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Teks -- Genesis 42:1-38 (NET)

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Joseph’s Brothers in Egypt
42:1 When Jacob heard there was grain in Egypt, he said to his sons, “Why are you looking at each other?” 42:2 He then said, “Look, I hear that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy grain for us so that we may live and not die.” 42:3 So ten of Joseph’s brothers went down to buy grain from Egypt. 42:4 But Jacob did not send Joseph’s brother Benjamin with his brothers, for he said, “What if some accident happens to him?” 42:5 So Israel’s sons came to buy grain among the other travelers, for the famine was severe in the land of Canaan. 42:6 Now Joseph was the ruler of the country, the one who sold grain to all the people of the country. Joseph’s brothers came and bowed down before him with their faces to the ground. 42:7 When Joseph saw his brothers, he recognized them, but he pretended to be a stranger to them and spoke to them harshly. He asked, “Where do you come from?” They answered, “From the land of Canaan, to buy grain for food.” 42:8 Joseph recognized his brothers, but they did not recognize him. 42:9 Then Joseph remembered the dreams he had dreamed about them, and he said to them, “You are spies; you have come to see if our land is vulnerable!” 42:10 But they exclaimed, “No, my lord! Your servants have come to buy grain for food! 42:11 We are all the sons of one man; we are honest men! Your servants are not spies.” 42:12 “No,” he insisted, “but you have come to see if our land is vulnerable.” 42:13 They replied, “Your servants are from a family of twelve brothers. We are the sons of one man in the land of Canaan. The youngest is with our father at this time, and one is no longer alive.” 42:14 But Joseph told them, “It is just as I said to you: You are spies! 42:15 You will be tested in this way: As surely as Pharaoh lives, you will not depart from this place unless your youngest brother comes here. 42:16 One of you must go and get your brother, while the rest of you remain in prison. In this way your words may be tested to see if you are telling the truth. If not, then, as surely as Pharaoh lives, you are spies!” 42:17 He imprisoned them all for three days. 42:18 On the third day Joseph said to them, “Do as I say and you will live, for I fear God. 42:19 If you are honest men, leave one of your brothers confined here in prison while the rest of you go and take grain back for your hungry families. 42:20 But you must bring your youngest brother to me. Then your words will be verified and you will not die.” They did as he said. 42:21 They said to one other, “Surely we’re being punished because of our brother, because we saw how distressed he was when he cried to us for mercy, but we refused to listen. That is why this distress has come on us!” 42:22 Reuben said to them, “Didn’t I say to you, ‘Don’t sin against the boy,’ but you wouldn’t listen? So now we must pay for shedding his blood!” 42:23 (Now they did not know that Joseph could understand them, for he was speaking through an interpreter.) 42:24 He turned away from them and wept. When he turned around and spoke to them again, he had Simeon taken from them and tied up before their eyes. 42:25 Then Joseph gave orders to fill their bags with grain, to return each man’s money to his sack, and to give them provisions for the journey. His orders were carried out. 42:26 So they loaded their grain on their donkeys and left. 42:27 When one of them opened his sack to get feed for his donkey at their resting place, he saw his money in the mouth of his sack. 42:28 He said to his brothers, “My money was returned! Here it is in my sack!” They were dismayed; they turned trembling one to another and said, “What in the world has God done to us?” 42:29 They returned to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan and told him all the things that had happened to them, saying, 42:30 “The man, the lord of the land, spoke harshly to us and treated us as if we were spying on the land. 42:31 But we said to him, ‘We are honest men; we are not spies! 42:32 We are from a family of twelve brothers; we are the sons of one father. One is no longer alive, and the youngest is with our father at this time in the land of Canaan.’ 42:33 “Then the man, the lord of the land, said to us, ‘This is how I will find out if you are honest men. Leave one of your brothers with me, and take grain for your hungry households and go. 42:34 But bring your youngest brother back to me so I will know that you are honest men and not spies. Then I will give your brother back to you and you may move about freely in the land.’” 42:35 When they were emptying their sacks, there was each man’s bag of money in his sack! When they and their father saw the bags of money, they were afraid. 42:36 Their father Jacob said to them, “You are making me childless! Joseph is gone. Simeon is gone. And now you want to take Benjamin! Everything is against me.” 42:37 Then Reuben said to his father, “You may put my two sons to death if I do not bring him back to you. Put him in my care and I will bring him back to you.” 42:38 But Jacob replied, “My son will not go down there with you, for his brother is dead and he alone is left. If an accident happens to him on the journey you have to make, then you will bring down my gray hair in sorrow to the grave.”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Benjamin the tribe of Benjamin of Israel
 · Canaan the region ofeast Mediterranean coastal land from Arvad (modern Lebanon) south to Gaza,the coast land from Mt. Carmel north to the Orontes River
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · Joseph the husband of Mary and foster-father of Jesus,a Jewish man from Arimathea in whose grave the body of Jesus was laid,two different men listed as ancestors of Jesus,a man nominated with Matthias to take the place of Judas Iscariot as apostle,a son of Jacob and Rachel; the father of Ephraim and Manasseh and ruler of Egypt,a brother of Jesus; a son of Mary,a man who was a companion of Paul,son of Jacob and Rachel; patriarch of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh,a tribe, actually two tribes named after Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasseh,father of Igal, of Issachar, who helped spy out Canaan,son of Asaph the Levite; worship leader under Asaph and King David,a man who put away his heathen wife; an Israelite descended from Binnui,priest and head of the house of Shebaniah under High Priest Joiakim in the time of Nehemiah
 · Pharaoh the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Abraham's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Joseph's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who refused to let Israel leave Egypt,the title of the king of Egypt whose daughter Solomon married,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in the time of Isaiah,the title Egypt's ruler just before Moses' time
 · Reuben the tribe of Reuben
 · Sheol the place of the dead
 · Simeon a son of Jonas and brother of Andrew; an apostle of Jesus Christ,a man who was one of the apostles of Christ and also called 'the Zealot',a brother of Jesus,a man who was a well-know victim of leprosy who had been healed by Jesus (NIV note),a man from Cyrene who was forced to carry the cross of Jesus,a Pharisee man in whose house Jesus' feet were washed with tears and anointed,the father of Judas Iscariot,a man who was a sorcerer in Samaria and who wanted to buy the gifts of the Spirit,a man who was a tanner at Joppa and with whom Peter was staying when Cornelius sent for him


Topik/Tema Kamus: Benjamin | Joseph | FAMINE | Lies and Deceits | Quotations and Allusions | Hypocrisy | Deception | LEVI (2) | JACOB (1) | Exports | GENESIS, 1-2 | Commerce | Money | Simeon | Accusation, False | Reuben | Prison | BAG | Treasure | Corn | selebihnya
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Wesley: Gen 42:1 - Jacob saw that there was corn That is, he saw the corn that his neighbours had bought there and brought home.

That is, he saw the corn that his neighbours had bought there and brought home.

Wesley: Gen 42:2 - Get you down thither Masters of families must not only pray for daily bread for their families, but must with care and industry provide it.

Masters of families must not only pray for daily bread for their families, but must with care and industry provide it.

Wesley: Gen 42:7 - -- We may well wonder that Joseph, during the twenty years he had been in Egypt, especially during the last seven years that he had been in power there, ...

We may well wonder that Joseph, during the twenty years he had been in Egypt, especially during the last seven years that he had been in power there, never sent to his father to acquaint him with his circumstances; nay, 'tis strange that he who so oft went throughout all the land of Egypt, never made a step to Canaan, to visit his aged father. When he was in the borders of Egypt that lay next to Canaan, perhaps it would not have been above three or four days journey for him in his chariot. 'Tis a probable conjecture, that his whole management of himself in this affair was by special direction from heaven, that the purpose of God, concerning Jacob and his family, might be accomplished. When Joseph's brethren came, he knew them by many a good token, but they knew not him, little thinking to find him there.

Wesley: Gen 42:9 - -- He remembered the dreams, but they had forgot them. The laying up of God's oracles in our hearts will be of excellent use to us in all our conduct. Jo...

He remembered the dreams, but they had forgot them. The laying up of God's oracles in our hearts will be of excellent use to us in all our conduct. Joseph had an eye to his dreams, which he knew to be divine, in his carriage towards his brethren, and aimed at the accomplishment of them, and the bringing his brethren to repentance; and both those points were gained. He shewed himself harsh with them: the very manner of his speaking, considering the post he was in, was enough to frighten them, for he spake roughly to them - He charged them with ill designs against the government, treated them as dangerous persons, ye are spies, protesting by the life of Pharaoh that they were so. Some make that an oath, others make it no more but a vehement asseveration; however, it was more than yea, yea, and nay, nay, and therefore came of evil. They hereupon were very submissive; they spoke to him with all respect; nay, my lord. They modestly deny the charge, we are no spies; they tell him their business, they came to buy food, they give a particular account of themselves and their family, Gen 42:13, and that was it he wanted. He clapt them all up in prison three days. He concluded with them at last, that one of them should be left as a hostage, and the rest should go home and fetch Benjamin. It was a very encouraging word he said, I fear God; q.d. You may assure yourselves, I will do you no wrong, I dare not, for I know that as high as I am, there is one higher than I. With those that fear God we have reason to expect fair dealing: the fear of God will be a check upon those that are in power, to restrain them from abusing their power to oppression and tyranny:

Wesley: Gen 42:21 - We are very guilty concerning our brother We do not read that they said this during their three days imprisonment; but now when the matter was come to some issue, and they saw themselves still...

We do not read that they said this during their three days imprisonment; but now when the matter was come to some issue, and they saw themselves still embarrassed, they began to relent. Perhaps Joseph's mention of the fear of God, put them upon consideration, and extorted this reflexion.

Wesley: Gen 42:24 - He took Simeon He chose him for the hostage, probably because he remembered him to have been his most bitter enemy, or because he observed him now to be least humble...

He chose him for the hostage, probably because he remembered him to have been his most bitter enemy, or because he observed him now to be least humbled and concerned. He bound him before their eyes, to affect them all.

Wesley: Gen 42:28 - Their heart failed them, and they were afraid, saying one to another, What is this that God hath done to us? They knew that the Egyptians abhorred a Hebrew, Gen 43:32, and therefore, since they could not expect to receive any kindness from them, they conclude...

They knew that the Egyptians abhorred a Hebrew, Gen 43:32, and therefore, since they could not expect to receive any kindness from them, they concluded that this was done with a design to pick a quarrel with them, the rather because the man, the lord of the land, had charged them as spies. Their own conscience were awake, and their sins set in order before them, and this puts them into confusion. When the events of providence concerning us are surprising, it is good to enquire what it is that God has done and is doing with us?

Wesley: Gen 42:38 - My son shall not go down with you He plainly intimates a distrust of them, remembering that he never saw Joseph since he had been with them; therefore Benjamin shall not go with you.

He plainly intimates a distrust of them, remembering that he never saw Joseph since he had been with them; therefore Benjamin shall not go with you.

JFB: Gen 42:1 - Now when Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt Learned from common rumor. It is evident from Jacob's language that his own and his sons' families had suffered greatly from the scarcity; and through...

Learned from common rumor. It is evident from Jacob's language that his own and his sons' families had suffered greatly from the scarcity; and through the increasing severity of the scourge, those men, who had formerly shown both activity and spirit, were sinking into despondency. God would not interpose miraculously when natural means of preservation were within reach.

JFB: Gen 42:5 - the famine was in the land of Canaan The tropical rains, which annually falling swell the Nile, are those of Palestine also; and their failure would produce the same disastrous effects in...

The tropical rains, which annually falling swell the Nile, are those of Palestine also; and their failure would produce the same disastrous effects in Canaan as in Egypt. Numerous caravans of its people, therefore, poured over the sandy desert of Suez, with their beasts of burden, for the purchase of corn; and among others, "the sons of Israel" were compelled to undertake a journey from which painful associations made them strongly averse.

JFB: Gen 42:6 - Joseph was the governor In the zenith of his power and influence.

In the zenith of his power and influence.

JFB: Gen 42:6 - he it was that sold That is, directed the sales; for it is impossible that he could give attendance in every place. It is probable, however, that he may have personally s...

That is, directed the sales; for it is impossible that he could give attendance in every place. It is probable, however, that he may have personally superintended the storehouses near the border of Canaan, both because that was the most exposed part of the country and because he must have anticipated the arrival of some messengers from his father's house.

JFB: Gen 42:6 - Joseph's brethren came, and bowed down themselves before him His prophetic dreams [Gen 37:5-11] were in the course of being fulfilled, and the atrocious barbarity of his brethren had been the means of bringing a...

His prophetic dreams [Gen 37:5-11] were in the course of being fulfilled, and the atrocious barbarity of his brethren had been the means of bringing about the very issue they had planned to prevent (Isa 60:14; Rev 3:9, last clause).

JFB: Gen 42:7-8 - Joseph saw his brethren, and he knew them, . . . but they knew not him This is not strange. They were full-grown men--he was but a lad at parting. They were in their usual garb--he was in his official robes. They never dr...

This is not strange. They were full-grown men--he was but a lad at parting. They were in their usual garb--he was in his official robes. They never dreamt of him as governor of Egypt, while he had been expecting them. They had but one face; he had ten persons to judge by.

JFB: Gen 42:7-8 - made himself strange unto them, and spake roughly It would be an injustice to Joseph's character to suppose that this stern manner was prompted by any vindictive feelings--he never indulged any resent...

It would be an injustice to Joseph's character to suppose that this stern manner was prompted by any vindictive feelings--he never indulged any resentment against others who had injured him. But he spoke in the authoritative tone of the governor in order to elicit some much-longed-for information respecting the state of his father's family, as well as to bring his brethren, by their own humiliation and distress, to a sense of the evils they had done to him.

JFB: Gen 42:9-14 - Ye are spies This is a suspicion entertained regarding strangers in all Eastern countries down to the present day. Joseph, however, who was well aware that his bre...

This is a suspicion entertained regarding strangers in all Eastern countries down to the present day. Joseph, however, who was well aware that his brethren were not spies, has been charged with cruel dissimulation, with a deliberate violation of what he knew to be the truth, in imputing to them such a character. But it must be remembered that he was sustaining the part of a ruler; and, in fact, acting on the very principle sanctioned by many of the sacred writers, and our Lord Himself, who spoke parables (fictitious stories) to promote a good end.

JFB: Gen 42:15 - By the life of Pharaoh It is a very common practice in Western Asia to swear by the life of the king. Joseph spoke in the style of an Egyptian and perhaps did not think ther...

It is a very common practice in Western Asia to swear by the life of the king. Joseph spoke in the style of an Egyptian and perhaps did not think there was any evil in it. But we are taught to regard all such expressions in the light of an oath (Mat 5:34; Jam 5:12).

JFB: Gen 42:17-24 - put them . . . into ward three days Their confinement had been designed to bring them to salutary reflection. And this object was attained, for they looked upon the retributive justice o...

Their confinement had been designed to bring them to salutary reflection. And this object was attained, for they looked upon the retributive justice of God as now pursuing them in that foreign land. The drift of their conversation is one of the most striking instances on record of the power of conscience [Gen 42:21-22].

JFB: Gen 42:24 - took . . . Simeon, and bound him He had probably been the chief instigator--the most violent actor in the outrage upon Joseph; and if so, his selection to be the imprisoned and fetter...

He had probably been the chief instigator--the most violent actor in the outrage upon Joseph; and if so, his selection to be the imprisoned and fettered hostage for their return would, in the present course of their reflections, have a painful significance.

JFB: Gen 42:25-28 - Joseph commanded to fill their sacks with corn, and to restore every man's money This private generosity was not an infringement of his duty--a defrauding of the revenue. He would have a discretionary power--he was daily enriching ...

This private generosity was not an infringement of his duty--a defrauding of the revenue. He would have a discretionary power--he was daily enriching the king's exchequer--and he might have paid the sum from his own purse.

JFB: Gen 42:27 - inn A mere station for baiting beasts of burden.

A mere station for baiting beasts of burden.

JFB: Gen 42:27 - he espied his money The discovery threw them into greater perplexity than ever. If they had been congratulating themselves on escaping from the ruthless governor, they pe...

The discovery threw them into greater perplexity than ever. If they had been congratulating themselves on escaping from the ruthless governor, they perceived that now he would have a handle against them; and it is observable that they looked upon this as a judgment of heaven. Thus one leading design of Joseph was gained in their consciences being roused to a sense of guilt.

JFB: Gen 42:35 - as they emptied their sacks, that, behold, every man's . . . money was in his sack It appears that they had been silent about the money discovery at the resting-place, as their father might have blamed them for not instantly returnin...

It appears that they had been silent about the money discovery at the resting-place, as their father might have blamed them for not instantly returning. However innocent they knew themselves to be, it was universally felt to be an unhappy circumstance, which might bring them into new and greater perils.

JFB: Gen 42:36 - Me have ye bereaved This exclamation indicates a painfully excited state of feeling, and it shows how difficult it is for even a good man to yield implicit submission to ...

This exclamation indicates a painfully excited state of feeling, and it shows how difficult it is for even a good man to yield implicit submission to the course of Providence. The language does not imply that his missing sons had got foul play from the hands of the rest, but he looks upon Simeon as lost, as well as Joseph, and he insinuates it was by some imprudent statements of theirs that he was exposed to the risk of losing Benjamin also.

JFB: Gen 42:37 - Reuben spake, . . . Slay my two sons, if I bring him not to thee This was a thoughtless and unwarrantable condition--one that he never seriously expected his father would accept. It was designed only to give assuran...

This was a thoughtless and unwarrantable condition--one that he never seriously expected his father would accept. It was designed only to give assurance of the greatest care being taken of Benjamin. But unforeseen circumstances might arise to render it impossible for all of them to preserve that young lad (Jam 4:13), and Jacob was much pained by the prospect. Little did he know that God was dealing with him severely, but in kindness (Heb 12:7-8), and that all those things he thought against Him were working together for his good.

Clarke: Gen 42:1 - Jacob saw that there was corn Jacob saw that there was corn - That is, Jacob heard from the report of others that there was plenty in Egypt. The operations of one sense, in Hebre...

Jacob saw that there was corn - That is, Jacob heard from the report of others that there was plenty in Egypt. The operations of one sense, in Hebrew, are often put for those of another. Before agriculture was properly known and practiced, famines were frequent; Canaan seems to have been peculiarly vexed by them. There was one in this land in the time of Abraham, Gen 12:10; another in the days of Isaac, Gen 26:1; and now a third in the time of Jacob. To this St. Stephen alludes, Act 7:11 : there was great affliction, and our fathers found no sustenance.

Clarke: Gen 42:6 - Joseph was the governor Joseph was the governor - שליט shallit , an intendant, a protector, from שלט skalat , to be over as a protector; hence שלטים shelatim...

Joseph was the governor - שליט shallit , an intendant, a protector, from שלט skalat , to be over as a protector; hence שלטים shelatim , shields, or arms for protection and defense, 2Sa 8:7; and שלטון shilton , power and authority, Ecc 8:4, Ecc 8:8; and hence the Arabic sultan , a lord, prince, or king, from salata , he obtained and exercised dominion, he ruled. Was it not from this very circumstance, Joseph being shallit , that all the Mohammedan governors of Egypt, etc., took the title of sultan? Bowed down themselves before him - Thus fulfilling the prophetic dream, Gen 37:7, Gen 37:8, which they had taken every precaution to render null and void. But there is neither might nor counsel against the Lord.

Clarke: Gen 42:9 - Ye are spies Ye are spies - מרגלים אתם meraggelim attem , ye are footmen, trampers about, footpads, vagabonds, lying in wait for the property of others...

Ye are spies - מרגלים אתם meraggelim attem , ye are footmen, trampers about, footpads, vagabonds, lying in wait for the property of others; persons who, under the pretense of wishing to buy corn, desire only to find out whether the land be so defenceless that the tribes to which ye belong (see Gen 42:11) may attack it successfully, drive out the inhabitants, and settle in it themselves; or, having plundered it, retire to their deserts. This is a frequent custom among the Arabs to the present day. Thus Joseph spake roughly to them merely to cover that warmth of affection which he felt towards them; and that being thus brought, apparently, into straits and dangerous circumstances, their consciences might be awakened to reflect on and abhor their own wickedness.

Clarke: Gen 42:11 - We are all one man’ s sons We are all one man’ s sons - We do not belong to different tribes, and it is not likely that one family would make a hostile attempt upon a who...

We are all one man’ s sons - We do not belong to different tribes, and it is not likely that one family would make a hostile attempt upon a whole kingdom. This seems to be the very ground that Joseph took, viz., that they were persons belonging to different tribes. Against this particularly they set up their defense, asserting that they all belonged to one family; and it is on the proof of this that Joseph puts them, Gen 42:15, in obliging them to leave one as a hostage, and insisting on their bringing their remaining brother; so that he took exactly the same precautions to detect them as if he had had no acquaintance with them, and had every reason to be suspicious.

Clarke: Gen 42:13 - One is not One is not - An elliptical sentence, One is not alive.

One is not - An elliptical sentence, One is not alive.

Clarke: Gen 42:15 - By the life of Pharaoh By the life of Pharaoh - חי פרעה chey Pharaoh , Pharaoh liveth. As if he had said, As surely as the king of Egypt lives, so surely shall ye n...

By the life of Pharaoh - חי פרעה chey Pharaoh , Pharaoh liveth. As if he had said, As surely as the king of Egypt lives, so surely shall ye not go hence unless your brother come hither. Here therefore is no oath; it is just what they themselves make it in their report to their father, Gen 43:3 : the man did solemnly protest unto us; and our translators should not have put it in the form of an oath, especially as the original not only will bear another version, but is absolutely repugnant to this in our sense of the word.

Clarke: Gen 42:18 - I fear God I fear God - את האלהים אני ירא eth haelohim ani yare , literally translated the passage runs thus, I also fear the gods; but the emph...

I fear God - את האלהים אני ירא eth haelohim ani yare , literally translated the passage runs thus, I also fear the gods; but the emphatic ה ha is probably added by Joseph, both here and in his conversation with Pharaoh, the more particularly to point out the eminence and perfection of the Supreme Being as contradistinguished from the gods of Egypt. He seems to say to his brethren, I am a worshipper of the true God, and ye have nothing to fear.

Clarke: Gen 42:21 - We are verily guilty We are verily guilty - How finely are the office and influence of conscience exemplified in these words! It was about twenty-two years since they ha...

We are verily guilty - How finely are the office and influence of conscience exemplified in these words! It was about twenty-two years since they had sold their brother, and probably their conscience had been lulled asleep to the present hour. God combines and brings about those favorable circumstances which produce attention and reflection, and give weight to the expostulations of conscience. How necessary to hear its voice in time, for here it may be the instrument of salvation; but if not heard in this world, it must be heard in the next; and there, in association with the unquenchable fire, it will be the never-dying worm. Reader, has not thy sin as yet found thee out? Pray to God to take away the veil from thy heart, and give thee that deep sense of guilt which shall oblige thee to flee for refuge to the hope which is set before thee in the Gospel of Christ.

Clarke: Gen 42:23 - For he spake unto them by an interpreter For he spake unto them by an interpreter - Either there was a very great difference between the two languages as then spoken, or Joseph, to prevent ...

For he spake unto them by an interpreter - Either there was a very great difference between the two languages as then spoken, or Joseph, to prevent all suspicion, might affect to be ignorant of both. We have many evidences in this book that the Egyptians, Hebrews, Canaanites, and Syrians, could understand each other in a general way, though there are also proofs that there was a considerable difference between their dialects.

Clarke: Gen 42:24 - Took - Simeon and bound him before their eyes Took - Simeon and bound him before their eyes - This was retaliation, if, as the rabbins suppose, it was Simeon who bound Joseph, and put him into t...

Took - Simeon and bound him before their eyes - This was retaliation, if, as the rabbins suppose, it was Simeon who bound Joseph, and put him into the pit. A recollection of this circumstance must exceedingly deepen the sense he had of his guilt.

Clarke: Gen 42:25 - Commanded to fill their sacks Commanded to fill their sacks - כליהם keleyhem , their vessels; probably large woolen bags, or baskets lined with leather, which, as Sir John ...

Commanded to fill their sacks - כליהם keleyhem , their vessels; probably large woolen bags, or baskets lined with leather, which, as Sir John Chardin says, are still in use through all Asia, and are called tambellet ; they are covered with leather, the better to resist the wet, and to prevent dirt and sand from mixing with the grain. These vessels, of whatever sort, must have been different from those called שק sak in the twenty-seventh and following verses, which was probably only a small sack or bag, in which each had reserved a sufficiency of corn for his ass during the journey; the larger vessels or bags serving to hold the wheat or rice they had brought, and their own packages. The reader will at once see that the English word sack is plainly derived from the Hebrew.

Clarke: Gen 42:26 - They laded their asses They laded their asses - Amounting, no doubt, to several scores, if not hundreds, else they could not have brought a sufficiency of corn for the sup...

They laded their asses - Amounting, no doubt, to several scores, if not hundreds, else they could not have brought a sufficiency of corn for the support of so large a family as that of Jacob.

Clarke: Gen 42:27 - One of them opened his sack One of them opened his sack - From Gen 42:35 we learn that each of the ten brethren on emptying his sack when he returned found his money in it; can...

One of them opened his sack - From Gen 42:35 we learn that each of the ten brethren on emptying his sack when he returned found his money in it; can we suppose that this was not discovered by them all before? It seems not; and the reason was probably this: the money was put in the mouth of the sack of one only, in the sacks of the others it was placed at or near to the bottom; hence only one discovered it on the road, the rest found it when they came to empty their sacks at their father’ s house

Clarke: Gen 42:27 - In the inn In the inn - במלון bammalon , from לן lan , to lodge, stay, remain, etc. The place at which they stopped to bait or rest themselves and the...

In the inn - במלון bammalon , from לן lan , to lodge, stay, remain, etc. The place at which they stopped to bait or rest themselves and their asses. Our word inn gives us a false idea here; there were no such places of entertainment at that time in the desert over which they had to pass, nor are there any to the present day. Travellers generally endeavor to reach a well, where they fill their girbahs, or leather bottles, with fresh water, and having clogged their camels, asses, etc., permit them to crop any little verdure there may be in the place, keeping watch over them by turns. This is all we are to understand by the malon or inn in the text, for even caravansaries were not then in use, which are generally no more than four walls perfectly exposed, the place being open at the top.

Clarke: Gen 42:28 - Their heart failed them Their heart failed them - ויצא לבם valyetse libbam , their heart went out. This refers to that spasmodic affection which is felt in the brea...

Their heart failed them - ויצא לבם valyetse libbam , their heart went out. This refers to that spasmodic affection which is felt in the breast at any sudden alarm or fright. Among the common people in our own country we find an expression exactly similar, "My heart was ready to leap out at my mouth,"used on similar occasions

Clarke: Gen 42:28 - What is this that God hath done unto us? What is this that God hath done unto us? - Their guilty consciences, now thoroughly awakened, were in continual alarms; they felt that they deserved...

What is this that God hath done unto us? - Their guilty consciences, now thoroughly awakened, were in continual alarms; they felt that they deserved God’ s curse, and every occurrence served to confirm and increase their suspicions.

Clarke: Gen 42:35 - As they emptied their sacks As they emptied their sacks - See Clarke on Gen 42:27 (note).

As they emptied their sacks - See Clarke on Gen 42:27 (note).

Clarke: Gen 42:36 - All these things are against me All these things are against me - עלי היו כלנה alai hayu cullanah ; literally, All these things are upon me. Not badly translated by the...

All these things are against me - עלי היו כלנה alai hayu cullanah ; literally, All these things are upon me. Not badly translated by the Vulgate, In me haec omnia mala reciderunt , "All these evils fall back upon me."They lie upon me as heavy loads, hastening my death; they are more than I can bear.

Clarke: Gen 42:37 - Slay my two sons, if I bring him not to thee Slay my two sons, if I bring him not to thee - What a strange proposal made by a son to his father, concerning his grandchildren! But they show the ...

Slay my two sons, if I bring him not to thee - What a strange proposal made by a son to his father, concerning his grandchildren! But they show the honesty and affection of Reuben’ s heart; he felt deeply for his father’ s distress, and was determined to risk and hazard every thing in order to relieve and comfort him. There is scarcely a transaction in which Reuben is concerned that does not serve to set his character in an amiable point of view, except the single instance mentioned Gen 35:22 (note), and which for the sake of decency and piety we should wish to understand as the Targumists have explained it. See the notes.

Clarke: Gen 42:38 - He is left alone He is left alone - That is, Benjamin is the only remaining son of Rachel; for he supposed Joseph, who was the other son, to be dead

He is left alone - That is, Benjamin is the only remaining son of Rachel; for he supposed Joseph, who was the other son, to be dead

Clarke: Gen 42:38 - Shall ye bring down my gray hairs with sorrow Shall ye bring down my gray hairs with sorrow - Here he keeps up the idea of the oppressive burden mentioned Gen 42:36, to which every occurrence wa...

Shall ye bring down my gray hairs with sorrow - Here he keeps up the idea of the oppressive burden mentioned Gen 42:36, to which every occurrence was adding an additional weight, so that he felt it impossible to support it any longer

The following observations of Dr. Dodd on this verse are very appropriate and judicious: "Nothing can be more tender and picturesque than the words of the venerable patriarch. Full of affection for his beloved Rachel, he cannot think of parting with Benjamin, the only remaining pledge of that love, now Joseph, as he supposes, is no more. We seem to behold the gray-headed, venerable father pleading with his sons, the beloved Benjamin standing by his side, impatient sorrow in their countenances, and in his all the bleeding anxiety of paternal love. It will be difficult to find in any author, ancient or modern, a more exquisite picture.

1.    There is one doctrine relative to the economy of Divine Providence little heeded among men; I mean the doctrine of restitution. When a man has done wrong to his neighbor, though, on his repentance, and faith in our Lord Jesus, God forgives him his sin, yet he requires him to make restitution to the person injured, if it lie in the compass of his power. If he do not, God will take care to exact it in the course of his providence. Such respect has he for the dictates of infinite justice that nothing of this kind shall pass unnoticed. Several instances of this have already occurred in this history, and we shall see several more. No man should expect mercy at the hand of God who, having wronged his neighbor, refuses, when he has it in his power, to make restitution. Were he to weep tears of blood, both the justice and mercy of God would shut out his prayer, if he made not his neighbor amends for the injury he may have done him. The mercy of God, through the blood of the cross, can alone pardon his guilt; but no dishonest man can expect this; and he is a dishonest man who illegally holds the property of another in his hand. The unnatural brethren who sold their brother are now about to be captivated themselves; and the binder himself is bound in his turn: and though a kind Providence permits not the evil to fall upon them, yet, while apprehending it, they feel all its reality, conscience supplying the lack of prison, jailer, and bonds

2.    The ways of Providence are often to us dark and perplexed, so that we are ready to imagine that good can never result from what appears to us to be directly contrary to our interest; and we are often tempted to think that those very providential dealings of God, which have for their object our present and eternal welfare, are rather proofs of his displeasure, or evidences of his vindictive judgment. All these things are against me, said poor desponding Jacob; whereas, instead of being against him, all these things were for him; and by all these means was the merciful God working for the preservation of himself and his family, and the fulfillment of his ancient promise, that the posterity of Abraham should be as the stars of heaven for multitude. How strange is it that our faith, after so many evidences of his goodness, should still be so weak; and that our opinion of him should be so imperfect, that we can never trust in him but while he is under our own eye! If we see him producing good, we can believe that he is doing so, and this is all. If we believe not, he abides faithful; but our unbelief must make our own way extremely perplexing and difficult.

Calvin: Gen 42:1 - Now when Jacob saw // Why do ye look one upon another? 1.Now when Jacob saw. Moses begins, in this chapter, to treat of the occasion which drew Jacob with his whole family into Egypt; and thus leaves it t...

1.Now when Jacob saw. Moses begins, in this chapter, to treat of the occasion which drew Jacob with his whole family into Egypt; and thus leaves it to us to consider by what hidden and unexpected methods God may perform whatever he has decreed. Though, therefore, the providence of God is in itself a labyrinth; yet when we connect the issue of things with their beginnings, that admirable method of operation shines clearly in our view, which is not generally acknowledged, only because it is far removed from our observation. Also our own indolence hinders us from perceiving God, with the eyes of faith, as holding the government of the world; because we either imagine fortune to be the mistress of events, or else, adhering to near and natural causes, we weave them together, and spread them as veils before our eyes. Whereas, therefore, scarcely any more illustrious representation of Divine Providence is to be found than this history furnishes; let pious readers carefully exercise themselves in meditation upon it, in order that they may acknowledge those things which, in appearance, are fortuitous, to be directed by the hand of God.

Why do ye look one upon another? Why do ye Men are said to look one upon another, when each is waiting for the other, and, for want of counsel, no one dares to attempt anything. Jacob, therefore, censures this inactivity of his sons, because none of them endeavors to provide for the present necessity. Moses also says that they went into Egypt at the command of their father, and even without Benjamin; by which he intimates that filial reverence at that time was great; because envy of their brother did not prevent them from leaving their wives and children, and undertaking a long journey. He also adds, that they came in the midst of a great crowd of people; which enhances the fame of Joseph; who, while supplying food for all Egypt, and dispensing it by measure, till the end of the drought, could also afford assistance to neighboring nations.

Calvin: Gen 42:6 - And Joseph was the governor 6.And Joseph was the governor 164 over the land. Moses connects the honor of Joseph with his fidelity and diligence. For although he was possessed o...

6.And Joseph was the governor 164 over the land. Moses connects the honor of Joseph with his fidelity and diligence. For although he was possessed of supreme authority, he nevertheless submitted to every possible laborious service, just as if he had been a hired servant. From which example we must learn, that as any one excels in honor, he is bound to be the more fully occupied in business; but that they who desire to combine leisure with dignity, utterly pervert the sacred order of God. Let it be, moreover, understood, that the corn was sold by Joseph, not as if he measured it out with his own hands, or himself received the money for it, seeing that it was set to sale in many parts of the kingdom, and he could scarcely have attended to one single storehouse: but that the whole of the stores were under his power.

Calvin: Gen 42:7 - He made himself strange unto them 7.He made himself strange unto them. It may be asked for what purpose Joseph thus tormented his brethren with threats and with terror. For if he was ...

7.He made himself strange unto them. It may be asked for what purpose Joseph thus tormented his brethren with threats and with terror. For if he was actuated by a sense of the injury received from them, he cannot be acquitted of the desire of revenge. It is, however, probable, that he was impelled neither by anger nor a thirst of vengeance, but that he was induced by two just causes to act as he did. For he both desired to regain his brother Benjamin, and wished to ascertain, — as if by putting them to the torture, — what was in their mind, whether they repented or not; and, in short, what had been their course of life since he had seen them last. For, had he made himself known at the first interview, it was to be feared lest they, keeping their father out of sight, and wishing to cast a vail over the detestable wickedness which they had committed, should only increase it by a new crime. There lurked, also, a not unreasonable suspicion concerning his brother Benjamin, lest they should attempt something perfidious and cruel against him. It was therefore important that they should be more thoroughly sifted; so that Joseph, being fully informed of the state of his father’s house, might take his measures according to circumstances; and also, that previous to pardon, some punishment might be inflicted which would lead them more carefully to reflect upon the atrocity of their crime. For whereas he afterwards showed himself to be placable and humane; this did not arise from the fact, that his anger being assuaged, he became, by degrees, inclined to compassion; but rather, as Moses elsewhere subjoins, that he sought retirement, because he could no longer refrain himself; herein intimating at the same time, that Joseph had forcibly repressed his tears so long as he retained a severe aspect; and, therefore, that he had felt throughout the same affection of pity towards them. And it appears that a special impulse moved him to this whole course of action. For it was no common thing, that Joseph, beholding so many authors of his calamities, was neither angry nor changed in his manner, nor broke out into reproaches; but was composed both in his countenance and his speech, as if he had long meditated at leisure, respecting the course he would pursue. But it may be inquired again, whether his dissimulation, which was joined with a falsehood, is not to be blamed; for we know how pleasing integrity is to God, and how strictly he prohibits his own people from deceit and falsehoods. Whether God governed his servant by some special movement, to depart without fault, from the common rule of action, I know not; seeing that the faithful may sometimes piously do things which cannot lawfully be drawn into a precedent. Of this, however, in considering the acts of the holy fathers, we must always beware; lest they should lead us away from that law which the Lord prescribes to all in common. By the general command of God, we must all cultivate sincerity. That Joseph feigned something different from the truth, affords no pretext to excuse us if we attempt anything of the same kind. For, though a liberty granted by privilege would be pardoned, yet if any one, relying on a private example, does not scruple to subvert the law of God, so as to give himself license to do what is therein forbidden, he shall justly suffer the punishment of his audacity. And yet I do not think that we ought to be very anxious to excuse Joseph, because it is probable that he suffered something from human infirmity, which God forgave him; for by Divine mercy alone could that dissimulation, which in itself was not without fault, escape condemnation.

Calvin: Gen 42:9 - And Joseph remembered the dreams 9.And Joseph remembered the dreams. When the boy Joseph had spoken of receiving obeisance, the absurdity of the thing impelled his brethren wickedly ...

9.And Joseph remembered the dreams. When the boy Joseph had spoken of receiving obeisance, the absurdity of the thing impelled his brethren wickedly to devise his death. Now, although they bow down to him without knowing him, there is yet nothing better for them. Indeed, their only means of safety, is to prostrate themselves at his feet, and to be received by him as suppliants. Meanwhile, their conspiracy, by which they attempted to subvert the celestial decree, lest they should have to bear the yoke, was rendered fruitless. So the Lord forcibly restrains the obstinate, just as wild and refractory horses are wont to be more severely treated, the more they kick and are restive. Wherefore, there is nothing better than meekly to compose the mind to gentleness, that each may take his own lot contentedly, though it be not very splendid. It may, however, seem absurd, that Joseph should, at this time, have recalled his dream to mind, as if it had been forgotten through the lapse of years; which, indeed, could not be, unless he had lost sight of the promises of God. I answer, nothing is here recorded but what frequently happens to ourselves: for although the word of God may be dwelling in our hearts, yet it does not continually occur to us, but rather is sometimes so smothered that it may seem to be extinct, especially when faith is oppressed by the darkness of affliction. Besides, it is nothing wonderful, if a long series of evils should have buried, in a kind of oblivion, his dreams which indicated prosperity. God had exalted him, by these dreams, to the hope of great and distinguished authority. He is, however, cast into a well not unlike a grave. He is taken hence to be sold as a slave; he is carried to a distant land; and, as if slavery would not prove sufficiently severe, he is shut up in prison. And though his misery is in some degree mitigated, when he is released from his iron fetters, yet there was little, if any, prospect of deliverance. I do not, however, think that the hope entertained by him was entirely destroyed, but that a cloud passed over it, which deprived him of the light of comfort. A different kind of temptation followed; because nothing is more common than for great and unexpected felicity to intoxicate its possessors. And thus it happened, as we have recently read, that a forgetfulness of his father’s house stole over the mind of the holy man. He was not, therefore, so mindful of his dreams as he ought to have been. Another excuse may probably be alleged; that he, at the moment, compared his dreams with the event. And truly it was no common virtue to apply what was passing, thus immediately for the confirmation of the Divine oracle. For we readily perceive, that those dreams which so quickly recur to the memory, had not been obliterated through length of time. So the disciples remembered the words of the Lord after he had risen from the dead; because, by the sight of the fact predicted, their knowledge became more clear; whereas, before, nothing but transient sparks of it had shined in their hearts.

Calvin: Gen 42:15 - By the life of Pharaoh 15.By the life of Pharaoh. From this formula of swearing a new question is raised; for that which is commanded in the law, that we should swear only ...

15.By the life of Pharaoh. From this formula of swearing a new question is raised; for that which is commanded in the law, that we should swear only by the name of God, had already been engraven on the hearts of the pious; since nature dictates that this honor is to be given to God alone, that men should defer to his judgment, and should make him the supreme arbiter and vindicator of faith and truth. If we should say that this was not simply an oath, but a kind of obtestation, the holy man will be, in some degree, excusable. He who swears by God wishes him to interpose in order to inflict punishment on perjury. They who swear by their life or by their hand, deposit, as it were, what they deem most valuable, as a pledge of their faithfulness. By this method the majesty of God is not transferred to mortal man; because it is a very different thing to cite him as witness who has the right of taking vengeance, and to assert by something most dear to us, that what we say is true. So Moses, when he calls heaven and earth to witness, does not ascribe deity to them, and thus fabricate a new idol; but, in order that higher authority may be given to the law, he declares that there is no part of the world which will not cry out before the tribunal of God, against the ingratitude of the people, if they reject the doctrine of salvation. Notwithstanding, there is, I confess, in this form of swearing which Joseph uses, something deserving of censure; for it was a profane adulation, among the Egyptians, to swear by the life of the king. Just as the Romans swore by the genius of their prince, after they had been reduced to such bondage that they made their Caesar equal to gods. Certainly this mode of swearing is abhorrent to true piety. Whence it may be perceived that nothing is more difficult to the holy servants of God than to keep themselves so pure, while conversant with the filth of the world, as to contract no spots of defilement from it. Joseph, indeed, was never so infected with the corruptions of the court, but that he remained a pure worshipped of God: nevertheless we see, that in accommodating himself to this depraved custom of speaking, he had received some stain. His repetition of the expression shows, that when any one has once become accustomed to evil, he becomes exceedingly prone to sin again and again. We observe, that they who have once rashly assumed the license of swearing, pour forth an oath every third word, even when speaking of the most frivolous things. So much the greater caution ought we to use, lest any such indulgence should harden us in this wicked custom.

Calvin: Gen 42:17 - And he put them altogether into ward 17.And he put them altogether into ward. Here, not by words only, as before, but by the act itself, Joseph shows himself severe towards his brethren,...

17.And he put them altogether into ward. Here, not by words only, as before, but by the act itself, Joseph shows himself severe towards his brethren, when he shuts them all up in prison, as if about to bring them to punishment: and during three days torments them with fear. We said a little while ago, that from this act no rule for acting severely and rigidly is to be drawn; because it is doubtful whether he acted rightly or otherwise. Again, it is to be feared lest they who plead his example should be far removed from his mildness, and that they should prove to be rather his apes than his true imitators. Meanwhile, it plainly appears what he was aiming at; for he does not mitigate their punishment, as if at the end of three days he was appeased; but he renders them more anxious about the redemption of their brother, whom he retains as a hostage. Lest, however, immoderate fear should deter them from returning, he promises to act with good faith towards them: and to convince them of that, he declares that he fears God, which expression is worthy of observation. Doubtless he speaks from the inward feeling of his heart, when he declares that he will deal well and truly with them, because he fears God. Therefore the commencement and the fountain of that good and honest conscience, whereby we cultivate fidelity and justice towards men, is the fear of God. There appears indeed some probity in the despisers of God; but it soon goes off in smoke, unless the depraved affections of the flesh are restrained as with a bridle, by the thought that God is to be feared, because he will be the Judge of the world. For whoever does not think that he must render an account, will never so cultivate integrity as to refrain from pursuing what he supposes will be useful to himself. Wherefore, if we wish to be free from perfidy, craft, cruelty, and all wicked desire of doing injure, we must labor earnestly that religion may flourish among us. For whenever we act with want of sincerity or humanity towards each other, impiety openly betrays itself. For whatever there is of rectitude or justice in the world, Joseph comprised in this short sentence, when he said, that he feared God.

Calvin: Gen 42:21 - And they said one to another // In that we saw the anguish of his soul 21.And they said one to another. This is a remarkable passage, showing that the sons of Jacob, when reduced to the greatest straits, recall to memory...

21.And they said one to another. This is a remarkable passage, showing that the sons of Jacob, when reduced to the greatest straits, recall to memory a fratricide committed thirteen years previously. Before affliction pressed upon them, they were in a state of torpor. Moses relates that, even lately, they had spoken without agitation of Joseph’s death, as if conscious to themselves of no evil. But now they are compelled (so to speak) to enter into their own consciences. We see then, how in adversity, God searches and tries men; and how, while dissipating all their flattering illusions, he not only pierces their minds with secret fear, but extorts a confession which they would gladly avoid. And this kind of examination is very necessary for us. Wonderful is the hypocrisy of men in covering their evils; and if impunity be allowed, their negligence will be increased twofold. Wherefore no remedy remains, except that they who give themselves up to slumber when the Lord deals gently with them, should be awakened by afflictions and punishments. Joseph therefore produced some good effect, when he extorted from his brethren the acknowledgment of their sin, in which they had securely pleased themselves. And the Lord had compassion on them, in taking away the covering with which they had been too long deceived. In the same manner, while he daily chastises us by the hand of man, he draws us, as guilty, to his tribunal. Nevertheless it would profit but little to be tried by adversity, unless he inwardly touched the heart; for we see how few reflect on their sins, although admonished by most severe punishments; certainly no one comes to this state of mind but with reluctance. Wherefore, there is no doubt that God, in order to lead the sons of Jacob to repentance, impelled them, as well by the secret instinct of his Spirit as by outward chastisement, to become sensible of that sin which had been too long concealed. Let the reader also observe, that the sons of Jacob did not only fix their minds on something which was close at hand, but considered that divine punishments were inflicted in various ways upon sinners. And doubtless, in order to apprehend the divine judgments, we must extend our views afar. Sometimes indeed God, by inflicting present punishment on sinners, holds them up for observation as on a theater; but often, as if aiming at another object, he takes vengeance on our sins unexpectedly, and from an unseen quarter. If the sons of Jacob had merely looked for some present cause of their sufferings, they could have done nothing but loudly complain that they had been injured; and at length despair would have followed. But while considering how far and wide the providence of God extends, looking beyond the occasion immediately before their eyes, they ascend to a remote cause. It is, however, doubtful, whether they say that they shall be held guilty on account of their brother, or for their brother’s sake, or that they will themselves confess that they have sinned: for the Hebrew noun, אשמים ( ashaimim) is ambiguous because it sometimes refers to the crime committed, and sometimes to the punishment, as in Latin, piaculum signifies both the crime and the expiation. On the whole, it is of little consequence which meaning is preferred, for they acknowledge their sin either in its guilt or its punishment. But the latter sense appears to me the more simple and genuine, that they are deservedly punished because they had been so cruel to their brother.

In that we saw the anguish of his soul. They acknowledge that it is by the just judgment of God, that they obtained nothing by their suppliant entreaties, because they themselves had acted so cruelly towards their brother. Christ had not yet uttered the sentence,

“With what measure ye mete, it shall be measured unto you again,” (Mat 7:2,)

but it was a dictate of nature, that they who had been cruel to others, were unworthy of commiseration. The more heed ought we to take, that we prove not deaf to so many threatening of Scripture. Dreadful is that denunciation,

“Whoso stoppeth his ears at the cry of the poor, he also shall cry himself, and shall not be heard.” (Pro 21:13.)

Therefore while we have time, let us learn to exercise humanity, to sympathize with the miserable, and to stretch out our hand for the sake of giving assistance. But if at any time it happens that we are treated roughly by men, and our prayers are proudly rejected; then, at least, let the question occur to us, whether we ourselves have in anything acted unkindly towards others; for although it were better to be wise beforehand; it is, nevertheless, some advantage, whenever others proudly despise us, to reflect whether they with whom we have had to deal, have not experienced similar hardships from us. “Our brother,” they say, “entreated us when he was in the last extremity: we rejected his prayers: therefore it is by divine retribution that we can obtain nothing.” By these words they bear witness that the hearts of men are so under Divine government, that they can be inclined to equity, or hardened in inflexible rigor. Moreover, their cruelty was hateful to God, because, since his goodness is diffused through heaven and earth, and his beneficence is extended not only to men, but even to brute animals, nothing is more contrary to his nature, than that we should cruelly reject those who implore our protection.

Calvin: Gen 42:22 - And Reuben answered them 22.And Reuben answered them. Because he had attempted to deliver Joseph out of the hands of his brethren, in order to restore him in safety to his fa...

22.And Reuben answered them. Because he had attempted to deliver Joseph out of the hands of his brethren, in order to restore him in safety to his father, he magnifies their fault, in not having, at that time, listened to any prudent counsel: and I understand his words as conveying a reproof for their too late repentance. Whereas Joseph was not yet satisfied with this confession, but retained Simeon in bonds, 165 and dismissed the rest in suspense and perplexity, this was not done from malevolence, but because he was not certain about the safety of his brother Benjamin, and the state of his father’s house. For he might justly fear lest, when they found that their wicked contrivance of putting their brother to death, was discovered, they might again attempt some horrible crime, as desperate men are wont to do; or, at least, might desert their father, and flee to some other country. Nevertheless the act of Joseph is not to be drawn into a precedent: because it is not always right to be thus austere. We ought also to beware lest the offender be swallowed up by grief, if we are not mild, and disposed to forgiveness. Therefore we must seek the spirit of discretion from heaven, which shall so govern us that we may do nothing by rash impetuosity, or immoderate severity. This, indeed, is to be remembered, that under the stern countenance of Joseph was concealed not only a mild and placid disposition, but the most tender affection.

Calvin: Gen 42:27 - And as one of them opened his sack 27.And as one of them opened his sack. With what intention Joseph had commanded the price paid for the corn to be secretly deposited in the sacks of ...

27.And as one of them opened his sack. With what intention Joseph had commanded the price paid for the corn to be secretly deposited in the sacks of his brethren, may easily be conjectured; for he feared lest his father being already impoverished, would not be able again to buy provisions. The brethren, having found their money, knew not where to seek the cause; except that, being terrified, they perceived that the hand of God was against them. That they were greatly astonished appears from their not voluntarily returning to Joseph, in order to prove their own innocence: for the remedy of the evil was at hand, if they had not been utterly blinded. Wherefore we must ask God to supply us, in doubtful and troubled affairs, not only with fortitude, but also with prudence. We see also how little can be effected even by a great multitude, unless the Lord preside among them. The sons of Jacob ought mutually to have exhorted each other, and to have consulted together what was necessary to be done: but there is an end to all deliberation; no solace nor remedy is suggested. Even while each sees the rest agitated, they mutually increase each other’s trepidation. Therefore, the society and countenance of men will profit us nothing, unless the Lord strengthen us from heaven.

Calvin: Gen 42:28 - What is this that God has done unto us? 28.What is this that God has done unto us? They do not expostulate with God, as if they thought this danger had come upon them without cause: but, pe...

28.What is this that God has done unto us? They do not expostulate with God, as if they thought this danger had come upon them without cause: but, perceiving that God was angry with them in many ways, they deplore their wretchedness. But why do they not rather turn their thoughts to Joseph? For the suspicion was natural, that this had been done by fraud, because he wished to lay new snares for them. How does it happen, then, that losing sight of man, they set God as an avenger directly before them? Truly, because this single thought possessed their minds, that a just reward, and such as their sins deserved, would be given them; and, from that time, they referred whatever evils happened to the same cause. Before (as we have said) they were asleep: but from the time that they began to be affected by the lively fear of God’s judgment, his providence always presented itself to their view. So David, when, by the inward suggestion of the Spirit, he has learned that the rod with which he was chastised had been sent from heaven, is not distracted or perplexed, though he sees plainly that the evils have proceeded from another quarter; but prays to God to heal the wounds which He had made. It is no common act of prudence, and is at the same time profitable, whenever any adversity overtakes us, to accustom ourselves to the consideration of the judgments of God. We see how unbelievers, while they imagine their misfortunes to be accidental, or while they are bent on accusing their enemies, only exasperate their grief by fretting and raging, and thus cause the anger of God to burn the more against them. But he who, in his affliction, exercises himself in reflecting on his own sins, and sets God before him as his Judge, will humble himself in the divine presence, and will compose his mind to patience by the hope of pardon. Let us, however, remember that the providence of God is not truly acknowledged, except in connection with his justice. Forthough the men by whose hand he chastises us are often unjust, yet, in an incomprehensible manner, he executes his judgments through them, against which judgments it is not lawful for us either to reply or to murmur. For sometimes even the reprobate, though they acknowledge themselves to be stricken by the hand of God, yet do not cease to complain against him, as Moses teaches us by the example of Cain. I do not, however, understand that this complaint was made by the sons of Jacob, for the purpose of charging God with tyrannical violence; but because they, being overcome with fear, inferred from this double punishment that God was highly displeased with them.

Calvin: Gen 42:29 - And they came unto Jacob their father 29.And they came unto Jacob their father. Here is a long repetition of the former history, but it is not superfluous; because Moses wished to show ho...

29.And they came unto Jacob their father. Here is a long repetition of the former history, but it is not superfluous; because Moses wished to show how anxiously they made their excuse to their father for having left Simon in chains, and how strenuously they pleaded with him, that, for the sake of obtaining Simeon’s liberty, he should allow them to take their brother Benjamin: for this was greatly to the purpose. We know what a sharp dart is hunger: and yet, though the only method of relieving their want was to fetch corn out of Egypt, Jacob would rather that he and his family should perish, than allow Benjamin to accompany the rest. What can he mean by thus peremptorily refusing what his sons were compelled by necessity to ask, except to show that he was suspicious of them? This also more clearly appears from his own words, when he imputes his bereavement to them. For, though their declaration, that Joseph had been torn by a wild beast, had some color of probability, there still remained in the heart of the holy patriarch a secret wound, arising from suspicion; because he was fully aware of their fierce and cruel hatred of the innocent youth. Moreover, it is useful for us to know this; for it appears hence how miserable was the condition of the holy man, whose mind, during thirteen successive years, had been tortured with dire anxiety. Besides, his very silence added greatly to his torment, because he was compelled to conceal the grief he felt. But the chief burden of the evil was the temptation which oppressed him, that the promise of God might prove illusory and vain. For he had no hope except from the promised seed; but he seemed to be bringing up devils at home, from whom a blessing was no more to be expected than life from death. He thought Joseph to be dead, Benjamin alone remained to him uncorrupted: how could the salvation of the world proceed from such a vicious offspring? He must, therefore, have been endowed with great constancy, seeing he did not cease to rely upon God; and being certainly persuaded that he cherished in his house the Church, of which scarcely any appearance was left, he bore with his sons till they should repent. Let the faithful now apply this example to themselves, lest their minds should give way at the horrible devastation which is almost everywhere perceived.

Calvin: Gen 42:35 - As they emptied their sacks 35.As they emptied their sacks Here, again, it appears how greatly they had been alarmed in their journey, seeing that each had not at least examined...

35.As they emptied their sacks Here, again, it appears how greatly they had been alarmed in their journey, seeing that each had not at least examined his sack, after money had been found in one. But these things are written to show that, as soon as men are smitten with fear, they have no particle of wisdom and of soundness of mind, until God tranquilizes them. Moreover, Joseph did not act with sufficient consideration, in that he occasioned very great grief to his father, whose poverty he really intended to relieve. Whence we learn that even the most prudent are not always so careful, but that something may flow from their acts which they do not wish.

Calvin: Gen 42:36 - Me have ye bereaved 36.Me have ye bereaved. Jacob does not, indeed, openly accuse his sons of the crime of their brother’s murder; yet he is angry as if, two of his so...

36.Me have ye bereaved. Jacob does not, indeed, openly accuse his sons of the crime of their brother’s murder; yet he is angry as if, two of his sons being already taken away, they were hastening to destroy the third. For he says that all these evils were falling on himself alone; because he does not think that they were affected as they ought to be, nor shared his grief with him, but were carelessly making light of the destruction of their brethren, as if they had no interest in their lives. It seems, however, exceedingly barbarous that Reuben should offer his two sons to his father to be slain, if he did not bring Benjamin back. Jacob might, indeed, slay his own grandchildren: what comfort, then, could he take in acting cruelly to his own bowels? But this is what I before alluded to, that they were suspected of having dealt perfidiously towards Joseph; for which reason Reuben deemed it necessary to assuage his father’s fear, by such a vehement protestation; and to give this pledge, that he and his brethren were designing nothing wicked against Benjamin.

Calvin: Gen 42:38 - My son shall not go down with you 38.My son shall not go down with you. Again we see, as in a lively picture, with what sorrow holy Jacob had been oppressed. He sees his whole family ...

38.My son shall not go down with you. Again we see, as in a lively picture, with what sorrow holy Jacob had been oppressed. He sees his whole family famishing: he would rather be torn away from life than from his son: whence we gather that he was not iron-hearted: but his patience is the more deserving of praise, because he contended with the infirmity of the flesh, and did not sink under it. And although Moses does not give a rhetorical amplification to his language, we nevertheless easily perceive that he was overcome with excessive grief, when he thus complained to his sons, You are too cruel to your father, in taking away from me a third son, after I have been plundered of first one and then another.

Defender: Gen 42:6 - bowed down themselves When his brothers bowed before Joseph, they were fulfilling the prophecy of his dream, as he had reported it to them some twenty-one or more years ear...

When his brothers bowed before Joseph, they were fulfilling the prophecy of his dream, as he had reported it to them some twenty-one or more years earlier (Gen 37:5-10)."

Defender: Gen 42:24 - Simeon Joseph longed to be reconciled to his family but first had to learn their attitude to him, their father and his younger brother Benjamin. Therefore, h...

Joseph longed to be reconciled to his family but first had to learn their attitude to him, their father and his younger brother Benjamin. Therefore, he subjected them to a number of tests. After hearing them express regret for what they had done to him (Gen 42:21-22), Joseph took Simeon hostage while he sent the other brothers back for Benjamin, since Simeon had taken a lead part in their action against Joseph. This was calculated to further stir their consciences."

TSK: Gen 42:1 - when Jacob // saw // Why do ye when Jacob : Gen 41:54, Gen 41:57; Act 7:12 saw : i.e. heard, from the report of others, that there was plenty in Egypt. The operations of one sense a...

when Jacob : Gen 41:54, Gen 41:57; Act 7:12

saw : i.e. heard, from the report of others, that there was plenty in Egypt. The operations of one sense are frequently put for those of another in Hebrew (see the parallel passages). Gen 42:2; Exo 5:19, Exo 20:18; 1Ki 19:3; Hos 5:13; Gal 2:7

Why do ye : Jos 7:10; 2Ki 8:3, 2Ki 8:4; Ezr 10:4; Jer 8:14

TSK: Gen 42:2 - get you // that we get you : Gen 43:2, Gen 43:4, Gen 45:9 that we : Gen 43:8; Psa 118:17; Isa 38:1; Mat 4:4

TSK: Gen 42:3 - -- Gen 42:5, Gen 42:13

TSK: Gen 42:4 - Benjamin // Lest Benjamin : Gen 35:16-19 Lest : Gen 42:38, Gen 3:22, Gen 11:4, Gen 33:1, Gen 33:2, Gen 43:14, Gen 43:29, Gen 44:20-22, Gen 44:27-34

TSK: Gen 42:5 - for for : Gen 12:10, Gen 26:1, Gen 41:57; Act 7:11, Act 11:28

TSK: Gen 42:6 - governor // he it was // bowed governor : Shallit , an intendant, protector, ruler, from shalat , to be over or a protector, to rulecaps1 . hcaps0 ence the Arabic salita , to...

governor : Shallit , an intendant, protector, ruler, from shalat , to be over or a protector, to rulecaps1 . hcaps0 ence the Arabic salita , to obtain and exercise dominion, rule; and sultân , ruler, lord, prince, and king. Gen 41:40, Gen 41:41, Gen 45:8, Gen 45:26; Psa 105:16-21; Act 7:10

he it was : Gen 41:55, Gen 41:56

bowed : Gen 18:2, Gen 19:1, Gen 37:7, Gen 37:9, Gen 44:14; Rev 3:9

TSK: Gen 42:7 - roughly unto them roughly unto them : Heb. hard things with them, Gen 42:9-12, Gen 42:14-17, Gen 42:19, Gen 42:20; Mat 15:23-26

roughly unto them : Heb. hard things with them, Gen 42:9-12, Gen 42:14-17, Gen 42:19, Gen 42:20; Mat 15:23-26

TSK: Gen 42:8 - but they knew but they knew : Luk 24:16; Joh 20:14, Joh 21:4

but they knew : Luk 24:16; Joh 20:14, Joh 21:4

TSK: Gen 42:9 - remembered // Ye are spies // nakedness remembered : Gen 37:5-9 Ye are spies : Persons who, under the pretence of wishing to buy corn, desire only to find out whether the land be so defencel...

remembered : Gen 37:5-9

Ye are spies : Persons who, under the pretence of wishing to buy corn, desire only to find out whether the land be so defenceless that the tribes to which you belong may attack it successfully, drive out the inhabitants, and settle themselves in it; or, having plundered it, retire into their deserts. This is a frequent custom among the Arabs to the present day. Gen 42:9, Gen 42:16, Gen 42:30, Gen 42:31, Gen 42:34; Num 13:2, Num 13:16-20; Jos 2:1, Jos 6:23; Jdg 1:24; 1Sa 26:4; Luk 20:20; Heb 11:31

nakedness : Exo 32:35

TSK: Gen 42:10 - -- Gen 27:29, Gen 27:37, Gen 37:8, Gen 44:9; 1Sa 26:17; 1Ki 18:7

TSK: Gen 42:11 - We are // true men We are : etc. We do not belong to different tribes; and it is not likely that one family would make a hostile attempt upon a whole kingdom; nor, if an...

We are : etc. We do not belong to different tribes; and it is not likely that one family would make a hostile attempt upon a whole kingdom; nor, if any serious design had been intended, that one man would have sent his sons on so hazardous an expedition.

true men : Gen 42:19, Gen 42:33, Gen 42:34; Joh 7:18; 2Co 6:4

TSK: Gen 42:12 - nakedness nakedness : Gen 42:9

nakedness : Gen 42:9

TSK: Gen 42:13 - Thy servants // one is not Thy servants : Gen 42:11, Gen 42:32, Gen 29:32-35, 30:6-24, Gen 35:16-26, Gen 43:7, 46:8-27; Exo 1:2-5; Num. 1:1-54, 10:1-36, 26:1-65, 34:1-29; 1Chr. ...

Thy servants : Gen 42:11, Gen 42:32, Gen 29:32-35, 30:6-24, Gen 35:16-26, Gen 43:7, 46:8-27; Exo 1:2-5; Num. 1:1-54, 10:1-36, 26:1-65, 34:1-29; 1Chr. 2:1-8:40

one is not : Gen 42:36, Gen 42:38, Gen 37:30, Gen 44:20, Gen 44:28, Gen 45:26; Jer 31:15; Lam 5:7; Mat 2:16, Mat 2:18

TSK: Gen 42:14 - -- Gen 42:9-11; Job 13:24, Job 19:11; Mat 15:21-28

TSK: Gen 42:15 - By the life // except By the life : Gen 42:7, Gen 42:12, Gen 42:16, Gen 42:30; Deu 6:13; 1Sa 1:26, 1Sa 17:55, 1Sa 20:3; Jer 5:2, Jer 5:7; Mat 5:33-37; Mat 23:16-22; Jam 5:1...

TSK: Gen 42:16 - kept in prison kept in prison : Heb. bound, Gen 42:19

kept in prison : Heb. bound, Gen 42:19

TSK: Gen 42:17 - put // ward put : Heb. gathered, Isa 24:22; Act 5:18 ward : Gen 40:4, Gen 40:7, Gen 41:10; Lev 24:12; Psa 119:65; Act 4:3; Heb 12:10

TSK: Gen 42:18 - I fear God I fear God : Gen 20:11; Lev 25:43; Neh 5:9, Neh 5:15; Luk 18:2, Luk 18:4

TSK: Gen 42:19 - house // carry corn house : Gen 40:3; Isa 42:7, Isa 42:22; Jer 37:15 carry corn : Gen 42:1, Gen 42:2, Gen 42:26, Gen 41:56, Gen 43:1, Gen 43:2, Gen 45:23

TSK: Gen 42:20 - bring // And they bring : Gen 42:15, Gen 42:34, Gen 43:5, Gen 43:19, Gen 44:23 And they : Gen 42:26, Gen 6:22; Joh 2:5

TSK: Gen 42:21 - they said // we saw // this distress they said : Gen 41:9; Num 32:23; 2Sa 12:13; 1Ki 17:18; Job 33:27, Job 33:28, Job 34:31, Job 34:32; Job 36:8, Job 36:9; Hos 5:15; Mat 27:3, Mat 27:4; M...

TSK: Gen 42:22 - Spake I // his blood Spake I : Gen 37:21, Gen 37:22, Gen 37:29, Gen 37:30; Luk 23:41; Rom 2:15 his blood : Gen 4:10, Gen 9:5, Gen 9:6; 1Ki 2:32; 2Ch 24:22; Psa 9:12; Eze 3...

TSK: Gen 42:23 - he spake unto them by an interpreter he spake unto them by an interpreter : Heb. an interpreter was between them, The mailitz does not seem to have been an interpreter in our sense of ...

he spake unto them by an interpreter : Heb. an interpreter was between them, The mailitz does not seem to have been an interpreter in our sense of the term; as we have many evidences in this book that the Egyptians, Hebrews, Canaanites, and Syrians, could understand each other in a general way; and it appears from several passages in this very chapter (particularly Gen 42:24), that Joseph and his brethren understood each others’ language, as his brethren and Joseph’ s steward also did (Gen 43:19, etc; compare Gen 39:1 and Gen 49:1). It seems to denote an officer who is called in Abyssinia, according to Mr. Bruce, Kal Hatze , ""the voice or word of the king,""who always stands at the side of a lattice window of a balcony, within which the king sits; who is never seen, but who speaks through a hole in the side of it, covered in the inside with a curtain, to this officer, by whom he speaks to the persons present. Joh 16:13, Joh 16:14; 2Co 5:20

TSK: Gen 42:24 - wept // Simeon wept : Gen 43:30; Isa 63:9; Luk 19:41; Rom 12:15; 1Co 12:26; Heb 4:15 Simeon : Gen 34:25, Gen 49:5-7; Jud 1:22, Jud 1:23

TSK: Gen 42:25 - commanded // to give them // and thus commanded : Gen 44:1, Gen 44:2; Isa 55:1 to give them : Gen 45:21; Mat 6:33 and thus : Mat 5:44; Rom 12:17-21; 1Pe 3:9

commanded : Gen 44:1, Gen 44:2; Isa 55:1

to give them : Gen 45:21; Mat 6:33

and thus : Mat 5:44; Rom 12:17-21; 1Pe 3:9

TSK: Gen 42:27 - the inn // inn the inn : Gen 43:21, Gen 44:11; Exo 4:24; Luk 2:7, Luk 10:34 inn : Malon , from loon , to stay, abide, lodge, denotes any place to stay and lodge ...

the inn : Gen 43:21, Gen 44:11; Exo 4:24; Luk 2:7, Luk 10:34

inn : Malon , from loon , to stay, abide, lodge, denotes any place to stay and lodge in, particularly a place where travellers usually stop to lodge, which is generally near a well , where they fill their girbehs , or leathern bottles, with fresh water, and having unladen and clogged their camels, asses, etc., permit them to crop any little verdure there may be in the place, keeping watch over them by turns. Our word inn here gives us a false idea, there were no such places of entertainment in the desert which Joseph’ s brethren had to pass; nor are there any at the present day. The only accommodation such a place affords is either a well, or a khan , or caravanserai , which is generally no more than four bare walls , perfectly exposed, the place being open at the top, and furnishing a wretched lodging, and even these, it is probable, were not in use at this early period.

TSK: Gen 42:28 - their heart // failed them // What is their heart : Gen 42:36, Gen 27:33; Lev 26:36; Deu 28:65; 1Ki 10:5; Psa 61:2; Son 5:6; Luk 21:26 failed them : Heb. went forth, This refers to the spa...

their heart : Gen 42:36, Gen 27:33; Lev 26:36; Deu 28:65; 1Ki 10:5; Psa 61:2; Son 5:6; Luk 21:26

failed them : Heb. went forth, This refers to the spasmodic affection which is felt in the breast at any sudden alarm or fright.

What is : Isa 45:7; Lam 2:17, Lam 3:37; Amo 3:6

TSK: Gen 42:30 - roughly to us roughly to us : Heb. with us hard things, Gen 42:7-20

roughly to us : Heb. with us hard things, Gen 42:7-20

TSK: Gen 42:31 - true true : Gen 42:11

true : Gen 42:11

TSK: Gen 42:32 - twelve brethren twelve brethren : Gen 42:13

twelve brethren : Gen 42:13

TSK: Gen 42:33 - -- Gen 42:15, Gen 42:19, Gen 42:20

TSK: Gen 42:34 - traffic traffic : Gen 34:10, Gen 34:21; 1Ki 10:15; Eze 17:4

TSK: Gen 42:35 - every man’ s every man’ s : Gen 42:27, Gen 42:28, Gen 43:21

every man’ s : Gen 42:27, Gen 42:28, Gen 43:21

TSK: Gen 42:36 - Me have ye // all these things are against me Me have ye : Gen. 37:20-35, Gen 43:14 all these things are against me : Alay hayoo cullanah , literally, ""upon me are all these things:""rendered...

Me have ye : Gen. 37:20-35, Gen 43:14

all these things are against me : Alay hayoo cullanah , literally, ""upon me are all these things:""rendered by the Vulgate, in me hec omnia mala reciderunt , ""all these evils fall back upon me;""they lie upon me as heavy loads, hastening my deathcaps1 . tcaps0 hey are more than I can bear. Gen 45:28, Gen 47:12; 1Sa 27:1; Job 7:7; Psa 34:19; Ecc 7:8; Isa 27:9, Isa 38:10; Isa 41:10, Isa 41:13, Isa 41:14; Mat 14:31; Rom 8:28, Rom 8:31; 1Co 10:13; 2Co 4:17; Jam 5:7-11

TSK: Gen 42:37 - Slay my Slay my : Gen 43:9, Gen 44:32-34, Gen 46:9; Mic 6:7

TSK: Gen 42:38 - his brother // if mischief // bring his brother : Gen 42:13, Gen 30:22-24, Gen 35:16-18, Gen 37:33, Gen 37:35, Gen 44:20, Gen 44:27-34 if mischief : Gen 42:4, Gen 44:29 bring : Gen 37:35...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Gen 42:1 - Why do ye look one upon another Why do ye look one upon another like lazy, careless, and helpless persons, each one expecting relief from the other, but none offering either counsel...

Why do ye look one upon another like lazy, careless, and helpless persons, each one expecting relief from the other, but none offering either counsel or help for all our subsistence?

Poole: Gen 42:2 - I have heard // Get you down // That we may live, and not die I have heard: this word explains the word saw, Gen 42:1 . Get you down for Egypt was lower than Canaan; whence, on the contrary, they are said to ...

I have heard: this word explains the word saw, Gen 42:1 .

Get you down for Egypt was lower than Canaan; whence, on the contrary, they are said to go up to Canaan, Gen 45:9 .

That we may live, and not die an emphatical repetition of the same thing, used here to make them more sensible of their danger.

Poole: Gen 42:4 - -- Because he was very young, and now his best beloved son.

Because he was very young, and now his best beloved son.

Poole: Gen 42:6 - He sold to the people // Joseph’ s brethren bowed down themselves before him He sold to the people either, 1. By his ministers and commissioners appointed to that end, as men in Scripture and in all authors are said to do tha...

He sold to the people either,

1. By his ministers and commissioners appointed to that end, as men in Scripture and in all authors are said to do that which others do by their authority and command. Or,

2. He himself immediately contracted with the buyers, or at least with such as were foreigners; which he did upon prudential reasons; both because he would not have them to pry into the state of Egypt, Gen 42:12 , and because he would by that opportunity understand the state of other lands, and improve that knowledge for his master’ s service.

Joseph’ s brethren bowed down themselves before him thus unwittingly fulfilling Joseph’ s dream, Gen 37:7 .

Poole: Gen 42:7 - He spake roughly unto them He spake roughly unto them partly, to bring their sin to remembrance; partly, to get the knowledge of the true state of his father and family; and pa...

He spake roughly unto them partly, to bring their sin to remembrance; partly, to get the knowledge of the true state of his father and family; and partly, to further the following design, and make way for his and their greater happiness.

Poole: Gen 42:8 - -- Because his visage was much altered by his beard, and by other things, it being about twenty years since they saw him; and his Egyptian language, an...

Because his visage was much altered by his beard, and by other things, it being about twenty years since they saw him; and his Egyptian language, and habit, and carriage, together with the great dignity of his place, prevented all suspicions concerninging their brother.

Poole: Gen 42:9 - The nakedness of the land This he saith, not because they were so, or he thought them to be so, but that he might search out the truth of their affair, speaking too much like...

This he saith, not because they were so, or he thought them to be so, but that he might search out the truth of their affair, speaking too much like a courtier or politician.

The nakedness of the land i.e. the weak parts of it, and where it may be best assaulted or surprised.

Poole: Gen 42:11 - We are all one man’ s sons // We are true men We are all one man’ s sons and therefore not spies; for it is not likely either that a father would venture so many sons upon so hazardous an em...

We are all one man’ s sons and therefore not spies; for it is not likely either that a father would venture so many sons upon so hazardous an employment, or that such a work would have been trusted in the hands of one family only.

We are true men who honestly and truly mean what we pretend, and have no other design in our coming hither.

Poole: Gen 42:13 - -- i.e. Is dead, as that phrase often signifies both in Scripture, as Gen 37:30 44:20 Jer 31:15 Mat 2:17,18 , and in other authors, as Homer, Euripides...

i.e. Is dead, as that phrase often signifies both in Scripture, as Gen 37:30 44:20 Jer 31:15 Mat 2:17,18 , and in other authors, as Homer, Euripides, &c. They concluded with great probability that he was dead, Gen 44:20 , because for twenty years together they had heard nothing, either of him or from him; which may seem strange, considering the nearness of Egypt and Canaan: but this came to pass partly from his own long imprisonment, and afterwards from his great and high employment; partly, from his lothness to bring so much mischief to his father and brethren, as the discovery of his case might have produced; and principally, from the overruling providence of God, which for its own glorious design disposed of Joseph’ s mind and affairs, so that he either did not send to his father’ s house, or that the messages were intercepted, there being not then those conveniencies for mutual correspondencies which now there are. And it is not improbable that Joseph might be further acquainted with the mind of God in this matter by dreams, which may seem to have been familiarly afforded to him, together with the interpretation of them. See Gen 40:8 41:16 .

Poole: Gen 42:14 - -- This justifies my accusation; for it is not probable that one man should have so many sons, all grown up and living together in one family, and that...

This justifies my accusation; for it is not probable that one man should have so many sons, all grown up and living together in one family, and that he should expose them all to the perils of such a journey.

Poole: Gen 42:15 - By the life of Pharaoh By the life of Pharaoh as sure as Pharaoh lives. It seems to be the form of an oath in use among the Egyptians, as afterwards the Romans used to swea...

By the life of Pharaoh as sure as Pharaoh lives. It seems to be the form of an oath in use among the Egyptians, as afterwards the Romans used to swear by the name, genius, health, and life of their emperors. Compare 1Sa 1:26 17:55 2Ki 2:2 Eze 33:11 . And it is not strange that Joseph through human infirmity was carried by the stream of the general practice of the court, especially when the law of God was not yet delivered concerning the appropriation of oaths unto God.

Poole: Gen 42:18 - -- I will spare your lives, and not punish you with death as spies, and you shall carry provisions, that your family also may live; for I fear God an...

I will spare your lives, and not punish you with death as spies, and you shall carry provisions, that your family also may live;

for I fear God and therefore will not be cruel to you, nor to your brother whom you shall leave with me. This might have raised some suspicion concerning Joseph, but that they knew there were divers among the heathens who did own the true God, though they worshipped idols with him.

Poole: Gen 42:19 - Your prison Your prison in which you are now imprisoned, and are still like to be so, if you accept not this condition.

Your prison in which you are now imprisoned, and are still like to be so, if you accept not this condition.

Poole: Gen 42:20 - -- i.e. Resolved and promised to do so. Those things are oft said to be done in Scripture which were sincerely resolved upon, as hath been noted before...

i.e. Resolved and promised to do so. Those things are oft said to be done in Scripture which were sincerely resolved upon, as hath been noted before.

Poole: Gen 42:21 - When he besought us // Therefore is this distress come upon us This is the just punishment of that great wickedness, which though we could cover from men, yet we now see and feel was known to God, who is now rec...

This is the just punishment of that great wickedness, which though we could cover from men, yet we now see and feel was known to God, who is now reckoning with us for it. Thus Divine vengeance overtakes them, and conscience tortures them for a sin committed above twenty years before, and their affliction brings them to repentance.

When he besought us: compare Gen 49:23 . Yet this passage is not mentioned in that history, Gen 37:1-36 . Learn hence, that the silence of the Scripture is no good argument that such or such a thing was not said or done, except in some special cases.

Therefore is this distress come upon us he is inexorable to us, as we were to him.

Poole: Gen 42:22 - -- i.e. The punishment of his blood or death occasioned by us.

i.e. The punishment of his blood or death occasioned by us.

Poole: Gen 42:24 - He turned himself and wept tears // Simeon // bound him before their eyes He turned himself and wept tears partly of natural affection and compassion towards his brethren, now in great distress and anguish; and partly of jo...

He turned himself and wept tears partly of natural affection and compassion towards his brethren, now in great distress and anguish; and partly of joy, to see the happy success of his design and rigorous carriage, in bringing them to the sight of their sins.

He chooseth to punish

Simeon partly, because next to Reuben he was the eldest, and, as it may be probably gathered from his bloody disposition, Gen 34:25 49:6 , the most fierce and forward against Joseph, when Reuben was for milder counsels, as we see here, Gen 42:22 38:29 ; and partly, because the detainment of one of so perverse and furious a temper would least afflict his father, and most secure Benjamin, who was to come with his brethren. He

bound him before their eyes that it might make deeper impression upon their hard hearts, and make their repentance more effectual.

Poole: Gen 42:27 - -- And after him the rest by his example and information did so, as is affirmed Gen 43:21 , and it is not denied here.

And after him the rest by his example and information did so, as is affirmed Gen 43:21 , and it is not denied here.

Poole: Gen 42:28 - They were afraid They were afraid lest this should be a design to entrap, and so destroy them. Whoever were the instruments, they knew that God was the chief author o...

They were afraid lest this should be a design to entrap, and so destroy them. Whoever were the instruments, they knew that God was the chief author of this occurrent, and wisely reflect upon his providence in it, and their own guilt which provoked him against them.

Poole: Gen 42:35 - -- i.e. Their fear returned upon them with more violence, having now more leisure to consider things, and their wise and experienced father suggesting ...

i.e. Their fear returned upon them with more violence, having now more leisure to consider things, and their wise and experienced father suggesting new matters to them, which might more deeply affect them.

Poole: Gen 42:36 - Simeon is not // All these things are against me Simeon is not he gave him up for lost, as being, as he thought, in the power of a cruel enemy. All these things are against me I am the great suffe...

Simeon is not he gave him up for lost, as being, as he thought, in the power of a cruel enemy.

All these things are against me I am the great sufferer in all these things: you carry yourselves as if you were neither concerned nor affected with them.

Poole: Gen 42:37 - Slay my two sons Slay my two sons two of the four mentioned Gen 46:9 . An absurd proposition, neither fit for him to make, nor for Jacob to accept.

Slay my two sons two of the four mentioned Gen 46:9 . An absurd proposition, neither fit for him to make, nor for Jacob to accept.

Poole: Gen 42:38 - He is left alone He is left alone to wit of his mother, my dear Rachel.

He is left alone to wit of his mother, my dear Rachel.

Haydock: Gen 42:1 - Careless Careless. Hebrew, "gazing at one another," like idle people.

Careless. Hebrew, "gazing at one another," like idle people.

Haydock: Gen 42:6 - To him To him. Conformably to the prophetic dreams, chap. xxxvii. 7, 9. (Menochius) --- Joseph was like a prince or sultan, shallit , with sovereign autho...

To him. Conformably to the prophetic dreams, chap. xxxvii. 7, 9. (Menochius) ---

Joseph was like a prince or sultan, shallit , with sovereign authority. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 42:8 - By them By them. Years and change of situation, had made such an alteration in him. God was pleased that Jacob should remain so long ignorant of his son's ...

By them. Years and change of situation, had made such an alteration in him. God was pleased that Jacob should remain so long ignorant of his son's fate, that, by sorrow, he might do penance, and purify himself from every stain; and that he might not attempt to redeem Joseph, whose slavery was to be the source of so much good to his family. (Menochius) ---

Joseph did not make himself known at first; in order to bring his brethren to a true sense of their duty, that they might obtain pardon for their sin. Thus pastors must sometimes treat their penitents with a degree of severity. (St. Gregory, hom. 22, Ezec.; St. Augustine, ser. 82, de Tem.) (Worthington)

Haydock: Gen 42:9 - You are spies You are spies. This he said by way of examining them, to see what they would answer. (Challoner) --- Aquila translates "vagrants" going from place ...

You are spies. This he said by way of examining them, to see what they would answer. (Challoner) ---

Aquila translates "vagrants" going from place to place, as if to discover the weakest parts. Joseph was a person in authority. It was his duty to guard against invasion. He knew how his brethren had treated Sichem, and how they had behaved to himself; and though he might not suppose, that they had any evil design upon Egypt, yet he had a right to make them give an account of themselves. (Haydock) ---

He wished also to extort from them a true account respecting Jacob and Benjamin. (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 42:15 - Health Health. This oath implies, that he is willing that even Pharao, whom he so much revered, should perish, if he did not execute what he said: (Haydock...

Health. This oath implies, that he is willing that even Pharao, whom he so much revered, should perish, if he did not execute what he said: (Haydock) or, as Pharao is now in health, so true it is you should not all depart, till your youngest brother come. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 42:16 - Or else by the health of Pharao you are spies Or else by the health of Pharao you are spies. That is, if these things you say be proved false, you are to be held for spies for your lying, and ...

Or else by the health of Pharao you are spies. That is, if these things you say be proved false, you are to be held for spies for your lying, and shall be treated as such. Joseph dealt in this manner with his brethren, to bring them by means of affliction to a sense of their former sin, and a sincere repentance for it.

Haydock: Gen 42:18 - God God. I shall do nothing contrary to justice or good faith, as I know I have a superior in heaven, to whom I must give an account. (Menochius)

God. I shall do nothing contrary to justice or good faith, as I know I have a superior in heaven, to whom I must give an account. (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 42:21 - We deserve We deserve. Conscience upbraids. "Punishment opens the mouth, which sin had shut," St. Gregory. (Menochius) --- They had sold Joseph about 22 yea...

We deserve. Conscience upbraids. "Punishment opens the mouth, which sin had shut," St. Gregory. (Menochius) ---

They had sold Joseph about 22 years before! (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 42:22 - His blood His blood. Ruben supposed his brother was dead, (ver. 13,) and judging that Jacob would not let Benjamin come, he thought they must all perish. (Ha...

His blood. Ruben supposed his brother was dead, (ver. 13,) and judging that Jacob would not let Benjamin come, he thought they must all perish. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 42:23 - Interpreter Interpreter, to keep them at a greater distance. It does not appear that the sons of Jacob were ignorant of the language of the country. (Calmet)

Interpreter, to keep them at a greater distance. It does not appear that the sons of Jacob were ignorant of the language of the country. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 42:25 - Simeon // Presence Simeon. If he had joined himself to Ruben and Juda, who seemed inclined to protect Joseph, they might easily have prevented the cruel act, by overaw...

Simeon. If he had joined himself to Ruben and Juda, who seemed inclined to protect Joseph, they might easily have prevented the cruel act, by overawing their younger brothers. Hence he was most guilty. (Menochius) ---

Presence. That they might learn to condole with an afflicted brother.

Haydock: Gen 42:34 - And you may And you may, &c. Joseph had said, (ver. 20,) and you may not die, which they thus interpret. (Haydock)

And you may, &c. Joseph had said, (ver. 20,) and you may not die, which they thus interpret. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 42:35 - Astonished Astonished. One had before made the discovery, ver. 28. Now all find their purses among the corn, which renews their astonishment. (Calmet)

Astonished. One had before made the discovery, ver. 28. Now all find their purses among the corn, which renews their astonishment. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 42:36 - Without Without. Through excess of grief, Jacob speaks with a degree of exaggeration; or he thought his children were now taken from him so fast, that he wo...

Without. Through excess of grief, Jacob speaks with a degree of exaggeration; or he thought his children were now taken from him so fast, that he would soon have none left.

Haydock: Gen 42:37 - Kill Kill, &c. By this proposal, he meant to signify his utmost care and zeal to bring back young Benjamin safe to his father.

Kill, &c. By this proposal, he meant to signify his utmost care and zeal to bring back young Benjamin safe to his father.

Haydock: Gen 42:38 - Alone // To hell Alone: the son of my beloved Rachel. (Haydock) --- To hell. That is, to that place where the souls then remained, as above, chap. xxxvii. ver. 35,...

Alone: the son of my beloved Rachel. (Haydock) ---

To hell. That is, to that place where the souls then remained, as above, chap. xxxvii. ver. 35, (Challoner) though with respect to his grey hairs, and body, it may signify the grave. (Haydock)

Gill: Gen 42:1 - Now when Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt // Jacob said unto, his sons, why do ye look one upon another Now when Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt,.... That is, to be sold there, or otherwise it being there, unless it could be bought, would have bee...

Now when Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt,.... That is, to be sold there, or otherwise it being there, unless it could be bought, would have been of no avail to foreigners; wherefore the Septuagint version is, that there was a sale w there, a sale of corn; the word has the signification of "breaking" x in it, because that bread corn is broke in the mill, or is broken from the heap when sold or distributed, or because when eaten it breaks the fast. Now Jacob had either seen persons passing by with corn, of whom he inquired from whence they had it, who replied, from Egypt; or he understood by the report of others that corn was to be bought there; though some of the Jewish writers would have it, as Jarchi observes, that he saw it by the revelation of the Holy Spirit:

Jacob said unto, his sons, why do ye look one upon another? like persons in surprise, distress and despair, at their wits' end, not knowing what to do, what course to take, and which way to turn themselves, and scarce able to speak to one another, and consult with each other what was proper to be done; for it seems not so agreeable that they should be charged as idle persons, careless and unconcerned, indifferent and inactive; but rather, if the other sense is not acceptable, the meaning may be, "why do ye look?" y here and there, in the land of Canaan, where it is to no purpose to look for corn; look where it is to be had.

Gill: Gen 42:2 - And he said, behold, I have heard that there is corn in Egypt // get ye down thither // and buy for us from thence, that we may live, and not die And he said, behold, I have heard that there is corn in Egypt,.... This explains what is meant by the phrase he saw, one sense being put for another: ...

And he said, behold, I have heard that there is corn in Egypt,.... This explains what is meant by the phrase he saw, one sense being put for another:

get ye down thither; as fast as you can without delay; Egypt lay lower than Canaan, and therefore they are bid to go down, as when they went from thence to Canaan they are said to go up, Gen 45:25,

and buy for us from thence, that we may live, and not die; which shows the famine was very pressing, since, unless they could buy corn from Egypt they could not live, but must die.

Gill: Gen 42:3 - And Joseph's ten brethren went down to buy corn in Egypt. And Joseph's ten brethren went down to buy corn in Egypt. They obeyed their father's orders, and immediately set out for Egypt; "ten" of them went dow...

And Joseph's ten brethren went down to buy corn in Egypt. They obeyed their father's orders, and immediately set out for Egypt; "ten" of them went down in a body together, all but Benjamin, so that it is easily reckoned who they were, and they are called not Jacob's sons, as they were; but Joseph's brethren, whom they had sold into Egypt, and to whom now they were going, though they knew it not, to buy corn of him in their necessity, and to whom they would be obliged to yield obeisance, as they did.

Gill: Gen 42:4 - But Benjamin, Joseph's brother, Jacob sent not with his brethren // for he said, lest peradventure mischief befall him But Benjamin, Joseph's brother, Jacob sent not with his brethren,.... Benjamin is called Joseph's brother, because he was so both by father and mother...

But Benjamin, Joseph's brother, Jacob sent not with his brethren,.... Benjamin is called Joseph's brother, because he was so both by father and mother's side, as the rest were not; him Jacob kept with him, being the youngest and his darling, the only son he had with him of his beloved wife Rachel; and was very probably the more beloved by him since he had been bereft of Joseph; and it was not only to keep him company that he retained him at home, but for the reason following:

for he said, lest peradventure mischief befall him; as had to Joseph his brother, as he imagined; either that the journey would be too much for him, being young, or lest he should be seized with sickness on the road, or rather with death, as Aben Ezra interprets it according to the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan.

Gill: Gen 42:5 - And the sons of Israel came to buy corn among those that came // for the famine was in the land of Canaan And the sons of Israel came to buy corn among those that came,.... Either among the Egyptians that came to buy, or among those who came from differen...

And the sons of Israel came to buy corn among those that came,.... Either among the Egyptians that came to buy, or among those who came from different countries, or rather particularly among the Canaanites, as the Targum of Jonathan; with these they might join upon the road, and go together in a body where the market for corn was:

for the famine was in the land of Canaan: which obliged the inhabitants of it as well as Jacob's family to seek for corn elsewhere, and confirms the sense of the preceding clause: this, though a very fruitful land, yet when God withheld a blessing from it, it became barren, as it had been before, Gen 12:10, and was to try the faith of those good men to whom God had given it, and to wean their hearts from being set upon it, and to put them upon seeking a better country, as they did.

Gill: Gen 42:6 - And Joseph was the governor over the land // and he it was that sold to all the people of the land // and Joseph's brethren came // and bowed down themselves before him, with their faces to the earth And Joseph was the governor over the land,.... Not the land of Canaan last mentioned, but the land of Egypt; under Pharaoh, he had the chief and sole...

And Joseph was the governor over the land,.... Not the land of Canaan last mentioned, but the land of Egypt; under Pharaoh, he had the chief and sole authority, and especially in the affair of the corn, and the disposal of that:

and he it was that sold to all the people of the land: of Egypt, and also to all that came out of other lands; not that he in person could do all this, but by those that acted under him:

and Joseph's brethren came; to Joseph to buy corn of him:

and bowed down themselves before him, with their faces to the earth; not only bowed the knee as the Egyptians did, but prostrated their whole bodies, stretching out their hands and feet, and touching the ground with their faces, as was the manner of the eastern countries, at least some of them; and so of Canaan; and thus did they submit themselves to him in the most humble manner, and thereby, though without their knowledge, fulfilled his dream of their sheaves making obeisance to his sheaf, Gen 37:7.

Gill: Gen 42:7 - And Joseph saw his brethren // and he knew them // but made himself strange unto them // and spake roughly unto them // and he said unto them, whence come ye // and they said, from the land of Canaan to buy food And Joseph saw his brethren,.... Among those that came to buy corn, and when they prostrated themselves before him: and he knew them; some of them ...

And Joseph saw his brethren,.... Among those that came to buy corn, and when they prostrated themselves before him:

and he knew them; some of them being at man's estate, and their beards grown when they sold him, and their habits and dress now being much the same it was then, and by them he knew the younger:

but made himself strange unto them; took no notice of them as his relations, but carried himself to them as he did to other foreigners, and yet more strangely:

and spake roughly unto them; or hard z things or words; put on a stern countenance, and spoke with a high tone and in a rough surly manner to them:

and he said unto them, whence come ye? who are ye? of what country are ye? what is your business here?

and they said, from the land of Canaan to buy food; which they could not get in Canaan, the famine being there so great.

Gill: Gen 42:8 - And Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew not him. And Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew not him. It being about twenty two years since they saw him, and then he was young, and his beard not grow...

And Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew not him. It being about twenty two years since they saw him, and then he was young, and his beard not grown, as now it was; and besides, he was clothed as a prince, and spoke the Egyptian language; and being in such great grandeur and splendour, and in such power and authority, and having such a retinue attending him, they never once thought of him, whom they supposed might be dead, having never heard of him all this time; or, however, it could not come into their minds, that he whom they sold for a slave could ever be governor of the land of Egypt.

Gill: Gen 42:9 - And Joseph remembered the dreams which he dreamed of them // and said unto them, ye are spies // to see the nakedness of the land ye are come And Joseph remembered the dreams which he dreamed of them,.... Their bowing and prostrating themselves before him brought to his remembrance his dream...

And Joseph remembered the dreams which he dreamed of them,.... Their bowing and prostrating themselves before him brought to his remembrance his dreams of their sheaves making obeisance to his, and of the sun, moon, and eleven stars, doing the same to him, Gen 37:7,

and said unto them, ye are spies; not believing they were, nor absolutely asserting that they were such; but this he said to try them, and what they would say for themselves, and in order to lead on to further discourse with them, and to get knowledge of his father and brother Benjamin, whether living or not: he dealt with them as a judge on the bench, when examining persons, whose charges have the nature of an interrogation, as this has: "ye are spies"; are ye not? surely ye must be, and unless you give a better account of yourselves, I must take you up as such:

to see the nakedness of the land ye are come: what parts of it are weakest, most defenceless, and less fortified, and most easy to break in at, and invade the land; and it was not without reason that the Egyptians might suspect the neighbouring nations round about them, being in distress, and hearing of corn in Egypt, of forming a design of coming upon them and taking away their corn by force, and might be the reason why foreigners that came to buy corn were brought before Joseph and examined by him.

Gill: Gen 42:10 - And they said unto him, nay, my lord // but to buy food are thy servants come And they said unto him, nay, my lord,.... One in the name of the rest, or each in his turn, denying that they were spies, and addressing him with the ...

And they said unto him, nay, my lord,.... One in the name of the rest, or each in his turn, denying that they were spies, and addressing him with the greatest reverence and submission, calling him their lord, and thus further accomplishing his dreams:

but to buy food are thy servants come; that and no other was the errand they came upon.

Gill: Gen 42:11 - We are all one man's sons // we are true men // thy servants are no spies We are all one man's sons,.... Therefore not likely to be spies; it could hardly be thought that a single family should engage in such an affair; or ...

We are all one man's sons,.... Therefore not likely to be spies; it could hardly be thought that a single family should engage in such an affair; or that one man would, send his sons as spies, and especially all of them, it being a dangerous affair, and they being liable to be taken up and put to death; and as more families than one must be concerned in such an enterprise, it is reasonable to suppose, that if they had been spies they would have been of different families, and also not together, but in different parts of the kingdom, to observe the fittest place to enter in at and execute their design:

we are true men: that spoke truth when they said they came to buy corn; were honest, upright, and sincere in what they said, nor would they, nor durst they, tell a lie:

thy servants are no spies; this they expressed in the strongest terms, and with the fullest assurance they could, detesting the charge and character of being spies.

Gill: Gen 42:12 - And he said unto them, nay // to see the nakedness of the land ye are come And he said unto them, nay,.... This argument will not do, I am not to be put off with such words as these; if you can produce no better proof of your...

And he said unto them, nay,.... This argument will not do, I am not to be put off with such words as these; if you can produce no better proof of your being honest men than this, or give no better account of yourselves, I must abide by it, that:

to see the nakedness of the land ye are come; this he urged in order to get a further account from them of their family and the state of it, which he was anxious to know.

Gill: Gen 42:13 - And they said, thy servants are twelve brethren // the sons of one man in the land of Canaan // and, behold, the youngest is this day with our father // and one is not And they said, thy servants are twelve brethren,.... Or rather, "were twelve", since one afterwards is said not to be: the sons of one man in the ...

And they said, thy servants are twelve brethren,.... Or rather, "were twelve", since one afterwards is said not to be:

the sons of one man in the land of Canaan; of Jacob, who dwelt there; this is said with the same view as before, to show the improbability of their being spies:

and, behold, the youngest is this day with our father: meaning Benjamin, whom Joseph was eager to hear of, and no doubt was glad to hear he was alive, and his father also, and that they were both together in the land of Canaan:

and one is not; is not in the land of the living, is dead; for so they thought Joseph was, who is the person intended, as appears from what both Reuben and Judah afterwards say, Gen 42:22; and yet he was before them, and was the person they were speaking to: this must be very striking and affecting to Joseph, who knew full well they meant himself.

Gill: Gen 42:14 - And Joseph said unto them, that is it that I spake unto you, saying, ye are spies. And Joseph said unto them, that is it that I spake unto you, saying, ye are spies. This proves it, at least gives strong suspicion of it; since at f...

And Joseph said unto them, that is it that I spake unto you, saying, ye are spies. This proves it, at least gives strong suspicion of it; since at first they seemed to speak of themselves, as if they were the only sons of one man and there were no more, now they speak of twelve, and make mention of one being at home with his father; but seeing he sent so many of them, why not all? why should one only be left at home?

Gill: Gen 42:15 - Hereby ye shall be proved // by the life of Pharaoh ye shall not go forth hence, except your youngest brother come hither Hereby ye shall be proved,.... Whether spies, or not, namely, by producing their youngest brother, said to be at home with his father: by the life ...

Hereby ye shall be proved,.... Whether spies, or not, namely, by producing their youngest brother, said to be at home with his father:

by the life of Pharaoh ye shall not go forth hence, except your youngest brother come hither: the phrase, "by the life of Pharaoh", seems to be the form of an oath, as it was common with many nations, especially with the Scythians, who used to swear by the royal throne a, and the Romans, in later times, by the life, health, and genius of their emperor; and this custom of swearing by the life of their king, or by his head, continued with the Egyptians, as Aben Ezra says, unto his times; though some take this to be a wish or prayer for the life of Pharaoh, and render it, "may Pharaoh live" b, or, at most, but a strong asseveration, that as dear as the life of Pharaoh was to him, so surely they should not stir from the place where they were, unless their youngest brother Benjamin was brought thither.

Gill: Gen 42:16 - Send one of you, and let him fetch your brother // and ye shall be kept in prison // that your words may be proved, whether there be any truth in you // or else, by the life of Pharaoh, surely ye are spies Send one of you, and let him fetch your brother,.... He proposes that one of them might be sent by them to their father's house, and bring, Benjamin d...

Send one of you, and let him fetch your brother,.... He proposes that one of them might be sent by them to their father's house, and bring, Benjamin down to Egypt:

and ye shall be kept in prison; the rest of them till he came:

that your words may be proved, whether there be any truth in you; by this it would be seen whether they were men of truth and honesty or not; and should their brother be brought they would appear to be good men and true:

or else, by the life of Pharaoh, surely ye are spies; should not their brother they spoke of be produced, it would be a plain case that they were not the honest men they pretended to be, nor did they come merely to buy corn, but had an ill intention.

Gill: Gen 42:17 - And he put them all together into ward three days. And he put them all together into ward three days. In order to consult together, and agree who should be sent to fetch their brother; and which it see...

And he put them all together into ward three days. In order to consult together, and agree who should be sent to fetch their brother; and which it seems probable in this length of time they could not agree upon, no one caring to be the bringer of such evil tidings to their father.

Gill: Gen 42:18 - And Joseph said unto them the third day // this do, and live // for I fear God And Joseph said unto them the third day,.... His heart yearning towards them, though he put on such an appearance; finding they could not come to an a...

And Joseph said unto them the third day,.... His heart yearning towards them, though he put on such an appearance; finding they could not come to an agreement among themselves who should go on the errand, he thought fit to recede from his former order, and to give them another:

this do, and live: meaning what he was about to say to them, which if they punctually observed and performed, it would be the means of saving their lives:

for I fear God; and therefore would not do either an unjust or cruel thing. This might have given them an him who he was: but there being among the Gentiles, in all nations, some few that feared God, they took no further notice of it than this, that they might expect just and equitable dealings by him; since, though he was in such an high place, he knew and owned there was one higher than he, to whom he was accountable.

Gill: Gen 42:19 - If ye be true men // let one of your brethren be bound in the house of your prison // go ye, carry corn for the famine of your houses If ye be true men,.... As you say you are: let one of your brethren be bound in the house of your prison; agree among yourselves which of you (fo...

If ye be true men,.... As you say you are:

let one of your brethren be bound in the house of your prison; agree among yourselves which of you (for one of you must) remain in prison where you are: and the rest being set at liberty:

go ye, carry corn for the famine of your houses; Joseph, though he dealt with them after this manner to get what knowledge he could of his family, and to get sight of his brother, yet was concerned for the good of them and theirs, lest they should be in extreme want through the famine, and that they might have a speedy supply of corn, was not willing to detain them any longer.

Gill: Gen 42:20 - But bring your youngest brother unto me // so shall your words be verified // and ye shall not die // and they did so But bring your youngest brother unto me,.... Upon their return for more corn: so shall your words be verified; that they were true men, and had no ...

But bring your youngest brother unto me,.... Upon their return for more corn:

so shall your words be verified; that they were true men, and had no ill design upon the land, but were come only to buy corn:

and ye shall not die; as spies, which they were otherwise threatened with; and as it is customary in all nations to put such to death when found out:

and they did so; they left one of their brethren behind; they carried corn to their houses or families in Canaan, and brought their brother Benjamin with them when they returned to Egypt.

Gill: Gen 42:21 - And they said one to another // we are verily guilty concerning our brother // in that we saw the anguish of his soul, when he besought us, and we would not hear // therefore is this distress come upon us And they said one to another,.... Before they went out of the prison, at least while in the presence of Joseph: we are verily guilty concerning ou...

And they said one to another,.... Before they went out of the prison, at least while in the presence of Joseph:

we are verily guilty concerning our brother; meaning Joseph, whom they had sold for a slave, and who they supposed was dead through grief and hard servitude; and now being in trouble themselves, it brings to mind the sin they had been guilty of, which, though committed twenty two years ago, was still fresh in their memories, and lay heavy on their consciences; for length of time neither makes sin less, nor the conscience lighter, when it is revived and charged home upon it, and which was aggravated particularly by the following circumstance:

in that we saw the anguish of his soul, when he besought us, and we would not hear; when in the utmost agony, with trembling limbs, and quivering lips, and floods of tears, as they stripped him of his coat, he most earnestly and importunately requested of them they would not put him into the pit, and leave him there; and in the same manner entreated them they would not put him into the hands of strangers, but restore him alive to his father; but they turned a deaf ear to all his cries and entreaties, and hardened themselves against him:

therefore is this distress come upon us; the same measure that was measured by them to him, was now measured to them again, and they were dealt with according to "lex talionis": they cast Joseph into a pit, and now they were committed to a prison; they would not attend to his cries and tears, and the anguish of his soul did not move their pity, and now he is inexorable to them, and will not at least appear to have any compassion on them, or show pity to them; and perhaps their being dealt with in this similar way brought to their remembrance what they had done.

Gill: Gen 42:22 - And Reuben answered them // saying, spake I not unto you, saying, do not sin against the child // and ye would not hear // therefore, behold, also, his blood is required And Reuben answered them,.... Being the eldest, and who had been most concerned for the life of Joseph, and most tender and careful of him: saying,...

And Reuben answered them,.... Being the eldest, and who had been most concerned for the life of Joseph, and most tender and careful of him:

saying, spake I not unto you, saying, do not sin against the child,

and ye would not hear? it seems by this that Reuben endeavoured to dissuade his brethren from selling Joseph, when they first proposed it, to which they would not attend; since it is certain they did hearken to him as not to kill him directly, as they first consulted, and they hearkened to him to cast him into a pit, where he did not intend he should continue, but till he had an opportunity of taking him out, and returning him to his father: but it seems probable that Reuben was with them when they first spied the Ishmaelites, and proposed to sell Joseph to them, which he objected to, and entreated they would not do it; and perhaps he went out from them, and took a circuit, with a view to get to the pit and take Joseph out, but before he got thither his brethren had taken him out, and sold him: or this may refer to the general advice he always gave them, to do nothing that might endanger the life of Joseph, or be the means of his death, which selling him for a slave he supposed had been:

therefore, behold, also, his blood is required; the Targum of Jonathan adds, "of us"; they were accessary to his death, and guilty of it; for Reuben supposed he was dead, and now they must suffer for it, as a just retaliation, being threatened with death unless they could clear themselves.

Gill: Gen 42:23 - And they knew not that Joseph understood them // for he spake unto them by an interpreter And they knew not that Joseph understood them,.... For what is above related they spoke in his presence and hearing; but speaking to one another in t...

And they knew not that Joseph understood them,.... For what is above related they spoke in his presence and hearing; but speaking to one another in the Hebrew language, and he being an Egyptian, as they took him to be, they did not imagine that he could understand them, and therefore were not at all upon their guard in what they said: and what confirmed them in this was:

for he spake unto them by an interpreter; which he the rather chose to do, that they might have no suspicion of him; and which shows, that though there was a likeness between the Hebrew language and the Egyptian in many things, yet in some they differed, and the difference was such that there was need of an interpreter, where the parties did not understand both languages: this interpreter between Joseph and his brethren, according to the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem, was Manasseh, the eldest son of Joseph, and so Jarchi; which is very improbable, he being but a child at this time, if not an infant; see Gen 41:50.

Gill: Gen 42:24 - And he turned himself about from them, and wept // and returned to them again, and communed with them // and took from them Simeon, and bound him before their eyes And he turned himself about from them, and wept,.... Hearing his brethren confess their sin and guilt to one another in selling him, and Reuben's affe...

And he turned himself about from them, and wept,.... Hearing his brethren confess their sin and guilt to one another in selling him, and Reuben's affectionate concern for him, it wrought so much upon his affections, being naturally of a tender spirit, that he could no longer act the part he had, and keep up the sternness and severity of his countenance; wherefore he turned his face from them, that they might not discern it, and his back upon them, and went into another room: and after he had given vent to his passion, and composed himself:

and returned to them again, and communed with them; upon the same subject, of going with their corn to Canaan, and bringing their youngest brother with them upon their return, and promising moreover, for their encouragement, a free traffic in the land of Egypt, Gen 42:34,

and took from them Simeon, and bound him before their eyes; who perhaps was the most cruel and hardhearted among them; and it appears from the affair of Shechem, that he was a man of a fierce and bloody disposition. According to Jarchi, it was he that said to Levi, on sight of Joseph, behold this dreamer cometh; and that it was he that cast him into the pit; and, as the Targum says, advised to kill him: and perhaps Joseph might pitch upon him as the hostage, not only because he had used him more evilly than the rest, but because he might observe he was less concerned, and not so much humbled now for the evil he had done as the rest were; as also he might choose to detain him, as being not so much in his father's affection, because of the affair of Shechem, and so be a less affliction to him than if it was another; and besides, he might fear that being of a perverse and boisterous disposition, he would vehemently oppose the sending of Benjamin into Egypt, which Joseph was so very desirous of: and he bound him in their presence to terrify them, and let them know what they must expect if they did not obey his orders, and the more to humble them for the sin they had been guilty of, and was now upon their minds; though perhaps, as Jarchi observes, when they were gone he let him out, and gave him food and drink; or however might give him some liberty, and use him with mildness and gentleness.

Gill: Gen 42:25 - Then Joseph commanded to fill their sacks with corn // and to restore every man's money into his sack // and to give them provision for the way // and thus did he unto them Then Joseph commanded to fill their sacks with corn,.... Which was as much as they came for: and to restore every man's money into his sack; the mo...

Then Joseph commanded to fill their sacks with corn,.... Which was as much as they came for:

and to restore every man's money into his sack; the money paid by each for his quantity of corn delivered to him, not into the person's hands, but to be put into his sack privately, and unknown to him:

and to give them provision for the way; sufficient both for themselves and for their cattle, that they might carry the whole of what corn they bought to their families:

and thus did he unto them; that is, not Joseph, but his steward or deputy, or however the servant that he gave the above order to.

Gill: Gen 42:26 - And they laded their asses with the corn // and departed thence And they laded their asses with the corn,.... Cattle very fit to carry burdens, and no doubt they had each of them one at least: and departed thenc...

And they laded their asses with the corn,.... Cattle very fit to carry burdens, and no doubt they had each of them one at least:

and departed thence; from the place where Joseph was, and from the land of Egypt.

Gill: Gen 42:27 - And as one of them opened his sack // to give his ass provender in the inn // he espied his money // for, behold, it was in his sack's mouth And as one of them opened his sack,.... According to the Targum of Jonathan and Jarchi, this was Levi; but Aben Ezra thinks it is more likely to be Re...

And as one of them opened his sack,.... According to the Targum of Jonathan and Jarchi, this was Levi; but Aben Ezra thinks it is more likely to be Reuben the firstborn, who was one, that is, the first of them:

to give his ass provender in the inn; at which they lay very probably the first night of their journey; a good man regards the life of his beast, and takes care of that as well as of himself, and generally in the first place:

he espied his money; the money which he paid for his corn:

for, behold, it was in his sack's mouth; just as he opened it.

Gill: Gen 42:28 - And he said unto his brethren, my money is restored // and, lo, it is even in my sack // and their heart failed them // and they were afraid // saying one to another, what is this that God hath done unto us And he said unto his brethren, my money is restored,.... The money paid for the corn is returned: and, lo, it is even in my sack; this put them al...

And he said unto his brethren, my money is restored,.... The money paid for the corn is returned:

and, lo, it is even in my sack; this put them all upon opening their sacks, where every man found his money, though not expressed, see Gen 43:21,

and their heart failed them; through surprise and fear; or "went out" c front them, as it were, they were ready to faint and swoon away:

and they were afraid; their consciences being awakened, and loaded with the guilt of their former sins, they were afraid that more evil was coming upon them for them; and that this was a scheme laid to entrap them, and that they should be pursued and seized, and fetched back, and charged with a fraud and trick, as going off with their corn without paying for it:

saying one to another, what is this that God hath done unto us? for whoever was the instrument, they concluded the overruling hand of divine Providence was in it, for the further chastisement and correction of them for their iniquity: instead of being thus frightened and distressed, it is very much it did not give them suspicion of Joseph, that he was the person they had been conversing with, and that he had done this in kindness to them; but their minds were so pressed with the guilt of their sin, that they were possessed of nothing but fears and dreadful apprehensions of things, and put the worst construction upon them they could, as men in such circumstances usually do, even fear where no fear is, or no occasion for it.

Gill: Gen 42:29 - And they came unto Jacob their father, unto the land of Canaan // and told him all that befell unto them // saying And they came unto Jacob their father, unto the land of Canaan,.... Without being pursued and fetched back, or retarded in their journey as they might...

And they came unto Jacob their father, unto the land of Canaan,.... Without being pursued and fetched back, or retarded in their journey as they might fear:

and told him all that befell unto them; chiefly what befell them while in Egypt:

saying, as follows.

Gill: Gen 42:30 - The man, who is the lord of the land // spake roughly to us // and took us for spies of the country The man, who is the lord of the land,.... Of Egypt; not the king, but the deputy governor of it, whose authority under Pharaoh was very great, and re...

The man, who is the lord of the land,.... Of Egypt; not the king, but the deputy governor of it, whose authority under Pharaoh was very great, and reached to the whole land, and all political affairs, and especially what related to the corn, and the sale of it; he, say they:

spake roughly to us; gave them hard words, and stern looks, and used them in a very rough manner, see Gen 42:7,

and took us for spies of the country; laid such a charge against them, and treated them as such; or "gave" them d, committed them to prison as such.

Gill: Gen 42:31 - And we said unto him, we are true men // we are no spies And we said unto him, we are true men,.... Honest, upright men, not given to treacherous and treasonable practices, either in the country where they...

And we said unto him, we are true men,.... Honest, upright men, not given to treacherous and treasonable practices, either in the country where they lived, or any other; they came to Egypt with no ill design upon the country, only to buy corn for the relief of their families in necessity:

we are no spies; or never were e: they had never been guilty of such practices, and never charged with anything of that kind; they denied the charge, and detested the character.

Gill: Gen 42:32 - We be twelve brethren, sons of our father // one is not // and the youngest is this day with our father in the land of Canaan We be twelve brethren, sons of our father,.... All brethren by the father's side, though not by the mother's, and by one father; they had been twelve...

We be twelve brethren, sons of our father,.... All brethren by the father's side, though not by the mother's, and by one father; they had been twelve, and were so now, though they knew it not, supposing that one was dead, as is next observed:

one is not; is not alive, but dead; the Targum of Jonathan is,"what is become of one we know not"

and the youngest is this day with our father in the land of Canaan; see Gen 42:13.

Gill: Gen 42:33 - And the man, the lord of the country, said unto us, hereby shall I know that you are true men // leave one of your brethren here with me // and take food for the famine of your household, and be gone And the man, the lord of the country, said unto us, hereby shall I know that you are true men,.... This will be a proof and demonstration of it: ...

And the man, the lord of the country, said unto us, hereby shall I know that you are true men,.... This will be a proof and demonstration of it:

leave one of your brethren here with me; as an hostage; they do not say "bound in the prison", Gen 42:19, as Joseph did, because they would not grieve their father, at least would not tell him of it at once, lest it should too much affect him:

and take food for the famine of your household, and be gone; that is, corn for the relief of their families, being distressed with a famine.

Gill: Gen 42:34 - And, bring your youngest brother unto me // then shall I know that you are no spies, but that you are true men // so will I deliver your brother // and ye shall traffic in the land And, bring your youngest brother unto me,.... Their brother Benjamin: then shall I know that you are no spies, but that you are true men; he kn...

And, bring your youngest brother unto me,.... Their brother Benjamin:

then shall I know that you are no spies, but that you are true men; he knew they were no spies now, but true, honest, upright men, with respect to any designs upon the country; but then he should own and acknowledge them to be such, having such plain proof that what they said was true:

so will I deliver your brother; their brother Simeon, who was left bound; though this circumstance they also here studiously conceal from their father:

and ye shall traffic in the land; not only for corn, but for any other commodity Egypt furnished its neighbours with.

Gill: Gen 42:35 - And it came to pass, as they emptied their sacks // that, behold, every man's bundle of money was in his sack // and when both they and their father saw the bundles of money, they were afraid And it came to pass, as they emptied their sacks,.... Both those in which were the corn they had bought, and those in which were their provender for t...

And it came to pass, as they emptied their sacks,.... Both those in which were the corn they had bought, and those in which were their provender for their cattle, and provision for themselves:

that, behold, every man's bundle of money was in his sack; the same purse, and the same pieces of money, gold or silver, they had paid to the steward:

and when both they and their father saw the bundles of money, they were afraid; the Targum of Jonathan adds,"because of Simeon, whom they had left there;''fearing that they should he charged with theft or fraud, and that Simeon would be put to death; they had opened their sacks before, and found their money in them, but put it up again as it was, in order to open them in their father's presence, from whom they thought proper to conceal this circumstance, lest he should blame them for not returning to the governor with their money upon the first notice of it, when they had travelled but one day's journey; wherefore they make no mention of it in the account of things that befell them, and express their surprise and fear upon finding it when they opened their sacks, as if they had known, nothing of it before; though it may be their fears were renewed and increased by what Jacob might observe to them, as the consequence of it, which they had not so thoroughly considered before.

Gill: Gen 42:36 - And Jacob their father said unto them, me have ye bereaved of my children // Joseph is not, and Simeon is not // and ye will take Benjamin away // all these things are against me And Jacob their father said unto them, me have ye bereaved of my children,.... Which looks as if Jacob suspected that they had either sold or slain J...

And Jacob their father said unto them, me have ye bereaved of my children,.... Which looks as if Jacob suspected that they had either sold or slain Joseph, and had done one or the other by Simeon:

Joseph is not, and Simeon is not: neither of them were with him, and both were given up by him as dead, or, as the Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it,"of Joseph ye have said an evil beast hath devoured him; and Simeon, ye say, the king of the country hath bound him;''as for Joseph he knew not but he was dead, he feared he was; and as for Simeon, he being in the hands of so rough a man as they had represented the lord of the land to be, and especially as his release depended upon sending Benjamin, which he was determined at present not to do; he was reckoned by him as a lost or dead man:

and ye will take Benjamin away; they were desirous of it, and what their design was he could not tell; he seems to have a strong suspicion that it was not good:

all these things are against me; against his will, his peace, and comfort, and happiness, though they were all working and would work as they did for his good, and for the good of his family, for the preservation of it during the seven years of famine; or are "upon me" f, as heavy burdens, too heavy for him to bear, ready to sink him down to the earth.

Gill: Gen 42:37 - And Reuben spoke unto his father // saying, slay my two sons, if I bring him not to thee // deliver him into my hand, and I will bring him to thee again And Reuben spoke unto his father,.... Being the eldest son, it most property lay upon him to make answer to his father in the name of his brethren, an...

And Reuben spoke unto his father,.... Being the eldest son, it most property lay upon him to make answer to his father in the name of his brethren, and to offer a word of comfort to him:

saying, slay my two sons, if I bring him not to thee; meaning not Simeon, who was in Egypt, but Benjamin, whom it was proposed to take thither, and whom Jacob was very loath to part with; and to persuade him to it Reuben offers to him, and gives him leave to slay his two sons, or rather two of his sons g, since he had four, Gen 46:9; if he did not bring Benjamin again to him: this was a strange proposal, for what were two sons of his to his own son, so exceedingly beloved by him? besides, to lose his own son, and to have two of his grandchildren slain, would have been an increase of his sorrow and grief, instead of being an alleviation of it; but Reuben's meaning was, not that his children should be slain, but this he says, to show that he would be as careful and solicitous for the return of Benjamin as if the life of two sons of his lay at stake, and was so confident of it that he could risk the life of them upon it, who were as dear to him as one Benjamin was to his father:

deliver him into my hand, and I will bring him to thee again; he undertook to be responsible for him.

Gill: Gen 42:38 - And he said, my son shall not go down with you // for his brother is dead // and he is left alone // if mischief befall him by the way in which ye go // then shall ye bring down my gray heirs with sorrow to the grave And he said, my son shall not go down with you,.... He gives a peremptory denial; this was his then present resolution and determination: for his b...

And he said, my son shall not go down with you,.... He gives a peremptory denial; this was his then present resolution and determination:

for his brother is dead; meaning Joseph, Benjamin's own brother by father and mother's side; him he supposed to be dead, such circumstances being related and produced, which made it highly probable, and he had not heard anything of him for twenty two years:

and he is left alone; Benjamin being the only surviving child of his dearly beloved Rachel, as he thought:

if mischief befall him by the way in which ye go; that is, to Egypt, whether by thieves and robbers, or by the fatigue of the journey, or by any means whatever, so that he loses his life. All the Targums interpret this mischief of death:

then shall ye bring down my gray heirs with sorrow to the grave; the sense is, should this be the case he should never lift up his head, or have any more comfort in this world, but should pass his time with continual sorrow until his gray head was laid in the grave, or till he came to the state of the dead.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Gen 42:1 Why are you looking at each other? The point of Jacob’s question is that his sons should be going to get grain rather than sitting around doing ...

NET Notes: Gen 42:2 The imperfect tense continues the nuance of the verb before it.

NET Notes: Gen 42:4 Heb “encounters.”

NET Notes: Gen 42:5 Heb “in the midst of the coming ones.”

NET Notes: Gen 42:6 The word “faces” is an adverbial accusative, so the preposition has been supplied in the translation.

NET Notes: Gen 42:7 The verb is denominative, meaning “to buy grain”; the word “food” could simply be the direct object, but may also be an adverb...

NET Notes: Gen 42:9 Heb “to see the nakedness of the land you have come.”

NET Notes: Gen 42:10 Heb “and they said to him.” In context this is best understood as an exclamation.

NET Notes: Gen 42:12 Heb “and he said, ‘No, for the nakedness of the land you have come to see.’” The order of the introductory clause and the dire...

NET Notes: Gen 42:13 Heb “and the one is not.”

NET Notes: Gen 42:14 Heb “to you, saying.”

NET Notes: Gen 42:15 As surely as Pharaoh lives. Joseph uses an oath formula to let the brothers know the certainty of what he said. There is some discussion in the commen...

NET Notes: Gen 42:16 Heb “the truth [is] with you.”

NET Notes: Gen 42:17 The same Hebrew word is used for Joseph’s imprisonment in 40:3, 4, 7. There is some mirroring going on in the narrative. The Hebrew word used he...

NET Notes: Gen 42:18 For I fear God. Joseph brings God into the picture to awaken his brothers’ consciences. The godly person cares about the welfare of people, whet...

NET Notes: Gen 42:19 Heb “[for] the hunger of your households.”

NET Notes: Gen 42:20 Heb “and they did so.”

NET Notes: Gen 42:21 The repetition of the Hebrew noun translated distress draws attention to the fact that they regard their present distress as appropriate punishment fo...

NET Notes: Gen 42:22 Heb “and also his blood, look, it is required.” God requires compensation, as it were, from those who shed innocent blood (see Gen 9:6). I...

NET Notes: Gen 42:23 Heb “for [there was] an interpreter between them.” On the meaning of the word here translated “interpreter” see HALOT 590 s.v....

NET Notes: Gen 42:24 Heb “and he bound him.” See the note on the preceding verb “taken.”

NET Notes: Gen 42:25 Heb “and he did for them so.” Joseph would appear to be the subject of the singular verb. If the text is retained, the statement seems to ...

NET Notes: Gen 42:26 Heb “and they went from there.”

NET Notes: Gen 42:27 Heb “and look, it [was] in the mouth of his sack.” By the use of the particle הִנֵּה (hinneh, “l...

NET Notes: Gen 42:28 Heb “What is this God has done to us?” The demonstrative pronoun (“this”) adds emphasis to the question.

NET Notes: Gen 42:30 The words “if we were” have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

NET Notes: Gen 42:32 Heb “today.”

NET Notes: Gen 42:33 The word “grain” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

NET Notes: Gen 42:34 Joseph’s brothers soften the news considerably, making it sound like Simeon was a guest of Joseph (Leave one of your brothers with me) instead o...

NET Notes: Gen 42:36 The nuance of the imperfect verbal form is desiderative here.

NET Notes: Gen 42:37 Heb “my hand.”

NET Notes: Gen 42:38 Heb “to Sheol,” the dwelling place of the dead.

Geneva Bible: Gen 42:1 Now when ( a ) Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt, Jacob said unto his sons, Why do ye ( b ) look one upon another? ( a ) This story shows plainl...

Geneva Bible: Gen 42:7 And Joseph saw his brethren, and he knew them, but ( c ) made himself strange unto them, and spake roughly unto them; and he said unto them, Whence co...

Geneva Bible: Gen 42:15 Hereby ye shall be proved: ( d ) By the life of Pharaoh ye shall not go forth hence, except your youngest brother come hither. ( d ) The Egyptians wh...

Geneva Bible: Gen 42:18 And Joseph said unto them the third day, This do, and live; [for] I ( e ) fear God: ( e ) And therefore am true and just.

Geneva Bible: Gen 42:21 And they said one to another, ( f ) We [are] verily guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the anguish of his soul, when he besought us, and we...

Geneva Bible: Gen 42:22 And Reuben answered them, saying, Spake I not unto you, saying, Do not sin against the child; and ye would not hear? therefore, behold, also his ( g )...

Geneva Bible: Gen 42:24 And he turned himself about from them, and ( h ) wept; and returned to them again, and communed with them, and took from them Simeon, and bound him be...

Geneva Bible: Gen 42:28 And he said unto his brethren, My money is restored; and, lo, [it is] even in my sack: and their heart failed [them], and they were ( i ) afraid, sayi...

Geneva Bible: Gen 42:36 And Jacob their father said unto them, Me have ye bereaved [of my children]: Joseph [is] not, and Simeon [is] not, and ye will take Benjamin [away]: a...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Gen 42:1-6 - --Jacob saw the corn his neighbours had bought in Egypt, and brought home. It is a spur to exertion to see others supplied. Shall others get food for th...

MHCC: Gen 42:7-20 - --Joseph was hard upon his brethren, not from a spirit of revenge, but to bring them to repentance. Not seeing his brother Benjamin, he suspected that t...

MHCC: Gen 42:21-24 - --The office of conscience is to bring to mind things long since said and done. When the guilt of this sin of Joseph's brethren was fresh, they made lig...

MHCC: Gen 42:25-28 - --The brethren came for corn, and corn they had: not only so, but every man had his money given back. Thus Christ, like Joseph, gives out supplies witho...

MHCC: Gen 42:29-38 - --Here is the report Jacob's sons made to their father. It troubled the good man. Even the bundles of money Joseph returned, in kindness, to his father,...

Matthew Henry: Gen 42:1-6 - -- Though Jacob's sons were all married, and had families of their own, yet, it should seem, they were still incorporated in one society, under the con...

Matthew Henry: Gen 42:7-20 - -- We may well wonder that Joseph, during the twenty years that he had now been in Egypt, especially during the last seven years that he had been in po...

Matthew Henry: Gen 42:21-28 - -- Here is, I. The penitent reflection Joseph's brethren made upon the wrong they had formerly done to him, Gen 42:21. They talked the matter over in t...

Matthew Henry: Gen 42:29-38 - -- Here is, 1. The report which Jacob's sons made to their father of the great distress they had been in in Egypt; how they had been suspected, and thr...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 42:1-6 - -- With the words " Why do ye look at one another! "viz., in such a helpless and undecided manner. Jacob exhorted his sons to fetch corn from Egypt, to...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 42:7-8 - -- Joseph recognised his brothers at once; but they could not recognise a brother who had not been seen for 20 years, and who, moreover, had not only b...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 42:9-17 - -- As the sight of his brethren bowing before him with the deepest reverence reminded Joseph of his early dreams of the sheaves and stars, which had so...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 42:18-25 - -- On the third day Joseph modified his severity. " This do and live, "i.e., then ye shall live: "I fear God." One shall remain in prison, but let the ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 42:26-27 - -- Thus they started with their asses laden with the corn. On the way, when they had reached their halting-place for the night, one of them opened his ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 42:28 - -- When this discovery was made known to the brethren, their hearts sank within them. They turned trembling to one another, and said, " What is this th...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 42:29-34 - -- On their arrival at home, they told their father all that had occurred.

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 42:35-36 - -- But when they emptied their sacks, and, to their own and their father's terror, found their bundles of money in their separate sacks, Jacob burst ou...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 42:37-38 - -- Reuben then offered his two sons to Jacob as pledges for Benjamin, if Jacob would entrust him to his care: Jacob might slay them, if he did not brin...

Constable: Gen 11:27--Exo 1:1 - --II. PATRIARCHAL NARRATIVES 11:27--50:26 One of the significant changes in the emphasis that occurs at this point...

Constable: Gen 37:2--Exo 1:1 - --E. What Became of Jacob 37:2-50:26 Here begins the tenth and last toledot in Genesis. Jacob remains a ma...

Constable: Gen 42:1-38 - --7. Joseph's brothers' first journey into Egypt ch. 42 Joseph awakened his brothers' guilty consciences when he put his brothers in prison as spies aft...

Guzik: Gen 42:1-38 - Joseph Meets His Brothers in Egypt Genesis 42 - Joseph Meets His Brothers in Egypt A. The sons of Jacob come to Egypt. 1. (1-4) Jacob sends his sons to Egypt to buy grain. When Jaco...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Bible Query: Gen 42:6-20 Q: In Gen 42:6-20, why did Joseph treat his estranged brothers this way? A: While the Bible neither approves nor criticizes this strategy, this prov...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) GENESIS, the book of the origin or production of all things, consists of two parts: the first, comprehended in the first through eleventh chapters, gi...

JFB: Genesis (Garis Besar) THE CREATION OF HEAVEN AND EARTH. (Gen 1:1-2) THE FIRST DAY. (Gen 1:3-5) SECOND DAY. (Gen 1:6-8) THIRD DAY. (Gen 1:9-13) FOURTH DAY. (Gen 1:14-19) FI...

TSK: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Genesis is the most ancient record in the world; including the History of two grand and stupendous subjects, Creation and Providence; of e...

TSK: Genesis 42 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Gen 42:1, Jacob sends his ten sons to buy corn in Egypt; Gen 42:16, They are imprisoned by Joseph for spies; Gen 42:18, They are set at l...

Poole: Genesis 42 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 42 Jacob hearing there was corn in Egypt, sends all his sons thither but Benjamin, Gen 42:1-5 . They bow before Joseph, who knew them, but ...

MHCC: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) Genesis is a name taken from the Greek, and signifies " the book of generation or production;" it is properly so called, as containing an account of ...

MHCC: Genesis 42 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Gen 42:1-6) Jacob sends ten sons to buy corn. (Gen 42:7-20) Joseph's treatment of his brethren. (Gen 42:21-24) Their remorse, Simeon detained. (Ge...

Matthew Henry: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The First Book of Moses, Called Genesis We have now before us the holy Bible, or book, for so bible ...

Matthew Henry: Genesis 42 (Pendahuluan Pasal) We had, in the foregoing chapter, the fulfilling of the dreams which Joseph had interpreted: in this and the following chapters we have the fulfill...

Constable: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title Each book of the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testam...

Constable: Genesis (Garis Besar) Outline The structure of Genesis is very clear. The phrase "the generations of" (toledot in Hebrew, from yalad m...

Constable: Genesis Bibliography Aalders, Gerhard Charles. Genesis. The Bible Student's Commentary series. 2 vols. Translated by William Hey...

Haydock: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF GENESIS. INTRODUCTION. The Hebrews now entitle all the Five Books of Moses, from the initial words, which originally were written li...

Gill: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO GENESIS This book, in the Hebrew copies of the Bible, and by the Jewish writers, is generally called Bereshith, which signifies "in...

Gill: Genesis 42 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO GENESIS 42 This chapter relates how that Jacob having heard there was corn in Egypt, sent all his sons but Benjamin thither to buy ...

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