doctor Shaw says b, Shur was a particular district of the wilderness of Etham, fronting the valley (of Baideah), from which, he supposes, the children of Israel departed: and Doctor Pocock says c that the wilderness of Shur might be the fourth part of the wilderness of Etham, for about six hours from the springs of Moses (where, according to the tradition of the country, the children of Israel landed, being directly over against Clysma or Pihahiroth) is a winter torrent, called Sedur (or Sdur), and there is a hill higher than the rest, called Kala Sedur (the fortress of Sedur), and from which this wilderness might have its name: and by another traveller d this wilderness is called the wilderness of Sedur: and now it was the wilderness of Etham they were in before they went into the Red sea, which has induced some to believe that they came out on the same shore again; for the solution of which difficulty See Gill on Exo 14:22,

and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water; which must be very distressing to such a vast number of people and cattle, in a hot, sandy, desert: this doubtless gave occasion to the stories told by Heathen authors, as Tacitus e, and others, that the people of the Jews, under the conduct of Moses, were near perishing for want of water, when, following a flock of wild asses, which led them to a rock covered with a grove of trees, they found large fountains of water: the three days they travelled here were the twenty second, third and fourth, of Nisan, in the beginning of April.

Gill: Exo 15:23 - And when they came to Marah // they could not drink of the waters of Marah, for they were bitter // therefore the name of it is called Marah And when they came to Marah,.... A place in the wilderness, afterwards so called from the quality of the waters found here; wherefore this name is by ...

And when they came to Marah,.... A place in the wilderness, afterwards so called from the quality of the waters found here; wherefore this name is by anticipation:

they could not drink of the waters of Marah, for they were bitter; and they must be very bitter for people in such circumstances, having been without water for three days, not to be able to drink of them: some have thought these to be the bitter fountains Pliny f speaks of, somewhere between the Nile and the Red sea, but these were in the desert of Arabia; more probably they were near, and of the same kind with those that Diodorus Siculus g makes mention of, who, speaking of the Troglodytes that inhabited near the Red sea, and in the wilderness, observes, that from the city Arsinoe, as you go along the shores of the continent on the right hand, there are several rivers that gush out of the rocks into the sea, of a bitter taste: and so Strabo h speaks of a foss or ditch, which runs out into the Red sea and Arabian gulf, and by the city Arsinoe, and flows through those lakes which are called bitter; and that those which were of old time bitter, being made a foss and mixed with the river, are changed, and now produce good fish, and abound with water fowl: but what some late travellers have discovered seems to be nearer the truth: Doctor Shaw i thinks these waters may be properly fixed at Corondel, where there is a small rill, which, unless it be diluted by the dews and rain, still continues to be brackish: another traveller k tells us that, at the foot of the mountain of Hamam-El-Faron, a small but most delightful valley, a place called Garondu, in the bottom of the vale, is a rivulet that comes from the afore mentioned mountain, the water of which is tolerably good, and in sufficient plenty, but is however not free from being somewhat bitter, though it is very clear: Doctor Pocock says there is a mountain known to this day by the name of Le-Marah; and toward the sea is a salt well called Bithammer, which is probably the same here called Marah: this Le-Marah, he says, is sixteen hours south of the springs of Moses; that is, forty miles from the landing place of the children of Israel; from whence to the end of the wilderness were six hours' travelling, or about fifteen miles; which were their three days' travel in the wilderness, and from thence two hours' travel, which were five miles, to a winter torrent called Ouarden; where, it may be supposed, Moses encamped and refreshed his people, and from thence went on to Marsh, about the distance of eight hours, or twenty miles southward from the torrent of Ouarden:

therefore the name of it is called Marah; from the bitterness of the waters, which the word Marah signifies; see Rth 1:20.

Gill: Exo 15:24 - And the people murmured against Moses // what shall we drink And the people murmured against Moses,.... For bringing them into a wilderness where they could find no water fit to drink; saying: what shall we d...

And the people murmured against Moses,.... For bringing them into a wilderness where they could find no water fit to drink; saying:

what shall we drink? what shall we do for drink? where can we drink? this water is not drinkable, and, unless we have something to drink, we, and our wives, and children, and servants, and cattle, must all perish.

Gill: Exo 15:25 - And he cried unto the Lord // and the Lord shewed him a tree, which when he had cast into the waters, the waters were made sweet // there he made a statute and an ordinance // and there he proved them And he cried unto the Lord,.... Or prayed, as all the Targums, that God would appear for them, and relieve them in their distress, or, humanly speakin...

And he cried unto the Lord,.... Or prayed, as all the Targums, that God would appear for them, and relieve them in their distress, or, humanly speaking, they must all perish: happy it is to have a God to go to in time of trouble, whose hand is not shortened that it cannot save, nor his ear heavy that he cannot hear! Moses knew the power of God, and trusted in his faithfulness to make good the promises to him, and the people, that he would bring them to the land he had swore to give them:

and the Lord shewed him a tree, which when he had cast into the waters, the waters were made sweet; what this tree was is not known; if it was in its own nature sweet, as the author of Ecclesiasticus seems to intimate, when he says, in chapter 38:5 "was not the water made sweet with the wood, that its virtue might be known?" Yet a single tree could never of itself sweeten a flow of water, and such a quantity as was sufficient for so large a number of men and cattle; and therefore, be it what it will, it must be owing to a miraculous operation that the waters were made sweet by it: but the Hebrew writers say the tree was bitter itself, and therefore the miracle was the greater: Gorionides l says it was wormwood; and both the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem call it the bitter tree, Ardiphne, which Cohen de Lara m makes to be the same which botanists call Rhododaphne or rose laurel, and which, he says, bears flowers like lilies, which are exceeding bitter, and are poison to cattle; and so says Baal Aruch n; and much the same has Elias Levita o: and this agrees well enough with the mystical and spiritual application that may be made of this; whether these bitter waters are considered as an emblem of the bitter curses of the law, for that bitter thing sin, which makes work for bitter repentance; and for which the law writes bitter things against the sinner, which, if not prevented, would issue in the bitterness of death; so that a sensible sinner can have nothing to do with it, nor can it yield him any peace or comfort: but Christ, the tree of life, being made under the law, and immersed in sufferings, the penalty of it, and made a curse, the law is fulfilled, the curse and wrath of God removed, the sinner can look upon it with pleasure and obey it with delight: or whether these may be thought to represent the afflictions of God's people, comparable to water for their multitude, and for their overflowing and overwhelming nature, and to bitter ones, being grievous to the flesh; especially when God hides his face and they are thought to be in wrath: but these are sweetened through the presence of Christ, the shedding abroad of his love in the heart, the gracious promises he makes and applies, and especially through his bitter sufferings and death, and the fruits and effects thereof, which support, refresh, and cheer, see Heb 12:2,

there he made a statute and an ordinance: not that he gave them at this time any particular law or precept, whether moral or ceremonial, such as the laws of keeping the sabbath and honouring of parents, which the Targum of Jonathan mentions p; and to which Jarchi adds that concerning the red heifer: but he gave them a general instruction and order concerning their future behaviour; that if they hearkened to his commandments, and yielded obedience to them, it would be well with them, if not they must expect to be chastised and afflicted by him, as is observed in the following verse, to which this refers:

and there he proved them; the people of Israel; by these waters being first bitter and then sweetened, whereby he gave them a proof and specimen how it would be with them hereafter; that if they behaved ill they must expect the bitter waters of affliction, but, if otherwise, pleasant and good things: or, "there he proved him" q; Moses, his obedience and faith, by ordering him to cast in the tree he showed him; but the former sense seems best to agree with what follows.

Gill: Exo 15:26 - And said, if thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the Lord thy God // and wilt do that which is right in his sight // and wilt give ear to his commandments, and keep all his statutes // I will put none of these diseases upon thee, which I have brought upon the Egyptians // for I am the Lord that healeth thee And said, if thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the Lord thy God,.... By this and the following words, they are prepared to expect a body of...

And said, if thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the Lord thy God,.... By this and the following words, they are prepared to expect a body of laws to be given unto them, as the rule of their future conduct; and though they were delivered from the rigorous laws, bondage, and oppression of the Egyptians, yet they were not to be without law to God, their King, Lord, and Governor, whose voice they were to hearken to in all things he should direct them in:

and wilt do that which is right in his sight; which he shall see and order as fit to be done, and which was not to be disputed and contradicted by them:

and wilt give ear to his commandments, and keep all his statutes; whether moral, ceremonial, or judicial, even all that either had been made known to them, or should be hereafter enjoined them; and this at Mount Sinai, where they received a body of laws, they promised to do; namely, both to hear and to obey, Exo 24:3.

I will put none of these diseases upon thee, which I have brought upon the Egyptians; in any of the plagues inflicted on them, which they were witnesses of; from these they should be preserved, if obedient, but if not they must expect them, or what was similar to them, see Deu 28:27,

for I am the Lord that healeth thee; both in body and soul; in body, by preserving from diseases, and by curing them when afflicted with them; and in soul, by pardoning their iniquities, which, in Scripture, is sometimes signified by healing, see Psa 103:3.

Gill: Exo 15:27 - And they came to Elim // where were twelve wells of water, and seventy palm trees // they removed from Elim, and encamped at the Red sea // and they encamped there by the waters And they came to Elim,.... On the twenty fifth of Nisan; for, according to Aben Ezra, they stayed but one day at Marah. Elim, as a late traveller r sa...

And they came to Elim,.... On the twenty fifth of Nisan; for, according to Aben Ezra, they stayed but one day at Marah. Elim, as a late traveller r says, was upon the northern skirts of the desert of Sin, two leagues from Tor, and near thirty from Corondel; according to Bunting s it was eight miles from Marah:

where were twelve wells of water, and seventy palm trees; and so a very convenient, commodious, and comfortable place to abide at for a time, since here was plenty of water for themselves and cattle, and shady trees to sit under by turns; for as for the fruit of them, that was not ripe at this time of the year, as Aben Ezra observes. Thevenot t seems to confound the waters here with the waters of Marah; for he says, the garden of the monks of Tor is the place which in holy Scripture is called Elim, where were sventy palm trees and twelve wells of bitter water; these wells, adds he, are still in being, being near one another, and most of them within the precinct of the garden, the rest are pretty near; they are all hot, and are returned again to their first bitterness; for I tasted says he, of one of them, where people bathe themselves, which by the Arabs is called Hammam Mouse, i.e. the "bath of Moses"; it is in a little dark cave: there is nothing in that garden but abundance of palm trees, which yield some rent to the monks, but the seventy old palm trees are not there now. This does not agree with an observation of the afore mentioned Jewish writer, that palm trees will not flourish in the ground where the waters are bitter; though they delight in watery places, as Pliny u says; and yet Leo Africanus w asserts, that in Numidia the dates (the fruit of palm trees) are best in a time of drought. A later traveller x tells us, he saw no more than nine of the twelve wells that are mentioned by Moses, the other three being filled up by those drifts of sand which are common in Arabia; yet this loss is amply made up by the great increase in the palm trees, the seventy having propagated themselves into more than 2000; under the shade of these trees is the Hammam Mouse, or "bath of Moses", particularly so called, which the inhabitants of Tor have in great veneration, acquainting us that it was here where the household of Moses was encamped. Dr. Pocock takes Elim to be the same with Corondel; about four hours or ten miles south of Marah, he says, is the winter torrent of Corondel in a very narrow valley, full of tamarisk trees, where there is tolerable water about half a mile west of the road; beyond this, he says, about half an hour, or little more than a mile, is a winter torrent called Dieh-Salmeh; and about an hour or two further, i.e. about three or four miles, is the valley or torrent of Wousset, where there are several springs of water that are a little salt; and he thinks that one of them, but rather Corondel, is Elim, because it is said afterwards:

they removed from Elim, and encamped at the Red sea; and the way to Corondel, to go to the valley of Baharum, is part of it near the sea, where he was informed there was good water, and so probably the Israelites encamped there; and Dr. Clayton y is of the same mind, induced by the argument he uses: a certain traveller z, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, tells us, that indeed the wells remain unto this day, but that there is not one palm tree, only some few low shrubs; but he could never have been at the right place, or must say a falsehood, since later travellers, who are to be depended upon, say the reverse, as the above quotations show. As to the mystical application of this passage, the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem make the twelve fountains answerable to the twelve tribes of Israel, and seventy palm trees to the seventy elders of the sanhedrim; and so Jarchi: and more evangelically the twelve fountains of water may denote the abundance of grace in Christ, in whom are the wells of salvation, and the sufficiency of it for all his people; and which the doctrine of the Gospel, delivered by his twelve apostles, discovers and reveals, and leads and directs souls unto; and the seventy palm trees may lead us to think of the seventy disciples sent out by Christ, and all other ministers of the word, who for their uprightness, fruitfulness, and usefulness, may be compared to palm trees, as good men in Scripture are, see Psa 92:12,

and they encamped there by the waters; where they stayed, as Aben Ezra thinks, twenty days, since, in the first verse of the following chapter, they are said to come to the wilderness of Sin on the fifteenth day of the second month; here being everything agreeable to them for the refreshment of themselves and cattle, they pitched their tents and abode a while; as it is right in a spiritual sense for the people of God to abide by his word and ordinances.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Exo 15:1 The common understanding is that Egypt did not have people riding horses at this time, and so the phrase the horse and its rider is either viewed as a...

NET Notes: Exo 15:2 The word נָוָה (navah) occurs only here. It may mean “beautify, adorn” with praises (see BDB 627 s.v.). See ...

NET Notes: Exo 15:3 Heb “Yahweh is his name.” As throughout, the name “Yahweh” is rendered as “the Lord” in the translation, as is typ...

NET Notes: Exo 15:4 The form is a Qal passive rather than a Pual, for there is not Piel form or meaning.

NET Notes: Exo 15:5 The parasynonyms here are תְּהֹמֹת (tÿhomot, “deep, ocean depths, deep waters”) and &...

NET Notes: Exo 15:6 The form נֶאְדָּרִי (ne’dari) may be an archaic infinitive with the old ending i, us...

NET Notes: Exo 15:7 The verb is the prefixed conjugation, the preterite, without the consecutive vav (ו).

NET Notes: Exo 15:8 The word “heap” describes the walls of water. The waters, which are naturally fluid, stood up as though they were a heap, a mound of earth...

NET Notes: Exo 15:9 The verb is יָרַשׁ (yarash), which in the Hiphil means “to dispossess” or “root out.” The ...

NET Notes: Exo 15:10 The verb may have the idea of sinking with a gurgling sound, like water going into a whirlpool (R. A. Cole, Exodus [TOTC], 124; S. R. Driver, Exodus, ...

NET Notes: Exo 15:11 S. R. Driver suggests “praiseworthy acts” as the translation (Exodus, 137).

NET Notes: Exo 15:12 The verb is the prefixed conjugation, the preterite without the vav consecutive. The subject, the “earth,” must be inclusive of the sea, o...

NET Notes: Exo 15:13 This verb seems to mean “to guide to a watering-place” (See Ps 23:2).

NET Notes: Exo 15:14 The verb is again a prophetic perfect.

NET Notes: Exo 15:15 This verb is imperfect tense.

NET Notes: Exo 15:16 The verb קָנָה (qanah) here is the verb “acquire, purchase,” and probably not the homonym “to create, ...

NET Notes: Exo 15:17 The verb is perfect tense, referring to Yahweh’s previous choice of the holy place.

NET Notes: Exo 15:20 See J. N. Easton, “Dancing in the Old Testament,” ExpTim 86 (1975): 136-40.

NET Notes: Exo 15:21 This song of the sea is, then, a great song of praise for Yahweh’s deliverance of Israel at the Sea, and his preparation to lead them to the pro...

NET Notes: Exo 15:22 The mention that they travelled for three days into the desert is deliberately intended to recall Moses’ demand that they go three days into the...

NET Notes: Exo 15:23 Heb “one called its name,” the expression can be translated as a passive verb if the subject is not expressed.

NET Notes: Exo 15:24 It is likely that Moses used words very much like this when he prayed. The difference seems to lie in the prepositions – he cried “to̶...

NET Notes: Exo 15:25 The whole episode was a test from God. He led them there through Moses and let them go hungry and thirsty. He wanted to see how great their faith was.

NET Notes: Exo 15:26 The name I Yahweh am your healer comes as a bit of a surprise. One might expect, “I am Yahweh who heals your water,” but it was the people...

NET Notes: Exo 15:27 Judging from the way the story is told they were not far from the oasis. But God had other plans for them, to see if they would trust him wholehearted...

Geneva Bible: Exo 15:1 Then ( a ) sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spake, saying, I will sing unto the LORD, for he hath triumphed glorious...

Geneva Bible: Exo 15:2 The LORD [is] my strength and song, and he is become my salvation: he [is] my God, and I will ( b ) prepare him an habitation; my father's God, and I ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 15:3 The LORD [is] a ( c ) man of war: the LORD [is] his ( d ) name. ( c ) In battle he always overcomes. ( d ) Always constant in his promises.

Geneva Bible: Exo 15:7 And in the greatness of thine excellency thou hast overthrown them that rose up against ( e ) thee: thou sentest forth thy wrath, [which] consumed the...

Geneva Bible: Exo 15:11 Who [is] like unto thee, O LORD, among the ( f ) gods? who [is] like thee, glorious in holiness, ( g ) fearful [in] praises, doing wonders? ( f ) The...

Geneva Bible: Exo 15:13 Thou in thy mercy hast led forth the people [which] thou hast redeemed: thou hast guided [them] in thy strength unto thy holy ( h ) habitation. ( h )...

Geneva Bible: Exo 15:17 Thou shalt bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of thine ( i ) inheritance, [in] the place, O LORD, [which] thou hast made for thee to dwell ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 15:20 And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with ( k ) dances. ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 15:21 And Miriam ( l ) answered them, Sing ye to the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea. ( l ) By ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 15:22 So Moses brought Israel from the Red sea, and they went out into the wilderness of ( m ) Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found n...

Geneva Bible: Exo 15:25 And he cried unto the LORD; and the LORD shewed him a tree, [which] when he had cast into the waters, the waters were made sweet: there he made for th...

Geneva Bible: Exo 15:26 And said, If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is ( o ) right in his sight, and wilt give ear to h...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Exo 15:2 - My Strength And Song' Exodus 15:2 These words occur three times in the Bible: here, in Isaiah 12:2, and in Psalm 118:14. I. The Lessons From The Various Instanc...

Maclaren: Exo 15:13 - The Shepherd And The Fold Exodus 15:13 What a grand triumphal ode! The picture of Moses and the children of Israel singing, and Miriam and the women answering: a gush of nation...

Maclaren: Exo 15:17 - The Ultimate Hope Exodus 15:17 I. Present Deliverance And Kindness. THE lesson taught by each present deliverance and kindness is that we shall be brought t...

Maclaren: Exo 15:23-25 - Marah Exodus 15:23-25 I. The Time Of Reaching Marsh, Just After The Red Sea. The Israelites were encamped for a few days on the shore to shake t...

MHCC: Exo 15:1-21 - --This song is the most ancient we know of. It is a holy song, to the honour of God, to exalt his name, and celebrate his praise, and his only, not in t...

MHCC: Exo 15:22-27 - --In the wilderness of Shur the Israelites had no water. At Marah they had water, but it was bitter; so that they could not drink it. God can make bitte...

Matthew Henry: Exo 15:1-21 - -- Having read how that complete victory of Israel over the Egyptians was obtained, here we are told how it was celebrated; those that were to hold the...

Matthew Henry: Exo 15:22-27 - -- It should seem, it was with some difficulty that Moses prevailed with Israel to leave that triumphant shore on which they sang the foregoing song. T...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 15:1-21 - -- In the song of praise which Moses and the children of Israel sang at the Red Sea, in celebration of the wonderful works of Jehovah, the congregation...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 15:22-27 - -- Exo 15:22-24 Leaving the Red Sea, they went into the desert of Shur . This name is given to the tract of desert which separates Egypt from Palesti...

Constable: Exo 1:1--15:22 - --I. THE LIBERATION OF ISRAEL 1:1--15:21 "The story of the first half of Exodus, in broad summary, is Rescue. The ...

Constable: Exo 13:17--15:22 - --D. God's completion of Israel's liberation 13:17-15:21 The Israelites now began their migration from Gos...

Constable: Exo 15:1-21 - --3. Israel's song of deliverance 15:1-21 "The song is composed of three gradually increasing stro...

Constable: Exo 15:22--Lev 1:1 - --II. THE ADOPTION OF ISRAEL 15:22--40:38 The second major section of Exodus records the events associated with Go...

Constable: Exo 15:22-27 - --1. Events in the wilderness of Shur 15:22-27 15:22-26 The wilderness of Shur was a section of semi-desert to the east of Egypt's border. It occupied t...

Guzik: Exo 15:1-27 - The Song of Moses Exodus 15 - The Song of Moses A. The Song of Moses. 1. (1-5) First stanza: The LORD is a man of war. Then Moses and the children of Israel sang th...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Evidence: Exo 15:26 To learn about the healing power of Jesus' sacrifice, see Isaiah 53:5 and 1 Peter 2:24.

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) EXODUS, a "going forth," derives its name from its being occupied principally with a relation of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, and the i...

JFB: Exodus (Garis Besar) INCREASE OF THE ISRAELITES. (Exo. 1:1-22) BIRTH AND PRESERVATION OF MOSES. (Exo 2:1-10) there went a man of the house of Levi, &c. Amram was the hus...

TSK: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The title of this Book is derived from the Septuagint; in which it is called ΕΞΟΔΟΣ , " Exodus;" or, as it is in the Codex Alexandrinus, Ε...

TSK: Exodus 15 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Exo 15:1, The song of Moses, Miriam, and Israel on their deliverance; Exo 15:22, The people want water in the wilderness; Exo 15:23, The ...

Poole: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) SECOND BOOK OF MOSES CALLED EXODUS. THE ARGUMENT. AFTER the death of Joseph, who had sent for his father’ s house into Egypt, the children o...

Poole: Exodus 15 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 15 Moses and the people praise the Lord, Exo 15:1-21 . They want water, Exo 15:22 . The waters of Marah are bitter, Exo 15:23 . The people ...

MHCC: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Exodus relates the forming of the children of Israel into a church and a nation. We have hitherto seen true religion shown in domestic lif...

MHCC: Exodus 15 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (v. 1-21) The song of Moses for the deliverance of Israel. (Exo 15:22-27) The bitter waters at Marah, The Israelites come to Elim.

Matthew Henry: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Second Book of Moses, Called Exodus Moses (the servant of the Lord in writing for him as well as ...

Matthew Henry: Exodus 15 (Pendahuluan Pasal) In this chapter, I. Israel looks back upon Egypt with a song of praise for their deliverance. Here is, I. The song itself (v. 1-19). 2. The sole...

Constable: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The Hebrew title of this book (we'elleh shemot) originated from the...

Constable: Exodus (Garis Besar) Outline I. The liberation of Israel 1:1-15:21 A. God's preparation of Israel and Moses chs. ...

Constable: Exodus Exodus Bibliography Adams, Dwayne H. "The Building Program that Works (Exodus 25:4--36:7 [31:1-11])." Exegesis ...

Haydock: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF EXODUS. INTRODUCTION. The second Book of Moses is called Exodus from the Greek word Exodos, which signifies going out; becaus...

Gill: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS This book is called by the Jews Veelleh Shemoth, from the first words with which it begins, and sometimes Sepher Shemoth, an...

Gill: Exodus 15 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS 15 This chapter contains the song of Moses, and of the children of Israel, on the banks of the Red sea; in which they celebr...

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