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Teks -- Exodus 14:1-31 (NET)

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Konteks
The Victory at the Red Sea
14:1 The Lord spoke to Moses: 14:2 “Tell the Israelites that they must turn and camp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea; you are to camp by the sea before Baal Zephon opposite it. 14:3 Pharaoh will think regarding the Israelites, ‘They are wandering around confused in the land– the desert has closed in on them.’ 14:4 I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and he will chase after them. I will gain honor because of Pharaoh and because of all his army, and the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord.” So this is what they did. 14:5 When it was reported to the king of Egypt that the people had fled, the heart of Pharaoh and his servants was turned against the people, and the king and his servants said, “What in the world have we done? For we have released the people of Israel from serving us!” 14:6 Then he prepared his chariots and took his army with him. 14:7 He took six hundred select chariots, and all the rest of the chariots of Egypt, and officers on all of them. 14:8 But the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he chased after the Israelites. Now the Israelites were going out defiantly. 14:9 The Egyptians chased after them, and all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh and his horsemen and his army overtook them camping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-Zephon. 14:10 When Pharaoh got closer, the Israelites looked up, and there were the Egyptians marching after them, and they were terrified. The Israelites cried out to the Lord, 14:11 and they said to Moses, “Is it because there are no graves in Egypt that you have taken us away to die in the desert? What in the world have you done to us by bringing us out of Egypt? 14:12 Isn’t this what we told you in Egypt, ‘Leave us alone so that we can serve the Egyptians, because it is better for us to serve the Egyptians than to die in the desert!’” 14:13 Moses said to the people, “Do not fear! Stand firm and see the salvation of the Lord that he will provide for you today; for the Egyptians that you see today you will never, ever see again. again. 14:14 The Lord will fight for you, and you can be still.” 14:15 The Lord said to Moses, “Why do you cry out to me? Tell the Israelites to move on. 14:16 And as for you, lift up your staff and extend your hand toward the sea and divide it, so that the Israelites may go through the middle of the sea on dry ground. 14:17 And as for me, I am going to harden the hearts of the Egyptians so that they will come after them, that I may be honored because of Pharaoh and his army and his chariots and his horsemen. 14:18 And the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord when I have gained my honor because of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen.” 14:19 The angel of God, who was going before the camp of Israel, moved and went behind them, and the pillar of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them. 14:20 It came between the Egyptian camp and the Israelite camp; it was a dark cloud and it lit up the night so that one camp did not come near the other the whole night. 14:21 Moses stretched out his hand toward the sea, and the Lord drove the sea apart by a strong east wind all that night, and he made the sea into dry land, and the water was divided. 14:22 So the Israelites went through the middle of the sea on dry ground, the water forming a wall for them on their right and on their left. 14:23 The Egyptians chased them and followed them into the middle of the sea– all the horses of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen. 14:24 In the morning watch the Lord looked down on the Egyptian army through the pillar of fire and cloud, and he threw the Egyptian army into a panic. 14:25 He jammed the wheels of their chariots so that they had difficulty driving, and the Egyptians said, “Let’s flee from Israel, for the Lord fights for them against Egypt!” 14:26 The Lord said to Moses, “Extend your hand toward the sea, so that the waters may flow back on the Egyptians, on their chariots, and on their horsemen!” 14:27 So Moses extended his hand toward the sea, and the sea returned to its normal state when the sun began to rise. Now the Egyptians were fleeing before it, but the Lord overthrew the Egyptians in the middle of the sea. 14:28 The water returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen and all the army of Pharaoh that was coming after the Israelites into the sea– not so much as one of them survived! 14:29 But the Israelites walked on dry ground in the middle of the sea, the water forming a wall for them on their right and on their left. 14:30 So the Lord saved Israel on that day from the power of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the shore of the sea. 14:31 When Israel saw the great power that the Lord had exercised over the Egyptians, they feared the Lord, and they believed in the Lord and in his servant Moses.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Baal a pagan god,a title of a pagan god,a town in the Negeb on the border of Simeon and Judah,son of Reaiah son of Micah; a descendant of Reuben,the forth son of Jeiel, the Benjamite
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Egyptians descendants of Mizraim
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Migdol a town; an outpost on the Egyptian-Israeli border
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Pharaoh the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Abraham's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Joseph's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who refused to let Israel leave Egypt,the title of the king of Egypt whose daughter Solomon married,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in the time of Isaiah,the title Egypt's ruler just before Moses' time
 · Pi-Hahiroth an encampment
 · Pi-hahiroth an encampment
 · sea the Dead Sea, at the southern end of the Jordan River,the Mediterranean Sea,the Persian Gulf south east of Babylon,the Red Sea


Topik/Tema Kamus: Red Sea | Moses | Quotations and Allusions | Judgments | EXODUS, THE BOOK OF, 2 | Faith | God | Sin | Egypt | Israel | Readings, Select | Egyptians | Prayer | Miracles | Pi-hahiroth | Afflictions and Adversities | Red Sea, Passage of | Chariot | Baal-zephon | Impenitence | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Exo 14:2 - They were got to the edge of the wilderness, Exo 13:20, and one stage or two would have brought them to Horeb, the place appointed for their serving God, but instead of going forward, they are ordered to turn short off, on the right hand from Canaan, and to march towards the Red-sea. When they were at Etham, there was no sea in their way to obstruct their passage; but God himself ...

hand from Canaan, and to march towards the Red-sea. When they were at Etham, there was no sea in their way to obstruct their passage; but God himself orders them into straits, which might give them an assurance, that when his purposes were served, he would bring them out of those straits.

Wesley: Exo 14:2 - Before Pi-hahiroth Or the straits of Hiroth, two great mountains, between which they marched. Migdol and Baal-zephon were cities of Egypt and probably garrison'd.

Or the straits of Hiroth, two great mountains, between which they marched. Migdol and Baal-zephon were cities of Egypt and probably garrison'd.

Wesley: Exo 14:3 - They are entangled Inclosed with mountains, and garrisons, and deserts.

Inclosed with mountains, and garrisons, and deserts.

Wesley: Exo 14:5 - And it was told the king that the people fled He either forgot, or would not own that they had departed with his consent; and therefore was willing it should be represented to him as a revolt from...

He either forgot, or would not own that they had departed with his consent; and therefore was willing it should be represented to him as a revolt from their allegiance.

Wesley: Exo 14:7 - Captains over every one of them Or rather over all of them; distributing the command of them to his several Captains.

Or rather over all of them; distributing the command of them to his several Captains.

Wesley: Exo 14:8 - With an high hand Boldly, resolutely.

Boldly, resolutely.

Wesley: Exo 14:9 - Chariots and horsemen It should seem he took no foot with him, because the king's business required haste.

It should seem he took no foot with him, because the king's business required haste.

Wesley: Exo 14:10 - They were sore afraid They knew the strength of the enemy, and their own weakness; numerous indeed they were, but all foot, unarmed, undisciplined, dispirited, by long serv...

They knew the strength of the enemy, and their own weakness; numerous indeed they were, but all foot, unarmed, undisciplined, dispirited, by long servitude, and now pent up, so that they could not escape. On one hand was Pi-hahiroth, a range of craggy rocks unpassable; on the other hand were Migdol and Baal-zephon, forts upon the frontiers of Egypt; before them was the sea, behind them were the Egyptians; so that there was no way open for them but upwards, and thence their deliverance came.

Wesley: Exo 14:13 - -- Moses answered not these fools according to their folly: Instead of chiding he comforts them, and with an admirable pretence of mind, not disheartened...

Moses answered not these fools according to their folly: Instead of chiding he comforts them, and with an admirable pretence of mind, not disheartened either by the threatenings of Egypt, or the tremblings of Israel, stills their murmuring, Fear ye not, It is our duty, when we cannot get out of our troubles, yet to get above our fears, so that they may only serve to quicken our prayers and endeavours, but may not prevail to silence our faith and hope. Stand still, and think not to save yourselves either by fighting or flying; wait God's orders, and observe them; Compose yourselves, by an entire confidence in God, into a peaceful prospect of the great salvation God is now about to work for you. Hold your peace, you need not so much as give a shout against the enemy: the work shall be done without any concurrence of yours. In times of great difficulty, it is our wisdom to keep our spirits calm, quiet, and sedate, for then we are in the best frame both to do our own work, and to consider the work of God.

Wesley: Exo 14:15 - Wherefore criest thou unto me Moses though he was assured of a good issue, yet did not neglect prayer. We read not of one word he said in prayer, but he lifted up his heart to God,...

Moses though he was assured of a good issue, yet did not neglect prayer. We read not of one word he said in prayer, but he lifted up his heart to God, and God well understood, and took notice of. Moses's silent prayer prevailed more with God, than Israel's loud out-cries. But is God displeased with Moses for praying? No, he asks this question, Wherefore criest thou unto me? Wherefore shouldst thou press thy petition any farther, when it is already granted? Moses has something else to do besides praying, he is to command the hosts of Israel.

Wesley: Exo 14:15 - Speak to them that they go forward Some think Moses had prayed not so much for their deliverance, he was assured of that; as for the pardon of their murmurings, and God's ordering them ...

Some think Moses had prayed not so much for their deliverance, he was assured of that; as for the pardon of their murmurings, and God's ordering them to go forward, was an intimation of the pardon. Moses bid them stand still and expect orders from God: and now orders are given. They thought they must have been directed either to the right hand, or to the left; no, saith God, speak to them to go forward, directly to the sea-side; as if there had lain a fleet of transport ships ready for them to embark in. Let the children of Israel go as far as they can upon dry ground, and then God will divide the sea. The same power could have congealed the waters for them to pass over, but infinite wisdom chose rather to divide the waters for them to pass through, for that way of salvation is always pitched upon which is most humbling.

Wesley: Exo 14:19 - The angel of God Whose ministry was made use of in the pillar of cloud and fire, went from before the camp of Israel, where they did not now need a guide; there was no...

Whose ministry was made use of in the pillar of cloud and fire, went from before the camp of Israel, where they did not now need a guide; there was no danger of missing their way through the sea, and came behind them, where now they needed a guard, the Egyptians being just ready to seize the hindmost of them. There it was of use to the Israelites, not only to protect them, but to light them through the sea; and at the same time it confounded the Egyptians, so that they lost sight of their prey, just when they were ready to lay hands on it. The word and providence of God have a black and dark side towards sin and sinners, but a bright and pleasant side towards those that are Israelites indeed.

Wesley: Exo 14:21 - -- We have here the history of that work of wonder which is so often mentioned both in the Old and New Testament. An instance of God's almighty power in ...

We have here the history of that work of wonder which is so often mentioned both in the Old and New Testament. An instance of God's almighty power in dividing the sea, and opening a passage through the waters. It was a bay, or gulf, or arm of the sea, two or three leagues over. The God of nature has not tied himself to its laws, but when he pleases dispenseth with them, and then the fire doth not burn, nor the water flow. They went through the sea to the opposite shore; they walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea; and the pillar of cloud being their rereward, the waters were a wall to them on their right hand, and on their left. Moses and Aaron it is likely ventured first, into this untrodden path, and then all Israel after them; and this march through the paths of the great waters would make their march afterwards through the wilderness less formidable. This march through the sea was in the night, and not a moon-shine night, for it was seven days after the full moon, so that they had no light but what they had from the pillar of fire. This made it the more awful, but where God leads us, he will light us; while we follow his conduct we shall not want his comforts.

Wesley: Exo 14:23 - And the Egyptians went in after them into the midst of the sea They thought, why might they not venture where Israel did? They were more advantageously provided with chariots and horses, while the Israelites were ...

They thought, why might they not venture where Israel did? They were more advantageously provided with chariots and horses, while the Israelites were on foot.

Wesley: Exo 14:24 - The Lord Called the angel before,

Called the angel before,

Wesley: Exo 14:24 - looked With indignation, upon the Egyptians,

With indignation, upon the Egyptians,

Wesley: Exo 14:24 - and troubled the Egyptians With terrible winds and lightnings and thunders, Exo 15:10, Psa 77:18-19. Also with terror of mind.

With terrible winds and lightnings and thunders, Exo 15:10, Psa 77:18-19. Also with terror of mind.

Wesley: Exo 14:25 - -- They had driven furiously, but now they drove heavily, and found themselves embarrassed at every step; the way grew deep, their hearts grew sad, their...

They had driven furiously, but now they drove heavily, and found themselves embarrassed at every step; the way grew deep, their hearts grew sad, their wheels dropt off, and the axle-trees failed. They had been flying upon the back of Israel as the hawk upon the dove; but now they cried, Let us flee from the face of Israel.

Wesley: Exo 14:26 - And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch out thy hand over the sea And give a signal to the waters to close again, as before upon the word of command they had opened to the right and the left. He did so, and immediate...

And give a signal to the waters to close again, as before upon the word of command they had opened to the right and the left. He did so, and immediately the waters returned to their place, and overwhelmed all the host of the Egyptians. Pharaoh and his servants, that had hardened one another in sin, now fell together, and not one escaped. An ancient tradition saith, That Pharaoh's magicians Jannes and Jambres perished with the rest. Now God got him honour upon Pharaoh, a rebel to God, and a slave to his own barbarous passions; perfectly lost to humanity, virtue, and all true honour; here be lies buried in the deep, a perpetual monument of divine justice: here he went down to the pit, though he was the terror of the mighty in the land of the living.

Wesley: Exo 14:28 - After them That is, after the Israelites.

That is, after the Israelites.

Wesley: Exo 14:30 - And Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the shore The Egyptians were very curious in preserving the bodies of their great men, but here the utmost contempt is poured upon all the grandees of Egypt; se...

The Egyptians were very curious in preserving the bodies of their great men, but here the utmost contempt is poured upon all the grandees of Egypt; see how they lie heaps upon heaps, as dung upon the face of the earth.

Wesley: Exo 14:31 - And Israel feared the Lord, and believed the Lord and his servant Moses Now they were ashamed of their distrusts and murmurings; and in the mind they were in, they would never again despair of help from heaven; no not in t...

Now they were ashamed of their distrusts and murmurings; and in the mind they were in, they would never again despair of help from heaven; no not in the greatest straits! They would never again quarrel with Moses; nor talk of returning to Egypt. How well were it for us, if we were, always in as good a frame, as we are in sometimes!

JFB: Exo 14:2 - Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp The Israelites had now completed their three days' journey, and at Etham the decisive step would have to be taken whether they would celebrate their i...

The Israelites had now completed their three days' journey, and at Etham the decisive step would have to be taken whether they would celebrate their intended feast and return, or march onwards by the head of the Red Sea into the desert, with a view to a final departure. They were already on the borders of the desert, and a short march would have placed them beyond the reach of pursuit, as the chariots of Egypt could have made little progress over dry and yielding sand. But at Etham, instead of pursuing their journey eastward with the sea on their right, they were suddenly commanded to diverge to the south, keeping the gulf on their left; a route which not only detained them lingering on the confines of Egypt, but, in adopting it, they actually turned their backs on the land of which they had set out to obtain the possession. A movement so unexpected, and of which the ultimate design was carefully concealed, could not but excite the astonishment of all, even of Moses himself, although, from his implicit faith in the wisdom and power of his heavenly Guide, he obeyed. The object was to entice Pharaoh to pursue, in order that the moral effect, which the judgments on Egypt had produced in releasing God's people from bondage, might be still further extended over the nations by the awful events transacted at the Red Sea.

JFB: Exo 14:2 - Pi-hahiroth The mouth of the defile, or pass--a description well suited to that of Bedea, which extended from the Nile and opens on the shore of the Red Sea.

The mouth of the defile, or pass--a description well suited to that of Bedea, which extended from the Nile and opens on the shore of the Red Sea.

JFB: Exo 14:2 - Migdol A fortress or citadel.

A fortress or citadel.

JFB: Exo 14:2 - Baal-zephon Some marked site on the opposite or eastern coast.

Some marked site on the opposite or eastern coast.

JFB: Exo 14:3 - the wilderness hath shut them in Pharaoh, who would eagerly watch their movements, was now satisfied that they were meditating flight, and he naturally thought from the error into whi...

Pharaoh, who would eagerly watch their movements, was now satisfied that they were meditating flight, and he naturally thought from the error into which they appeared to have fallen by entering that defile, he could intercept them. He believed them now entirely in his power, the mountain chain being on one side, the sea on the other, so that, if he pursued them in the rear, escape seemed impossible.

JFB: Exo 14:5 - the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, &c. Alas, how soon the obduracy of this reprobate king reappears! He had been convinced, but not converted--overawed, but not sanctified by the appalling ...

Alas, how soon the obduracy of this reprobate king reappears! He had been convinced, but not converted--overawed, but not sanctified by the appalling judgments of heaven. He bitterly repented of what he now thought a hasty concession. Pride and revenge, the honor of his kingdom, and the interests of his subjects, all prompted him to recall his permission to reclaim those runaway slaves and force them to their wonted labor. Strange that he should yet allow such considerations to obliterate or outweigh all his painful experience of the danger of oppressing that people. But those whom the Lord has doomed to destruction are first infatuated by sin.

JFB: Exo 14:6-7 - he made ready his chariot His preparations for an immediate and hot pursuit are here described: A difference is made between "the chosen chariots" and "the chariots of Egypt." ...

His preparations for an immediate and hot pursuit are here described: A difference is made between "the chosen chariots" and "the chariots of Egypt." The first evidently composed the king's guard, amounting to six hundred, and they are called "chosen," literally, "third men"; three men being allotted to each chariot, the charioteer and two warriors. As to "the chariots of Egypt," the common cars contained only two persons, one for driving and the other for fighting; sometimes only one person was in the chariot, the driver lashed the reins round his body and fought; infantry being totally unsuitable for a rapid pursuit, and the Egyptians having had no cavalry, the word "riders" is in the grammatical connection applied to war chariots employed, and these were of light construction, open behind, and hung on small wheels.

JFB: Exo 14:10 - when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes The great consternation of the Israelites is somewhat astonishing, considering their vast superiority in numbers, but their deep dismay and absolute d...

The great consternation of the Israelites is somewhat astonishing, considering their vast superiority in numbers, but their deep dismay and absolute despair at the sight of this armed host receives a satisfactory explanation from the fact that the civilized state of Egyptian society required the absence of all arms, except when they were on service. If the Israelites were entirely unarmed at their departure, they could not think of making any resistance [WILKINSON and HENGSTENBERG].

JFB: Exo 14:13-14 - Moses said, . . . Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the Lord Never, perhaps, was the fortitude of a man so severely tried as that of the Hebrew leader in this crisis, exposed as he was to various and inevitable ...

Never, perhaps, was the fortitude of a man so severely tried as that of the Hebrew leader in this crisis, exposed as he was to various and inevitable dangers, the most formidable of which was the vengeance of a seditious and desperate multitude; but his meek, unruffled, magnanimous composure presents one of the sublimest examples of moral courage to be found in history. And whence did his courage arise? He saw the miraculous cloud still accompanying them, and his confidence arose solely from the hope of a divine interposition, although, perhaps, he might have looked for the expected deliverance in every quarter, rather than in the direction of the sea.

JFB: Exo 14:15-18 - the Lord said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? &c. When in answer to his prayers, he received the divine command to go forward, he no longer doubted by what kind of miracle the salvation of his mighty ...

When in answer to his prayers, he received the divine command to go forward, he no longer doubted by what kind of miracle the salvation of his mighty charge was to be effected.

JFB: Exo 14:19 - the angel of God That is, the pillar of cloud [see on Exo 13:21]. The slow and silent movement of that majestic column through the air, and occupying a position behind...

That is, the pillar of cloud [see on Exo 13:21]. The slow and silent movement of that majestic column through the air, and occupying a position behind them must have excited the astonishment of the Israelites (Isa 58:8). It was an effectual barrier between them and their pursuers, not only protecting them, but concealing their movements. Thus, the same cloud produced light (a symbol of favor) to the people of God, and darkness (a symbol of wrath) to their enemies (compare 2Co 2:16).

JFB: Exo 14:21 - Moses stretched out his hand, &c. The waving of the rod was of great importance on this occasion to give public attestation in the presence of the assembled Israelites, both to the cha...

The waving of the rod was of great importance on this occasion to give public attestation in the presence of the assembled Israelites, both to the character of Moses and the divine mission with which he was charged.

JFB: Exo 14:21 - the Lord caused . . . a strong east wind all that night Suppose a mere ebb tide caused by the wind, raising the water to a great height on one side, still as there was not only "dry land," but, according to...

Suppose a mere ebb tide caused by the wind, raising the water to a great height on one side, still as there was not only "dry land," but, according to the tenor of the sacred narrative, a wall on the right hand and on the left [Exo 14:22], it would be impossible on the hypothesis of such a natural cause to rear the wall on the other. The idea of divine interposition, therefore, is imperative; and, assuming the passage to have been made at Mount Attakah, or at the mouth of Wady Tawarik, an east wind would cut the sea in that line. The Hebrew word kedem, however, rendered in our translation, "east," means, in its primary signification, previous; so that this verse might, perhaps, be rendered, "the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong previous wind all that night"; a rendering which would remove the difficulty of supposing the host of Israel marched over on the sand, in the teeth of a rushing column of wind, strong enough to heap up the waters as a wall on each side of a dry path, and give the intelligible narrative of divine interference.

JFB: Exo 14:22 - the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea, &c. It is highly probable that Moses, along with Aaron, first planted his footsteps on the untrodden sand, encouraging the people to follow him without fe...

It is highly probable that Moses, along with Aaron, first planted his footsteps on the untrodden sand, encouraging the people to follow him without fear of the treacherous walls; and when we take into account the multitudes that followed him, the immense number who through infancy and old age were incapable of hastening their movements, together with all the appurtenances of the camp, the strong and steadfast character of the leaders' faith was strikingly manifested (Jos 2:10; Jos 4:23; Psa 66:6; Psa 74:13; Psa 106:9; Psa 136:13; Isa 63:11-13; 1Co 10:1; Heb 11:29).

JFB: Exo 14:23 - the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea From the darkness caused by the intercepting cloud, it is probable that they were not aware on what ground they were driving: they heard the sound of ...

From the darkness caused by the intercepting cloud, it is probable that they were not aware on what ground they were driving: they heard the sound of the fugitives before them, and they pushed on with the fury of the avengers of blood, without dreaming that they were on the bared bed of the sea.

JFB: Exo 14:24-25 - Lord looked . . . through . . . the cloud, and troubled them We suppose the fact to have been that the side of the pillar of cloud towards the Egyptians was suddenly, and for a few moments, illuminated with a bl...

We suppose the fact to have been that the side of the pillar of cloud towards the Egyptians was suddenly, and for a few moments, illuminated with a blaze of light, which, coming as it were in a refulgent flash upon the dense darkness which had preceded, so frightened the horses of the pursuers that they rushed confusedly together and became unmanageable. "Let us flee," was the cry that resounded through the broken and trembling ranks, but it was too late; all attempts at flight were vain [BUSH].

JFB: Exo 14:27 - Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, &c. What circumstances could more clearly demonstrate the miraculous character of this transaction than that at the waving of Moses' rod, the dividing wat...

What circumstances could more clearly demonstrate the miraculous character of this transaction than that at the waving of Moses' rod, the dividing waters left the channel dry, and on his making the same motion on the opposite side, they returned, commingling with instantaneous fury? Is such the character of any ebb tide?

JFB: Exo 14:28 - there remained not so much as one of them It is surprising that, with such a declaration, some intelligent writers can maintain there is no evidence of the destruction of Pharaoh himself (Psa ...

It is surprising that, with such a declaration, some intelligent writers can maintain there is no evidence of the destruction of Pharaoh himself (Psa 106:11).

JFB: Exo 14:30 - Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea-shore, &c. The tide threw them up and left multitudes of corpses on the beach; a result that brought greater infamy on the Egyptians, but that tended, on the oth...

The tide threw them up and left multitudes of corpses on the beach; a result that brought greater infamy on the Egyptians, but that tended, on the other hand, to enhance the triumph of the Israelites, and doubtless enriched them with arms, which they had not before. The locality of this famous passage has not yet been, and probably never will be, satisfactorily fixed. Some place it in the immediate neighborhood of Suez; where, they say, the part of the sea is most likely to be affected by "a strong east wind" [Exo 14:21]; where the road from the defile of Migdol (now Muktala) leads directly to this point; and where the sea, not above two miles broad, could be crossed in a short time. The vast majority, however, who have examined the spot, reject this opinion, and fix the passage, as does local tradition, about ten or twelve miles further down the shore at Wady Tawarik. "The time of the miracle was the whole night, at the season of the year, too, when the night would be about its average length. The sea at that point extends from six and a half to eight miles in breadth. There was thus ample time for the passage of the Israelites from any part of the valley, especially considering their excitement and animation by the gracious and wonderful interposition of Providence in their behalf" [WILSON].

Clarke: Exo 14:2 - Encamp before Pi-hahiroth Encamp before Pi-hahiroth - פי ההירת pi hachiroth , the mouth, strait, or bay of Chiroth. Between Migdol, מגדל migdol , the tower, prob...

Encamp before Pi-hahiroth - פי ההירת pi hachiroth , the mouth, strait, or bay of Chiroth. Between Migdol, מגדל migdol , the tower, probably a fortress that served to defend the bay. Over against Baal-zephon, בעל צפן baal tsephon , the lord or master of the watch, probably an idol temple, where a continual guard, watch, or light was kept up for the defense of one part of the haven, or as a guide to ships. Dr. Shaw thinks that chiroth may denote the valley which extended itself from the wilderness of Etham to the Red Sea, and that the part in which the Israelites encamped was called Pi-hachiroth, i.e., the mouth or bay of Chiroth. See his Travels, p. 310, and his account at the end of Exodus.

Clarke: Exo 14:3 - They are entangled in the land They are entangled in the land - God himself brought them into straits from which no human power or art could extricate them. Consider their situati...

They are entangled in the land - God himself brought them into straits from which no human power or art could extricate them. Consider their situation when once brought out of the open country, where alone they had room either to fight or fly. Now they had the Red Sea before them, Pharaoh and his host behind them, and on their right and left hand fortresses of the Egyptians to prevent their escape; nor had they one boat or transport prepared for their passage! If they be now saved, the arm of the Lord must be seen, and the vanity and nullity of the Egyptian idols be demonstrated. By bringing them into such a situation he took from them all hope of human help, and gave their adversaries every advantage against them, so that they themselves said, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in.

Clarke: Exo 14:4 - I will harden Pharaoh’ s heart I will harden Pharaoh’ s heart - After relenting and giving them permission to depart, he now changes his mind and determines to prevent them; ...

I will harden Pharaoh’ s heart - After relenting and giving them permission to depart, he now changes his mind and determines to prevent them; and without any farther restraining grace, God permits him to rush on to his final ruin, for the cup of his iniquity was now full.

Clarke: Exo 14:5 - And it was told the king - that the people fled And it was told the king - that the people fled - Of their departure he could not be ignorant, because himself had given them liberty to depart: but...

And it was told the king - that the people fled - Of their departure he could not be ignorant, because himself had given them liberty to depart: but the word fled here may be understood as implying that they had utterly left Egypt without any intention to return, which is probably what he did not expect, for he had only given them permission to go three days’ journey into the wilderness, in order to sacrifice to Jehovah; but from the circumstances of their departure, and the property they had got from the Egyptians, it was taken for granted that they had no design to return; and this was in all likelihood the consideration that weighed most with this avaricious king, and determined him to pursue, and either recover the spoil or bring them back, or both. Thus the heart of Pharaoh and his servants was turned against the people, and they said, Why have we let Israel go from serving us? Here was the grand incentive to pursuit; their service was profitable to the state, and they were determined not to give it up.

Clarke: Exo 14:7 - Six hundred chosen chariots, etc. Six hundred chosen chariots, etc. - According to the most authentic accounts we have of war-chariots, they were frequently drawn by two or by four h...

Six hundred chosen chariots, etc. - According to the most authentic accounts we have of war-chariots, they were frequently drawn by two or by four horses, and carried three persons: one was charioteer, whose business it was to guide the horses, but he seldom fought; the second chiefly defended the charioteer; and the third alone was properly the combatant. It appears that in this case Pharaoh had collected all the cavalry of Egypt; (see Exo 14:17); and though these might not have been very numerous, yet, humanly speaking, they might easily overcome the unarmed and encumbered Israelites, who could not be supposed to be able to make any resistance against cavalry and war-chariots.

Clarke: Exo 14:10 - The children of Israel cried out unto the Lord The children of Israel cried out unto the Lord - Had their prayer been accompanied with faith, we should not have found them in the next verses murm...

The children of Israel cried out unto the Lord - Had their prayer been accompanied with faith, we should not have found them in the next verses murmuring against Moses, or rather against the Lord, through whose goodness they were now brought from under that bondage from which they had often cried for deliverance. Calmet thinks that the most pious and judicious cried unto God, while the unthinking and irreligious murmured against Moses.

Clarke: Exo 14:13 - Moses said - Fear ye not Moses said - Fear ye not - This exhortation was not given to excite them to resist, for of that there was no hope; they were unarmed, they had no co...

Moses said - Fear ye not - This exhortation was not given to excite them to resist, for of that there was no hope; they were unarmed, they had no courage, and their minds were deplorably degraded

Clarke: Exo 14:13 - Stand still Stand still - Ye shall not be even workers together with God; only be quiet, and do not render yourselves wretched by your fears and your confusion

Stand still - Ye shall not be even workers together with God; only be quiet, and do not render yourselves wretched by your fears and your confusion

Clarke: Exo 14:13 - See the salvation of the Lord See the salvation of the Lord - Behold the deliverance which God will work, independently of all human help and means

See the salvation of the Lord - Behold the deliverance which God will work, independently of all human help and means

Clarke: Exo 14:13 - Ye shall see them again no more Ye shall see them again no more - Here was strong faith, but this was accompanied by the spirit of prophecy. God showed Moses what he would do, he b...

Ye shall see them again no more - Here was strong faith, but this was accompanied by the spirit of prophecy. God showed Moses what he would do, he believed, and therefore he spoke in the encouraging manner related above.

Clarke: Exo 14:14 - The Lord shall fight for you The Lord shall fight for you - Ye shall have no part in the honor of the day; God alone shall bring you off, and defeat your foes

The Lord shall fight for you - Ye shall have no part in the honor of the day; God alone shall bring you off, and defeat your foes

Clarke: Exo 14:14 - Ye shall hold your peace Ye shall hold your peace - Your unbelieving fears and clamours shall be confounded, and ye shall see that by might none shall be able to prevail aga...

Ye shall hold your peace - Your unbelieving fears and clamours shall be confounded, and ye shall see that by might none shall be able to prevail against the Lord, and that the feeblest shall take the prey when the power of Jehovah is exerted.

Clarke: Exo 14:15 - Wherefore criest thou unto me? Wherefore criest thou unto me? - We hear not one word of Moses’ praying, and yet here the Lord asks him why he cries unto him? From which we m...

Wherefore criest thou unto me? - We hear not one word of Moses’ praying, and yet here the Lord asks him why he cries unto him? From which we may learn that the heart of Moses was deeply engaged with God, though it is probable he did not articulate one word; but the language of sighs, tears, and desires is equally intelligible to God with that of words. This consideration should be a strong encouragement to every feeble, discouraged mind: Thou canst not pray, but thou canst weep; if even tears are denied thee, (for there may be deep and genuine repentance, where the distress is so great as to stop up those channels of relief), then thou canst sigh; and God, whose Spirit has thus convinced thee of sin, righteousness, and judgment, knows thy unutterable groanings, and reads the inexpressible wish of thy burdened soul, a wish of which himself is the author, and which he has breathed into thy heart with the purpose to satisfy it.

Clarke: Exo 14:16 - Lift thou up thy rod Lift thou up thy rod - Neither Moses nor his rod could be any effective instrument in a work which could be accomplished only by the omnipotence of ...

Lift thou up thy rod - Neither Moses nor his rod could be any effective instrument in a work which could be accomplished only by the omnipotence of God; but it was necessary that he should appear in it, in order that he might have credit in the sight of the Israelites, and that they might see that God had chosen him to be the instrument of their deliverance.

Clarke: Exo 14:18 - Shall know that I am the Lord Shall know that I am the Lord - Pharaoh had just recovered from the consternation and confusion with which the late plagues had overwhelmed him, and...

Shall know that I am the Lord - Pharaoh had just recovered from the consternation and confusion with which the late plagues had overwhelmed him, and now he is emboldened to pursue after Israel; and God is determined to make his overthrow so signal by such an exertion of omnipotence, that he shall get himself honor by this miraculous act, and that the Egyptians shall know, i.e., acknowledge, that he is Jehovah, the omnipotent, self-existing, eternal God.

Clarke: Exo 14:19 - The angel of God The angel of God - It has been thought by some that the angel, i.e., messenger, of the Lord, and the pillar of cloud, mean here the same thing. An a...

The angel of God - It has been thought by some that the angel, i.e., messenger, of the Lord, and the pillar of cloud, mean here the same thing. An angel might assume the appearance of a cloud; and even a material cloud thus particularly appointed might be called an angel or messenger of the Lord, for such is the literal import of the word מלאך malach , an angel. It is however most probable that the Angel of the covenant, the Lord Jesus, appeared on this occasion in behalf of the people; for as this deliverance was to be an illustrious type of the deliverance of man from the power and guilt of sin by his incarnation and death, it might have been deemed necessary, in the judgment of Divine wisdom, that he should appear chief agent in this most important and momentous crisis. On the word angel, and Angel of the covenant, See Clarke’ s note on Gen 16:7; See Clarke’ s note on Gen 18:13; and See Clarke’ s note on Exo 3:2.

Clarke: Exo 14:20 - It was a cloud and darkness to them, etc. It was a cloud and darkness to them, etc. - That the Israelites might not be dismayed at the appearance of their enemies, and that these might not b...

It was a cloud and darkness to them, etc. - That the Israelites might not be dismayed at the appearance of their enemies, and that these might not be able to discern the object of their pursuit, the pillar of cloud moved from the front to the rear of the Israelitish camp, so as perfectly to separate between them and the Egyptians. It appears also that this cloud had two sides, one dark and the other luminous: the luminous side gave light to the whole camp of Israel during the night of passage; and the dark side, turned towards the pursuing Egyptians, prevented them from receiving any benefit from that light. How easily can God make the same thing an instrument of destruction or salvation, as seems best to his godly wisdom! He alone can work by all agents, and produce any kind of effect even by the same instrument; for all things serve the purposes of his will.

Clarke: Exo 14:21 - The Lord caused the sea to go back The Lord caused the sea to go back - That part of the sea over which the Israelites passed was, according to Mr. Bruce and other travelers, about fo...

The Lord caused the sea to go back - That part of the sea over which the Israelites passed was, according to Mr. Bruce and other travelers, about four leagues across, and therefore might easily be crossed in one night. In the dividing of the sea two agents appear to be employed, though the effect produced can be attributed to neither. By stretching out the rod the waters were divided; by the blowing of the vehement, ardent, east wind, the bed of the sea was dried. It has been observed, that in the place where the Israelites are supposed to have passed, the water is about fourteen fathoms or twenty-eight yards deep: had the wind mentioned here been strong enough, naturally speaking, to have divided the waters, it must have blown in one narrow track, and continued blowing in the direction in which the Israelites passed; and a wind sufficient to have raised a mass of water twenty-eight yards deep and twelve miles in length, out of its bed, would necessarily have blown the whole six hundred thousand men away, and utterly destroyed them and their cattle. I therefore conclude that the east wind, which was ever remarked as a parching, burning wind, was used after the division of the waters, merely to dry the bottom, and render it passable. For an account of the hot drying winds in the east, See Clarke’ s note on Gen 8:1. God ever puts the highest honor on his instrument, Nature; and where it can act, he ever employs it. No natural agent could divide these waters, and cause them to stand as a wall upon the right hand and upon the left; therefore God did it by his own sovereign power. When the waters were thus divided, there was no need of a miracle to dry the bed of the sea and make it passable; therefore the strong desiccating east wind was brought, which soon accomplished this object. In this light I suppose the text should be understood.

Clarke: Exo 14:22 - And the waters were a wall unto them on their right and on their left And the waters were a wall unto them on their right and on their left - This verse demonstrates that the passage was miraculous. Some have supposed ...

And the waters were a wall unto them on their right and on their left - This verse demonstrates that the passage was miraculous. Some have supposed that the Israelites had passed through, favored by an extraordinary ebb, which happened at that time to be produced by a strong wind, which happened just then to blow! Had this been the case, there could not have been waters standing on the right hand and on the left; much less could those waters, contrary to every law of fluids, have stood as a wall on either side while the Israelites passed through, and then happen to become obedient to the laws of gravitation when the Egyptians entered in! An infidel may deny the revelation in toto, and from such we expect nothing better; but to hear those who profess to believe this to be a Divine revelation endeavoring to prove that the passage of the Red Sea had nothing miraculous in it, is really intolerable. Such a mode of interpretation requires a miracle to make itself credible. Poor infidelity! how miserable and despicable are thy shifts!

Clarke: Exo 14:24 - The morning watch The morning watch - A watch was the fourth part of the time from sun-setting to sun-rising; so called from soldiers keeping guard by night, who bein...

The morning watch - A watch was the fourth part of the time from sun-setting to sun-rising; so called from soldiers keeping guard by night, who being changed four times during the night, the periods came to be called watches. - Dodd

As here and in 1Sa 11:11 is mentioned the morning watch; so in Lam 2:19, the beginning of the watches; and in Jdg 7:19, the middle watch is spoken of; in Luk 12:38, the second and third watch; and in Mat 14:25, the fourth watch of the night; which in Mar 13:35 are named evening, midnight, cock-crowing, and day-dawning - Ainsworth

As the Israelites went out of Egypt at the vernal equinox, the morning watch, or, according to the Hebrew, באשמרת הבקר beashmoreth habboker , the watch of day-break, would answer to our four o’ clock in the morning - Calmet

Clarke: Exo 14:24 - The Lord looked unto The Lord looked unto - This probably means that the cloud suddenly assumed a fiery appearance where it had been dark before; or they were appalled b...

The Lord looked unto - This probably means that the cloud suddenly assumed a fiery appearance where it had been dark before; or they were appalled by violent thunders and lightning, which we are assured by the psalmist did actually take place, together with great inundations of rain, etc.: The clouds Poured Out Water; the skies sent out a Sound: thine Arrows also went abroad. The Voice of thy Thunder was in the heaven; the Lightnings Lightened the world; the earth Trembled and Shook. Thy way is in the sea, and thy path in the great waters. Thou leddest thy people like a flock, by the hand of Moses and Aaron; Psa 77:17-20. Such tempests as these would necessarily terrify the Egyptian horses, and produce general confusion. By their dashing hither and thither the wheels must be destroyed, and the chariots broken; and foot and horse must be mingled together in one universal ruin; see Exo 14:25. During the time that this state of horror and confusion was at its summit the Israelites had safely passed over; and then Moses, at the command of God, (Exo 14:26), having stretched out his rod over the waters, the sea returned to its strength; (Exo 14:27); i.e., the waters by their natural gravity resumed their level, and the whole Egyptian host were completely overwhelmed, Exo 14:28. But as to the Israelites, the waters had been a wall unto them on the right hand and on the left, Exo 14:29. This the waters could not have been, unless they had been supernaturally supported; as their own gravity would necessarily have occasioned them to have kept their level, or, if raised beyond it, to have regained it if left to their natural law, to which they are ever subject, unless in cases of miraculous interference. Thus the enemies of the Lord perished; and that people who decreed that the male children of the Hebrews should be drowned, were themselves destroyed in the pit which they had destined for others. God’ s ways are all equal; and he renders to every man according to his works.

Clarke: Exo 14:28 - There remained not so much as one of them There remained not so much as one of them - Josephus says that the army of Pharaoh consisted of fifty thousand horse, and two hundred thousand foot,...

There remained not so much as one of them - Josephus says that the army of Pharaoh consisted of fifty thousand horse, and two hundred thousand foot, of whom not one remained to carry tidings of this most extraordinary catastrophe.

Clarke: Exo 14:30 - Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the seashore Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the seashore - By the extraordinary agitation of the waters, no doubt multitudes of the dead Egyptians were cast ...

Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the seashore - By the extraordinary agitation of the waters, no doubt multitudes of the dead Egyptians were cast on the shore, and by their spoils the Israelites were probably furnished with considerable riches, and especially clothing and arms; which latter were essentially necessary to them in their wars with the Amalekites, Basanites, and Amorites, etc., on their way to the promised land. If they did not get their arms in this way, we know not how they got them, as there is not the slightest reason to believe that they brought any with them out of Egypt.

Clarke: Exo 14:31 - The people feared the Lord The people feared the Lord - They were convinced by the interference of Jehovah that his power was unlimited, and that he could do whatsoever he ple...

The people feared the Lord - They were convinced by the interference of Jehovah that his power was unlimited, and that he could do whatsoever he pleased, both in the way of judgment and in the way of mercy

Clarke: Exo 14:31 - And believed the Lord, and his servant Moses And believed the Lord, and his servant Moses - They now clearly discerned that God had fulfilled all his promises; and that not one thing had failed...

And believed the Lord, and his servant Moses - They now clearly discerned that God had fulfilled all his promises; and that not one thing had failed of all the good which he had spoken concerning Israel. And they believed his servant Moses - they had now the fullest proof that he was Divinely appointed to work all these miracles, and to bring them out of Egypt into the promised land

Thus God got himself honor upon Pharaoh and the Egyptians, and credit in the sight of Israel. After this overthrow of their king and his host, the Egyptians interrupted them no more in the journeyings, convinced of the omnipotence of their Protector: and how strange, that after such displays of the justice and mercy of Jehovah, the Israelites should ever have been deficient in faith, or have given place to murmuring

1.    The events recorded in this chapter are truly astonishing; and they strongly mark what God can do, and what he will do, both against his enemies and in behalf of his followers. In vain are all the forces of Egypt united to destroy the Israelites: at the breath of God’ s mouth they perish; and his feeble, discouraged, unarmed followers take the prey! With such a history before their eyes, is it not strange that sinners should run on frowardly in the path of transgression; and that those who are redeemed from the world, should ever doubt of the all-sufficiency and goodness of their God! Had we not already known the sequel of the Israelitish history, we should have been led to conclude that this people would have gone on their way rejoicing, trusting in God with their whole heart, and never leaning to their own understanding; but alas! we find that as soon as any new difficulty occurred, they murmured against God and their leaders, despised the pleasant land, and gave no credence to his word

2.    Their case is not a solitary one: most of those who are called Christians are not more remarkable for faith and patience. Every reverse will necessarily pain and discompose the people who are seeking their portion in this life. And it is a sure mark of a worldly mind, when we trust the God of Providence and grace no farther than we see the operations of his hand in our immediate supply; and murmur and repine when the hand of his bounty seems closed, and the influences of his Spirit restrained, though our unthankful and unholy carriage has been the cause of this change. Those alone who humble themselves under the mighty hand of God, shall be lifted up in due season. Reader, thou canst never be deceived in trusting thy all, the concerns of thy body and soul, to Him who divided the sea, saved the Hebrews, and destroyed the Egyptians.

Calvin: Exo 14:1 - And the Lord spoke unto Moses 1.And the Lord spoke unto Moses God, by closing up all the ways by which the Israelites might have escaped, now opens a course for His wonderful powe...

1.And the Lord spoke unto Moses God, by closing up all the ways by which the Israelites might have escaped, now opens a course for His wonderful power, and by bringing them for one moment to despair, provided for the safety of His Church through a long period of time. This final act, then, marvelously illustrated the grace of God, so that the people, however ungrateful and disaffected they might be, should still acknowledge God as their deliverer; besides, its consequence was, that the forces of Egypt not only being broken, but the whole nation being destroyed, or, at least, the flower of it extinguished, it brought no further trouble upon the people until they were established in the land of Canaan. If they had freely and peacefully gone forth, with the king and the people of Egypt quiet, the former miracles would not have sufficiently availed to testify their redemption; but when, being everywhere shut in, they see nothing but death before them, whilst the sea suddenly and unexpectedly affords them a passage, and overwhelms their enemies pressing on them from behind, they are obliged to confess that they were not only saved from death but from the deepest abysses by the hand of God. But it appears that, when they were commanded by Moses to cast themselves, and, as it were, to ingulf themselves in the narrow passage, of which mention is made, they were astonished by the miracles, and like them that dream, since they obeyed without hesitation, although the very aspect of the place must have inspired them with horror. For, if they had apprehended danger, their readiness to obey would not have been so great, as we shall presently see. Wherefore it was the intention of Moses not so much to praise them, as the providence of God. For it is plain, that unless they had been amazed by the miracles, of which they had seen so many, they scarcely could have been induced willingly to throw themselves into. defiles from whence there was no retreat. From the word מגדל , migdol, we may conjecture that a fortress was built on the rock to prevent access to it. I do not quite understand the meaning of החירת 151 hachiroth, nor do I see why the Greeks should have translated it “the mouth of the valley;” yet from the word signifying “a mouth,” it may be probably conjectured that it was contracted by piles. Because the word חור , chor, signifies a cave or hole, I know not whether the place might not have obtained its name, as the mouth of the holes or caverns; for the letter ו , vau, is often converted into י , yod, and the change of the gender in the plural number is frequent with the Hebrews. Or perhaps some may think it more likely, that though it was written החירות , hachiroth, the letter ח crept in in place of ה from its similarity. If we so take it, the feminine gender is put for the masculine, and it will be “the mouth of the mountains.” But although we may be ignorant of the etymology of the second word, the word “mouth” makes it certain that the defile was inclosed by rocks, and of narrow access. Although, if I may tender my own judgment in a doubtful matter, I rather consider that it is derived from the word חרת charath, which means to engrave, or to furrow, because the rocks were cut as by a mallet. But on the opposite side, the place was surrounded by the sea, as though the Israelites had been cast into a sepulcher.

Calvin: Exo 14:3 - For Pharaoh will say 3.For Pharaoh will say God here explains to Hoses His design; although, in His engagements with Pharaoh, he had so often gained glorious victories, t...

3.For Pharaoh will say God here explains to Hoses His design; although, in His engagements with Pharaoh, he had so often gained glorious victories, that the last act still remained to overwhelm him and his army in the sea. He says that Pharaoh, then, will be caught in riffs snare, so as to rush upon his destruction. For, if the people had come into the land of Canaan by a direct course, they could not have been so readily pursued; therefore God, for the sake, of magnifying His glory, set a bait to catch the tyrant, just as fish are hooked. The word here used נבכים , 152 nebukim, some render “perplexed,” others “entangled;” but it may be well explained, that they were to be “confounded in the land,” because they would find no way of egress; as being on all sides hemmed in in the narrow passage, with the sea behind them. And where He speaks of the intentions of Pharaoh, He does not, as men do, conceive a mere probability, but; He declares the secret mind of the tryrant, as of a thing which He well knew, since it is His attribute to discern our hearts. Afterwards He goes still further; for he signifies not only that He foresaw what would happen, but again repeats what we have so often observed before, that he would harden Pharaoh’s heart, that he should follow after the people. Whence it follows, that all this was directed by tits will and guidance. But He did not testify this to Hoses only in private, but would have them all previously admonished, lest, being terrified by the sudden assault of their enemies, they should despair of safety. But this admonition was less useful to them than it should have been; because, being soon after surprised, they are not less alarmed than as if they had been brought into danger through the error of God and the ignorance of Moses.

Calvin: Exo 14:5 - And it was told the king 5.And it was told the king Moses does not simply mean, that the king then first heard of the flight of the people, which had been anything but secret...

5.And it was told the king Moses does not simply mean, that the king then first heard of the flight of the people, which had been anything but secret; but that the circumstances were reported to him, which stirred him up to make an attack upon them. When, then, he hears that the people fled in haste, he thinks that they may be retained by the slightest obstacle. Nor is he alone influenced by this foolish thought, but all his courtiers blame their own inertness for letting the people go. They inquire among themselves, Why they have let the children of Israel depart? as if they had not endeavored in every way to prevent their free exit — as if their pertinacity had not been ten times divinely overcome — as if God had not at length torn the people from them, in spite of their reluctance. But this is the stupidity of the wicked, that they only dread God’s present hand, and immediately forget all that they have seen. They were worn out by the fierce and dreadful punishments; but now, as if nothing had happened, they discuss why they had not resisted God even to the end, when he had compelled them to submit with extreme reluctance, after they had ten times found out that they struggled against Him in vain. But such is the pride by which the reprobate must be blinded, that they may be driven onwards to their own destruction, while they are persuaded that there is nothing difficult to them, and fight against. God.

Calvin: Exo 14:6 - And he made ready his chariot 6.And he made ready his chariot Moses briefly describes the warlike preparation of Pharaoh, not only to magnify the greatness of God’s power in del...

6.And he made ready his chariot Moses briefly describes the warlike preparation of Pharaoh, not only to magnify the greatness of God’s power in delivering the people, but also to show with what violent and obstinate audacity the wicked go forwards, when they give way to their depraved and criminal lusts. Just now the Egyptians were almost frightened to death, and cried out that all was over with them; scarcely has a day passed, when they collect a powerful army as if their forces were uninjured. If any object that 600 chariots, and even many more, although filled with armed men, were insufficient to conquer 600,000 men: I reply, that, since they knew that the battle would be with an unwarlike multitude, amongst which, too, women and children were mingled, they relied on this consideration, and hoped that they would have no difficulty in routing this enormous number, since it was both inexperienced and undisciplined. Nor would their hope have been disappointed, had not God been against them. But the event, proved how truly Solomon says,

“There is no wisdom, nor understanding, nor counsel against the Lord,” (Pro 21:30;)

and how justly Isaiah defies the enemies of the Church:

“Associate yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces; gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces; take counsel together, and it shall come to naught; speak the word, and it shall not stand.” (Isa 8:9.)

For this presumption brings the wicked to naught; and, whilst they rush forward with unbridled violence, they conceive not that God has a secret bridle to restrain their lusts.

Calvin: Exo 14:8 - And the children of Israel went out 8.And the children of Israel went out 153 Moses indirectly reproves their too great security, which had freed them altogether from care and fear; and...

8.And the children of Israel went out 153 Moses indirectly reproves their too great security, which had freed them altogether from care and fear; and whence even the desire of calling on God had grown cold in them, as security always produces drowsiness and an idle spirit. Hence it came to pass, that this great danger, which they had not expected. produced the greater fear. But, on the other hand, Moses exalts God’s grace, because he so opportunely and so critically came to the help of the wretched Israelites exulting in their foolish joy; for otherwise, being suddenly overtaken, they would have fallen at once into confusion at the first shout of the enemy. Thus are we admonished by this example, that, while we are safe under God’s protection, the dangers, which might happen, are to be apprehended, not that we may be anxious and alarmed, but that we may humbly repose under His wings, and not be uplifted with inconsiderate joy. In the next verse Moses briefly relates, how formidable a sight presented itself to the Israelites, when they saw themselves shut in on one part by the sea, ingulfed, as it were, on both sides by the jaws of the defile, and the army of Pharaoh at the same time pressing upon them. He expressly mentions the strength of this army, in order that the glory of the aid divinely afforded them might more fully appear from the opposition.

Calvin: Exo 14:10 - And when Pharaoh drew nigh 10.And when Pharaoh drew nigh Moses implies that the alarm was greater from its suddenness, because no messenger had preceded, so that a very short t...

10.And when Pharaoh drew nigh Moses implies that the alarm was greater from its suddenness, because no messenger had preceded, so that a very short time indeed was given them for preparation. There was, then, just ground for fear even in the bravest hearts, unless there had been something very extraordinary about them. But they sinned doubly; because both the hope of divine assistance had abandoned their hearts together with the recollection of God’s mercies; and they advanced to such an extent of ingratitude as to revolt insolently against God and Moses. Although there is an appearance of two contrary facts being here reported, viz., that they cried out unto the Lord, and mutinied against His minister; yet we may easily gather that this cry neither arose from faith nor from serious and! well-ordered affections, but that it was extorted by a confused impulse; since the natural sense impels all men, in their adversity, promiscuously to offer their prayers to God, although they neither embrace His mercy nor rely on His power. Thus David, in Psa 107:0, says that all the distressed have recourse to God when any trouble oppresses them; because God, by the leadings of nature and by secret instinct, draws them to Him in their danger, in order that the most careless and most profane may be rendered more inexcusable. Yet in this way do they not render due honor to God, although by the utterance of their mouths they ask for safety from Him. It is, then, little to be wondered at, that the Israelites being reduced to such sore anxiety should have offered prayers and vows accompanied with God’s name; especially since He had recently manifested Himself to them in so many miracles, and they always had in sight the cloud, or the pillar of fire. But their insane cries against Moses were plain proof that, as in amazement, they had thoughtlessly hastened to call upon the name of God. For the exposition 154 is unreasonable which some give, that certain of them piously prayed to God, whilst others of the multitude wickedly mutinied against Moses; because these two statements are made in conjunction, and cannot be referred to different persons.

Calvin: Exo 14:11 - Because there were no graves 11.Because there were no graves This 155 is the more proper sense; for the double negative is put for a single one. It is a bitter and biting taunt; ...

11.Because there were no graves This 155 is the more proper sense; for the double negative is put for a single one. It is a bitter and biting taunt; for, not contented with preferring the graves of Egypt to the death which they feared, they scoffingly inquire how he could have thought of bringing them into the wilderness, as if the land of Egypt was not large enough to bury them in. But God had openly and clearly proved Himself to be the leader of their departing; and, again, it was basely insensible of them to forget that they were not long since like dead men, and had been miraculously brought out of the grave. Their madness is wilder still, when they daringly call to remembrance the impious blasphemies which should have been a matter of shame and detestation to themselves. For how sad was their ingratitude in rejecting the proffered favor of deliverance, and in shutting the door against the advances of God, in order that they might rot in their misery! True, that God had pardoned this great depravity; but it was their part unceasingly to mourn, and to be as it were overwhelmed with shame, that their crime might be blotted out before God’s judgment-seat. But now, as if God and Moses were accountable to them, they boastfully and petulantly reproach them for not believing them, when they would have prudently prevented the evil. Hence are we taught how far men’s passions will carry them, when fear has extinguished their hopes, and they wait not patiently for God’s aid.

Calvin: Exo 14:13 - And Moses said unto the people 13.And Moses said unto the people Although with his characteristic kindness Moses courteously exhorts them to be of good hope, yet it is not probable...

13.And Moses said unto the people Although with his characteristic kindness Moses courteously exhorts them to be of good hope, yet it is not probable that he passed over in silence those wicked cries with which he saw that God was atrociously assailed. I conceive, then, that he discharged the duty of a faithful teacher by freely chastising their insolence, which was intolerable; and since he spoke under the inspiration of the preventing Spirit of God, there is no doubt but that God himself severely reproved their blasphemies, lest, by indulgence, they should grow worse. But Moses omits the reproof, and only shows that God’s loving-kindness went beyond the execrable impiety of the people, giving them consolation to assuage their grief and to calm their troubled hearts. Moreover, by bidding them not to fear, and “to stand still and see the salvation of the Lord,” he implies that, as long as fear has possession of our minds, they are blinded, and confounded in their stupidity so as not to receive the help of God. By the expression, “stand still,” he means “keep quiet;” as much as to say, that there was no occasion for any one to move a finger, because God alone would preserve them, though they were quiet and unmoved; and this he confirms in the next verse, where God promises to conquer for them whilst they hold their peace. But, in my opinion, it is not that he exhorts them to be quiet; but intimates that in God alone there would be strength enough to prevail, although they might be torpid like men entranced.: Now the Israelites, when, though preserved by God’s hand, they reject as much as possible His proffered grace, are an example to us how many repeated salvations are necessary for us, in order that God may bring us to perfect salvation; because, by our ingratitude, we nullify whatever He has given us, and thus should willfully perish, if God did not correct our apathy by the power of His Spirit.

Calvin: Exo 14:15 - And the Lord 15.And the Lord 156 said I have used the praeter-pluperfect tense for the sake of avoiding ambiguity; for the reason is here given why Moses so con...

15.And the Lord 156 said I have used the praeter-pluperfect tense for the sake of avoiding ambiguity; for the reason is here given why Moses so confidently reproved the hesitation of the people, and promised that they should be safe under the present help of God; viz., because he had already been assured by divine revelation that God was willing to aid His people, and had in readiness a new means for their preservation. For he could not have been the proclaimer and witness of their safety if he had not received the promise. Therefore he relieves his confidence from the imputation of rashness, since he advanced nothing which he had not already heard from the mouth of God himself. These words, “Wherefore criest thou unto me?” some interpreters extend to the whole people, whose representative Moses was; but this sense is too far-fetched, and I have recently observed, that the prayers of the people were by no means directed to God. I doubt not., therefore, that the holy man had prayed apart in the insurrection of the people. Nor is this pious duty disapproved of in the passage; but rather shows that he had not spent his labor in vain, nor poured forth his words into the air. The sense, then, is, “Weary not yourself by crying any more; the event will prove that you are heard. Lift up your rod, then, whereby you may divide the sea, so that the children of Israel may go dry shod through the midst of it.” This passage shows that they are guilty of rashness who promise anything either to themselves or others, as to particular blessings, without the special testimony of God.

Calvin: Exo 14:17 - I will harden 17.I will harden God once more affirms, for the greater exaltation of His own power, that He will harden the Egyptians, so that, as if devoted to des...

17.I will harden God once more affirms, for the greater exaltation of His own power, that He will harden the Egyptians, so that, as if devoted to destruction, they may cast themselves into the midst of the sea; which they certainly would never have done, unless He had guided their hearts by his secret influence; because it could not have escaped them that a passage for the Israelites was opened by His special gift, from whence they might gather that the elements were at war with them. Therefore they would never have dared to enter the sea, which they saw to be armed against them, unless they had been blinded by God. Whence it appears how unworthy is the imagination of those who pretend that there was but a bare permission here, where God would make His power conspicuous. It would have been enough that after the Israelites had passed over to the opposite shore the sea should have returned to its place and prevented the Egyptians from following; but God was willing, by a double miracle, to consult for the security of His people for a long’ time to come. And this, indeed, came to pass; for the flower of the whole nation being destroyed, the Egyptians were unable to recruit their army; especially when the heir to the throne had already been slain, and the king himself was now taken away. On this account it is said, that the Egyptians should know that the God of Israel was the Lord; because in this last act they found that the power of rebellion was altogether taken from them.

Calvin: Exo 14:19 - And the angel of God 19.And the angel of God A sudden change which occurred to prevent a battle is here described; for the angel:, who used to go before the Israelites to...

19.And the angel of God A sudden change which occurred to prevent a battle is here described; for the angel:, who used to go before the Israelites to show the way: turned to the other side, that he might be interposed between the two camps; and this, in two respects, because the pillar of fire shone upon the Israelites to dissipate the darkness of the night, whilst thick darkness held the Egyptians as it were in captivity, so that they were unable to proceed further. Thus did God both prevent them from advancing, and also held out a torch for His people all night to light them on their way. He, who has been called “Jehovah” hitherto, is now designated by Moses “the Angel;” not only because the angels who represent God often borrow His name, but because this Leader of the people was God’s only-begotten Son, who afterwards was manifested in the flesh, as I have shown upon the authority of Paul. (1Co 10:4.) It may be remarked, also, that he is said to have moved here and there, as He showed some token of His power and assistance. Most clearly, too, does it appear, that the glory of God, whilst it enlightens the faithful, overshadows the unbelievers, on the other hand, with darkness. No wonder, then, if now-a-days the brightness of the Gospel should blind the reprobate. But we should ask of God to make us able to behold His glory.

Calvin: Exo 14:21 - And Moses stretched out 21.And Moses stretched out We have already said that the passage was free and convenient for the Israelites by night, since the pillar of fire replen...

21.And Moses stretched out We have already said that the passage was free and convenient for the Israelites by night, since the pillar of fire replenished their side with light: and certainly so great a multitude could not reach the opposite shore in an hour or two. The Israelites then passed over from evening even till dawn; and then the Egyptians having discovered that they were gone, hastened to follow that they might fall upon their rear. Now, though Moses uses no ornaments of language in celebrating this miracle, yet the bare recital ought to be sufficient; and, therefore, is more emphatic to awaken our admiration than any rhetorical coloring and magnificent eloquence. For who would desire sounding exclamations, in order to be ravished to the highest admiration of the divine power, when he is told simply and in a few words that the sea was divided by the rod of Moses; that space enough for the passage of the people was dry; that the mighty mass of waters stood like solid rocks on either side? Designedly, then, has he set the whole matter before our eyes bare of all verbal splendor; although it will both be celebrated soon after, in accordance with its dignity, in the Canticle, and is everywhere more splendidly magnified by the Prophets and in the Psalms. In this passage let us learn, just as if Moses were leading us to the actual circumstance, to fix our eyes on the prospect of God’s inestimable power, which cannot be sufficiently expressed by any number or force of words. But Moses is very careful not to arrogate more than enough for himself, so as to detract from the praise of God. He had been before commanded to divide the sea with his uplifted rod; he now changes the form of expression, viz., that the waters went back by the command of God. Thus, content with the character of a minister, he makes God alone, as was fit, the author of the miracle. But although it was competent for God to dispel the waters without any motion of the air, yet, that He might show that all nature was obedient to Him, and governed at His will, He was pleased to raise the strong east wind. Meanwhile it is to be remembered, that the sea could not be dried by arty wind, however strong, unless it had been effected by the secret power of the Spirit, beyond the ordinary operation of nature. On which point see my previous annotations on chap. 10:13 and 19.

Calvin: Exo 14:24 - And it came to pass, that, in the morning-watch 24.And it came to pass, that, in the morning-watch In the morning the angel began to look upon the Egyptians, not that they had escaped his sight bef...

24.And it came to pass, that, in the morning-watch In the morning the angel began to look upon the Egyptians, not that they had escaped his sight before; but for the purpose of destroying them by sudden submersion, though he had seemed previously to forget them, when hidden by the cloud. 157 And first, He opened their eyes, that too late they might see whither their mad impetuosity had brought them; and also that they might perceive how they were contending not with man only, but with God; and that thus, being overwhelmed with sudden astonishment, they might not be able to escape to the shore in time; for they were on this account overtaken in the midst of the sea, because terror had thrown them into utter confusion, when they perceived that God was against them. They saw that there was no greater hope of safety than to retreat, because God fought for Israel; but being in complete disorder, they could make no way, and whilst they rather proved hindrances to each other, the sea ingulfed them all.

Calvin: Exo 14:26 - And the Lord said unto Moses 26.And the Lord said unto Moses Moses here relates how the sea, in destroying the Egyptians, had no less obeyed God’s command than when it lately a...

26.And the Lord said unto Moses Moses here relates how the sea, in destroying the Egyptians, had no less obeyed God’s command than when it lately afforded a passage for His people, for it. was by the uplifting of the rod of Moses that the waters came again into their place, as they had been before gathered into heaps. The Egyptians now repented of their precipitate madness, and determined, as conquered by God’s power, to leave the children of Israel, and to return home; but God, who willed their destruction, shut up the way of escape at this very crisis. But, that we may know how evident a miracle was here, Moses now adds the circumstance of time, for he says that the morning then appeared, so that the broad daylight might show the whole transaction to the eyes of the spectators. The waters, indeed, were heaped up in the night; but the pillar of fire, which shone on the Egyptians, and pointed out their way, did not allow God’s blessing to be hidden from them. The case of the Egyptians was otherwise: therefore it behooved that they should perish by day, and that the sun itself should render their destruction visible. This also tends to prove God’s power, because, whilst they were endeavoring to fly, He openly urged them on, as if they were intentionally drowning themselves.

Calvin: Exo 14:28 - And the waters returned 28.And the waters returned In these two verses also Moses continues the same relation. It plainly appears from Josephus and Eusebius what silly tales...

28.And the waters returned In these two verses also Moses continues the same relation. It plainly appears from Josephus and Eusebius what silly tales Manetho 158 and others have invented about the Exodus of the people; for although Satan has attempted by their falsehoods to overshadow the truth of sacred history, so foolish and trifling are their accounts that they need not refutation. The time itself, which they indicate, sufficiently convicts them of ignorance. But God has admirably provided for our sakes, in choosing Moses His servant, who was the minister of their deliverance, to be also the witness and historian of it; and this, too, amongst those who had seen all with their own eyes, and who, in their peculiar frowardness, would never have suffered one, who was so severe a reprover of them, to make any false statements of fact. Since, then, his authority is sure and unquestionable, let us only observe what his method was, viz., briefly to relate in this place how there was not one left of Pharaoh’s mighty army; that the Israelites all to a man passed over in safety and dry-shod; that, by the rod of Moses, the nature of the waters was changed, so that they stood like solid walls; that by the same rod they were afterwards made liquid, so as suddenly to overwhelm the Egyptians. This enumeration plainly shows an extraordinary work of God to have been here, for as to the trifling of certain profane writers 159 about the ebb and flow of the Arabian Gulf, it falls to nothing of itself. From these things, therefore, he at last justly infers, that the Israelites had seen the powerful hand of God then and there exerted.

Calvin: Exo 14:31 - And Israel saw 31.And Israel saw After he has said that the Israelites saw the dead bodies spread upon the seashore, he now adds that in this spectacle God’s hand...

31.And Israel saw After he has said that the Israelites saw the dead bodies spread upon the seashore, he now adds that in this spectacle God’s hand, 160 i.e., His power, appeared, because there was no difficulty in distinguishing between God’s wrath and His fatherly love, in preserving so miraculously an unwarlike multitude, and in destroying in the depths of the sea an army formidable on every account. Moses, therefore, does not unreasonably conclude here that the Divine power was conspicuous in the deliverance of the people. He afterwards adds, that, not without their profit, did the Israelites see God’s hand; because they feared Him, and believed Him, and His servant Moses. “Fear” is here used for that reverence which kept the people in the way of duty, for they were not only affected by dread, but also attracted to devote themselves to God, whose goodness they had so sweetly and delightfully experienced. But although this pious feeling was not durable, at any rate with the greater number of them, it is still probable that it rooted itself in some few of them, because some seed ever remained, nor was the recollection of this blessing entirely destroyed. By the word “believed,” I think that the principal part of fear is marked, and I understand it to be added expositively, as if it were said, “that they reverenced God, and testified this by faithfully embracing His doctrine and obediently submitting themselves to Moses.” I understand it that they were all generally thus affected, because the recognition of God’s hand bowed them to obedience, that they should be more tractable and docile, and more inclined to follow God. But this ardor soon passed away from the greater number of them, as (hypocrites 161) are wont to be only influenced by what is visible and present; although I hold to what I have just said, that, in some small number, the fear of God, which they had once conceived from a sense of His grace, still abode in rigor. Meanwhile, let us learn from this passage that God is never truly and duly worshipped without faith, because incredulity betrays gross contempt of Him; and although hypocrites boast of their heaping all kinds of honor upon God, still they inflict the greatest insult upon Him, by refusing to believe His revelations. But Moses, who had been chosen God’s minister for governing the people, is not unreasonably here united with Him, for although God’s majesty manifested itself by conspicuous signs, still Moses was the mediator, out of whose mouth God willed that His words should be heard, so that the holy man could not be despised without God’s own authority being rejected. A profitable doctrine is gathered from hence, that whenever God propounds His word to us by men, those who faithfully deliver His commands must be as much attended to as if He himself openly descended from heaven. This recommendation of the ministry ought to be more than sufficient to refute their folly, who set at naught the outward preaching of the word. Let us, then, hold fast this principle, that only those obey God who receive the prophets sent from Him, because it is not lawful to put asunder what He has joined together. Christ has more clearly expressed this in the words, —

“He that heareth you, heareth me; and he that despiseth you, despiseth me.” (Mat 10:40.)

But it is more than absurd, that the Pope, with his filthy clergy, should take this to himself, as if he was to be heard when he puts forward God’s name; for (to pass over many other reasons which I could mention) it will be, first of all, necessary that he should prove himself to be God’s servant, from whence I wish he was not so far removed. For here the obedience of the people is praised on no other grounds but because they “believed the Lord,” and, together with Him, “His servant Moses.”

Defender: Exo 14:9 - all the horses The fact that Egyptians still had many horses in spite of the fact that all of "the cattle of Egypt died" in the plague (Exo 9:6) seems at first to be...

The fact that Egyptians still had many horses in spite of the fact that all of "the cattle of Egypt died" in the plague (Exo 9:6) seems at first to be a contradiction. However, the account refers merely to "thy cattle which is in the field" (Exo 9:3); no doubt "the horses and chariots of Pharaoh" were kept in the palatial stables. It is also possible that the term "cattle" did not include the horses. In any case, there is no necessary contradiction."

Defender: Exo 14:29 - waters were a wall Some theologians have attempted to identify this Red Sea crossing as a shallow fording of what they call the "Reed Sea," located at the northern end o...

Some theologians have attempted to identify this Red Sea crossing as a shallow fording of what they call the "Reed Sea," located at the northern end of the Red Sea. However, the description is clearly of a mighty miracle, not merely a wind driving the shallow waters seaward. Rather the wind opened a dry path through deep waters, supernaturally restrained as a wall on both sides and deep enough to drown all the hosts of Pharaoh when the waters collapsed. The crossing was over a narrow northern arm of the Red Sea, enabling the Israelites to cross into the wilderness of Shur (Exo 15:22), but it was nevertheless a great miracle, requiring God to create some unknown form of energy which could hold the deep waters stationary as walls against the force of gravity."

TSK: Exo 14:1 - the Lord spake the Lord spake : Exo 12:1, Exo 13:1

the Lord spake : Exo 12:1, Exo 13:1

TSK: Exo 14:2 - that they // Pi-hahiroth // Migdol // Baalzephon that they : Exo 14:9, Exo 13:17, Exo 13:18; Num 33:7, Num 33:8 Pi-hahiroth : Pi̇hachiroth , ""the mouth of Chiroth,""as it is rendered by the LXX. ...

that they : Exo 14:9, Exo 13:17, Exo 13:18; Num 33:7, Num 33:8

Pi-hahiroth : Pi̇hachiroth , ""the mouth of Chiroth,""as it is rendered by the LXX. Dr. Shaw is of opinion, that Chiroth denotes the valley which extends from the wilderness of Etham to the Red Sea. ""This valley,""he observes, ""ends at the sea in a small bay made by the eastern extremities of the mountains (of Gewoubee and Attackah, between which the valley lies) which I have been describing, and is called Tiah -Beni -Israel , i.e., the road of the Israelites, by a tradition that is still kept up by the Arabs, of their having passed through it; so it is also called Baideah, from the new and unheard of miracle that was wrought near it, by dividing the Red sea, and destroying therein Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen."

Migdol : The word Migdol signifies a tower, and hence some have supposed that it was a fortress which served to defend the bay. But the LXX render it Μαγδωλος , Magdolus, which is mentioned by Herodotus, Hecateus, and others, and is expressly said by Stephanus ( de Urb. ) to be πολις Αιγυπτον , ""a city of Egypt.""This Bochart conjectures to have been the same as Migdol (see the parallel passages). Jer 44:1, Jer 46:14; Eze 29:10, Heb

Baalzephon : This may have been the name of a town or city in which Baal was worshipped; and probably called zephon , from being situated on the north point of the Red sea, near the present Suez.

TSK: Exo 14:3 - Pharaoh // They are entangled Pharaoh : Exo 7:3, Exo 7:4; Deu 31:21; Psa 139:2, Psa 139:4; Eze 38:10, Eze 38:11, Eze 38:17; Act 4:28 They are entangled : Jdg 16:2; 1Sa 23:7, 1Sa 23...

TSK: Exo 14:4 - harden // I will be // that the Egyptians harden : Exo 14:8, Exo 14:17, Exo 4:21-31, Exo 7:3, Exo 7:13, Exo 7:14; Rom 11:8 I will be : Exo 14:18, Exo 9:16, Exo 15:10, Exo 15:11, Exo 15:14-16, ...

TSK: Exo 14:5 - and the heart // Why have we and the heart : Exo 12:33; Psa 105:25 Why have we : Jer 34:10-17; Luk 11:24-26; 2Pe 2:20-22

and the heart : Exo 12:33; Psa 105:25

Why have we : Jer 34:10-17; Luk 11:24-26; 2Pe 2:20-22

TSK: Exo 14:6 - people people : Exo 14:23; Num 21:23; Deu 2:32, Deu 3:1

TSK: Exo 14:7 - -- Exo 14:23, Exo 15:4; Jos 17:16-18; Jdg 4:3, Jdg 4:15; Psa 20:7, Psa 68:17; Isa 37:24

TSK: Exo 14:8 - the Lord // with an high hand the Lord : Exo 14:4 with an high hand : Exo 6:1, Exo 13:9, Exo 13:16, Exo 13:18; Num 33:3; Deu 26:8, Deu 32:27; Psa 86:13; Act 13:17

TSK: Exo 14:9 - the Egyptians // encamping the Egyptians : Exo 15:9; Jos 24:6 encamping : Exo 14:2

the Egyptians : Exo 15:9; Jos 24:6

encamping : Exo 14:2

TSK: Exo 14:10 - sore afraid // cried out sore afraid : Psa 53:5; Isa 7:2, Isa 8:12, Isa 8:13, Isa 51:12, Isa 51:13; Mat 8:26, Mat 14:30, Mat 14:31; 1Jo 4:18 cried out : Jos 24:7; 2Ch 18:31; N...

TSK: Exo 14:11 - Because // wherefore Because : Exo 15:23, Exo 15:24, Exo 16:2, Exo 16:3, Exo 17:2, Exo 17:3; Num 11:1, Num 14:1-4, Num 16:41; Psa 106:7, Psa 106:8 wherefore : Exo 5:22; Ge...

TSK: Exo 14:12 - Is not this // Let us alone // For it had Is not this : Exo 5:21, Exo 3:9 Let us alone : Hos 4:17; Mar 1:24, Mar 5:7, Mar 5:17, Mar 5:18 For it had : Jon 4:3, Jon 4:8

Is not this : Exo 5:21, Exo 3:9

Let us alone : Hos 4:17; Mar 1:24, Mar 5:7, Mar 5:17, Mar 5:18

For it had : Jon 4:3, Jon 4:8

TSK: Exo 14:13 - Fear ye not // see the // for the Egyptians whom ye have seen to day // ye shall see Fear ye not : Num 14:9; Deu 20:3; 2Ki 6:16; 2Ch 20:15, 2Ch 20:17; Psa 27:1, Psa 27:2, Psa 46:1-3; Isa 26:3, Isa 30:15, Isa 35:4, Isa 41:10-14; Mat 28:...

Fear ye not : Num 14:9; Deu 20:3; 2Ki 6:16; 2Ch 20:15, 2Ch 20:17; Psa 27:1, Psa 27:2, Psa 46:1-3; Isa 26:3, Isa 30:15, Isa 35:4, Isa 41:10-14; Mat 28:5

see the : Exo 14:30, 15:1-27; Gen 49:18; 1Ch 11:14; Psa 3:8; Isa 43:11; Jer 3:23; Lam 3:26; Hos 13:4, Hos 13:9; Hab 3:8, Hab 3:13

for the Egyptians whom ye have seen to day : or, for whereas ye have seen the Egyptians to-day, etc

ye shall see : Exo 14:30, Exo 15:4, Exo 15:5, Exo 15:10, Exo 15:19, Exo 15:21; Neh 9:9

TSK: Exo 14:14 - the Lord // hold the Lord : Exo 14:25, Exo 15:3; Deu 1:30, Deu 3:22, Deu 20:4; Jos 10:10, Jos 10:14, Jos 10:42, Jos 23:3, Jos 23:10; Jdg 5:20; 2Ch 20:17, 2Ch 20:29; Ne...

TSK: Exo 14:15 - -- Exo 17:4; Jos 7:10; Ezr 10:4, Ezr 10:5; Neh 9:9

TSK: Exo 14:16 - lift // the sea // and the lift : Exo 14:21, Exo 14:26, Exo 4:2, Exo 4:17, Exo 4:20, Exo 7:9, Exo 7:19 the sea : This sea was what is called in Scripture yam suph , ""the sea...

lift : Exo 14:21, Exo 14:26, Exo 4:2, Exo 4:17, Exo 4:20, Exo 7:9, Exo 7:19

the sea : This sea was what is called in Scripture yam suph , ""the sea of weeds;""so called, according to Mr. Bruce, from the vast quantity of coral which grows in it. In the LXX it is called θαλασσα ερυθρα , and by the Latins Rubrum mare , and we from them the Red Sea; so called it is supposed, from Edom (red) or Esau, whose territories extend to its coasts. It separates Arabia from Egypt and Ethiopia, and is computed to be 150 leagues in length from Suez to the straits of Babelmandel. The upper part is divided into two gulfs, that to the East called the Elanitic, from the city Elana at the northern extremity, and that to the west, the Heroopolitic, from the city of Heroopolis. The former is called by the Arabians Bahr el Akaba , the sea of Akaba; and the latter Bahr el Kolzum , the sea of destruction, or Clysmæ ; which was that which the Israelites passed.

and the : Exo 14:21, Exo 14:22

TSK: Exo 14:17 - behold // I will // and I will Exo 14:4 behold : Gen 6:17, Gen 9:9; Lev 26:28; Deu 32:39; Isa 48:15, Isa 51:12; Jer 23:39; Eze 5:8, Eze 6:3, Eze 34:11, Eze 34:20; Hos 5:14 I will : ...

TSK: Exo 14:18 - -- Exo 14:4, Exo 7:5, Exo 7:17

TSK: Exo 14:19 - the angel // and the pillar the angel : Exo 14:24, Exo 13:21, Exo 23:20, Exo 23:21, Exo 32:34; Num 20:16; Isa 63:9 and the pillar : Exo 13:21, Exo 13:22

TSK: Exo 14:20 - -- Psa 18:11; Pro 4:18, Pro 4:19; Isa 8:14; 2Co 2:15, 2Co 2:16

TSK: Exo 14:21 - stretched // the Lord stretched : Exo 14:16 the Lord : Exo 15:8; Jos 3:13-16, Jos 4:23; Neh 9:11; Job 26:12; Psa 66:6, Psa 74:13; Psa 78:13, Psa 106:7-10, Psa 114:3-5, Psa ...

TSK: Exo 14:22 - the children // and the waters // a wall the children : Exo 14:29, Exo 15:19; Num 33:8; Psa 66:6, Psa 78:13; Isa 63:13; 1Co 10:1; Heb 11:29 and the waters : This verse demonstrates that this ...

the children : Exo 14:29, Exo 15:19; Num 33:8; Psa 66:6, Psa 78:13; Isa 63:13; 1Co 10:1; Heb 11:29

and the waters : This verse demonstrates that this event was wholly miraculous, and cannot be ascribed, as some have supposed, to an extraordinary ebb, which happened just then to be produced by a strong east windcaps1 . fcaps0 or this would not have caused the waters, contrary to every law of fluids, to stand as a wall on the right hand and the left.

a wall : Exo 15:8; Hab 3:8-10; Zec 2:5

TSK: Exo 14:23 - -- Exo 14:17, Exo 15:9, Exo 15:19; 1Ki 22:20; Ecc 9:3; Isa 14:24-27

TSK: Exo 14:24 - that in the // looked unto // through // and troubled that in the : 1Sa 11:11 looked unto : Job 40:12; Psa 18:13, Psa 18:14, Psa 77:16-19, Psa 104:32 through : Exo 14:19, Exo 14:20 and troubled : Exo 14:2...

TSK: Exo 14:25 - took off // that they drave them heavily // Let us flee // for the Lord took off : Jdg 4:15; Psa 46:9, Psa 76:6; Jer 51:21 that they drave them heavily : or, and made them to go heavily Let us flee : Job 11:20, Job 20:24, ...

took off : Jdg 4:15; Psa 46:9, Psa 76:6; Jer 51:21

that they drave them heavily : or, and made them to go heavily

Let us flee : Job 11:20, Job 20:24, Job 27:22; Psa 68:12; Amo 1:14, Amo 5:19, Amo 9:1

for the Lord : Exo 14:14; Deu 3:22; 1Sa 4:7, 1Sa 4:8

TSK: Exo 14:26 - Stretch out // the waters Stretch out : Exo 14:16, Exo 7:19, Exo 8:5; Mat 8:27 the waters : Exo 1:22; Jdg 1:6, Jdg 1:7; Mat 7:2; Jam 2:13; Rev 16:6

TSK: Exo 14:27 - and the sea // Lord // overthrew and the sea : Exo 14:21, Exo 14:22, 15:1-21; Jos 4:18 Lord : Jdg 5:20, Jdg 5:21 overthrew : Heb. shook off

and the sea : Exo 14:21, Exo 14:22, 15:1-21; Jos 4:18

Lord : Jdg 5:20, Jdg 5:21

overthrew : Heb. shook off

TSK: Exo 14:28 - the waters // remained the waters : Exo 15:10; Deu 11:4; Neh 9:11; Psa 78:53; Hab 3:8-10, Hab 3:13; Heb 11:29 remained : Exo 14:13; 2Ch 20:24; Psa 106:9-11, Psa 136:15

TSK: Exo 14:29 - walked // a wall walked : Exo 14:22; Job 38:8-11; Psa 66:6, Psa 66:7, Psa 77:19, Psa 77:20, Psa 78:52, Psa 78:53; Isa 43:2; Isa 51:10, Isa 51:13, Isa 63:12, Isa 63:13 ...

TSK: Exo 14:30 - the Lord // saw the Lord : Exo 14:13; 1Sa 14:23; 2Ch 32:22; Psa 106:8, Psa 106:10; Isa 63:9; Jud 1:5 saw : Psa 58:10, Psa 59:10, Psa 91:8, Psa 92:9-11

TSK: Exo 14:31 - work // feared // believed work : Heb. hand feared : 1Sa 12:18; Psa 119:120 believed : Exo 4:31, Exo 19:9; 2Ch 20:20; Psa 106:12, Psa 106:13; Luk 8:13; Joh 2:11, Joh 2:23-25; Jo...

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Exo 14:2 - Pi-hahiroth, Heb // Migdol // Baal-zephon Pi-hahiroth, Heb the month of Hiroth, i.e. the entrance or straits of Hiroth, two great mountains, between which they marched, and were enclosed o...

Pi-hahiroth, Heb the month of Hiroth, i.e. the entrance or straits of Hiroth, two great mountains, between which they marched, and were enclosed on both sides.

Migdol a city in Egypt, Jer 44:1 , wherein it is thought there was a garrison.

Baal-zephon another place of note, situated in a high place, and having a fair and large prospect, and possibly a garrison too.

Poole: Exo 14:3 - -- There are enclosed with mountains, and garrisons, and deserts.

There are enclosed with mountains, and garrisons, and deserts.

Poole: Exo 14:4 - I will be honoured I will be honoured by the manifestation of my power and justice. I will be honoured, by the manifestation of my power and justice.

I will be honoured by the manifestation of my power and justice. I will be honoured, by the manifestation of my power and justice.

Poole: Exo 14:5 - Why have we done this? That the people fled; did not only depart for three days to sacrifice at Horeb, as Moses pretended, but designed an escape and flight, as appeared b...

That the people fled; did not only depart for three days to sacrifice at Horeb, as Moses pretended, but designed an escape and flight, as appeared by their speedy march, and other circumstances.

Why have we done this? They who never truly repented of their sins, now heartily repent of their only good action. That the people fled; did not only depart for three days to sacrifice at Horeb, as Moses pretended, but designed an escape and flight, as appeared by their speedy march, and other circumstances.

Why have we done this? They who never truly repented of their sins, now heartily repent of their only good action.

Poole: Exo 14:7 - Quest // Answ // All the chariots // Over every one of them Quest How. could he use or carry his chariots, when all his horses were killed by that plague? Exo 9:6 . Answ That plague slew only the horses whic...

Quest How. could he use or carry his chariots, when all his horses were killed by that plague? Exo 9:6 .

Answ That plague slew only the horses which were in the field, Exo 9:3 , not those kept in houses, as the chariot-horses generally were, and now are.

All the chariots i.e. a great number; all that could be got together in haste, which the present service required.

Over every one of them over the men that fought out of every chariot. Or, over all of them ; the command of all these chariots being distributed to several captains or commanders.

Poole: Exo 14:8 - -- Either, 1. Of God, with a Divine hand or power, by comparing Exo 13:16 . Or, 2. Their own, not with hands hanging down, a posture betraying weakne...

Either,

1. Of God, with a Divine hand or power, by comparing Exo 13:16 . Or,

2. Their own, not with hands hanging down, a posture betraying weakness and fainting, fear and shame, Heb 12:12 , but with hands lifted up; with courage and confidence, not like fugitives, but like valiant and victorious soldiers, openly, boldly, resolvedly; as men are said to sin with a high hand , Num 15:30 , that sin in such a manner.

Poole: Exo 14:10 - cried out Which is not strange; these being now a people of low spirits, depressed by long and grievous servitude; being also generally unarmed, wearied with ...

Which is not strange; these being now a people of low spirits, depressed by long and grievous servitude; being also generally unarmed, wearied with their journey, and their fears aggravated by the presence and outcries of their wives and children. But they should have supported themselves by the consideration of the mighty power of God, of which they had late and great experience. They cried out, partly by petition, and partly by complaint and expostulation. Which is not strange; these being now a people of low spirits, depressed by long and grievous servitude; being also generally unarmed, wearied with their journey, and their fears aggravated by the presence and outcries of their wives and children. But they should have supported themselves by the consideration of the mighty power of God, of which they had late and great experience. They

cried out partly by petition, and partly by complaint and expostulation.

Poole: Exo 14:13 - Stand still; Heb Stand still; Heb . make yourselves to stand ; let not and your hearts fail and sink, or stagger through unbelief, but with quiet minds look up to God...

Stand still; Heb . make yourselves to stand ; let not and your hearts fail and sink, or stagger through unbelief, but with quiet minds look up to God. It notes the frame of their minds, not the posture of their bodies. Whom ye have seen ; or, as ye have seen them , to wit, alive and armed, ready to devour you; for otherwise they did see them dead, and disarmed, Exo 14:30 .

Poole: Exo 14:14 - -- Ye shall contribute nothing to the victory, neither by your words nor by your deeds; for this Hebrew word signifies a cessation not only from speech...

Ye shall contribute nothing to the victory, neither by your words nor by your deeds; for this Hebrew word signifies a cessation not only from speech, but from action too, as 2Sa 19:11 Psa 83:1 Isa 42:14,15 . Or rather, do you hold your peace , the future tense for the imperative, as it is very frequent; cease your murmuring against the Lord and me.

Poole: Exo 14:15 - Wherefore criest thou unto me Wherefore criest thou unto me by fervent, though secret prayer? for which he doth not reprove him, but only bids him turn his prayer into action. Com...

Wherefore criest thou unto me by fervent, though secret prayer? for which he doth not reprove him, but only bids him turn his prayer into action. Compare Jos 7:10,13 .

Poole: Exo 14:16 - Divide it Divide it i.e. do thou command it in my name to divide itself hither and thither, and I will divide it.

Divide it i.e. do thou command it in my name to divide itself hither and thither, and I will divide it.

Poole: Exo 14:19 - -- Not changing his place, for he was the omnipresent God, Exo 14:15 ; but his operation, from leading the Israelites forward in their way, to the prot...

Not changing his place, for he was the omnipresent God, Exo 14:15 ; but his operation, from leading the Israelites forward in their way, to the protecting of them from their pursuers.

Poole: Exo 14:20 - It was a cloud and darkness // But it gave light by night It was a cloud and darkness to the Egyptians, to whom it brought their former horrible darkness to mind, and did both exceedingly affright them, and ...

It was a cloud and darkness to the Egyptians, to whom it brought their former horrible darkness to mind, and did both exceedingly affright them, and altogether hinder them from motion or action, as that also did for three days.

But it gave light by night to the Israelites, as the opposition showeth.

Poole: Exo 14:21 - The waters were divided A strong east wind; a proper instrument both to divide that sea, which lay north and south, and to dry and harden the mud at the bottom of the sea, ...

A strong east wind; a proper instrument both to divide that sea, which lay north and south, and to dry and harden the mud at the bottom of the sea, that the Israelites might walk upon it. See Gen 8:13 Exo 15:8 . Yet the wind could never have done so great a work, especially not so speedily, if there had not been a higher, even a Divine hand to manage and improve it.

The waters were divided so largely, that a great number of the Israelites might march in one rank, and the whole number might go a good way in it in the time here mentioned.

Poole: Exo 14:22 - The waters were a wall This was about midnight, as may be gathered from Exo 14:24 . The waters were a wall both for height, and for their defence.

This was about midnight, as may be gathered from Exo 14:24 .

The waters were a wall both for height, and for their defence.

Poole: Exo 14:24 - The Lord // The Lord looked The night was anciently divided, not by hours, as now it is, but by watches, which sometimes were accounted four, and sometimes but three; howsoever...

The night was anciently divided, not by hours, as now it is, but by watches, which sometimes were accounted four, and sometimes but three; howsoever the last of them was called the morning watch. Then when they hoped for most advantage in the pursuit, they met with their greatest disaster.

The Lord called the Angel of God , Exo 14:19 . By which promiscuous use of these titles it sufficiently appears that this was no ordinary angel, but the Son of God.

The Lord looked with an eye of indignation and vengeance, (as that phrase is used, Job 40:12 see also Amo 9:4 ), and troubled them with most terrible and prodigious winds, and rains, and lightnings, and both claps and bolts of thunder, as may be gathered from Exo 15:10 Psa 77:18,19 ; and, as some ancient historians relate, with terrors also in their minds, &c.

Poole: Exo 14:25 - Took off their chariot wheels // That they drave them heavily; Heb // For the Lord fighteth for them Took off their chariot wheels either burning them with lightning, or tearing them in pieces with thunder-bolts, or loosening them, and making them to...

Took off their chariot wheels either burning them with lightning, or tearing them in pieces with thunder-bolts, or loosening them, and making them to fall off.

That they drave them heavily; Heb and he made him , or them , the singular number for the plural, i.e. the Egyptians, or their chariots, to go heavily , hardly and slowly, either for want of wheels, or for breaches in them, or because the rain had softened the bottom of the sea, or because the lightnings and thunders affrighted and dispirited their horses.

For the Lord fighteth for them Prodigious stupidity! They did not understand and consider this, though it was notorious, to them especially, by many great and fresh instances, till it was too late to prevent it; therein being a type of most sinners, who will not be convinced, nor repent, till they be past all benefit by it.

Poole: Exo 14:27 - The sea returned to his strength // Against it The sea returned to his strength to its natural and it ordinary course and motion, which is swift and strong, which had been hitherto restrained by a...

The sea returned to his strength to its natural and it ordinary course and motion, which is swift and strong, which had been hitherto restrained by a stronger hand, and rendered in a manner impotent and weak. But now, Samson-like, when its bonds are broken, it puts forth its former and natural strength. But indeed this word may belong to the morning, and so a learned man translates the place, and that very agreeably to the use and order of the Hebrew words, The sea returned , to wit, to its course, when the morning appeared according to, or in his strength , i.e. when it was full and clear morning; as we oft read of the strength of the day . See Gen 7:13 Job 21:23 . So the strength of the morning is here opposed to the morning watch.

Against it against the sea, for which way soever they fled the waters met them, and fought against them.

Poole: Exo 14:28 - After them After them i.e. after the children of Israel. Note here, the relative is put without an antecedent before it; the antecedent being to be understood a...

After them i.e. after the children of Israel. Note here, the relative is put without an antecedent before it; the antecedent being to be understood and gathered out of the following verse, or out of the course of the story. An observation which is very useful for the understanding of many scriptures. See Poole "Gen 3:1" .

Poole: Exo 14:30 - Quest // Answ Which was done either, 1. By the natural power of the sea, which casteth up its dead bodies after a certain time; till which time God caused the Is...

Which was done either,

1. By the natural power of the sea, which casteth up its dead bodies after a certain time; till which time God caused the Israelites to abide near the sea, that they might see this for their comfort. Or,

2. By the mighty power of God, which brought them, and their arms too, as many probably conceive, to shore before the usual time.

Quest. How could the Israelites, both they and their cattle, in so little time get over that great sea?

Answ 1. The Hebrew and some other interpreters deny that they went over, and tell us, they only went into the sea, and fetched a compass in it, that they might allure the Egyptians to follow them, and then by Moses’ s conduct returned to the Egyptian shore again. The principal ground of which opinion is this, That as they went into the sea out of the wilderness of Etham, Exo 13:20 , so they came again out of the sea into the wilderness of Etham, Num 33:8 . But the sameness of the name doth not prove that it is the same place, nothing being more frequent in Scripture, than for divers places to be called by one and the same name. And the Israelites might possibly give the name of Etham to this desert on the Arabian side of the Red Sea, either for its great resemblance to that desert so called on the Egyptian side; or to intimate, that God by dividing the sea, had made that and this to be one continued desert. Or the name of Etham might be common to all that desert at the end of the Red Sea, and on both sides of it.

Answ. 2. They might all conveniently pass over the sea to the Arabian shore in the time allowed for it, either by the mighty power of God, which could easily make both men and beasts to do it in much less than ordinary time, or even by the course of nature; for that part of the sea was not above eight or nine miles over, as geographers and others affirm. And the time allotted for their passage seems to be much more than interpreters have assigned for it. For the Egyptians and Israelites were divided one from another by the cloudy pillar all the night, Exo 14:20 , and a strong east wind blew all that night, Exo 14:21 . The next morning, as I apprehend it, the cloud still keeping between them, and possibly covering the Egyptians with gross and horrible darkness, which hindered their march, the whole body of the Israelites, and their cattle too, are drawn by Moses’ s direction near the shore, and, it may be, the cattle were put into the sea, all which might well take up most of that day; then towards the evening they enter into the sea, and so proceed; and the cloud withdrawing further from the Egyptians, and following the Israelites, the Egyptians pursue after them, and, as it is very probable from the nature and reason of the thing, stand debating some considerable time, when they came to the shore, whether they should venture to follow them into the sea or no. At last the worst counsel prevails, as it generally happens when a people are under a Divine infatuation, and into the sea they go; and by the beginning of the morning watch they draw near the Israelites, when God seasonably appears for Israel’ s succour, and puts a stop to the march of the Egyptians. So the morning watch, mentioned Exo 14:24 , I take to be, not the morning watch of that night, mentioned Exo 14:20,21 , (for all that night, and therefore the morning watch of that night, which was a third, or at least a fourth part of it, was now past and gone,) but the next morning watch after that night and the succeeding day; which seems much more reasonable, than to shrink up the march, first of the Israelites, and then of the Egyptians, into about three hours’ time, which is the time between the midnight and the morning watch. Nor is there any thing in the text which in the least contradicts this opinion, but only that this day’ s interval and work is not mentioned in this story; whereas such omissions are frequent in Scripture relations, in which the substance only is mentioned, and many circumstances omitted, whereof we have seen some instances already, and shall meet with many more hereafter.

PBC: Exo 14:11 - -- The Israelites murmured and complained, questioning "Is the Lord among us or not." Ex 17:1-7 They accused Him of leading them out into the wilderness ...

The Israelites murmured and complained, questioning "Is the Lord among us or not." Ex 17:1-7 They accused Him of leading them out into the wilderness to die. Finally they conspired to appoint themselves a leader to return back to Egypt. Nu 14:1-4 At that point, God’s patience was exhausted. He would tolerate their unbelief no longer. Since they wished to die instead of trusting Him to supply their needs and protect them each day, He granted their request. The people dropped dead, one by one, beneath the scorching Arabian sun. The story stands as an everlasting reminder of the seriousness of unbelief and the subtle danger of a gradual hardening of the heart.

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Haydock: Exo 14:1 - Beelsephon Beelsephon, means "the lord of the watch-tower." Some think an idol was thus denominated, whose office it was to prevent people from quitting the co...

Beelsephon, means "the lord of the watch-tower." Some think an idol was thus denominated, whose office it was to prevent people from quitting the country. How vain were his efforts against God's people!

Haydock: Exo 14:3 - In In. Between craggy mountains and the Red Sea. (Haydock)

In. Between craggy mountains and the Red Sea. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 14:4 - And he will And he will. Protestants falsely translate, "that he may," &c., contrary to the Hebrew and other versions. (Worthington)

And he will. Protestants falsely translate, "that he may," &c., contrary to the Hebrew and other versions. (Worthington)

Haydock: Exo 14:6 - People People, fit for war, who could be got ready on such short warning. Ezechiel (apud[in the writings of] Eusebius) makes the number amount to a million...

People, fit for war, who could be got ready on such short warning. Ezechiel (apud[in the writings of] Eusebius) makes the number amount to a million.

Haydock: Exo 14:7 - Captains Captains. Septuagint, "Tristatas." Three men rode on every chariot, which was armed with scythes, to cut down all that came within contact, the chi...

Captains. Septuagint, "Tristatas." Three men rode on every chariot, which was armed with scythes, to cut down all that came within contact, the chief warrior, with his armour bearer and charioteer. (St. Gregory of Nyssa) (Haydock) ---

Or these three captains may very probably be the three chief officers of state, (Calmet) or the generals of cavalry, and of infantry, and the chief treasurer, or receiver of taxes, principes equitum peditumque erant, & tributorum. (St. Jerome)

Haydock: Exo 14:8 - Hand Hand. Without any dread, Numbers xv. 30. (Calmet) --- All the army of Egypt could do nothing against them. Yet presently, at their approach, the ...

Hand. Without any dread, Numbers xv. 30. (Calmet) ---

All the army of Egypt could do nothing against them. Yet presently, at their approach, the Hebrews were suffered to fall into dismay, that they might learn not to confide in their multitudes, and might pray with greater earnestness for protection, ver. 10.

Haydock: Exo 14:12 - Wilderness Wilderness. This is the language of dastardly souls. They had begun to be almost in love with their chains. Every difficulty gives them occasion t...

Wilderness. This is the language of dastardly souls. They had begun to be almost in love with their chains. Every difficulty gives them occasion to repine at the gracious purposes of God, and the exertions of his servant Moses. But God bears patiently with the defects of a carnal and long-oppressed nation, ver. 13. (Haydock)--- The wiser sort pray to God, while others thus upbraid Moses.

Haydock: Exo 14:13 - Ever Ever. They saw their floating carcasses the following morning. Hebrew, "you shall not see the Egyptians any more as you see them at present." They ...

Ever. They saw their floating carcasses the following morning. Hebrew, "you shall not see the Egyptians any more as you see them at present." They were not in the same condition.

Haydock: Exo 14:14 - Peace Peace. You will not have to draw a sword. The Syriac subjoins, "Therefore Moses cried unto the Lord," which connects this with the following verse....

Peace. You will not have to draw a sword. The Syriac subjoins, "Therefore Moses cried unto the Lord," which connects this with the following verse. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 14:15 - Criest Criest. --- "A vehement desire is a cry, which reaches the ears of the Lord." (St. Bernard)

Criest. ---

"A vehement desire is a cry, which reaches the ears of the Lord." (St. Bernard)

Haydock: Exo 14:17 - To pursue To pursue. God did not restrain the perverse will of the Egyptians; but suffered them to be guided by their blind passions, and to rush presumptuous...

To pursue. God did not restrain the perverse will of the Egyptians; but suffered them to be guided by their blind passions, and to rush presumptuously into the bed of the sea. If the retiring of its waters had been owing to any natural cause, this wise nation could not be ignorant but that, at the stated time, the ebbing would cease, and consequently that they would be overtaken by the waters. But the waters stood up like walls on both sides, and they were so infatuated as to suppose that the miracle would be continued for their protection. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 14:20 - A dark cloud, and enlightening the night A dark cloud, and enlightening the night. It was a dark cloud to the Egyptians; but enlightened the night to the Israelites, by giving them a grea...

A dark cloud, and enlightening the night. It was a dark cloud to the Egyptians; but enlightened the night to the Israelites, by giving them a great light.

Haydock: Exo 14:21 - Wind // Divided Wind. This served to dry up the sandy channel of the Red Sea, which was mixed with mud and weeds. It blew from the east, Kodim, or from Arabia. ---...

Wind. This served to dry up the sandy channel of the Red Sea, which was mixed with mud and weeds. It blew from the east, Kodim, or from Arabia. ---

Divided, some say into 12 parts or divisions, Psalm cxxxv. 13. But the words of the psalmist may be verified by the sea opening a spacious passage, such as was requisite for so many millions to travel through, (Haydock) e.g. a distance of perhaps 18 miles, in so short a space of time. Silara Adrichomius thinks the breadth of the division would not be less than nine miles.

Haydock: Exo 14:24 - Watch // Slew Watch. About four o'clock. The Hebrews divided the night into three equal parts, (Calmet) or four, consisting each of three hours, (Menochius) whic...

Watch. About four o'clock. The Hebrews divided the night into three equal parts, (Calmet) or four, consisting each of three hours, (Menochius) which varied in length as the night was longer. (Haydock) ---

Slew many by his thunderbolts, as Artapanus relates, and the Scripture elsewhere insinuates. (Chap. xv. 6, 12; Psalm lxxvi. 16, 18; Josephus, [Antiquities?] ii. 7.

Haydock: Exo 14:25 - Lord Lord. thus they reluctantly confess his might, and are forced to glory Him in their destruction. Their change is only the effect of fear and tempor...

Lord. thus they reluctantly confess his might, and are forced to glory Him in their destruction. Their change is only the effect of fear and temporal danger, ver. 18. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 14:31 - Servant Sea-shore. The Hebrews would thus again be enriched by their spoils. (Calmet) --- Servant. Those who believe God, submit to the directions of hi...

Sea-shore. The Hebrews would thus again be enriched by their spoils. (Calmet) ---

Servant. Those who believe God, submit to the directions of his ambassadors. (St. Jerome in Philemon 5.) In this merited catastrophe of the Egyptians, which fixed the last seal to the mission of Moses, the fathers contemplate how God's servants are rescued by baptism, and by the merits of Jesus Christ, from Satan and from all sin. (1 Corinthians x. 1, 4; Origen, hom. 5.) (Haydock)

Gill: Exo 14:1 - And the Lord spake unto Moses // saying And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... Out of the pillar of the cloud in which he went before them; either while they were at Etham, or when journeying fr...

And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... Out of the pillar of the cloud in which he went before them; either while they were at Etham, or when journeying from thence, and a little before they turned off to the right, as they were now directed:

saying; as follows:

Gill: Exo 14:2 - Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn // and encamp before Pihahiroth // between Migdol and the sea // over against Baalzephon // before it shall ye encamp by the sea Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn,.... Not return to Egypt, or to the place, or towards the place from whence they came, but turn off,...

Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn,.... Not return to Egypt, or to the place, or towards the place from whence they came, but turn off, out of the road in which they were; for, as a late traveller says a,"there were two roads, through which the Israelites might have been conducted from Cairo (which he supposes may be Rameses) to Pihahiroth. One of them lies through the valleys, as they are now called, of Jendily, Rumaleah, and Baideah, bounded on each side by the mountains of the lower Thebais; the other lies higher, having the northern range of these mountains (the mountains of Mocattee) running parallel with it on the right hand, and the desert of the Egyptian Arabia, which lies all the way open to the land of the Philistines, on the left, (see Exo 13:17) about the middle of this range we may turn short on our right hand into the valley of Baideah, through a remarkable breach or discontinuation, in which we afterwards continued to the very banks of the Red sea; this road then, through the valley of Baideah, which is some hours longer than the other open road, which leads directly from Cairo to Suez, was in all probability the very road which the Israelites took to Pihahiroth, on the banks of the Red sea.''And again he says b, this valley ends at the sea in a small bay, made by the eastern extremities of the mountains, and is called "Tiah beni Israel", i.e. the road of the Israelites, from a tradition of the Arabs, of their having passed through it; as it is also called Baideah from the new and unheard of miracle that was wrought near it, by dividing the Red sea, and destroying therein Pharaoh, his chariots and horsemen:

and encamp before Pihahiroth: which was sixteen miles from Etham c, and by some d thought to be the same with the city of Heroes (or Heroopolis), on the extreme part of the Arabic gulf, or the Phagroriopolis, placed by Strabo e near the same place: according to the above traveller f, Pihahiroth was the mouth, or the most advanced part of the valley of Baideah to the eastward toward the Red sea; with which Jarchi in some measure agrees, who says Pihahiroth is Pithom, now so called, because the Israelites became free: they (Hahiroth) are two rocks, and the valley between them is called (Pi) the mouth of the rocks: so Dr. Shaw observes g; the word may be deduced from חר, "a hole" or "gullet", and by a latitude common in those cases, be rendered a narrow "defile", road or passage, such as the valley of Baideah has been described: but as the Israelites were properly delivered at this place from their captivity and fear of the Egyptians, Exo 14:13 we may rather suppose that Hhiroth denotes the place where they were restored to their liberty; as Hhorar and Hhiroth are words of the like sort in the Chaldee: but another very learned man h says, that in the Egyptian language Pihahiroth signifies a place where grew great plenty of grass and herbs, and was contiguous to the Red sea, and was like that on the other shore of the sea, the Arabian, which Diodorus Siculus i speaks of as a pleasant green field:

between Migdol and the sea; which signifies a tower, and might be one: there was a city of this name in Egypt, and in those parts, but whether the same with this is not certain, Jer 44:1.

over against Baalzephon; which the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem take to be an "idol": and so does Jarchi, and say it was the only one left of the idols of Egypt; see Exo 12:12 and so some Christian as well as Jewish writers suppose it to be; and that it was as a watch, or guard, or amulet, to keep fugitives from going out of the land: but by Ezekiel the tragedian k it is called a city; and so by Josephus l, who says they came to Baalzephon the third day, a place situated by the Red sea; which is most likely, and it is highly probable that this and Migdol were two fortified places, which guarded the mouth of the valley, or the straits which led to the Red sea: Artapanus m the Heathen historian agrees with Josephus in saying it was the third day when they came to the Red sea:

before it shall ye encamp by the sea; and there wait till Pharaoh came up to them.

Gill: Exo 14:3 - For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel // they are entangled in the land // the wilderness hath shut them in For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel,.... The Septuagint version adds, "to his people", his ministers and courtiers, when he hears where the...

For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel,.... The Septuagint version adds, "to his people", his ministers and courtiers, when he hears where they are:

they are entangled in the land; have lost their way, and got into places they cannot easily get out of, and are perplexed in their minds, and do not know what way to take or course to steer:

the wilderness hath shut them in; or, "shut up the way to them" n; the wilderness between the mountains the above mentioned traveller speaks of o the mountains of Gewoubee; these would stop their flight or progress to the southward, as those of the Attackah would do the same towards the land of the Philistines; the Red sea likewise lay before them to the east, while Pharaoh (could) close up the valley behind them, with his chariots and his horsemen; and which, no doubt, appeared very advantageous and encouraging to him, as it must be very distressing to the Israelites.

Gill: Exo 14:4 - And I will harden Pharaoh's heart // that he shall follow after them // and I will be honoured upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host // that the Egyptians may know that I am the Lord // and they did so And I will harden Pharaoh's heart,.... Once more, as he had often done: that he shall follow after them: to Pihahiroth, and even into the sea after...

And I will harden Pharaoh's heart,.... Once more, as he had often done:

that he shall follow after them: to Pihahiroth, and even into the sea after them:

and I will be honoured upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; in his wisdom, faithfulness, power, and justice, by the destruction of them:

that the Egyptians may know that I am the Lord; the only Jehovah, the Lord God omnipotent; even those that feel the weight of his hand while troubling their host, and bringing the waters upon them; especially those that shall remain in the land, and will not be involved in the catastrophe:

and they did so: the Israelites turned to the right to Pihahiroth, instead of going by Bishbesh and Tinah (Bubastis and Pelusium), and so along the sea coast towards Gaza and Ascalon, and encamped there between Migdol and the sea over against Baalzephon, as they were ordered and directed.

Gill: Exo 14:5 - And it was told the king of Egypt // that the people fled // and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants were turned against the people // and they said, why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us And it was told the king of Egypt,.... By some of the Egyptians, or mixed multitude that went out with Israel, but returned upon their encampment at t...

And it was told the king of Egypt,.... By some of the Egyptians, or mixed multitude that went out with Israel, but returned upon their encampment at the Red sea, or by some spies Pharaoh sent with them to observe their motions: the Targums of Jonathan and Jarchi make use of a word which Buxtorf translates military officers: and the latter says, they went out with them the three days' journey, but the Israelites not returning to Egypt (as expected), they tell Pharaoh of it the fourth day; and on the fifth and sixth he pursued them, and in the night of the seventh went into the sea after them, and on the morning they (the Israelites) sung the song, which was the seventh of the passover: these reported to Pharaoh:

that the people fled; that under a pretence of going three days' journey into the wilderness, to serve and sacrifice to the Lord, they were about to make their escape out of the land:

and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants were turned against the people; who had so much favour in their sight, not only to give them leave to go, and to hasten their departure, but to lend and give them things of great value; but now their hearts were filled with hatred of them, and with malice and revenge:

and they said, why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us? not Pharaoh only, but his servants said so, even those who had entreated him to let them go, Exo 10:7 yet now repent of it, and cannot think what reason they had to do it, when at that time they saw reason, and gave a very sufficient one, namely, the destruction of Egypt; but now the judgments and plagues of God being no more upon them, they recollect the great service of the Israelites to them and the benefits and advantages they had reaped by it, and the loss they had sustained by parting with them, and therefore reflect upon themselves for such a piece of conduct.

Gill: Exo 14:6 - And he made ready his chariot // and took his people with him And he made ready his chariot,.... Which he usually rode in when he went forth to war; for this seems to be a military chariot, and not for show or gr...

And he made ready his chariot,.... Which he usually rode in when he went forth to war; for this seems to be a military chariot, and not for show or grandeur; and this was got ready not by himself, as Jarchi, but rather by his orders, as Aben Ezra:

and took his people with him; the Greek version reads, "all his people"; not all his subjects, but his soldiers; at least a great number, and especially his cavalry.

Gill: Exo 14:7 - And he took six hundred chosen chariots // and all the chariots of Egypt // and captains over everyone of them And he took six hundred chosen chariots,.... The chief and best he had, war chariots, chariots of iron; perhaps such as had iron scythes to them, to c...

And he took six hundred chosen chariots,.... The chief and best he had, war chariots, chariots of iron; perhaps such as had iron scythes to them, to cut down men as they drove along; these were taken partly for quickness of dispatch, that they might be able the sooner to overtake the Israelites, who had got several days' marches before them; and partly for their strength and the annoyance of their enemies with them:

and all the chariots of Egypt: as many as could in so short a time be got together: for the words are not to be taken in the utmost latitude, but to signify a great number, and all that could be conveniently come at: the Greek version is, "all the horse", the cavalry, which better distinguishes them from the former:

and captains over everyone of them: over everyone of the chariots, so that they must each of them have many in them, to have captains over them: and perhaps the infantry, or foot soldiers, for, quickness of expedition, were put into them; for, besides these, there were horsemen: Josephus p makes the whole number of his army to be 50,000 horse, and 200,000 foot, and the same number is given by a Jewish chronologer q: but Patricides, an Arabic writer, says r it consisted of 600,000, and Ezekiel s, the tragic poet, has made it amount to a million of horse and foot: should it be asked where horses could be had to draw the chariots, and horses for the horsemen after mentioned, when all were destroyed by the hail, Exo 9:25 it may be replied, that only those in the field were killed, not such as were in stables, where chariot horses and horses for war may be supposed to be: besides, as the Targum of Jonathan intimates, these might belong to these servants of Pharaoh who feared the word of the Lord, and took their cattle home, Exo 9:20.

Gill: Exo 14:8 - And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt // and he pursued after the children of Israel // and the children of Israel went out with an high hand And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt,.... As he said he would, Exo 14:4, and he pursued after the children of Israel; took thei...

And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt,.... As he said he would, Exo 14:4,

and he pursued after the children of Israel; took their rout in pursuit of them:

and the children of Israel went out with an high hand: not once dreaming they should be pursued by Pharaoh as an enemy, when they went out with his full consent, and with such pressing solicitations to be gone, and with so much favour shown them by the Egyptians; wherefore they set out, and went on with great boldness, courage, and intrepidity; "with an uncovered head", as the Targum of Onkelos, without any fear, and with great alacrity and cheerfulness; they carried both their heads and their hands high, were fearless and thoughtless of any danger when this mighty preparation was making against them.

Gill: Exo 14:9 - But the Egyptians pursued after them // all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army // and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pihahiroth, before Baalzephon But the Egyptians pursued after them,.... When they thought nothing of it, and had no fears about it: all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and h...

But the Egyptians pursued after them,.... When they thought nothing of it, and had no fears about it:

all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army; by the latter Aben Ezra understands the foot, as distinguished from the cavalry, the horses and horsemen; and perhaps these, as before observed, might be carried in the chariots for quicker dispatch:

and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pihahiroth, before Baalzephon; where they had pitched their camp by divine appointment, Exo 14:2.

Gill: Exo 14:10 - And when Pharaoh drew nigh // the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them // and they were sore afraid // and the children of Israel cried out unto the Lord And when Pharaoh drew nigh,.... Or "caused to draw nigh" t; that is, his army, brought it very near to the camp of the Israelites: the children of ...

And when Pharaoh drew nigh,.... Or "caused to draw nigh" t; that is, his army, brought it very near to the camp of the Israelites:

the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; in great numbers, with full speed, threatening them with utter destruction:

and they were sore afraid; being an unarmed people, though numerous, and so unable to defend themselves against armed and disciplined troops; and besides, through their long time of slavery their spirits were broken, and were a mean, abject, dispirited people; and especially were so on the sight of the Egyptians, whom they had so many years looked upon and served as their lords and masters:

and the children of Israel cried out unto the Lord: had they prayed unto him in this their distress for help and assistance, protection and preservation, with an holy and humble confidence in him for it, they had acted a right and laudable part; but their crying out to him seems to be only an outcry of the troubles they were in, and rather the effect of despair than of faith and hope; and was by way of complaint and lamentation of their miserable condition and circumstances, as appears by what follows, which shows what temper of mind they were in.

Gill: Exo 14:11 - And they said unto Moses // because there were no graves in Egypt // hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness // wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt And they said unto Moses,.... The Targum of Jonathan is,"the ungodly of that generation said unto Moses;''but it seems rather to be understood of the ...

And they said unto Moses,.... The Targum of Jonathan is,"the ungodly of that generation said unto Moses;''but it seems rather to be understood of the body of the people in general, and is not to be limited to some particular persons of the worse characters among them:

because there were no graves in Egypt; as if there had been none, when there were so many; the Egyptians being more solicitous about their graves than their houses, as Diodorus Siculus reports u; thus upbraiding Moses in a sarcastic way for what he had done:

hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? that so there might be room and graves enough to bury them in, for nothing but death was before their eyes:

wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt? which was very ungrateful and disingenuous.

Gill: Exo 14:12 - Is not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt // saying, let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians // for it had been better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness Is not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt,.... The thing they suggested to him, and talked with him about while they were in the land of Egy...

Is not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt,.... The thing they suggested to him, and talked with him about while they were in the land of Egypt, before they came out of it, particularly after their service and bondage were made more severe and cruel upon Moses and Aaron's demanding their dismission, see Exo 5:21,

saying, let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? peaceably and quietly, as we have been used to do, since there is no likelihood of being freed, and since we are more evilly treated than before:

for it had been better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness: of such mean spirits were they, and had so poor a notion of, and taste for liberty, and so ungrateful were they to their deliverer.

Gill: Exo 14:13 - And Moses said unto the people // fear ye not // stand still // and see the salvation of the Lord which he will shew to you today // for the Egyptians whom ye have seen today, ye shall see them again no more for ever And Moses said unto the people,.... Not in wrath and anger, but very coolly and sedately, agreeably to his character of the meekest man on earth; thou...

And Moses said unto the people,.... Not in wrath and anger, but very coolly and sedately, agreeably to his character of the meekest man on earth; though what they had said to him was very insulting and provoking:

fear ye not; Pharaoh and his numerous host, do not be dismayed at them or possess yourselves with a dread of them, and of destruction by them:

stand still; do not stir from the place where you are, do not offer to run away, or to make your escape by flight (and which indeed seemed impossible), keep your place and station, and put yourselves in such a situation as to wait and observe the issue of things:

and see the salvation of the Lord which he will shew to you today; which is expressive of great faith in Moses in the midst of this extremity, who firmly believed that God would save them from this numerous and enraged army, and that very quickly, even that day; at least within twenty four hours, within the compass of a day; for it was the night following that salvation was wrought for them, and their eyes beheld it: and it may be called the salvation of the Lord, for it was his own hand that only effected it, the Israelites not contributing anything in the least unto it, and was typical of the great salvation which Christ with his own arm, and without the help of his people, has wrought out for them:

for the Egyptians whom ye have seen today, ye shall see them again no more for ever; that is, in such a posture or manner, no more armed, nor alive, and the objects of their fear and dread; for otherwise they did see them again, but then they were on the sea shore dead; for it should be rendered, not "whom", but "how", or "in what manner" w.

Gill: Exo 14:14 - The Lord shall fight for you // and ye shall hold your peace The Lord shall fight for you,.... By commanding the wind of the heavens, and the waves of the sea, and employing them against their enemies, and on th...

The Lord shall fight for you,.... By commanding the wind of the heavens, and the waves of the sea, and employing them against their enemies, and on their behalf; they being unarmed, and so not in a condition to fight for themselves, as well as they had no heart or spirit for it:

and ye shall hold your peace; be still, and quiet, and easy in your minds, and forbear saying or doing anything; "be silent"; and neither express the fear and distress of their minds, by any mournful sounds, nor their joy of faith by shouts and huzzas; as they could not draw a sword, they were not so much as to blow a trumpet, and break a pitcher, and cry the sword of the Lord, and of Israel as they after did on another occasion, at least their posterity.

Gill: Exo 14:15 - And the Lord said unto Moses, wherefore criest thou unto me // speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward And the Lord said unto Moses, wherefore criest thou unto me?.... The Targum of Jonathan is,"why standest thou and prayest before me?''and no doubt thi...

And the Lord said unto Moses, wherefore criest thou unto me?.... The Targum of Jonathan is,"why standest thou and prayest before me?''and no doubt this crying is to be understood of prayer, of mental prayer, of secret ejaculations put up by Moses to the Lord without a voice, for no mention is made of any: this shows, that though Moses most firmly believed that God would work salvation for them, yet he did not neglect the use of means, prayer to God for it; nor was the Lord displeased with him on that account, only he had other work for him to do, and he had no need to pray any longer, God had heard him, and would save him and his people:

speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward; a little further, as Aben Ezra observes, until they were come to the sea shore, near to which they now were; and thither they were to move in an orderly composed manner, as unconcerned and fearless of their enemies.

Gill: Exo 14:16 - But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it // and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it,.... Even the same rod with which so many wonders had been done in Eg...

But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it,.... Even the same rod with which so many wonders had been done in Egypt; and Artapanus, the Heathen, says x, that Moses being bid by a divine voice to smite the sea with his rod, he hearkened to it, and touched the water with it, and so it divided, as it is said it did, Exo 14:21.

and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea; and so they did, Exo 14:22.

Gill: Exo 14:17 - And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians // and they shall follow them // and I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians,.... That they shall have no sense of danger, and be fearless of it, incautious and thoughtle...

And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians,.... That they shall have no sense of danger, and be fearless of it, incautious and thoughtless, hurried on with wrath and fury, malice and revenge:

and they shall follow them; the Israelites into the sea, supposing it to be as safe for the one as the other:

and I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen: by the utter destruction of them, in just retaliation for the many innocent infants that had been drowned by them in the river Nile.

Gill: Exo 14:18 - And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord // when I have gotten me honour upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord,.... Acknowledge him to be Jehovah, the self-existent, eternal, and immutable Being, the one only livi...

And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord,.... Acknowledge him to be Jehovah, the self-existent, eternal, and immutable Being, the one only living and true God, who is wise and powerful, faithful, just, and true; that is, those Egyptians that were left behind in Egypt, hearing what was done at the Red sea; for as for those that came with Pharaoh, they all perished to a man:

when I have gotten me honour upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen; by casting them into the sea, and drowning them there, thereby showing himself to be mightier than he.

Gill: Exo 14:19 - And the Angel of God which went before the camp of Israel // removed, and went behind them // and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them And the Angel of God which went before the camp of Israel,.... The Jews say y this was Michael, the great prince, who became a wall of fire between Is...

And the Angel of God which went before the camp of Israel,.... The Jews say y this was Michael, the great prince, who became a wall of fire between Israel and the Egyptians; and if they understood by him the uncreated angel, the eternal Word, the Son of God, who is always in Scripture meant by Michael, they are right: for certainly this Angel of the Lord is the same with Jehovah, who is said to go before them in a pillar of cloud and fire, Exo 13:21,

removed, and went behind them; but because removing from place to place, and going forwards or backwards, cannot be properly said of a divine Person, who is omnipresent, and fills every place and space; this is to be understood of the emblem of him, the pillar of cloud, as the next clause explains it:

and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them; the Targum of Jonathan adds,"because of the Egyptians, who cast arrows and stones, and the cloud received them;''and so Jarchi; whereby the Israelites were protected and preserved from receiving any hurt by them: so Christ is the protection of his people from all their enemies, sin, Satan, and the world, that sin cannot damn them, nor Satan destroy them, nor the world overcome them; for his salvation is as walls and bulwarks to them, and he is indeed a wall of fire about them.

Gill: Exo 14:20 - And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel // and it was a cloud and darkness to them // but it gave light by night to these // so that one came not near the other all the night And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel,.... That is, the pillar of cloud, and the Angel of God, or Jehovah, in it, where...

And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel,.... That is, the pillar of cloud, and the Angel of God, or Jehovah, in it, whereby the camp of Israel was secured from being annoyed by the camp of the Egyptians; and was an emblem of the gracious interposition of Christ between his spiritual Israel, whom he has redeemed by his blood, and their spiritual enemies, the Egyptians, the men of the world that hate them, from whose rage and malice Christ is their protection and safeguard:

and it was a cloud and darkness to them; to the Egyptians; it cast a shade upon them, and made the darkness of the night still greater to them, so that they could not see their way, and knew not where they were:

but it gave light by night to these; to the Israelites, so that they could see their way, and walk on in the midst of the sea, as on dry land; and such a light and guide they needed; for it was now the twenty first day of the month, seven days after the full of the moon, when the passover began, and therefore could have no benefit from the moon. The Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem say, that half the cloud was light, and half darkness; and it seems plain from the account, that that side of it which was towards the Egyptians was dark, and that which was towards the Israelites was light, and so an hinderance to the one and a benefit to the other: thus Christ is set for the rising of some, and the fall of others; and his Gospel is to some the savour of death unto death, and to others the savour of life unto life; to the one it is a hidden Gospel, and lies in darkness and obscurity, and to others a great and glorious light:

so that one came not near the other all the night; an emblem of that division and separation which the grace of God, the blood of Christ, and the light of the Gospel, make between the true Israel of God, and the men of the world; and which will continue throughout time, and to all eternity, so that they will never come near to each other; see Luk 16:26.

Gill: Exo 14:21 - And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea // and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night // and made the sea dry land // and the waters were divided And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea,.... With his rod in it, as he was directed to, Exo 14:16. What the poet says z of Bacchus is more true ...

And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea,.... With his rod in it, as he was directed to, Exo 14:16. What the poet says z of Bacchus is more true of Moses, whose rod had been lift up upon the rivers Egypt, and now upon the Red sea:

and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night; and the direction of the Red sea being nearly, if not altogether, north and south, it was in a proper situation to be wrought upon and divided by an easterly wind; though the Septuagint version renders it a strong south wind. No wind of itself, without the exertion and continuance of almighty power, in a miraculous way, could have so thrown the waves of the sea on heaps, and retained them so long, that such a vast number of people should pass through it as on dry land; though this was an instrument Jehovah made use of, and that both to divide the waters of the sea, and to dry and harden the bottom of it, and make it fit for travelling, as follows:

and made the sea dry land; or made the bottom of it dry, so that it could be trod and walked upon with ease, without sinking in, sticking fast, or slipping about, which was very extraordinary:

and the waters were divided; or "after the waters were divided" a; for they were first divided before the sea could be made dry. The Targum of Jonathan says, the waters were divided into twelve parts, answerable to the twelve tribes of Israel, and the same is observed by other Jewish writers b, grounded upon a passage in Psa 136:13 and suppose that each tribe took its particular path.

Gill: Exo 14:22 - And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground // and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand and on their left And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground,.... Some Jewish writers say c, that the tribe of Judah went in first, a...

And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground,.... Some Jewish writers say c, that the tribe of Judah went in first, and then the other tribes followed; but it is most likely, what Josephus says d, that Moses first entered in, and then the Israelites, encouraged by his example, went in after him; and a very adventurous action it was, and nothing but strong faith in the almighty power and promise of God could have engaged them in it, to which the apostle ascribes it, Heb 11:29. It is the opinion of Aben Ezra, and some other Jewish writers, that the Israelites did not pass through the Red sea to the opposite shore, only went some way into it, and took a compass in a semicircle, and came out on the same shore again, and which has been espoused by some Christian writers; and chiefly because they were in the wilderness of Etham before, and from whence they went into it, and when they came out of it, it was still the wilderness of Etham they came into, and went three days' journey into it seeking water; see Exo 13:20. Though it is possible the wilderness on the opposite shore might bear the same name, because of its likeness to it; and if it was the same wilderness that went round the Arabic gulf, or Red sea, and reached on to the other side of it, and so the wilderness of Etham lay on both sides, the difficulty is removed; for it seems most agreeable to the expressions of Scripture, that the Israelites passed through it from shore to shore. Others, in order to lessen the miracle, would have it that Moses, well knowing the country, and observing the tide, took the advantage of low water, and led the Israelites through it; and this story is told by the Egyptian priests of Memphis, as Artapanus e relates; but were the Egyptians less knowing of their country, and of the tide of the Red sea? and could Moses be sure of the exact time when they would come up to him, and the tide would serve him? Besides, the Egyptian priests at Heliopolis own the miracle, and relate it much as Moses has done; which must proceed from a conviction of the truth of it. And the above historian reports that the king (of Egypt) with a great army, and consecrated animals, pursued the Jews because of the substance they had borrowed of the Egyptians, which they took with them; but Moses being bid by a divine voice (or the voice of God, of Jehovah) to smite the sea with a rod, and hearkening to it, he touched the water with the rod, and so it divided, and his forces passed through a dry path, and the Egyptians attempting the same and pursuing, fire or lightning flashed out against them; and the sea shutting up the path again, partly by fire, and partly by the flow of the water, they all perished: and that this affair was miraculous, and could not be owing to any advantage taken from the tide, the following things have been observed; it is owned that the Red sea ebbs and flows like other seas that have a communication with the ocean, that is, the waters rise towards the shore during six hours, and having continued about a quarter of an hour at high water, ebb down again during another six hours; and it is observed by those who have examined it, that the greatest distance it falls from the place of high water is about three hundred yards; and that during the time of low water, one may safely travel it, as some have actually done; so that those three hundred paces, which the sea leaves uncovered during the time of low water, can continue so but for the space of half an hour at most; for during the first six hours, the sea retires only by degrees, and in less than half an hour it begins again to flow towards the shore. The most therefore that can be allowed, both of time and space of passable ground, in a moderate computation, is about two hundred paces, during six hours, or one hundred and fifty paces, during eight hours. Now it is further observed, that it is plain that a multitude consisting of upwards of two millions and a half of men, women, children, and slaves, encumbered besides with great quantities of cattle, household stuff, and the spoils of the Egyptians, could never perform such a march within so short a time; we may say within even double that space, though we should allow them also double the breadth of ground to do it on. This argument, it is added, will hold good against those who suppose they only coasted along some part of the sea, and those who maintain that they crossed the small arm or point of it which is toward the further end, near the isthmus of Suez; seeing that six or eight hours could not have sufficed for the passage of so immense a multitude, allow them what breadth of room you will; much less for Pharaoh to have entered it with his whole host f: and for the confirmation of the Mosaic account of this affair, and as miraculous, may be observed the testimony of Diodorus Siculus, who reports g that it is a tradition among the Ichthyophagi, who inhabit near the Red sea, or Arabic gulf, which they have received from the report of their ancestors, and is still preserved with them, that upon a great recess of the sea, every place of the gulf became dry, the sea falling to the opposite parts, the bottom appeared green, and returning back with a mighty force, was restored to its place again; which can have reference to nothing else but to this transaction in the time of Moses. And Strabo h relates a very wonderful thing, and such as rarely happens, that on the shore between Tyre and Ptolemais, when they of Ptolemais had a battle with the Emperor Sarpedon at that place, and there being put to flight, a flow of the sea like an inundation covered those that fled, and some were carried into the sea and perished, and others were left dead in hollow places; after a reflux followed, and discovered and showed the bodies of those that lay among the dead fishes. Now learned men have observed i, that what is here said of the sea of Tyre is to be understood of the Red sea, and that Sarpedon is not a proper name, but the same with שר פדון, "Sarphadon", the prince of deliverance, or of the delivered, as Moses was:

and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand and on their left; some of the Jewish Rabbins from Exo 15:8 have supposed that the waters were frozen as they were drove back by the east wind, and so stood up firm while the Israelites passed through, and then another wind thawed them, which brought them upon the Egyptians; but no doubt this was done by the wonderful interposition of divine power, and perhaps the ministry of angels was made use of, to detain and continue them in this position, until the end was answered. Adrichomius says k, the breadth of the sea was six miles at the passage of the Israelites; but a late traveller l tells us, that the channel between Sdur (or Shur, on the opposite side) and Gibbel Gewoubee, and Attackah (which he supposes was the place of their passage), was nine or ten miles over. Thevenot says m, that during the space of five days he kept along the coast of the Red sea, in going to Mount Sinai, he could not observe it to be anywhere above eight or nine miles over. A later traveller n tells us, that from the fountains of Moses may be plainly seen a wonderful aperture (Pihahiroth; see Exo 14:2) in the mountains on the other side of the Red sea, through and from which the children of Israel entered into it, when Pharaoh and his host were drowned; which aperture is situated west-southwest from these fountains of Moses, and the breadth of the sea hereabouts, where the children of Israel passed it, is about four or five hours' journey. The Arabic geographer o calls the place Jethren, where Pharaoh and his host were drowned; and represents it as a dangerous place to sail in, and where many ships are lost, and that this rough place is about the space of six miles. A countryman p of ours, who had been in these parts, guesses that the breadth of the place (called by the Mahometans, Kilt el Pharown, the well or pit of Pharaoh) where the Israelites are said to pass through is about six or seven leagues; the difference between these writers may be accounted for by the different places where they suppose this passage was.

Gill: Exo 14:23 - And the Egyptians pursued // and went in after them into the midst of the sea // even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen And the Egyptians pursued,.... The Israelites going forwards towards the sea as they were ordered, and going into it: and went in after them into t...

And the Egyptians pursued,.... The Israelites going forwards towards the sea as they were ordered, and going into it:

and went in after them into the midst of the sea; which if fearful of, they might conclude it was as safe for them to go in as for the Israelites; but perhaps through the darkness of the night, and the eagerness of their pursuit, they might not perceive where they were, nor the danger they were exposed unto:

even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen: which is observed to show, that as all that did go in perished, not one was saved, as after related, so all he brought with him, the whole of his army, went in, so that all that went out of Egypt were destroyed.

Gill: Exo 14:24 - And it came to pass, that in the morning watch // the Lord looked unto the host of the Egyptians, through the pillar of fire and of the cloud // and troubled the host of the Egyptians And it came to pass, that in the morning watch,.... The Romans divided the night into four watches, so the Hebrews; though some say into three only. T...

And it came to pass, that in the morning watch,.... The Romans divided the night into four watches, so the Hebrews; though some say into three only. The first began at six o'clock, and lasted till nine, the second was from thence to twelve, the third from thence to three in the morning, and the last from three to six, which is here called the morning watch; so that this was some time between three and six o'clock in the morning:

the Lord looked unto the host of the Egyptians, through the pillar of fire and of the cloud; the Angel of the Lord, and who was Jehovah himself, who was in it, he looked to the army of the Egyptians; not to know whereabout they were, he being the omniscient God; nor in a friendly manner, but as an enemy, with indignation and wrath. The Targum of Jonathan is,"he looked through the pillar of fire, to cast upon them coals of fire, and through the pillar of cloud, to cast upon them hailstones.''The Jerusalem Targum is,"pitch, fire, and hailstones;''and Josephus q speaks of storms and tempests, of thunder and lightning, and of thunderbolts out of the clouds; and Artapanus r of fire or lightning flashing out against them, by which many perished. Perhaps the psalmist may have reference to this in Psa 106:10.

and troubled the host of the Egyptians; the thunder and lightning no doubt frightened the horses, so that they broke their ranks, and horsemen and chariots might run foul on one another, and the hailstones scatter and destroy many; however, the whole must be terrible and distressing to them, especially it being in the night season.

Gill: Exo 14:25 - And took off their chariot wheels // that they drave them heavily // so that the Egyptians said, let us flee from the face of Israel // for the Lord fighteth for them against the Egyptians And took off their chariot wheels,.... The Targum of Jonathan renders it "cut" or "sawed them off"; perhaps they might be broken off by the hailstones...

And took off their chariot wheels,.... The Targum of Jonathan renders it "cut" or "sawed them off"; perhaps they might be broken off by the hailstones. Milton s seems to have a notion of Pharaoh's chariot wheels being broken, when he says, "and craze" (i.e. break) "their chariot wheels"; or, as Jarchi suggests, he burnt them, through the force of the fire or lightning:

that they drave them heavily; the wheels being off, the chariots must be dragged along by the horses by mere force, which must be heavy work; or, "and made them to go, or led them heavily", or "with heaviness" t; and so to be ascribed to the Lord, who looked at the Egyptians, took off the wheels of their chariots, and stopped them in the fury of their career, that they could not pursue with the swiftness they had:

so that the Egyptians said, let us flee from the face of Israel; for by this battery and flashes of fire on them, they concluded that Israel, who they thought were fleeing before them, had turned and were facing them, and the Lord at the head of them; and therefore it was high time for them to flee, as follows:

for the Lord fighteth for them against the Egyptians; for they rightly took the thunder and lightning, the fire and hailstones, to be the artillery of heaven turned against them, and in favour of the Israelites. Jarchi interprets it, the Lord fights for them in Egypt, even in Egypt itself; but so he had done many a time before, of which they were not insensible.

Gill: Exo 14:26 - And the Lord said unto Moses // Stretch out thine hand over the sea // that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen And the Lord said unto Moses,.... Out of the pillar of fire and of the cloud, when the Egyptians were in all the confusion before described, and about...

And the Lord said unto Moses,.... Out of the pillar of fire and of the cloud, when the Egyptians were in all the confusion before described, and about to make the best of their way back again:

Stretch out thine hand over the sea; with his rod in it, by which all the wonders were wrought, and particularly by which the sea had been divided, and now it must be used to a different purpose:

that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen; the waters which stood upright as a wall, on the right and left, might be no longer kept in such a position, but fall down upon the Egyptians, their chariots and horsemen, being higher than they.

Gill: Exo 14:27 - And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea // and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared // at the appearance of the morning in its strength // and the Egyptians fled against it // and the Lord overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea,.... Or towards it, as he was ordered, the rod being in his hand, as before observed: and the sea r...

And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea,.... Or towards it, as he was ordered, the rod being in his hand, as before observed:

and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; being no longer detained by a superior power, contrary to the nature of it, to stand still as an heap, and firm as a wall, its waves came down and rolled with their usual force and strength, or it returned to its usual course:

at the appearance of the morning in its strength; when the morning looked forth in its first light and brightness, when it was broad day:

and the Egyptians fled against it; against the waves that came rolling down upon them: or "at meeting it" u, for as they turned their backs on the Israelites and fled, the waters of the sea met them, as well as fell on each side of them, or rather over them, and followed after them, and closed and shut them up on all sides; so that it was in vain for them to flee, for let them go which way they would, the sea was against them:

and the Lord overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea; or shook them "off" or "out" w; out of their chariots, blew them out with the wind; for as there was a wind made use of to divide the waters of the sea, and make the bottom of it dry, there was another to cause the waters to return to their former place; see Exo 15:10 or the waves of the sea dashed them out of their chariots, or through the force of them they were overturned in it.

Gill: Exo 14:28 - And the waters returned // and covered the chariots and the horsemen // and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them // there remained not so much as one of them And the waters returned,.... To their place, and so in the above tradition related by Diodorus Siculus, it is said that the sea returning with a might...

And the waters returned,.... To their place, and so in the above tradition related by Diodorus Siculus, it is said that the sea returning with a mighty force was restored to its place again; See Gill on Exo 14:22.

and covered the chariots and the horsemen; the wall they made being much higher than a man on horseback, when they fell down, covered even those who had the advantage of horses and chariots; and much more must the infantry be covered by them, who may be meant in the next clause:

and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; the foot, that went into the sea after the chariots and horsemen, or the whole army, including the cavalry and infantry, which went into the sea after the children of Israel. Who this Pharaoh was is not agreed; according to Berosus x his name was Cenchres, or Chenchres, whom Acherres succeeded; according to Bishop Usher y it was Amenophis; but our English poet z calls him Busiris; though Strabo a says there was no king or governor of that name. Diodorus Siculus b indeed speaks of two so called; yet he elsewhere c says, not that there was any king of the name, only the sepulchre of Osiris was so called:

there remained not so much as one of them; wherefore it must be a falsehood which is related by some, that Pharaoh himself was preserved, and afterwards reigned in Nineveh d, since not one was saved; see Psa 106:11 and so Artapanus e the Heathen says, they all perished, and among these are said f to be Jannes and Jambres, the magicians of Egypt mentioned in 2Ti 3:8 but this is contradicted by those g who ascribe the making of the golden calf to them.

Gill: Exo 14:29 - But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea // and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand and on their left But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea,.... The bottom of it becoming so through the strong east wind, which blew all...

But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea,.... The bottom of it becoming so through the strong east wind, which blew all night until they came to the opposite shore, where they landed on "terra firma"; and so Noldius renders the phrase "through the sea"; that is, from shore to shore:

and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand and on their left; See Gill on Exo 14:22.

Gill: Exo 14:30 - Thus the Lord saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians // and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the sea shore Thus the Lord saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians,.... For though it was now six or seven days since they had leave to go out of Eg...

Thus the Lord saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians,.... For though it was now six or seven days since they had leave to go out of Egypt, and actually did depart, yet they could not be said properly to be saved, or to be in safety, till this day, when all the Egyptians their enemies were destroyed, that pursued after them; and this was the twenty first day of the month, and the seventh and last day of the passover, and was an holy convocation to the Lord; See Gill on Exo 12:16.

and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the sea shore; all along, as a late traveller h observes, as we may presume, from Sdur (or Shur) to Corondel, and at Corondel especially, from the assistance and termination of the current there. The word for "dead" i is in the singular number, and joined with a plural may denote that they saw everyone of the Egyptians dead, since they were all destroyed, and not one remained of them, as in Exo 14:28. Aben Ezra thinks the sense of the words is, not that the Egyptians were seen dead upon the sea shore, but that the Israelites standing upon the sea shore saw the dead bodies of the Egyptians, that is, floating on the waters of the sea; but rather the meaning is, that their dead bodies were by the force of the waters cast upon the shore, and there beheld and plundered by the Israelites. Josephus k observes, that the day following (that night the Egyptians were drowned) the arms of the Egyptians being cast on the shore where the Hebrews encamped, through the force of the sea and wind, Moses gathered them up and armed the Hebrews with them; and this will account for it how they came to have arms, since it is highly probable they came out of Egypt unarmed; and how they could fight battles as they did in the wilderness, and when they came into the land of Canaan.

Gill: Exo 14:31 - And Israel saw the great work // which the Lord did upon the Egyptians // and the people feared the Lord // and believed the Lord and his servant Moses And Israel saw the great work,.... Or "hand" l; the hand of the Lord, the mighty power of God, and took notice of it, and seriously considered the gre...

And Israel saw the great work,.... Or "hand" l; the hand of the Lord, the mighty power of God, and took notice of it, and seriously considered the greatness of it:

which the Lord did upon the Egyptians; which mighty hand he laid upon them, and which great power he exercised on them, and which great work, the effect thereof, he wrought in destroying them in such a manner, by causing the waters, which divided for them and their safety, to return upon the Egyptians to their utter destruction:

and the people feared the Lord; had an awe of his power and greatness upon their minds, and a sense of his goodness to them upon their hearts, which influenced their fear of him, and caused them to fear him with a filial and godly fear:

and believed the Lord and his servant Moses; they believed the Lord to be the only Jehovah, the supreme Being, the one only living and true God, faithful to his word, able to do all things, and wise to do them in the fittest season, for his own glory and his people's good; and they believed his promises, and the fulfilment of them; and that as he had now saved them out of the hands of the Egyptians, he would bring them to the land of Canaan, which he had promised their fathers to give unto them; and they believed Moses was sent of God to be their deliverer out of Egypt, and to be their leader to the promised land; see Psa 106:12 and who were now by the apostle said to be baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea, 1Co 10:1 and of their passage through the Red sea under the direction of Moses being an emblem of baptism; see Gill on 1Co 10:1.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Exo 14:1 The account recorded in this chapter is one of the best known events in all of Scripture. In the argument of the book it marks the division between th...

NET Notes: Exo 14:2 The places have been tentatively identified. W. C. Kaiser summarizes the suggestions that Pi-Hahiroth as an Egyptian word may mean “temple of th...

NET Notes: Exo 14:3 The expression has also been translated “the desert has shut [the way] for them,” and more freely “[the Israelites are] hemmed in by...

NET Notes: Exo 14:4 Heb “and they did so.”

NET Notes: Exo 14:5 Heb “released Israel.” By metonymy the name of the nation is used collectively for the people who constitute it (the Israelites).

NET Notes: Exo 14:6 Heb “his people.”

NET Notes: Exo 14:7 The word שָׁלִשִׁם (shalishim) means “officers” or some special kind of military per...

NET Notes: Exo 14:8 Heb “with a high hand”; the expression means “defiantly,” “boldly,” or “with confidence.” The phrase i...

NET Notes: Exo 14:10 Their cry to the Lord was proper and necessary. But their words to Moses were a rebuke and disloyal, showing a lack of faith and understanding. Their ...

NET Notes: Exo 14:11 The Hebrew term לְהוֹצִּיאָנוּ (lÿhotsi’anu) is the Hip...

NET Notes: Exo 14:12 Since Hebrew does not use quotation marks to indicate the boundaries of quotations, there is uncertainty about whether the Israelites’ statement...

NET Notes: Exo 14:13 U. Cassuto (Exodus, 164) notes that the antithetical parallelism between seeing salvation and seeing the Egyptians, as well as the threefold repetitio...

NET Notes: Exo 14:14 The imperfect tense needs to be interpreted in contrast to all that Yahweh will be doing. It may be given a potential imperfect nuance (as here), or i...

NET Notes: Exo 14:15 The text literally says, “speak to the Israelites that they may journey.” The intent of the line, using the imperative with the subordinat...

NET Notes: Exo 14:16 The imperfect (or jussive) with the vav (ו) is sequential, coming after the series of imperatives instructing Moses to divide the sea; the form ...

NET Notes: Exo 14:17 Or “I will get glory over.”

NET Notes: Exo 14:18 The form is בְּהִכָּבְדִי (bÿhikkavÿdi), the Niphal infinitive...

NET Notes: Exo 14:19 B. Jacob (Exodus, 400-401) makes a good case that there may have been only one pillar, one cloud; it would have been a dark cloud behind it, but in fr...

NET Notes: Exo 14:20 The LXX reads very differently at the end of this verse: “and there was darkness and blackness and the night passed.” B. S. Childs (Exodus...

NET Notes: Exo 14:21 Or “drove the sea back” (NIV, NCV, NRSV, TEV). The verb is simply the Hiphil of הָלַךְ (halakh, “...

NET Notes: Exo 14:22 S. R. Driver (Exodus, 119), still trying to explain things with natural explanations, suggests that a northeast wind is to be thought of (an east wind...

NET Notes: Exo 14:24 The verb הָמַם (hamam) means “throw into confusion.” It is used in the Bible for the panic and disarray of a...

NET Notes: Exo 14:25 The form is the Niphal participle; it is used as the predicate here, that is, the verbal use: “the Lord is fighting.” This corresponds to ...

NET Notes: Exo 14:26 The verb, “and they will return,” is here subordinated to the imperative preceding it, showing the purpose of that act.

NET Notes: Exo 14:27 The verb means “shake out” or “shaking off.” It has the significance of “throw downward.” See Neh 5:13 or Job 38:1...

NET Notes: Exo 14:28 Heb “not was left among them as much as one.”

NET Notes: Exo 14:30 The participle “dead” is singular, agreeing in form with “Egypt.”

NET Notes: Exo 14:31 Here the title of “servant” is given to Moses. This is the highest title a mortal can have in the OT – the “servant of Yahweh....

Geneva Bible: Exo 14:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that they ( a ) turn and encamp before ( b ) Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baalzephon: befor...

Geneva Bible: Exo 14:4 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that he shall follow after them; and I will ( c ) be honoured upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; that the Egyptia...

Geneva Bible: Exo 14:7 And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and ( d ) all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them. ( d ) Josephus writes that besides...

Geneva Bible: Exo 14:8 And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel: and the children of Israel went out with an ( e...

Geneva Bible: Exo 14:10 And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were sore ( f ) afrai...

Geneva Bible: Exo 14:12 [Is] not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt, saying, Let ( g ) us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? For [it had been] better for us to...

Geneva Bible: Exo 14:14 The LORD shall fight for you, and ye shall ( h ) hold your peace. ( h ) Only put your trust in God without grudging or doubting.

Geneva Bible: Exo 14:15 And the LORD said unto Moses, Wherefore ( i ) criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward: ( i ) Thus in temptation ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 14:20 And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness [to them], but it gave ( k ) light by night [to ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 14:24 And it came to pass, that in the morning ( l ) watch the LORD looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and t...

Geneva Bible: Exo 14:27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; an...

Geneva Bible: Exo 14:31 And Israel saw that great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the LORD, and believed the LORD, and his ( n ) servant Mos...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Exo 14:19-31 - A Path In The Sea Exodus 14:19-31 This passage begins at the point where the fierce charge of the Egyptian chariots and cavalry on the straggling masses of the fugitive...

Maclaren: Exo 14:20 - A Path In The Sea II. The Sudden March Of The Egyptians. Having thus been arrested, there is leisure, behind the shelter of the fiery barrier, to take the next step in...

MHCC: Exo 14:1-9 - --Pharaoh would think that all Israel was entangled in the wilderness, and so would become an easy prey. But God says, I will be honoured upon Pharaoh. ...

MHCC: Exo 14:10-14 - --There was no way open to Israel but upward, and thence their deliverance came. We may be in the way of duty, following God, and hastening toward heave...

MHCC: Exo 14:15-20 - --Moses' silent prayers of faith prevailed more with God than Israel's loud outcries of fear. The pillar of cloud and fire came behind them, where they ...

MHCC: Exo 14:21-31 - --The dividing the Red sea was the terror of the Canaanites, Jos 2:9; the praise and triumph of the Israelites, Psa 114:3; Psa 106:9; Psa 136:13. It was...

Matthew Henry: Exo 14:1-9 - -- We have here, I. Instructions given to Moses concerning Israel's motions and encampments, which were so very surprising that if Moses had not expres...

Matthew Henry: Exo 14:10-14 - -- We have here, I. The fright that the children of Israel were in when they perceived that Pharaoh pursued them, Exo 14:10. They knew very well the st...

Matthew Henry: Exo 14:15-20 - -- We have here, I. Direction given to Israel's leader. 1. What he must do himself. He must, for the present, leave off praying, and apply himself to h...

Matthew Henry: Exo 14:21-31 - -- We have here the history of that work of wonder which is so often mentioned both in the Old and New Testament, the dividing of the Red Sea before th...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 14:1-2 - -- Passage of the Israelites through the Red Sea; Destruction of Pharaoh and His Army. - Exo 14:1, Exo 14:2. At Etham God commanded the Israelites to t...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 14:3-9 - -- This turn in their route was not out of the way for the passage through the Red Sea; but apart from this, it was not only out of the way, but a very...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 14:10-12 - -- When the Israelites saw the advancing army of the Egyptians, they were greatly alarmed; for their situation to human eyes was a very unfortunate one...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 14:13 - -- Moses met their unbelief and fear with the energy of strong faith, and promised them such help from the Lord, that they would never see again the Eg...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 14:14 - -- " Jehovah will fight for you ( לכם , dat comm.), but you will be silent, "i.e., keep quiet, and not complain any more (cf. Gen 34:5).

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 14:15-19 - -- The words of Jehovah to Moses, " What criest thou to Me? "imply that Moses had appealed to God for help, or laid the complaints of the people before...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 14:20 - -- " And it was the cloud and the darkness (sc., to the Egyptians), and lighted up the night (sc., to the Israelites)." Fuit nubes partim lucida et par...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 14:21-24 - -- When Moses stretched out his hand with the staff (Exo 14:16) over the sea, " Jehovah made the water go (flow away) by a strong east wind the whole ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 14:25 - -- " And (Jehovah) made the wheels of his (the Egyptian's) chariots give way, and made, that he (the Egyptian) drove in difficulty ." נהג ".ytl...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 14:26-29 - -- Then God directed Moses to stretch out his staff again over the sea, and the sea came back with the turning of the morning (when the morning turned,...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 14:30-31 - -- This miraculous deliverance of Israel from the power of Egypt, through the mighty hand of their God, produced so wholesome a fear of the Lord, that ...

Constable: Exo 1:1--15:22 - --I. THE LIBERATION OF ISRAEL 1:1--15:21 "The story of the first half of Exodus, in broad summary, is Rescue. The ...

Constable: Exo 13:17--15:22 - --D. God's completion of Israel's liberation 13:17-15:21 The Israelites now began their migration from Gos...

Constable: Exo 14:1-31 - --2. Israel's passage through the Red Sea ch. 14 14:1-4 Scholars have not been able to locate definitely the sites referred to in verse 2. "An Egyptian ...

Guzik: Exo 14:1-31 - The Crossing of the Red Sea Exodus 14 - The Crossing of the Red Sea A. The pursuit of Pharaoh's armies. 1. (1-4) God draws Pharaoh to come out against Israel. Now the LORD sp...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Evidence: Exo 14:16 The Law is the rod of God in the hand of Moses. It will open up the Red Sea and bring deliverance of those who have been "taken captive by the devil."...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) EXODUS, a "going forth," derives its name from its being occupied principally with a relation of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, and the i...

JFB: Exodus (Garis Besar) INCREASE OF THE ISRAELITES. (Exo. 1:1-22) BIRTH AND PRESERVATION OF MOSES. (Exo 2:1-10) there went a man of the house of Levi, &c. Amram was the hus...

TSK: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The title of this Book is derived from the Septuagint; in which it is called ΕΞΟΔΟΣ , " Exodus;" or, as it is in the Codex Alexandrinus, Ε...

TSK: Exodus 14 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Exo 14:1, God instructs the Israelites in their journey; Exo 14:5, Pharaoh pursues after them; Exo 14:10, The Israelites murmur; Exo 14:1...

Poole: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) SECOND BOOK OF MOSES CALLED EXODUS. THE ARGUMENT. AFTER the death of Joseph, who had sent for his father’ s house into Egypt, the children o...

Poole: Exodus 14 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 14 God commandeth the Israelites to encamp at Pi-hahiroth, Exo 14:1,2 ; the reason why, Exo 14:3,4 . Pharaoh and his servants repent for le...

MHCC: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Exodus relates the forming of the children of Israel into a church and a nation. We have hitherto seen true religion shown in domestic lif...

MHCC: Exodus 14 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Exo 14:1-9) God directs the Israelites to Pihahiroth, Pharaoh pursues after them. (Exo 14:10-14) The Israelites murmur, Moses comforts them. (Exo 1...

Matthew Henry: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Second Book of Moses, Called Exodus Moses (the servant of the Lord in writing for him as well as ...

Matthew Henry: Exodus 14 (Pendahuluan Pasal) The departure of the children of Israel out of Egypt (which was indeed the birth of the Jewish church) is made yet more memorable by further works ...

Constable: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The Hebrew title of this book (we'elleh shemot) originated from the...

Constable: Exodus (Garis Besar) Outline I. The liberation of Israel 1:1-15:21 A. God's preparation of Israel and Moses chs. ...

Constable: Exodus Exodus Bibliography Adams, Dwayne H. "The Building Program that Works (Exodus 25:4--36:7 [31:1-11])." Exegesis ...

Haydock: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF EXODUS. INTRODUCTION. The second Book of Moses is called Exodus from the Greek word Exodos, which signifies going out; becaus...

Gill: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS This book is called by the Jews Veelleh Shemoth, from the first words with which it begins, and sometimes Sepher Shemoth, an...

Gill: Exodus 14 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS 14 This chapter begins with directions of God to Moses, to be given to the children of Israel about the course they were to ...

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