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Teks -- Exodus 13:1-22 (NET)

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Konteks
The Law of the Firstborn
13:1 The Lord spoke to Moses: 13:2 “Set apart to me every firstborn male– the first offspring of every womb among the Israelites, whether human or animal; it is mine.” 13:3 Moses said to the people, “Remember this day on which you came out from Egypt, from the place where you were enslaved, for the Lord brought you out of there with a mighty hand– and no bread made with yeast may be eaten. 13:4 On this day, in the month of Abib, you are going out. 13:5 When the Lord brings you to the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Hivites, and Jebusites, which he swore to your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, then you will keep this ceremony in this month. 13:6 For seven days you must eat bread made without yeast, and on the seventh day there is to be a festival to the Lord. 13:7 Bread made without yeast must be eaten for seven days; no bread made with yeast shall be seen among you, and you must have no yeast among you within any of your borders. 13:8 You are to tell your son on that day, ‘It is because of what the Lord did for me when I came out of Egypt.’ 13:9 It will be a sign for you on your hand and a memorial on your forehead, so that the law of the Lord may be in your mouth, for with a mighty hand the Lord brought you out of Egypt. 13:10 So you must keep this ordinance at its appointed time from year to year. 13:11 When the Lord brings you into the land of the Canaanites, as he swore to you and to your fathers, and gives it to you, 13:12 then you must give over to the Lord the first offspring of every womb. Every firstling of a beast that you have– the males will be the Lord’s. 13:13 Every firstling of a donkey you must redeem with a lamb, and if you do not redeem it, then you must break its neck. Every firstborn of your sons you must redeem. 13:14 In the future, when your son asks you ‘What is this?’ you are to tell him, ‘With a mighty hand the Lord brought us out from Egypt, from the land of slavery. 13:15 When Pharaoh stubbornly refused to release us, the Lord killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of people to the firstborn of animals. That is why I am sacrificing to the Lord the first male offspring of every womb, but all my firstborn sons I redeem.’ 13:16 It will be for a sign on your hand and for frontlets on your forehead, for with a mighty hand the Lord brought us out of Egypt.”
The Leading of God
13:17 When Pharaoh released the people, God did not lead them by the way to the land of the Philistines, although that was nearby, for God said, “Lest the people change their minds and return to Egypt when they experience war.” 13:18 So God brought the people around by the way of the desert to the Red Sea, and the Israelites went up from the land of Egypt prepared for battle. 13:19 Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for Joseph had made the Israelites solemnly swear, “God will surely attend to you, and you will carry my bones up from this place with you.” 13:20 They journeyed from Sukkoth and camped in Etham, on the edge of the desert. 13:21 Now the Lord was going before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them in the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so that they could travel day or night. 13:22 He did not remove the pillar of cloud by day nor the pillar of fire by night from before the people.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abib a month in the spring time, about March or April
 · Amorites members of a pre-Israel Semitic tribe from Mesopotamia
 · Canaanite residents of the region of Canaan
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Etham a place where the Israelites made an early encampment
 · Hittite a person/people living in the land of Syro-Palestine
 · Hivite a person/people descended from Canaan son of Ham son of Noah
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jebusite resident(s) of the town of Jebus (Jerusalem)
 · Joseph the husband of Mary and foster-father of Jesus,a Jewish man from Arimathea in whose grave the body of Jesus was laid,two different men listed as ancestors of Jesus,a man nominated with Matthias to take the place of Judas Iscariot as apostle,a son of Jacob and Rachel; the father of Ephraim and Manasseh and ruler of Egypt,a brother of Jesus; a son of Mary,a man who was a companion of Paul,son of Jacob and Rachel; patriarch of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh,a tribe, actually two tribes named after Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasseh,father of Igal, of Issachar, who helped spy out Canaan,son of Asaph the Levite; worship leader under Asaph and King David,a man who put away his heathen wife; an Israelite descended from Binnui,priest and head of the house of Shebaniah under High Priest Joiakim in the time of Nehemiah
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law
 · Pharaoh the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Abraham's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Joseph's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who refused to let Israel leave Egypt,the title of the king of Egypt whose daughter Solomon married,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in the time of Isaiah,the title Egypt's ruler just before Moses' time
 · Philistines a sea people coming from Crete in 1200BC to the coast of Canaan
 · Red Sea the ocean between Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula,the sea between Egypt and Arabia
 · Succoth a place where the Israelites camped as they left Egypt,a town of Gad in the Jordan Valley opposite Shechem


Topik/Tema Kamus: Passover | Moses | Token | Frontlets | Quotations and Allusions | Sin | Judgments | EXODUS, THE BOOK OF, 2 | Israel | FRONTLETS, OR PHYLACTERIES | GENESIS, 1-2 | Firstborn | Phylacteries | Instruction | Phylactery | Thankfulness | God | Children | Memorial | Red Sea | selebihnya
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Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

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NET Notes , Geneva Bible

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Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Wesley: Exo 13:2 - Sanctify to me all the first-born The parents were not to look upon themselves as interested in their first-born, till they had first solemnly presented them to God, and received them ...

The parents were not to look upon themselves as interested in their first-born, till they had first solemnly presented them to God, and received them back from him again.

Wesley: Exo 13:2 - It is mine By a special right, being by my singular favour preserved from the common destruction.

By a special right, being by my singular favour preserved from the common destruction.

Wesley: Exo 13:5 - When the lord shall bring you into the land, thou shalt keep this service 'Till then they were not obliged to keep the passover, without a particular command from God.

'Till then they were not obliged to keep the passover, without a particular command from God.

Wesley: Exo 13:7 - There shall no leavened bread be seen in all thy quarters Accordingly the Jews usage was, before the feast of the passover, to cast all the leavened bread out of their houses; either they burnt it, or buried ...

Accordingly the Jews usage was, before the feast of the passover, to cast all the leavened bread out of their houses; either they burnt it, or buried it, or broke it small, and threw it into the wind; they searched diligently with lighted candles in all the corners of their houses, lest any leaven should remain. The strictness enjoined in this matter was designed, To make the feast the more solemn, and consequently the more taken notice of by the children, who would ask, why is so much ado made? To teach us how solicitous we should be to put away from us all sin.

Wesley: Exo 13:9 - Upon thy hand, between thine eyes Proverbial expressions; denoting things which are never out of our thoughts.

Proverbial expressions; denoting things which are never out of our thoughts.

Wesley: Exo 13:13 - Thou shalt redeem The price of the redemption was fixed by the law.

The price of the redemption was fixed by the law.

Wesley: Exo 13:16 - For frontlets between thine eyes As conspicuous as any thing fixt to thy forehead, or between thine eyes.

As conspicuous as any thing fixt to thy forehead, or between thine eyes.

Wesley: Exo 13:18 - -- There were many reasons why God led them through the way of the wilderness of the red sea.

There were many reasons why God led them through the way of the wilderness of the red sea.

Wesley: Exo 13:18 - The Egyptians were to be drowned in the Red sea, the Israelites were to be humbled, and proved in the wilderness. Deu 8:2. God had given it to Moses for a sign, Exo 3:12, ye shall serve God in t...

sea, the Israelites were to be humbled, and proved in the wilderness. Deu 8:2. God had given it to Moses for a sign, Exo 3:12, ye shall serve God in this mountain. They had again and again told Pharaoh that they must go three days journey into the wilderness to do sacrifice, and therefore it was requisite they should march that way, else they had justly been exclaimed against as dissemblers. Before they entered the lifts with their enemies, matters must be settled between them and their God; laws must be given, ordinances instituted, covenants sealed; and for the doing of this it was necessary they should retire into the solitudes of a wilderness, the only closet for such a crowd; the high road would be no proper place for these transactions. The reason why God did not lead them the nearest way, which would have brought them in a few days to the land of the Philistines, was because they were not yet fit for war, much less for war with the Philistines. Their spirits were broke with slavery; the Philistines were formidable enemies; it was convenient they should begin with the Amalekites, and be prepared for the wars of Canaan, by experiencing the difficulties of the wilderness. God is said to bring Israel out of Egypt as the eagle brings up her young ones, Deu 32:11, teaching them by degrees to fly.

Wesley: Exo 13:18 - They went up harnessed They went up by five in a rank, so some; in five squadrons, so others. They marched like an army with banners, which added much to strength and honour...

They went up by five in a rank, so some; in five squadrons, so others. They marched like an army with banners, which added much to strength and honour.

Wesley: Exo 13:21 - And the Lord went before them in a pillar In the two first stages, it was enough that God directed Moses whither to march; he knew the country, and the road; but now they are come to the edge ...

In the two first stages, it was enough that God directed Moses whither to march; he knew the country, and the road; but now they are come to the edge of the wilderness, they would have occasion for a guide, and a very good guide they had, infinitely wise, kind, and faithful, the Lord went up before them; The Shechinah or appearance of the divine Majesty, which was a precious manifestation of the eternal Word, who in the fulness of time was to be made flesh, and dwell among us. Christ was with the church in the wilderness, 1Co 10:9. What a satisfaction to Moses and the pious Israelites, to be sure that they were under a divine conduct? They need not fear missing their way who were thus led, nor being lost who were thus directed; they need not fear being benighted, who were thus illuminated, nor being robbed, who were thus protected. And they who make the glory of God their end, and the word of God their rule, the spirit of God the guide of their affections, and the providence of God the guide of their affairs, may be confident that the Lord goes before them, as truly is he went before Israel in the wilderness, though not so sensibly. They had sensible effects of God's going before them in this pillar. For, It led them the way in that vast howling wilderness, in which there was no road, no track, no way-marks through which they had no guides. When they marched, this pillar went before them, at the rate that they could follow, and appointed the place of their encampment, as infinite Wisdom saw fit; which eased them from care, and secured them from danger, both in moving, and in resting. It sheltered them from the heat by day, which at sometimes of the year was extreme: And it gave them light by night when they had occasion for it.

Wesley: Exo 13:22 - He took not away the pillar of the cloud, No not when they seemed to have less occasion for it: it never left them 'till it brought them to the borders of Canaan. It was a cloud which the wind...

No not when they seemed to have less occasion for it: it never left them 'till it brought them to the borders of Canaan. It was a cloud which the wind could not scatter. There was something spiritual in this pillar of cloud and fire. The children of Israel were baptized unto Moses in this cloud, 1Co 10:2. By coming under this cloud they signified their putting themselves under the conduct and command of Moses. Protection draws allegiance; this cloud was the badge of God's protection, and so became the bond of their allegiance. Thus they were initiated, and admitted under that government, now when they were entering upon the wilderness. And it signifies the special conduct and protection which the church of Christ is under in this world.

JFB: Exo 13:2 - Sanctify unto me all the first-born To "sanctify" means to "consecrate," to "set apart" from a common to a sacred use. The foundation of this duty rested on the fact that the Israelites,...

To "sanctify" means to "consecrate," to "set apart" from a common to a sacred use. The foundation of this duty rested on the fact that the Israelites, having had their first-born preserved by a distinguishing act of grace from the general destruction that overtook the families of the Egyptians, were bound in token of gratitude to consider them as the Lord's peculiar property (compare Heb 12:23).

JFB: Exo 13:3 - Moses said unto the people, Remember this day The day that gave them a national existence and introduced them into the privileges of independence and freedom, deserved to live in the memories of t...

The day that gave them a national existence and introduced them into the privileges of independence and freedom, deserved to live in the memories of the Hebrews and their posterity; and, considering the signal interposition of God displayed in it, to be held not only in perpetual, but devout remembrance.

JFB: Exo 13:3 - house of bondage Literally, "house of slaves"--that is, a servile and degrading condition.

Literally, "house of slaves"--that is, a servile and degrading condition.

JFB: Exo 13:3 - for by strength of hand the Lord brought you out from this place The emancipation of Israel would never have been obtained except it had been wrung from the Egyptian tyrant by the appalling judgments of God, as had ...

The emancipation of Israel would never have been obtained except it had been wrung from the Egyptian tyrant by the appalling judgments of God, as had been at the outset of his mission announced to Moses (Exo 3:19).

JFB: Exo 13:3 - There shall no leavened bread, &c. The words are elliptical, and the meaning of the clause may be paraphrased thus:--"For by strength of hand the Lord brought you out from this place, i...

The words are elliptical, and the meaning of the clause may be paraphrased thus:--"For by strength of hand the Lord brought you out from this place, in such haste that there could or should be no leavened bread eaten."

JFB: Exo 13:4 - month Abib Literally, "a green ear," and hence the month Abib is the month of green ears, corresponding to the middle of our March. It was the best season for un...

Literally, "a green ear," and hence the month Abib is the month of green ears, corresponding to the middle of our March. It was the best season for undertaking a journey to the desert region of Sinai, especially with flocks and herds; for then the winter torrents had subsided, and the wadies were covered with an early and luxuriant verdure.

JFB: Exo 13:5-7 - when the Lord shall bring thee The passover is here instituted as a permanent festival of the Israelites. It was, however, only a prospective observance; we read of only one celebra...

The passover is here instituted as a permanent festival of the Israelites. It was, however, only a prospective observance; we read of only one celebration of the passover during the protracted sojourn in the wilderness [Num 9:5]; but on their settlement in the promised land, the season was hallowed as a sacred anniversary [Jos 5:10], in conformity with the directions here given.

JFB: Exo 13:8 - thou shalt show thy son in that day, saying The establishment of this and the other sacred festivals presented the best opportunities of instructing the young in a knowledge of His gracious doin...

The establishment of this and the other sacred festivals presented the best opportunities of instructing the young in a knowledge of His gracious doings to their ancestors in Egypt.

JFB: Exo 13:9 - it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, &c. There is no reason to believe that the Oriental tattooing--the custom of staining the hands with the powder of Hennah, as Eastern females now do--is h...

There is no reason to believe that the Oriental tattooing--the custom of staining the hands with the powder of Hennah, as Eastern females now do--is here referred to. Nor is it probable that either this practice or the phylacteries of the Pharisees--parchment scrolls, which were worn on their wrists and foreheads--had so early an existence. The words are to be considered only as a figurative mode of expression.

JFB: Exo 13:9 - that the Lord's law may be in thy mouth, &c. That is, that it may be the subject of frequent conversation and familiar knowledge among the people.

That is, that it may be the subject of frequent conversation and familiar knowledge among the people.

JFB: Exo 13:12-13 - every firstling, &c. The injunction respecting the consecration of the first-born, as here repeated, with some additional circumstances. The firstlings of clean beasts, su...

The injunction respecting the consecration of the first-born, as here repeated, with some additional circumstances. The firstlings of clean beasts, such as lambs, kids, and calves, if males, were to be devoted to God and employed in sacrifice. Those unclean beasts, as the ass's colt, being unfit for sacrifice, were to be redeemed (Num 18:15).

JFB: Exo 13:17 - God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near, &c. The shortest and most direct route from Egypt to Palestine was the usual caravan road that leads by Belbeis, El-Arish, to Ascalon and Gaza. The Philis...

The shortest and most direct route from Egypt to Palestine was the usual caravan road that leads by Belbeis, El-Arish, to Ascalon and Gaza. The Philistines, who then possessed the latter, would have been sure to dispute their passage, for between them and the Israelites there was a hereditary feud (1Ch 7:21-22); and so early a commencement of hostilities would have discouraged or dismayed the unwarlike band which Moses led. Their faith was to be exercised and strengthened, and from the commencement of their travels we observe the same careful proportion of burdens and trials to their character and state, as the gracious Lord shows to His people still in that spiritual journey of which the former was typical.

JFB: Exo 13:18 - God led the people about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea, &c. This wondrous expanse of water is a gulf of the Indian ocean. It was called in Hebrew "the weedy sea," from the forest of marine plants with which it ...

This wondrous expanse of water is a gulf of the Indian ocean. It was called in Hebrew "the weedy sea," from the forest of marine plants with which it abounds. But the name of the Red Sea is not so easily traced. Some think it was given from its contiguity to the countries of Edom ("red"); others derive it from its coral rocks; while a third class ascribe the origin of the name to an extremely red appearance of the water in some parts, caused by a numberless multitude of very small mollusca. This sea, at its northern extremity, separates into two smaller inlets--the eastern called anciently the Elanitic gulf, now the gulf of Akaba; and the western the Heroopolite gulf, now the gulf of Suez, which, there can be no doubt, extended much more to the north anciently than it does now. It was toward the latter the Israelites marched.

JFB: Exo 13:18 - went up harnessed That is, girded, equipped for a long journey. (See Psa 105:37). The Margin renders it "five in a rank," meaning obviously five large divisions, under ...

That is, girded, equipped for a long journey. (See Psa 105:37). The Margin renders it "five in a rank," meaning obviously five large divisions, under five presiding officers, according to the usages of all caravans; and a spectacle of such a mighty and motley multitude must have presented an imposing appearance, and its orderly progress could have been effected only by the superintending influence of God.

JFB: Exo 13:19 - Moses took the bones of Joseph with him In fulfilment of the oath he exacted from his brethren (Gen 50:25-26). The remains of the other patriarchs (not noticed from their obscurity) were als...

In fulfilment of the oath he exacted from his brethren (Gen 50:25-26). The remains of the other patriarchs (not noticed from their obscurity) were also carried out of Egypt (Act 7:15-16); and there would be no difficulty as to the means of conveyance--a few camels bearing these precious relics would give a true picture of Oriental customs, such as is still to be seen in the immense pilgrimages to Mecca.

JFB: Exo 13:20 - encamped in Etham This place is supposed by the most intelligent travellers to be the modern Ajrud, where is a watering-place, and which is the third stage of the pilgr...

This place is supposed by the most intelligent travellers to be the modern Ajrud, where is a watering-place, and which is the third stage of the pilgrim-caravans to Mecca. "It is remarkable that either of the different routes eastward from Heliopolis, or southward from Heroopolis, equally admit of Ajrud being Etham. It is twelve miles northwest from Suez, and is literally on the edge of the desert" [Pictorial Bible].

JFB: Exo 13:21-22 - the Lord went before them By a visible token of His presence, the Shekinah, in a majestic cloud (Psa 78:14; Neh 9:12; 1Co 10:1), called "the angel of God" (Exo 14:19; Exo 23:20...

By a visible token of His presence, the Shekinah, in a majestic cloud (Psa 78:14; Neh 9:12; 1Co 10:1), called "the angel of God" (Exo 14:19; Exo 23:20-23; Psa 99:6-7; Isa 63:8-9).

Clarke: Exo 13:1 - The Lord spake unto Moses The Lord spake unto Moses - The commands in this chapter appear to have been given at Succoth, on the same day in which they left Egypt.

The Lord spake unto Moses - The commands in this chapter appear to have been given at Succoth, on the same day in which they left Egypt.

Clarke: Exo 13:2 - Sanctify unto me all the first-born Sanctify unto me all the first-born - To sanctify, קדש kadash , signifies to consecrate, separate, and set apart a thing or person from all secu...

Sanctify unto me all the first-born - To sanctify, קדש kadash , signifies to consecrate, separate, and set apart a thing or person from all secular purposes to some religious use; and exactly answers to the import of the Greek ἁγιαζω, from a, privative, and γη, the earth, because every thing offered or consecrated to God was separated from all earthly uses. Hence a holy person or saint is termed ἁγιος, i.e., a person separated from the earth; one who lives a holy life, entirely devoted to the service of God. Thus the persons and animals sanctified to God were employed in the service of the tabernacle and temple; and the animals, such as were proper, were offered in sacrifice

The Hindoos frequently make a vow, and devote to an idol the first-born of a goat and of a man. The goat is permitted to run wild, as a consecrated animal. A child thus devoted has a lock of hair separated, which at the time appointed is cut off and placed near the idol. Hindoo women sometimes pray to Gunga (the Ganges) for children, and promise to devote the first-born to her. Children thus devoted are cast into the Ganges, but are generally saved by the friendly hand of some stranger - Ward’ s Customs

Clarke: Exo 13:2 - Whatsoever openeth the womb Whatsoever openeth the womb - That is, the first-born, if a male; for females were not offered, nor the first male, if a female had been born previo...

Whatsoever openeth the womb - That is, the first-born, if a male; for females were not offered, nor the first male, if a female had been born previously. Again, if a man had several wives, the first-born of each, if a male, was to be offered to God. And all this was done to commemorate the preservation of the first-born of the Israelites, when those of the Egyptians were destroyed.

Clarke: Exo 13:5 - When the Lord shall bring thee into the land When the Lord shall bring thee into the land - Hence it is pretty evident that the Israelites were not obliged to celebrate the Passover, or keep th...

When the Lord shall bring thee into the land - Hence it is pretty evident that the Israelites were not obliged to celebrate the Passover, or keep the feast of unleavened bread, till they were brought into the promised land.

Clarke: Exo 13:6 - Unleavened bread Unleavened bread - See Clarke on Exo 12:15 (note), and Exo 12:16 (note).

Unleavened bread - See Clarke on Exo 12:15 (note), and Exo 12:16 (note).

Clarke: Exo 13:9 - And it shall be for a sign - upon thine hand And it shall be for a sign - upon thine hand - This direction, repeated and enlarged Exo 13:16, gave rise to phylacteries or tephillin, and this is ...

And it shall be for a sign - upon thine hand - This direction, repeated and enlarged Exo 13:16, gave rise to phylacteries or tephillin, and this is one of the passages which the Jews write upon them to the present day. The manner in which the Jews understood and kept these commands may appear in their practice. They wrote the following four portions of the law upon slips of parchment or vellum: Sanctify unto me the first-born, Exodus 13, from Exo 13:2-10 inclusive. And it shall be, when the Lord shall bring thee into the land, Exodus 13, from Exo 13:11-16 inclusive. Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord, Deuteronomy 6, from Deu 6:4-9 inclusive. And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently, Deuteronomy 11, from Deu 11:13-21 inclusive. These four portions, making in all 30 verses, written as mentioned above, and covered with leather, they tied to the forehead and to the hand or arm

Those which were for the Head (the frontlets) they wrote on four slips of parchment, and rolled up each by itself, and placed them in four compartments, joined together in one piece of skin or leather. Those which were designed for the hand were formed of one piece of parchment, the four portions being written upon it in four columns, and rolled up from one end to the other. These were all correct transcripts from the Mosaic text, without one redundant or deficient letter, otherwise they were not lawful to be worn. Those for the head were tied on so as to rest on the forehead. Those for the hand or arm were usually tied on the left arm, a little above the elbow, on the inside, that they might be near the heart, according to the command, Deu 6:6 : And these words which I command thee this day shall be in thine heart. These phylacteries formed no inconsiderable part of a Jew’ s religion; they wore them as a sign of their obligation to God, and as representing some future blessedness. Hence they did not wear them on feast days nor on the Sabbath, because these things were in themselves signs; but they wore them always when they read the law, or when they prayed, and hence they called them תפלין tephillin , prayer, ornaments, oratories, or incitements to prayer. In process of time the spirit of this law was lost in the letter, and when the word was not in their mouth, nor the law in their heart, they had their phylacteries on their heads and on their hands. And the Pharisees, who in our Lord’ s time affected extraordinary piety, made their phylacteries very broad, that they might have many sentences written upon them, or the ordinary portions in very large and observable letters

It appears that the Jews wore these for three different purposes: -

1.    As signs or remembrancers. This was the original design, as the institution itself sufficiently proves

2.    To procure reverence and respect in the sight of the heathen. This reason is given in the Gemara, Berachoth, chapter i: "Whence is it proved that the phylacteries or tephillin are the strength of Israel? Ans. From what is written, Deu 28:10 : All the people of the earth shall see that thou art called by the name of the Lord ( יהוה Yehovah ) and they shall be afraid of thee.

3.    They used them as amulets or charms, to drive away evil spirits. This appears from the Targum on Son 8:3 : His left hand is under my head, etc. "The congregation of Israel hath said, I am elect above all people, because I bind my phylacteries on my left hand and on my head, and the scroll is fixed to the right side of my gate, the third part of which looks to my bed-chamber, that demons may not be permitted to injure me

One of the original phylacteries or תפלין tephillin now lies before me; it is a piece of fine vellum, about eighteen inches long, and an inch and quarter broad. It is divided into four unequal compartments; the letters are very well formed, but written with many apices, after the manner of the German Jews. In the first compartment is written the portion taken from Exo 13:2-10; in the second, Exo 13:11-16; in the third, Deu 6:4-9; in the fourth, Deu 11:13-21, as before related. This had originally served for the hand or arm

These passages seem to be chosen in vindication of the use of the phylactery itself, as the reader may see on consulting them at large. Bind them for a Sign upon thy Hand; and for Frontlets between thy Eyes; write them upon the Posts of thy House and upon thy Gates; all which commands the Jews take in the most literal sense. To acquire the reputation of extraordinary sanctity they wore the fringes of their garments of an uncommon length. Moses had commanded them, Num 15:38, Num 15:39, to put fringes to the borders of their garments, that when they looked upon even these distinct threads they might remember, not only the law in general but also the very minutiae or smaller parts of all the precepts, rites, and ceremonies belonging to it. As those hypocrites (for such our Lord proves them to be) were destitute of all the life and power of religion within, they endeavored to supply its place with phylacteries and fringes without. The same principles distinguish hypocrites every where, and multitudes of them may be found among those termed Christians as well as among the Jews. It is probably to this institution relative to the phylactery that the words, Rev 14:1, allude: And I looked, and, lo, a hundred and forty-four thousand having his Father’ s name written on their foreheads. "That is,"says Mr. Ainsworth, "as a sign of the profession of God’ s law; for That which in the Gospel is called his Name, (Mat 12:21), in the prophets is called his Law, (Isa 42:4)."So again antichrist exacts the obedience to his precepts by a mark on men’ s right hands or on their foreheads, Rev 13:16.

Clarke: Exo 13:13 - Every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb Every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb - Or a kid, as in the margin. In Num 18:15, it is said: "The first-born of man shalt thou su...

Every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb - Or a kid, as in the margin. In Num 18:15, it is said: "The first-born of man shalt thou surely redeem; and the firstling of an unclean beast shalt thou redeem."Hence we may infer that ass is put here for any unclean beast, or for unclean beasts in general. The lamb was to be given to the Lord, that is, to his priest, Num 18:8, Num 18:15. And then the owner of the ass might use it for his own service, which without this redemption he could not do; see Deu 15:19

Clarke: Exo 13:13 - The first-born of man - shalt thou redeem The first-born of man - shalt thou redeem - This was done by giving to the priests five standard shekels, or shekels of the sanctuary, every shekel ...

The first-born of man - shalt thou redeem - This was done by giving to the priests five standard shekels, or shekels of the sanctuary, every shekel weighing twenty gerahs. What the gerah was, see Clarke on Gen 20:16 (note). And for the shekel, see Clarke on Gen 20:16 (note)

It may be necessary to observe here that the Hebrew doctors teach, that if a father had neglected or refused thus to redeem his first-born, the son himself was obliged to do it when he came of age. As this redeeming of the first-born was instituted in consequence of sparing the first-born of the Israelites, when the first-born both of man and beast among the Egyptians was destroyed, on this ground all the first-born were the Lord’ s, and should have been employed in his service; but he permitted the first-born of a useful unclean animal to be redeemed by a clean animal of much less value. And he chose the tribe of Levi in place of all the first-born of the tribes in general; and the five shekels were ordered to be paid in lieu of such first-born sons as were liable to serve in the sanctuary, and the money was applied to the support of the priests and Levites. See this subject at large in Num 3:12, Num 3:13, Num 3:41, Num 3:43, Num 3:45, Num 3:47-51.

Clarke: Exo 13:16 - It shall be for a token, etc. It shall be for a token, etc. - See Clarke’ s note on Exo 13:9.

It shall be for a token, etc. - See Clarke’ s note on Exo 13:9.

Clarke: Exo 13:17 - God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, etc. God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, etc. - Had the Israelites been obliged to commence their journey to the promised la...

God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, etc. - Had the Israelites been obliged to commence their journey to the promised land by a military campaign, there is little room to doubt that they would have been discouraged, have rebelled against Moses and Aaron, and have returned back to Egypt. Their long slavery had so degraded their minds that they were incapable of any great or noble exertions; and it is only on the ground of this mental degradation, the infallible consequence of slavery, that we can account for their many dastardly acts, murmurings, and repinings after their escape from Egypt. The reader is requested to bear this in mind, as it will serve to elucidate several circumstances in the ensuing history. Besides, the Israelites were in all probability unarmed, and totally unequipped for battle, encumbered with their flocks, and certain culinary utensils. which they were obliged to carry with them in the wilderness to provide them with bread, etc.

Clarke: Exo 13:18 - But God led the people about But God led the people about - Dr. Shaw has shown that there were two roads from Egypt to Canaan, one through the valleys of Jendilly, Rumeleah, and...

But God led the people about - Dr. Shaw has shown that there were two roads from Egypt to Canaan, one through the valleys of Jendilly, Rumeleah, and Baideah, bounded on each side by the mountains of the lower Thebais; the other lies higher, having the northern range of the mountains of Mocatee running parallel with it on the right hand, and the desert of the Egyptian Arabia, which lies all the way open to the land of the Philistines, to the left. See his account of these encampments at the end of Exodus. See Clarke’ s note on Exo 40:38

Clarke: Exo 13:18 - Went up harnessed Went up harnessed - חמשים chamushim . It is truly astonishing what a great variety of opinions are entertained relative to the meaning of thi...

Went up harnessed - חמשים chamushim . It is truly astonishing what a great variety of opinions are entertained relative to the meaning of this word. After having maturely considered all that I have met with on the subject, I think it probable that the word refers simply to that orderly or well arranged manner in which the Israelites commenced their journey from Egypt. For to arrange, array, or set in order, seems to be the ideal meaning of the word חמש chamash . As it was natural to expect that in such circumstances there must have been much hurry and confusion, the inspired writer particularly marks the contrary, to show that God had so disposed matters that the utmost regularity and order prevailed; and had it been otherwise, thousands of men, women, and children must have been trodden to death. Our margin has it by five in a rank; but had they marched only five abreast, supposing only one yard for each rank to move in, it would have required not less than sixty-eight miles for even the 600,000 to proceed on regularly in this way; for 600,000 divided by five gives 120,000 ranks of five each; and there being only 1,760 yards in a mile, the dividing 120,000 by 1,760 will give the number of miles such a column of people would take up, which by such an operation will be found to be something more than sixty-eight miles. But this the circumstances of the history will by no means admit - Harmer. The simple meaning therefore appears to be that given above; and if the note on the concluding verse of the preceding chapter be considered, it may serve to place this explanation in a still clearer point of view.

Clarke: Exo 13:19 - Moses took the bones of Joseph Moses took the bones of Joseph - See Clarke’ s note on Gen 50:25. It is supposed that the Israelites carried with them the bones or remains of ...

Moses took the bones of Joseph - See Clarke’ s note on Gen 50:25. It is supposed that the Israelites carried with them the bones or remains of all the twelve sons of Jacob, each tribe taking care of the bones of its own patriarch, while Moses took care of the bones of Joseph. St. Stephen expressly says, Act 7:15, Act 7:16, that not only Jacob, but the fathers were carried from Egypt into Sychem; and this, as Calmet remarks, was the only opportunity that seems to have presented itself for doing this: and certainly the reason that rendered it proper to remove the bones of Joseph to the promised land, had equal weight in reference to those of the other patriarchs. See Clarke’ s note on Gen 49:29.

Clarke: Exo 13:20 - Encamped in Etham Encamped in Etham - As for the reasons assigned on Exo 13:17, God would not lead the Israelites by the way of the Philistines’ country, he dir...

Encamped in Etham - As for the reasons assigned on Exo 13:17, God would not lead the Israelites by the way of the Philistines’ country, he directed them towards the wilderness of Shur, Exo 15:22, upon the edge or extremity of which, next to Egypt, at the bottom of the Arabian Gulf, lay Etham, which is the second place of encampment mentioned. See the extracts from Dr. Shaw at the end of Exodus. See Clarke’ s note on Exo 40:38.

Clarke: Exo 13:21 - The Lord went before them The Lord went before them - That by the Lord here is meant the Lord Jesus, we have the authority of St. Paul to believe, 1Co 10:9 : it was he whose ...

The Lord went before them - That by the Lord here is meant the Lord Jesus, we have the authority of St. Paul to believe, 1Co 10:9 : it was he whose Spirit they tempted in the wilderness, for it was he who led them through the desert to the promised rest

Clarke: Exo 13:21 - Pillar of a cloud Pillar of a cloud - This pillar or column, which appeared as a cloud by day, and a fire by night, was the symbol of the Divine presence. This was th...

Pillar of a cloud - This pillar or column, which appeared as a cloud by day, and a fire by night, was the symbol of the Divine presence. This was the Shechinah or Divine dwelling place, and was the continual proof of the presence and protection of God. It was necessary that they should have a guide to direct them through the wilderness, even had they taken the most direct road; and how much more so when they took a circuitous route not usually traveled, and of which they knew nothing but just as the luminous pillar pointed out the way! Besides, it is very likely that even Moses himself did not know the route which God had determined on, nor the places of encampment, till the pillar that went before them became stationary, and thus pointed out, not only the road, but the different places of rest. Whether there was more than one pillar is not clearly determined by the text. If there was but one it certainly assumed three different appearances, for the performance of Three very important offices. 1. In the day-time, for the purpose of pointing out the way, a column or pillar of a cloud was all that was requisite. 2. At night, to prevent that confusion which must otherwise have taken place, the pillar of cloud became a pillar of fire, not to direct their journeyings, for they seldom traveled by night, but to give light to every part of the Israelitish camp. 3. In such a scorching, barren, thirsty desert, something farther was necessary than a light and a guide. Women, children, and comparatively infirm persons, exposed to the rays of such a burning sun, must have been destroyed if without a covering; hence we find that a cloud overshadowed them: and from what St. Paul observes, 1Co 10:1, 1Co 10:2, we are led to conclude that this covering cloud was composed of aqueous particles for the cooling of the atmosphere and refreshment of themselves and their cattle; for he represents the whole camp as being sprinkled or immersed in the humidity of its vapours, and expressly calls it a being under the cloud and being baptized in the cloud. To the circumstance of the cloud covering them, there are several references in Scripture. Thus: He spread a Cloud for their Covering; Psa 105:39. And the Lord will create upon every dwelling place of Mount Zion, and upon her assemblies, A Cloud and Smoke By Day, and the shining of a Flaming Fire by night; for upon all the glory shall be a Defence, (or Covering), Isa 4:5; which words contain the most manifest allusion to the threefold office of the cloud in the wilderness. See Num 9:16-18, etc.

Clarke: Exo 13:22 - He took not away the pillar of the cloud He took not away the pillar of the cloud - Neither Jews nor Gentiles are agreed how long the cloud continued with the Israelites. It is very probabl...

He took not away the pillar of the cloud - Neither Jews nor Gentiles are agreed how long the cloud continued with the Israelites. It is very probable that it first visited them at Succoth, if it did not accompany them from Rameses; and that it continued with them till they came to the river Jordan, to pass over opposite to Jericho, for after that it appears that the ark alone was their guide, as it always marched at their head. See Jos 3:10-11, etc. But others think that it went no farther with them than Mount Hor, and never appeared after the death of Aaron. We may safely assert that while it was indispensably necessary it continued with them, when it was not so it was removed. But it is worthy of remark that the ark of the covenant became its substitute. While a miracle was necessary, a miracle was granted; when that was no longer necessary, then the testimony of the Lord deposited in the ark was deemed sufficient by Him who cannot err. So, under the Gospel dispensation, miracles were necessary at its first promulgation; but after that the canon of Scripture was completed, the new covenant having been made, ratified by the blood of the Lamb, and published by the Holy Spirit, then God withdrew generally those outward signs, leaving his word for a continual testimony, and sealing it on the souls of believers by the Spirit of truth

It is also worthy of remark that the ancient heathen writers represent their gods, in their pretended manifestations to men, as always encompassed with a cloud; Homer and Virgil abound with examples of this kind: and is it not very probable that they borrowed this, as they did many other things in their mythologic theology, from the tradition of Jehovah guiding his people through the desert by means of the cloud, in and by which he repeatedly manifested himself

1.    Extraordinary manifestations and interpositions of providence and grace should be held in continual remembrance. We are liable to forget the hole of the pit whence we were dug, and the rock whence we were hewn. Prudence and piety will institute their anniversaries, that the merciful dealings of the Lord may never be forgotten. The passover and the feast of unleavened bread, by an annual commemoration, became standing proofs to the children of Israel of the Divine origin of their religion; and are supporting pillars of it to the present day. For when a fact is reported to have taken place, and certain rites or ceremonies have been instituted in order to commemorate it, which rites or ceremonies continue to be observed through succeeding ages, then the fact itself, no matter how remote the period of its occurrence may have been, has the utmost proofs of authenticity that it is possible for any fact to have; and such as every person pretending to reason and judgment is obliged to receive. On this ground the Mosaic religion, and the facts recorded in it, are indubitably proved; and the Christian religion and its facts, being commemorated in the same way, particularly by baptism and the Lord’ s Supper, stand on such a foundation of moral certainty as no other records in the universe can possibly boast. Reader, praise God for his ordinances; they are not only means of grace to thy soul, but standing irrefragable proofs of the truth of that religion which thou hast received as from Him

2.    A serious public profession of the religion of Christ has in all ages of the Church been considered not only highly becoming, but indispensably necessary to salvation. He who consistently confesses Christ before men shall be confessed by him before God and his angels. A Jew wore his phylacteries on his forehead, on his hands, and round his garments, that he might have reverence in the sight of the heathen; he gloried in his law, and he exulted that Abraham was his father. Christian! with a zeal not less becoming, and more consistently supported, let the words of thy mouth, the acts of thy hands, and all thy goings, show that thou belongest unto God; that thou hast taken his Spirit for the guide of thy heart, his word for the rule of thy life, his people for thy companions, his heaven for thy inheritance, and himself for the portion of thy soul. And see that thou hold fast the truth, and that thou hold it in righteousness

3.    How merciful is God in the dispensations of his providence! He permits none to be tried above what he is able to bear, and he proportions the burden to the back that is to bear it. He led not the Israelites by the way of the Philistines, lest, seeing war, they should repent and be discouraged. Young converts are generally saved from severe spiritual conflicts and heavy temptations till they have acquired a habit of believing, are disciplined in the school of Christ, and instructed in the nature of the path in which they go, and the difficulties they may expect to find in it. They are informed that such things may take place, they are thus armed for the battle, and when trials do come they are not taken by surprise. God, the most merciful and kind God, "tempers even the blast to the shorn lamb."Trust in him therefore with all thy heart, and never lean to thy own understanding

4.    The providence and goodness of God are equally observable in the pillar of cloud and the pillar of fire. The former was the proof of his providential kindness by day; the latter, by night. Thus he adjusts the assistance of his grace and Spirit to the exigencies of his creatures, giving at some times, when peculiar trials require it, more particular manifestations of his mercy and goodness; but at all times, such evidences of his approbation as are sufficient to satisfy a pious faithful heart. It is true the pillar of fire was more observable in the night, because of the general darkness, than the pillar of cloud was by day; yet the latter was as convincing and as evident a proof of his presence, approbation, and protection as the former. It is the duty and interest of every sound believer in Christ to have the witness of God’ s Spirit in his soul at all times, that his spirit and ways please his Maker; but in seasons of peculiar difficulty he may expect the more sensible manifestations of God’ s goodness. A good man is a temple of the Holy Spirit; but he who has an unholy heart, and who lives an unrighteous life, though he may have an orthodox creed, is a hold of unclean spirits, and an abomination in the sight of the Lord. Reader, let not these observations be fruitless to thee. God gives thee his word and his Spirit, obey this word that thou grieve not this Spirit. The following figurative saying of a Jewish rabbin is worthy of regard: "God addresses Israel and says, My son, I give thee my lamp, give me thy lamp. If thou keep my lamp, I will keep thy lamp; but if thou quench my lamp, I will extinguish thy lamp:"i.e., I give thee my word and Spirit, give me thy heart and soul. If thou carefully attend to my word, and grieve not my Spirit. I will preserve thy soul alive; but if thou rebel against my word, and quench my Spirit, then thy light shall be put out, and thy soul’ s blessedness extinguished in everlasting darkness.

Calvin: Exo 13:2 - Sanctify unto me all the first-born 2.Sanctify unto me all the first-born This also refers to the First Commandment, because God asserts His right over the first-born, lest the recollec...

2.Sanctify unto me all the first-born This also refers to the First Commandment, because God asserts His right over the first-born, lest the recollection of their redemption should ever be lost. For thus were the Israelites admonished that they must honor that God by whose grace they had escaped in safety from the common destruction of Egypt, and, moreover, that they were rescued by His special blessing, in order that they should consecrate themselves to God their Deliverer. For the offering which He here requires, was a mark of separation between them and the heathen nations. 328 The first-born is called the opening of the womb, because it is the beginning of generation. The expression, “among the children of Israel,” when he is speaking of brutes, as well as of their own offspring and children, is meant to distinguish the wild beasts from the tame and domestic animals. But although He commands only the first-born of the race of Abraham to be offered to Him, still this must undoubtedly be extended to the sanctification of the whole people; for whilst He says, that the first-born were His, because they especially owed their preservation to His mercy, yet for the same reason he signifies that all were His own.

Calvin: Exo 13:3 - And Moses said unto the people 3.And Moses said unto the people He repeats what he had said more at length in the foregoing chapter, respecting the unleavened bread, not so much to...

3.And Moses said unto the people He repeats what he had said more at length in the foregoing chapter, respecting the unleavened bread, not so much to instruct as to exhort them; for he had already expressed the matter with so much clearness, that there was no need of further explanation; but it was useful to stimulate them, that they might devote themselves with greater zeal to their duty, and especially lest, after a longer lapse of time, their ardor should, as usual, gradually abate. He therefore exhorts them, that after they cane into the land, they should diligently observe what he had before commanded. And from the context here, it is plain that the two commands as to the sanctifying the first-born, and celebrating the passover, had the same object, viz., that their deliverance should retain the elect people in the special service of the true God.

Calvin: Exo 13:4 - This day came ye out 4.This day came ye out He compares the day of their coming out with the whole time of their sojourning in the land of Canaan; as if he had said that ...

4.This day came ye out He compares the day of their coming out with the whole time of their sojourning in the land of Canaan; as if he had said that they were redeemed not to enjoy a mere transient joy, but that they might be mindful of their blessing throughout all ages. He proceeds to eulogize the extent and the fertility of the land again, principally for two reasons. The first is, lest after such glorious victories pride should possess their minds, and in the abundance of their good things their eyes should be closed by fatness;the second, that by the very multitude of their possessions they might be the more incited to the duty of gratitude, and to the service of God. For it might be that the conquerors of so many nations, and the lords of so rich and extensive a territory would wax wanton, so as to be less devoted to God’s service, unless they had been reminded that they owed it to God alone that they had conquered so many peoples, and had obtained dominion over them. But Moses shews them that, in proportion to God’s goodness to them, so would they be the more inexcusable, if they did not earnestly labor to testify heir gratitude. With this object he repeats the names of the nations, by the destruction of which they were to become inheritors of the land; and then adds, “a land flowing with milk and honey,” in order to arouse them still more and more to piety by the great profusion of the blessings which would be ever before their eyes. Those are entirely mistaken who suppose that the month Abib 322 is the same as Ab, which corresponds with our July. For it is evident that the Israelites came out of Egypt in the month Nisan, about the vernal equinox; of which circumstance, the keeping of Easter, handed down by tradition from our forefathers, is an unquestionable proof. Now, since the Hebrews borrowed from the Chaldeans all the names of their months, which were in use two thousand years after, it would be absurd in this place to regard Abib as a proper name, especially when, in Scripture, we nowhere find the months designated by proper names. Since, then, reason demonstrates that this word is applied appellatively, we must inquire why it is applied to March or the beginning of April. Those who translate A bib “ripening fruits,” have no ground for it, since the word simply means “anything which grows;” hence it is applied to the stalks of corn; and because in those warm climates the corn rises to its height about the vernal equinox, from this fact, Nisan is called the month of stalks. It is also a probable conjecture, (as we have already said,) that the beginning of the year was changed, in order that the nativity of the Church might receive more distinction; as if the world were then renewed. The opinion of some that Noah came out of the ark in the same month, so that the temperature of spring might receive him in his new birth, as well as the other animals, I leave undecided as I have done on Gen 8:0. But if this opinion be accepted, there will be an anticipation (prolepsis) in the name of the months; and in this there will be an absurdity, because it was useful for the people to be accustomed to the rites of the Law. But I do not enter into controversy about uncertainties.

Calvin: Exo 13:8 - And thou shalt shew thy son in that day 8.And thou shalt shew thy son in that day He repeats what we have already remarked, viz., an injunction to parents to teach their children, that they...

8.And thou shalt shew thy son in that day He repeats what we have already remarked, viz., an injunction to parents to teach their children, that they may thus transmit the service of God to their descendants. In the preceding chapter it was said, “when your children shall say unto you,” etc.; and now he more briefly commands that God’s goodness should be proclaimed, although none should make inquiry respecting it; because parents ought to be voluntarily disposed to educate their children in the fear of God. He also repeats, as we have seen above, that the memory of their deliverance should be annually renewed lest it should ever fade away, since religion is easily neglected unless men are diligently exercised in its study, tie uses a comparison when he says, “it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes;” as though it had been said that their redemption should be set before their eyes in the passover, just as the ring which is on the finger, or the ornament which is bound upon the forehead are constantly seen. For which purpose also he had before desired that the precepts of the Law should be inscribed both on the head, and on the hands, and fringes of their garments. The sum is, that in the passover a monument of God’s grace should exist, so that it might never sink into oblivion; just as ornaments which appear on the forehead and on the fingers awaken the attention by their being constantly beheld. But, if any should rather be of opinion that Moses alludes to those who, conscious of their own faithlessness, contrive means to assist their memory, 323 I offer them no opposition; as if he had said that, since they were disposed to forgetfulness, they should use this remedy, to awaken themselves to gratitude. He will soon afterwards repeat the same injunction, in connection with the offering of the first-born. The following words, “that the Lord’s Law may be in thy mouth,” confirm the opinion that the passover has reference to the First Commandment. They intimate that it is not enough to perform the external rite, unless it be associated with its proper object, viz., that they should devote themselves to God and to His doctrine. He mentions the mouth, not because the main thing is, to speak or discourse of the Law, for if piety lay in the tongue, hypocrites would be the best worshippers of God; but he expressly requires that, when each one shall have privately applied himself to the study of the Law, they shall also mutually teach and exhort each other.

Calvin: Exo 13:11 - And it shall be when the Lord shall bring thee 11.And it shall be when the Lord shall bring thee He proceeds with what had been glanced at in the beginning of the chapter with respect to the conse...

11.And it shall be when the Lord shall bring thee He proceeds with what had been glanced at in the beginning of the chapter with respect to the consecration of the first-born, that in this way they should bear witness to the special blessing of God which preserved them when He destroyed the first-born of the Egyptians. But He commands the animals to 329 be brought to Him, in order that they should be slain in the tabernacle. It is a common figure of speech to say, that the faithful and their gifts were placed in God’s sight when they entered the tabernacle. I conceive that they were ordered, in Exo 22:30, to keep the first-born seven days, in order to prevent deceptions, because if the young had been earlier torn from the teats of their dams, and immediately delivered to the priests, the offering would have been useless. Yet I doubt not that the eighth day was chosen because it was the one prescribed for circumcision. An exception is added, that a price should be paid for an ass, the offering of which would have been unclean. With regard to their children, it was requisite that they should be redeemed, because they could not be offered in sacrifice, nor made priests.

Calvin: Exo 13:17 - And it came to pass when Pharaoh 17.And it came to pass when Pharaoh Moses here assigns the reason why God did not immediately lead His people by the more direct way into the land of...

17.And it came to pass when Pharaoh Moses here assigns the reason why God did not immediately lead His people by the more direct way into the land of Canaan, which would have been just as easy to Him, but preferred to bring them round through the desert, by a long and difficult and dangerous journey; viz., lest, if perhaps they had met with enemies to contend against, a ready means of return would have encouraged them to go back into Egypt. We know how great was the supineness and cowardice of this people, as soon as any difficulty presented itself; and how quick they were to revolt from the divine government, as often as a heavier burden than they liked was imposed upon them. We know how often they repented of having followed God as their leader, and thus were prepared to throw away by their ingratitude the grace offered to them. When, therefore, they were powerless in the use of arms, and were altogether without experience of military tactics, with what courage would they have engaged with an enemy, if any should have advanced against them within a few days of their coming out? Assuredly they would not have borne up against a single assault, but would have been willing rather to submit themselves to the Egyptians, with humble supplications for forgiveness. Lest, then, any desire of return should steal over their hearts, God was willing to set up a barrier behind them in the difficulty of the journey. Besides, if in their departure from Egypt they had immediately encountered the inhabitants of the land of Canaan in war, greater troubles would have awaited them; for the Egyptians would by no means let them alone, but., being aided by the subsidies and forces of so many peoples, would have endeavored to avenge themselves, and, having entered into alliances on every side, would have hemmed in the unhappy Israelites. Wherefore, God provided excellently for them, by leading them through inaccessible paths, and by their very weariness shutting the door against their ever desiring to return into Egypt; while afterwards He gradually restored their’ confidence, before they came to fight, and had to sustain the attacks of their enemies. I admit, indeed, that God might have otherwise obviated all these evils; but since He is often wont to deal with His people on human principles, He chose to adopt the method which was most suited to their infirmity. Moses now commends this His admirable design, in order that we may know that nothing was omitted by Him which was for the safety and advantage of His people. For this “God said,” which he mentions, refers to His providence; as much as to say, that the easier and more ordinary passage was not undesignedly rejected, but that because God knew it to be more expedient, He thus advisedly obviated the temptation.

Calvin: Exo 13:18 - The children of Israel went up harnessed 18.The children of Israel went up harnessed The word חמשים , 148 chemishim, is derived from “Five,” from whence some have explained it, t...

18.The children of Israel went up harnessed The word חמשים , 148 chemishim, is derived from “Five,” from whence some have explained it, that they were furnished with five kinds of arms, but this is too absurd. The Hebrews, because they could conjecture nothing better or more probable, almost with one consent would understand it, that they were armed under the fifth rib. But whence were there so many military corselets ready for the Israelites? But I reject so forced and improbable a meaning, and doubt not that the word is one of number; as though Moses had said, that they went out in ranks of five; because, if each individual in so great a multitude had tried to advance, they would have been in each other’s way. I have therefore thought fit to translate it “dispositi,” (in ranks.) The idea of the Greeks about “the fifth generation,” is very foreign to the present narrative. But in the sense I have given it, there is nothing obscure or doubtful; for it readily appears that God’s favor is celebrated also in this particular, because He led forth His people in order. For, although they came out confusedly and hastily, still He restrained there, as it were, under His banner, and in companies, lest any disturbance should occur.

Calvin: Exo 13:19 - And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him 19.And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him Hence it appears, that even in their adversity the memory of their promised deliverance had never depa...

19.And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him Hence it appears, that even in their adversity the memory of their promised deliverance had never departed from the people, for had not the adjuration of Joseph been currently spoken of in common conversation, Moses would never have been able to imagine it; but he expressly states that he acted in obedience to the holy patriarch in carrying away his bones. It is, therefore, probable that they were so deposited, that the hope of the people might be kept alive by seeing daily the urn or coffer which contained them, as if the holy man even after death uplifted from his tomb a sign of their deliverance; for although by this symbolical act he cherished his own faith, when he desired that, though dead, he might enter on the possession of the promised land, yet there is no doubt that he had more regard to his brethren and the whole posterity of the holy race. 149 For, having known by experience their apathy and the weakness of their faith, he naturally feared lest in a longer lapse of time they should grow more and more indifferent, and at length should despise the proraise, and give themselves up altogether to listlessness about it. And certainly it must have been this mistrust of them which urged him not to be contented with a simple injunction, but to bind their minds more strongly by an oath. In Act 7:16, Stephen seems to assert that the other eleven sons of Jacob were also buried in Sichem; and it may be probably conjectured, that they were led piously to emulate the example of their brother Joseph. Assuredly the faith of the departed Joseph, even in his dry bones, preached loudly to his descendants of the promised deliverance, lest they should grow careless from the long delay; and when at length the Israelites were led forth, the bones or ashes of the twelve Patriarchs were like so many standard-bearers, going before the several tribes to encourage their confidence. Wherefore the cowardice of the people was still more detestable, so often basely turning their backs upon their journey, when they had in sight so eminent a ground for confidence. The words of Joseph, which Moses reports, “God will surely visit you,” etc., confirm the expression of the Apostle, (Heb 11:22,) that “by faith — he gave commandment concerning his bones,” because he thus takes upon himself the character and office of their surety, to exhort his nation to embrace the promise. How far the silly superstition of the Papists in worshipping the relics of saints differs from this object we may gather from hence without difficulty, viz., that they studiously catch at every means whereby they may be withdrawn further from the word of God.

Calvin: Exo 13:21 - And the Lord went before them 21.And the Lord went before them Moses here proclaims another of God’s mercies, that, having redeemed His people, He was their constant leader and ...

21.And the Lord went before them Moses here proclaims another of God’s mercies, that, having redeemed His people, He was their constant leader and guide; as the Prophet also in the Psalms distinctly makes reference to both. (Psa 77:15; and Psa 78:14.) It was indeed a marvelous act of loving-kindness that, accommodating Himself to their ignorance, he familiarly presented Himself before their eyes. He might, indeed, have protected them in some other way from the heat of the sun, and directed them in the darkness of the night; but, in order that His power might be more manifest, He chose to add also His visible presence, to remove all room for doubt. But, although the words of Moses seem in some measure to include the Lord in the cloud, we must observe the sacramental mode of speaking, wherein God transfers His name to visible figures; not to affix to them His essence, or to circumscribe His infinity, but only to show that He does not deceitfully expose the signs of His presence to men’s eyes, but that the exhibition of the thing signified is at the same time truly conjoined with them. Therefore, although Moses states that God was in the cloud and in the pillar of fire, yet does he not wish to draw Him down from heaven, nor to subject His infinite glory to visible signs, with which His truth may consist without His local presence. 150 But execrable is the mad notion of Servetus, who pretended that this cloud was uncreated, as though it were the Deity of Christ, for he substituted this One Person for the Three, as if there had then been a corporeal Deity, which he calls the “figurative Son,” who was afterwards made flesh; not that He put on flesh, but because He appeared as man, compounded of three uncreated elements, and of the seed of David. But, soon after, Moses calls this same being an Angel, to which he now assigns the name of the eternal God. And with good reason, because our heavenly Father then led the Israelites only by the hand of His only-begotten Son. Now, since He is the eternal guardian of His Church, Christ is not less truly present with us now by His power than he was formerly manifest to the fathers. When, therefore, Isaiah prophesies His coming, he recounts amongst others this divine blessing, that “the Lord will create upon every dwelling-place of Mount Zion, and upon her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night,” — that there might be

“a tabernacle for a shadow in the day-time from the heat, and for a place of refuge and for a covert from storm and from rain,”
(Isa 4:5;)

as if he had said, that He would really and substantially fulfill what then was seen under a figurative symbol. And surely that promise, —

“The sun shall not smite thee by day, nor the moon by night,” (Psa 121:6,)

refers not to a single day, but to all ages. The statement of Moses, then, that “He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night,” is a blessing which God extends to us, as well as to them, except only the visible symbol, which was temporary, on account of the infirmity of the people. As to his saying’ that God always appeared to them, that they might march by night as well as by day, he does not mean that they went on continually without any rest, since he had just before mentioned that their first station was in Succoth, from whence they encamped in Etham, but merely informs us that the flow of God’s grace was continual, since the token of His favor and protection shone forth no less amidst the darkness of the night than at midday itself.

Defender: Exo 13:21 - pillar of a cloud Many naturalistic explanations have been offered to account for this remarkable cloud, but none really fit the description. This glory-cloud called th...

Many naturalistic explanations have been offered to account for this remarkable cloud, but none really fit the description. This glory-cloud called the shekinah was altogether miraculous, giving God's people constant assurance of His presence with them during their long stay in the wilderness (Exo 40:38; Num 9:15-23)."

TSK: Exo 13:2 - Sanctify Sanctify : The word kadash is to consecrate, separate, and set apart a person or thing from all common or secular purposes to some religious use; a...

Sanctify : The word kadash is to consecrate, separate, and set apart a person or thing from all common or secular purposes to some religious use; and exactly answers to the Greek αγιαζω , from α , privative , and γη , the earth ; because everything offered or consecrated to God was separated from all earthly uses. Exo 13:12-15, Exo 4:22, Exo 22:29, Exo 22:30, Exo 23:19, Exo 34:19, Exo 34:20; Lev 27:26; Num 3:13, Num 8:16, Num 8:17; Num 18:15; Deu 15:19; Luk 2:23; Heb 12:23

TSK: Exo 13:3 - Remember // out of the // bondage // strength // there Remember : Exo 12:42, Exo 20:8, Exo 23:15; Deu 5:15, Deu 15:15, Deu 16:3, Deu 16:12, Deu 24:18, Deu 24:22; 1Ch 16:12; Psa 105:5; Luk 22:19; 1Co 11:24 ...

TSK: Exo 13:4 - Abib Abib : Exo 23:15, Exo 34:18; Deu 16:1-3

TSK: Exo 13:5 - shall bring // sware // a land // thou shalt keep shall bring : Exo 3:8, Exo 34:11; Gen 15:18-21; Deu 7:1, Deu 12:29, Deu 19:1, Deu 26:1; Jos 24:11 sware : Exo 6:8, Exo 33:1; Gen 17:7, Gen 17:8, Gen 2...

TSK: Exo 13:6 - -- Exo 12:15-20, Exo 34:18; Lev 23:8

TSK: Exo 13:7 - -- Exo 12:19; Mat 16:6

TSK: Exo 13:8 - -- Exo 13:14, Exo 12:26, Exo 12:27; Deu 4:9, Deu 4:10; Psa 44:1, Psa 78:3-8; Isa 38:19; Eph 6:4

TSK: Exo 13:9 - a sign // may be // strong hand a sign : This expression, says Michaelis, alludes to the custom of the Orientals, of burning in their right hand all kinds of marks with the ashes of ...

a sign : This expression, says Michaelis, alludes to the custom of the Orientals, of burning in their right hand all kinds of marks with the ashes of henna, which gives an indelible colour; and this is done even to this day. They were likewise accustomed to write all kinds of sayings, and frequently superstitious words, on slips or pieces of linen, which they wore as ornaments on their foreheads. Exo 13:16, Exo 12:14; Num 15:39; Deu 6:6, Deu 6:8, Deu 11:18, Deu 11:19; Pro 1:9, Pro 3:21, Pro 6:20-23; Pro 7:23; Son 8:6; Isa 49:16; Jer 22:24; Mat 23:5

may be : Deu 30:14; Jos 1:8; Isa 59:21; Rom 10:8

strong hand : Exo 13:3, 6:1-30; Jos 1:9; Neh 1:10; Psa 89:13; Isa 27:1, Isa 40:10, Isa 51:9; Joe 2:11; Rev 18:8

TSK: Exo 13:10 - -- Exo 12:14, Exo 12:24, Exo 23:15; Lev 23:6; Deu 16:3, Deu 16:4

TSK: Exo 13:11 - as he sware as he sware : Exo 13:5

as he sware : Exo 13:5

TSK: Exo 13:12 - thou shalt // set apart // openeth thou shalt : Exo 13:2, Exo 22:29, Exo 34:19; Lev 27:26; Num 8:17, Num 18:15; Deu 15:19; Eze 44:30 set apart : Heb. cause to pass over openeth : Exo 34...

thou shalt : Exo 13:2, Exo 22:29, Exo 34:19; Lev 27:26; Num 8:17, Num 18:15; Deu 15:19; Eze 44:30

set apart : Heb. cause to pass over

openeth : Exo 34:19; Num 3:12, Num 18:15

TSK: Exo 13:13 - of an ass // lamb // shalt thou of an ass : Exo 34:20; Num 18:15-17 lamb : or, kid, Exo 12:3, Exo 12:21 shalt thou : Num 3:46-51, Num 18:15, Num 18:16; Rev 14:4

of an ass : Exo 34:20; Num 18:15-17

lamb : or, kid, Exo 12:3, Exo 12:21

shalt thou : Num 3:46-51, Num 18:15, Num 18:16; Rev 14:4

TSK: Exo 13:14 - thy son // in time to come // By strength thy son : Exo 12:26; Deu 6:20-24; Jos 4:6, Jos 4:21-24; Psa 145:4 in time to come : Heb. tomorrow, Exo 12:26; Gen 30:33; Deu 6:20; Jos 4:6, Jos 22:24 ...

thy son : Exo 12:26; Deu 6:20-24; Jos 4:6, Jos 4:21-24; Psa 145:4

in time to come : Heb. tomorrow, Exo 12:26; Gen 30:33; Deu 6:20; Jos 4:6, Jos 22:24

By strength : Exo 13:3

TSK: Exo 13:15 - the Lord slew // therefore I the Lord slew : Exo 12:29 therefore I : Exo 13:12

the Lord slew : Exo 12:29

therefore I : Exo 13:12

TSK: Exo 13:16 - a token // frontlets // for by a token : Exo 13:9, Exo 12:13 frontlets : Deu 6:7-9, Deu 11:18; Mat 23:5 for by : Exo 13:9, Exo 13:14; Deu 26:8

TSK: Exo 13:17 - the people repent // return the people repent : Exo 14:11, Exo 14:12; Num 14:1-4; Deu 20:8; Jdg 7:3; 1Ki 8:47; Luk 14:27-32; Act 15:38 return : Exo 16:2, Exo 16:3; Deu 17:16; Neh...

TSK: Exo 13:18 - led the // harnessed led the : Exo 14:2; Num 33:6-8; Deu 32:10; Psa 107:7 harnessed : or, by five in a rank, Exo 12:51

led the : Exo 14:2; Num 33:6-8; Deu 32:10; Psa 107:7

harnessed : or, by five in a rank, Exo 12:51

TSK: Exo 13:19 - for he had // God for he had : Gen 50:24, Gen 50:25; Jos 24:32; Act 7:16 God : Exo 4:31; Gen 48:21; Luk 1:58, Luk 7:16

TSK: Exo 13:20 - -- Num 33:5, Num 33:6

TSK: Exo 13:21 - -- Exo 14:19-24, Exo 40:34-38; Num 9:15-23, Num 10:34, Num 14:14; Deu 1:33; Neh 9:12, Neh 9:19; Psa 78:14, Psa 99:7, Psa 105:39; Isa 4:5, Isa 4:6; 1Co 10...

TSK: Exo 13:22 - He took // pillar of fire He took : Psa 121:5-8 pillar of fire : Rev 10:1

He took : Psa 121:5-8

pillar of fire : Rev 10:1

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Exo 13:2 - Sanctify unto me // All the first-born // Whatsoever openeth the womb Sanctify unto me to my use and service, in manner as I shall hereafter explain. And sanctify , i.e. command all the people to sanctify, as Moses did...

Sanctify unto me to my use and service, in manner as I shall hereafter explain. And sanctify , i.e. command all the people to sanctify, as Moses did, Exo 13:12 .

All the first-born viz. if they be males, as it is limited, Exo 13:12 .

Whatsoever openeth the womb every child which is the first-born of his mother: so that if a man had many wives, either together or successively, his first child by every one of these was a first-born. Whether clean or unclean, though in different manner; whereof see Num 18:13,15,17 . It is mine, by special right and title; as being by my singular care and favour preserved from the common destruction, and therefore I challenge a peculiar interest in them, and do hereby require that they be devoted to me.

Poole: Exo 13:4 - -- See Exo 12:2 , in the spring-time, the most proper season for a long journey.

See Exo 12:2 , in the spring-time, the most proper season for a long journey.

Poole: Exo 13:5 - -- This service ; which is spoken of before, and in the following verses. From this place it is evident the Israelites were not obliged to this servic...

This service ; which is spoken of before, and in the following verses. From this place it is evident the Israelites were not obliged to this service in the wilderness without a particular command from God. See Deu 12:1,9 .

Poole: Exo 13:9 - A memorial between thine eyes // that the Lord’ s law may be in thy mouth The celebration of this feast shall be to thee instead of a mark which a man makes, or a ring, or any thing else which he puts upon his hand or arm,...

The celebration of this feast shall be to thee instead of a mark which a man makes, or a ring, or any thing else which he puts upon his hand or arm, to bring any thing to his remembrance; for such things his eye is most frequently fixed upon. Compare Son 8:6 Isa 49:16 Jer 22:24 Hag 2:23 .

A memorial between thine eyes instead of any monument or memorial, which is placed between, and therefore directly before a man’ s eyes, which he can scarcely overlook, and therefore must needs bring to remembrance the thing which he would not forget. Such proverbial phrases are usual in Scripture, as Deu 6:8 Pro 3:3 6:21 7:3 ; and are not to be understood literally, as the superstitious Jews understood them, who hence derive their custom of wearing scrolls of parchment upon their foreheads, and arms, and garments, which they call phylacteries, wherein they wrote certain portions of Scripture. But they might as well have added parcels of God’ s law to be kept in their mouths, because it follows,

that the Lord’ s law may be in thy mouth from whence we may better infer that neither mouth , nor hand , nor eyes are to be properly understood, for then, it had been an improper method to fasten a parchment between their eyes, that it might be in their mouths; but figuratively, as they are commonly understood in Scripture.

Poole: Exo 13:10 - -- Heb. From days to days . But days in the Hebrew tongue are oft put for a complete year. Of which see Gen 4:3 Lev 25:29 Amo 4:4 .

Heb. From days to days . But days in the Hebrew tongue are oft put for a complete year. Of which see Gen 4:3 Lev 25:29 Amo 4:4 .

Poole: Exo 13:11 - The land of the Canaanites The land of the Canaanites under which general name all the other nations are contained, as being all the children of Canaan.

The land of the Canaanites under which general name all the other nations are contained, as being all the children of Canaan.

Poole: Exo 13:12 - Thou shalt set apart // Cause it to pass // The males shall be the Lord’ s Thou shalt set apart i. e. separate it from the rest, resign thy right in it to God. Heb Cause it to pass not through the fire, as that verb is us...

Thou shalt set apart i. e. separate it from the rest, resign thy right in it to God. Heb

Cause it to pass not through the fire, as that verb is used, Deu 18:10 2Ki 16:3 ; but under the rod, as it is used, and more fully expressed, Lev 27:32 , which was the rite when any thing was separated and consecrated to God.

The males shall be the Lord’ s devoted to him, either to be sacrificed, if it was clean, or to be otherwise destroyed, if it was unclean, as it here follows.

Poole: Exo 13:13 - Thou shalt break his neck The ass was an unclean creature, and therefore this rule was to be observed in all other unclean creatures, as appears, 1. Because the reason of ...

The ass was an unclean creature, and therefore this rule was to be observed in all other unclean creatures, as appears,

1. Because the reason of this law is common to all such.

2. By comparing this place with Num 18:15 .

3. Because the first-born of all beasts were appropriated to God; and because many of them were unclean, and so could not be sacrificed, there was no other way of offering them to God, but by redemption, or a price paid for them. And the single exception of the price of a dog in this case, Deu 23:18 , doth sufficiently intimate that the price of all other unclean creatures was allowed and required. The ass alone is here named for all the rest, because this creature was most common, and most useful, and yet was not to be spared; whence it was easy to infer, that this course was much rather to be observed in other creatures which were of less use.

Thou shalt break his neck or, cut off his neck, or head , as the word is used, Deu 21:4 Isa 66:3 ; because being consecrated. to God, it was not to be applied to any profane or common use.

Poole: Exo 13:14 - -- Which is added to teach parents in all succeeding ages, that it is their duty to instruct their children in the word and works of God, and in the na...

Which is added to teach parents in all succeeding ages, that it is their duty to instruct their children in the word and works of God, and in the nature and reasons of every particular kind or part of God’ s worship and service. See Deu 15:5 Psa 66:4 Hos 2:14 .

Poole: Exo 13:16 - For frontlets For frontlets instead of frontlets. The sense is, This practice shall make your deliverance from Egypt as fresh and evident to you, and to your child...

For frontlets instead of frontlets. The sense is, This practice shall make your deliverance from Egypt as fresh and evident to you, and to your children, as any thing which you see hanged or written upon one another’ s foreheads. See Eze 9:4 . It seems strange to me, that they that understand the sign on the hand , and the memorial between the eyes , Exo 13:9 , metaphorically, should understand the

frontlets between the eyes in this place properly, seeing the phrase is perfectly the same; only here is a more particular allusion to the custom of the Egyptians, which used to wear some devices upon their foreheads, which probably they called totaphoth , which were memorials of their idols, or of something relating to them. And therefore it seems unlikely that he should here prescribe the use of the same things to the Jews; and the more probable meaning of the phrase is only this, that this practice would be as effectual and useful a remembrancer of this mighty and glorious work of God in bringing them out of Egypt, as those contrivances were to the Egyptians of their idols.

Poole: Exo 13:17 - The Philistines // That was near // When they see war The Philistines a fierce and warlike people, whereof they had sad and late experience, 1Ch 7:21 . That was near there being this way but a few days...

The Philistines a fierce and warlike people, whereof they had sad and late experience, 1Ch 7:21 .

That was near there being this way but a few days’ journey between Egypt and Canaan. Peradventure: God speaks after the manner of men, for nothing was unknown nor uncertain to him. Though the Hebrew particle pen doth not always imply doubting, but ofttimes only signifies lest , as Gen 3:3 38:23 Num 20:18 .

When they see war which they were likely to do, because the war would probably be long and hot, and their bodies were much weakened, and their spirits and courage broken, by a tedious and grievous bondage; and therefore it was fit that before they were called to such sharp conflicts, they should be hardened by the labours of a long and troublesome journey, and their faith should be strengthened by further experience of God’ s power, and faithfulness, and goodness, and by the glorious appearance of God at Mount Sinai, and those commands, promises, and encouragements there given them. But though this which is here mentioned was one, yet it was not the only reason of his counsel, but there were other causes of it; the Egyptians were to be drowned in the sea, the Israelites to be further tried, Deu 8:2 and full measure to be allowed to the iniquity of the Amorites. And they return to Egypt ; as afterwards they attempted to do, Nu 15 , upon a like occasion.

Poole: Exo 13:18 - -- Or, armed , or girt with swords and belts about the fifth rib, as the Hebrew word may imply. But it doth not appear how or whence they should get...

Or, armed , or girt with swords and belts about the fifth rib, as the Hebrew word may imply. But it doth not appear how or whence they should get their arms, nor how the Egyptians would permit so numerous a people to have and to keep arms, especially when they had a long time oppressed and exasperated them, and made them desperate. It is true, some few of them might procure arms, but this word is here used concerning the whole body of them. Others render it by fives , five and five in a rank, that is, by a usual synecdoche, in military order, not doubtfully and fearfully, but confidently and courageously; not confusedly, as men that steal or run away, but in good order, so as one might not hinder another. Which interpretation is strengthened by comparing Jos 1:14 . It may be rendered girt , to wit, about the fifth rib, as the word implies, the place where men used to gird their garments, this being the usual posture for travellers: he implies that they went out resolved upon and prepared for their journey.

Poole: Exo 13:19 - The bones of Joseph The bones of Joseph and the other patriarchs, as appears from Act 7:16 . The oath was taken only by the parents, but because the matter of it was not...

The bones of Joseph and the other patriarchs, as appears from Act 7:16 . The oath was taken only by the parents, but because the matter of it was not personal, and of particular concernment to them, but common to them and their children, therefore it obliged both the parents and their children, as Moses here signifieth.

Poole: Exo 13:21 - The Lord, the Son of God // Went before them // To lead them the way The Lord, the Son of God whose presence and conduct the Israelites had in the wilderness, as appears from 1Co 10:4,9 ; compare Heb 11:26 ; who is som...

The Lord, the Son of God whose presence and conduct the Israelites had in the wilderness, as appears from 1Co 10:4,9 ; compare Heb 11:26 ; who is sometimes called the Angel of the Lord , Exo 14:19 , because he was and was to be his Father’ s Angel or Messenger, sent by God unto men to ratify his covenant with them; whence he is called the Angel of the covenant , Mal 3:1 , as he is upon another account called the Angel of his presence , Isa 63:9 .

Went before them not by local motion, but by his gracious and powerful operations for and about them. The pillar was but one, Num 9:15,16 , having two different appearances and uses, of a cloud by day, to defend them from the heat, Psa 105:39 , which in those parts was excessive; and of a fire by night, to illuminate them. It was a cloud erected towards heaven, like a pillar upwards; but downwards flat and broad, spread over the body of the people, and afterwards more eminently over the tabernacle.

To lead them the way which was altogether necessary in those vast and pathless deserts, Num 10:33 Deu 1:33 .

Poole: Exo 13:22 - -- Whilst they continued in the wilderness, and had need of such direction.

Whilst they continued in the wilderness, and had need of such direction.

Haydock: Exo 13:2 - Sanctify unto me every first-born // Sanctify // Openeth Sanctify unto me every first-born. Sanctification in this place means, that the first-born males of the Hebrews should be deputed to the ministry in...

Sanctify unto me every first-born. Sanctification in this place means, that the first-born males of the Hebrews should be deputed to the ministry in the divine worship: and the first-born of beasts to be given for a sacrifice. (Challoner) ---

Sanctify, set apart. (Menochius) ---

Openeth, the first male fruit of the womb. If a female was born the first, none of the children were to be redeemed. (Luke ii. 23.) Jesus Christ submitted to this law; though many of the fathers have asserted that, on account of his miraculous conception and birth, he was not subjected to it; while others maintain the contrary. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 13:4 - Corn Corn. Hebrew Abib; which was styled Nisan after the Babylonian captivity. At this time, peculiar names were not yet given to the months, by the H...

Corn. Hebrew Abib; which was styled Nisan after the Babylonian captivity. At this time, peculiar names were not yet given to the months, by the Hebrews or Egyptians. (Calmet) ---

They were distinguished by their respective order, productions, or appearances. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 13:5 - When When. These regulations did not therefore take place in the desert. (Menochius)

When. These regulations did not therefore take place in the desert. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 13:9 - And it And it, &c. The festivals appointed by God and his Church, naturally remind us of the favours which we have received, and help us to meditate on the...

And it, &c. The festivals appointed by God and his Church, naturally remind us of the favours which we have received, and help us to meditate on the law. (Haydock) ---

The Jews, understanding the precept literally, write verses taken from this chapter, and Deuteronomy vi. and xi., upon parchment, and bind these tephilins, or phylacteries, on their forehead. But if these scrolls were requisite, why do they not also put them in their mouth and in their heart? Jesus Christ condemns the vanity of the Pharisees, who wore these bandages extremely large, Matthew xxiii. 5. The Mahometans teach their scholars, by writing the Coran upon a tablet, and exposing it to their view: (Calmet) a plan lately introduced in England with great success by Mr. Lancaster.

Haydock: Exo 13:13 - Price Price. No other option is given, as the Levites were selected for the ministry. (Haydock) --- The first offspring of impure animals, were to be re...

Price. No other option is given, as the Levites were selected for the ministry. (Haydock) ---

The first offspring of impure animals, were to be redeemed or killed; those of the pure were to be offered in sacrifice, Numbers xviii. 15. (Philo.) Dogs, cats, poultry, &c. were to be slain, Deuteronomy xxiii. 18. (Calmet)

Haydock: Exo 13:14 - To-morrow To-morrow. At any future period, Matthew vi. 2. (Menochius)

To-morrow. At any future period, Matthew vi. 2. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 13:15 - Hardened Hardened. Hebrew, "by himself," or by his own malice. (Worthington)

Hardened. Hebrew, "by himself," or by his own malice. (Worthington)

Haydock: Exo 13:16 - It It. This ordinance shall cause thee never to forget the goodness of God. (Haydock)

It. This ordinance shall cause thee never to forget the goodness of God. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 13:17 - Lest Lest. God maketh use of precautions, to shew the free-will of man. (Worthington) --- The Philistines had before made a great slaughter of the Ephr...

Lest. God maketh use of precautions, to shew the free-will of man. (Worthington) ---

The Philistines had before made a great slaughter of the Ephraimites, 1 Paralipomenon vii. 21. The Chanaanites would also be ready to oppose the Hebrews, if they had attempted to enter by the road of Pelusium, and perhaps the Idumeans and Amalecites also would have met them in front, while the Egyptians attacked their rear. (Calmet) ---

This journey, Philo says, would not have taken up above three days. The battle with Amalec took place only 40 days afterwards, and God protected his people. (Menochius)

Haydock: Exo 13:18 - Armed Armed, in order of battle. Hebrew chamushim , "by fives," or in five battalions. (Josue i. 14; Judges viii. 11.) (Calmet) --- Calvin asks where t...

Armed, in order of battle. Hebrew chamushim , "by fives," or in five battalions. (Josue i. 14; Judges viii. 11.) (Calmet) ---

Calvin asks where the Hebrews could procure arms, as if to cavil with this translation. But surely they might get them in the same manner as the vessels of gold; and they undoubtedly were not destitute of arms when they encountered the Amalecites, ver. 17. (Haydock)

Haydock: Exo 13:19 - Joseph's Joseph's. This attention to the dead is commended, Hebrews xi. (Worthington) --- St. Stephen assures us, that the bones of the other patriarchs wer...

Joseph's. This attention to the dead is commended, Hebrews xi. (Worthington) ---

St. Stephen assures us, that the bones of the other patriarchs were deposited at Sichen; and we may conclude, that they were transported on this occasion by their respective families, Acts vii. 16.

Haydock: Exo 13:20 - Etham Etham. A city on the banks of the Red Sea, giving its name to one of the gulfs, which the Greeks called after the city of Heropolis. (Pliny, Natura...

Etham. A city on the banks of the Red Sea, giving its name to one of the gulfs, which the Greeks called after the city of Heropolis. (Pliny, Natural History vi. 29.) The Septuagint translate, "They encamped at Othon, which is near the desert;" and (Numbers xxxii. 6,) the Hebrews marched three days in the desert of Buthan, before they arrived at Mara.

Haydock: Exo 13:22 - Never Never. From the station of Etham; or, if we follow St. Jerome, from that of Socoth, or even from Ramesses, according to Bonfrere, till the passage o...

Never. From the station of Etham; or, if we follow St. Jerome, from that of Socoth, or even from Ramesses, according to Bonfrere, till the passage of the Jordan, when the ark supplied its want, Josue iii. 11. This cloud assumed different appearances, as the exigencies of the Hebrews required. It was a figure of baptism; (1 Corinthians x. 1) the fire designated Jesus Christ, and the cloud the Holy Ghost. (St. Ambrose, de Sac. 6.) (Calmet)

Gill: Exo 13:1 - And the Lord spake unto Moses // saying And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... When he and the Israelites were at Succoth: saying; as follows.

And the Lord spake unto Moses,.... When he and the Israelites were at Succoth:

saying; as follows.

Gill: Exo 13:2 - Sanctify unto me all the firstborn // whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast // it is mine Sanctify unto me all the firstborn,.... That is, of males, as the Targum of Jonathan adds, for those, and not females, were only either sacrificed or ...

Sanctify unto me all the firstborn,.... That is, of males, as the Targum of Jonathan adds, for those, and not females, were only either sacrificed or redeemed, see Exo 13:12, and this sanctification of them to the Lord signifies the separation or devoting of them to the service of God; if the firstborn of clean creatures they were to be sacrificed, if unclean to be redeemed with a price, and so the firstborn of men, because it was not lawful to sacrifice them; and the money for the redemption of them was given to the priests, the ministers of the Lord, and so to him; who these first, born were is further explained:

whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast; that is, if a male; for, if a female, though it openeth the womb, was not reckoned a firstborn, because not to be offered; nor even a male after the birth of a female, because that openeth not the womb; and so if a man married a widow, and she had had children by her former husband, though she should bring him a son, which was his firstborn, yet not being her's, and not opening the womb, was not subject to this law; but if a man married several wives one after another, or together, who had never been married before, or had had no children; if each of them brought him a son at first birth, they were all of them firstborn, and to be sanctified to the Lord; but the Jews say u, if a woman at her first birth brought forth a male and a female, the father was free from this law of the redemption of the firstborn, because the female might come forth first: this phrase, "among the children of Israel", shows that this law only belonged to them, and not to the Gentiles; wherefore the Jewish doctors say w, if a man buys cattle of an Heathen, and sells to him, or is in partnership with him, and gives and takes of him, he is free from the law of the firstborn; for it is said "among the Israelites", and not among others:

it is mine: all creatures, man and beast, are the Lord's by creation; but these firstborn were his in a peculiar manner, and which he reserved to himself, to his own use and service; and the people of Israel were under great obligation to devote them to him, since he had spared all their firstborn, when all the firstborn of the Egyptians, both man and beast, were destroyed: this may denote the special and peculiar interest the Lord has in the general assembly and church of the firstborn, whose names are written in heaven, through the special, particular, and eternal choice of them in Christ, and the redemption of them to him by the price of his blood; and who, on account both of their election of God, and redemption by Christ, are laid under obligation to give up themselves to God, a holy, living, and acceptable sacrifice, which is but their reasonable service.

Gill: Exo 13:3 - And Moses said unto the people // remember this day in which ye came out of Egypt, out of the house of bondage // for by strength of hand the Lord brought you out of this place // there shall no leavened bread be eaten And Moses said unto the people,.... After the Lord had spoken to him, and said the above things: remember this day in which ye came out of Egypt, o...

And Moses said unto the people,.... After the Lord had spoken to him, and said the above things:

remember this day in which ye came out of Egypt, out of the house of bondage; or "of servants" x where they had been servants to the Egyptians, by whom they had been made to serve with rigour, and their lives made bitter with hard bondage; that country had been like a prison house unto them, where they had been detained captives, and treated in a very cruel manner; but now they were come out of this place and state of servitude, even that very day, the fifteenth of Nisan; and which therefore it became them to remember, they and theirs, in all succeeding generations, as the Lord had directed, and which is afterwards repeated to impress it the more upon their, minds and memories:

for by strength of hand the Lord brought you out of this place; it was not by their own might and strength that they were redeemed from their state of bondage, but by the mighty hand of the Lord who wrought such signs and wonders before Pharaoh and his servants, and inflicted such plagues upon them, which none but an omnipotent hand could do, which obliged them at last to let them go: and if the Israelites were under obligation, on account of this redemption, to remember the day when it was in this wonderful manner wrought out, much, more reason have we to remember the redemption by Christ the mighty Redeemer, whose own arm wrought salvation for us, and delivered us out of the hands of our spiritual enemies, that were stronger than we, by frequently attending the ordinance of the Lord's supper, which is instituted to bring this amazing affair to our remembrance, and which is to be continued for that purpose unto the second coming of Christ:

there shall no leavened bread be eaten; as they then on this very day had no other but unleavened bread to eat, so they should eat no other on this day and the six days following, in successive ages unto the coming of the Messiah.

Gill: Exo 13:4 - This day came ye out // in the month Abib This day came ye out,.... Out of Egypt, on the fifteenth of Nisan, as the Targum of Jonathan: in the month Abib; which signifies an ear of corn, be...

This day came ye out,.... Out of Egypt, on the fifteenth of Nisan, as the Targum of Jonathan:

in the month Abib; which signifies an ear of corn, because in this month barley was in the ear, see Exo 9:31, the Syriac version renders it, "in the month of flowers"; when the flowers were rising up out of the earth, being spring time, and a very fit time to travel in; and this is observed, not only because they might not know what month it was, in such a state of ignorance, as well as servitude, were they kept in Egypt; but as Jarchi also intimates, to point out to them the mercy and goodness of God to them, in bringing them out at such a seasonable time to travel in, when there were neither heat, nor cold, nor rain. This month answers to part of our March, and part of April.

Gill: Exo 13:5 - And it shall be when the Lord shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites // and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites // which he swore unto thy fathers to give thee // a land flowing with milk and honey // that thou shalt keep this service in this month And it shall be when the Lord shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites,.... Though the whole land was called the land of Canaan, yet there was...

And it shall be when the Lord shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites,.... Though the whole land was called the land of Canaan, yet there was one tribe or nation of them particularly so called as here, distinct from those that follow:

and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites; there were seven nations in all, but two are here omitted, the Girgashites and Perizzites, but they are added in the Septuagint version, see Deu 7:1.

which he swore unto thy fathers to give thee; to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; so that they might be assured they would be brought into it, since they had both the word and oath of God for it; and which is the rather mentioned now for their encouragement, since they were at this time set forward in their journey thitherwards:

a land flowing with milk and honey; See Gill on Exo 3:8,

that thou shalt keep this service in this month; the month of Abib; that is, the following service concerning unleavened bread; it is concluded from hence by some, that those laws concerning the passover, and eating unleavened bread, and sanctifying the firstborn, did not oblige the Israelites, while in the wilderness, only when they came into the land of Canaan; and it seems pretty clear that this was the case with respect to the two latter, but not the former, since it is certain they did keep the passover in the wilderness, and were obliged to it, Num 9:1 but then it may be observed, that there is no mention there of their keeping the feast of unleavened bread, only of the passover, as here no mention is made of the feast of the passover, which, though they followed one another, were, two distinct feasts.

Gill: Exo 13:6 - Seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread // and in the seventh day shall be a feast to the Lord Seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread,.... The Jews y gather from this place, and from Deu 16:8, that the obligation to eat unleavened bread last...

Seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread,.... The Jews y gather from this place, and from Deu 16:8, that the obligation to eat unleavened bread lasted no longer than the first night of the seven days, but on the rest it was enough if they abstained from leavened bread, and it was lawful for them to eat of other food as they pleased; see Gill on Exo 12:15, but the words are very express in both places, and so in the following verse, for eating unleavened bread, as well as abstaining from leavened; and, indeed, otherwise it would not be so clear and plain a commemoration of their case and circumstances, in which they were when they came out of Egypt; this bread of affliction, as it is called, Deu 16:3 being what would put them in mind thereof:

and in the seventh day shall be a feast to the Lord; an holy convocation, in which no work was to be done, except what was necessary for preparing food to eat, see Exo 12:16.

Gill: Exo 13:7 - Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days // and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee in all thy quarters Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days,.... From the evening of the fourteenth day, to the evening of the twenty first, Exo 12:18, this is very ex...

Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days,.... From the evening of the fourteenth day, to the evening of the twenty first, Exo 12:18, this is very express as before, that not only they were to abstain from leaven, but that they were obliged to eat unleavened bread; and as for the cakes of eggs and sugar the Jews now use, these, as Leo Modeua says z, are for those that are dainty and of tender stomachs and such as are sick, who eat unleavened bread also:

and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee in all thy quarters: See Gill on Exo 12:15 and the above mentioned writer says a,"they begin before the passover, with all the diligence and care they can, to put away all leaven, or anything that hath had leaven in it, out of their houses, and out of their power; searching all their cupboards and bins, and cleansing the whole house and whiting it all over; and they provide themselves also of new utensils for their kitchen and table; or else they new make the old again, and scour them well; or else they have a select number of vessels set apart for the use of the passover only, that so they may be certainly assured that they use not anything during those eight days, that hath had leaven in it:''and Aben Ezra upon the place says, that the sense of it is, that the Israelites ought not to suffer any to sojourn in any place subject to them, but on this condition, that they abstain from leavened bread at the time of the passover, and this he takes to be the meaning of the phrase, "in all thy quarters or borders".

Gill: Exo 13:8 - And thou shall show thy son in that day // saying, this is done because of that which the Lord did unto me, when I came forth out of Egypt And thou shall show thy son in that day,.... On the first of the days of the feast of unleavened bread, the reason of eating it; and this is to be sho...

And thou shall show thy son in that day,.... On the first of the days of the feast of unleavened bread, the reason of eating it; and this is to be shown not to a son or single child only, but by parents to all their children, sons and daughters, and even unasked, as Maimonides b interprets it; and so Jarchi's note is, to a son that knows not how to ask or what to ask about; see Gill on Exo 12:26, Exo 12:27,

saying, this is done because of that which the Lord did unto me, when I came forth out of Egypt: that is, this unleavened bread is eaten because of the quick and speedy deliverance of Israel out of Egypt, so that they had not time to leaven their dough.

Gill: Exo 13:9 - And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes // that the Lord's law may be in thy mouth // for with a strong hand hath the Lord brought thee out of Egypt And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes,.... These are not the words of God or of Moses to the chi...

And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes,.... These are not the words of God or of Moses to the children of Israel, but of an lsraelitish parent to his son, telling him that this feast of unleavened bread would serve the same purpose to refresh his memory with what God did for his people of old, as the tying of a thing on the hand, or placing it before the eye, is to a person to bring anything to his remembrance, to which the allusion is; the like figurative phrases may be observed in Pro 1:9, the Jews understand this literally, and hence the use of phylacteries among them, which they bind upon their left hand, and place upon their foreheads between their eyes, of which See Gill on Mat 23:5, but such a practice could be of no use to answer the end next mentioned:

that the Lord's law may be in thy mouth; for surely this cannot be taken literally, but the sense is, that being instructed by the observance of the above feast, and being taught the meaning of it, they might be able to speak of it to their children, and so transmit it from age to age to their latest posterity:

for with a strong hand hath the Lord brought thee out of Egypt; See Gill on Exo 13:3.

Gill: Exo 13:10 - Thou shall therefore keep the ordinance in his season // from year to year Thou shall therefore keep the ordinance in his season,.... Not the ordinance of the phylacteries, as the Targum of Jonathan, but the ordinance of unle...

Thou shall therefore keep the ordinance in his season,.... Not the ordinance of the phylacteries, as the Targum of Jonathan, but the ordinance of unleavened bread:

from year to year; every year successively, so long as in force, even unto the coming of the Messiah. It is in the Hebrew text, "from days to days" c; that is, either year after year, as we understand it; or else the sense is, that the feast of unleavened bread, when the season was come for keeping it, was to be observed every day for seven days running.

Gill: Exo 13:11 - And it shall be when the Lord shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites // as he sware unto thee, and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee And it shall be when the Lord shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites,.... Put for all the rest of the nations: as he sware unto thee, and...

And it shall be when the Lord shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites,.... Put for all the rest of the nations:

as he sware unto thee, and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee; to them as they were in their loins, and from thence might certainly conclude it would be given them.

Gill: Exo 13:12 - That thou shalt set apart unto the Lord all that openeth the matrix // and every firstling that cometh from a beast which thou hast // the males shall be the Lord's That thou shalt set apart unto the Lord all that openeth the matrix,.... Or "the womb", as in Exo 13:2, and this phrase, "set apart", explains the wor...

That thou shalt set apart unto the Lord all that openeth the matrix,.... Or "the womb", as in Exo 13:2, and this phrase, "set apart", explains the word "sanctify" there, and shows that it signifies the separating of such to the use and service of God, causing it to "pass", as the word d here used signifies, from a man's own power and use, to be the Lord's only:

and every firstling that cometh from a beast which thou hast; or "even every firstling" e, explaining what is meant by what opens the matrix or womb, even every firstborn of a beast; though Jarchi interprets it of an abortion, what comes before its time, that this also should be set apart to the Lord; this must be understood of the firstlings of clean creatures, fit for food and sacrifice, such as the firstlings of cows, sheep, and goats, Num 18:17 as distinguished from unclean ones in the following verse:

the males shall be the Lord's; which explains what sort of firstborn of man and beast were to be set apart for his use, not females, though the first that opened the womb; but males.

Gill: Exo 13:13 - And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb // and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shall break its neck // and all the firstborn of man amongst thy children shall thou redeem And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb,.... Which was given to the priest for it; and according to the Jewish canon f, it might b...

And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb,.... Which was given to the priest for it; and according to the Jewish canon f, it might be redeemed with that only;"not with a calf, nor with an animal (a goat or a ram, as Bartenora interprets it), nor with a lamb slain, or torn to pieces.''Jarchi thinks the ass only was to be redeemed, and not the firstling of any other unclean creature, but his reasons are insufficient; all unclean creatures, as horses, camels, dogs, swine, &c. are included in it, as should seem from Num 18:15 and this is the rather particularly mentioned, because there was a greater plenty of them than of horses and camels, and because they were very useful creatures; and if these were to be redeemed, then much more those of less value, and less useful. Hence might arise the story and calumny, as some have thought, of the Jews worshipping an ass's head:

and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shall break its neck; cut off its head on the back of the neck with a knife or cleaver, such as butchers use, as the Misnah g, and its commentators, interpret it, so that the owner should have no profit by it:

and all the firstborn of man amongst thy children shall thou redeem; with the price of five shekels of the sanctuary, and within thirty days of the birth of it, Num 18:16 and these being to be redeemed as the unclean beasts were, shows that men are by nature unclean, and even the firstborn, whose names are written in heaven, the elect of God, and need redemption by the blood of the Lamb.

Gill: Exo 13:14 - And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come // saying, what is this // that thou shall say unto him, by strength of hand the Lord brought us out of Egypt from the house of bondage And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come,.... Or "on the morrow" h, the day following such a separation of the firstborn of clean crea...

And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come,.... Or "on the morrow" h, the day following such a separation of the firstborn of clean creatures, or such a redemption of the firstborn of unclean ones, and of man, or in any later time:

saying, what is this? what is the meaning of this? for what reason are such things done?

that thou shall say unto him, by strength of hand the Lord brought us out of Egypt from the house of bondage: by laying his mighty hand upon the firstborn of Egypt, and destroying them, which made the king of Egypt, and his people, willing to let Israel go; See Gill on Exo 13:3.

Gill: Exo 13:15 - And it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go // that the Lord slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of men, and the firstborn of beast // therefore I sacrifice to the Lord all that openeth thee matrix, being males // but all the firstborn of my children I redeem And it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go,.... Showed great reluctance to it, and with difficulty was prevailed upon to dismiss them: ...

And it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go,.... Showed great reluctance to it, and with difficulty was prevailed upon to dismiss them:

that the Lord slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of men, and the firstborn of beast: which he did in one night, making use of a destroying angel or angels for that purpose:

therefore I sacrifice to the Lord all that openeth thee matrix, being males; that is, the firstborn of all clean creatures, as oxen, sheep, and goats:

but all the firstborn of my children I redeem; by paying five shekels apiece to the priest for them, as before observed; and this law continues to be observed with the Jews; the manner of which, as related by Leo Modena i, is as follows,"Thirty days being expired after the birth of the child, they call a priest to them; that is to say, one that is descended of the stock of Aaron, whom the father of the child pleaseth; and so, many people being gathered together at the time appointed, the father of the child bringeth before the priest, in a bowl or basin, a good quantity of gold and silver, and then they give him the child into his arms; the priest then calling the mother of it before him, saith unto her, mistress, is this your son? she answereth, yes; then, replies he, have you never had any child before, either male or female, or have miscarried anyone? she saith unto him, no; then doth the priest say, this child is mine, as being the firstborn; then turning himself toward the father, he asketh him, whether he will redeem it or not? who answereth him, saying, see, here is gold and silver, take your own price; then saith the priest unto him, you will redeem it then? the father answereth, I will redeem it; it shall be so then, saith the priest, this child is mine as being the firstborn, as it is written, Num 18:16. I therefore take this in exchange, &c. and so he takes the sum of two French crowns, or thereabout, as he thinks good, and then delivers the child to his father and mother, and this day they make a feasting day.''This custom was used in Christ's time, and was observed with respect to him, Luk 2:27.

Gill: Exo 13:16 - And it shall be for a token upon thine head, and for frontlets between thine eyes // for by strength of hand the Lord brought us forth out of Egypt And it shall be for a token upon thine head, and for frontlets between thine eyes,.... These laws observed concerning the setting apart the firstlings...

And it shall be for a token upon thine head, and for frontlets between thine eyes,.... These laws observed concerning the setting apart the firstlings of their beasts, the redemption of the firstborn of unclean ones, and of the firstborn of men, will bring the reason of it, the destruction of the firstborn of Egypt, and the preservation of the firstborn of Israel, as fresh to remembrance as any token upon the hand, put there to bring things to mind; and it will be as easily and as clearly discerned as anything upon a man's forehead may be seen by another:

for by strength of hand the Lord brought us forth out of Egypt: which is often mentioned, that it might be observed; it being the signs and wonders which the omnipotent hand of God wrought, especially the last, which worked upon Pharaoh, to let the people of Israel go; and their posterity, in all succeeding ages, would speak of this affair as if personally concerned in it, they being then in the loins of their ancestors, and represented by them, as well as they reaped and enjoyed all the benefits of that wonderful deliverance, the possession of the land of Canaan, and the blessings of it, as well as many other privileges both of a civil and religious kind. And so Maimonides k says,"in every age a man is obliged to consider himself as if he in himself now went out of the bondage of Egypt, as it is said, "and he brought us forth from thence", &c.''

Gill: Exo 13:17 - And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go // that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near // for God said // lest peradventure the people repent // when they see war // and they return to Egypt And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go,.... Gave them leave to depart out of Egypt, and even urged them to be gone in haste upon the ...

And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go,.... Gave them leave to depart out of Egypt, and even urged them to be gone in haste upon the death of his firstborn:

that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; the land of the Philistines was the Pentapolis, or five cities of Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, and Gath, which lay between Egypt and Canaan; and their way through it to Canaan, out of Egypt, was the nearest they could go; and was, as Aben Ezra says, about ten days' journey; but Philo the Jew says l it was but three days' journey; and it seems, by the sons of Jacob going to and fro for corn, that it was no very long journey:

for God said: within himself, or he declared the following reason of so doing to Moses:

lest peradventure the people repent: which is said not as ignorant or doubtful, but, as Aben Ezra says, after the manner of men:

when they see war: the Philistines coming out against them to hinder their passage through their country; they being a warlike people, bold and courageous, and the Israelites, through their long servitude, of a mean, timorous, and cowardly disposition; and indeed as yet unarmed, and so very unfit to engage in war, and therefore would at once be intimidated:

and they return to Egypt; judging it more eligible to continue in their former bondage, than to fall a prey into the hands of such fierce and cruel enemies. This is the only reason mentioned for not leading them this way; but there were other secret reasons for it, which afterwards opened in Providence, as the doing that wonderful work for them, leading them through the Red sea as on dry land, and the destruction of Pharaoh and his host in it; and by being brought into a wilderness, a solitude, they would be in the fittest place to receive and attend to the body of laws given them, and where they were formed into a commonwealth and church state, previous to their entrance into, and possession of, the land of Canaan; and here also they were humbled, tried and proved, and had such instances of the power and goodness of God to them, as were sufficient to attach them to his service, and lay them under the greatest obligation to him, as well as would be of use to strengthen their faith and hope in him in future times of difficulty and distress.

Gill: Exo 13:18 - But God led the people about // through the way of the wilderness of the Red sea // and the children of Israel went up harnessed out of the land of Egypt But God led the people about,.... Instead of their going to the west, or northwest, towards Gaza, &c. and the Mediterranean sea, the Lord going before...

But God led the people about,.... Instead of their going to the west, or northwest, towards Gaza, &c. and the Mediterranean sea, the Lord going before them in a pillar of cloud and fire, as after related, directed them to turn off to the right, between the east and south, to the southeast:

through the way of the wilderness of the Red sea: the wilderness of Etham, by the Red sea:

and the children of Israel went up harnessed out of the land of Egypt or "girt" m about the loins under the fifth rib; not with armour, as some n understand it, for it is not likely that they could, or that Pharaoh would suffer them to be furnished with armour, but their garments were girt about them, and so fit for travelling; or they went up "by fives" o, as it may be rendered, either by five in a rank, or rather in five bodies or squadrons, and so marched out, not in a disorderly and confused way, but in great order and regularity. The latter is much more reasonable to suppose, for five in a rank is too small a number for an army of 600,000 men to march in; since allowing the ranks to be but three feet asunder, and a mile to consist of about two thousand yards, the front and rear of the army would be sixty miles distant from each other p.

Gill: Exo 13:19 - And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him // for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel // saying, God will surely visit you // and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him,.... And his remains might well be called bones, since at such a distance from his death the flesh must be...

And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him,.... And his remains might well be called bones, since at such a distance from his death the flesh must be gone, and nothing but bones left; of the place where Joseph's coffin was laid; see Gill on Gen 50:26. The Jews pretend, that Moses was informed where Joseph was buried by Sarah, the daughter of Asher, who they say was living at this time q; and many other fables they relate concerning the manner of finding him, which are not worthy of any notice. Jarchi thinks, that the bones of all the tribes, or of the sons of Jacob, were carried with them, but that does not appear from the text; though it seems, according to Stephen's account, that they were carried over to Canaan; but then, whether immediately after their death, or at this time, and also by whom, is not certain, see Act 7:15,

for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel; his brethren; or "in swearing had caused them to swear" r, had given them a very strict oath, and which they had related to their children, and so from one generation to another, and thus it became known, and Moses looked upon himself and the people of Israel as bound to observe it:

saying, God will surely visit you; in a way of mercy and goodness, and bring you out of Egypt, and put you it possession of the land of Canaan:

and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you; See Gill on Gen 50:25.

Gill: Exo 13:20 - And they took their journey from Succoth // and encamped in Etham And they took their journey from Succoth,.... On the second day, as Jarchi observes, from their coming out of Egypt, which was the sixteenth of Nisan:...

And they took their journey from Succoth,.... On the second day, as Jarchi observes, from their coming out of Egypt, which was the sixteenth of Nisan:

and encamped in Etham, in the edge of the wilderness which had its name from it, and was called the wilderness of Etham, Num 33:8. Etham is said to be eight miles from Succoth s. Josephus t calls Succoth Latopolis, which had its name from the fish Latus, formerly worshipped them, where, he says, Babylon was built when Cambyses destroyed Egypt, and is thought by many u to be the same with Troglodytis, by the Red sea; and Etham is supposed to be the Buto of Herodotus w, where were the temple of Apollo and Diana, and the oracle of Latona.

Gill: Exo 13:21 - And the Lord went before them // by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way // and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light // to go by day or night And the Lord went before them,.... Who is called the Angel of the Lord, Exo 14:19, not a created but the uncreated Angel, the Angel of Jehovah's prese...

And the Lord went before them,.... Who is called the Angel of the Lord, Exo 14:19, not a created but the uncreated Angel, the Angel of Jehovah's presence, in whom his name, nature, and perfections were, even the Word and Son of God, the Lord Christ, see 1Co 10:9 who went before the armies of Israel, as their King, Leader, and Commander:

by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; through the Red sea, and the wilderness, at the edge of which they now were, which was untrodden, and trackless, and the way through it very difficult to find; and being a sandy desert, as soon as a path was made, it was immediately covered with sand, and to be seen no more: this cloud was not an ordinary one, but extraordinary, supernatural, and miraculous; in the superior part of it, it was in the form of a pillar, rising upwards towards heaven; in the lower part of it, it was more spread, and covered the camp of Israel; for, besides the use of it to show the way through a trackless wilderness, it was a shelter and protection from the scorching heat of the sun in a sandy desert, where there was scarce anything to screen them from it, to which the allusion is in Isa 4:5 this cloud was an emblem of Christ, who has sometimes appeared clothed with a cloud, Rev 10:1 of the obscurity of his human nature, of the fulness of grace in him, and being in the form of a pillar, of his uprightness, firmness, stability, and visibility in it; and of the use and benefit he is to his people, partly to show them the way in which they should go, by his Spirit and word, and lead them in it by his own example, whom it becomes them to follow, he being a wise, safe, and constant guide; and partly to shelter and protect them from the heat of a fiery law, from the flaming sword of justice, from the wrath of God, from the fiery darts of Satan, and from the furious persecution of wicked men, sometimes compared to the violent heat of the sun, Son 1:6.

and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; whenever they travelled by night, as they sometimes did, and in those hot countries it was very agreeable; and this pillar of fire gave them light when the moon shone not, and was a direction to them which way to go: sometimes it is night with the people of God, a night of darkness and desertion, of drowsiness, sleepiness, and carnal security, or of affliction and distress: Christ is the light and comfort of his people, and by his Spirit and word illuminates, guides, and directs them what to do, and where and how to walk:

to go by day or night; to direct them in their journey, whether by night or day: this was but one pillar, though Aben Ezra thinks they were two; but it may be observed they are mentioned as one, and that the pillar of cloud in the night was a cloud of darkness to the Egyptians, and gave light to the Israelites, Exo 14:19, see also Num 9:21 and it is easy to observe that what appears as a cloud or smoke in the daytime, looks like fire in the night: so when Alexander's army was on the march, as a signal,"fire was observed in the night, and smoke by day,''as says the historian x: nor can, this account of Moses seem incredible to the Heathens themselves, as Clemens of Alexandria observes y, since they relate a story somewhat similar to this, which they profess to believe; as, that when Thrasybulus brought the exile Grecians from Phyle, and willing to do it secretly, a pillar was his guide, and as he passed in the night through untrodden paths, when the moon shone not, and it was a dark winter night, a light was seen going before him, which brought them safe to Mynichia, and then left them: indeed this was not so extraordinary and miraculous, if true, as this pillar, as Bishop Patrick observes, because it was but for a night, whereas this continued all the forty years in the wilderness, until the Israelites came to Canaan's land, as follows: the Arabic geographer z speaks of exhalations arising out of caves at the sides of mountains, which in the daytime looked like smoke, and in the night time like fire.

Gill: Exo 13:22 - He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day // nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day,.... It always appeared in the daytime, and was a guide and shelter: nor the pillar of fire by nigh...

He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day,.... It always appeared in the daytime, and was a guide and shelter:

nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people; this continued till they came through the wilderness to the borders of the land of Canaan, when they needed it no longer, and then it left them; for when they passed over Jordan the ark went before them, Jos 3:6.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Exo 13:1 Heb “and Yahweh spoke.”

NET Notes: Exo 13:2 Heb “to me it.” The preposition here expresses possession; the construction is simply “it [is, belongs] to me.”

NET Notes: Exo 13:3 The verb is a Niphal imperfect; it could be rendered “must not be eaten” in the nuance of the instruction or injunction category, but perm...

NET Notes: Exo 13:4 The form is the active participle, functioning verbally.

NET Notes: Exo 13:5 The object is a cognate accusative for emphasis on the meaning of the service – “you will serve this service.” W. C. Kaiser notes ho...

NET Notes: Exo 13:6 The phrase “there is to be” has been supplied.

NET Notes: Exo 13:7 Or “visible to you” (B. Jacob, Exodus, 366).

NET Notes: Exo 13:8 The text uses זֶה (zeh), which Gesenius classifies as the use of the pronoun to introduce a relative clause after the preposition (G...

NET Notes: Exo 13:9 This causal clause gives the reason for what has just been instructed. Because Yahweh delivered them from bondage, he has the strongest claims on thei...

NET Notes: Exo 13:10 Or “every year,” or “year after year.”

NET Notes: Exo 13:11 The verb וּנְתָנָהּ (unÿtanah) is the Qal perfect with the vav (ו) consecutive;...

NET Notes: Exo 13:12 The Hebrew text simply has “the males to Yahweh.” It indicates that the Lord must have them, or they belong to the Lord.

NET Notes: Exo 13:13 One was to sacrifice the firstborn animals to Yahweh, but the children were to be redeemed by their fathers. The redemption price was five shekels (Nu...

NET Notes: Exo 13:14 Heb “house of slaves.”

NET Notes: Exo 13:15 The form is the active participle.

NET Notes: Exo 13:16 The pattern of the passage now emerges more clearly; it concerns the grateful debt of the redeemed. In the first part eating the unleavened bread reca...

NET Notes: Exo 13:17 Heb “see.”

NET Notes: Exo 13:18 The term חֲמֻשִׁים (khamushim) is placed first for emphasis; it forms a circumstantial clause, e...

NET Notes: Exo 13:19 The form is a Hiphil perfect with the vav (ו) consecutive; it follows in the sequence of the imperfect tense before it, and so is equal to an im...

NET Notes: Exo 13:21 These are adverbial accusatives of time.

NET Notes: Exo 13:22 See T. W. Mann, “The Pillar of Cloud in the Reed Sea Narrative,” JBL 90 (1971): 15-30.

Geneva Bible: Exo 13:3 And Moses said unto the people, Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of ( a ) bondage; for by strength of hand the LOR...

Geneva Bible: Exo 13:4 This day came ye out in the month ( c ) Abib. ( c ) Containing part of March and part of April, when corn began to ripen in that country.

Geneva Bible: Exo 13:6 Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the ( d ) seventh day [shall be] a feast to the LORD. ( d ) Both the seventh and the first day wer...

Geneva Bible: Exo 13:8 And thou shalt shew thy son ( e ) in that day, saying, [This is done] because of that [which] the LORD did unto me when I came forth out of Egypt. ( ...

Geneva Bible: Exo 13:9 And it shall be for a sign unto thee ( f ) upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the LORD'S law may be in thy mouth: for with a...

Geneva Bible: Exo 13:13 And every firstling of an ( g ) ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break his neck: and all the firstbo...

Geneva Bible: Exo 13:17 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not [through] the way of the land of the Philistines, although that [was] n...

Geneva Bible: Exo 13:18 But God led the people about, [through] the way of the wilderness of the Red sea: and the children of Israel went up ( k ) harnessed out of the land o...

Geneva Bible: Exo 13:21 And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of a ( l ) cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go b...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Exo 13:9 - Thought, Deed, Word Exodus 13:9 The question may be asked, whether this command is to be taken metaphorically or literally. No doubt the remembrance of the great delivera...

MHCC: Exo 13:1-10 - --In remembrance of the destruction of the first-born of Egypt, both of man and of beast, and the deliverance of the Israelites out of bondage, the firs...

MHCC: Exo 13:11-16 - --The firstlings of beast not used in sacrifice, were to be changed for others so used, or they were to be destroyed. Our souls are forfeited to God's j...

MHCC: Exo 13:17-20 - --There were two ways from Egypt to Canaan. One was only a few days' journey; the other was much further about, through the wilderness, and that was the...

MHCC: Exo 13:21-22 - --The Lord went before them in a pillar, or appearance of the Divine Majesty. Christ was with the church in the wilderness, 1Co 10:9. Those whom God bri...

Matthew Henry: Exo 13:1-10 - -- Care is here taken to perpetuate the remembrance, I. Of the preservation of Israel's firstborn, when the firstborn of the Egyptians were slain. In m...

Matthew Henry: Exo 13:11-16 - -- Here we have, I. Further directions concerning the dedicating of their firstborn to God. 1. The firstlings of their cattle were to be dedicated to G...

Matthew Henry: Exo 13:17-22 - -- Here is, I. The choice God made of their way, Exo 13:17, Exo 13:18. He was their guide. Moses gave them direction but as he received it from the Lor...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 13:1-16 - -- Sanctification of the first-born, and Promulgation of the Law for the Feast of Mazzoth. - Exo 13:1, Exo 13:2. The sanctification of the first-born w...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 13:17-19 - -- Journey from Succoth to Etham. - Succoth, Israel's first place of encampment after their departure, was probably the rendezvous for the whole nation...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 13:20 - -- From Succoth they went to Etham. With regard to the situation of Succoth (from סכּת huts, probably a shepherd encampment), only so much can be ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Exo 13:21-22 - -- From Etham , at the edge of the desert which separates Egypt from Asia, the Israelites were to enter the pathless desert, and leave the inhabited c...

Constable: Exo 1:1--15:22 - --I. THE LIBERATION OF ISRAEL 1:1--15:21 "The story of the first half of Exodus, in broad summary, is Rescue. The ...

Constable: Exo 12:1--13:17 - --C. God's redemption of His people 12:1-13:16 Scholars differ in their opinions as to when Israel actuall...

Constable: Exo 13:1-16 - --5. The sanctification of the first-born 13:1-16 This section is somewhat repetitive, but the emphasis is on the Lord's right to the first-born in Isra...

Constable: Exo 13:17--15:22 - --D. God's completion of Israel's liberation 13:17-15:21 The Israelites now began their migration from Gos...

Constable: Exo 13:17-22 - --1. The journey from Succoth to Etham 13:17-22 "The way of the land of the Philistines" refers to...

Guzik: Exo 13:1-22 - God's Instruction to Israel upon Their Departure Exodus 13 - God's Instruction to Israel upon Their Departure A. Instructions for a new nation. 1. (1-2) The firstborn belongs to God. Then the LOR...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) EXODUS, a "going forth," derives its name from its being occupied principally with a relation of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, and the i...

JFB: Exodus (Garis Besar) INCREASE OF THE ISRAELITES. (Exo. 1:1-22) BIRTH AND PRESERVATION OF MOSES. (Exo 2:1-10) there went a man of the house of Levi, &c. Amram was the hus...

TSK: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The title of this Book is derived from the Septuagint; in which it is called ΕΞΟΔΟΣ , " Exodus;" or, as it is in the Codex Alexandrinus, Ε...

TSK: Exodus 13 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Exo 13:1, The firstborn are sanctified to God; Exo 13:3, The memorial of the passover is commanded; Exo 13:11, The firstlings of man and ...

Poole: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) SECOND BOOK OF MOSES CALLED EXODUS. THE ARGUMENT. AFTER the death of Joseph, who had sent for his father’ s house into Egypt, the children o...

Poole: Exodus 13 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 13 God commands all the first-born to be consecrated, Exo 13:1,2 . The day of their going forth out of Egypt to be had in remembrance, Exo ...

MHCC: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Exodus relates the forming of the children of Israel into a church and a nation. We have hitherto seen true religion shown in domestic lif...

MHCC: Exodus 13 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Exo 13:1-10) The first-born sanctified to God The remembrance of the passover commanded. (Exo 13:11-16) The firstlings of beasts set apart. (Exo 13...

Matthew Henry: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Second Book of Moses, Called Exodus Moses (the servant of the Lord in writing for him as well as ...

Matthew Henry: Exodus 13 (Pendahuluan Pasal) In this chapter we have, I. The commands God gave to Israel, 1. To sanctify all their firstborn to him (Exo 13:1, Exo 13:2). 2. To be sure to re...

Constable: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The Hebrew title of this book (we'elleh shemot) originated from the...

Constable: Exodus (Garis Besar) Outline I. The liberation of Israel 1:1-15:21 A. God's preparation of Israel and Moses chs. ...

Constable: Exodus Exodus Bibliography Adams, Dwayne H. "The Building Program that Works (Exodus 25:4--36:7 [31:1-11])." Exegesis ...

Haydock: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF EXODUS. INTRODUCTION. The second Book of Moses is called Exodus from the Greek word Exodos, which signifies going out; becaus...

Gill: Exodus (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS This book is called by the Jews Veelleh Shemoth, from the first words with which it begins, and sometimes Sepher Shemoth, an...

Gill: Exodus 13 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO EXODUS 13 This chapter begins with an order to sanctify or set apart the firstborn of man and beast to the Lord, Exo 13:1 and the p...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


TIP #32: Gunakan Pencarian Khusus untuk melakukan pencarian Teks Alkitab, Tafsiran/Catatan, Studi Kamus, Ilustrasi, Artikel, Ref. Silang, Leksikon, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, Gambar, Himne, Topikal. Anda juga dapat mencari bahan-bahan yang berkaitan dengan ayat-ayat yang anda inginkan melalui pencarian Referensi Ayat. [SEMUA]
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