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Teks -- Genesis 41:1-57 (NET)

Tampilkan Strong
Konteks
Joseph’s Rise to Power
41:1 At the end of two full years Pharaoh had a dream. As he was standing by the Nile, 41:2 seven fine-looking, fat cows were coming up out of the Nile, and they grazed in the reeds. 41:3 Then seven bad-looking, thin cows were coming up after them from the Nile, and they stood beside the other cows at the edge of the river. 41:4 The bad-looking, thin cows ate the seven fine-looking, fat cows. Then Pharaoh woke up. 41:5 Then he fell asleep again and had a second dream: There were seven heads of grain growing on one stalk, healthy and good. 41:6 Then seven heads of grain, thin and burned by the east wind, were sprouting up after them. 41:7 The thin heads swallowed up the seven healthy and full heads. Then Pharaoh woke up and realized it was a dream. 41:8 In the morning he was troubled, so he called for all the diviner-priests of Egypt and all its wise men. Pharaoh told them his dreams, but no one could interpret them for him. 41:9 Then the chief cupbearer said to Pharaoh, “Today I recall my failures. 41:10 Pharaoh was enraged with his servants, and he put me in prison in the house of the captain of the guards– me and the chief baker. 41:11 We each had a dream one night; each of us had a dream dream with its own meaning. 41:12 Now a young man, a Hebrew, a servant of the captain of the guards, was with us there. We told him our dreams, and he interpreted the meaning of each of our respective dreams for us. 41:13 It happened just as he had said to us– Pharaoh restored me to my office, but he impaled the baker.” 41:14 Then Pharaoh summoned Joseph. So they brought him quickly out of the dungeon; he shaved himself, changed his clothes, and came before Pharaoh. 41:15 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I had a dream, and there is no one who can interpret it. But I have heard about you, that you can interpret dreams.” 41:16 Joseph replied to Pharaoh, “It is not within my power, but God will speak concerning the welfare of Pharaoh.” 41:17 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “In my dream I was standing by the edge of the Nile. 41:18 Then seven fat and fine-looking cows were coming up out of the Nile, and they grazed in the reeds. 41:19 Then seven other cows came up after them; they were scrawny, very bad-looking, and lean. I had never seen such bad-looking cows as these in all the land of Egypt! 41:20 The lean, bad-looking cows ate up the seven fat cows. 41:21 When they had eaten them, no one would have known that they had done so, for they were just as bad-looking as before. Then I woke up. 41:22 I also saw in my dream seven heads of grain growing on one stalk, full and good. 41:23 Then seven heads of grain, withered and thin and burned with the east wind, were sprouting up after them. 41:24 The thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven good heads of grain. So I told all this to the diviner-priests, but no one could tell me its meaning.” 41:25 Then Joseph said to Pharaoh, “Both dreams of Pharaoh have the same meaning. God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to do. 41:26 The seven good cows represent seven years, and the seven good heads of grain represent seven years. Both dreams have the same meaning. 41:27 The seven lean, bad-looking cows that came up after them represent seven years, as do the seven empty heads of grain burned with the east wind. They represent seven years of famine. 41:28 This is just what I told Pharaoh: God has shown Pharaoh what he is about to do. 41:29 Seven years of great abundance are coming throughout the whole land of Egypt. 41:30 But seven years of famine will occur after them, and all the abundance will be forgotten in the land of Egypt. The famine will devastate the land. 41:31 The previous abundance of the land will not be remembered because of the famine that follows, for the famine will be very severe. 41:32 The dream was repeated to Pharaoh because the matter has been decreed by God, and God will make it happen soon. 41:33 “So now Pharaoh should look for a wise and discerning man and give him authority over all the land of Egypt. 41:34 Pharaoh should do this– he should appoint officials throughout the land to collect one-fifth of the produce of the land of Egypt during the seven years of abundance. 41:35 They should gather all the excess food during these good years that are coming. By Pharaoh’s authority they should store up grain so the cities will have food, and they should preserve it. 41:36 This food should be held in storage for the land in preparation for the seven years of famine that will occur throughout the land of Egypt. In this way the land will survive the famine.” 41:37 This advice made sense to Pharaoh and all his officials. 41:38 So Pharaoh asked his officials, “Can we find a man like Joseph, one in whom the Spirit of God is present?” 41:39 So Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Because God has enabled you to know all this, there is no one as wise and discerning as you are! 41:40 You will oversee my household, and all my people will submit to your commands. Only I, the king, will be greater than you. 41:41 “See here,” Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I place you in authority over all the land of Egypt.” 41:42 Then Pharaoh took his signet ring from his own hand and put it on Joseph’s. He clothed him with fine linen clothes and put a gold chain around his neck. 41:43 Pharaoh had him ride in the chariot used by his second-in-command, and they cried out before him, “Kneel down!” So he placed him over all the land of Egypt. 41:44 Pharaoh also said to Joseph, “I am Pharaoh, but without your permission no one will move his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt.” 41:45 Pharaoh gave Joseph the name Zaphenath-Paneah. He also gave him Asenath daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, to be his wife. So Joseph took charge of all the land of Egypt. 41:46 Now Joseph was 30 years old when he began serving Pharaoh king of Egypt. Joseph was commissioned by Pharaoh and was in charge of all the land of Egypt. 41:47 During the seven years of abundance the land produced large, bountiful harvests. 41:48 Joseph collected all the excess food in the land of Egypt during the seven years and stored it in the cities. In every city he put the food gathered from the fields around it. 41:49 Joseph stored up a vast amount of grain, like the sand of the sea, until he stopped measuring it because it was impossible to measure. 41:50 Two sons were born to Joseph before the famine came. Asenath daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, was their mother. 41:51 Joseph named the firstborn Manasseh, saying, “Certainly God has made me forget all my trouble and all my father’s house.” 41:52 He named the second child Ephraim, saying, “Certainly God has made me fruitful in the land of my suffering.” 41:53 The seven years of abundance in the land of Egypt came to an end. 41:54 Then the seven years of famine began, just as Joseph had predicted. There was famine in all the other lands, but throughout the land of Egypt there was food. 41:55 When all the land of Egypt experienced the famine, the people cried out to Pharaoh for food. Pharaoh said to all the people of Egypt, “Go to Joseph and do whatever he tells you.” 41:56 While the famine was over all the earth, Joseph opened the storehouses and sold grain to the Egyptians. The famine was severe throughout the land of Egypt. 41:57 People from every country came to Joseph in Egypt to buy grain because the famine was severe throughout the earth.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Asenath daughter of Potiphera, an Egyptian priest; wife of Joseph
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Egyptians descendants of Mizraim
 · Ephraim the tribe of Ephraim as a whole,the northern kingdom of Israel
 · Hebrew a person descended from Heber; an ancient Jew; a Hebrew speaking Jew,any Jew, but particularly one who spoke the Hebrew language
 · Joseph the husband of Mary and foster-father of Jesus,a Jewish man from Arimathea in whose grave the body of Jesus was laid,two different men listed as ancestors of Jesus,a man nominated with Matthias to take the place of Judas Iscariot as apostle,a son of Jacob and Rachel; the father of Ephraim and Manasseh and ruler of Egypt,a brother of Jesus; a son of Mary,a man who was a companion of Paul,son of Jacob and Rachel; patriarch of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh,a tribe, actually two tribes named after Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasseh,father of Igal, of Issachar, who helped spy out Canaan,son of Asaph the Levite; worship leader under Asaph and King David,a man who put away his heathen wife; an Israelite descended from Binnui,priest and head of the house of Shebaniah under High Priest Joiakim in the time of Nehemiah
 · Manasseh the tribe of Manasseh.
 · Nile a river that flows north through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea
 · On a town of Egypt near Cairo, having the temple of the sun god Ra,son of Peleth of Reuben in Moses' time
 · Pharaoh the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Abraham's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Joseph's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who refused to let Israel leave Egypt,the title of the king of Egypt whose daughter Solomon married,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in the time of Isaiah,the title Egypt's ruler just before Moses' time
 · Potiphera priest of On, in Egypt; father of Asenath, Joseph's wife
 · Zaphenath-paneah Joseph's Egyptian name given him by Pharaoh
 · Zaphenath-Paneah Joseph's Egyptian name given him by Pharaoh


Topik/Tema Kamus: Famine | Joseph | Egypt | PHARAOH | GENESIS, 1-2 | God | Servant | Promotion | Prisoners | Dream | Kine | Seven | COW; KINE | Government | Heathen | DREAM; DREAMER | Prudence | Economics | Rulers | Wisdom | selebihnya
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Wesley: Gen 41:8 - His spirit was troubled It cannot but put us into a concern to receive any extraordinary message from heaven. And his magicians were puzzled; the rules of their art failed th...

It cannot but put us into a concern to receive any extraordinary message from heaven. And his magicians were puzzled; the rules of their art failed them; these dreams of Pharaoh did not fall within the compass of them. This was to make Joseph's performance by the Spirit of God the more admirable.

Wesley: Gen 41:9 - I remember my faults this day in forgetting Joseph. Some think he means his faults against Pharaoh, for which he was imprisoned, and then he would insinuate, that through Pharaoh h...

in forgetting Joseph. Some think he means his faults against Pharaoh, for which he was imprisoned, and then he would insinuate, that through Pharaoh had forgiven him, he had not forgiven himself. God's time for the enlargement of his people will appear, at last, to be the fittest time. If the chief butler had at first used his interest for Joseph's enlargement, and had obtained, it is probable, he would have gone back to the land of the Hebrews, and then he had neither been so blessed himself, nor such a blessing to his family. But staying two years longer, and coming out upon this occasion to interpret the king's dreams, way was made for his preferment. The king can scarce allow him time, but that decency required it, to shave himself, and to change his raiment, Gen 41:14. It is done with all possible expedition, and Joseph is brought in perhaps almost as much surprised as Peter was, Act 12:9, so suddenly is his captivity brought back, that he is as one that dreams, Psa 126:1. Pharaoh immediately, without enquiring who or whence he was tells him his business, that he expected he should interpret his dream.

Wesley: Gen 41:16 - -- (1.) He gives honour to God; It is not in me; God must give it. Great gifts then appear most graceful and illustrious, when those that have them use t...

(1.) He gives honour to God; It is not in me; God must give it. Great gifts then appear most graceful and illustrious, when those that have them use them humbly, and take not the praise of them to themselves, but give it to God, (2.) He shews respect to Pharaoh, and hearty good - will to him, supposing that the interpretation would be an answer of peace. Those that consult God's oracles may expect an answer of peace.

Wesley: Gen 41:29 - -- See the goodness of God, in sending the seven years of plenty before those of famine, that provision might be made accordingly. How wonderful wisely h...

See the goodness of God, in sending the seven years of plenty before those of famine, that provision might be made accordingly. How wonderful wisely has Providence, that great house - keeper, ordered the affairs of this numerous family from the beginning! Great variety of seasons there have been and the produce of the earth sometimes more, and sometimes less; yet take one time with another, what was miraculous concerning the manna, is ordinarily verified in the common course of Providence; He that gathers much has nothing over, and he that gathers little has no lack, Exo 16:18.

Wesley: Gen 41:30 - -- See the perishing nature of our worldly enjoyments. The great increase of the years of plenty was quite lost and swallowed up in the years of famine; ...

See the perishing nature of our worldly enjoyments. The great increase of the years of plenty was quite lost and swallowed up in the years of famine; and the overplus of it, which seemed very much, yet did but just serve to keep men alive.

Wesley: Gen 41:44 - Without thee shall no man lift up his hand or foot All the affairs of the kingdom must pass through his hand.

All the affairs of the kingdom must pass through his hand.

Wesley: Gen 41:44 - Only in the throne will I be greater than thou It is probable there were those about court that opposed Joseph's preferment, which occasioned Pharaoh so oft to repeat the grant, and with that solem...

It is probable there were those about court that opposed Joseph's preferment, which occasioned Pharaoh so oft to repeat the grant, and with that solemn sanction, I am Pharaoh. He gave him his own ring as a ratification of his commission, and in token of peculiar favour; or it was like delivering him the great seal. He put fine clothes upon him instead of his prison garments, and adorned him with a chain of gold. He made him ride in the second chariot next his own, and ordered all to do obeisance to him, as to Pharaoh himself; he gave him a new name and such a name as spoke the value he had for him, Zaphnath - paaneah, a Revealer of secrets. He married him honourably to a prince's daughter. Where God had been liberal in giving wisdom and other merits, Pharaoh was not sparing in conferring honours. Now this preferment of Joseph, was, 1st, an abundant recompense for his innocent and patient suffering, a lasting instance of the equity and goodness of providence, and an encouragement to all to trust in a good God. 2dly, It was typical of the exaltation of Christ, that great revealer of secrets, (Joh 1:18,) or as some translate Joseph's new name, the Saviour of the world. The brightest glories of the upper world are upon him, the highest trusts lodged in his hand, and all power given him both in heaven and earth. He is gatherer, keeper, and disposer of all the stores of divine grace, and chief ruler of the kingdom of God among men. The work of ministers is to cry before him; Bow the knee; kiss the Son.

Wesley: Gen 41:50 - Two sons In the names he gave them, he owned the divine Providence giving this happy turn to his affairs. He was made to forget his misery, but could he be so ...

In the names he gave them, he owned the divine Providence giving this happy turn to his affairs. He was made to forget his misery, but could he be so unnatural as to forget all his father's house? And he was made fruitful in the land of his affliction. It had been the land of his affliction, and, in some sense, it was still so, for his distance from his father was still his affliction. Ephraim signifies fruitfulness, and Manasseh forgetfulness.

Wesley: Gen 41:54 - The seven years of dearth began to come Not only in Egypt, but in other lands, in all lands, that is, all the neighbouring countries.

Not only in Egypt, but in other lands, in all lands, that is, all the neighbouring countries.

JFB: Gen 41:1 - at the end of two full years It is not certain whether these years are reckoned from the beginning of Joseph's imprisonment, or from the events described in the preceding chapter-...

It is not certain whether these years are reckoned from the beginning of Joseph's imprisonment, or from the events described in the preceding chapter--most likely the latter. What a long time for Joseph to experience the sickness of hope deferred! But the time of his enlargement came when he had sufficiently learned the lessons of God designed for him; and the plans of Providence were matured.

JFB: Gen 41:1 - Pharaoh dreamed "Pharaoh," from an Egyptian word Phre, signifying the "sun," was the official title of the kings of that country. The prince, who occupied the throne ...

"Pharaoh," from an Egyptian word Phre, signifying the "sun," was the official title of the kings of that country. The prince, who occupied the throne of Egypt, was Aphophis, one of the Memphite kings, whose capital was On or Heliopolis, and who is universally acknowledged to have been a patriot king. Between the arrival of Abraham and the appearance of Joseph in that country, somewhat more than two centuries had elapsed. Kings sleep and dream, as well as their subjects. And this Pharaoh had two dreams in one night so singular and so similar, so distinct and so apparently significant, so coherent and vividly impressed on his memory, that his spirit was troubled.

JFB: Gen 41:8 - he called for all the magicians of Egypt It is not possible to define the exact distinction between "magicians" and "wise men"; but they formed different branches of a numerous body, who laid...

It is not possible to define the exact distinction between "magicians" and "wise men"; but they formed different branches of a numerous body, who laid claim to supernatural skill in occult arts and sciences, in revealing mysteries, explaining portents, and, above all, interpreting dreams. Long practice had rendered them expert in devising a plausible way of getting out of every difficulty and framing an answer suitable to the occasion. But the dreams of Pharaoh baffled their united skill. Unlike their Assyrian brethren (Dan 2:4), they did not pretend to know the meaning of the symbols contained in them, and the providence of God had determined that they should all be nonplussed in the exercise of their boasted powers, in order that the inspired wisdom of Joseph might appear the more remarkable.

JFB: Gen 41:9-13 - then spake the chief butler unto Pharaoh, saying, I do remember my faults This public acknowledgment of the merits of the young Hebrew would, tardy though it was, have reflected credit on the butler had it not been obviously...

This public acknowledgment of the merits of the young Hebrew would, tardy though it was, have reflected credit on the butler had it not been obviously made to ingratiate himself with his royal master. It is right to confess our faults against God, and against our fellow men when that confession is made in the spirit of godly sorrow and penitence. But this man was not much impressed with a sense of the fault he had committed against Joseph; he never thought of God, to whose goodness he was indebted for the prophetic announcement of his release, and in acknowledging his former fault against the king, he was practising the courtly art of pleasing his master.

JFB: Gen 41:14 - Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph Now that God's set time had come (Psa 105:19), no human power nor policy could detain Joseph in prison. During his protracted confinement, he might ha...

Now that God's set time had come (Psa 105:19), no human power nor policy could detain Joseph in prison. During his protracted confinement, he might have often been distressed with perplexing doubts; but the mystery of Providence was about to be cleared up, and all his sorrows forgotten in the course of honor and public usefulness in which his services were to be employed.

JFB: Gen 41:14 - shaved himself The Egyptians were the only Oriental nation that liked a smooth chin. All slaves and foreigners who were reduced to that condition, were obliged, on t...

The Egyptians were the only Oriental nation that liked a smooth chin. All slaves and foreigners who were reduced to that condition, were obliged, on their arrival in that country, to conform to the cleanly habits of the natives, by shaving their beards and heads, the latter of which were covered with a close cap. Thus prepared, Joseph was conducted to the palace, where the king seemed to have been anxiously waiting his arrival.

JFB: Gen 41:15-16 - Pharaoh said, . . . I have dreamed a dream The king's brief statement of the service required brought out the genuine piety of Joseph; disclaiming all merit, he ascribed whatever gifts or sagac...

The king's brief statement of the service required brought out the genuine piety of Joseph; disclaiming all merit, he ascribed whatever gifts or sagacity he possessed to the divine source of all wisdom, and he declared his own inability to penetrate futurity; but, at the same time, he expressed his confident persuasion that God would reveal what was necessary to be known.

JFB: Gen 41:17 - Pharaoh said, In my dream, behold, I stood upon the bank of the river The dreams were purely Egyptian, founded on the productions of that country and the experience of a native. The fertility of Egypt being wholly depend...

The dreams were purely Egyptian, founded on the productions of that country and the experience of a native. The fertility of Egypt being wholly dependent on the Nile, the scene is laid on the banks of that river; and oxen being in the ancient hieroglyphics symbolical of the earth and of food, animals of that species were introduced in the first dream.

JFB: Gen 41:18 - there came up out of the river seven kine Cows now, of the buffalo kind, are seen daily plunging into the Nile; when their huge form is gradually emerging, they seem as if rising "out of the r...

Cows now, of the buffalo kind, are seen daily plunging into the Nile; when their huge form is gradually emerging, they seem as if rising "out of the river."

JFB: Gen 41:18 - and they fed in a meadow Nile grass, the aquatic plants that grow on the marshy banks of that river, particularly the lotus kind, on which cattle were usually fattened.

Nile grass, the aquatic plants that grow on the marshy banks of that river, particularly the lotus kind, on which cattle were usually fattened.

JFB: Gen 41:19 - behold, seven other kine . . . poor and ill-favoured The cow being the emblem of fruitfulness, the different years of plenty and of famine were aptly represented by the different condition of those kine-...

The cow being the emblem of fruitfulness, the different years of plenty and of famine were aptly represented by the different condition of those kine--the plenty, by the cattle feeding on the richest fodder; and the dearth, by the lean and famishing kine, which the pangs of hunger drove to act contrary to their nature.

JFB: Gen 41:22 - I saw in my dream, and, behold, seven ears That is, of Egyptian wheat, which, when "full and good," is remarkable in size (a single seed sprouting into seven, ten, or fourteen stalks) and each ...

That is, of Egyptian wheat, which, when "full and good," is remarkable in size (a single seed sprouting into seven, ten, or fourteen stalks) and each stalk bearing an ear.

JFB: Gen 41:23 - blasted with the east wind Destructive everywhere to grain, but particularly so in Egypt; where, sweeping over the sandy deserts of Arabia, it comes in the character of a hot, b...

Destructive everywhere to grain, but particularly so in Egypt; where, sweeping over the sandy deserts of Arabia, it comes in the character of a hot, blighting wind, that quickly withers all vegetation (compare Eze 19:12; Hos 13:15).

JFB: Gen 41:24 - the thin ears devoured the seven good ears Devoured is a different word from that used in Gen 41:4 and conveys the idea of destroying, by absorbing to themselves all the nutritious virtue of th...

Devoured is a different word from that used in Gen 41:4 and conveys the idea of destroying, by absorbing to themselves all the nutritious virtue of the soil around them.

JFB: Gen 41:25 - Joseph said, . . . The dream . . . is one They both pointed to the same event--a remarkable dispensation of seven years of unexampled abundance, to be followed by a similar period of unparalle...

They both pointed to the same event--a remarkable dispensation of seven years of unexampled abundance, to be followed by a similar period of unparalleled dearth. The repetition of the dream in two different forms was designed to show the absolute certainty and speedy arrival of this public crisis; the interpretation was accompanied by several suggestions of practical wisdom for meeting so great an emergency as was impending.

JFB: Gen 41:33 - Now therefore let Pharaoh look out a man The explanation given, when the key to the dreams was supplied, appears to have been satisfactory to the king and his courtiers; and we may suppose th...

The explanation given, when the key to the dreams was supplied, appears to have been satisfactory to the king and his courtiers; and we may suppose that much and anxious conversation arose, in the course of which Joseph might have been asked whether he had anything further to say. No doubt the providence of God provided the opportunity of his suggesting what was necessary.

JFB: Gen 41:34 - and let him appoint officers over the land Overseers, equivalent to the beys of modern Egypt.

Overseers, equivalent to the beys of modern Egypt.

JFB: Gen 41:34 - take up the fifth part of the land That is, of the land's produce, to be purchased and stored by the government, instead of being sold to foreign corn merchants.

That is, of the land's produce, to be purchased and stored by the government, instead of being sold to foreign corn merchants.

JFB: Gen 41:38 - Pharaoh said unto his servants The kings of ancient Egypt were assisted in the management of state affairs by the advice of the most distinguished members of the priestly order; and...

The kings of ancient Egypt were assisted in the management of state affairs by the advice of the most distinguished members of the priestly order; and, accordingly, before admitting Joseph to the new and extraordinary office that was to be created, those ministers were consulted as to the expediency and propriety of the appointment.

JFB: Gen 41:38 - a man in whom the Spirit of God is An acknowledgment of the being and power of the true God, though faint and feeble, continued to linger amongst the higher classes long after idolatry ...

An acknowledgment of the being and power of the true God, though faint and feeble, continued to linger amongst the higher classes long after idolatry had come to prevail.

JFB: Gen 41:40 - Thou shalt be over my house This sudden change in the condition of a man who had just been taken out of prison could take place nowhere, except in Egypt. In ancient as well as mo...

This sudden change in the condition of a man who had just been taken out of prison could take place nowhere, except in Egypt. In ancient as well as modern times, slaves have often risen to be its rulers. But the special providence of God had determined to make Joseph governor of Egypt; and the way was paved for it by the deep and universal conviction produced in the minds both of the king and his councillors, that a divine spirit animated his mind and had given him such extraordinary knowledge.

JFB: Gen 41:40 - according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled Literally, "kiss." This refers to the edict granting official power to Joseph, to be issued in the form of a firman, as in all Oriental countries; and...

Literally, "kiss." This refers to the edict granting official power to Joseph, to be issued in the form of a firman, as in all Oriental countries; and all who should receive that order would kiss it, according to the usual Eastern mode of acknowledging obedience and respect for the sovereign [WILKINSON].

JFB: Gen 41:41 - Pharaoh said, . . . See, I have set thee over all the land These words were preliminary to investiture with the insignia of office, which were these: the signet-ring, used for signing public documents, and its...

These words were preliminary to investiture with the insignia of office, which were these: the signet-ring, used for signing public documents, and its impression was more valid than the sign-manual of the king; the khelaat or dress of honor, a coat of finely wrought linen, or rather cotton, worn only by the highest personages; the gold necklace, a badge of rank, the plain or ornamental form of it indicating the degree of rank and dignity; the privilege of riding in a state carriage, the second chariot; and lastly--

JFB: Gen 41:43 - they cried before him, Bow the knee Abrech, an Egyptian term, not referring to prostration, but signifying, according to some, "father" (compare Gen 45:8); according to others, "native p...

Abrech, an Egyptian term, not referring to prostration, but signifying, according to some, "father" (compare Gen 45:8); according to others, "native prince"--that is, proclaimed him naturalized, in order to remove all popular dislike to him as a foreigner.

JFB: Gen 41:44 - -- These ceremonies of investiture were closed in usual form by the king in council solemnly ratifying the appointment.

These ceremonies of investiture were closed in usual form by the king in council solemnly ratifying the appointment.

JFB: Gen 41:44 - I am Pharaoh, and without thee, &c. A proverbial mode of expression for great power.

A proverbial mode of expression for great power.

JFB: Gen 41:45 - Zaphnath-paaneah Variously interpreted, "revealer of secrets"; "saviour of the land"; and from the hieroglyphics, "a wise man fleeing from pollution"--that is, adulter...

Variously interpreted, "revealer of secrets"; "saviour of the land"; and from the hieroglyphics, "a wise man fleeing from pollution"--that is, adultery.

JFB: Gen 41:45 - gave him to wife Asenath, the daughter of His naturalization was completed by this alliance with a family of high distinction. On being founded by an Arab colony, Poti-pherah, like Jethro, pri...

His naturalization was completed by this alliance with a family of high distinction. On being founded by an Arab colony, Poti-pherah, like Jethro, priest of Midian, might be a worshipper of the true God; and thus Joseph, a pious man, will be freed from the charge of marrying an idolatress for worldly ends.

JFB: Gen 41:45 - On Called Aven (Eze 30:17) and also Beth-shemesh (Jer 43:13). In looking at this profusion of honors heaped suddenly upon Joseph, it cannot be doubted th...

Called Aven (Eze 30:17) and also Beth-shemesh (Jer 43:13). In looking at this profusion of honors heaped suddenly upon Joseph, it cannot be doubted that he would humbly yet thankfully acknowledge the hand of a special Providence in conducting him through all his checkered course to almost royal power; and we, who know more than Joseph did, cannot only see that his advancement was subservient to the most important purposes relative to the Church of God, but learn the great lesson that a Providence directs the minutest events of human life.

JFB: Gen 41:46 - Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh Seventeen when brought into Egypt, probably three in prison, and thirteen in the service of Potiphar.

Seventeen when brought into Egypt, probably three in prison, and thirteen in the service of Potiphar.

JFB: Gen 41:46 - went out . . . all the land Made an immediate survey to determine the site and size of the storehouses required for the different quarters of the country.

Made an immediate survey to determine the site and size of the storehouses required for the different quarters of the country.

JFB: Gen 41:47 - the earth brought forth by handfuls A singular expression, alluding not only to the luxuriance of the crop, but the practice of the reapers grasping the ears, which alone were cut.

A singular expression, alluding not only to the luxuriance of the crop, but the practice of the reapers grasping the ears, which alone were cut.

JFB: Gen 41:48 - he gathered up all the food of the seven years It gives a striking idea of the exuberant fertility of this land, that, from the superabundance of the seven plenteous years, corn enough was laid up ...

It gives a striking idea of the exuberant fertility of this land, that, from the superabundance of the seven plenteous years, corn enough was laid up for the subsistence, not only of its home population, but of the neighboring countries, during the seven years of dearth.

JFB: Gen 41:50-52 - unto Joseph were born two sons These domestic events, which increased his temporal happiness, develop the piety of his character in the names conferred upon his children.

These domestic events, which increased his temporal happiness, develop the piety of his character in the names conferred upon his children.

JFB: Gen 41:53-56 - The seven years of plenteousness . . . ended Over and above the proportion purchased for the government during the years of plenty, the people could still have husbanded much for future use. But ...

Over and above the proportion purchased for the government during the years of plenty, the people could still have husbanded much for future use. But improvident as men commonly are in the time of prosperity, they found themselves in want, and would have starved by thousands had not Joseph anticipated and provided for the protracted calamity.

JFB: Gen 41:57 - The famine was sore in all lands That is, the lands contiguous to Egypt--Canaan, Syria, and Arabia.

That is, the lands contiguous to Egypt--Canaan, Syria, and Arabia.

Clarke: Gen 41:1 - Two full years Two full years - שנתים ימים shenathayim yamim , two years of days, two complete solar revolutions, after the events mentioned in the prece...

Two full years - שנתים ימים shenathayim yamim , two years of days, two complete solar revolutions, after the events mentioned in the preceding chapter

Clarke: Gen 41:1 - The river The river - The Nile, the cause of the fertility of Egypt.

The river - The Nile, the cause of the fertility of Egypt.

Clarke: Gen 41:2 - There came up out of the river seven well-favored kine There came up out of the river seven well-favored kine - This must certainly refer to the hippopotamus or river horse, as the circumstances of comin...

There came up out of the river seven well-favored kine - This must certainly refer to the hippopotamus or river horse, as the circumstances of coming up out of the river and feeding in the field characterize that animal alone. The hippopotamus is the well-known inhabitant of the Nile, and frequently by night comes out of the river to feed in the fields, or in the sedge by the river side.

Clarke: Gen 41:6 - Blasted with the east wind Blasted with the east wind - It has been very properly observed that all the mischief done to corn or fruit, by blasting, smutting, mildews, locusts...

Blasted with the east wind - It has been very properly observed that all the mischief done to corn or fruit, by blasting, smutting, mildews, locusts, etc., is attributed to the east wind. See Exo 10:13; Exo 14:21; Psa 78:26; Eze 17:10; Jon 4:8. In Egypt it is peculiarly destructive, because it comes through the parched deserts of Arabia, often destroying vast numbers of men and women. The destructive nature of the simoom or smoom is mentioned by almost all travelers. Mr. Bruce speaks of it in his Travels in Egypt. On their way to Syene, Idris their guide, seeing one of these destroying blasts coming, cried out with a loud voice to the company, "Fall upon your faces, for here is the simoom! I saw,"says Mr. B., "from the S. E. a haze come, in color like the purple part of the rainbow, but not so compressed or thick. It did not occupy twenty yards in breadth, and was about twelve feet high from the ground. It was a kind of blush upon the air, and it moved very rapidly, for I scarce could turn to fall upon the ground, with my head northward, when I felt the heat of its current plainly upon my face. We all lay flat upon the ground, as if dead, till Idris told us it was blown over. The meteor or purple haze which I saw was indeed passed, but the light air that still blew was of a heat to threaten suffocation. for my part, I found distinctly in my breast that I had imbibed a part of it; nor was I free from an asthmatic sensation till I had been some months in Italy, at the bathe of Poretta, near two years afterwards."- Travels, vol. vi., p. 462. On another occasion the whole company were made ill by one of these pestilential blasts, so that they had scarcely strength to load their camels - ibid., p. 484. The action of this destructive wind is referred to by the Prophet Hos 13:15 : Though he be fruitful among his brethren, an East Wind shall come, the wind of the Lord shall come up From The Wilderness, and his spring shall Become Dry, and his fountain shall be Dried up: he shall spoil the treasure of all pleasant vessels.

Clarke: Gen 41:8 - Called for all the magicians Called for all the magicians - חרטמים chartummim . The word here used may probably mean no more than interpreters of abstruse and difficult ...

Called for all the magicians - חרטמים chartummim . The word here used may probably mean no more than interpreters of abstruse and difficult subjects; and especially of the Egyptian hieroglyphics, an art which is now entirely lost. It is most likely that the term is Egyptian, and consequently its etymology must remain unknown to us. If Hebrew, Mr. Parkhurst’ s definition may be as good as any: " חרט cheret , a pen or instrument to write or draw with, and תם tam , to perfect or accomplish; those who were perfect in drawing their sacred, astrological, and hieroglyphical figures or characters, and who, by means of them, pretended to extraordinary feats, among which was the interpretation of dreams. They seem to have been such persons as Josephus (Ant., lib. ii., c. 9, s. 2) calls Ἱερογραμματεις sacred scribes, or professors of sacred learning.

Clarke: Gen 41:8 - Wise men Wise men - חכמיה chacameyha , the persons who, according to Porphyry, "addicted themselves to the worship of God and the study of wisdom, pass...

Wise men - חכמיה chacameyha , the persons who, according to Porphyry, "addicted themselves to the worship of God and the study of wisdom, passing their whole life in the contemplation of Divine things. Contemplation of the stars, self-purification, arithmetic, and geometry, and singing hymns in honor of their gods, was their continual employment."- See Dodd. It was probably among these that Pythagoras conversed, and from whom he borrowed that modest name by which he wished his countrymen to distinguish him, viz., φιλοσοφος, a philosopher, simply, a lover of wisdom.

Clarke: Gen 41:9 - I do remember my faults I do remember my faults - It is not possible he could have forgotten the circumstance to which he here alludes; it was too intimately connected with...

I do remember my faults - It is not possible he could have forgotten the circumstance to which he here alludes; it was too intimately connected with all that was dear to him, to permit him ever to forget it. But it was not convenient for him to remember this before; and probably he would not have remembered it now, had he not seen, that giving this information in such a case was likely to serve his own interest. We are justified in thinking evil of this man because of his scandalous neglect of a person who foretold the rescue of his life from imminent destruction, and who, being unjustly confined, prayed to have his case fairly represented to the king that justice might be done him; but this courtier, though then in the same circumstances himself, found it convenient to forget the poor, friendless Hebrew slave!

Clarke: Gen 41:14 - They brought him hastily out of the dungeon They brought him hastily out of the dungeon - Pharaoh was in perplexity on account of his dreams; and when he heard of Joseph, he sent immediately t...

They brought him hastily out of the dungeon - Pharaoh was in perplexity on account of his dreams; and when he heard of Joseph, he sent immediately to get him brought before him. He shaved himself - having let his beard grow all the time he was in prison, he now trimmed it, for it is not likely that either the Egyptians or Hebrews shaved themselves in our sense of the word: the change of raiment was, no doubt, furnished out of the king’ s wardrobe; as Joseph, in his present circumstances, could not be supposed to have any changes of raiment.

Clarke: Gen 41:16 - It is not in me, etc. It is not in me, etc. - בלעדי biladai , without or independently of me - I am not essential to thy comfort, God himself has thee under his car...

It is not in me, etc. - בלעדי biladai , without or independently of me - I am not essential to thy comfort, God himself has thee under his care. And he will send thee, or answer thee, peace; thou shalt have prosperity ( שלום shelom ) howsoever ominous thy dreams may appear. By this answer he not only conciliated the mind of the king, but led him to expect his help from that God from whom alone all comfort, protection, and prosperity, must proceed.

Clarke: Gen 41:18 - Seven kine, fat-fleshed Seven kine, fat-fleshed - See Clarke on Gen 41:2 (note). And observe farther, that the seven fat and the seven lean kine coming out of the same rive...

Seven kine, fat-fleshed - See Clarke on Gen 41:2 (note). And observe farther, that the seven fat and the seven lean kine coming out of the same river plainly show, at once, the cause both of the plenty and the dearth. It is well known that there is scarcely any rain in Egypt; and that the country depends for its fertility on the overflowing of the Nile; and that the fertility is in proportion to the duration and quantity of the overflow. We may therefore safely conclude that the seven years of plenty were owing to an extraordinary overflowing of the Nile; and that the seven years of dearth were occasioned by a very partial, or total want of this essentially necessary inundation. Thus then the two sorts of cattle, signifying years of plenty and want, might be said to come out of the same river, as the inundation was either complete, partial, or wholly restrained. See Clarke on Gen 41:31 (note).

Clarke: Gen 41:21 - And when they had eaten them up, etc. And when they had eaten them up, etc. - Nothing can more powerfully mark the excess and severity of the famine than creatures of the beeve or of the...

And when they had eaten them up, etc. - Nothing can more powerfully mark the excess and severity of the famine than creatures of the beeve or of the hippopotamus kind eating each other, and yet without any effect; remaining as lean and as wretched as they were before. A sense of want increases the appetite, and stimulates the digestive powers to unusual action; hence the concoction of the food becomes very rapid, and it is hurried through the intestines before its nutritive particles can be sufficiently absorbed; and thus, though much is eaten, very little nourishment is derived from it. And when they had eaten them up, it could not be known that they had eaten them; but they were still ill favored, as at the beginning. A most nervous and physically correct description.

Clarke: Gen 41:25 - God hath showed Pharaoh what he is about to do God hath showed Pharaoh what he is about to do - Joseph thus shows the Egyptian king that though the ordinary cause of plenty or want is the river N...

God hath showed Pharaoh what he is about to do - Joseph thus shows the Egyptian king that though the ordinary cause of plenty or want is the river Nile, yet its inundations are under the direction of God: the dreams are sent by him, not only to signify beforehand the plenty and want, but to show also that all these circumstances, however fortuitous they may appear to man, are under the direction of an overruling Providence.

Clarke: Gen 41:31 - The plenty shall not be known in the land by reason of that famine following The plenty shall not be known in the land by reason of that famine following - As Egypt depends for its fertility on the flowing of the Nile, and th...

The plenty shall not be known in the land by reason of that famine following - As Egypt depends for its fertility on the flowing of the Nile, and this flowing is not always equal, there must be a point to which it must rise to saturate the land sufficiently, in order to produce grain sufficient for the support of its inhabitants. Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. v., cap. 9, has given us a scale by which the plenty and dearth may be ascertained; and, from what I have been able to collect from modern travelers, this scale may be yet considered as perfectly correct

Justum incrementum est cubitorum 16. Minores aquae non omnia rigant, ampliores detinent, tardius recedendo. Hae serendi tempora absumunt, solo madente, Illae non dant, sitiente. Utrumque reputat provincia. In 12. cubitis famen sentit. In 13. etiamnum esurit; 14. cubita hilaritatem afferunt; 15. securitatem; 16. delicias.

"The ordinary height of the inundations is sixteen cubits. When the waters are lower than this standard they do not overflow the whole ground; when above this standard, they are too long in running off. In the first case the ground is not saturated: by the second, the waters are detained so long on the ground that seed-time is lost. The province marks both. If it rise only twelve cubits, a famine is the consequence. Even at thirteen cubits hunger prevails; fourteen cubits produces general rejoicing; fifteen, perfect security; and sixteen, all the luxuries of life.

When the Nile rises to eighteen cubits it prevents the sowing of the land in due season, and as necessarily produces a famine as when it does not overflow its banks.

Clarke: Gen 41:33 - A man discreet and wise A man discreet and wise - As it is impossible that Joseph could have foreseen his own elevation, consequently he gave this advice without any refere...

A man discreet and wise - As it is impossible that Joseph could have foreseen his own elevation, consequently he gave this advice without any reference to himself. The counsel therefore was either immediately inspired by God, or was dictated by policy, prudence, and sound sense.

Clarke: Gen 41:34 - Let him appoint officers Let him appoint officers - פקדים pekidim , visitors, overseers: translated by Ainsworth, bishops; see Gen 39:1

Let him appoint officers - פקדים pekidim , visitors, overseers: translated by Ainsworth, bishops; see Gen 39:1

Clarke: Gen 41:34 - Take up the fifth part of the land Take up the fifth part of the land - What is still called the meery, or that part of the produce which is claimed by the king by way of tax. It is p...

Take up the fifth part of the land - What is still called the meery, or that part of the produce which is claimed by the king by way of tax. It is probable that in Joseph’ s time it was not so much as a fifth part, most likely a tenth: but as this was an extraordinary occasion, and the earth brought forth by handfuls, Gen 41:47, the king would be justified in requiring a fifth; and from the great abundance, the people could pay this increased tax without feeling it to be oppressive.

Clarke: Gen 41:35 - Under the hand of Pharaoh Under the hand of Pharaoh - To be completely at the disposal of the king.

Under the hand of Pharaoh - To be completely at the disposal of the king.

Clarke: Gen 41:37 - The thing was good The thing was good - Pharaoh and his courtiers saw that the counsel was prudent, and should be carefully followed.

The thing was good - Pharaoh and his courtiers saw that the counsel was prudent, and should be carefully followed.

Clarke: Gen 41:38 - In whom the Spirit of God is? In whom the Spirit of God is? - רוח אלהים ruach Elohim , the identical words used Gen 1:2; and certainly to be understood here as in the pr...

In whom the Spirit of God is? - רוח אלהים ruach Elohim , the identical words used Gen 1:2; and certainly to be understood here as in the preceding place. If the Egyptians were idolaters, they acknowledged Joseph’ s God; and it is not to be supposed that they only became acquainted with him on this occasion. The knowledge of the true God was in Egypt long before; but it is very likely that though they acknowledged his influence with respect to Joseph, as they saw most clearly that he acted under an influence far beyond that of their magicians, for he interpreted dreams which they could not; yet they might, notwithstanding, have their gods many and their lords many at this time, for we know that in religious matters they were exceedingly corrupt afterwards.

Clarke: Gen 41:40 - According unto thy word shall all my people be ruled According unto thy word shall all my people be ruled - Literally, At thy mouth shall all my people kiss. In the eastern countries it is customary to...

According unto thy word shall all my people be ruled - Literally, At thy mouth shall all my people kiss. In the eastern countries it is customary to kiss any thing that comes from a superior, and this is done by way of testifying respect and submission. In this sense the words in the text are to be understood: All the people shall pay the profoundest respect and obedience to all thy orders and commands

Clarke: Gen 41:40 - Only in the throne will I be greater than thou Only in the throne will I be greater than thou - This, in one word, is a perfect description of a prime minister. Thou shalt have the sole managemen...

Only in the throne will I be greater than thou - This, in one word, is a perfect description of a prime minister. Thou shalt have the sole management, under me, of all state affairs.

Clarke: Gen 41:42 - And Pharaoh took off his ring - and put it upon Joseph’ s hand And Pharaoh took off his ring - and put it upon Joseph’ s hand - In this ring was probably set the king’ s signet, by which the royal inst...

And Pharaoh took off his ring - and put it upon Joseph’ s hand - In this ring was probably set the king’ s signet, by which the royal instruments were sealed; and thus Joseph was constituted what we would call Lord Chancellor, or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal

Clarke: Gen 41:42 - Vestures of fine linen Vestures of fine linen - שש shesh . Whether this means linen or cotton is not known. It seems to have been a term by which both were denominated...

Vestures of fine linen - שש shesh . Whether this means linen or cotton is not known. It seems to have been a term by which both were denominated; or it may be some other substance or cloth with which we are unacquainted. If the fine linen of Egypt was such as that which invests the bodies of the mummies, and these in general were persons of the first distinction, and consequently were enveloped in cloth of the finest quality, it was only fine comparatively speaking, Egypt being the only place at that time where such cloth was manufactured. I have often examined the cloth about the bodies of the most splendidly ornamented mummies, and found it sackcloth when compared with the fine Irish linens. As this shesh appears to have been a part of the royal clothing, it was probably both scarce and costly. "By comparing,"says Parkhurst, "Exo 25:4, Exo 26:1, with 2Ch 2:14, and Exo 26:31, with 2Ch 3:14, it appears that בוץ buts , cotton, is called שש shesh ; and by comparing Exo 28:42, with Exo 39:28, that בד bad , linen, is also called שש shesh ; so that shesh seems a name expressive of either of these, from their cheerful vivid whiteness.

Clarke: Gen 41:42 - Put a gold chain about his neck Put a gold chain about his neck - This was not merely a badge of office. The chain might be intended to point out the union which should subsist bet...

Put a gold chain about his neck - This was not merely a badge of office. The chain might be intended to point out the union which should subsist between all parts of the government - the king, his ministers, and the people; as also that necessary dependence which they had reciprocally on each other, as well as the connection which must be preserved between the different members of the body politic, and the laws and institutions by which they were to be governed. Its being of gold might be intended to show the excellence, utility, and permanence of a government constituted on wise, just, and equal laws. We are justified in drawing such inferences as these, because in ancient times, in all nations, every thing was made an emblem or representation of some spiritual or moral subject it is strange that, probably without adverting to the reasons, the chain of gold worn about the neck is in different nations an emblem of civil authority.

Clarke: Gen 41:43 - He made him to ride in the second chariot He made him to ride in the second chariot - That which usually followed the king’ s chariot in public ceremonies

He made him to ride in the second chariot - That which usually followed the king’ s chariot in public ceremonies

Clarke: Gen 41:43 - Bow the knee Bow the knee - אברך abrech , which we translate bow the knee, and which we might as well translate any thing else, is probably an Egyptian word...

Bow the knee - אברך abrech , which we translate bow the knee, and which we might as well translate any thing else, is probably an Egyptian word, the signification of which is utterly unknown. If we could suppose it to be a Hebrew word, it might be considered as compounded of אב ab , father, and רך rach , tender; for Joseph might be denominated a father, because of his care over the people, and the provision he was making for their preservation; and tender because of his youth. Or it may be compounded of אב ab , father, and ברך barech , blessing, the latter ב beth being easily lost in the preceding one; and Joseph might have this epithet as well as the other, on account of the care he was taking to turn aside the heavy curse of the seven years of famine, by accumulating the blessings of the seven years of plenty. Besides, father seems to have been a name of office, and probably father of the king or father of Pharaoh might signify the same as the king’ s minister among us; see on Gen 45:8 (note). But if it be an Egyptian word, it is vain to look for its signification in Hebrew.

Clarke: Gen 41:44 - I am Pharaoh I am Pharaoh - The same as if he had said, I am the king; for Pharaoh was the common title of the sovereigns of Egypt.

I am Pharaoh - The same as if he had said, I am the king; for Pharaoh was the common title of the sovereigns of Egypt.

Clarke: Gen 41:45 - Zaphnath-paaneah Zaphnath-paaneah - The meaning of this title is as little known as that of abrech in the preceding verse. Some translate it, The revealer of secret...

Zaphnath-paaneah - The meaning of this title is as little known as that of abrech in the preceding verse. Some translate it, The revealer of secrets; others, The treasury of glorious comfort. St. Jerome translates the whole verse in the most arbitrary manner. Vertitque nomen ejus, et vocavit eum, lingua Aegyptiaca, Salvatorem mundi . "And he changed his name, and called him in the Egyptian language, The savior of the world."None of the Asiatic versions acknowledge this extraordinary gloss, and it is certainly worthy of no regard. The Anglo-Saxon nearly copies the Vulgate: And named him in Egyptian, The healer of the world. All the etymologies hitherto given of this word are, to say the least of them, doubtful. I believe it also to be an Egyptian epithet, designating the office to which he was now raised; and similar to our compound terms, Prime-Minister, Lord Chancellor, High-Treasurer, Chief Justice, etc

Clarke: Gen 41:45 - Asenath the daughter of Poti-pherah Asenath the daughter of Poti-pherah - There is no likelihood that the Poti-pherah mentioned here is the same as the Potiphar who had purchased Josep...

Asenath the daughter of Poti-pherah - There is no likelihood that the Poti-pherah mentioned here is the same as the Potiphar who had purchased Joseph, and, on the false accusations of his wife, cast him into prison. 1. The Scripture gives no intimation that they were one and the same person. 2. Poti-pherah had children, and Potiphar was an eunuch; See Clarke on Gen 37:36 (note); for though eunuchs often kept women, there is no proof that they had any issue by them

Clarke: Gen 41:45 - Priest of On Priest of On - For the signification of the word כהן cohen or priest, See Clarke on Gen 14:18 (note). On is rendered Heliopolis (the city of t...

Priest of On - For the signification of the word כהן cohen or priest, See Clarke on Gen 14:18 (note). On is rendered Heliopolis (the city of the sun) by the Septuagint and Anglo-Saxon; and it is very likely that this Poti-pherah was intendant of that nome or province, under Pharaoh

Clarke: Gen 41:45 - Joseph went out over all the land Joseph went out over all the land - No doubt for the building of granaries, and appointing proper officers to receive the corn in every place, as Dr...

Joseph went out over all the land - No doubt for the building of granaries, and appointing proper officers to receive the corn in every place, as Dr. Dodd has very properly conjectured.

Clarke: Gen 41:46 - Joseph was thirty years old Joseph was thirty years old - As he was seventeen years old when he was sold into Egypt, Gen 37:2, and was now thirty, he must have been thirteen ye...

Joseph was thirty years old - As he was seventeen years old when he was sold into Egypt, Gen 37:2, and was now thirty, he must have been thirteen years in slavery

Clarke: Gen 41:46 - Stood before Pharaoh Stood before Pharaoh - This phrase always means admission to the immediate presence of the sovereign, and having the honor of his most unlimited con...

Stood before Pharaoh - This phrase always means admission to the immediate presence of the sovereign, and having the honor of his most unlimited confidence. Among the Asiatic princes, the privilege of coming even to their seat, of standing before them, etc., was granted only to the highest favorites.

Clarke: Gen 41:47 - The earth brought forth by handfuls The earth brought forth by handfuls - This probably refers principally to rice, as it grows in tufts, a great number of stalks proceeding from the s...

The earth brought forth by handfuls - This probably refers principally to rice, as it grows in tufts, a great number of stalks proceeding from the same seed. In those years the Nile probably rose sixteen cubits; See Clarke on Gen 41:31 (note).

Clarke: Gen 41:50 - Two sons Two sons - Whom he called by names expressive of God’ s particular and bountiful providence towards him. Manasseh, מנשה menashsheh , signi...

Two sons - Whom he called by names expressive of God’ s particular and bountiful providence towards him. Manasseh, מנשה menashsheh , signifies forgetfulness, from נשה nashah , to forget; and Ephraim, אפרים ephrayim , fruitfulness, from פרה parah , to be fruitful; and he called his sons by these names, because God had enabled him to forget all his toil, disgrace, and affliction, and had made him fruitful in the very land in which he had suffered the greatest misfortune and indignities.

Clarke: Gen 41:54 - The seven years of dearth began to come The seven years of dearth began to come - Owing in Egypt to the Nile not rising more than twelve or thirteen cubits; (See Clarke on Gen 41:31 (note)...

The seven years of dearth began to come - Owing in Egypt to the Nile not rising more than twelve or thirteen cubits; (See Clarke on Gen 41:31 (note)); but there must have been other causes which affected other countries, not immediately dependent on the Nile, though remotely connected with Egypt and Canaan

Clarke: Gen 41:54 - The dearth was in all lands The dearth was in all lands - All the countries dependent on the Nile. And it appears that a general drought had taken place, at least through all E...

The dearth was in all lands - All the countries dependent on the Nile. And it appears that a general drought had taken place, at least through all Egypt and Canaan; for it is said, Gen 41:57, that the famine was sore in all lands - Egypt and Canaan, and their respective dependencies.

Clarke: Gen 41:55 - When all the land of Egypt was famished When all the land of Egypt was famished - As Pharaoh, by the advice of Joseph, had exacted a fifth part of all the grain during the seven years of p...

When all the land of Egypt was famished - As Pharaoh, by the advice of Joseph, had exacted a fifth part of all the grain during the seven years of plenty, it is very likely that no more was left than what was merely necessary to supply the ordinary demand both in the way of home consumption, and for the purpose of barter or sale to neighboring countries.

Clarke: Gen 41:56 - Over all the face of the earth Over all the face of the earth - The original, כל פני הארץ col peney haarets , should be translated, all the face of that land, viz., Egyp...

Over all the face of the earth - The original, כל פני הארץ col peney haarets , should be translated, all the face of that land, viz., Egypt, as it is explained at the end of the verse.

Clarke: Gen 41:57 - All countries came into Egypt - to buy All countries came into Egypt - to buy - As there had not been a sufficiency of rains, vapours, etc., to swell the Nile, to effect a proper inundati...

All countries came into Egypt - to buy - As there had not been a sufficiency of rains, vapours, etc., to swell the Nile, to effect a proper inundation in Egypt, the same cause would produce drought, and consequently scarcity, in all the neighboring countries; and this may be all that is intended in the text

1.    As the providence of God evidently led the butler and baker of Pharaoh, as well as the king himself, to dream the prophetic dreams mentioned in this and the preceding chapter, so his Spirit in Joseph led to the true interpretation of them. What a proof do all these things give us of a providence that is so general as to extend its influence to every part, and so particular as to notice, influence, and direct the most minute circumstances! Surely God "has way every where, and all things serve his will.

2.    Dreams have been on one hand superstitiously regarded, and on the other skeptically disregarded. That some are prophetic there can be no doubt; that others are idle none can hesitate to believe. Dreams may be divided into the six following kinds

    1. Those which are the mere nightly result of the mind’ s reflections and perplexities during the business of the day

    2. Those which spring from a diseased state of the body, occasioning startings, terrors, etc

    3. Those which spring from an impure state of the heart, mental repetitions of those acts or images of illicit pleasure, riot, and excess, which form the business of a profligate life

    4. Those which proceed from a diseased mind, occupied with schemes of pride, ambition, grandeur, etc. These, as forming the characteristic conduct of the life, are repeatedly reacted in the deep watches of the night, and strongly agitate the soul with illusive enjoyments and disappointments

    5. Those which come immediately from Satan, which instill thoughts and principles opposed to truth and righteousness, leaving strong impressions on the mind suited to its natural bent and turn, which, in the course of the day, by favoring circumstances, may be called into action

    6. Those which come from God, and which necessarily lead to him, whether prophetic of future good or evil, or impressing holy purposes and heavenly resolutions. Whatever leads away from God, truth, and righteousness, must be from the source of evil; whatever leads to obedience to God, and to acts of benevolence to man, must be from the source of goodness and truth. Reader, there is often as much superstition in disregarding as in attending to dreams; and he who fears God will escape it in both.

Calvin: Gen 41:1 - At the end of two full years 1.At the end of two full years 154 What anxiety oppressed the mind of the holy man during this time, each of us may conjecture from his own feeling; ...

1.At the end of two full years 154 What anxiety oppressed the mind of the holy man during this time, each of us may conjecture from his own feeling; for we are so tender and effeminate, that we can scarcely bear to be put off for a short time. The Lord exercised his servant not only by a delay of long continuance, but also by another kind of temptation, because he took all human grounds of hope away from him: therefore Moses puts “years of days” for complete and full years. That we may better understand the invincible nature of his fortitude, we must also notice that winding course of divine providence, of which I have spoken, and by which Joseph was led about, till he rose into notice with the king. In the king’s dream, this is worthy to be observed in the first place, that God sometimes deigns to present his oracles even to unbelieving and profane men. It was certainly a singular honor to be instructed concerning an event yet fourteen years future: for truly the will of God was manifested to Pharaoh, just as if he had been taught by the word, except that the interpretation of it was to be sought elsewhere. And although God designs his word especially for the Church, yet it ought not to be deemed absurd that he sometimes admits even aliens into his school, though for an inferior end. The doctrine which leads to the hope of eternal life belongs to the Church; while the children of this world are only taught, incidentally, concerning the state of the present life. If we observe this distinction, we shall not wonder that some oracles are common to profane and heathen men, though the Church possesses the spiritual doctrine of life, as the treasure of its own inheritance. That another dream succeeded to the former, arose from two causes; for God both designed to rouse the mind of Pharaoh to more diligent inquiry, and to add more light to a vision which was obscure. In short, he follows the same course in this dream which he does in his daily method of procedure; for he repeats a second time what he has before delivered, and sometimes inculcates still more frequently, not only that the doctrine may penetrate more deeply into men’s hearts, and thus affect them the more; but also that he may render it more familiar to their minds. That by the second dream God designed to illustrate more fully what was obscure in the first, appears from this, that the figure used was more appropriate to the subject revealed. At first, Pharaoh saw fat cows devoured by lean ones. This did not so clearly prefigure the seven years’ abundance, and as many years of want in corn and other seeds, as the vision of the ears of corn did: for the similitude, in the latter case, better agrees with the thing represented.

Calvin: Gen 41:8 - In the morning his spirit was troubled // There was none that could interpret 8.In the morning his spirit was troubled. A sting was left in Pharaoh’s heart, that he might know that he had to deal with God; for this anxiety wa...

8.In the morning his spirit was troubled. A sting was left in Pharaoh’s heart, that he might know that he had to deal with God; for this anxiety was as an inward seal of the Spirit of God, to give authenticity to the dream; although Pharaoh deserved to be deprived of the advantage of this revelation, when he resorted to magicians and soothsayers, who were wont to turn the truth of God into a lie. 155 He was convinced by a secret impulse that the dream sent by God portended something important; but he seeks out imposters, who would darken, by their fallacies, the light which was divinely kindled; and it is the folly of the human mind to gather to itself leaders and teachers of error. No doubt he believed them to be true prophets; but because he voluntarily closes his eyes, and hastens into the snare, his false opinion forms no sufficient excuse for him; otherwise men, by merely shutting their eyes, might have some plausible pretext for mocking God with impunity: and we see that many seek protection for themselves in that gross ignorance in which they knowingly and purposely involve themselves. Pharaoh, therefore, as far as he was able, deprived himself of the benefit of the prophecy, by seeking for magicians as the interpreters of it. So we see it daily happens that many lose hold of the truth, because they either bring a cloud over themselves by their own indolence, or too eagerly catch at false and spurious inventions. But because the Lord would, at that time, succor the kingdom of Egypt, he drew Pharaoh back, as by main force, from his error.

There was none that could interpret. By this remedy God provided that the dream should not fail. We know what an inflated and impudent race of men these soothsayers were, and how extravagantly they boasted. How did it then happen that they gave the king no answer, seeing they might have trifled in any way whatever with a credulous man, who willingly suffered himself to be deluded? Therefore, that he might desist from inquiry, he is not allowed to find what he had expected in his magicians: and the Lord so strikes dumb the wicked workers of deceit, that they cannot even find a specious explanation of the dreams. Moreover, by this method, the anxiety of the king is sharpened; because he considers that what has escaped the sagacity of the magicians must be something very serious and secret. By which example we are taught, that the Lord provides the best for us, when he removes the incitements of error from those of us who with to be deceived; and we must regard it as a singular favor, when either false prophets are silenced, or their fatuity is, in any manner, discovered to us. As for the rest, the king might hence easily gather how frivolous and nugatory was the profession of wisdom, in which the Egyptians gloried above all others; for they boasted that they were possessed of the science of divination which ascended above the very heavens. But now, as far as they are concerned, the king is without counsel, and, being disappointed of his hope, is filled with anguish; nevertheless he does not so awake as to shake off his superstition. Thus we see that men, though admonished, remain still in their torpor. Whence we plainly perceive how inexcusable is the obstinacy of the world, which does not desist from following those delusions which are openly condemned as foolishness, from heaven.

Calvin: Gen 41:9 - Then spake the chief butler 9.Then spake the chief butler. Although the Lord took pity on Egypt, yet he did it not for the sake of the king, or of the country, but that Joseph m...

9.Then spake the chief butler. Although the Lord took pity on Egypt, yet he did it not for the sake of the king, or of the country, but that Joseph might, at length, be brought out of prison; and further, that, in the time of famine, food might be supplied to the Church: for although the produce was stored with no design beyond that of providing for the kingdom of Egypt; yet God chiefly cared for his Church, which he esteemed more highly than ten worlds. Therefore the butler, who had resolved to be silent respecting Joseph, is constrained to speak for the liberation of the holy man. In saying, I do remember my faults this day, he is understood by some as confessing the fault of ingratitude, because he had not kept the promise he had given. But the meaning is different; for he could not speak concerning his imprisonment, without interposing a preface of this kind, through fear, lest suspicion should enter into the mind of the king, that his servant thought himself injured; or, should take offense, as if the butler had not been sensible of the benefit conferred upon him. We know how sensitive are the minds of kings; and the courtier had found this out by long experience: therefore he begins by acknowledging that he had been justly cast into prison. Whence it follows that he was indebted to the clemency of the king for restoration to his former state.

Calvin: Gen 41:14 - Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph 14.Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph. We see in the person of a proud king, as in a glass, what necessity can effect. They whose circumstances are ...

14.Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph. We see in the person of a proud king, as in a glass, what necessity can effect. They whose circumstances are happy and prosperous will scarcely condescend to hear those whom they esteem true prophets, still less will they listen to strangers. Wherefore it was necessary that the obstinacy of Pharaoh should be first subdued, in order that he might send for Joseph, and accept him as his master and instructor. The same kind of preparation is also necessary even for the elect; because they never become docile until the pride of the flesh is laid low. Whenever, therefore, we are cast into grievous troubles, which keep us in perplexity and anxiety, let us know that God, in this manner, is accomplishing his design of rendering us obedient to himself. When Moses relates that Joseph, before he came into the presence of the king, changed his garments, we may hence conjecture that his clothing was mean. To the same point, what is added respecting his “shaving himself,” ought, in my opinion, to be referred: for since Egypt was a nations of effeminate delicacy, it is probable that they, being studious of neatness and elegance, rather nourished their hair than otherwise. 156 But as Joseph put off his squalid raiment, so, that he might have no remaining cause of shame, he is shaved. Let us know, then, that the servant of God lay in filth even to the day of his deliverance.

Calvin: Gen 41:15 - And Pharaoh said unto Joseph 15.And Pharaoh said unto Joseph. We see that Pharaoh offers himself as a disciple to Joseph, being persuaded, by the statement of the butler, that he...

15.And Pharaoh said unto Joseph. We see that Pharaoh offers himself as a disciple to Joseph, being persuaded, by the statement of the butler, that he is a prophet of God. This is, indeed, a constrained humility; but it is expressly recorded, in order that, when the opportunity of learning 157 is afforded us, we may not refuse reverently to honor the gifts of the Spirit. Now, though Joseph, in referring Pharaoh to God, seems to deny that he himself is about to interpret the dream, yet his answer bears on a different point: for, because he knew that he was conversing with a heathen addicted to superstitions, he wishes, above all things, to ascribe to God the glory due to him; as if he had said, I am able to do nothing in this matter, nor will I offer anything as from myself; but God alone shall be the interpreter of his own secret. 158 Should any one object, that whenever God uses the agency of men, their office ought to be referred to in connection with his command: that indeed I acknowledge, but yet so that the whole glory may remain with God; according to the saying of St. Paul,

“Neither is he that planteth anything, neither he that watereth.”
(1Co 3:7.)

Moreover, Joseph not only desires to imbue the mind of Pharaoh with some relish for piety, but, by ascribing the gift of interpreting dreams to God alone, confesses that he is destitute of it, until he obtains it from God. Wherefore, let us also learn, from the example of holy Joseph, to honor the grace of God even among unbelievers; and if they shut the door against the entire and full doctrine of piety; we must, at least, endeavor to instill some drops of it into their minds. Let us also reflect on this, that nothing is less tolerable than for men to arrogate to themselves anything as their own; for this is the first step of wisdom, to ascribe nothing to ourselves; but modestly to confess, that whatever in us is worthy of praise, flows only from the fountain of God’s grace. It is especially worthy of notice, that as the Spirit of understanding is given to any one from heaven, he will become a proper and faithful interpreter of God.

Calvin: Gen 41:16 - God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace 16.God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace. Joseph added this from the kindly feeling of his heart; for he did not yet comprehend what the nature o...

16.God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace. Joseph added this from the kindly feeling of his heart; for he did not yet comprehend what the nature of the oracle would be. Therefore he could not, in his character as a prophet, promise a successful and desirable issue; but, as it was his duty sincerely to deliver what he received from the Lord, however sad and severe it might prove; so, on the other hand, this liberty presented no obstacle to his wishing a joyful issue to the king. Therefore, what is here said to the king concerning peace, is a prayer rather than a prophecy.

Calvin: Gen 41:17 - In my dream 17.In my dream. This whole narration does not need to be explained, for Pharaoh only repeats what we have before considered, with the addition, that ...

17.In my dream. This whole narration does not need to be explained, for Pharaoh only repeats what we have before considered, with the addition, that the lean cows, having devoured the fat ones, were rendered nothing better. Whereby God designed to testify, that the dearth would be so great, that the people, instead of being nourished by the abundance of food gathered together, would be famished, and drag on a miserable existence. Joseph, in answering that the two dreams were one, simply means, that one and the same thing was showed unto Pharaoh by two figures. But before he introduces his interpretation, he maintains that this is not a merely vanishing dream, but a divine oracle: for unless the vision had proceeded from God, it would have been foolish to inquire anxiously what it portended. Pharaoh, therefore, does not here labor in vain in inquiring into the counsel of God. The form of speaking, however, requires to be noticed; because Joseph does not barely say that God will declare beforehand what may happen from some other quarter, but what he himself is about to do. We hence infer, that God does not indolently contemplate the fortuitous issue of things, as most philosophers vainly talk; but that he determines, at his own will, what shall happen. Wherefore, in predicting events, he does not give a response from the tables of fate, as the poets feign concerning their Apollo, whom they regard as a prophet of events which are not in his own power, but declares that whatever shall happen will be his own work. So Isaiah, that he may ascribe to God alone the glory due to him, attributes to him, both the revealing of things future, and the government of ail his events, by his own authority. (Isa 45:7.) For he cries aloud that God is neither deceived, nor deceives, like the idols; and he declares that God alone is the author of good and evil; understanding by evil, adversity. Wherefore, unless we would cast God down from his throne, we must leave to him his power of action, as well as his foreknowledge. And this passage is the more worthy of observation; because, in all ages, many foolish persons have endeavored to rob God of half his glory, and now (as I have said) the same figment pleases many philosophers; because they think it absurd to ascribe to God whatever is done in the world: as if truly the Scripture had in vain declared, that his “judgments are a great deep.” (Psa 36:7.) But while they would subject the works of God to the judgment of their own brain, having rejected his word, they prefer giving credit to Plato respecting celestial mysteries. “That God,” they say, “has foreknowledge of all things, does not involve the necessity of their occurrence:” as if, indeed, we asserted, that bare prescience was the cause of things, instead of maintaining the connection established by Moses, that God foreknows things that are future, because he had determined to do them; but they ignorantly and perversely separate the providence of God from his eternal counsel, and his continual operation. Above all things, it is right to be fully persuaded that, whenever the earth is barren, whether frost, or drought, or hail, or any other thing, may be the cause of it, the whole result is directed by the counsel of God.

Calvin: Gen 41:32 - And for that the dream was doubled 32.And for that the dream was doubled. Joseph does not mean to say, that what God may have declared but once, is mutable: but he would prevent Pharao...

32.And for that the dream was doubled. Joseph does not mean to say, that what God may have declared but once, is mutable: but he would prevent Pharaoh’s confidence respecting the event revealed, from being shaken. For since God pronounces nothing but from his own fixed and steadfast purpose, it is enough that he should have spoken once. But our dullness and inconstancy cause him to repeat the same thing the more frequently, in order that what he has certainly decreed, may be fixed in our hearts; otherwise, as our disposition is variable, so, what we have once heard from his mouth, is tossed up and down by us, until it entirely escapes our memory. Moreover, Joseph not only commemorates the stability of the heavenly decree, but also declares that what God has determined to do, is near at hand, lest Pharaoh himself should slumber in the confident expectation of longer delay. For though we confess that the judgments of God are always hanging over our heads, yet unless we are stimulated by the thought of their speedy approach, we are but slightly affected with anxiety and fear respecting them.

Calvin: Gen 41:33 - Now therefore let Pharaoh look out a man 33.Now therefore let Pharaoh look out a man. Joseph does more than he had been asked to do; for he is not merely the interpreter of the dream; but, a...

33.Now therefore let Pharaoh look out a man. Joseph does more than he had been asked to do; for he is not merely the interpreter of the dream; but, as fulfilling the office of a prophet, he adds instruction and counsel. For we know that the true and lawful prophets of God do not barely predict what will happen in future; but propose remedies for impending evils. Therefore Joseph, after he had uttered a prophecy of the changes which would take place in fourteen years, now teaches what ought to be done; and exhorts Pharaoh to be vigilant in the discharge of this duty. And one of the marks by which God always distinguished his own prophets from false prognosticators, was to endue them with the power of teaching and exhorting, that they might not uselessly predict future events. Let us grant that the predictions of Apollo, and of all the magicians were true, and were not entangled with ambiguous expressions; yet whither did they tend, but either to drive men headlong in perverse confidence, or to plunge them into despair? A very different method of prophesying was divinely prescribed, which would form men to piety, would lead them to repentance, and would excite them to prayer when oppressed with fear. Moreover, because the prophecy of which mention is here made, was published only for the temporal advantage of this fleeting life, Joseph proceeds no further than to show the king for what purpose the dream had been sent to him; as if he had said, “Be not sorry on account of this revelation; accept this advantage from it, that thou mayest succor the poverty of thy kingdom.” However, there is no doubt that God guided his tongue, in order that Pharaoh might entrust him with this office. For he does not craftily insinuate himself into the king’s favor; nor abuse the gift of revelation to his private gain: but, what had been divinely ordained was brought to its proper issue without his knowledge; namely, that the famishing house of Jacob should find unexpected sustenance.

Calvin: Gen 41:35 - Under the hand of Pharaoh 35.Under the hand of Pharaoh. Whereas prosperity so intoxicates men, that the greater part make no provision for themselves against the future, but a...

35.Under the hand of Pharaoh. Whereas prosperity so intoxicates men, that the greater part make no provision for themselves against the future, but absorb the present abundance by intemperance; Joseph advises the king to take care that the country may have its produce laid up in store. Besides, the common people would also form themselves to habits of frugality, when they understood that this great quantity of corn was not collected in vain by the king, but that a remedy was hereby sought for some unwonted calamity. In short, because luxury generally prevails in prosperity, and wastes the blessings of God, the bridle of authority was necessary. This is the reason why Joseph directed that garners should be established under the power of the king, and that corn should be gathered into them. He concludes at length, that the dream was useful, although at first sight, it would seem sad and inauspicious: because, immediately after the wound had been shown, the means of cure were suggested.

Calvin: Gen 41:38 - Can we find such a one as this? 38.Can we find such a one as this? We see that necessity is an excellent teacher. If prefects or judges are to be created, some one is advanced to th...

38.Can we find such a one as this? We see that necessity is an excellent teacher. If prefects or judges are to be created, some one is advanced to the honor because he is a favorite, without consideration of his desert; whence it happens that they who are most unworthy frequently creep into office. And although we see political order disturbed and mankind involved in many inconveniences, because they who are least suitable, rashly push themselves, by wicked contrivances, into affairs for which they are not able to manage; nevertheless, ambition triumphs, and subverts equity. But necessity extorts a sober judgment. Pharaoh says nothing but what is naturally engraven on the hearts of all men, that honors ought to be conferred on none but competent persons, and such as God has furnished with the necessary qualifications. Experience, however, abundantly teaches, that this law of nature slips from the memory, whenever men are free to offend against it with impunity. Therefore the pride of Pharaoh was wisely so subdued, that he, setting aside ambition, preferred a foreigner just brought out of prison, to all his courtiers, because he excelled them in virtue. The same necessity restrained the nobles of the kingdom, so that they did not each contend, according to their custom, to obtain the priority of rank for themselves. And although it was but a compulsory modesty, inasmuch as they were ashamed to resist the public good; yet there is no doubt, that God inspired them with fear, so that, by the common consent of all, Joseph was made president of the whole kingdom. It is also to be observed that Pharaoh, though he had been infatuated by his soothsayers, nevertheless honors the gifts of the spirit in Joseph: because God, indeed, never suffers man to become so brutalized, as not to feel his power, even in their darkness. And therefore whatever impious defection may hurry them away, there still abides with them a remaining sense of Deity. Meanwhile, that knowledge is of little worth, which does not correct a man’s former madness; for he despises the God whom with his mouth he proclaims: and has no conception of any other than I know not what confused divinity. This kind of knowledge often enlightens profane men, yet not so as to cause them to repent. Whereby we are admonished to regard any particular principle as of small value, till solid piety springs from it and flourishes.

Calvin: Gen 41:40 - Thou shalt be over my house 40.Thou shalt be over my house. Not only is Joseph made governor of Egypt, but is adorned also with the insignia of royalty, that all may reverence h...

40.Thou shalt be over my house. Not only is Joseph made governor of Egypt, but is adorned also with the insignia of royalty, that all may reverence him, and may obey his command. The royal signet is put upon his finger for the confirmation of decrees. He is clothed in robes of fine linen, which were then a luxury, and were not to be had at any common price. He is placed in the most honorable chariot. 159 It may, however, be asked, whether it was lawful for the holy man to appear with so great pomp? I answer, although such splendor can scarcely ever be free from blame, and therefore frugality in external ornaments is best; yet all kind of splendor in kings and other princes of the world is not to be condemned, provided they neither too earnestly desire it, nor make an ostentatious display of it. Moderation is, indeed, always to be cultivated; but since it was not in Joseph’s power to prescribe the mode of investiture, and the royal authority would not have been granted to him without the accustomed pomp of state, he was at liberty to accept more than seemed in itself desirable. If the option be given to the servants of God, nothing is safer for them, than to cut off whatever they can of outward splendor. And where it is necessary for them to accommodate themselves to public custom, they must beware of all ostentation and vanity. With respect to the explanation of the words; whereas we render them, “At thy mouth all the people shall kiss, ” 160 others prefer to read, “shall be armed; ” others, “shall be fed at thy will or commandment;” but as the proper signification of the verb נשק ( nashak) is to kiss, I do not see why interpreters should twist it to another sense. Yet I do not think that here any special token of reverence is intended; but the phrase rather seems to be metaphorical, to the effect that the people should cordially receive and obediently embrace whatever might proceed from the mouth of Joseph: as if Pharaoh had said, “Whatever he may command, it is my will that the people shall receive with one consent, as if all should kiss him.” The second chariot, is read by the Hebrews in construction, for the chariot of the viceroy, who holds the second place from the king. The sense, however, is clear, that Joseph has the precedence of all the nobles of Egypt.

There are various opinions about the meaning of the word אברך ( abraik). They who explain it by “tender father,” because Joseph, being yet in tender years, was endowed with the prudence and gravity of old age, seem to me to bring something from afar to correspond with their own fancy. They who render it “the father of the king,” as if the word were compounded of the Hebrew noun אב ( ab,) and the Arabic רך ( rak,) have little more color for their interpretation. If, indeed, the word be Hebrew, the meaning preferred by others, “Bow the knee,” seems to me more probable. But because I rather suppose that Egyptian terms are referred to by Moses, both in this place and shortly afterwards, I advise the readers not to distort them in vain. And truly those interpreters are ridiculously subtle, who suppose that a Hebrew name was given him by an Egyptian king, which they render either the “Redeemer of the world,” or the “Expounder of mysteries.” 161 I prefer following the Greek interpreters, who, by leaving both words untouched, sufficiently prove that they thought them to be of a foreign language. That the father-in-law of Joseph was, as is commonly believed, a priest, is what I cannot refute, though I can scarcely be induced to believe it. Therefore, since כוהן ( cohen) signifies a prince as well as a priest, it seems to me probable that he was one of the nobles of the court, who might also be the satrap or prefect of the city of On. 162

Calvin: Gen 41:46 - And Joseph was thirty years old 46.And Joseph was thirty years old. For two reasons Moses records the age at which Joseph was advanced to the government of the kingdom. First, becau...

46.And Joseph was thirty years old. For two reasons Moses records the age at which Joseph was advanced to the government of the kingdom. First, because it is seldom that old men give themselves up to be governed by the young: whence it may be inferred that it was by the singular providence of God that Joseph governed without being envied, and that reverence and majesty were given him beyond his years. For if there was danger lest Timothy’s youth should render him contemptible, Joseph would have been equally exposed to contempt, unless authority had been divinely procured for him. And although he could not have obtained this authority by his own industry, yet it is probable that the extraordinary virtues with which God had endowed him, availed not a little to increase and confirm it. A second reason for noting his age is, that the reader may reflect on the long duration of the sufferings with which he had been, in various ways, afflicted. And however humane his treatment might have been; still, thirteen years of exile, which had prevented his return to his father’s house, not merely by the bond of servitude, but also by imprisonment, would prove a most grievous trial. Therefore, it was only after he had been proved by long endurance, that he was advanced to a better state. Moses then subjoins, that he discharged his duties with diligence and with most punctual fidelity; for the circuit taken by him, which is here mentioned, was a proof of no common industry. He might, indeed, have appointed messengers, on whose shoulders he could have laid the greater part of the labor and trouble; but because he knew himself to be divinely called to the work, as one who had to render an account to the divine tribunal, he refused no part of the burden. And Moses, in a few words, praises his incredible prudence, in having quickly found out the best method of preserving the corn. For it was an arduous task to erect storehouses in every city, which should contain the entire produce of one year, and a fifth part more. 163 This arrangement was also not less a proof of sagacity, in providing that the inhabitants of any given region should not have to seek food at a distance. Immediately afterwards his integrity is mentioned, which was equally deserving of praise; because in the immense accumulation which was made, he abstained from all self-indulgence, just as if some humble office only, had been assigned to him. But it is to the praise of both these virtues that, after he has collected immense heaps, he remits nothing of his wonted diligence, until he has accomplished all the duties of the office which he had undertaken. The ancient proverb says, “Satiety produces disgust,” and in the same manner abundance is commonly the mother of idleness. Whence, therefore, is it, that the diligence of Joseph holds on its even course, and does not become remiss at the sight of present abundance, except because he prudently considers, that, however great the plenty might be, seven years of famine would swallow it all up? He manifested also his fidelity, and his extraordinary care for the public safety, in this, that he did not become weary by the assiduous labor of seven years, nor did he ever rest till he had made provision for the seven years which still remained.

Calvin: Gen 41:50 - And unto Joseph were born two sons 50.And unto Joseph were born two sons. Although the names which Joseph gave his sons in consequence of the issue of his affairs, breathe somewhat of ...

50.And unto Joseph were born two sons. Although the names which Joseph gave his sons in consequence of the issue of his affairs, breathe somewhat of piety, because in them he celebrates the kindness of God: yet the oblivion of his father’s house, which, he says, had been brought upon him, can scarcely be altogether excused. It was a pious and holy motive to gratitude, that God had caused him to “forget” all his former miseries; but no honor ought to have been so highly valued, as to displace from his mind the desire and the remembrance of his father’s house. Granted that he is Viceroy of Egypt, yet his condition is unhappy, as long as he is an exile from the Church. Some, in order to exculpate the holy man, explain the passage as meaning that he so rejoiced in the present favor of God, as to make him afterwards forgetful of the injuries inflicted upon him by his brethren; but this (in my judgment) is far too forced. And truly, we must not anxiously labor to excuse the sin of Joseph; but rather, I think, we are admonished how greatly we ought to be on our guard against the attractions of the world, lest our minds should be unduly gratified by them. Behold Joseph, although he purely worships God, is yet so captivated by the sweetness of honor, and has his mind so clouded, that he becomes indifferent to his father’s house, and pleases himself in Egypt. But this was almost to wander from the fold of God. It was, indeed, a becoming modesty, that from a desire of proclaiming the Divine goodness towards him, he was not ashamed to perpetuate a memorial of his depressed condition in the names of his sons. They who are raised on high, from an obscure and ignoble position, desire to extinguish the knowledge of their origin, because they deem it disgraceful to themselves. Joseph, however, regarded the commendation of Divine grace more highly than an ostentatious future nobility.

Calvin: Gen 41:53 - And the seven years... were ended 53.And the seven years... were ended. Already the former unwonted fertility, which showed Joseph to have been a true prophet, had procured for him a ...

53.And the seven years... were ended. Already the former unwonted fertility, which showed Joseph to have been a true prophet, had procured for him a name and reputation; and in this way the Egyptians had been restrained from raising any tumult against him. Nevertheless, it is wonderful that a people so proud should have borne, in the time of prosperity, the rule of a foreigner. But the famine which followed proved a more sharp and severe curb for the subjugation of their lofty and ferocious spirits, in order that they might be brought into subjection to authority. When, however, Moses says that there was corn in all the land of Egypt, while the neighboring regions were suffering from hunger, he seems to intimate that wheat had also been laid up by private persons. And, indeed, (as we have said elsewhere,) it was impossible but the rumor of the approaching famine would be spread abroad, and would everywhere infuse fears and solicitude, so that each person would make some provision for himself. Nevertheless, however provident each might be, what they had preserved would, in a short time, be consumed. Whence it appeared with what skill and prudence Joseph had perceived from the beginning, that Egypt would not be safe, unless provisions were publicly gathered together under the hand of the king.

Calvin: Gen 41:55 - Go unto Joseph 55.Go unto Joseph. It is by no means unusual for kings, while their subjects are oppressed by extreme sufferings, to give themselves up to pleasures....

55.Go unto Joseph. It is by no means unusual for kings, while their subjects are oppressed by extreme sufferings, to give themselves up to pleasures. But Moses here means something else; for Pharaoh does not exonerate himself from the trouble of distributing corn, because he wishes to enjoy a repose free from all inconvenience; but because he hassuch confidence in holy Joseph, that he willingly leaves all things to him, and does not allow him to be disturbed in the discharge of the office which he had undertaken.

Defender: Gen 41:38 - such a one In a pagan, idolatrous court, where many nature-gods were worshipped, Joseph was not embarrassed or hesitant to speak again and again about the true G...

In a pagan, idolatrous court, where many nature-gods were worshipped, Joseph was not embarrassed or hesitant to speak again and again about the true God of creation (Gen 41:16, Gen 41:25, Gen 41:28, Gen 41:32). As a result, Pharaoh acknowledged God (Gen 41:39)."

TSK: Gen 41:1 - two full years // that Pharaoh // the river am 2289, bc 1715 two full years : Shenathayim yamim , ""two years of days,""two complete solar revolutions; as a month of days is a full month. Gen...

am 2289, bc 1715

two full years : Shenathayim yamim , ""two years of days,""two complete solar revolutions; as a month of days is a full month. Gen 29:14

that Pharaoh : Gen 20:3, Gen 37:5-10, Gen 40:5; Jdg 7:13, Jdg 7:14; Est 6:1; Job 33:15, Job 33:16; Dan 2:1-3; Dan 4:5-18, 7:1-8:27; Mat 27:19

the river : Gen 31:21; Exo 1:22, Exo 4:9; Deu 11:10; Isa 19:5; Eze 29:3, Eze 29:9

TSK: Gen 41:2 - there came // a meadow there came : Gen 41:17-27 a meadow : Or, rather, ""on, or among the reeds or sedges;""for so achoo is generally supposed to denote (see note on Job...

there came : Gen 41:17-27

a meadow : Or, rather, ""on, or among the reeds or sedges;""for so achoo is generally supposed to denote (see note on Job 8:11); so called, according to Mr. Parkhurst, from its fitness for making ropes, or the like, to connect or join things together, from achah , to join, connectcaps1 . tcaps0 hus the Latin juncus , a bulrush, a jungendo , from joining, for the same reason. He supposes it to be that sort of reed growing near the Nile which Hasselquist describes as ""having scarce any branches, but numerous leaves, which are narrow, smooth, channelled on the upper surface, and the plant about eleven feet high. The Egyptians make ropes of the leaves.""

TSK: Gen 41:3 - ill favoured ill favoured : Gen 41:4, Gen 41:20, Gen 41:21

ill favoured : Gen 41:4, Gen 41:20, Gen 41:21

TSK: Gen 41:4 - So Pharaoh awoke So Pharaoh awoke : 1Ki 3:15

So Pharaoh awoke : 1Ki 3:15

TSK: Gen 41:5 - seven ears // rank seven ears : A species of wheat, which grows in Egypt, bears, when perfect, seven ears on one stalk, as its natural conformation. It differs from our...

seven ears : A species of wheat, which grows in Egypt, bears, when perfect, seven ears on one stalk, as its natural conformation. It differs from ours in having a solid stem, or at least a stem full of pith, in order to yield sufficient nourishment and support to so great a weight as the ears which it bears.

rank : Heb. fat, Deu 32:14

TSK: Gen 41:6 - blasted blasted : Eze 17:10, Eze 19:12; Hos 13:15

TSK: Gen 41:7 - a dream a dream : Gen 20:3, Gen 37:5

a dream : Gen 20:3, Gen 37:5

TSK: Gen 41:8 - his spirit // the magicians of Egypt // the wise men // but there his spirit : Gen 40:6; Dan 2:1-3, Dan 4:5, Dan 4:19, Dan 5:6, Dan 7:28, Dan 8:27; Hab 3:16 the magicians of Egypt : The word here used (chartummim )...

his spirit : Gen 40:6; Dan 2:1-3, Dan 4:5, Dan 4:19, Dan 5:6, Dan 7:28, Dan 8:27; Hab 3:16

the magicians of Egypt : The word here used (chartummim ) may mean no more than interpreters of abstruse or difficult subjects; especially of dreams and visions, which formed a considerable part of the ancient pagan religion; and the Egyptian priests were the first who professed this art. The word may be of affinity with, or derived from, the Persian chiradmand , wise, learned, judicious, intelligent, from chirad , understanding, judgment, and mand , endowed with. They seem to have been such persons as Josephus calls sacred scribes; or professors of sacred learning. Exo 7:11, Exo 7:22, Exo 8:7, Exo 8:18, Exo 8:19, Exo 9:11; Lev 19:31, Lev 20:6; Deu 18:9-14; Isa 8:19; Isa 19:3, Isa 29:14, Isa 47:12, Isa 47:13; Dan 1:20, Dan 2:2, Dan 4:7, Dan 5:7, Dan 5:11; Act 17:18

the wise men : Mat 2:1; Act 7:22

but there : Gen 40:8; Job 5:12, Job 5:13; Psa 25:14; Isa 19:11-13, Isa 29:14; Dan 2:4-11, Dan 2:27, Dan 2:28; Dan 5:8; 1Co 1:19, 1Co 3:18-20

TSK: Gen 41:9 - I do remember I do remember : Gen 40:1-3, Gen 40:14, Gen 40:23

I do remember : Gen 40:1-3, Gen 40:14, Gen 40:23

TSK: Gen 41:10 - Pharaoh // captain Pharaoh : Gen 39:20, Gen 40:2, Gen 40:3 captain : Gen 37:36

Pharaoh : Gen 39:20, Gen 40:2, Gen 40:3

captain : Gen 37:36

TSK: Gen 41:11 - -- Gen 40:5-8

TSK: Gen 41:12 - servant // interpreted servant : Gen 37:36, Gen 39:1, Gen 39:20 interpreted : Gen 40:12-19

servant : Gen 37:36, Gen 39:1, Gen 39:20

interpreted : Gen 40:12-19

TSK: Gen 41:13 - me he restored me he restored : Gen 40:12, Gen 40:20-22; Jer 1:10; Eze 43:3

me he restored : Gen 40:12, Gen 40:20-22; Jer 1:10; Eze 43:3

TSK: Gen 41:14 - sent // and they brought him hastily // he shaved sent : 1Sa 2:7, 1Sa 2:8; Psa 105:19-22, Psa 113:7, Psa 113:8 and they brought him hastily : Heb. made him run, Exo 10:16; 1Sa 2:8; Psa 113:7, Psa 113:...

TSK: Gen 41:15 - I have heard // that thou canst understand a dream to interpret it I have heard : Gen 41:9-13; Psa 25:14; Dan 5:12, Dan 5:16 that thou canst understand a dream to interpret it : or, when thou hearest a dream, thou can...

I have heard : Gen 41:9-13; Psa 25:14; Dan 5:12, Dan 5:16

that thou canst understand a dream to interpret it : or, when thou hearest a dream, thou canst interpret it

TSK: Gen 41:16 - It is not // peace It is not : Gen 40:8; Num 12:6; 2Ki 6:27; Dan 2:18-23, Dan 2:28-30, Dan 2:47, Dan 4:2; Act 3:7, Act 3:12; Act 14:14, Act 14:15; 1Co 15:10; 2Co 3:5 pea...

TSK: Gen 41:17 - -- Gen 41:1-7

TSK: Gen 41:18 - -- Jer 24:1-3, Jer 24:5, Jer 24:8

TSK: Gen 41:21 - eaten them up // still eaten them up : Heb. come to the inward parts of them, Eze 3:3; Rev 10:9, Rev 10:10 still : Psa 37:19; Isa 9:20

eaten them up : Heb. come to the inward parts of them, Eze 3:3; Rev 10:9, Rev 10:10

still : Psa 37:19; Isa 9:20

TSK: Gen 41:23 - withered // thin // blasted withered : or, small thin : Gen 41:6; 2Ki 19:26; Psa 129:6, Psa 129:7; Hos 8:7, Hos 9:16, Hos 13:15 blasted : All the mischief done to corn or fruit b...

withered : or, small

thin : Gen 41:6; 2Ki 19:26; Psa 129:6, Psa 129:7; Hos 8:7, Hos 9:16, Hos 13:15

blasted : All the mischief done to corn or fruit by blasting, smutting, mildew, etc. are attributed to the east wind (see parallel passages). In Egypt it is peculiarly destructive, because it comes through the parched deserts of Arabia, often destroying vast numbers of people. The destructive nature of the Sam , Simoom , Smoom , or Samiel , is mentioned by almost all travellers. When this pestilential wind advances, its approach is indicated by a redness in the air. The principal stream of the blast always moves in a line of about 20 yards in breadth, and 12 feet above the surface of the earth; but its parching influence pervades all places to a considerable distance. The only means of preservation from its noxious influence is to lie flat, with the face upon the ground, till the blast be over. Camels and other animals instinctively perceive its approach, and bury their mouths and nostrils in the ground. It rarely last more than seven or eight minutes, but so poisonous are its effects, that it instantly suffocates those who are unfortunate enough to inhale it.

TSK: Gen 41:24 - I told this I told this : Gen 41:8; Exo 8:19; Dan 4:7

I told this : Gen 41:8; Exo 8:19; Dan 4:7

TSK: Gen 41:25 - God God : Gen 41:16; Exo 9:14; Jos 11:6; Psa 98:2; Isa 41:22, Isa 41:23, Isa 43:9; Dan 2:28, Dan 2:29; Dan 2:45, Dan 2:47; Amo 3:7; Mat 24:40; Mar 13:23; ...

TSK: Gen 41:26 - are // good ears are seven // the dream is one are : or, signify, Gen 41:2, Gen 41:5, Gen 41:29, Gen 41:47, Gen 41:53, Gen 40:18; Exo 12:11; 1Co 10:4 good ears are seven : Gen 40:12 the dream is on...

are : or, signify, Gen 41:2, Gen 41:5, Gen 41:29, Gen 41:47, Gen 41:53, Gen 40:18; Exo 12:11; 1Co 10:4

good ears are seven : Gen 40:12

the dream is one : Gen 2:24; Exo 26:6; 1Jo 5:7

TSK: Gen 41:27 - seven years of famine seven years of famine : 2Sa 24:19; 2Ki 8:1

seven years of famine : 2Sa 24:19; 2Ki 8:1

TSK: Gen 41:28 - What God What God : Gen 41:16, Gen 41:25

What God : Gen 41:16, Gen 41:25

TSK: Gen 41:29 - -- Gen 41:26, Gen 41:46, Gen 41:49

TSK: Gen 41:30 - seven years // shall be // consume seven years : Gen 41:27, Gen 41:54; 2Sa 24:13; 1Ki 17:1; 2Ki 8:1; Luk 4:25; Jam 5:17 shall be : Gen 41:21, Gen 41:51; Pro 31:7; Isa 65:16 consume : Ge...

TSK: Gen 41:31 - the plenty // grievous the plenty : It is well known, that in Egypt there is scarcely any rain, the country depending for its fertility upon the overflowing of the Nile; and...

the plenty : It is well known, that in Egypt there is scarcely any rain, the country depending for its fertility upon the overflowing of the Nile; and that the fertility is in proportion to the duration and quality of the overflow, in order to saturate the land and prepare for the seed. Pliny has given a scale, by which the plenty or dearth may be ascertained; which may be considered as perfectly correct. The ordinary height of the inundations is 16 cubits. When the waters are lower than this standard, they do not overflow the whole ground; when above this standard they are too long in running off. In the first case, the ground is not saturated; by the second, the waters are detained so long on the ground that seed-time is lost. The province marks both. If it rise only 12 cubits, a famine is the consequence; at 13 hunger prevails; 14 produces general rejoicing; 15 perfect security; and 16 all the luxuries of life.

grievous : Heb. heavy, 1Sa 5:6; Isa 24:20

TSK: Gen 41:32 - doubled // it is because // established by doubled : Gen 37:7, Gen 37:9; Job 33:14, Job 33:15; 2Co 13:1 it is because : Num 23:19; Isa 14:24-27, Isa 46:10, Isa 46:11; Mat 24:35 established by :...

TSK: Gen 41:33 - therefore // look out therefore : Dan 4:27 look out : Exo 18:19-22; Deu 1:13; Act 6:3

therefore : Dan 4:27

look out : Exo 18:19-22; Deu 1:13; Act 6:3

TSK: Gen 41:34 - officers // and take officers : or, overseers, Num 31:14; 2Ki 11:11, 2Ki 11:12; 2Ch 34:12; Neh 11:9 and take : Job 5:20; Psa 33:19; Pro 6:6-8, Pro 22:3, Pro 27:12; Luk 16:...

TSK: Gen 41:35 - gather // hand gather : Gen 41:48, Gen 41:49, Gen 41:56, Gen 45:6, Gen 45:7 hand : Exo 4:13

TSK: Gen 41:36 - that the // perish not that the : Gen 47:13-25 perish not : Heb. be not cut off, Gen 41:30

that the : Gen 47:13-25

perish not : Heb. be not cut off, Gen 41:30

TSK: Gen 41:37 - the thing // good the thing : Psa 105:19; Pro 10:20, Pro 25:11; Act 7:10 good : Jos 22:30; 2Sa 3:36; 1Ki 21:2

TSK: Gen 41:38 - in whom in whom : Num 27:18; Job 32:8; Dan 4:6, Dan 4:8, Dan 4:18, Dan 5:11, Dan 5:14, Dan 6:3

TSK: Gen 41:39 - -- Gen 41:16, Gen 41:25, Gen 41:28, Gen 41:33

TSK: Gen 41:40 - Thou shalt // be ruled Thou shalt : Gen 39:4-6, Gen 45:8, Gen 45:9, Gen 45:26; Psa 105:21, Psa 105:22; Pro 22:29; Dan 2:46-48, Dan 5:29, Dan 6:3 be ruled : Heb. be armed, or...

TSK: Gen 41:41 - -- Gen 41:44, Gen 39:5, Gen 39:22; Est 10:3; Pro 17:2, Pro 22:29; Dan 2:7, Dan 2:8, Dan 4:2, Dan 4:3, Dan 6:3; Mat 28:18; Phi 2:9-11

TSK: Gen 41:42 - his ring // fine linen // a gold chain his ring : Est 3:10, Est 3:12, Est 6:7-12, Est 8:2, Est 8:8, Est 8:10, Est 8:15, Est 10:3; Dan 2:46, Dan 2:47, Dan 5:7, Dan 5:29; Luk 15:22 fine linen...

TSK: Gen 41:43 - and they // Bow the knee // ruler and they : Est 6:8, Est 6:9 Bow the knee : or, Tender father, Gen 45:8, Heb. Abrech, Phi 2:10 ruler : Gen 42:6, Gen 42:30, Gen 42:33, Gen 45:8, Gen 45...

and they : Est 6:8, Est 6:9

Bow the knee : or, Tender father, Gen 45:8, Heb. Abrech, Phi 2:10

ruler : Gen 42:6, Gen 42:30, Gen 42:33, Gen 45:8, Gen 45:26; Act 7:10

TSK: Gen 41:44 - lift up his hand lift up his hand : Exo 11:7

lift up his hand : Exo 11:7

TSK: Gen 41:45 - Zaphnathpaaneah // priest of // On Zaphnathpaaneah : Which in Coptic signifies a revealer of secrets, or, the man to whom secrets are revealed. Jerome says this name signified in Egypt...

Zaphnathpaaneah : Which in Coptic signifies a revealer of secrets, or, the man to whom secrets are revealed. Jerome says this name signified in Egyptian, Savatorem mundi , ""the Saviour of the world;""and Psotem -phaneh , in Coptic, is certainly ""salvation of the world,""from C Ω T, for σωτηρια [Strong’ s G4991], salvation, em , the sign of the genitive case, and ΦΕΝΕΗ , world. If this interpretation be correct, Pharaoh must have meant Egypt by the world, or which Joseph might be justly termed the Saviour. We know that the Romans called their empire Universis Orbis-Orbis Terrarum , ""all the world:""the Chinese say the same of their empire at the present day, and the phrase is used in the East: Nadir Shah is described on his coins as ""Conqueror of the World,""i.e., Persia. See the same phraseology applied to Syria, Palestine, etc. Luk 2:1; Act 11:28

priest of : or, prince, Gen 14:18; Exo 2:16 *marg. 2Sa 8:18, 2Sa 20:26 *Heb:

On : Gen 46:20; Eze 30:17, Aven

TSK: Gen 41:46 - years // he stood years : Gen 37:2; Num 4:3; 2Sa 5:4; Luk 3:23 he stood : 1Sa 16:21; 1Ki 12:6, 1Ki 12:8; Pro 22:29; Dan 1:19; Luk 21:36; Jud 1:24

TSK: Gen 41:47 - -- From am 2289, bc 1715, to am 2296, bc 1708, handfuls. Gen 26:12; Psa 72:16

From am 2289, bc 1715, to am 2296, bc 1708, handfuls. Gen 26:12; Psa 72:16

TSK: Gen 41:48 - -- Gen 41:34-36, Gen 47:21

TSK: Gen 41:49 - -- Gen 22:17; Jdg 6:5, Jdg 7:12; 1Sa 13:5; Job 1:3; Psa 78:27; Jer 33:22

TSK: Gen 41:50 - unto Joseph // Asenath // priest unto Joseph : Gen 46:20, Gen 48:5 Asenath : Gen 41:45, Gen 46:20 priest : or, prince, 2Sa 8:18

unto Joseph : Gen 46:20, Gen 48:5

Asenath : Gen 41:45, Gen 46:20

priest : or, prince, 2Sa 8:18

TSK: Gen 41:51 - called // Manasseh // forget called : am 2292, bc 1712, Gen 48:5, Gen 48:13, Gen 48:14, Gen 48:18-20; Deu 33:17 Manasseh : i.e. Forgetting, Gen 41:30; Psa 45:10; Isa 57:16 forget ...

called : am 2292, bc 1712, Gen 48:5, Gen 48:13, Gen 48:14, Gen 48:18-20; Deu 33:17

Manasseh : i.e. Forgetting, Gen 41:30; Psa 45:10; Isa 57:16

forget : Psa 30:5, Psa 30:11; Pro 31:7; Isa 65:16

TSK: Gen 41:52 - called he // Ephraim // the land am 2293, bc 1711 called he : Gen 29:32-35, Gen 30:6-13, Gen 50:23 Ephraim : i.e. Fruitful, Gen 48:16-19, Gen 49:22; Isa 40:1, Isa 40:2 the land : Psa ...

am 2293, bc 1711

called he : Gen 29:32-35, Gen 30:6-13, Gen 50:23

Ephraim : i.e. Fruitful, Gen 48:16-19, Gen 49:22; Isa 40:1, Isa 40:2

the land : Psa 105:17, Psa 105:18; Amo 6:6; Act 7:10

TSK: Gen 41:53 - -- am 2296, bc 1708, Gen 41:29-31; Psa 73:20; Luk 16:25

am 2296, bc 1708, Gen 41:29-31; Psa 73:20; Luk 16:25

TSK: Gen 41:54 - the seven // according // and the dearth the seven : Gen 41:3, Gen 41:4, Gen 41:6, Gen 41:7, Gen 41:27, Gen 45:11; Psa 105:16; Act 7:11 according : Gen 41:30 and the dearth : Gen 42:2, Gen 42...

TSK: Gen 41:55 - famished // Go unto famished : 2Ki 6:25-29; Jer 14:1-6; Lam 4:3-10 Go unto : Gen 41:40, Gen 41:41; Psa 105:20-22; Mat 3:17, Mat 17:5; Joh 1:14-16; Phi 4:19; Col 1:19

TSK: Gen 41:56 - the face // all the storehouses // sold the face : Isa 23:17; Zec 5:3; Luk 21:35; Act 17:26 all the storehouses : Heb. all wherein was sold : Gen 42:6, Gen 47:14-24

the face : Isa 23:17; Zec 5:3; Luk 21:35; Act 17:26

all the storehouses : Heb. all wherein was

sold : Gen 42:6, Gen 47:14-24

TSK: Gen 41:57 - all countries // in all lands all countries : Gen 42:1, Gen 42:5, Gen 50:20; Deu 9:28; Psa 105:16, Psa 105:17 in all lands : Gen 41:54, Gen 41:56

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Gen 41:2 - Kine This suits well with the nature of the thing, for both the fruitfulness and the barrenness of Egypt depended, under God, upon the increase or diminu...

This suits well with the nature of the thing, for both the fruitfulness and the barrenness of Egypt depended, under God, upon the increase or diminution of the waters of that river.

Kine when they appeared in dreams, did portend, in the opinion of the learned Egyptians, the years or times to come, and them either good or bad, according to their quality.

Poole: Gen 41:3 - -- Which shows how sparingly the river overflowed the lands.

Which shows how sparingly the river overflowed the lands.

Poole: Gen 41:5 - Ears of corn Ears of corn are fit and proper resemblances of the thing here intended, both because the fertility of a land doth mainly consist in the abundance an...

Ears of corn are fit and proper resemblances of the thing here intended, both because the fertility of a land doth mainly consist in the abundance and goodness of these; and because ears of corn appearing to any in a dream, did, in the judgment of the Egyptian wise men, signify years, as Josephus notes.

Poole: Gen 41:6 - -- A boisterous wind, and in those parts of the world very pernicious to the fruits of the earth, Eze 17:10 19:12 Hos 13:15 .

A boisterous wind, and in those parts of the world very pernicious to the fruits of the earth, Eze 17:10 19:12 Hos 13:15 .

Poole: Gen 41:7 - -- Not a real thing, as Pharaoh in his sleep imagined it to be. Heb. Behold the dream, i.e. the dream did not vanish, as dreams commonly do, but was...

Not a real thing, as Pharaoh in his sleep imagined it to be. Heb. Behold the dream, i.e. the dream did not vanish, as dreams commonly do, but was fixed in his mind, and he could not shake it off; by which he saw that it was no common or natural, but a Divine and significant dream.

Poole: Gen 41:8 - His spirit was troubled // The magicians // The wise men // Pharoah His spirit was troubled because he understood not the meaning of it, and dreaded the consequences of it. Compare Gen 40:6 Dan 2:1,3 Mt 27:19 . The m...

His spirit was troubled because he understood not the meaning of it, and dreaded the consequences of it. Compare Gen 40:6 Dan 2:1,3 Mt 27:19 .

The magicians whose profession it was to discover secret and future things; which they did either by the observation of the stars, or by other superstitious practices, and the help of evil spirits. See Exo 7:11 8:19 Dan 2:2,10 .

The wise men who were conversant in the study of nature; and by reason of their great sagacity, did ofttimes make happy conjectures.

Pharoah calls them both one dream, either because they seemed to portend the same thing, or because they were the product of one night, and were divided only by a very little interruption.

Poole: Gen 41:9 - -- Not against Joseph by ingratitude, but against the king; by which expression he both acknowledgeth the king’ s justice in imprisoning him, and ...

Not against Joseph by ingratitude, but against the king; by which expression he both acknowledgeth the king’ s justice in imprisoning him, and his clemency in pardoning him.

Poole: Gen 41:11 - -- Of which phrase See Poole on "Gen 40:5" .

Of which phrase See Poole on "Gen 40:5" .

Poole: Gen 41:13 - Me he restored Me he restored either, 1. Pharaoh. But then he would have mentioned either his name or title, and not have spoken so slightly and indecently of him....

Me he restored either,

1. Pharaoh. But then he would have mentioned either his name or title, and not have spoken so slightly and indecently of him. Or rather,

2. Joseph, of whom he spake last, and who is here said to restore the one, and to hang the other, because he foretold those events, as Jeremiah is said to pull down and destroy those nations, Jer 1:10 , whose destruction he did only foretell.

Poole: Gen 41:14 - The dungeon // He shaved himself The dungeon or prison, by a synecdoche of the part for the whole. For it is not probable that Joseph, who was now so much employed, and intrusted ...

The dungeon or prison, by a synecdoche of the part for the whole. For it is not probable that Joseph, who was now so much employed, and intrusted with all the affairs of the prison and prisoners, Gen 39:21-23 , should still be kept in the dungeon properly so called.

He shaved himself for till then he suffered his hair to grow, as the manner was for persons in prison, or under great sorrow, 2Sa 19:24 . But to appear in a mournful dress before the king was not convenient, nor usual. Compare Est 4:4 .

Poole: Gen 41:16 - God shall give I cannot do this by any power, or virtue, or art of my own, for I am but a man, as your magicians are, but only by inspiration from the great God. T...

I cannot do this by any power, or virtue, or art of my own, for I am but a man, as your magicians are, but only by inspiration from the great God. Thus he gives the honour from himself unto God, and leads Pharaoh to the knowledge of the true God. For the phrase compare Mat 10:20 1Co 15:10 .

God shall give or, may God give, & c. It is my desire that God would vouchsafe to Pharaoh a comfortable and happy answer.

Poole: Gen 41:21 - -- They seemed to be neither fatter in the flesh, nor fuller in their bodies. As many times in famine men eat much, but are not satisfied, because God ...

They seemed to be neither fatter in the flesh, nor fuller in their bodies. As many times in famine men eat much, but are not satisfied, because God withdraws his blessing from it, by which alone it is that meat nourisheth us.

Poole: Gen 41:25 - The dream of Pharaoh is one The dream of Pharaoh is one to wit, in its design and signification; both dreams portend the same thing.

The dream of Pharaoh is one to wit, in its design and signification; both dreams portend the same thing.

Poole: Gen 41:30 - -- There shall be no relics of it to keep it in men’ s minds, which will be so taken up with the contemplation of their present misery and future ...

There shall be no relics of it to keep it in men’ s minds, which will be so taken up with the contemplation of their present misery and future danger, that they will have neither heart nor leisure to reflect upon their former plenty, the remembrance whereof will but aggravate the present calamity.

Poole: Gen 41:34 - Quest // the fifth part // Answ Not by force or violence, for Joseph would never be the author of such unrighteous counsels; but by purchase at the common price, which was like to ...

Not by force or violence, for Joseph would never be the author of such unrighteous counsels; but by purchase at the common price, which was like to be very low in that case, and therefore might easily be compassed by that rich and mighty prince.

Quest. Why

the fifth part and not half, seeing the years of famine were as many as the years of plenty?

Answ Because,

1. Men would and should live more sparingly in times of famine.

2. It was likely that very many men would lay up great quantities of corn in those years, partly because they could not spend it all, and partly in expectation of a scarcer and dearer time, when they might either use it themselves, or sell it to their advantage.

3. The fifth part of those years of great plenty might be more than the half, yea, equal to the whole crop of ordinary years.

Poole: Gen 41:38 - -- Or, of the gods, in his heathen language. One whom God hath endowed with such admirable knowledge and wisdom.

Or, of the gods, in his heathen language. One whom God hath endowed with such admirable knowledge and wisdom.

Poole: Gen 41:39 - God hath showed thee all this God hath showed thee all this i.e. hath given thee this extraordinary gift of foreseeing and foretelling things to come, and of giving such sage advi...

God hath showed thee all this i.e. hath given thee this extraordinary gift of foreseeing and foretelling things to come, and of giving such sage advice for the future.

Poole: Gen 41:40 - According unto thy word // In the throne According unto thy word i.e. direction and command, Heb. mouth, which is oft put for command, as Exo 17:1 38:21 Num 3:16,39 , &c.,shall all my poe...

According unto thy word i.e. direction and command, Heb. mouth, which is oft put for command, as Exo 17:1 38:21 Num 3:16,39 , &c.,shall all my poeple be ruled, or, be fed; they shall receive their provisions from thy hand, and according to thy disposal. Others, shall kiss, viz. the hand, as inferiors used to do, upon their address to or conference with great persons. See Job 31:27 Hos 13:2 . But it was frivolous for Joseph to command them to do that which by the custom of the place they were obliged and wont to do. Some render the word thus, and that agreeable to the Hebrew, at thy mouth shall the people kiss; which may be understood either properly, as inferiors did sometimes kiss their superiors in token of their homage; see 1Sa 10:1 ; or rather metaphorically, as the same phrase is used Psa 2:12 Pro 24:26 , receive all thy commands with reverence and submission.

In the throne i.e. in sovereign power and dignity.

Poole: Gen 41:42 - His ring // A gold chain His ring was both a token of highest dignity, and an instrument of greatest power, by which he had authority to make and sign what decrees he thought...

His ring was both a token of highest dignity, and an instrument of greatest power, by which he had authority to make and sign what decrees he thought fit in the king’ s name. See Est 3:10 8:2 . With

fine linen the greatest potentates were arrayed. See Pro 31:22,24 Eze 16:10 Luk 16:19 Rev 19:8 .

A gold chain was another badge of great honour. See Pro 1:9 Eze 16:11 Dan 5:7,16,29 .

Poole: Gen 41:43 - In the second chariot // Bow the knee In the second chariot in the king’ s second chariot, that he might be known and owned to be the next person to the king in power and dignity. Co...

In the second chariot in the king’ s second chariot, that he might be known and owned to be the next person to the king in power and dignity. Compare 2Ch 35:24 Est 6:8 10:3 Dan 5:29 .

Bow the knee: they commanded all that passed by him, or came to him, to show their reverent respect to him in this manner: compare Est 3:2 . Others, tender father, to signify that he was to be owned as the father of the country, because by his prudence and care he had provided for them all, and saved them from utter ruin.

Poole: Gen 41:44 - I am Pharaoh I am Pharaoh i.e. I only am the king, I reserve to myself the sovereign power over thee, and over all. As the name of Caesar among the Romans was com...

I am Pharaoh i.e. I only am the king, I reserve to myself the sovereign power over thee, and over all. As the name of Caesar among the Romans was commonly used for the emperor, so the name of Pharaoh for the king. Or thus, I have the supreme power, and therefore as I have authority to give thee the following power, so I will make it good to thee, and oblige all my people to observe and obey thee. No man shall do any thing in the public affairs of the kingdom concerning matters of war or peace without thy commission or licence.

Poole: Gen 41:45 - Zaphnath-paaneah // Poti-pherah // On // Joseph went out over all the land Zaphnath-paaneah i.e. The revealer of secrets, as the Hebrews generally understand it, and with them most others. Poti-pherah not that Potiphar...

Zaphnath-paaneah i.e. The revealer of secrets, as the Hebrews generally understand it, and with them most others.

Poti-pherah not that Potiphar, Gen 39:1 ; both because he had another title, and dwelt in another place; and because it is not probable Joseph would have married the daughter of so unchaste a mother; but another and a greater person. It is the observation of a late ingenious and learned writer, that among the Egyptians there were three words, or endings of words, near akin, but differing in signification, and in the degree of dignity and authority, to which those names were annexed: Phar, which belonged to inferior officers; and Pherah, which was given to those of greater dignity and power; and Pharaoh, which was appropriated to the king.

Priest, or prince, as the word signifies, Exo 18:1 2Sa 8:18 20:26 , and elsewhere. This sense is the more probable, both from Joseph’ s high quality, and from his holy disposition, whereby he hated idolatry, and would never have married the daughter of an idolatrous priest.

On was a famous city of Egypt, called also Aven, Eze 30:17 , and afterwards, as some think, Heliopolis, now Damiata. See Jer 43:13 .

Joseph went out over all the land upon his employment, and to execute the king’ s command, and his own counsel.

Poole: Gen 41:46 - He stood before Pharaoh // Went throughout all the land Joseph’ s age is here noted to teach us, 1. That Joseph’ s short affliction was recompensed with a much longer prosperity, even for eight...

Joseph’ s age is here noted to teach us,

1. That Joseph’ s short affliction was recompensed with a much longer prosperity, even for eighty years.

2. That Joseph’ s excellent wisdom did not proceed from his large and long experience, but from the singular gift of God.

He stood before Pharaoh as his chief minister: to stand before another is the posture and designation of a servant, as 1Sa 16:21 Dan 1:19 .

Went throughout all the land to provide places for his stores, and to constitute officers for the management of them.

Poole: Gen 41:47 - -- Or, unto handfuls, to wit, growing upon one stalk; or, unto heaps; or, as the ancients render it, for the barns or storehouses; i.e. in s...

Or, unto handfuls, to wit, growing upon one stalk; or, unto heaps; or, as the ancients render it, for the barns or storehouses; i.e. in such plenty, that all their storehouses were filled with heaps of corn.

Poole: Gen 41:48 - All the food All the food that is, either all sorts of grain which was proper for food; or all which he intended to gather, to wit, the fifth part, Gen 41:34 .

All the food that is, either all sorts of grain which was proper for food; or all which he intended to gather, to wit, the fifth part, Gen 41:34 .

Poole: Gen 41:51 - All my toil, and all my father’ s house i.e. Hath expelled all sorrowful remembrance of it by my present comfort and glory. All my toil, and all my father’ s house i.e. the toil of ...

i.e. Hath expelled all sorrowful remembrance of it by my present comfort and glory.

All my toil, and all my father’ s house i.e. the toil of my father’ s house, or the toil and misery which for many years I have endured by means of my father’ s family, and my own brethren, who sold me hither; a figure called hendyadis.

Poole: Gen 41:52 - -- 1711 In the land which hitherto hath been to me a land of affliction.

1711 In the land which hitherto hath been to me a land of affliction.

Poole: Gen 41:54 - In all lands In all lands in all the neighbouring countries, appears by comparing this with Gen 42:1 .

In all lands in all the neighbouring countries, appears by comparing this with Gen 42:1 .

Poole: Gen 41:55 - The people cried to Pharaoh The people cried to Pharaoh as to their king and common father. Compare 2Ki 6:26 .

The people cried to Pharaoh as to their king and common father. Compare 2Ki 6:26 .

Haydock: Gen 41:1 - River River; or the branch of the Nile which ran to Tanis, his capital. There were seven principal canals, and this was the most to the east, except that ...

River; or the branch of the Nile which ran to Tanis, his capital. There were seven principal canals, and this was the most to the east, except that of Pelusium. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 41:2 - Marshy Marshy. Hebrew Achu; a word which the Septuagint and Siracides (Ecclesiasticus xl. 16, ) retain. (Du Hamel)

Marshy. Hebrew Achu; a word which the Septuagint and Siracides (Ecclesiasticus xl. 16, ) retain. (Du Hamel)

Haydock: Gen 41:3 - Very bank Very bank; to shew that the Nile had not inundated far, and that consequently a great famine would prevail, as the fertility of Egypt depends greatly...

Very bank; to shew that the Nile had not inundated far, and that consequently a great famine would prevail, as the fertility of Egypt depends greatly on the overflowing of the Nile. "When the river rises 12 cubits, sterility pervades Egypt; when 13, famine is still felt. Fourteen cubits bring joy, 15 security, 16 delight. It has never yet been known to rise above 18 cubits." (Pliny, Natural History v. 9.) This successive depression of the waters was an effect of God's judgments, which no astrologers could foretel. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Gen 41:5 - Another dream // One stalk Another dream of the same import, (ver. 25,) to convince Pharao that the event would certainly take place, ver. 32. Thus Daniel had a double vision,...

Another dream of the same import, (ver. 25,) to convince Pharao that the event would certainly take place, ver. 32. Thus Daniel had a double vision, Daniel vii. 2, 3. ---

One stalk. It was of the species which Pliny (Natural History xviii. 10,) calls ramosum, branchy. What would strike Pharao the most was, that the last ears should devour the former ones. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 41:6 - Blasted Blasted with the eastern wind, blowing from the deserts of Arabia, Osee xiii. 15. (Menochius)

Blasted with the eastern wind, blowing from the deserts of Arabia, Osee xiii. 15. (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 41:7 - Rest Rest. Hebrew adds, "and behold a dream" sent by God, like Solomon's, 3 Kings iii. 15. The king's mind was quite full of what he had seen.

Rest. Hebrew adds, "and behold a dream" sent by God, like Solomon's, 3 Kings iii. 15. The king's mind was quite full of what he had seen.

Haydock: Gen 41:8 - Interpreters: chartumim Interpreters: chartumim is probably an Egyptian word; denoting magicians, priests, and interpreters of their sacred books, hieroglyphics, &c. K. Ptol...

Interpreters: chartumim is probably an Egyptian word; denoting magicians, priests, and interpreters of their sacred books, hieroglyphics, &c. K. Ptolemy consulted them. (Tacitus, Hist. iv.)

Haydock: Gen 41:9 - My sin My sin against your majesty, and my ingratitude towards Joseph. (Calmet)

My sin against your majesty, and my ingratitude towards Joseph. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 41:12 - Servant Servant. Chap. xxxix. 4. He waited also upon the prisoners of rank, chap. xl. 4. (Haydock)

Servant. Chap. xxxix. 4. He waited also upon the prisoners of rank, chap. xl. 4. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 41:14 - Shaved him Shaved him. The Egyptians let their hair grow, and neglected their persons, when they were in mourning or prison. But on other occasions they cut t...

Shaved him. The Egyptians let their hair grow, and neglected their persons, when they were in mourning or prison. But on other occasions they cut their hair in their youth. (Herod. ii. 36. iii. 12.) It was not lawful to appear in court in mourning attire. (Esther iv. 2; Genesis l. 4.) (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 41:16 - Without Without, &c. The interpretation does not proceed from any natural acquirement, but from God alone. (Chaldean) (Tirinus) --- The Samaritan and Aqui...

Without, &c. The interpretation does not proceed from any natural acquirement, but from God alone. (Chaldean) (Tirinus) ---

The Samaritan and Aquila read, "Without me God will not give," &c. See Matthew x. 20.

Haydock: Gen 41:30 - The land The land of Egypt, and the adjacent countries.

The land of Egypt, and the adjacent countries.

Haydock: Gen 41:34 - Fifth part Fifth part. This was a tax laid upon all the Egyptians, (Calmet) unless Pharao paid for what corn was laid up. (Haydock) --- This quantity would b...

Fifth part. This was a tax laid upon all the Egyptians, (Calmet) unless Pharao paid for what corn was laid up. (Haydock) ---

This quantity would be sufficient, as the people would be content with a smaller allowance during the famine; and the environs of the Nile would produce something, though not worth mentioning, chap. xlv. 6. (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 41:38 - God God. Hebrew, of the gods Elohim. Pharao was probably an idolater.

God. Hebrew, of the gods Elohim. Pharao was probably an idolater.

Haydock: Gen 41:40 - Obey Obey. Hebrew Yishak; which may signify also "kiss" you, or their hand, in testimony of respect; or "shall be fed, governed, and led forth," &c. ...

Obey. Hebrew Yishak; which may signify also "kiss" you, or their hand, in testimony of respect; or "shall be fed, governed, and led forth," &c. He made him master of his house, and ruler, &c. (Psalm civ. 21; Wisdom x. 14.)

Haydock: Gen 41:42 - His ring // Silk // Chain His ring, the sign of power. Thus Alexander appointed Perdiccas to be his successor. (Curtius x. 5.) Assuerus gave his authority to Aman and to Ma...

His ring, the sign of power. Thus Alexander appointed Perdiccas to be his successor. (Curtius x. 5.) Assuerus gave his authority to Aman and to Mardocheus, Esther iii. and viii. ---

Silk, or fine cotton; shesh (or ssoss). See byssus, Exodus xxv. 4. ---

Chain, with which the president of the senate in Egypt, or the chief justice, was adorned. The three chief officers among the Chaldees wore chains, Daniel v. 7, 16. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 41:43 - Second chariot // That all Second chariot. On public occasions the king was followed by an empty chariot, (2 Paralipomenon xxxv. 24,) or the chariot here spoken of, was destin...

Second chariot. On public occasions the king was followed by an empty chariot, (2 Paralipomenon xxxv. 24,) or the chariot here spoken of, was destined for the person who was next in dignity to the king. (Calmet) ---

That all, &c. Hebrew, "crying Abroc ," which Aquila explains in the same sense as the Vulgate. Others think it is an exclamation of joy, (Grotius) like huzza! (Haydock) or it may mean father of the king, or tender father, chap. xlv. 8.

Haydock: Gen 41:44 - Pharao Pharao, or the king. This is the preamble to the decree for the exaltation of Joseph, which subjected to him the armies and all the people of Egypt.

Pharao, or the king. This is the preamble to the decree for the exaltation of Joseph, which subjected to him the armies and all the people of Egypt.

Haydock: Gen 41:45 - The saviour of the world // Putiphare // Priest // Heliopolis The saviour of the world. Tsaphenath pahneach. (Challoner) --- In the Coptic language, which is derived from the Egyptian, Psotemphane is said t...

The saviour of the world. Tsaphenath pahneach. (Challoner) ---

In the Coptic language, which is derived from the Egyptian, Psotemphane is said to mean the saviour of the world. St. Jerome supposed this word was not Hebrew; and therefore he added, in the Egyptian tongue, though he knew it might be interpreted in Hebrew "a revealer of secrets." (q. Heb.) ---

Putiphare. Whether this person be the same with his old master, cannot easily be decided. Most people think he was not. See St. Chrysostom, 63. hom. ---

Priest. None were esteemed more noble in Egypt. ---

Heliopolis. Hebrew On, "the city of the sun," built on the banks of the Nile, about half a day's journey to the north of Memphis.

Haydock: Gen 41:47 - Sheaves Sheaves. The straw would serve to feed the cattle, and would hinder the corn from spoiling for 50 years, if kept from the air. (Varro.; Pliny, Natur...

Sheaves. The straw would serve to feed the cattle, and would hinder the corn from spoiling for 50 years, if kept from the air. (Varro.; Pliny, Natural History xviii. 30.) (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 41:51 - Manasses // Father's house Manasses. That is, oblivion, or forgetting. (Challoner) --- Father's house, or the injuries received from my brethren. (Haydock)

Manasses. That is, oblivion, or forgetting. (Challoner) ---

Father's house, or the injuries received from my brethren. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 41:52 - Ephraim // Poverty Ephraim. That is, fruitful, or growing. (Challoner) --- Being in the plural number, it means "productions." --- Poverty; where I have been p...

Ephraim. That is, fruitful, or growing. (Challoner) ---

Being in the plural number, it means "productions." ---

Poverty; where I have been poor and afflicted, though now advanced in honour. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 41:55 - World // There was World. Round about Egypt; such as Chanaan, Syria, &c. (Menochius) --- There was. The Syriac and some Latin copies, read not, &c.: there was a ...

World. Round about Egypt; such as Chanaan, Syria, &c. (Menochius) ---

There was. The Syriac and some Latin copies, read not, &c.: there was a famine. We must adhere to the Vulgate and Hebrew.

Haydock: Gen 41:57 - All provinces All provinces in the neighbourhood: for the stores laid up would not have supplied all mankind even for a few months. (Calmet)

All provinces in the neighbourhood: for the stores laid up would not have supplied all mankind even for a few months. (Calmet)

Gill: Gen 41:1 - And it came to pass at the end of two full years // that Pharaoh dreamed, and, behold, he stood by the river And it came to pass at the end of two full years,.... It is not a clear case, as Aben Ezra observes, from whence these years are to be reckoned, wheth...

And it came to pass at the end of two full years,.... It is not a clear case, as Aben Ezra observes, from whence these years are to be reckoned, whether from the time of Joseph's being put into prison, or from the time that the chief butler was taken out of it; the latter seems more probable, and better connects this and the preceding chapter:

that Pharaoh dreamed, and, behold, he stood by the river; it seemed to him, in his dream, as if he stood near the river Nile, or some canal or flow of water cut out of that river.

Gill: Gen 41:2 - And, behold, there came up out of the river seven well favoured kine, and fatfleshed // and they fed in a meadow And, behold, there came up out of the river seven well favoured kine, and fatfleshed,.... Seven cows or heifers, sleek, fat, and plump, goodly to look...

And, behold, there came up out of the river seven well favoured kine, and fatfleshed,.... Seven cows or heifers, sleek, fat, and plump, goodly to look at; these seemed in the dream, as if they came out of the river, because they were fed with the fruits of the earth, which the overflowing of the river Nile, and its canals, produced:

and they fed in a meadow; adjoining to the river, where there was good pasture for them, and gives a reason of their being in so good a condition.

Gill: Gen 41:3 - And, behold, seven other kine came up after them out of the river, ill favoured, and leanfleshed // and stood by the other kine // upon the brink of the river And, behold, seven other kine came up after them out of the river, ill favoured, and leanfleshed,.... Thin and haggard, their bones stuck out, having ...

And, behold, seven other kine came up after them out of the river, ill favoured, and leanfleshed,.... Thin and haggard, their bones stuck out, having scarce any flesh upon them, and made a wretched figure:

and stood by the other kine; and looked so much the worse, when compared with them:

upon the brink of the river; it not being overflowed, so that there was no grass to be had, but just upon the bank, where these kept for that purpose; for the fruitfulness of Egypt was owing to the river Nile; as that overflowed or did not, there was plenty or famine; hence both these sorts of creatures came up out of that.

Gill: Gen 41:4 - And the ill favoured and leanfleshed kine did eat up the seven well favoured and fat kine // so Pharaoh awoke And the ill favoured and leanfleshed kine did eat up the seven well favoured and fat kine,.... So it seemed in the dream as if this was done, was very...

And the ill favoured and leanfleshed kine did eat up the seven well favoured and fat kine,.... So it seemed in the dream as if this was done, was very strange and surprising that animals should devour one another; and especially that tame ones, cows or heifers, should eat those of their own species, which was never known to be done:

so Pharaoh awoke; through surprise at the strange sight he had in his dream.

Gill: Gen 41:5 - And he slept, and dreamed the second time // and, behold, seven ears of corn came up upon one stalk, rank and good And he slept, and dreamed the second time,.... He fell asleep again quickly, and dreamed another dream the same night, and to the same purpose, being ...

And he slept, and dreamed the second time,.... He fell asleep again quickly, and dreamed another dream the same night, and to the same purpose, being much of the like kind with the former:

and, behold, seven ears of corn came up upon one stalk, rank and good; which were very uncommon even in those fruitful countries; though Dr. Shaw e observes of Barbary, which vied with Egypt for fruitfulness, that it sometimes happens that one stalk of wheat will bear two ears, while each of these ears will as often shoot out into a number of lesser ones, thereby affording a most plentiful increase.

Gill: Gen 41:6 - And, behold, seven thin ears, and blasted with the east wind // sprung up after them And, behold, seven thin ears, and blasted with the east wind,.... Which is very fatal to corn, to dry, burn, smite, or blast it; and especially to the...

And, behold, seven thin ears, and blasted with the east wind,.... Which is very fatal to corn, to dry, burn, smite, or blast it; and especially to the corn in Egypt, whither it blew from the desert of Arabia: these

sprung up after them; after the seven full ears, in the same place the other did, or near unto them.

Gill: Gen 41:7 - And the seven thin ears devoured the seven rank and full ears // and Pharaoh awoke, and, behold, it was a dream And the seven thin ears devoured the seven rank and full ears,.... So it appeared to Pharaoh in his dream, which must be very amazing to behold, and u...

And the seven thin ears devoured the seven rank and full ears,.... So it appeared to Pharaoh in his dream, which must be very amazing to behold, and unaccountable how it should be:

and Pharaoh awoke, and, behold, it was a dream; not a real fact, but a dream; yet not a common dream, but had some important signification in it; it not vanishing from his mind, but abode upon it, which made him conclude there was something more than common in it, and made him very desirous to have the interpretation of it.

Gill: Gen 41:8 - And it came to pass in the morning, that his spirit was troubled // and he sent and called for all the magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof // and Pharaoh told them his dream // but there was none that could interpret them unto Pharaoh And it came to pass in the morning, that his spirit was troubled,.... With the thoughts of his dreams; they were uppermost in his mind; he was continu...

And it came to pass in the morning, that his spirit was troubled,.... With the thoughts of his dreams; they were uppermost in his mind; he was continually thinking of them; it was as if he had always the same images before him now awake, as well as when asleep, and therefore could not be easy without getting knowledge of the meaning of them:

and he sent and called for all the magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof; who pretended to have great skill in the things of nature, and in astrology and other sciences, by which they pretended to know future events, and to interpret dreams among other things; and show what they portended, and what things would happen for the accomplishment of them:

and Pharaoh told them his dream; both his dreams, which for the similarity of them, and there being so little interruption between them, are represented as one dream; for that both were told them appears by what follows:

but there was none that could interpret them unto Pharaoh; they were nonplussed and confounded, and did not know what to say; the things were so strange and surprising that he related, that they could not offer any conjectures about them, or, if they did, they were very unsatisfactory to Pharaoh.

Gill: Gen 41:9 - Then spake the chief butler unto Pharaoh // saying, I do remember my faults this day Then spake the chief butler unto Pharaoh,.... When the magicians and wise men could not interpret his dreams, he was in distress of mind on that accou...

Then spake the chief butler unto Pharaoh,.... When the magicians and wise men could not interpret his dreams, he was in distress of mind on that account:

saying, I do remember my faults this day; which some interpret of his forgetfulness of Joseph and his afflictions, and of his ingratitude to him, and breach of promise in not making mention of him to Pharaoh before this time; but they seem rather to be faults he had committed against Pharaoh, and were the reason of his being wroth with him, as in Gen 41:10; and these were either real faults, which the king had pardoned, or however such as he had been charged with, and cleared from; and which he now in a courtly manner takes to himself, and owns them, that the king's goodness and clemency to him might appear, and lest he should seem to charge the king with injustice in casting him into prison; which circumstance he could not avoid relating in the story he was about to tell.

Gill: Gen 41:10 - Pharaoh was wroth with his servants // and put me in ward in the captain of the guard's house // both me and the chief baker Pharaoh was wroth with his servants,.... Not with all of them, but with the butler and the baker. Aben Ezra observes here, that Pharaoh was not the pr...

Pharaoh was wroth with his servants,.... Not with all of them, but with the butler and the baker. Aben Ezra observes here, that Pharaoh was not the proper name of this king, but a title of office, and signifies the king; for it cannot be thought that the butler would use such freedom in his presence as to call him by his name: the true name of this prince, according to the eastern writers f, was Rian ben Walid; others take him to be Aphophis, the third of the Hycsi, or pastor kings: but, according to Bishop Usher g, his name was Mephramuthosis:

and put me in ward in the captain of the guard's house: in consequence of his wrath and displeasure, for crimes really or supposed to be committed by him; and the captain of the guard's house was a prison, or at least there was a prison in it for such sort of offenders; and this was Potiphar's, Joseph's master's, house:

both me and the chief baker; which explains who the officers were Pharaoh was wroth with, and who were for their offences committed to prison.

Gill: Gen 41:11 - And we dreamed a dream in one night, I and he // we dreamed each man according to the interpretation of his dream And we dreamed a dream in one night, I and he,.... In one and the same night: we dreamed each man according to the interpretation of his dream; the...

And we dreamed a dream in one night, I and he,.... In one and the same night:

we dreamed each man according to the interpretation of his dream; they both dreamed exactly what should befall them, as it was interpreted to them; the dreams, the interpretation of them, and the events, answered to each other.

Gill: Gen 41:12 - And there was there with us a young man // an Hebrew servant to the captain of the guard // and we told him // and he interpreted to us our dream, to each man according to his dream did he interpret And there was there with us a young man,.... Who was in the prison with them, had the care of them, and waited upon them; he was then about twenty ei...

And there was there with us a young man,.... Who was in the prison with them, had the care of them, and waited upon them; he was then about twenty eight years of age; for it was two years ago he speaks of, and Joseph was thirty when he stood before Pharaoh, Gen 41:46,

an Hebrew servant to the captain of the guard; he first describes him by his age, a young man, then by his descent, an Hebrew, and by his state and condition, a servant; neither of them tended much to recommend him to the king:

and we told him; that is, their dreams:

and he interpreted to us our dream, to each man according to his dream did he interpret; told them what their dreams presignified, what the events would be they portended; the interpretation was different according to their dreams.

Gill: Gen 41:13 - And it came to pass, as he interpreted to us, so it was // me he restored unto my office, and him he hanged And it came to pass, as he interpreted to us, so it was,.... The event answered to the interpretation, and showed it to be right; this is frequently h...

And it came to pass, as he interpreted to us, so it was,.... The event answered to the interpretation, and showed it to be right; this is frequently hinted and repeated, to show the exactness and certainty of the interpretation given, in order to recommend Joseph to Pharaoh the more:

me he restored unto my office, and him he hanged: that is, Joseph interpreted the butler's dream to such a sense, that he should be restored to his butlership, and accordingly he was; and the baker's dream, that he should be hanged, and so he was. Aben Ezra and Jarchi interpret this of Pharaoh, that he restored the one, and hanged the other, or ordered these things to be done, which answered to Joseph's interpretation of the dreams; but the former sense seems best, for Joseph is the person immediately spoken of in the preceding clause; nor would it have been so decent for the butler, in the presence of Pharaoh, to have spoken of him without naming him, and which would have been contrary to his usage before.

Gill: Gen 41:14 - Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph // and they brought him hastily out of the dungeon // and he shaved himself // and changed his raiment // and came in unto Pharaoh Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph,.... Sent messengers to him to come to him directly, ordered the captain of the guard, or keeper of prison, to loo...

Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph,.... Sent messengers to him to come to him directly, ordered the captain of the guard, or keeper of prison, to loose him, and let him free, see Psa 105:20,

and they brought him hastily out of the dungeon; that is, out of the prison house; which, as Jarchi says, was made like a ditch or dungeon, or in which the dungeon was where Joseph was first put when he was brought to prison; though it cannot be thought that he continued there when he had so much respect shown him by the keeper, and had other prisoners committed to his care: however, he was fetched in great haste from his place of confinement, by the messengers that were sent for him; or "they made him to run" h, from the prison to the palace, the king being so eager to have his dream interpreted to him:

and he shaved himself; or the barber shaved him, as Aben Ezra; his beard had not been shaved, nor the hair of his head cut very probably for a considerable time; it being usual for persons in such circumstances to neglect such things:

and changed his raiment; his prison garments being such as were not fit to appear in before a king, and put on others, which either the king sent him, or the captain of the guard his master furnished him with:

and came in unto Pharaoh: into his palace, and his presence; what city it was in which this Pharaoh kept his palace, is no where said; very probably it was which the Scriptures call Zoan, that being the ancient city of Egypt, Num 13:22.

Gill: Gen 41:15 - And Pharaoh said unto Joseph // I have dreamed a dream, and there is none that can interpret it // and I have heard say of thee, that thou canst understand a dream to interpret it And Pharaoh said unto Joseph,...., Immediately, upon his being introduced to him: I have dreamed a dream, and there is none that can interpret it;...

And Pharaoh said unto Joseph,...., Immediately, upon his being introduced to him:

I have dreamed a dream, and there is none that can interpret it; that he could yet meet with; none of his magicians or wise men, who made great pretensions to skill in such matters:

and I have heard say of thee, that thou canst understand a dream to interpret it; it had been reported to him, particularly by the chief butler, that when he heard a dream told him, he had such knowledge and understanding, that he could interpret it, tell the meaning of it, what it portended, and what would be the events signified by it.

Gill: Gen 41:16 - And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, it is not in me // God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, it is not in me,.... Which expresses his great modesty, that he did not arrogate such skill and wisdom to himsel...

And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, it is not in me,.... Which expresses his great modesty, that he did not arrogate such skill and wisdom to himself; declaring that he had no such power and abilities in and of himself, to interpret dreams; what he had was a gift of God, and wholly depended upon his influence, and the revelation he was pleased to make to him of such things:

God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace; such an answer to his request in the interpretation of his dream, as shall give him full content, and make his mind quiet and easy, and which shall tend to the welfare of him and his kingdom. Some render the words as a prayer or wish, "may God give Pharaoh", &c. i; so as it were addressing his God, that he would be pleased to make known to him his interpretation of the dream to the satisfaction of Pharaoh: but the other sense seems best, which expresses his faith in God, that he would do it, and to whom it should be ascribed, and not unto himself.

Gill: Gen 41:17 - And Pharaoh said unto Joseph // in my dream, behold, I stood upon the bank of the river And Pharaoh said unto Joseph,.... Relating both his dreams in a more ample manner, though to the same purpose, than before related: in my dream, be...

And Pharaoh said unto Joseph,.... Relating both his dreams in a more ample manner, though to the same purpose, than before related:

in my dream, behold, I stood upon the bank of the river; the river Nile, where he could have a full sight of what were after presented to his view.

Gill: Gen 41:18 - And, behold, there came up out of the river seven kine And, behold, there came up out of the river seven kine,.... Cows or heifers; see Gill on Gen 41:2; the account of them is the same here as there, and ...

And, behold, there came up out of the river seven kine,.... Cows or heifers; see Gill on Gen 41:2; the account of them is the same here as there, and of the place where they fed, only the words are transposed.

Gill: Gen 41:19 - And, behold, seven other kine // very ill favoured, and leanfleshed // poor // such as I never saw in all the land of Egypt, for badness And, behold, seven other kine,.... Here some addition is made: these are said not only to be very ill favoured, and leanfleshed; see Gill on Gen 41...

And, behold, seven other kine,.... Here some addition is made: these are said not only to be

very ill favoured, and leanfleshed; see Gill on Gen 41:3, but

poor, thin, meagre, exhausted of their flesh and strength through some disease upon them, or want of food: and it follows, what was not before expressed:

such as I never saw in all the land of Egypt, for badness; so poor, so lean, and so ill favoured; for whatever might be seen in other countries, never were such seen in Egypt, which was famous for good cattle.

Gill: Gen 41:20 - And the lean and the ill favoured kine And the lean and the ill favoured kine,.... The same as previously described; See Gill on Gen 41:4.

And the lean and the ill favoured kine,.... The same as previously described; See Gill on Gen 41:4.

Gill: Gen 41:21 - And when they had eaten them up // it could not be known that they had eaten them // but they were still ill favoured as at the beginning // so I awoke And when they had eaten them up,.... Or "were come into their bowels" k, into their inward parts, their bellies, being swallowed and devoured by them:...

And when they had eaten them up,.... Or "were come into their bowels" k, into their inward parts, their bellies, being swallowed and devoured by them:

it could not be known that they had eaten them: or were in their bellies, they seemed never the fuller nor the fatter for them:

but they were still ill favoured as at the beginning; looked as thin and as meagre as they did when they first came out of the river, or were first seen by Pharaoh:

so I awoke; surprised at what he had seen; this was his first dream.

Gill: Gen 41:22 - And I saw in my dream // and, behold, seven ears And I saw in my dream,.... Falling asleep again quickly, he dreamed a second time; and this dream being of a like kind with the former, and so small a...

And I saw in my dream,.... Falling asleep again quickly, he dreamed a second time; and this dream being of a like kind with the former, and so small a space between them, they are represented as one, and this is the continuation of it:

and, behold, seven ears, &c. See Gill on Gen 41:5.

Gill: Gen 41:23 - And, behold, seven ears withered And, behold, seven ears withered,.... Here a new epithet of the bad ears is given, and expressed by a word nowhere else used, which Ben Melech interpr...

And, behold, seven ears withered,.... Here a new epithet of the bad ears is given, and expressed by a word nowhere else used, which Ben Melech interprets, small, little, according to the use of the word in the Misnah; Aben Ezra, void, empty, such as had no grains of corn in them, nothing but husk or chaff, and observes that some render it images; for the word is so used in the Arabic language, and may signify that these ears were only mere shadows or images of ears, which had no substance in them: Jarchi says, the word, in the Syriac language signifies a rock, and so it denotes that these ears were dry as a rock, and had no moisture in them, laid dried, burnt up, and blasted with the east wind.

Gill: Gen 41:24 - And the thin ears devoured the seven good ears // and I told this unto the magicians // but there was none that could declare it unto me And the thin ears devoured the seven good ears,.... See Gill on Gen 41:7, and I told this unto the magicians; just in the same manner as he had to...

And the thin ears devoured the seven good ears,.... See Gill on Gen 41:7,

and I told this unto the magicians; just in the same manner as he had to Joseph:

but there was none that could declare it unto me; the meaning of it; what all this should signify or portend.

Gill: Gen 41:25 - And Joseph said unto Pharaoh, the dream of Pharaoh is one // God hath showed Pharaoh what he is about to do And Joseph said unto Pharaoh, the dream of Pharaoh is one,.... Though there were two distinct dreams expressed under different images and representat...

And Joseph said unto Pharaoh, the dream of Pharaoh is one,.... Though there were two distinct dreams expressed under different images and representations, yet the meaning, sense, and signification of them were the same; one interpretation would do for both:

God hath showed Pharaoh what he is about to do; that is, by the above dreams, when they should be interpreted to him; for as yet he understood them not, and therefore there could be nothing showed him, but when interpreted it would be clear and plain to him what events were quickly to be accomplished: God only knows things future, and those to whom he is pleased to reveal them, and which he did in different ways, by dreams, visions, articulate voices, &c.

Gill: Gen 41:26 - The seven good kine are seven years // and the seven good ears are seven years // the dream is one The seven good kine are seven years,.... Signify seven years, and these years of plenty, as appears from the antithesis in Gen 41:26, and the seve...

The seven good kine are seven years,.... Signify seven years, and these years of plenty, as appears from the antithesis in Gen 41:26,

and the seven good ears are seven years; signify the same:

the dream is one; for though the seven good kine were seen in one dream, the seven good ears in another, yet both dreams were one as to signification.

Gill: Gen 41:27 - And the seven thin and ill favoured kine that came up after them are seven years // and the seven empty ears blasted with the east wind shall be seven years of famine And the seven thin and ill favoured kine that came up after them are seven years,.... Signify other seven years, and these different from the former,...

And the seven thin and ill favoured kine that came up after them are seven years,.... Signify other seven years, and these different from the former, as follows:

and the seven empty ears blasted with the east wind shall be seven years of famine: or there will be seven years of famine that will answer to them, and are signified by them: Grotius, from the Oneirocritics or interpreters of dreams, observes, that years are signified by kine, and particularly he relates from Achmes, that according to the doctrine of the Egyptians, female oxen (and such these were) signified times and seasons, and if fat (as the good ones here also were) signified fruitful times, but if poor and thin (as the bad ones here were) barren times: it seems as if all this skill of theirs was borrowed from Joseph's interpretation of Pharaoh's dreams here given. Josephus l relates a dream of Archelaus the son of Herod, who dreamed that he saw ten ears of corn, full and large, devoured by oxen; he sent for the Chaldeans and others to tell him what they signified; one said one thing and another another; at length one Simon, an Essene, said that the ears signified years, and the oxen changes of affairs, because, when they plough up the earth, they turn it up and change it; so that he should reign as many years as were ears of corn seen, and after many changes should die, as he accordingly did.

Gill: Gen 41:28 - This is the thing which I have spoken unto Pharaoh // what God is about to do, he sheweth unto Pharaoh This is the thing which I have spoken unto Pharaoh,.... As an interpretation of his dreams: what God is about to do, he sheweth unto Pharaoh: the...

This is the thing which I have spoken unto Pharaoh,.... As an interpretation of his dreams:

what God is about to do, he sheweth unto Pharaoh: the events of fourteen years with respect to plenty and sterility.

Gill: Gen 41:29 - Behold, there come seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt. Behold, there come seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt. Not only a sufficiency but an abundance, even to luxury, as when the ...

Behold, there come seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt. Not only a sufficiency but an abundance, even to luxury, as when the Nile rose to sixteen cubits, as Pliny observes m; which, though a natural cause, was owing to God, and that it should thus overflow for seven years successively, and cause such a continued plenty, can be ascribed to no other.

Gill: Gen 41:30 - And there shall arise after them seven years of famine // and all the plenty shall be forgotten in the land of Egypt // and the famine shall consume the land And there shall arise after them seven years of famine,.... Which might be occasioned by the river Nile not rising so high as to overflow its banks, a...

And there shall arise after them seven years of famine,.... Which might be occasioned by the river Nile not rising so high as to overflow its banks, as, when it did not rise to more than twelve cubits, a famine ensued, as the above writer says n; and it must be owing to the overruling providence of God that this should be the case for seven years running:

and all the plenty shall be forgotten in the land of Egypt; the seven years of plenty being all spent, it should be as if it never was; the minds of men would be so intent upon their present distressed case and circumstances, that they should wholly forget how it had been with them in time past; or it would be as if they had never enjoyed it, or were never the better for it: this answers to and explains how it was with the ill favoured kine, when they had eaten up the fat kine; they seemed never the better, nor could it be known by their appearance that they had so done:

and the famine shall consume the land: the inhabitants of it, and all the fruits and increase of it the former years produced.

Gill: Gen 41:31 - And the plenty shall not be known in the land, by reason of that famine following // for it shall be very grievous And the plenty shall not be known in the land, by reason of that famine following,.... That is, before it would be over; otherwise the former plenty w...

And the plenty shall not be known in the land, by reason of that famine following,.... That is, before it would be over; otherwise the former plenty was in some measure known by the stores of provisions laid up in the seven years of it, and which were brought forth when the famine became very pressing; but by that time, and before the seven years of it were ended, there were no traces of the foregoing plenty to be observed:

for it shall be very grievous; as it was both in Egypt and in all the countries round about.

Gill: Gen 41:32 - And for that the dream was doubled unto Pharaoh twice // it is because the thing is established by God // and God will shortly bring it to pass And for that the dream was doubled unto Pharaoh twice,.... Or was repeated to him under different figures and images: it is because the thing is ...

And for that the dream was doubled unto Pharaoh twice,.... Or was repeated to him under different figures and images:

it is because the thing is established by God; by a firm decree of his, and is sure, and will most certainly be accomplished; of which Pharaoh might be assured, and to assure him of it was the repetition of the dream made:

and God will shortly bring it to pass: or "make haste to do it" o, that is, would soon begin to accomplish these events; for, as Bishop Usher p observes, from the harvest of this (the then present) year, the seven years of plenty are reckoned.

Gill: Gen 41:33 - Now therefore let Pharaoh look out a man discreet and wise // and set him over the land of Egypt Now therefore let Pharaoh look out a man discreet and wise,.... Of good judgment and conduct, of abilities equal to the execution of a scheme hereafte...

Now therefore let Pharaoh look out a man discreet and wise,.... Of good judgment and conduct, of abilities equal to the execution of a scheme hereafter proposed: it can scarcely be thought consistent with the great modesty of Joseph that he meant himself, or that indeed, he ventured to give any advice at all, until it was first asked of him by the king; who being so well satisfied with the interpretation of his dreams, thought him a proper person to consult with what to be done in this case; who, as a true father of his country, as every king should be, was concerned for the good of it, and to provide against the worst for them:

and set him over the land of Egypt; not to be governor of it in general, but with a particular respect to the present case, to take care of provision for it.

Gill: Gen 41:34 - Let Pharaoh do this // and let him appoint officers over the land // and take up the fifth part of the land of Egypt in the seven plenteous years Let Pharaoh do this,.... Appoint such a person; who as a sovereign prince could do it of himself: and let him appoint officers over the land; not ...

Let Pharaoh do this,.... Appoint such a person; who as a sovereign prince could do it of himself:

and let him appoint officers over the land; not Pharaoh, but the wise and discreet governor he should set over the land, who should have a power of appointing officers or overseers under him to manage things according to his direction:

and take up the fifth part of the land of Egypt in the seven plenteous years; not the officers appointed, but the appointer of them, the chief governor under Pharaoh, for the word is singular; it is proposed that he should, in Pharaoh's name, and by his order, take a fifth part of all the corn in the land of Egypt during seven years of plenty; not by force, which so good a man as Joseph would never advise to, whatever power Pharaoh might have, and could exercise if he pleased; but by making a purchase of it, which in such time of plenty would be bought cheap, and which so great a prince as Pharaoh was capable of. It is commonly asked, why an half part was not ordered to be took up, since there were to be as many years of famine as of plenty? and to this it is usually replied, that besides this fifth part taken up, as there might be an old stock of former years, so there would be something considerable remain of these seven years of plenty, which men of substance would lay up, as Pharaoh did; and besides, a fifth part might be equal to the crop of an ordinary year, or near it: to which may be added, that in times of famine men live more sparingly, as they are obliged, and therefore such a quantity would go the further; as well as it may be considered, that notwithstanding the barrenness of the land in general, yet in some places, especially on the banks of the Nile, some corn might be produced; so that upon the whole a fifth part might be judged sufficient to answer the extremity of the seven years of famine, and even to allow a distribution to other countries.

Gill: Gen 41:35 - And let them, gather all the food of those good years that come // and lay up corn under the hand of Pharaoh // and let them keep food in the cities And let them, gather all the food of those good years that come,.... That is, let the under officers collect together the fifth part of all fruits of ...

And let them, gather all the food of those good years that come,.... That is, let the under officers collect together the fifth part of all fruits of the land during the seven years of plenty:

and lay up corn under the hand of Pharaoh; as his property, and only to be disposed of by his orders; for as it was to be purchased with his money, it was right that it should be in his hands, or in the hands of his officers appointed by him, as the Targum of Jonathan:

and let them keep food in the cities; reserve it in the several cities throughout the land, against the years of famine.

Gill: Gen 41:36 - And that food shall be for store to the land // against the seven years of famine which shall be in the land of Egypt // that the land perish not through the famine And that food shall be for store to the land,.... A deposit in the said cities, to be brought forth and used in a time of public distress; the Targum ...

And that food shall be for store to the land,.... A deposit in the said cities, to be brought forth and used in a time of public distress; the Targum of Jonathan is, it"shall be hidden in a cave in the earth:"

against the seven years of famine which shall be in the land of Egypt: and so be a supply to the inhabitants of the land, when they should be sore pressed with a famine, and know not what to do, nor where to go for food:

that the land perish not through the famine; that is, that the people of the land perish not, as the above Targum, which, without such a provision, they would have been in great danger of perishing. Justin, an Heathen writer q, confirms this account of the advice of Joseph, of whom he says, that"he was exceeding sagacious of things wonderful, and first found out the meaning of dreams; and nothing of right, divine or human, seemed unknown to him, so that he could foresee the barrenness of land many years beforehand; and all Egypt would have perished with the famine, if the king, by his advice, had not commanded an edict, that the fruits of the earth, for many years, should be preserved.''

Gill: Gen 41:37 - And the thing was good in the eyes of Pharaoh // and in the eyes of all his servants And the thing was good in the eyes of Pharaoh,.... He approved of the advice Joseph gave, and of the scheme and plan which he proposed: and in the ...

And the thing was good in the eyes of Pharaoh,.... He approved of the advice Joseph gave, and of the scheme and plan which he proposed:

and in the eyes of all his servants; his nobles, ministers of state and courtiers, all highly commended and applauded it; and it was with the general and unanimous consent of all agreed that it should be put into execution: but then the next question, and the thing to be considered, was, who was a person fit to be engaged in such an affair?

Gill: Gen 41:38 - And Pharaoh said unto his servants // can we find such an one as this is, in whom the Spirit of God is And Pharaoh said unto his servants,.... That were about him, and with whom he was consulting about a proper person to be over this affair of gathering...

And Pharaoh said unto his servants,.... That were about him, and with whom he was consulting about a proper person to be over this affair of gathering in the fruits of the earth in the time of plenty, and laying them up against a time of famine:

can we find such an one as this is, in whom the Spirit of God is? if we search among all the ranks and degrees of men throughout the kingdom, let them be of what character they will, we shall never find a man like this, who appears to have the Spirit of God, or "of the gods", as he in his Heathenish way spoke, and which he concluded from his vast knowledge of things; and especially of things future: hence the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan interpret it, the spirit of prophecy from the Lord.

Gill: Gen 41:39 - And Pharaoh said unto Joseph // forasmuch as God hath shewed thee all this // there is none so discreet and wise as thou art And Pharaoh said unto Joseph,.... After his servants had agreed to his being the man: at least Pharaoh had declared his mind that he should be the per...

And Pharaoh said unto Joseph,.... After his servants had agreed to his being the man: at least Pharaoh had declared his mind that he should be the person; which if any of them disliked, as probably might be the case of some through envy, and as desirous of the post themselves, yet durst not make any opposition to it:

forasmuch as God hath shewed thee all this; the interpretation of his dreams, what would be hereafter for fourteen years to come, what was advisable to be done for the good of the nation, and had proposed a plan so well contrived and formed:

there is none so discreet and wise as thou art; and consequently none so fit for this business, since he was so divinely qualified; and Justin, the Heathen writer r, observes that he had such knowledge and experience of things, that his answers seemed to be given not from men, but from God.

Gill: Gen 41:40 - Thou shall be over my house // and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled // only in the throne will I be greater than thou Thou shall be over my house,...., Have the care of his domestic affairs, and be the principal man in his palace and court: and according unto thy w...

Thou shall be over my house,...., Have the care of his domestic affairs, and be the principal man in his palace and court:

and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled; not only in his family, but in his whole kingdom; whatever he ordered and commanded them to do, they should it, or "all my people shall kiss" s, that is, either their hand at the sight of him, or meeting him, in token of respect and veneration shall yield a ready and cheerful obedience to him, of which the kiss was a sign, see Psa 2:12. The Targum of Onkelos renders it, "shall be fed" t, supplied with corn, and with all necessary provisions, and so Jarchi interprets it; which is restraining it to that part of his office which concerned the gathering and laying up their stores for time to come; but the Targum of Jonathan is, "shall be armed" u; and so Aben Ezra makes him the prince or general of the army, or who had the militia at his command, and could arm them when he pleased; but it seems to denote a more large and unlimited power than either of these, even the government of the whole land under the king, who only excepts himself:

only in the throne will I be greater than thou; that is, he alone would be king, wear the crown sit upon the throne, and have all the ensigns of royal majesty, in which Joseph was to have no share; otherwise he was to have an executive power and authority over all his subjects in the land, even to bind his princes at pleasure, and to teach, instruct, and direct his senators, Psa 105:21.

Gill: Gen 41:41 - And Pharaoh said unto Joseph // see, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt And Pharaoh said unto Joseph,.... He continued speaking to him for the greater confirmation of what he had said, and for further explanation of it: ...

And Pharaoh said unto Joseph,.... He continued speaking to him for the greater confirmation of what he had said, and for further explanation of it:

see, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt; not merely as the corn master general, to take care of a provision of corn in time of plenty, against a time of scarcity, but as a viceroy or deputy governor over the whole land, as appears by the ensigns of honour and dignity bestowed on him; of which in the following verses.

Gill: Gen 41:42 - And Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it upon Joseph's hand // and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen // and put a gold chain about his neck And Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it upon Joseph's hand,.... Which, as it was expressive of the interest he had in his royal favour...

And Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it upon Joseph's hand,.... Which, as it was expressive of the interest he had in his royal favour, so was a token of that high office and great dignity to which he was promoted: thus among the Romans, in later times, when anyone was put into the equestrian order, a ring was given to him w; for originally none but knights were allowed to wear rings; and it was sometimes used to design a successor in the kingdom, as, when Alexander was dying, he took his ring from off his finger, and gave it to Perdicca x, which was understood, though he did not express it, that he should be his successor, in the Apocrypha:"14 Then called he for Philip, one of his friends, who he made ruler over all his realm, 15 And gave him the crown, and his robe, and his signet, to the end he should bring up his son Antiochus, and nourish him up for the kingdom.'' (1 Maccabees 6)Now, though Pharaoh did not by this intend to point out Joseph for his successor in the kingdom, yet he gave him his ring as a mark of honour, and as being in place next unto his viceroy or deputy: and besides, as it is observed by many, this might be his signet, or the ring which had his seal upon it, by which he sealed patents and public deeds, and which he gave to Joseph to make use of in his name; though Schmidt doubts whether this was such a ring, since kings and princes have been used to have larger for such purposes, than what are wore on the finger: by this it appears, that Pliny y was mistaken that there were no rings in and before the time of Troy:

and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen; of which there was the best sort in Egypt, and which great personages used to wear:

and put a gold chain about his neck; another badge of honour and dignity, see Dan 5:16.

Gill: Gen 41:43 - And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had // and they cried before him, bow the knee // and he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had,.... By which it appeared that he was next to Pharaoh, but not above him; as kings were won...

And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had,.... By which it appeared that he was next to Pharaoh, but not above him; as kings were wont to have more chariots than one, those were distinguished by first, second, &c. being of greater state the one than the other, see 2Ch 35:24,

and they cried before him, bow the knee; that is, his guard that attended him, when he rode out in his chariot, called to the people, as they passed along, to bow the knee to Joseph, as a token of veneration and respect; or they proclaimed him "Abrech", which Onkelos paraphrases, this is the father of the king; and so Jarchi, who observes, that "Rech" signifies a king in the Syriac language; and this agrees with what Joseph himself says, that God had made him a father to Pharaoh, Gen 45:8. Others render it a tender father; and the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem take in both senses,"this is the father of the king, (or let the father of the king live, so the Jerusalem,) who is great in wisdom, and tender in years:''though rather he may be so called, because he acted the part of a tender father to the country, in providing corn for them against a time of scarcity:

and he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt; appointed him to be governor of the whole land, and invested him with that office, and made him appear to be so, by the grandeur he raised him to.

Gill: Gen 41:44 - And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I am Pharaoh // and without thee shall not a man lift up his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I am Pharaoh,.... Or I am king, which the word Pharaoh signifies, as Josephus z says; and that this is not a proper nam...

And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I am Pharaoh,.... Or I am king, which the word Pharaoh signifies, as Josephus z says; and that this is not a proper name, but a title of office, seems plain from these words; and the sense either is, that though Pharaoh had raised Joseph to such high honour and dignity, yet he alone was king: or this he said to show his power and authority to do what he had done, and would stand by him, and support him in his office and grandeur:

and without thee shall not a man lift up his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt; which is to be taken not in a strict literal sense, but proverbially, signifying, that nothing should be done in the nation of any moment or importance, relating to political affairs, but what was by his order and authority; the hands and feet being the principal instruments of action. The Targum of Jonathan is,"without thy word (or order) a man shall not lift up his hand to gird on armour, or his foot to mount a horse;''signifying thereby, that all things relating to war and peace should be altogether under his direction.

Gill: Gen 41:45 - And Pharaoh called Joseph's name Zaphnathpaaneah // and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Potipherah // priest of On // and Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt And Pharaoh called Joseph's name Zaphnathpaaneah,.... Which, according to the paraphrase of Onkelos, signifies one to whom hidden things are revealed;...

And Pharaoh called Joseph's name Zaphnathpaaneah,.... Which, according to the paraphrase of Onkelos, signifies one to whom hidden things are revealed; or, as Jonathan, a revealer of secrets; and so most of the Jewish writers explain it; and which seems to be given him from his interpreting Pharaoh's dreams, and revealing what was hereafter to come to pass. The word is only used in this place, at least the latter part of it and Aben Ezra confesses his ignorance of it, whether it is an Egyptian word or not; Kircher a most asserts it, and says it signifies a prophet (or foreteller) of future things. Though some think the first part of the name has some respect to the Egyptian idol Baal Zephon, Exo 14:2, and that, in this new name Pharaoh gave Joseph upon his promotion, he inserted the name of his god, as Nebuchadnezzar, when he gave new names to Daniel and his comparisons, Dan 1:7,

and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Potipherah; not the same with Potiphar, Joseph's master, as Jarchi says, not only their, names differ, but also their offices; nor would Joseph, it is imagined, marry the daughter of such a woman, so wicked as his mistress was, and had so much abused him, and been the cause of all his troubles; nor was this Asenath the daughter of Dinah by Shechem, as some Jewish writers b assert, whom Potiphar's wife, having no child, brought up as her own, which is not at all probable; but an Egyptian woman, the daughter of the person before named: who was

priest of On: the same with Aven; See Gill on Eze 30:17; and which in Ptolemy c is called Onii, about twenty two miles from Memphis, and said to be the metropolis of the "Heliopolitan home"; and has been since called "Heliopolis", as it is here in the Septuagint version, which signifies the city of the sun, and is the same with Bethshemesh, the house of the sun, Jer 43:13; where, as Herodotus d says, the sun was worshipped, and sacrifice offered to it, and the inhabitants of this place are by him said to be the wisest and most rational of the Egyptians e; here Potipherah, Joseph's father-in-law, was "priest"; and Strabo f says, at Heliopolis we saw large houses, in which the priests dwelt; for here especially of old it was said, that this was the habitation of priests, of philosophers, and such as were given to astronomy: the Septuagint version and Josephus g call this man Petephre; and an Heathen writer h, Pentephre, a priest of Heliopolis; which a very learned man i says, in the Egyptian tongue, signifies a priest of the sun; and so Philo says k, that Joseph married the daughter of a famous man in Egypt, who had the priesthood of the sun. But the word may as well be rendered "prince" l, as it is when there is nothing to determine its sense otherwise, as there is none here; and it is more likely, that Pharaoh should marry his prime minister into the family of one of his princes than of his priests; this seems to be more agreeable to the high rank that Joseph was raised to, as well as more suitable to his character as a worshipper of the true God, who would not choose to marry the daughter of an idolatrous priest: though, according to Diodorus Siculus m, the Egyptian priests were second to the king in honour and authority, and were always about him, and were of his council; and Aelianus, says n, that formerly with the Egyptians the judges were priests, and the eldest of them was a prince, and had the power of judging all; and even Sethon, king of Egypt, was a priest of Vulcan: whether this prince or priest was of the king's family, or whether the kings of Egypt had a power to dispose of the daughters of their subjects, especially of their priests or princes when dead, is not certain: perhaps no more, as Bishop Patrick observes, is meant, than that Pharaoh made this match, and which was a mark of great honour and affection to Joseph; and which, if even disagreeable to him, being an idolater, he could not well refuse:

and Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt; either the name and fame of him, as Aben Ezra interprets it, see Mat 4:24; or rather he himself went forth in all his grandeur before related, and took a tour, throughout the whole land to observe the fruitfulness of it, and make choice of proper places to lay up his intended stores.

Gill: Gen 41:46 - And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt // and Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh // and went throughout all the land of Egypt And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt,.... Interpreting his dreams, and had such honour conferred upon him as to...

And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt,.... Interpreting his dreams, and had such honour conferred upon him as to be made his prime minister; from whence it appears that Joseph had now been thirteen years in Egypt, partly in Potiphar's house, and partly in prison, since he was seventeen years of age when he was sold thither, see Gen 37:2,

and Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh; from standing before him, and ministering to him as his counsellor and chief statesman, or he went out from his court and palace for a while:

and went throughout all the land of Egypt: this seems to be a second tour; before he went to survey the land, and pitch upon the most proper places for granaries to lay up store of corn in; and now he went through it, to gather in and give directions about it, and see it performed, for the years of plenty were now begun.

Gill: Gen 41:47 - And in the seven plenteous years the earth brought forth by handfuls. And in the seven plenteous years the earth brought forth by handfuls. Such as the gatherers take up in their hands when reaped, in order to bind up in...

And in the seven plenteous years the earth brought forth by handfuls. Such as the gatherers take up in their hands when reaped, in order to bind up in sheaves: now such was the fruitfulness of the land during the seven years of plenty, that either one stalk produced as many ears as a man could hold in his hand; or one grain produced an handful, as Ben Melech observes; though Onkelos paraphrases the words,"the inhabitants of the earth in the seven years of plenty gathered even into their treasuries:''and this they did by the order and direction of Joseph as he passed through the land; what he bought of them they brought, and put into the granaries, as he directed them.

Gill: Gen 41:48 - And he gathered up all the food of the seven years // which were in the land of Egypt // and laid up the food in the cities // the food of the field, which was round about every city, laid he up in the same And he gathered up all the food of the seven years,.... That is, of plenty; not all the fruits of the earth, or all that was eatable, but the corn, as...

And he gathered up all the food of the seven years,.... That is, of plenty; not all the fruits of the earth, or all that was eatable, but the corn, as in Gen 41:49; and not all of that the earth produced, but the fifth part of it, as he proposed, which he bought with Pharaoh's money, and therefore: had a right to sell it again as he did:

which were in the land of Egypt; in which only he had a concern, and where only was this plenty:

and laid up the food in the cities; in places built for that purpose, and whither the people round about could easily bring it, and fetch it, when it was wanted:

the food of the field, which was round about every city, laid he up in the same; which was very wisely done, for present carriage, and for the convenience of the people in time of famine. At this day, at old Cairo, is an edifice the most considerable in it, called Joseph's granary; it occupies a square, surrounded by a wall, and has divers partitions contrived within it, where is deposited the corn, that is paid as a tax to the Gram Seignior, brought from different parts of Egypt o.

Gill: Gen 41:49 - And Joseph gathered corn as the sand of the sea, very much // until he left numbering // for it was without number And Joseph gathered corn as the sand of the sea, very much, until he left numbering,.... At first he took an account of the quantities that were bo...

And Joseph gathered corn as the sand of the sea, very much,

until he left numbering,.... At first he took an account of the quantities that were bought and laid up, how much there was in each granary, until it amounted to so much, that there was no end of numbering it; it was like the sand of the sea, an hyperbolical expression, denoting the great abundance of it:

for it was without number; not only the grains of corn, but even the measures of it, whatever were used; so Artapanus, an Heathen writer, says p, Joseph, when governor of Egypt, got together the corn of seven years, an immense quantity.

Gill: Gen 41:50 - And unto Joseph were born two sons // before the years of famine came // which Asenath, the daughter of Potipherah priest of On, bare unto him And unto Joseph were born two sons,.... The word for "born" is singular; hence Ben Melech conjectures that they were twins: and this was before the...

And unto Joseph were born two sons,.... The word for "born" is singular; hence Ben Melech conjectures that they were twins: and this was

before the years of famine came; or "the year of famine" q; the first year:

which Asenath, the daughter of Potipherah priest of On, bare unto him; which is observed, to show that he had them by his lawful wife; whom the Targum of Jonathan wrongly again makes the daughter of Dinah, and her father prince of Tanis, the same with Zoan; whereas this was "On" or "Heliopolis", a very different place; so Artapanus says r, that Joseph married the daughter of the priest of Heliopolis, by whom he had children; and another Heathen writer s mentions their names, Ephraim and Manesseh.

Gill: Gen 41:51 - And Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh // for God, said he, hath made me forget all my toil, and all my father's house And Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh,.... Which signifies forgetfulness, as the reason of it shows: for God, said he, hath made me...

And Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh,.... Which signifies forgetfulness, as the reason of it shows:

for God, said he, hath made me forget all my toil, and all my father's house; all his toil and labour in Potiphar's house, and especially in the prison; and all the injuries his brethren had done him; all this he was made to forget by the grandeur and honour, wealth and riches, power and authority he was possessed of; and indeed he had so much business upon his hands, that he had scarce time to think of his father, and his family.

Gill: Gen 41:52 - And the name of the second called he Ephraim // for God hath caused me to be fruitful in the land of my affliction And the name of the second called he Ephraim,.... Which signifies fruits or fruitfulness; and being of the dual number, may intend both his spiritual ...

And the name of the second called he Ephraim,.... Which signifies fruits or fruitfulness; and being of the dual number, may intend both his spiritual and temporal fruitfulness God had blessed him with:

for God hath caused me to be fruitful in the land of my affliction; in the land of Egypt, where he had been long afflicted, even for the space of thirteen years, more or less, in his master's house, and in the prison; but God had made him fruitful in grace and good works, in holiness, humility, &c. and oftentimes afflictive seasons are the most fruitful ones in this sense. God also bestowed great gifts upon him, as skill in the interpretation of dreams, wisdom in political affairs, a large abundance of wealth, and riches, honour and glory; to which may be added, the fruit of his body, his two children.

Gill: Gen 41:53 - And the seven years of plenteousness that was in the land of Egypt were ended. And the seven years of plenteousness that was in the land of Egypt were ended. Perhaps quickly after the birth of Ephraim, Joseph's second son; since ...

And the seven years of plenteousness that was in the land of Egypt were ended. Perhaps quickly after the birth of Ephraim, Joseph's second son; since the account follows upon that, and it is certain that he was born before the years of famine began, Gen 41:50; some connect the words, "moreover when" the seven years of plenty were ended, then began, as follows, seven years of famine; these events were fulfilled just as Joseph had predicted.

Gill: Gen 41:54 - And the seven years of dearth began to come, as Joseph had said // and the dearth was in all lands // but in all the land of Egypt there was bread And the seven years of dearth began to come, as Joseph had said,.... In the interpretation of Pharaoh's dreams; as soon as the seven years of plenty w...

And the seven years of dearth began to come, as Joseph had said,.... In the interpretation of Pharaoh's dreams; as soon as the seven years of plenty were over, there were quickly some appearances of the famine coming on; as particularly the river Nile not flowing to its usual height at the season of it; hence there was a drought, the earth was parched, and everything began to wither and decay, and the seed that was sown sprung not up:

and the dearth was in all lands; adjoining to Egypt, as Syria, Arabia, Palestine, Canaan, &c.

but in all the land of Egypt there was bread; which was in the hands of everyone, and remained of their old stores in the years of plenty not yet exhausted, and which continued for some time after the dearth began. It is very probable that to this seven years' drought in Egypt Ovid t refers, which he makes to be nine; as does also Apollodorus u.

Gill: Gen 41:55 - And when all the land of Egypt was famished // the people cried to Pharaoh for bread // and Pharaoh said to the Egyptians, go unto Joseph // what he saith to you, do And when all the land of Egypt was famished,.... Their old stock and store eaten up, and the inhabitants ready to starve with hunger: the people cr...

And when all the land of Egypt was famished,.... Their old stock and store eaten up, and the inhabitants ready to starve with hunger:

the people cried to Pharaoh for bread; as their common father, and knowing that he had stores of provision laid up in all cities against this time:

and Pharaoh said to the Egyptians, go unto Joseph; whom he had appointed over this business of providing and laying up corn against this time, and of distributing it:

what he saith to you, do; give the price for the corn he fixes or requires; for this was the principal thing they had to do with him, to get corn for their money.

Gill: Gen 41:56 - And the famine was over all the face of the earth // and Joseph opened all the storehouses // and sold unto the Egyptians // and the famine waxed sore in the land of Egypt And the famine was over all the face of the earth,.... Not over the whole world, but the land of Egypt; all the inhabitants of it were pinched with it...

And the famine was over all the face of the earth,.... Not over the whole world, but the land of Egypt; all the inhabitants of it were pinched with it, rich and poor; it reached all parts and all sorts of men:

and Joseph opened all the storehouses; in the several cities throughout the land where he had laid up corn:

and sold unto the Egyptians; for, as he had bought it with Pharaoh's money, it was no injustice to sell it; and as it could be sold at a moderate price, and yet Pharaoh get enough by it, being bought cheap in a time of plenty, no doubt but Joseph, who was a kind and benevolent man, sold it at such a price:

and the famine waxed sore in the land of Egypt; there being no overflow of the Nile year after year, and nothing left of the old stock but what was in the storehouses.

Gill: Gen 41:57 - And all countries came into Egypt to Joseph for to buy corn // because that the famine was so sore in all lands And all countries came into Egypt to Joseph for to buy corn,.... All the neighbouring nations (Syria, Arabia, Palestine, Canaan, &c.), when they hear...

And all countries came into Egypt to Joseph for to buy corn,.... All the neighbouring nations (Syria, Arabia, Palestine, Canaan, &c.), when they heard there was corn there for money, came from all parts for it, and were glad to get it at such expense and trouble:

because that the famine was so sore in all lands; that there was no bread to be got for money elsewhere. It is thought by many, that for this care of Joseph in laying up provision against this time of need, and which was the preservation of the Egyptians, he was worshipped by them under various names; as the Apis, which was an ox, a sign of fruitfulness; and Serapis, sometimes figured as a young man carrying a basket of bread on his head; and Osiris, who is sometimes represented with a bushel on his head. However, this is certain, that he was an eminent type of Christ in all this, both in his estate of humiliation and exaltation: as Joseph was wrongly charged by his mistress, so was Christ falsely accused by the Jews; as he was cast into prison and bound there, so Christ was taken and bound as a prisoner; as Joseph was raised to great honour and glory in Pharaoh's court, so Christ was exalted by his Father, and crowned with glory and honour; and if the new name given him, "Zaphnathpaaneah", signifies the Saviour of the world, as some interpret it, it agrees well with Christ, who was sent into the world for that purpose; and indeed, if it means a revealer of secrets, it suits with him, who hath declared his Father's mind and will, and revealed the mysteries of his grace to the sons of men: and as Joseph had all the stores of corn under his care, and the needy were bid to go to him for it, so Christ has all the treasures of grace in his hand, and all that are sensible of their need of it are directed to go to him for it; and it is from him that men of all nations and countries receive grace for grace, and have all their supplies, and spiritual sustenance and nourishment.

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NET Notes: Gen 41:1 Heb “was dreaming.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:2 Heb “And look, he was standing by the Nile, and look, from the Nile were coming up seven cows, attractive of appearance and fat of flesh.”...

NET Notes: Gen 41:3 Heb “the Nile.” This has been replaced by “the river” in the translation for stylistic reasons.

NET Notes: Gen 41:5 Heb “fat.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:6 Heb “And look.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:7 Pharaoh’s two dreams, as explained in the following verses, pertained to the economy of Egypt. Because of the Nile River, the land of Egypt weat...

NET Notes: Gen 41:8 Heb “for Pharaoh.” The pronoun “him” has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons.

NET Notes: Gen 41:9 Heb “sins, offenses.” He probably refers here to the offenses that landed him in prison (see 40:1).

NET Notes: Gen 41:11 Heb “and we dreamed a dream in one night, I and he, each according to the interpretation of his dream we dreamed.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:12 Heb “and he interpreted for us our dreams, each according to his dream he interpreted.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:13 Heb “him”; the referent (the baker) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Gen 41:14 Heb “and Pharaoh sent and called,” indicating a summons to the royal court.

NET Notes: Gen 41:15 Heb “you hear a dream to interpret it,” which may mean, “you only have to hear a dream to be able to interpret it.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:16 The expression שְׁלוֹם פַּרְעֹה (shÿlom par’oh) i...

NET Notes: Gen 41:17 Heb “In my dream look, I was standing.” The use of the particle הִנֵּה (hinneh, “look”) he...

NET Notes: Gen 41:18 Heb “and look, from the Nile seven cows were coming up, fat of flesh and attractive of appearance, and they grazed in the reeds.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:19 The word “cows” is supplied here in the translation for stylistic reasons.

NET Notes: Gen 41:20 Heb “the seven first fat cows.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:21 Heb “it was not known.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:22 Heb “and I saw in my dream and look.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:23 Heb “And look.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:24 Heb “and there was no one telling me.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:25 The active participle here indicates what is imminent.

NET Notes: Gen 41:26 Heb “one dream it is.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:27 Heb “are.” Another option is to translate, “There will be seven years of famine.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:28 Heb “it is the word that I spoke.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:30 The Hebrew verb כָּלָה (kalah) in the Piel stem means “to finish, to destroy, to bring an end to.” The...

NET Notes: Gen 41:31 Or “heavy.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:32 The clause combines a participle and an infinitive construct: God “is hurrying…to do it,” meaning he is going to do it soon.

NET Notes: Gen 41:33 Heb “and let him set him.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:34 Heb “and he shall collect a fifth of the land of Egypt.” The language is figurative (metonymy); it means what the land produces, i.e., the...

NET Notes: Gen 41:35 The perfect with vav (ו) consecutive carries the same force as the sequence of jussives before it.

NET Notes: Gen 41:36 Heb “and the land will not be cut off in the famine.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:37 Heb “and the matter was good in the eyes of Pharaoh and in the eyes of all his servants.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:38 The rhetorical question expects the answer “No, of course not!”

NET Notes: Gen 41:39 Heb “as discerning and wise.” The order has been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.

NET Notes: Gen 41:40 Heb “only the throne, I will be greater than you.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:41 Joseph became the grand vizier of the land of Egypt. See W. A. Ward, “The Egyptian Office of Joseph,” JSS 5 (1960): 144-50; and R. de Vaux...

NET Notes: Gen 41:42 The Hebrew word שֵׁשׁ (shesh) is an Egyptian loanword that describes the fine linen robes that Egyptian royalty wore. Th...

NET Notes: Gen 41:43 The verb form appears to be a causative imperative from a verbal root meaning “to kneel.” It is a homonym of the word “bless” ...

NET Notes: Gen 41:44 The idiom “lift up hand or foot” means “take any action” here.

NET Notes: Gen 41:45 Heb “and he passed through.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:46 Heb “and he passed through all the land of Egypt”; this phrase is interpreted by JPS to mean that Joseph “emerged in charge of the w...

NET Notes: Gen 41:47 Heb “brought forth by handfuls.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:48 Heb “of the seven years which were in the land of Egypt and placed food in the cities.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:49 Heb “and Joseph gathered grain like the sand of the sea, multiplying much.” To emphasize the vast amount of grain he stored up, the Hebrew...

NET Notes: Gen 41:50 Heb “gave birth for him.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:51 Or “for.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:52 Or “for.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:54 Heb “began to arrive.”

NET Notes: Gen 41:55 Heb “to all Egypt.” The name of the country is used by metonymy for the inhabitants.

NET Notes: Gen 41:56 The MT reads “he opened all that was in [or “among”] them.” The translation follows the reading of the LXX and Syriac versions...

NET Notes: Gen 41:57 Heb “all the earth,” which refers here (by metonymy) to the people of the earth. Note that the following verb is plural in form, indicatin...

Geneva Bible: Gen 41:1 And it came to pass at the end of two full years, that Pharaoh ( a ) dreamed: and, behold, he stood by the river. ( a ) This dream was not so much fo...

Geneva Bible: Gen 41:5 And he slept and dreamed the ( b ) second time: and, behold, seven ears of corn came up upon one stalk, rank and good. ( b ) All these means God used...

Geneva Bible: Gen 41:8 And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was ( c ) troubled; and he sent and called for all the magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men the...

Geneva Bible: Gen 41:9 Then spake the chief butler unto Pharaoh, saying, I ( e ) do remember my faults this day: ( e ) He confesses his fault against the king before he spe...

Geneva Bible: Gen 41:14 Then Pharaoh sent and called ( f ) Joseph, and they brought him hastily out of the dungeon: and he shaved [himself], and changed his raiment, and came...

Geneva Bible: Gen 41:16 And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, ( g ) [It is] not in me: God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace. ( g ) As though he would say if I interpret ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 41:25 And Joseph said unto Pharaoh, ( h ) The dream of Pharaoh [is] one: God hath shewed Pharaoh what he [is] about to do. ( h ) Both his dreams have the s...

Geneva Bible: Gen 41:33 Now therefore let Pharaoh ( i ) look out a man discreet and wise, and set him over the land of Egypt. ( i ) The office of a true prophet is not only ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 41:38 And Pharaoh said unto his servants, Can we find [such a one] as this [is], a man in whom the ( k ) Spirit of God [is]? ( k ) No one should be honoure...

Geneva Bible: Gen 41:40 Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy ( l ) word shall all my people be ruled: only in the throne will I be greater than thou. ( l ) So...

Geneva Bible: Gen 41:43 And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried before him, ( m ) Bow the knee: and he made him [ruler] over all the land o...

Geneva Bible: Gen 41:46 And Joseph [was] ( n ) thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh, and went through...

Geneva Bible: Gen 41:51 And Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh: For God, [said he], hath made me forget all my toil, and all my ( o ) father's house. ( o ) Non...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Gen 41:38-48 - Joseph, The Prime Minister Genesis 41:38-48 At seventeen years of age Joseph was sold for a slave; at thirty he was prime minister of Egypt (Gen. 37:2; 41:46). How long his pris...

MHCC: Gen 41:1-8 - --The means of Joseph's being freed from prison were Pharaoh's dreams, as here related. Now that God no longer speaks to us in that way, it is no matter...

MHCC: Gen 41:9-32 - --God's time for the enlargement of his people is the fittest time. If the chief butler had got Joseph to be released from prison, it is probable he wou...

MHCC: Gen 41:33-45 - --Joseph gave good advice to Pharaoh. Fair warning should always be followed by good counsel. God has in his word told us of a day of trial before us, w...

MHCC: Gen 41:46-57 - --In the names of his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim, Joseph owned the Divine providence. 1. He was made to forget his misery. 2. He was made fruitful i...

Matthew Henry: Gen 41:1-8 - -- Observe, 1. The delay of Joseph's enlargement. It was not till the end of two full years (Gen 41:1); so long he waited after he had entrusted the ...

Matthew Henry: Gen 41:9-16 - -- Here is, 1. The recommending of Joseph to Pharaoh for an interpreter. The chief butler did it more in compliment to Pharaoh, to oblige him, than in ...

Matthew Henry: Gen 41:17-32 - -- Here, I. Pharaoh relates his dream. He dreamt that he stood upon the bank of the river Nile, and saw the kine, both the fat ones and the lean ones, ...

Matthew Henry: Gen 41:33-45 - -- Here is, I. The good advice that Joseph gave to Pharaoh, which was, 1. That in the years of plenty he should lay up for the years of famine, buy up ...

Matthew Henry: Gen 41:46-57 - -- Observe here, I. The building of Joseph's family in the birth of two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim, Gen 41:50-52. In the names he gave them, he owned t...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 41:1-6 - -- Pharaoh's Dreams and Their Interpretation. - Two full years afterwards ( ימים accus . "in days,"as in Gen 29:14) Pharaoh had a dream. He was st...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 41:7 - -- "Then Pharaoh awoke, and behold it was a dream." The dream was so like reality, that in was only when he woke that he perceived it was a dream.

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 41:8 - -- Being troubled about this double dream, Pharaoh sent the next morning for all the scribes and wise men of Egypt, to have it interpreted. חרטתּ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 41:9-13 - -- In this dilemma the head cup-bearer thought of Joseph; and calling to mind his offence against the king (Gen 40:1), and his ingratitude to Joseph (G...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 41:14-36 - -- Pharaoh immediately sent for Joseph. As quickly as possible he was fetched from the prison; and after shaving the hair of his head and beard, and ch...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 41:37-41 - -- Joseph's Promotion. - This counsel pleased Pharaoh and all his servants, so that he said to them, " Shall we find a man like this one, in whom the S...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 41:42 - -- As an installation in this post of honour, the king handed him his signet-ring, the seal which the grand vizier or prime minister wore, to give auth...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 41:43 - -- He then had him driven in the second chariot, the chariot which followed immediately upon the king's state-carriage; that is to say, he directed a s...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 41:44 - -- " I am Pharaoh, "he said to him, " and without thee shall no man lift his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt; "i.e., I am the actual king, and th...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 41:45 - -- But in order that Joseph might be perfectly naturalized, the king gave him an Egyptian name, Zaphnath-Paaneah , and married him to Asenath , the d...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 41:46 - -- Joseph was 30 years old when he stood before Pharaoh, and went out from him and passed through all the land of Egypt, i.e., when he took possession ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 41:47-49 - -- For the seven years of superabundance the land bore לקמצים , in full hands or bundles; and Joseph gathered all the provisional store of these...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 41:50-51 - -- During the fruitful years two sons were born to Joseph. The first-born he named Manasseh , i.e., causing to forget; " for, he said, God hath made m...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 41:52 - -- The second son he named Ephraim , i.e., double-fruitfulness; "for God hath made me fruitful in the land of my affliction." Even after his elevation...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 41:53-57 - -- When the years of scarcity commenced, at the close of the years of plenty, the famine spread over all (the neighbouring) lands; only in Egypt was th...

Constable: Gen 11:27--Exo 1:1 - --II. PATRIARCHAL NARRATIVES 11:27--50:26 One of the significant changes in the emphasis that occurs at this point...

Constable: Gen 37:2--Exo 1:1 - --E. What Became of Jacob 37:2-50:26 Here begins the tenth and last toledot in Genesis. Jacob remains a ma...

Constable: Gen 41:1-57 - --6. Pharaoh's dreams and Joseph's interpretations ch. 41 Joseph interpreted Pharaoh's two dreams faithfully. This led to God elevating Joseph in the go...

Guzik: Gen 41:1-57 - Joseph Interprets Pharaoh's Dream and Rises to Power Genesis 41 - Joseph Interprets Pharaoh's Dream and Rises to Power A. Pharaoh's dreams and his dilemma. 1. (1-7) Pharaoh's disturbing dreams. Then ...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Bible Query: Gen 41:32 Q: In Gen 41:32, why would Pharaoh make a non-Egyptian second-in-command? A: While kings can sometimes do strange things, in this case it made very ...

Bible Query: Gen 41:45 Q: In Gen 41:45, was Joseph’s Egyptian name, Zaphenath-Paneah, a title or an Egyptian name? A: It probably meant "he who is called life" or similar...

Bible Query: Gen 41:45 Q: In Gen 41:45, is there any extra-Biblical evidence for Joseph’s Egyptian name, Zaphenath-Paneah? A: Yes. While scholars do not know any of the n...

Bible Query: Gen 41:51 Q: In Gen 41:51, how do you pronounce "Manasseh"? A: Cruden’s Concordance says it is pronounced with the first "a" as long and the accent on the se...

Bible Query: Gen 41:57 Q: In Gen 41:57, since the famine was severe in all the world, why did every place in the world not experience famine? A: This phrased expressed tha...

Evidence: Gen 41:25 After a long imprisonment for a crime he did not commit, Joseph was called to serve Pharaoh. Pleased with Joseph's service, Pharaoh exalted Joseph to ...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) GENESIS, the book of the origin or production of all things, consists of two parts: the first, comprehended in the first through eleventh chapters, gi...

JFB: Genesis (Garis Besar) THE CREATION OF HEAVEN AND EARTH. (Gen 1:1-2) THE FIRST DAY. (Gen 1:3-5) SECOND DAY. (Gen 1:6-8) THIRD DAY. (Gen 1:9-13) FOURTH DAY. (Gen 1:14-19) FI...

TSK: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Genesis is the most ancient record in the world; including the History of two grand and stupendous subjects, Creation and Providence; of e...

TSK: Genesis 41 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Gen 41:1, Pharaoh has two dreams; Gen 41:9, Joseph interprets them; Gen 41:33, He gives Pharaoh counsel, and is highly advanced, and marr...

Poole: Genesis 41 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 41 Pharaoh’ s two dreams, Gen 41:1-7 . He is troubled; sends for interpreters; their inability, Gen 41:8 . The chief butler, sensible ...

MHCC: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) Genesis is a name taken from the Greek, and signifies " the book of generation or production;" it is properly so called, as containing an account of ...

MHCC: Genesis 41 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Gen 41:1-8) Pharaoh's dreams. (v. 9-32) Joseph interprets Pharaoh's dreams. (Gen 41:33-45) Joseph's counsel, He is highly advanced. (Gen 41:46-57)...

Matthew Henry: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The First Book of Moses, Called Genesis We have now before us the holy Bible, or book, for so bible ...