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Teks -- Genesis 30:1-43 (NET)

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Konteks
30:1 When Rachel saw that she could not give Jacob children, she became jealous of her sister. She said to Jacob, “Give me children or I’ll die!” 30:2 Jacob became furious with Rachel and exclaimed, “Am I in the place of God, who has kept you from having children?” 30:3 She replied, “Here is my servant Bilhah! Have sexual relations with her so that she can bear children for me and I can have a family through her.” 30:4 So Rachel gave him her servant Bilhah as a wife, and Jacob had marital relations with her. 30:5 Bilhah became pregnant and gave Jacob a son. 30:6 Then Rachel said, “God has vindicated me. He has responded to my prayer and given me a son.” That is why she named him Dan. 30:7 Bilhah, Rachel’s servant, became pregnant again and gave Jacob another son. 30:8 Then Rachel said, “I have fought a desperate struggle with my sister, but I have won.” So she named him Naphtali. 30:9 When Leah saw that she had stopped having children, she gave her servant Zilpah to Jacob as a wife. 30:10 Soon Leah’s servant Zilpah gave Jacob a son. 30:11 Leah said, “How fortunate!” So she named him Gad. 30:12 Then Leah’s servant Zilpah gave Jacob another son. 30:13 Leah said, “How happy I am, for women will call me happy!” So she named him Asher. 30:14 At the time of the wheat harvest Reuben went out and found some mandrake plants in a field and brought them to his mother Leah. Rachel said to Leah, “Give me some of your son’s mandrakes.” 30:15 But Leah replied, “Wasn’t it enough that you’ve taken away my husband? Would you take away my son’s mandrakes too?” “All right,” Rachel said, “he may sleep with you tonight in exchange for your son’s mandrakes.” 30:16 When Jacob came in from the fields that evening, Leah went out to meet him and said, “You must sleep with me because I have paid for your services with my son’s mandrakes.” So he had marital relations with her that night. 30:17 God paid attention to Leah; she became pregnant and gave Jacob a son for the fifth time. 30:18 Then Leah said, “God has granted me a reward because I gave my servant to my husband as a wife.” So she named him Issachar. 30:19 Leah became pregnant again and gave Jacob a son for the sixth time. 30:20 Then Leah said, “God has given me a good gift. Now my husband will honor me because I have given him six sons.” So she named him Zebulun. 30:21 After that she gave birth to a daughter and named her Dinah. 30:22 Then God took note of Rachel. He paid attention to her and enabled her to become pregnant. 30:23 She became pregnant and gave birth to a son. Then she said, “God has taken away my shame.” 30:24 She named him Joseph, saying, “May the Lord give me yet another son.”
The Flocks of Jacob
30:25 After Rachel had given birth to Joseph, Jacob said to Laban, “Send me on my way so that I can go home to my own country. 30:26 Let me take my wives and my children whom I have acquired by working for you. Then I’ll depart, because you know how hard I’ve worked for you.” 30:27 But Laban said to him, “If I have found favor in your sight, please stay here, for I have learned by divination that the Lord has blessed me on account of you.” 30:28 He added, “Just name your wages– I’ll pay whatever you want.” 30:29 “You know how I have worked for you,” Jacob replied, “and how well your livestock have fared under my care. 30:30 Indeed, you had little before I arrived, but now your possessions have increased many times over. The Lord has blessed you wherever I worked. But now, how long must it be before I do something for my own family too?” 30:31 So Laban asked, “What should I give you?” “You don’t need to give me a thing,” Jacob replied, “but if you agree to this one condition, I will continue to care for your flocks and protect them: 30:32 Let me walk among all your flocks today and remove from them every speckled or spotted sheep, every dark-colored lamb, and the spotted or speckled goats. These animals will be my wages. 30:33 My integrity will testify for me later on. When you come to verify that I’ve taken only the wages we agreed on, if I have in my possession any goat that is not speckled or spotted or any sheep that is not dark-colored, it will be considered stolen.” 30:34 “Agreed!” said Laban, “It will be as you say.” 30:35 So that day Laban removed the male goats that were streaked or spotted, all the female goats that were speckled or spotted (all that had any white on them), and all the dark-colored lambs, and put them in the care of his sons. 30:36 Then he separated them from Jacob by a three-day journey, while Jacob was taking care of the rest of Laban’s flocks. 30:37 But Jacob took fresh-cut branches from poplar, almond, and plane trees. He made white streaks by peeling them, making the white inner wood in the branches visible. 30:38 Then he set up the peeled branches in all the watering troughs where the flocks came to drink. He set up the branches in front of the flocks when they were in heat and came to drink. 30:39 When the sheep mated in front of the branches, they gave birth to young that were streaked or speckled or spotted. 30:40 Jacob removed these lambs, but he made the rest of the flock face the streaked and completely dark-colored animals in Laban’s flock. So he made separate flocks for himself and did not mix them with Laban’s flocks. 30:41 When the stronger females were in heat, Jacob would set up the branches in the troughs in front of the flock, so they would mate near the branches. 30:42 But if the animals were weaker, he did not set the branches there. So the weaker animals ended up belonging to Laban and the stronger animals to Jacob. 30:43 In this way Jacob became extremely prosperous. He owned large flocks, male and female servants, camels, and donkeys.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Asher a tribe of Israel that came from Asher; son of Jacob and Zilpah,the man; son of Jacob and Zilpah,a tribe of Israel or its land
 · Bilhah Rachel's maid; third wife of Jacob; mother of Dan and Naphtali,a town of Simeon and Judah inhabited by the clan of Shime-i
 · Dan residents of the town of Dan; members of the tribe of Dan,the tribe of Dan as a whole; the descendants of Dan in Israel
 · Dinah daughter of Jacob and Leah
 · Gad the tribe of Israel descended from Gad, the son of Jacob,the man; the son of Jacob and Zilpah,the tribe of Gad in Israel,a prophet and long time advisor to King David
 · Issachar the tribe of Israel that came from his Jacob's son Issachar,son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Issachar,the tribe of Issachar in Israel,son of Obed-Edom
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · Joseph the husband of Mary and foster-father of Jesus,a Jewish man from Arimathea in whose grave the body of Jesus was laid,two different men listed as ancestors of Jesus,a man nominated with Matthias to take the place of Judas Iscariot as apostle,a son of Jacob and Rachel; the father of Ephraim and Manasseh and ruler of Egypt,a brother of Jesus; a son of Mary,a man who was a companion of Paul,son of Jacob and Rachel; patriarch of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh,a tribe, actually two tribes named after Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasseh,father of Igal, of Issachar, who helped spy out Canaan,son of Asaph the Levite; worship leader under Asaph and King David,a man who put away his heathen wife; an Israelite descended from Binnui,priest and head of the house of Shebaniah under High Priest Joiakim in the time of Nehemiah
 · Laban son of Bethuel; brother of Rebecca; father of Leah and Rachel; uncle and father-in-law of Jacob,a town in Moab
 · Leah daughter of Laban; wife of Jacob; mother of Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun and Dinah
 · Naphtali region/territority and the tribe of Israel,the son of Jacob and Bilhah,the tribe of people descended from Naphtali,the territory of the people of Naphtali
 · Rachel a daughter of Laban; wife of Jacob; mother of Joseph and Benjamin,Jacob's favorite wife
 · Reuben the tribe of Reuben
 · Zebulun the tribe of Israel that came from Zebulun whose territory was in Galilee,the man; son of Jacob and Leah,the tribe of Zebulun,the territory of the tribe of Zebulun
 · Zilpah Leah's maid


Topik/Tema Kamus: CHILD; CHILDREN | Jacob | Concubine | Rachel | Family | Emulation | Polygamy | Barren | Bilhah | Zilpah | Laban | Leah | Contracts | RELATIONSHIPS, FAMILY | HEIR | Craftiness | Dishonesty | Children | Women | Servant | selebihnya
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Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

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Poole , Haydock , Gill

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NET Notes , Geneva Bible

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MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Gen 30:1 - Rachel envied her sister Envy is grieving at the good of another, than which no sin is more injurious both to God, our neighbour, and ourselves. But this was not all, she said...

Envy is grieving at the good of another, than which no sin is more injurious both to God, our neighbour, and ourselves. But this was not all, she said to Jacob, give me children or else I die - A child would not content her; but because Leah has more than one, she must have more too; Give me children: her heart is set upon it. Give them me, else I die, That is, I shall fret myself to death. The want of this satisfaction will shorten my days. Observe a difference between Rachel's asking for this mercy, and Hannah's, 1Sa 1:10, &c. Rachel envied, Hannah wept: Rachel must have children, and she died of the second; Hannah prayed for this child, and she had four more: Rachel is importunate and peremptory, Hannah is submissive and devout, If thou wilt give me a child, I will give him to the Lord. Let Hannah be imitated, and not Rachel; and let our desires be always under the conduct and check of reason and religion.

Wesley: Gen 30:2 - And Jacob's anger was kindled He was angry, not at the person, but at the sin: he expressed himself so as to shew his displeasure. It was a grave and pious reply which Jacob gave t...

He was angry, not at the person, but at the sin: he expressed himself so as to shew his displeasure. It was a grave and pious reply which Jacob gave to Rachel, Am I in God's stead? - Can I give thee that which God denies thee? He acknowledges the hand of God in the affliction: He hath withheld the fruit of the womb. Whatever we want, it is God that with - holds it, as sovereign Lord, most wise, holy, and just, that may do what he will with his own, and is debtor to no man: that never did, nor ever can do, any wrong to any of his creatures. The key of the clouds, of the heart, of the grave, and of the womb, are four keys which God has in his hand, and which (the Rabbins say) he intrusts neither with angel nor seraphin. He also acknowledges his own inability to alter what God appointed, Am I in God's stead? What, dost thou make a God of me? There is no creature that is, or can be, to us in God's stead. God may be to us, instead of any creature, as the sun instead of the moon and stars; but the moon and all the stars will not be to us instead of the sun. No creature's wisdom, power, and love will be to us instead of God's. It is therefore our sin and folly to place that confidence in any creature, which is to be placed in God only.

Wesley: Gen 30:3 - Behold my maid, Bilhah At the persuasion of Rachel he took Bilhah her handmaid to wife, that, according to the usage of those times, his children by her might be adopted and...

At the persuasion of Rachel he took Bilhah her handmaid to wife, that, according to the usage of those times, his children by her might be adopted and owned as her mistresses children. She would rather have children by reputation than none at all; children that she might call her own, though they were not so. And as an early instance of her dominion over the children born in her apartment, she takes a pleasure in giving them names, that carry in them nothing but marks of emulation with her sister. As if she had overcome her, At law, she calls the flrst son of her handmaid, Dan, Judgment, saying, God hath Judged me - That is, given sentence in my favour. In battle, she calls the next Naphtali, Wrestlings, saying, I have wrestled with my sister, and have prevailed - See what roots of bitterness envy and strife are, and what mischief they make among relations!

Wesley: Gen 30:9 - -- Rachel had done that absurd and preposterous thing of putting her maid into her husband's bed, and now Leah (because she missed one year in bearing ch...

Rachel had done that absurd and preposterous thing of putting her maid into her husband's bed, and now Leah (because she missed one year in bearing children) doth the same, to be even with her. See the power of rivalship, and admire the wisdom of the divine appointment, which joins together one man and one woman only. Two sons Zilpah bare to Jacob, whom Leah looked upon herself as intitled to, in token of which she called one Gad, promising herself a little troop of children. The other she called Asher, Happy, thinking herself happy in him, and promising herself that her neighbours would think so too.

Wesley: Gen 30:14 - -- Reuben, a little lad of five or six years old, playing in the field, found mandrakes. It is uncertain what they were; the critics are not agreed about...

Reuben, a little lad of five or six years old, playing in the field, found mandrakes. It is uncertain what they were; the critics are not agreed about them: we are sure they were some rarities, either fruits or flowers that were very pleasant to the smell, Son 7:13. Some think these mandrakes were Jessamin flowers. Whatever they were, Rachel, could not see them in Leah's hands, but she must covet them.

Wesley: Gen 30:17 - And God hearkened unto Leah Perhaps the reason of this contest between Jacob's wives for his company, and their giving him their maids to be his wives, was the earnest desire the...

Perhaps the reason of this contest between Jacob's wives for his company, and their giving him their maids to be his wives, was the earnest desire they had to fulfil the promise made to Abraham (and now lately renewed to Jacob) that his seed should be as the stars of heaven for multitude, and that, in one seed of his, the Messiah, all the nations of the earth shall be blessed. Two sons Leah was now blessed with; the flrst she called Issachar, a hire, reckoning herself well repaid for her mandrakes; nay, (which is a strange construction of the providence) rewarded for giving her maid to her husband. The other she called Zebulun, dwelling, owning God's bounty to her, God has endowed me with a good dowry. Jacob had not endowed her when he married her; but she reckons a family of children, a good dowry.

Wesley: Gen 30:21 - -- Mention is made, of Dinah, because of the following story concerning her, Gen. 34:1-16, &c. Perhaps Jacob had other daughters, though not registered.

Mention is made, of Dinah, because of the following story concerning her, Gen. 34:1-16, &c. Perhaps Jacob had other daughters, though not registered.

Wesley: Gen 30:22 - -- God remembered Rachel, whom he seemed to have forgotten, and hearkened to her, whose prayers had been long denied, and then she bare a son. Rachael ca...

God remembered Rachel, whom he seemed to have forgotten, and hearkened to her, whose prayers had been long denied, and then she bare a son. Rachael called her son Joseph, which, in Hebrew, is a - kin to two words of a contrary signification: Asaph, abstulit, he has taken away my reproach, as if the greatest mercy she had in this son were, that she had saved her credit: and Joseph, addidit, the Lord shall add to me another son: which may be looked upon as the language of her faith; she takes this mercy as an earnest of further mercy: hath God given me this grace? I may call it Joseph, and say, he shall add more grace.

Wesley: Gen 30:34 - -- Laban was willing to consent to this bargain, because he thought if those few he had that were now speckled and spotted were separated from the rest, ...

Laban was willing to consent to this bargain, because he thought if those few he had that were now speckled and spotted were separated from the rest, which was to be done immediately, the body of the flock which Jacob was to tend, being of one colour, either all black or all white, would produce few or none of mixt colours, and so he should have Jacob's service for nothing, or next to nothing. According to this bargain, those few that were party - coloured were separated, and put into the hands of Laban's sons, and sent three days journey off: so great was Laban's jealouly lest any of those should mix with the rest of the flock to the advantage of Jacob.

Wesley: Gen 30:37 - -- Here is Jacob's policy to make his bargain more advantageous to himself than it was likely to be: and if he had not taken some course to help himself,...

Here is Jacob's policy to make his bargain more advantageous to himself than it was likely to be: and if he had not taken some course to help himself, it would have been an ill bargain indeed; which he knew Laban would never have considered, who did not consult any one's interest but his own. Now Jacob's contrivances were, He set pilled sticks before the cattle where they were watered, that looking much at those unusual party - coloured sticks, by the power of imagination, they might bring forth young ones in like manner party - coloured. Probably this custom was commonly used by the shepherds of Canaan, who coveted to have their cattle of this motly colour.

Wesley: Gen 30:37 - When he began to have a flock of ring straked and brown, he contrived to set them first, and to put the faces of the rest towards them, with the same design as he did the former. Whether t...

straked and brown, he contrived to set them first, and to put the faces of the rest towards them, with the same design as he did the former. Whether this was honest policy, or no, may admit of a question. Read Gen 31:7-16, and the question is resolved.

JFB: Gen 30:1 - Rachel envied her sister The maternal relation confers a high degree of honor in the East, and the want of that status is felt as a stigma and deplored as a grievous calamity.

The maternal relation confers a high degree of honor in the East, and the want of that status is felt as a stigma and deplored as a grievous calamity.

JFB: Gen 30:1 - Give me children, or else I die Either be reckoned as good as dead, or pine away from vexation. The intense anxiety of Hebrew women for children arose from the hope of giving birth t...

Either be reckoned as good as dead, or pine away from vexation. The intense anxiety of Hebrew women for children arose from the hope of giving birth to the promised seed. Rachel's conduct was sinful and contrasts unfavorably with that of Rebekah (compare Gen 25:22) and of Hannah (1Sa 1:11).

JFB: Gen 30:3-9 - Bilhah . . . Zilpah Following the example of Sarah with regard to Hagar, an example which is not seldom imitated still, she adopted the children of her maid. Leah took th...

Following the example of Sarah with regard to Hagar, an example which is not seldom imitated still, she adopted the children of her maid. Leah took the same course. A bitter and intense rivalry existed between them, all the more from their close relationship as sisters; and although they occupied separate apartments, with their families, as is the uniform custom where a plurality of wives obtains, and the husband and father spends a day with each in regular succession, that did not allay their mutual jealousies. The evil lies in the system, which being a violation of God's original ordinance, cannot yield happiness.

JFB: Gen 30:20 - And Leah said, God hath endued me with a good dowry The birth of a son is hailed with demonstrations of joy, and the possession of several sons confers upon the mother an honor and respectability propor...

The birth of a son is hailed with demonstrations of joy, and the possession of several sons confers upon the mother an honor and respectability proportioned to their number. The husband attaches a similar importance to the possession, and it forms a bond of union which renders it impossible for him ever to forsake or to be cold to a wife who has borne him sons. This explains the happy anticipations Leah founded on the possession of her six sons.

JFB: Gen 30:21 - afterwards, she bare a daughter The inferior value set on a daughter is displayed in the bare announcement of the birth.

The inferior value set on a daughter is displayed in the bare announcement of the birth.

JFB: Gen 30:25 - when Rachel had born Joseph Shortly after the birth of this son, Jacob's term of servitude expired, and feeling anxious to establish an independence for his family, he probably, ...

Shortly after the birth of this son, Jacob's term of servitude expired, and feeling anxious to establish an independence for his family, he probably, from knowing that Esau was out of the way, announced his intention of returning to Canaan (Heb 13:14). In this resolution the faith of Jacob was remarkable, for as yet he had nothing to rely on but the promise of God (compare Gen 28:15).

JFB: Gen 30:27 - Laban said . . . I have learned His selfish uncle was averse to a separation, not from warmth of affection either for Jacob or his daughters, but from the damage his own interests wo...

His selfish uncle was averse to a separation, not from warmth of affection either for Jacob or his daughters, but from the damage his own interests would sustain. He had found, from long observation, that the blessing of heaven rested on Jacob, and that his stock had wonderfully increased under Jacob's management. This was a remarkable testimony that good men are blessings to the places where they reside. Men of the world are often blessed with temporal benefits on account of their pious relatives, though they have not always, like Laban, the wisdom to discern, or the grace to acknowledge it.

JFB: Gen 30:28 - appoint me thy wages, and I will give it The Eastern shepherds receive for their hire not money, but a certain amount of the increase or produce of the flock; but Laban would at the time have...

The Eastern shepherds receive for their hire not money, but a certain amount of the increase or produce of the flock; but Laban would at the time have done anything to secure the continued services of his nephew, and make a show of liberality, which Jacob well knew was constrained.

JFB: Gen 30:31 - Jacob said, Thou shalt not give me any thing A new agreement was made, the substance of which was, that he was to receive remuneration in the usual way, but on certain conditions which Jacob spec...

A new agreement was made, the substance of which was, that he was to receive remuneration in the usual way, but on certain conditions which Jacob specified.

JFB: Gen 30:32 - I will pass through all thy flock to-day Eastern sheep being generally white, the goats black, and spotted or speckled ones comparatively few and rare, Jacob proposed to remove all existing o...

Eastern sheep being generally white, the goats black, and spotted or speckled ones comparatively few and rare, Jacob proposed to remove all existing ones of that description from the flock, and to be content with what might appear at the next lambing time. The proposal seemed so much in favor of Laban, that he at once agreed to it. But Jacob has been accused of taking advantage of his uncle, and though it is difficult to exculpate him from practising some degree of dissimulation, he was only availing himself of the results of his great skill and experience in the breeding of cattle. But it is evident from the next chapter (Gen 31:5-13) that there was something miraculous and that the means he had employed had been suggested by a divine intimation.

JFB: Gen 30:37 - Jacob took rods, &c. There are many varieties of the hazel, some of which are more erect than the common hazel, and it was probably one of these varieties Jacob employed. ...

There are many varieties of the hazel, some of which are more erect than the common hazel, and it was probably one of these varieties Jacob employed. The styles are of a bright red color, when peeled; and along with them he took wands of other shrubs, which, when stripped of the bark, had white streaks. These, kept constantly before the eyes of the female at the time of gestation, his observation had taught him would have an influence, through the imagination, on the future offspring.

JFB: Gen 30:38 - watering troughs Usually a long stone block hollowed out, from which several sheep could drink at once, but sometimes so small as to admit of only one drinking at a ti...

Usually a long stone block hollowed out, from which several sheep could drink at once, but sometimes so small as to admit of only one drinking at a time.

Clarke: Gen 30:1 - Give me children, or else I die Give me children, or else I die - This is a most reprehensible speech, and argues not only envy and jealousy, but also a total want of dependence on...

Give me children, or else I die - This is a most reprehensible speech, and argues not only envy and jealousy, but also a total want of dependence on God. She had the greatest share of her husband’ s affection, and yet was not satisfied unless she could engross all the privileges which her sister enjoyed! How true are those sayings, Envy is as rottenness of the bones! and, Jealousy is as cruel as the grave!

Clarke: Gen 30:2 - Amos I in God’ s stead Amos I in God’ s stead - Amos I greater than God, to give thee what he has refused?

Amos I in God’ s stead - Amos I greater than God, to give thee what he has refused?

Clarke: Gen 30:3 - She shall bear upon my knees She shall bear upon my knees - The handmaid was the sole property of the mistress, as has already been remarked in the case of Hagar; and therefore ...

She shall bear upon my knees - The handmaid was the sole property of the mistress, as has already been remarked in the case of Hagar; and therefore not only all her labor, but even the children borne by her, were the property of the mistress. These female slaves, therefore, bore children vicariously for their mistresses; and this appears to be the import of the term, she shall bear upon my knees

Clarke: Gen 30:3 - That I may also have children by her That I may also have children by her - ואבנה ממנה veibbaneh mimmennah , and I shall be built up by her. Hence בן ben , a son or child, ...

That I may also have children by her - ואבנה ממנה veibbaneh mimmennah , and I shall be built up by her. Hence בן ben , a son or child, from בנה banah , to build; because, as a house is formed of the stones, etc., that enter into its composition, so is a family by children.

Clarke: Gen 30:6 - Called she his name Dan Called she his name Dan - Because she found God had judged for her, and decided she should have a son by her handmaid; hence she called his name ד...

Called she his name Dan - Because she found God had judged for her, and decided she should have a son by her handmaid; hence she called his name דן dan , judging.

Clarke: Gen 30:8 - She called his name Naphtali She called his name Naphtali - נפתלי naphtali , my wrestling, according to the common mode of interpretation; but it is more likely that the r...

She called his name Naphtali - נפתלי naphtali , my wrestling, according to the common mode of interpretation; but it is more likely that the root פתל pathal signifies to twist or entwine. Hence Mr. Parkhurst translates the verse, "By the twistings - agency or operation, of God, I am entwisted with my sister; that is, my family is now entwined or interwoven with my sister’ s family, and has a chance of producing the promised Seed."The Septuagint, Aquila, and the Vulgate, have nearly the same meaning. It is, however, difficult to fix the true meaning of the original.

Clarke: Gen 30:11 - She called his name Gad She called his name Gad - This has been variously translated. גד gad , may signify a troop, an army, a soldier, a false god, supposed to be the s...

She called his name Gad - This has been variously translated. גד gad , may signify a troop, an army, a soldier, a false god, supposed to be the same as Jupiter or Mars; for as Laban appears to have been, if not an idolater, yet a dealer in a sort of judicial astrology, (see Gen 31:19), Leah, in saying בגד bagad , which we translate a troop cometh, might mean, By or with the assistance of Gad - a particular planet or star, Jupiter possibly, I have gotten this son; therefore she called him after the name of that planet or star from which she supposed the succor came. See note on Gen 31:19. The Septuagint translate it εν τυχη, with good fortune; the Vulgate, feliciter , happily; but in all this diversity our own translation may appear as probable as any, if not the genuine one, בא גד ba gad , for the keri, or marginal reading, has it in two words, a troop cometh; whereas the textual reading has it only in one, בגד bagad , with a troop. In the Bible published by Becke, 1549, the word is translated as an exclamation, Good luck!

Clarke: Gen 30:13 - And Leah said, Happy am I And Leah said, Happy am I - באשרי beoshri , in my happiness, therefore she called his name אשר asher , that is, blessedness or happiness.

And Leah said, Happy am I - באשרי beoshri , in my happiness, therefore she called his name אשר asher , that is, blessedness or happiness.

Clarke: Gen 30:14 - Reuben - found mandrakes Reuben - found mandrakes - דודאים dudaim . What these were is utterly unknown, and learned men have wasted much time and pains in endeavorin...

Reuben - found mandrakes - דודאים dudaim . What these were is utterly unknown, and learned men have wasted much time and pains in endeavoring to guess out a probable meaning. Some translate the word lilies, others jessamine, others citrons, others mushrooms, others figs, and some think the word means flowers, or fine flowers in general. Hasselquist, the intimate friend and pupil of Linne, who traveled into the Holy Land to make discoveries in natural history, imagines that the plant commonly called mandrake is intended; speaking of Nazareth in Galilee he says: "What I found most remarkable at this village was a great number of mandrakes which grew in a vale below it. I had not the pleasure to see this plant in blossom, the fruit now (May 5th, O. S). hanging ripe to the stem, which lay withered on the ground. From the season in which this mandrake blossoms and ripens fruit, one might form a conjecture that it was Rachel’ s dudaim. These were brought her in the wheat harvest, which in Galilee is in the month of May, about this time, and the mandrake was now in fruit."Both among the Greeks and Orientals this plant was held in high repute, as being of a prolific virtue, and helping conception; and from it philtres were made, and this is favored by the meaning of the original, loves, i.e., incentives to matrimonial connections: and it was probably on this account that Rachel desired them. The whole account however is very obscure.

Clarke: Gen 30:15 - Thou hast taken my husband Thou hast taken my husband - It appears probable that Rachel had found means to engross the whole of Jacob’ s affection and company, and that s...

Thou hast taken my husband - It appears probable that Rachel had found means to engross the whole of Jacob’ s affection and company, and that she now agreed to let him visit the tent of Leah, on account of receiving some of the fruits or plants which Reuben had found.

Clarke: Gen 30:16 - I have hired thee I have hired thee - We may remark among the Jewish women an intense desire of having children; and it seems to have been produced, not from any pecu...

I have hired thee - We may remark among the Jewish women an intense desire of having children; and it seems to have been produced, not from any peculiar affection for children, but through the hope of having a share in the blessing of Abraham, by bringing forth Him in whom all the nations of the earth were to be blessed.

Clarke: Gen 30:18 - God hath given me my hire God hath given me my hire - שכרי sechari . And she called his name Issachar, יששכר, This word is compounded of יש yesh , Is, and ש...

God hath given me my hire - שכרי sechari . And she called his name Issachar, יששכר, This word is compounded of יש yesh , Is, and שכר sachar , Wages, from שכר sachar , to content, satisfy, saturate; hence a satisfaction or compensation for work done, etc.

Clarke: Gen 30:20 - Now will my husband dwell with me Now will my husband dwell with me - יזבלני yizbeleni ; and she called his name Zebulun, זבל a dwelling or cohabitation, as she now expe...

Now will my husband dwell with me - יזבלני yizbeleni ; and she called his name Zebulun, זבל a dwelling or cohabitation, as she now expected that Jacob would dwell with her, as he had before dwelt with Rachel.

Clarke: Gen 30:21 - And called her name Dinah And called her name Dinah - דינה dinah , judgment. As Rachel had called her son by Bilhah Dan, Gen 30:6, so Leah calls her daughter Dinah, God ...

And called her name Dinah - דינה dinah , judgment. As Rachel had called her son by Bilhah Dan, Gen 30:6, so Leah calls her daughter Dinah, God having judged and determined for her, as well as for her sister in the preceding instance.

Clarke: Gen 30:22 - And God hearkened to her And God hearkened to her - After the severe reproof which Rachel had received from her husband, Gen 30:2, it appears that she sought God by prayer, ...

And God hearkened to her - After the severe reproof which Rachel had received from her husband, Gen 30:2, it appears that she sought God by prayer, and that he heard her; so that her prayer and faith obtained what her impatience and unbelief had prevented.

Clarke: Gen 30:24 - She called his name Joseph She called his name Joseph - יוסף Yoseph , adding, or he who adds; thereby prophetically declaring that God would add unto her another son, whi...

She called his name Joseph - יוסף Yoseph , adding, or he who adds; thereby prophetically declaring that God would add unto her another son, which was accomplished in the birth of Benjamin, Gen 35:18.

Clarke: Gen 30:25 - Jacob said unto Laban, Send me away Jacob said unto Laban, Send me away - Having now, as is generally conjectured, fulfilled the fourteen years which he had engaged to serve for Leah a...

Jacob said unto Laban, Send me away - Having now, as is generally conjectured, fulfilled the fourteen years which he had engaged to serve for Leah and Rachel. See Gen 30:26, and conclusion at Gen 31:55 (note).

Clarke: Gen 30:27 - I have learned by experience I have learned by experience - נחשתי nichashti , from נחש nachash , to view attentively, to observe, to pry into. I have diligently consid...

I have learned by experience - נחשתי nichashti , from נחש nachash , to view attentively, to observe, to pry into. I have diligently considered the whole of thy conduct, and marked the increase of my property, and find that the Lord hath blessed me for thy sake. For the meaning of the word נחש nachash , See note on Gen 3:1, etc.

Clarke: Gen 30:30 - For it was little which thou had before I came For it was little which thou had before I came - Jacob takes advantage of the concession made by his father-in-law, and asserts that it was for his ...

For it was little which thou had before I came - Jacob takes advantage of the concession made by his father-in-law, and asserts that it was for his sake that the Lord had blessed him: Since my coming, לרגלי leragli , according to my footsteps - every step I took in thy service, God prospered to the multiplication of thy flocks and property

Clarke: Gen 30:30 - When shall I provide for mine own house When shall I provide for mine own house - Jacob had already laid his plan; and, from what is afterwards mentioned, we find him using all his skill a...

When shall I provide for mine own house - Jacob had already laid his plan; and, from what is afterwards mentioned, we find him using all his skill and experience to provide for his family by a rapid increase of his flocks.

Clarke: Gen 30:32 - I will pass through all thy flock I will pass through all thy flock - צאן tson , implying, as we have before seen, all smaller cattle, such as sheep, goats, etc

I will pass through all thy flock - צאן tson , implying, as we have before seen, all smaller cattle, such as sheep, goats, etc

Clarke: Gen 30:32 - All the speckled and spotted cattle All the speckled and spotted cattle - שה seh , which we translate cattle, signifies the young either of sheep or goats, what we call a lamb or a ...

All the speckled and spotted cattle - שה seh , which we translate cattle, signifies the young either of sheep or goats, what we call a lamb or a kid. Speckled, נקד nakod , signifies interspersed with variously colored spots

Clarke: Gen 30:32 - Spotted Spotted - טלוא talu , spotted with large spot either of the same or different colors, from טלא tala , to patch, to make party-colored or pa...

Spotted - טלוא talu , spotted with large spot either of the same or different colors, from טלא tala , to patch, to make party-colored or patch-work; see Eze 16:16. I have never seen such sheep as are here described but in the islands of Zetland. There I have seen the most beautiful brown, or fine chocolate color among the sheep; and several of the ring-streaked, spotted, speckled, and piebald among the same; and some of the latter description I have brought over, and can exhibit a specimen of Jacob’ s flock brought from the North Seas, feeding in Middlesex

Clarke: Gen 30:32 - And all the brown And all the brown - חום chum . I should rather suppose this to signify a lively brown, as the root signifies to be warm or hot.

And all the brown - חום chum . I should rather suppose this to signify a lively brown, as the root signifies to be warm or hot.

Clarke: Gen 30:35 - The he-goats that were ring-streaked The he-goats that were ring-streaked - התישים העקדים hatteyashim haakuddim , the he-goats that had rings of black or other colored hair...

The he-goats that were ring-streaked - התישים העקדים hatteyashim haakuddim , the he-goats that had rings of black or other colored hair around their feet or legs

It is extremely difficult to find out, from Gen 30:32 and Gen 30:35, in what the bargain of Jacob with his father-in-law properly consisted. It appears from Gen 30:32, that Jacob was to have for his wages all the speckled, spotted, and brown among the sheep and the goats; and of course that all those which were not party-colored should be considered as the property of Laban. But in Gen 30:35 it appears that Laban separated all the party-colored cattle, delivered them into the hands of his own sons; which seems as if he had taken these for his own property, and left the others to Jacob. It has been conjectured that Laban, for the greater security, when he had separated the party-colored, which by the agreement belonged to Jacob, see Gen 30:32, put them under the care of his own sons, while Jacob fed the flock of Laban, Gen 30:36, three days’ journey being between the two flocks. If therefore the flocks under the care of Laban’ s sons brought forth young that were all of one color, these were put to the flocks of Laban under the care of Jacob; and if any of the flocks under Jacob’ s care brought forth party-colored young, they were put to the flocks belonging to Jacob under the care of Laban’ s sons. This conjecture is not satisfactory, and the true meaning appears to be this: Jacob had agreed to take all the party-colored for his wages. As he was now only beginning to act upon this agreement, consequently none of the cattle as yet belonged to him; therefore Laban separated from the flock, Gen 30:35, all such cattle as Jacob might afterwards claim in consequence of his bargain, (for as yet he had no right); therefore Jacob commenced his service to Laban with a flock that did not contain a single animal of the description of those to which he might be entitled; and the others were sent away under the care of Laban’ s sons, three days’ journey from those of which Jacob had the care. The bargain, therefore, seemed to be wholly in favor of Laban; and to turn it to his own advantage, Jacob made use of the stratagems afterwards mentioned. This mode of interpretation removes all the apparent contradiction between Gen 30:32 and Gen 30:35, with which commentators in general have been grievously perplexed. From the whole account we learn that Laban acted with great prudence and caution, and Jacob with great judgment. Jacob had already served fourteen years; and had got no patrimony whatever, though he had now a family of twelve children, eleven sons and one daughter, besides his two wives, and their two maids, and several servants. See Gen 30:43. It was high time that he should get some property for these; and as his father-in-law was excessively parsimonious, and would scarcely allow him to live, he was in some sort obliged to make use of stratagem to get an equivalent for his services. But did he not push this so far as to ruin his father-in-law’ s flocks, leaving him nothing but the refuse? See Gen 30:42.

Clarke: Gen 30:37 - Rods of green poplar Rods of green poplar - לבנה לח libneh lach . The libneh is generally understood to mean the white poplar; and the word lach , which is her...

Rods of green poplar - לבנה לח libneh lach . The libneh is generally understood to mean the white poplar; and the word lach , which is here joined to it, does not so much imply greenness of color as being fresh, in opposition to witheredness. Had they not been fresh - just cut off, he could not have pilled the bark from them

Clarke: Gen 30:37 - And of the hazel And of the hazel - לוז luz , the nut or filbert tree, translated by others the almond tree; which of the two is here intended is not known

And of the hazel - לוז luz , the nut or filbert tree, translated by others the almond tree; which of the two is here intended is not known

Clarke: Gen 30:37 - And chestnut tree And chestnut tree - ערמון armon , the plane tree, from ערם aram , he was naked. The plane tree is properly called by this name, because of...

And chestnut tree - ערמון armon , the plane tree, from ערם aram , he was naked. The plane tree is properly called by this name, because of the outer bark naturally peeling off, and leaving the tree bare in various places, having smooth places where it has fallen off. A portion of this bark the plane tree loses every year. The Septuagint translate it in the same way, πλατανος· and its name is supposed to be derived from πλατυς, broad, on account of its broad spreading branches, for which the plane tree is remarkable. So we find the Grecian army in Homer, Il. ii., ver. 307, sacrificing καλῃ ὑπο πλατανιστῳ, under a beautiful plane tree. Virgil, Geor. iv. 146, mentions

- ministrantem platanum potantibus umbras

The plane tree yielding the convivial shade

And Petronius Arbiter in Satyr.: -

Nobilis aestivas platanus diffuderat umbras

"The noble plane had spread its summer shade.

See more in Parkhurst. Such a tree would be peculiarly acceptable in hot countries, because of its shade

Clarke: Gen 30:37 - Pilled white streaks in them Pilled white streaks in them - Probably cutting the bark through in a spiral line, and taking it off in a certain breadth all round the rods, so tha...

Pilled white streaks in them - Probably cutting the bark through in a spiral line, and taking it off in a certain breadth all round the rods, so that the rods would appear party-colored, the white of the wood showing itself where the bark was stripped off.

Clarke: Gen 30:38 - And he set the rods which he had pilled before the flocks And he set the rods which he had pilled before the flocks - It has long been an opinion that whatever makes a strong impression on the mind of a fem...

And he set the rods which he had pilled before the flocks - It has long been an opinion that whatever makes a strong impression on the mind of a female in the time of conception and gestation, will have a corresponding influence on the mind or body of the fetus. This opinion is not yet rationally accounted for. It is not necessary to look for a miracle here; for though the fact has not been accounted for, it is nevertheless sufficiently plain that the effect does not exceed the powers of nature; and I have no doubt that the same modes of trial used by Jacob would produce the same results in similar cases. The finger of God works in nature myriads of ways unknown to us; we see effects without end, of which no rational cause can be assigned; it has pleased God to work thus and thus, and this is all that we know; and God mercifully hides the operations of his power from man in a variety of eases, that he may hide pride from him. Even with the little we know, how apt are we to be puffed up! We must adore God in a reverential silence on such subjects as these, confess our ignorance, and acknowledge that nature is the instrument by which he chooses to work, and that he performs all things according to the counsel of his own will, which is always infinitely wise and infinitely good.

Clarke: Gen 30:40 - Jacob did separate the lambs, etc. Jacob did separate the lambs, etc. - When Jacob undertook the care of Laban’ s flock, according to the agreement already mentioned, there were ...

Jacob did separate the lambs, etc. - When Jacob undertook the care of Laban’ s flock, according to the agreement already mentioned, there were no party-colored sheep or goats among them, therefore the ring-streaked, etc., mentioned in this verse, must have been born since the agreement was made; and Jacob makes use of them precisely as he used the pilled rods, that, having these before their eyes during conception, the impression might be made upon their imagination which would lead to the results already mentioned.

Clarke: Gen 30:41 - Whensoever the stronger cattle did conceive Whensoever the stronger cattle did conceive - The word מקשרות mekushsharoth , which we translate stronger, is understood by several of the an...

Whensoever the stronger cattle did conceive - The word מקשרות mekushsharoth , which we translate stronger, is understood by several of the ancient interpreters as signifying the early, first-born, or early spring cattle; and hence it is opposed to עטפים atuphim , which we translate feeble, and which Symmachus properly renders δευτερογονοι, cattle of the second birth, as he renders the word mekushsharoth by πρωτογονοι, cattle of the first or earliest birth. Now this does not apply merely to two births from the same female in one year, which actually did take place according to the rabbins, the first in Nisan, about our March, and the second in Tisri, about our September; but it more particularly refers to early and late lambs, etc., in the same year; as those that are born just at the termination of winter, and in the very commencement of spring, are every way more valuable than those which were born later in the same spring. Jacob therefore took good heed not to try his experiments with those late produced cattle, because he knew these would produce a degenerate breed, but with the early cattle, which were strong and vigorous, by which his breed must be improved. Hence the whole flock of Laban must be necessarily injured, while Jacob’ s flock was preserved in a state of increasing perfection. All this proves a consummate knowledge in Jacob of his pastoral office. If extensive breeders in this country were to attend to the same plan, our breed would be improved in a most eminent degree. What a fund of instruction upon almost every subject is to be found in the sacred writings!

Clarke: Gen 30:43 - And the man increased exceedingly And the man increased exceedingly - No wonder, when he used such means as the above. And had maid-servants, and men-servants - he was obliged to inc...

And the man increased exceedingly - No wonder, when he used such means as the above. And had maid-servants, and men-servants - he was obliged to increase these as his cattle multiplied. And camels and asses, to transport his tents, baggage, and family from place to place, being obliged often to remove for the benefit of pasturage

We have already seen many difficulties in this chapter, and strange incidents, for which we are not able to account. 1. The vicarious bearing of children; 2. The nature and properties of the mandrakes; 3. The bargain of Jacob and Laban; and 4. The business of the party-coloured flocks produced by means of the females looking at the variegated rods. These, especially the three last, may be ranked among the most difficult things in this book. Without encumbering the page with quotations and opinions, I have given the best sense I could; and think it much better and safer to confess ignorance, than, under the semblance of wisdom and learning, to multiply conjectures. Jacob certainly manifested much address in the whole of his conduct with Laban; but though nothing can excuse overreaching or insincerity, yet no doubt Jacob supposed himself justified in taking these advantages of a man who had greatly injured and defrauded him. Had Jacob got Rachel at first, for whom he had honestly and faithfully served seven years, there is no evidence whatever that he would have taken a second wife. Laban, by having imposed his eldest daughter upon him, and by obliging him to serve seven years for her who never was an object of his affection, acted a part wholly foreign to every dictate of justice and honesty; (for though it was a custom in that country not to give the younger daughter in marriage before the elder, yet, as he did not mention this to Jacob, it cannot plead in his excuse); therefore, speaking after the manner of men, he had reason to expect that Jacob should repay him in his own coin, and right himself by whatever means came into his power; and many think that he did not transgress the bounds of justice, even in the business of the party-coloured cattle

The talent possessed by Jacob was a most dangerous one; he was what may be truly called a scheming man; his wits were still at work, and as he devised so he executed, being as fruitful in expedients as he was in plans. This was the principal and the most prominent characteristic of his life; and whatever was excessive here was owing to his mother’ s tuition; she was evidently a woman who paid little respect to what is called moral principle, and sanctified all kinds of means by the goodness of the end at which she aimed; which in social, civil, and religious life, is the most dangerous principle on which a person can possibly act. In this art she appears to have instructed her son; and, unfortunately for himself, he was in some instances but too apt a proficient. Early habits are not easily rooted out, especially those of a bad kind. Next to the influence and grace of the Spirit of God is a good and religious education. Parents should teach their children to despise and abhor low cunning, to fear a lie, and tremble at an oath; and in order to be successful, they should illustrate their precepts by their own regular and conscientious example. How far God approved of the whole of Jacob’ s conduct I shall not inquire; it is certain that he attributes his success to Divine interposition, and God himself censures Laban’ s conduct towards him; see Gen 31:7-12. But still he appears to have proceeded farther than this interposition authorized him to go, especially in the means he used to improve his own breed, which necessarily led to the deterioration of Laban’ s cattle; for, after the transactions referred to above, these cattle could be of but little worth. The whole account, with all its lights and shades, I consider as another proof of the impartiality of the Divine historian, and a strong evidence of the authenticity of the Pentateuch. Neither the spirit of deceit, nor the partiality of friendship, could ever pen such an account.

Calvin: Gen 30:1 - And when Rachel saw 1.And when Rachel saw. Here Moses begins to relate that Jacob was distracted with domestic strifes. But although the Lord was punishing him, because ...

1.And when Rachel saw. Here Moses begins to relate that Jacob was distracted with domestic strifes. But although the Lord was punishing him, because he had been guilty of no light sin in marrying two wives, and especially sisters; yet the chastisement was paternal; and God himself, seeing that he is wont mercifully to pardon his own people, restrained in some degree his hand. Whence also it happened, that Jacob did not immediately repent, but added new offenses to the former. But first we must speak of Rachel. Whereas she rejoiced to see her sister subjected to contempt and grief, the Lord represses this sinful joy, by giving his blessing to Leah, in order to make the condition of both of them equal. She hears the grateful acknowledgment of her sister, and learns from the names given to the four sons, that God had pitied, and had sustained by his favor, her who had been unjustly despised by man. Nevertheless envy inflames her, and will not suffer anything of the dignity becoming a wife to appear in her. We see what ambition can do. For Rachel, in seeking preeminence, does not spare even her own sister; and scarcely refrains from venting her anger against God, for having honored that sister with the gift of fruitfulness. Her emulation did not proceed from any injuries that she had received, but because she could not bear to have a partner and an equal, though she herself was really the younger. What would she have done had she been provoked, seeing that she envies her sister who was contented with her lot? Now Moses, by exhibiting this evil in Rachel, would teach us that it is inherent in all; in order that each of us, tearing it up by the roots, may vigilantly purify himself from it. That we may be cured of envy, it behaves us to put away pride and selflove; as Paul prescribes this single remedy against contentions

“Let nothing be done through vainglory.” (Phi 2:3.)

Calvin: Gen 30:2 - And Jacob’s anger was kindled 2.And Jacob’s anger was kindled. The tenderness of Jacob’s affection rendered him unwilling to offend his wife; yet her unworthy conduct compelle...

2.And Jacob’s anger was kindled. The tenderness of Jacob’s affection rendered him unwilling to offend his wife; yet her unworthy conduct compelled him to do so, when he saw her petulantly exalt herself, not only against her sister, who piously, homily, and thankfully was enjoying the gifts of God; but even against God himself, of whom it is said that the fruit of the womb is his reward. (Psa 127:3.) On this account, therefore, Jacob is angry, because his wife ascribes nothing to the providence of God, and, by imagining that children are the offspring of chance, would deprive God of the care and government of mankind. It is probable that Jacob had been already sorrowful on account of his wife’s barrenness. He now, therefore, fears lest her folly should still farther provoke God’s anger to inflict more severe strokes. This was a holy indignation, by which Jacob maintained the honor due to God, while he corrected his wife, and taught her that it was not without sufficient cause that she had been hitherto barren. For when he affirms that the Lord had shut her womb, he obliquely intimates that she ought the more deeply to humble herself.

Calvin: Gen 30:3 - Behold my maid Bilhah 3.Behold my maid Bilhah. Here the vanity of the female disposition appears. For Rachel is not induced to flee unto the Lord, but strives to gain a tr...

3.Behold my maid Bilhah. Here the vanity of the female disposition appears. For Rachel is not induced to flee unto the Lord, but strives to gain a triumph by illicit arts. Therefore she hurries Jacob into a third marriage. Whence we infer, that there is no end of sinning, when once the Divine institution is treated with neglect. And this is what I have said, that Jacob was not immediately brought back to a right state of mind by Divine chastisements. He acts, indeed, in this instance, at the instigation of his wife: but is his wife in the place of God, from whom alone the law of marriage proceeds? But to please his wife, or to yield to her importunity, he does not scruple to depart from the command of God. To bear upon the knees, is nothing more than to commit the child when born to another to be brought up. Bilhah was a maidservant; and therefore did not bear for herself but for her mistress, who, claiming the child as her own, thus procured the honor of a mother. Therefore it is added, in the way of explanation, I shall have children, or I shall be built up by her. For the word which Moses here uses, is derived from בן ( ben,) a son: because children are as the support and stay of a house. But Rachel acted sinfully, because she attempted, by an unlawful method, and in opposition to the will of God, to become a mother.

Calvin: Gen 30:5 - And Bilhah conceived 5.And Bilhah conceived. It is wonderful that God should have deigned to honor an adulterous connection with offspring: but he does sometimes thus str...

5.And Bilhah conceived. It is wonderful that God should have deigned to honor an adulterous connection with offspring: but he does sometimes thus strive to overcome by kindness the wickedness of men, and pursues the unworthy with his favor. Moreover, he does not always make the punishment equal to the offenses of his people, nor does he always rouse them, alike quickly, from their torpor, but waits for the matured season of correction. Therefore it was his will that they who were born from this faulty connection, should yet be reckoned among the legitimate children; just as Moses shortly before called Bilhah a wife, who yet might more properly have been called a harlot. And the common rule does not hold, that what had no force from the beginning can never acquire validity by succession of time; for although the compact, into which the husband and wife sinfully entered against the Divine command and the sacred order of nature, was void; it came to pass nevertheless, by special privilege, that the conjunction, which in itself was adulterous, obtained the honor of wedlock. At length Rachel begins to ascribe to God what is his own; but this confession of hers is so mixed up with ambition, that it breathes nothing of sincerity or rectitude. She pompously announces, that her cause has been undertaken by the Lord. As if truly, she had been so injured by her sister, that she deserved to be raised by the favor of God; and as if she had not attempted to deprive herself of his help. We see, then, that under the pretext of praising God, she rather does him wrong, by rendering him subservient to her desires. Add to this, that she imitates hypocrites, who, while in adversity, rush against God with closed eyes; vet when more prosperous fortune favors them, indulge in vain boastings, as if God smiled upon all their deeds and sayings. Rachel, therefore, does not so much celebrate the goodness of God, as she applauds herself Wherefore let the faithful, instructed by her example, abstain from polluting the sacred name of God by hypocrisy.

Calvin: Gen 30:8 - With great wrestlings 8.With great wrestlings 74 Others translate it, “I am joined with the joinings of God;” 75 as if she exulted in having recovered what she had los...

8.With great wrestlings 74 Others translate it, “I am joined with the joinings of God;” 75 as if she exulted in having recovered what she had lost; or, certainly, in having obtained an equal degree of honor with her sister. Others render it, I am doubled with the duplications of God. But both derive the noun and the verb from the root פתל ( patal,) which signifies a twisted thread. The former of these senses comes to this; that since Rachel has attained a condition equal to that of her sister, there is no reason why her sister should claim any superiority over her. But the latter sense expresses more confident boasting, since she proclaims herself a conqueror, and doubly superior. But a more simple meaning is (in my opinion) adduced by others, namely, that she “wrestled with divine or excellent wrestlings.” For the Hebrews indicate all excellence by adding the name of God; because the more excellent anything is, the more does the glory of God shine in it. But perverse is that boasting with which she glories over her sister, when she ought rather suppliantly to have implored forgiveness. In Rachel the pride of the human mind is depicted; because they whom God has endowed with his benefits, for the most part are so elated, that they rage contumeliously against their neighbors. Besides, she foolishly prefers herself to her sister in fruitfulness, in which she is still manifestly inferior. But they who are puffed up with pride have also the habit of malignantly depreciating those gifts which the Lord has bestowed on others, in comparison with their own smaller gifts. Perhaps, also, she expected a numerous progeny, as if God were under obligation to her. She did not, as pious persons are wont to do, conceive hope from benefits received; but, by a confident presumption of the flesh, made herself sure of everything she wished. Hitherto, then, she gave no sign of pious modesty. Whence is this, but because her temporary barrenness had not yet thoroughly subdued her? Therefore we ought the more to beware, lest if God relaxes our punishments, we, being inflated by his kindness, should perish.

Calvin: Gen 30:9 - When Leah saw that she had left bearing 9.When Leah saw that she had left bearing Moses returns to Leah, who, not content with four sons, devised a method whereby she might always retain he...

9.When Leah saw that she had left bearing Moses returns to Leah, who, not content with four sons, devised a method whereby she might always retain her superior rank: and therefore she also, in turn, substitutes her maid in her place. And truly Rachel deserved such a reward of her perverse design; since she, desiring to snatch the palm from her sister, does not consider that the same contrivance to which she had resorted, might speedily be employed against herself. Yet Leah sins still more grievously, by using wicked and unjust arts in the contest. Within a short period, she had experienced the wonderful blessing of God; and now, because she ceased from bearing, for a little while, she despairs concerning the future, as if she had never participated in the Divine favor. What, if her desire was strong; why did she not resort to the fountain of blessing? In obtruding, therefore, her maid, she gave proof not only of impatience, but also of distrust; because with the remembrance of Divine mercy, faith also is extinguished in her heart. And we know that all who rely upon the Lord are so tranquil and sedate in their mind, that they patiently wait for what he is about to give. And it is the just punishment of unbelief when any one stumbles through excessive haste. So much the more ought we to beware of the assaults of the flesh, if we desire to maintain a right course.

As to the name Gad, this passage is variously expounded by commentators. In this point they agree, that בגד ( bagad) means the same as if Leah had said “the time of bearing is come.” 76 But some suppose גד ( Gad,) to be the prosperous star of Jupiter; others, Mercury; others, good fortune. They adduce Isa 65:11, where it is written, “they offer a libation to Gad.” 77 But the context of the Prophet shows that this ought rather to be understood of the host of heaven, or of the number of false gods; because it immediately follows that they offer sacrifices to the stars, and furnish tables for a multitude of gods: the punishment is then added, that as they had fabricated an immense number of deities, so God will “number” them “to the sword.” As it respects the present passage, nothing is less probable than that Leah should extol the planet Jupiter instead of God, seeing that she, at least, maintained the principle that the propagation of the human race flows from God alone. I wonder also that interpreters understand this of prosperous fortune, when Moses afterwards, Gen 49:19, leads us to an opposite meaning. For the allusion he there makes would be inappropriate, “Gad, a troop shall overcome him,” etc., unless it had been the design of Leah to congratulate herself on the troop of her children. For since she had so far surpassed her sister, 78 she declares that she has children in great abundance. When she proclaims herself happy 79 in her sixth son, it again appears in what great esteem fecundity was then held. And certainly it is a great honor, when God confers on mortals the sacred title of parents, and through them propagates the human race formed after his own image.

Calvin: Gen 30:14 - And Reuben went in the days of wheat harvest 14.And Reuben went in the days of wheat harvest. This narration of the fact that a boy brought home I know not what kind of fruit out of the fields, ...

14.And Reuben went in the days of wheat harvest. This narration of the fact that a boy brought home I know not what kind of fruit out of the fields, and presented it to his mother, by which she purchased of her sister one nigh with her husband, has the appearance of being light and puerile. Yet it contains a useful instruction. For we know how foolishly the Jews glory in extolling the origin of their own nation: for they scarcely deign to acknowledge that they leave sprung from Adam and Noah, with the rest of mankind. And certainly they do excel in the dignity of their ancestors, as Paul testifies, (Rom 9:5,) but they do not acknowledge this as coming from God. Wherefore the Spirit purposely aimed at beating down this arrogance, when he described their race as sprung from a beginning, so mean and abject. For he does not here erect a splendid stage on which they may exhibit themselves; but he humbles them and exalts the grace of God, seeing that he had brought forth his Church out of nothing. Respecting the kind of fruit mentioned, I leave nothing certain to adduce. 80 That it was fragrant is gathered from Son 7:13 81 And whereas all translate it mandrakes, I do not contend on that point.

Calvin: Gen 30:15 - Is it a small matter that thou hast taken my husband? 15.Is it a small matter that thou hast taken my husband? Moses leaves more for his readers to reflect upon than he expresses in words; namely, that J...

15.Is it a small matter that thou hast taken my husband? Moses leaves more for his readers to reflect upon than he expresses in words; namely, that Jacob’s house had been filled with contentions and strifes. For Leah speaks haughtily, because her mind had been long so exasperated that she could not address herself mildly and courteously to her sister: Perhaps the sisters were not thus contentious by nature; but God suffered them to contend with each other, that the punishment of polygamy might be exhibited to posterity. And it is not to be doubted that this domestic private quarrel, yea, hostile dissension, brought great grief and torment to the holy man. But the reason why he found himself thus distracted by opposite parties was, that against all right, he had broken the unity of the conjugal bond.

Calvin: Gen 30:17 - And God hearkened unto Leah 17.And God hearkened unto Leah. Moses expressly declares this, in order that we may know how indulgently God dealt with that family. For who would ha...

17.And God hearkened unto Leah. Moses expressly declares this, in order that we may know how indulgently God dealt with that family. For who would have thought, that, while Leah was hatefully denying to her sister the fruits gathered by her boy, and was purchasing, by the price of those fruits, a night with her husband, there would be any place for prayers? Moses, therefore, teaches us, that pardon was granted for these faults, to prove that the Lord would not fail to complete his work notwithstanding such great infirmity. But Leah ignorantly boasts that her son was given to her as a reward of her sin; for she had violatedthe fidelity of holy wedlock, when she introduced a fresh concubine to oppose her sister. Truly, she is so far from the confession of her fault, that she proclaims her own merit. I grant there was some excuse for her conduct; for she intimates that she was not so much excited by lust, as by modest love, because she desired to increase her family and to fulfill the duty of an honorable mother of a family. But though this pretext is specious in the eyes of men, yet the profanation of holy marriage cannot be pleasing to God. She errs, therefore, in taking what was no cause for the cause. And this is the more to be observed; because it is a fault which too much prevails in the world, for men to reckon the free gifts of God as their own reward; yea, even to boast of their deserts, when they are condemned by the word of God. In her sixth son, she more purely and rightly estimates the divine goodness, when she gives thanks to God, that, by his kindness, her husband would hereafter be more closely united to her, (verse 20). For although he had lived with her before, yet, being too much attached to Rachel, he was almost entirely alienated from Leah. It has before been said, that children born in lawful wedlock are bonds to unite the minds of their parents.

Calvin: Gen 30:21 - And afterward she bare a daughter 21.And afterward she bare a daughter. It is not known whether Jacob had any other daughter; for it is not uncommon in Scripture, when genealogies are...

21.And afterward she bare a daughter. It is not known whether Jacob had any other daughter; for it is not uncommon in Scripture, when genealogies are recorded, to omit the women, since they do not bear their own name, but lie concealed under the shadow of their husbands. Meanwhile, if anything worthy of commemoration occurs to any women, especial mention is then made of them. This was the case with Dinah, on account of the violence done to her; of which more will be said hereafter. But whereas the sons of Jacob subsequently regarded it as an indignity that their sister should marry one of another nation; and as Moses records nothing of any other daughters, either as being settled in the land of Canaan, or married in Egypt, it is probable that Dinah was the only one born to him.

Calvin: Gen 30:22 - And God remembered Rachel 22.And God remembered Rachel. Since with God nothing is either before or after, but all things are present, he is subject to no forgetfulness, so ...

22.And God remembered Rachel. Since with God nothing is either before or after, but all things are present, he is subject to no forgetfulness, so that, in the lapse of time, he should need to be reminded of what is past. But the Scripture describes the presence and memory of God from the effect produced upon ourselves, because we conceive him to be such as he appears to be by his acts. Moreover, whether Rachel’s child was born the last of all, cannot with certainty be gathered from the words of Moses. They who, in this place, affirm that the figure hysteron proteron, which puts the last first, is used, are moved by the consideration, that if Joseph had been born after the last of his brethren, the age which Moses records in Gen 41:46, would not accord with the fact. But they are deceived in this, that they reckon the nuptials of Rachel from the end of the second seven years; whereas it is certainly proved from the context, that although Jacob agreed to give his service for Rachel, yet he obtained her immediately; because from the beginning, the strife between the two sisters broke forth. Moses clearly intimates, in this place, that the blessing of God was bestowed late, when Rachel had despaired of issue, and had long been subject to reproach because of her barrenness. On account of this prosperous omen she gave the name Joseph 82 to her son, deriving the hope of two sons from the prospect of one 83

Calvin: Gen 30:25 - Send me away, that I may go 25.Send me away, that I may go. Seeing that Jacob had been retained by a proposed reward for his services, it might appear that he was acting craftil...

25.Send me away, that I may go. Seeing that Jacob had been retained by a proposed reward for his services, it might appear that he was acting craftily in desiring his dismissal from his father-in-law. I cannot, however, doubt that the desire to return had already entered his mind, and that he ingenuously avowed his intention. First; having experienced, in many ways, how unjust, how perfidious, and even cruel, Laban had been, there is no wonder that he should wish to depart from him, as soon as ever the opportunity was afforded. Secondly; since, from the long space of time which had elapsed, he hoped that his brother’s mind would be appeased, he could not but earnestly wish to return to his parents; especially as he had been oppressed by so many troubles, that he could scarcely fear a worse condition in any other place. But the promise of God was the most powerful stimulant of all to excite his desire to return. For he had not rejected the benediction which was dearer to him than his own life. To this point his declaration refers, “I will go to my own place and to my country;” for he does not use this language concerning Canaan, only because he was born there, but because he knew that it had been divinely granted to him. For if he had said that he desired to return, merely because it was his native soil, he might have been exposed to ridicule; since his father had passed a wandering and unsettled life, continually changing his abode. I therefore conclude, that although he might have dwelt commodiously elsewhere, the oracle of God, by which the land of Canaan had been destined for him, was ever fresh in his memory. And although, for a time, he submits to detention, this does not alter his purpose to depart: for necessity, in part, extorted it from him, since he was unable to extricate himself from the snares of his uncle; in part also, he voluntarily gave way, in order that he might acquire something for himself and his family, lest he should return poor and naked to his own country. But here the insane wickedness of Laban is discovered. After he had almost worn out his nephew and son-in-law, by hard and constant toil for fourteen years, he yet offers him no wages for the future. The equity, of which at first he had made such pretensions, had already vanished. For the greater had been the forbearance of Jacob, the more tyrannical license did he usurp over him. So the world abuses the gentleness of the pious; and the more meekly they conduct themselves, the more ferociously does the world assail them. But though, like sheep, we are exposed, in this world, to the violence and injuries of wolves; we must not fear lest they should hurt or devour us, since the Heavenly Shepherd keeps us under his protection.

Calvin: Gen 30:27 - I pray thee, if I have found favor in thine eyes 27.I pray thee, if I have found favor in thine eyes. We perceive hence, that Jacob had not been a burdensome guest, seeing that Laban soothes him wit...

27.I pray thee, if I have found favor in thine eyes. We perceive hence, that Jacob had not been a burdensome guest, seeing that Laban soothes him with bland address, in order to procure from him a longer continuance in his service. For, sordid and grasping as he was, he would not have suffered Jacob to remain a moment in his house, unless he had found his presence to be a certain source of gain. Inasmuch therefore, as he not only did not thrust him out, but anxiously sought to retain him, we hence infer that the holy man had undergone incredible labors, which had not only sufficed for the sustenance of a large family, but had also brought great profit to his father-in-law. Wherefore, he complains afterwards, not unjustly, that he had endured the heat of the day, and the cold of the night. Nevertheless, there is no doubt, that the blessing of God availed more than any labors whatever, so that Laban perceived Jacob to be a kind of horn of plenty, as he himself confesses. For he not only commends his fidelity and diligence, but expressly declares that he himself had I been blessed by the Lord, for Jacob’s sake. It appears, then, that the wealth of Laban had so increased, from the time of Jacob’s coming, that it was as if his gains had visibly distilled from heaven. Moreover, as the word נחש ( nachash,) among the Hebrews, means to know by auguries or by divination, some interpreters imagine that Laban, having been instructed in magic arts, found that the presence of Jacob was useful and profitable to him. Others, however, expound the words more simply, as meaning that he had proved it to be so by experiment. To me the true interpretation seems to be, as if he had said, that the blessing of God was as perceptible to him, as if it had been attested by prophecy, or found out by augury.

Calvin: Gen 30:29 - Thou knowest how I have served thee 29.Thou knowest how I have served thee. This answer of Jacob is not intended to increase the amount of his wages; but he would expostulate with Laban...

29.Thou knowest how I have served thee. This answer of Jacob is not intended to increase the amount of his wages; but he would expostulate with Laban, and would charge him with acting unjustly and unkindly in requiring a prolongation of the time of service. There is also no doubt that he is carried forth, with every desire of his mind, towards the land of Canaan. Therefore a return thither was, in his view, preferable to any kind of riches whatever. Yet, in the mealtime, he indirectly accuses his father-in-law, both of cunning and of inhumanity, in order that he may extort something from him, if be must remain longer. For he could not hope that the perfidious old fox would, of himself, perform an act of justice; neither does Jacob simply commend his own industry, but shows that he had to deal with an unjust and cruel man. Meanwhile, it is to be observed, that although he had labored strenuously, he yet ascribes nothing to his own labor, but imputes it entirely to the blessing of God that Laban had been enriched. For though when men faithfully devote themselves to their duty, they do not lose their labor; yet their success depends entirely upon the favor of God. What Paul asserts concerning the efficacy of teaching, extends still further, that he who plants and he who waters is nothing, (1Co 3:7,) for the similitude is taken from general experience. The use of this doctrine is twofold. First, whatever I attempt, or to whatever work I apply my hands, it is my duty to desire God to bless my labor, that it may not be vain and fruitless. Then, if I have obtained anything, my second duty is to ascribe the praise to God; without whose blessing, men in vain rise up early, fatigue themselves the whole day, late take rest, eat the bread of carefulness, and taste even a little water with sorrow. With respect to the meaning of the words, when Jacob says, “It was little that thou hadst in my sight, ” 84 Jerome has well and skilfully translated them “before I came.” For Moses puts the face of Jacob for his actual coming and dwelling with Laban.

Calvin: Gen 30:30 - And now, when shall I provide for mine own house also? 30.And now, when shall I provide for mine own house also? He reasons, that when he had so long expended his labors for another, it would be unjust th...

30.And now, when shall I provide for mine own house also? He reasons, that when he had so long expended his labors for another, it would be unjust that his own family should be neglected. For nature prescribes this order, that every one should take care of the family committed to him. To which point the saying of Solomon is applicable, Drink water from thy own fountains, and let rivers flow to thy neighbors. 85 Had Jacob been alone, he might have devoted himself more freely to the interests of another; but now, since he is the husband of four wives, and the father of a numerous offspring, he ought not to be forgetful of those whom he has received at the hand of God to bring up.

Calvin: Gen 30:31 - Thou shalt not give me anything 31.Thou shalt not give me anything. The antithesis between this and the preceding clause is to be noticed. For Jacob does not demand for himself cert...

31.Thou shalt not give me anything. The antithesis between this and the preceding clause is to be noticed. For Jacob does not demand for himself certain and definite wages; but he treats with Laban, on this condition, that he shall receive whatever offspring may be brought forth by the sheep and goats of a pure and uniform color, which shall prove to be party-coloured and spotted. There is indeed some obscurity in the words. For, at first, Jacob seems to require for himself the spotted sheep as a present reward. But from the thirty-third verse (Gen 30:33) another sense may be gathered: namely, that Jacob would suffer whatever was variegated in the flock to be separated and delivered to the sons of Laban to be fed; but that he himself would retain the unspotted sheep and goats. And certainly it would be absurd that Jacob should now claim part of the flock for himself, when he had just confessed, that hitherto he had made no gain. Moreover, the gain thus acquired would have been more than was just; and there was no hope that this could be obtained from Laban. A question however arises, by what hope, or by what counsel bad Jacob been induced to propose this condition? A little afterwards, Moses will relate that he had used cunning, in order that party-coloured and spotted lambs might be brought forth by the pure flock; but in the following chapter he more fully declares that Jacob had been divinely instructed thus to act (Gen 31:1.) Therefore, although it was improbable in itself that this agreement should prove useful to the holy man, he yet obeys the celestial oracle, and wishes to be enriched in no other manner than according to the will of God. But Laban was dealt with according to his own disposition; for he eagerly caught at what seemed advantageous to himself, but God disappointed his shameful cupidity.

Calvin: Gen 30:33 - So shall my righteousness answer for me // Every one that is not speckled and spotted 33.So shall my righteousness answer for me. Literally it is, “My righteousness shall answer in me.” But the particle בי ( bi) signifies to m...

33.So shall my righteousness answer for me. Literally it is, “My righteousness shall answer in me.” But the particle בי ( bi) signifies to me or for me 86 The sense, however, is clear, that Jacob does not expect success, except through his faith and integrity. 87 Respecting the next clause, interpreters differ. For some read, “When thou shalt come to my reward.” 88 But others, translating in the third person, explain it of righteousness, which shall come to the reward, or to the remunerating of Jacob. Although either sense will suit the passage, I rather refer it to righteousness; because it is immediately added, “before thee.” 89 For it would be an improper form of expression, “Thou wilt come before thine own eyes to my reward.” It now sufficiently appears what Jacob meant. For he declares that he hoped for a testimony of his faith and uprightness from the Lord, in the happy result of his labors, as if he had said, “The Lord who is the best judge and vindicator of my righteousness, will indeed show with what sincerity and faithfulness I have hitherto conducted myself.” And though the Lord often permits sinners to be enriched by wicked arts, and suffers them to acquire abundant gain by seizing the goods of others as their own: this proves no exception to the rule, that his blessing is the ordinary attendant on good faith and equity. Wherefore, Jacob justly gave this token of his fidelity, that he committed the success of his labors to the Lord, in order that his integrity might hence be made manifest. The sense of the words is now clear, “My righteousness shall openly testify for me, because it will voluntarily come to remunerate me; and that so obviously, that it shall not he hidden even from thee.” A tacit reproof is couched in this language, intimating that Laban should feel how unjustly he had withheld the wages of the holy man, and that God would shortly show, by the result, how wickedly he had dissembled respecting his own obligation to him. For there is an antithesis to be understood between the future and the past time, when he says, “ Tomorrow (or in time to come) it will answer for me,” since indeed, yesterday and the day before, he could extort no justice from Laban.

Every one that is not speckled and spotted. Jacob binds himself to the crime and punishment of theft, if he should take away any unspotted sheep from the flock: as if he would say, “Shouldst thou find with me anything unspotted, I am willing to be charged as a thief; because I require nothing to be given to me but the spotted lambs.” Some expound the words otherwise, “Whatsoever thou shalt find deficient in thy flock, require of me, as if I had stolen it;” but this appears to me a forced interpretation.

Calvin: Gen 30:35 - And he removed that day 35.And he removed that day. From this verse the form of the compact is more certainly known. Laban separates the sheep and goats marked with spots fr...

35.And he removed that day. From this verse the form of the compact is more certainly known. Laban separates the sheep and goats marked with spots from the pure flock, that is, from the white or black, and commits these to his sons to be fed; interposing a three-days’ journey between them and the rest; lest, by promiscuous intercourse, a particoloured offspring should be produced. It follows, therefore, that, in the flock which Jacob fed, nothing remained but cattle of one color: thus but faint hope of gain remained to the holy man, while every provision was made for Laban’s advantage. It also appears, from the distance of the places, in which Laban kept his flocks apart, that he was not less suspicious than covetous; for dishonest men are wont to measure others by their own standard; whence it happens that they are always distrustful and alarmed.

Calvin: Gen 30:37 - And Jacob took him rods of green poplar 37.And Jacob took him rods of green poplar. The narration of Moses, at first sight, may seem absurd: for he either intends to censure holy Jacob as g...

37.And Jacob took him rods of green poplar. The narration of Moses, at first sight, may seem absurd: for he either intends to censure holy Jacob as guilty of fraud, or to praise his industry. But from the context it will appear that this adroitness was not culpable. Let us then see how it is to be excused. Should any one contend that he was impelled to act as he did, by the numerous injuries of his father-in-law, and that he sought nothing but the reparation of former losses; the defense would perhaps be plausible: yet in the sight of God it is neither firm nor probable; for although we may be unjustly treated, we must not enter the contest with equal injustice. And were it permitted to avenge our own injuries, or to repair our own wrongs, there would be no place for legal judgments, and thence would arise horrible confusion. Therefore Jacob ought not to have resorted to this stratagem, for the purpose of producing degenerate cattle, but rather to have followed the rule which the Lord delivers by the mouth of Paul, that the faithful should study to overcome evil with good, (Rom 12:21.) This simplicity, I confess, ought to have been cultivated by Jacob, unless the Lord from heaven had commanded otherwise. But in this narrative there is a hysteron proteron, (a putting of the last first,) for Moses first relates the fact, and then subjoins that Jacob had attempted nothing but by the command of God. Wherefore, it is not for those persons to claim him as their advocate, who oppose malignant and fraudulent men with fallacies like their own; because Jacob did not, of his own will, take license craftily to circumvent his father-in-law, by whom he had been unworthily deceived; but, pursuing the course prescribed to him by the Lord, kept himself within due bounds. In vain, also, according to my judgment, do some dispute whence Jacob learnt this; whether by long practice or by the teaching of his fathers; for it is possible, that he had been suddenly instructed respecting a matter previously unknown. If any one object, the absurdity of supposing, that this act of deceit was suggested by God; the answer is easy, that God is the author of no fraud, when he stretches out his hand to protect his servant. Nothing is more appropriate to him, and more in accordance with his justice, than that he should interpose as an avenger, when any injury is inflicted. But it is not our part to prescribe to him his method of acting. He suffered Laban to retain what he unjustly possessed; but in six years he withdrew his blessing from Laban, and transferred it to his servant Jacob. If an earthly judge condemns a thief to restore twofold or fourfold, no one complains: and why should we concede less to God, than to a mortal and perishing man? He had other methods in his power; but he purposed to connect his grace with the labor and diligence of Jacob, that he might openly repay to him those wages of which he had been long defrauded. For Laban was constrained to open his eyes, which being before shut, he had been accustomed to consume the sweat and even the blood of another. Moreover, as it respects physical causes, it is well known, that the sight of objects by the female has great effect on the form of the foetus. 90 When this happens with women, takes it at least place with animals, where is no reason, but where reigns an enormous rush of carnal lusts. Now Jacob did three things. For first, he stripped the bark from twigs that he might make bare some white places by the incisions in the bark, and thus a varying and manifold color was produced. Secondly, he chose the times when the males and females were assembled. Thirdly, he put the twigs in the waters, 91 for like the drinking feeds the animal parts, it also urges on the sexual drive. By the stronger cattle Moses may be understood to speak of those who bore in spring — by the feeble, those who bore in autumn.

Calvin: Gen 30:43 - And the man increased exceedingly 43.And the man increased exceedingly. Moses added this for the purpose of showing that he was not made thus suddenly rich without a miracle. We shall...

43.And the man increased exceedingly. Moses added this for the purpose of showing that he was not made thus suddenly rich without a miracle. We shall see hereafter how great his wealth was. For being entirely destitute, he yet gathered out of nothing, greater riches than any man of moderate wealth could do in twenty or thirty years. And that no one may deem this fabulous, as not being in accordance with the usual method, Moses meets the objection by saying, that the holy man was enriched in an extraordinary manner.

Defender: Gen 30:3 - go in unto her In accordance with the customs of the time, which allowed both polygamy and concubinage, Laban had provided maids for his daughters as insurance that ...

In accordance with the customs of the time, which allowed both polygamy and concubinage, Laban had provided maids for his daughters as insurance that they would not be childless. Any children borne by Leah's and Rachel's personal maids would legally be recognized as theirs. Even though this kind of arrangement was legal, it was not in accord with God's original plan for the marriage relation. The Bible tells of many polygamous marriages which God allowed, but of none which were happy marriages."

Defender: Gen 30:14 - mandrakes A mandrake is a small berrylike fruit, prized in ancient times as an aphrodisiac and inducer of fertility. Rachel did eventually have two sons, but it...

A mandrake is a small berrylike fruit, prized in ancient times as an aphrodisiac and inducer of fertility. Rachel did eventually have two sons, but it was not because of the mandrakes."

Defender: Gen 30:27 - by experience The words "by experience" should be translated "by enchantments." Though he knew God after a fashion, Laban had become a sort of pagan mystic. However...

The words "by experience" should be translated "by enchantments." Though he knew God after a fashion, Laban had become a sort of pagan mystic. However, God had overruled even in this, and Laban learned that the unusual prosperity he was experiencing was because of Jacob's abilities and faithfulness."

Defender: Gen 30:28 - I will give it Laban gave Jacob carte blanche to set up his own terms. Thus, Jacob by no means took advantage of Laban. Rather, the terms proposed by Jacob were hea...

Laban gave Jacob carte blanche to set up his own terms. Thus, Jacob by no means took advantage of Laban. Rather, the terms proposed by Jacob were heavily weighted in Laban's favor."

Defender: Gen 30:32 - speckled and spotted cattle Laban had received fourteen years of free labor from Jacob and had prospered greatly as a result. He told Jacob he would pay whatever Jacob wanted, if...

Laban had received fourteen years of free labor from Jacob and had prospered greatly as a result. He told Jacob he would pay whatever Jacob wanted, if Jacob would continue. Jacob responded with a proposal which Laban quickly accepted, recognizing it as highly beneficial to himself. Jacob's wages would be the spotted and off-color animals which the flocks might produce in the future - first, however, removing all such animals in the existing flocks so they could not be used in breeding. Thus, Jacob would get only the off-colored and speckled animals which might be born to a flock containing only solid-colored, dominant-colored animals. These terms, apart from God's intervention, would have enormously favored Laban. Jacob did know from long experience as a shepherd and stock breeder, that some "heterozygous" animals would be in the flock even though all appeared to be "homozygous," so that at least a few animals would be born spotted and speckled, even from Laban's solid-colored animals. He trusted the Lord to determine how many."

Defender: Gen 30:38 - rods which he had pilled These striped rods were not for the purpose of inducing some "pre-natal influence" on the animals. With his seventy years or more of practical experie...

These striped rods were not for the purpose of inducing some "pre-natal influence" on the animals. With his seventy years or more of practical experience with large flocks, Jacob knew better than that. Either the chemicals from the wood or the sight of the streaked rods must have served as an aphrodisiac for the animals, inducing them to mate as they came to the troughs. Jacob only used the rods with the stronger animals, so that the progeny would also be strong. Under usual conditions, this stratagem should have greatly benefited Laban's flocks."

Defender: Gen 30:39 - conceived The word for "conceived" can mean "were in heat.""

The word for "conceived" can mean "were in heat.""

TSK: Gen 30:1 - when Rachel // Rachel envied // or else I die when Rachel : Gen 29:31 Rachel envied : Envy and jealousy are most tormenting passions to the breast which harbours them, vexatious to all around, and...

when Rachel : Gen 29:31

Rachel envied : Envy and jealousy are most tormenting passions to the breast which harbours them, vexatious to all around, and introductory to much impatience and ungodliness. ""Who is able to stand before envy?""Gen 37:11; 1Sa 1:4-8; Psa 106:16; Pro 14:30; Ecc 4:4; 1Co 3:3; Gal 5:21; Tit 3:3; Jam 3:14, Jam 4:5

or else I die : Gen 35:16-19, Gen 37:11; Num 11:15, Num 11:29; 1Ki 19:4; Job 3:1-3, Job 3:11, Job 3:20-22, Job 5:2; Job 13:19; Jer 20:14-18; Joh 4:3, Joh 4:8; 2Co 7:10

TSK: Gen 30:2 - anger // Am I // withheld anger : Gen 31:36; Exo 32:19; Mat 5:22; Mar 3:5; Eph 4:26 Am I : Gen 16:2, Gen 25:21, Gen 50:19; 1Sa 1:5, 1Sa 2:5, 1Sa 2:6; 2Ki 5:7 withheld : Deu 7:1...

TSK: Gen 30:3 - Behold // she shall // have children by her Behold : Gen 30:9, Gen 16:2, Gen 16:3 she shall : Gen 50:23; Job 3:12 have children by her : Heb. be built up by her, Gen 16:2 *marg. Rth 4:11

Behold : Gen 30:9, Gen 16:2, Gen 16:3

she shall : Gen 50:23; Job 3:12

have children by her : Heb. be built up by her, Gen 16:2 *marg. Rth 4:11

TSK: Gen 30:4 - to wife to wife : Gen 16:3, Gen 21:10, Gen 22:24, Gen 25:1, Gen 25:6, Gen 33:2, Gen 35:22; 2Sa 12:11

TSK: Gen 30:6 - God // Dan am 2256, bc 1748 God : Gen 29:32-35; Psa 35:24, Psa 43:1; Lam 3:59 Dan : that is, Judging, Gen 35:25, Gen 46:23, Gen 49:16, Gen 49:17; Deu 33:22; Jer ...

TSK: Gen 30:7 - -- am 2257, bc 1747, Gen 30:7

am 2257, bc 1747, Gen 30:7

TSK: Gen 30:8 - great wrestlings // and she // Naphtali great wrestlings : Heb. wrestlings of God, Gen 23:6, Gen 32:24; Exo 9:28; 1Sa 14:15 *marg. and she : Gen 35:25, Gen 46:24, Gen 49:21; Deu 33:23 Naphta...

great wrestlings : Heb. wrestlings of God, Gen 23:6, Gen 32:24; Exo 9:28; 1Sa 14:15 *marg.

and she : Gen 35:25, Gen 46:24, Gen 49:21; Deu 33:23

Naphtali : that is, My wrestling, Gen 32:24, Gen 32:25; Mat 4:13, Nephthalim

TSK: Gen 30:9 - left // gave her am 2256, bc 1748 left : Gen 30:17, Gen 29:35 gave her : Gen 30:4, Gen 16:3

am 2256, bc 1748

left : Gen 30:17, Gen 29:35

gave her : Gen 30:4, Gen 16:3

TSK: Gen 30:11 - she // Gad she : Gen 35:26, Gen 46:16, Gen 49:19; Deu 33:20, Deu 33:21 Gad : that is, A troop, or company, Isa 65:11

she : Gen 35:26, Gen 46:16, Gen 49:19; Deu 33:20, Deu 33:21

Gad : that is, A troop, or company, Isa 65:11

TSK: Gen 30:13 - Happy am I // and she // Asher am 2257, bc 1747 Happy am I : Heb. In my happiness, will call. Pro 31:28; Son 6:9; Luk 1:48 and she : Gen 35:26, Gen 46:17, Gen 49:20; Deu 33:24, Deu ...

am 2257, bc 1747

Happy am I : Heb. In my happiness, will call. Pro 31:28; Son 6:9; Luk 1:48

and she : Gen 35:26, Gen 46:17, Gen 49:20; Deu 33:24, Deu 33:25

Asher : that is, Happy

TSK: Gen 30:14 - mandrakes // Give me am 2256, bc 1748 mandrakes : The mandrake may be the Hebrew dudaim . It is so rendered by all the ancient versions, and is a species of melon, of an...

am 2256, bc 1748

mandrakes : The mandrake may be the Hebrew dudaim . It is so rendered by all the ancient versions, and is a species of melon, of an agreeable odour. Hasselquist, speaking of Nazareth in Galilee, says, ""What I found most remarkable at this village was the great number of mandrakes which grew in a vale below it. I had not the pleasure of seeing this plant in blossom, the fruit now (May 5th, O. S.) hanging ripe on the stem, which lay withered on the ground. From the season in which this mandrake blossoms and ripens fruit, one might form a conjecture that it was Rachel’ s dudaim . These were brought her in the wheat harvest, which in Galilee is in the month of May, about this time, and the mandrake was now in fruit.""The Abbee Mariti describes it as growing ""low like a lettuce, to which its leaves have a great resemblance, except that they have a dark green colour. The flowers are purple, and the root is for the most part forked. The fruit, when ripe in the beginning of May, is of the size and colour of a small apple, exceedingly ruddy, and of a most agreeable odour. Our guide thought us fools for suspecting it to be unwholesome.""Son 7:13

Give me : Gen 25:30

TSK: Gen 30:15 - -- Num 16:9, Num 16:10, Num 16:13; Isa 7:13; Eze 16:47; 1Co 4:3

TSK: Gen 30:17 - -- am 2257, bc 1747, Gen 30:6, Gen 30:22; Exo 3:7; 1Sa 1:20, 1Sa 1:26, 1Sa 1:27; Luk 1:13

TSK: Gen 30:18 - and she // Issachar and she : Gen 35:23, Gen 46:13, Gen 49:14, Gen 49:15; Deu 33:18; 1Ch 12:32 Issachar : that is, An hire

and she : Gen 35:23, Gen 46:13, Gen 49:14, Gen 49:15; Deu 33:18; 1Ch 12:32

Issachar : that is, An hire

TSK: Gen 30:20 - now will // and she // Zebulun am cir, 2258, bc cir, 1746 now will : Gen 30:15, Gen 29:34 and she : Gen 35:23, Gen 46:14, Gen 49:13; Jdg 4:10, Jdg 5:14; Psa 68:27 Zebulun : that is,...

am cir, 2258, bc cir, 1746

now will : Gen 30:15, Gen 29:34

and she : Gen 35:23, Gen 46:14, Gen 49:13; Jdg 4:10, Jdg 5:14; Psa 68:27

Zebulun : that is, Dwelling, Mat 4:13, Zabulon

TSK: Gen 30:21 - and called // Dinah am cir, 2259, bc 1745 and called : Gen 34:1-3, Gen 34:26, Gen 46:15 Dinah : that is, Judgment

am cir, 2259, bc 1745

and called : Gen 34:1-3, Gen 34:26, Gen 46:15

Dinah : that is, Judgment

TSK: Gen 30:22 - remembered // opened remembered : Gen 8:1, Gen 21:1, Gen 29:31; 1Sa 1:19, 1Sa 1:20; Psa 105:42 opened : Gen 30:2, Gen 21:1, Gen 21:2, Gen 25:21, Gen 29:31; Psa 113:9, Psa ...

TSK: Gen 30:23 - -- ""Be fruitful and multiply,""was the blessing of God: barrenness therefore was reckoned a reproach The intense desire of having children, observable ...

""Be fruitful and multiply,""was the blessing of God: barrenness therefore was reckoned a reproach The intense desire of having children, observable among the Jewish women, arose not only from this reproach of barrenness, but from the hope of being the mother of the promised seed, and Him in whom all the nations of the earth were to be blessed.

Gen 29:31; 1Sa 1:5, 1Sa 1:6; Isa 4:1; Luk 1:21, Luk 1:25, Luk 1:27

TSK: Gen 30:24 - And she // Joseph And she : Gen 35:24, Gen 37:2, Gen 37:4, 39:1-23, Gen 42:6, 48:1-22, Gen 49:22-26; Deu 33:13-17; Eze 37:16; Act 7:9-15; Heb 11:21, Heb 11:22; Rev 7:8 ...

TSK: Gen 30:25 - Send me away // mine // and to Send me away : Gen 24:54, Gen 24:56 mine : Gen 18:33, Gen 31:55 and to : Gen 24:6, Gen 24:7, Gen 26:3, Gen 27:44, Gen 27:45, Gen 28:13, Gen 28:15, Gen...

TSK: Gen 30:26 - my wives // for thou my wives : Gen 29:19, Gen 29:20, Gen 29:30, Gen 31:26, Gen 31:31, Gen 31:41; Hos 12:12 for thou : Gen 30:29, Gen 30:30, Gen 31:6, Gen 31:38-40

TSK: Gen 30:27 - favour // the Lord favour : Gen 18:3, Gen 33:15, Gen 34:11, Gen 39:3-5, Gen 39:21, Gen 47:25; Exo 3:21; Num 11:11, Num 11:15; Rth 2:13; 1Sa 16:22; 1Ki 11:19; Neh 1:11, N...

TSK: Gen 30:28 - -- Gen 29:15, Gen 29:19

TSK: Gen 30:29 - -- Gen 30:5, Gen 31:6, Gen 31:38-40; Mat 24:45; Eph 6:5-8; Col 3:22-25; Tit 2:9, Tit 2:10; 1Pe 2:15, 1Pe 2:18

TSK: Gen 30:30 - increased // and the // since my coming // when increased : Heb. broken forth, Gen 30:43 and the : Gen 30:27 since my coming : Heb. at my foot, Deu 11:10 when : 2Co 12:14; 1Ti 5:8

increased : Heb. broken forth, Gen 30:43

and the : Gen 30:27

since my coming : Heb. at my foot, Deu 11:10

when : 2Co 12:14; 1Ti 5:8

TSK: Gen 30:31 - -- 2Sa 21:4-6; Psa 118:8; Heb 13:5

TSK: Gen 30:32 - of such of such : Gen 30:35, Gen 31:8, Gen 31:10

TSK: Gen 30:33 - righteousness // answer // in time to come // that shall be righteousness : Gen 31:37; 1Sa 26:23; 2Sa 22:21; Psa 37:6 answer : Isa 59:12 in time to come : Heb. to-morrow, Exo 13:14 that shall be : Supply the el...

righteousness : Gen 31:37; 1Sa 26:23; 2Sa 22:21; Psa 37:6

answer : Isa 59:12

in time to come : Heb. to-morrow, Exo 13:14

that shall be : Supply the ellipsis by inserting ""if found,""after ""stolen,""and the sense will be clear.

TSK: Gen 30:34 - -- Num 22:29; 1Co 7:7, 1Co 14:5; Gal 5:12

TSK: Gen 30:35 - he removed // the hand he removed : From this it appears, that, as Jacob had agreed to take all the parti-coloured for his wages, and was now only beginning to act upon this...

he removed : From this it appears, that, as Jacob had agreed to take all the parti-coloured for his wages, and was now only beginning to act upon this agreement, and consequently had as yet no right to any of the cattle, therefore Laban separated from the flock all such cattle as Jacob might afterwards claim in consequence of his bargain, leaving only the black and white with Jacob.

the hand : Gen 31:9

TSK: Gen 30:37 - Jacob // green poplar // chestnut tree Jacob : Gen 31:9-13 green poplar : Livneh is the white poplar, so called from the whiteness of its leaves, bark, and wood, from lavan to be whit...

Jacob : Gen 31:9-13

green poplar : Livneh is the white poplar, so called from the whiteness of its leaves, bark, and wood, from lavan to be white., hasel , Jerome, Hiller, Celsius, Dr. Shaw, Bochart, and other learned men, say, that luz is not the ""hazel""but the almond-tree, as the word denotes both in Arabic and Syriac.

chestnut tree : The Heb. word ârmon , signifies ""the plane-tree,""so called from the bark naturally peeling off, and leaving the trunk naked, as its root âram , signifies. Eze 31:8

TSK: Gen 30:39 - brought forth brought forth : Gen 31:9-12, Gen 31:38, Gen 31:40, Gen 31:42; Exo 12:35, Exo 12:36

TSK: Gen 30:41 - whensoever the stronger cattle did conceive whensoever the stronger cattle did conceive : As the means which Jacob used would not in general produce similar effects, nay, probably the experiment...

whensoever the stronger cattle did conceive : As the means which Jacob used would not in general produce similar effects, nay, probably the experiment was never in any other instance tried with effect, it is more in harmony with Divine truth to suppose that he was directed by some Divine intimation; and rendered successful, if not by a direct miracle, yet at least by the Lord’ s giving a new and uncommon bias to the tendency of natural causes. Gen 30:41

TSK: Gen 30:43 - -- Gen 30:30, Gen 13:2, Gen 24:35, Gen 26:13, Gen 26:14, Gen 28:15, Gen 31:7, Gen 31:8, Gen 31:42, Gen 32:10, Gen 33:11, Gen 36:7; Ecc 2:7; Eze 39:10; Th...

Gen 30:30, Gen 13:2, Gen 24:35, Gen 26:13, Gen 26:14, Gen 28:15, Gen 31:7, Gen 31:8, Gen 31:42, Gen 32:10, Gen 33:11, Gen 36:7; Ecc 2:7; Eze 39:10; The Lord will, in one way or other, honour those who simply trust his providence.

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Poole: Gen 30:2 - Jacob’ s anger was kindled against Rachel // Am I in God’ s stead? Jacob’ s anger was kindled against Rachel for the injury done to himself, and especially for the sin against God, in which case anger is not onl...

Jacob’ s anger was kindled against Rachel for the injury done to himself, and especially for the sin against God, in which case anger is not only lawful, but necessary.

Am I in God’ s stead? It is God’ s prerogative to give children. See Gen 16:2 1Sa 2:5,6 Ps 113:9 127:3 .

Poole: Gen 30:3 - She shall bear upon my knees // That I may also have children by her She shall bear upon my knees an ellipsis or short speech; She shall bear a child which may be laid upon my knees, or in my lap, which I may adopt ...

She shall bear upon my knees an ellipsis or short speech; She shall bear a child which may be laid upon my knees, or in my lap, which I may adopt and bring up as if it were my own. See Gen 50:23 Isa 66:12 .

That I may also have children by her for as servants, so their work and fruit, were not their own, but their masters’ .

Poole: Gen 30:5 - -- cir. 1748

cir. 1748

Poole: Gen 30:6 - God hath judged me God hath judged me pleaded my cause, or given sentence for me, as this phrase is oft taken.

God hath judged me pleaded my cause, or given sentence for me, as this phrase is oft taken.

Poole: Gen 30:8 - With great wrestlings // I have prevailed With great wrestlings Heb. With wrestlings of God; either with great and hard wrestlings or strivings, or by wrestling with God in fervent prayer,...

With great wrestlings Heb. With wrestlings of God; either with great and hard wrestlings or strivings, or by wrestling with God in fervent prayer, and by God’ s grace and strength. Cir. 1747

I have prevailed which was not true; for her sister exceeded her both in the number of her children, and in her propriety in them, being the fruit of her own womb, not of her handmaid’ s, as Rachel’ s were. Here is an instance how partial judges most persons are in their own causes and concernments.

Poole: Gen 30:10 - -- Cir 1748

Cir 1748

Poole: Gen 30:11 - A troop cometh A troop cometh or, good luck cometh; my design hath well succeeded; a happy star hath shone upon me; and such a star in the opinion of astrologers...

A troop cometh or, good luck cometh; my design hath well succeeded; a happy star hath shone upon me; and such a star in the opinion of astrologers is that of Jupiter, which by the Arabians is called Gad. This may well agree to Leah and her heathenish education, and the manners of the Chaldeans, who were much given to the study of the stars.

Poole: Gen 30:12 - -- cir. 1747

cir. 1747

Poole: Gen 30:13 - The daughters The daughters of men, i.e. women, as Pro 31:29 Son 6:9 .

The daughters of men, i.e. women, as Pro 31:29 Son 6:9 .

Poole: Gen 30:14 - Mandrakes // Give me, I pray thee, of thy son’ s mandrakes cir. 1748 Mandrakes: the word is only found here and Son 7:13 , whence it appears that it is a plant or fruit of pleasant smell, such as the mandr...

cir. 1748

Mandrakes: the word is only found here and Son 7:13 , whence it appears that it is a plant or fruit of pleasant smell, such as the mandrake is said to be by Dioscorides and Levinus Lemnius, and by St. Austin upon his own experience. If it be said this was too early for mandrakes to be ripe, it being now but wheat-harvest; it may be replied, that fruits ripen much sooner in those hot countries than elsewhere, and that they are not here said to be ripe, but only to be gathered.

Give me, I pray thee, of thy son’ s mandrakes which she might desire, either because they were pleasant to the eye or taste, or because they were thought helpful to conception.

Poole: Gen 30:15 - -- Jacob either did equally divide the times between his two wives; or rather, had more estranged himself from Leah, and cohabited principally with Rac...

Jacob either did equally divide the times between his two wives; or rather, had more estranged himself from Leah, and cohabited principally with Rachel, which occasioned the foregoing expostulation.

Poole: Gen 30:16 - -- He ratified their agreement, that he might preserve peace and love amongst them.

He ratified their agreement, that he might preserve peace and love amongst them.

Poole: Gen 30:17 - God hearkened unto Leah God hearkened unto Leah notwithstanding her many infirmities. Hence it appears that she was moved herein not by any inordinate lust, but by a desire ...

God hearkened unto Leah notwithstanding her many infirmities. Hence it appears that she was moved herein not by any inordinate lust, but by a desire of children. cir. 1747

Poole: Gen 30:18 - -- Thus she mistakes the answer of her prayers for a recompence of her error.

Thus she mistakes the answer of her prayers for a recompence of her error.

Poole: Gen 30:20 - -- cir. 1746

cir. 1746

Poole: Gen 30:23 - -- Barrenness was then accounted a great reproach, especially in that race, because it was a kind of curse, whereby such persons were excluded both fro...

Barrenness was then accounted a great reproach, especially in that race, because it was a kind of curse, whereby such persons were excluded both from the first and general blessing of fructification given to all mankind, Gen 1:28 ; and from the special blessing given to Abraham for the multiplication of his seed; and from all hopes of being the progenitors of the blessed Messias.

Poole: Gen 30:25 - -- Canaan, which he calleth his country, in regard both of his former and long habitation in it, and of the right which he had to it by God’ s ...

Canaan, which he calleth his country, in regard both of his former and long habitation in it, and of the right which he had to it by God’ s promise: see Gen 28:13 .

Poole: Gen 30:29 - -- How carefully it was managed, and how greatly improved by my care and industry.

How carefully it was managed, and how greatly improved by my care and industry.

Poole: Gen 30:30 - For it was little // When shall I provide for mine own house also For it was little comparatively to what now it is. Since my coming; Heb. at my foot, i.e. upon my coming; since my feet entered into thy house...

For it was little comparatively to what now it is.

Since my coming; Heb. at my foot, i.e. upon my coming; since my feet entered into thy house: or, by my foot, i.e. by my ministry and labour, as this phrase is used, Deu 11:10 .

When shall I provide for mine own house also according to my duty, which also is thy interest?

Poole: Gen 30:32 - Speckled and spotted cattle // All the brown cattle // Of such shall be my hire Speckled and spotted cattle which may seem to be thus distinguished; speckled with little spots, and spotted with greater spots or stains, both o...

Speckled and spotted cattle which may seem to be thus distinguished; speckled with little spots, and spotted with greater spots or stains, both of diverse colours from the rest of the body. Or, the speckled may be the same with the ring-straked, by comparing this with Gen 30:35 .

All the brown cattle or black, or dark-coloured; for the Hebrew word signifies also great heat which produceth such a colour.

Of such shall be my hire or, then shall be my hire; and for then, as is frequent in Scripture. The sense is: Then, when the speckled, and spotted, and brown are separated, and none but white remaining, my hire shall be out of those white ones, and that in such manner as is expressed in Gen 30:33 , all the white young ones shall be thine, and the speckled, and spotted, and brown which shall be brought forth by those white ones shall be mine.

Poole: Gen 30:33 - When it shall come for my hire before thy face // before thy face When the cattle shall, contrary to their natural and usual course, bring forth young ones of a contrary colour to their own, it will hereby be evide...

When the cattle shall, contrary to their natural and usual course, bring forth young ones of a contrary colour to their own, it will hereby be evident that this is the work of God, who hereby pleads my righteous cause against a cruel and unjust master. Or thus, When thou shall accuse me of doing thee injury, I shall have this manifest and undeniable evidence of my righteousness or innocency, that I have no cattle but of that colour which is by agreement appropriated to me.

When it shall come for my hire before thy face . When it, i.e. my righteousness, shall come to, or upon my reward, i.e. when my righteousness shall appear in the very colour of that cattle which is allotted to me for my reward or hire;

before thy face i.e. thou being present and diligently observing whether I have any cattle of another colour. But the Hebrew word tabo is also of the second person, and so the sense seems to be this, When thou shalt come upon my hire or reward, to wit, to observe and see whether I have any other cattle than what belongs to me. And so these words come in by way of parenthesis; and the following words, before my face, are to be joined to the former words, thus, so shall righteousness answer for me in time to come (when thou shalt come upon my hire) before thy face. This I prefer before the other, because the phrase of coming upon his hire seems more properly to agree to a person than to his righteousness.

Poole: Gen 30:34 - Laban Laban trusted to the course of nature, whereby cattle usually bring forth their young of their own colour; and Jacob relied upon the providence of an...

Laban trusted to the course of nature, whereby cattle usually bring forth their young of their own colour; and Jacob relied upon the providence of an Almighty God, and his gracious Father.

Poole: Gen 30:35 - The he-goats that were ring-straked // Every one that had some white The he-goats that were ring-straked which had lines or strakes like bands about them of diverse colours from the rest of their body. Every one that ...

The he-goats that were ring-straked which had lines or strakes like bands about them of diverse colours from the rest of their body.

Every one that had some white: this word some is oft understood in other texts of Scripture, and here it is so necessarily; as appears both from the thing itself, as it is related, and from the phrase; for he saith not that was white, but that had white in it, to wit, mixed with other colours.

Poole: Gen 30:36 - Three days’ journey Three days’ journey understand it of the journeying or travelling of sheep, not of men. He did this lest either Jacob should mingle and exchang...

Three days’ journey understand it of the journeying or travelling of sheep, not of men. He did this lest either Jacob should mingle and exchange the sheep, or the sheep, by the contemplation of the diverse coloured ones, should bring forth others like to them.

Poole: Gen 30:37 - Jacob took rods // Took rods of green popular, and of the hazel and chesnut tree // made the white appear Jacob took rods: this he did by Divine appointment, as will appear in the sequel, which is sufficient for Jacob’ s justification. Took rods of ...

Jacob took rods: this he did by Divine appointment, as will appear in the sequel, which is sufficient for Jacob’ s justification.

Took rods of green popular, and of the hazel and chesnut tree either because these trees were next at hand, or because he saw these in the Divine vision afterwards mentioned, and would exactly follow his pattern. He

made the white appear by pilling off the rind which covered it.

Poole: Gen 30:38 - -- When by their refreshment and meeting together, they were most likely to generate and conceive.

When by their refreshment and meeting together, they were most likely to generate and conceive.

Poole: Gen 30:39 - The flocks conceived The flocks conceived Heb. were heated, i.e. inflamed or excited, and disposed to conceive, and this in a more than ordinary manner by the Divine d...

The flocks conceived Heb. were heated, i.e. inflamed or excited, and disposed to conceive, and this in a more than ordinary manner by the Divine disposal. The event hath some foundation in nature, because of the great power of imagination; and there are divers instances in many authors, both of women and of beasts, who either by the strong fancying, or by the actual and frequent contemplation, of some certain objects, have brought forth young ones exactly of the same colour and complexion, as one did an Ethiopian, &c. But the providence of God was the principal cause of this effect, without which the productions of that kind would neither have been so many nor so certain. This policy of Jacob’ s could scarcely be excused from deceit and injustice, if it were not manifest that it was done by the direction and authority of the sovereign Lord of all estates, Gen 31:9,11 , &c., who may take them from one, and give them to another, as it pleaseth him; who also observed Laban’ s injustice, and gave to Jacob no more than he abundantly deserved from Laban.

Poole: Gen 30:40 - Jacob did separate the lambs // the ring-straked and all the brown // put them not unto Laban’ s cattle Jacob did separate the lambs such as were ring-straked and brown from the white, as it here follows. He caused the ring-straked and all the brown t...

Jacob did separate the lambs such as were ring-straked and brown from the white, as it here follows. He caused

the ring-straked and all the brown to go foremost, and the white to follow them, that by the continued beholding of them in the time of their conjunction, they might have their colour more imprinted upon their fancies, and thereby convey it to their young ones. He

put them not unto Laban’ s cattle which he did upon the same reason, lest the constant beholding of them should make them bring forth the like, i.e. single-coloured ones.

Poole: Gen 30:41 - -- It is known that the cattle in those parts did conceive and bring forth twice in a year, at spring and in autumn; and it is supposed that the stron...

It is known that the cattle in those parts did conceive and bring forth twice in a year, at spring and in autumn; and it is supposed that the

stronger here mentioned, are such as joined in the spring, and the feeble they that joined in autumn.

Haydock: Gen 30:1 - Envied // Give me // Die Envied, or desired to have children like her. Thus we may envy the virtues of the saints. (Calmet) --- Give me, &c. These words seem to indicate...

Envied, or desired to have children like her. Thus we may envy the virtues of the saints. (Calmet) ---

Give me, &c. These words seem to indicate a degree of impatience, at which we need not be surprised, when we reflect, that Rachel had been educated among idolaters. (Menochius) ---

Die of grief and shame. "I shall be considered as one dead," Jun.[Junius?] St. Chrysostom thinks she threatened to lay violent hands on herself, and through jealousy, spoke in a foolish manner. This passion is capable of the basest actions, (Haydock) and is almost unavoidable where polygamy reigns. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 30:2 - Angry // As God, pro Deo Angry at the rash and apparently blasphemous demand of Rachel. (Menochius) --- As God, pro Deo. Am I to work a miracle in opposition to God, who ...

Angry at the rash and apparently blasphemous demand of Rachel. (Menochius) ---

As God, pro Deo. Am I to work a miracle in opposition to God, who has made thee barren? To him thou oughtest to address thyself. The Hebrews justly observe, that God has reserved to himself the four keys of nature: 1. Of generation; 2. Of sustenance, Psalm cxliv. 16; 3. Of rain, Deuteronomy xxviii. 12; And, 4. Of the grave or resurrection, Ezechiel xxxvii. 12. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Gen 30:3 - Servant // My knees Servant, like a maid of honour. Josephus says she was not a slave, no more than Zelpha. --- My knees, whom I may nurse with pleasure. It was an a...

Servant, like a maid of honour. Josephus says she was not a slave, no more than Zelpha. ---

My knees, whom I may nurse with pleasure. It was an ancient custom to place the new-born infants upon the knees of some near relation, who gave them a name, and thus in a manner adopted them. (chap. l. 22; Job iii. 12; Psalm xxi. 11) (Homer.) (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 30:4 - Marriage Marriage. The Manichees condemned Jacob for having more than four wives at once. But St. Augustine replied, it was not then unusual or forbidden. H...

Marriage. The Manichees condemned Jacob for having more than four wives at once. But St. Augustine replied, it was not then unusual or forbidden. He took the two last only at the pressing instigation of Rachel and Lia, and that only for the sake of children. Lia herself was forced upon him. (contra Faust. xxii. 48.)

Haydock: Gen 30:6 - Dan Dan, means judgment. From the same root as Adonis; Adoni, my lord or judge, &c. Rachel's whole solicitude was for children. (Haydock)

Dan, means judgment. From the same root as Adonis; Adoni, my lord or judge, &c. Rachel's whole solicitude was for children. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 30:8 - Compared me // Nephtali Compared me, &c. As Lia treacherously got my husband, so I have craftily surmounted the difficulties of barrenness; I have struggled earnestly, and ...

Compared me, &c. As Lia treacherously got my husband, so I have craftily surmounted the difficulties of barrenness; I have struggled earnestly, and have got the victory. Patal, means to act with cunning. (Psalm xvii. 27.) (Calmet) ---

Nephtali, "a crafty wrestler." (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 30:11 - Happily // Gad Happily, fortunately. --- Gad, or Bonaventure. (Haydock) ---"Good-fortune," was acknowledge by the pagans for a divinity; (Isaias lxv. 11.) perhap...

Happily, fortunately. ---

Gad, or Bonaventure. (Haydock) ---"Good-fortune," was acknowledge by the pagans for a divinity; (Isaias lxv. 11.) perhaps for the Sun, or Oromagdes, the Gad of Aram. He was opposed to the wicked Arimenes in the Chaldean theology, by Zoroaster, (Calmet) the inventor of the Two Principles. Whether Lia intended to attribute this child to the influence of the planet Jupiter, the Sun, or some other tool, we cannot determine. (Haydock) ---

Her naming my be simply; Behold I am now a mother of a troop, or little army, Gad; and to which (chap. xlix. 19.) Jacob evidently alludes. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 30:13 - Aser Aser: happy. My servant has now had as many sons as my sister (Menochius) and I have given them both names, indicating my great felicity and joy. (...

Aser: happy. My servant has now had as many sons as my sister (Menochius) and I have given them both names, indicating my great felicity and joy. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 30:14 - Ruben Ruben, now perhaps about four years old, playing in the fields, in the latter harvest time, (Exodus ix. 32) found mandrakes of an extraordinary b...

Ruben, now perhaps about four years old, playing in the fields, in the latter harvest time, (Exodus ix. 32) found mandrakes of an extraordinary beauty and flavour, (Canticle of Canticles vii. 13.) whether they were flowers, lilies, jasmine, &c. as some translate; or rather, fruits of the mandrake tree, according to all the ancient versions; or of the citron, lemon, or orange tree, if we believe Calmet. Dudaim designates two breasts, or something lovely and protuberant. The ancients have spoken with admiration, and have attributed wonderful effects to the mandrakes, which, though controverted by moderns, might suffice to make Rachel greatly desire to have them; at least, if she believed they would contribute to remove her sterility, as Pliny, Natural History xxv. 15. Aristotle (de Gener. ii.) and other naturalists of eminence, have maintained they did. (Haydock) ---

The effect which she desired so much, was not, however, to be attributed to them, since she conceived only three years after, and that by the blessing of God. (Tirinus)

Haydock: Gen 30:15 - From me // This might From me. Lia was aware that Jacob's affection lay entirely towards Rachel; particularly now, as she had ceased to bear children herself. (Haydock) ...

From me. Lia was aware that Jacob's affection lay entirely towards Rachel; particularly now, as she had ceased to bear children herself. (Haydock) ---

This might, when it is my turn to have him. To prevent any jealousy, the husband visited his wives one after another, as was the case with Smerdis, the king of Persia. (Herodotus iii. 79; Exodus xxi. 10.) (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 30:18 - Issachar Issachar, "the reward of the man, or husband." (Calmet) --- She might allude also to the reward she had obtained for her mandrakes. (Haydock)

Issachar, "the reward of the man, or husband." (Calmet) ---

She might allude also to the reward she had obtained for her mandrakes. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 30:20 - Zabulon Zabulon, "dwelling or cohabiting." Zobad (which resembles the sound of Zobal) means to endow, (Calmet) to which she seems also to refer; as if her m...

Zabulon, "dwelling or cohabiting." Zobad (which resembles the sound of Zobal) means to endow, (Calmet) to which she seems also to refer; as if her marriage was renewed, and God had given her more children for a dowry. (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 30:21 - Dina Dina, "judgment," like Dan. God hath done me justice. The Hebrews assert that Dina was married to holy Job. She was born the same year as Joseph, ...

Dina, "judgment," like Dan. God hath done me justice. The Hebrews assert that Dina was married to holy Job. She was born the same year as Joseph, the 91st of Jacob. Lia brought forth seven children in seven years.

Haydock: Gen 30:24 - Joseph Joseph. In imposing this name, Rachel looks both to the past and to the future; thanking God for taking away (asop) her reproach, and begging that...

Joseph. In imposing this name, Rachel looks both to the past and to the future; thanking God for taking away (asop) her reproach, and begging that He would add (isop or Joseph) the blessing of another son, as he really did, though it occasioned her death: so little do we know what we ask for! Joseph means one "adding or increasing," chap. xlix. 22. (Haydock) ---

He was born when the 14 years of service were over; being a most glorious figure of Jesus Christ, who came to redeem us from slavery. (Du Hamel)

Haydock: Gen 30:28 - Give thee Give thee. He wishes to engage him to continue in his service; being convinced, that a faithful and pious servant is a great treasure. Laban promis...

Give thee. He wishes to engage him to continue in his service; being convinced, that a faithful and pious servant is a great treasure. Laban promises every thing, and performs little according to his agreement. He never thinks of making Jacob any present for his extraordinary diligence.

Haydock: Gen 30:31 - Nothing Nothing. I am willing to depart with my family towards my father. But if I must stay, these are my terms. (Haydock) --- I require no certain wage...

Nothing. I am willing to depart with my family towards my father. But if I must stay, these are my terms. (Haydock) ---

I require no certain wages, committing myself entirely to what Providence shall send. (Salien.)

Haydock: Gen 30:32 - Speckled // Brown // Spotted // Divers Speckled; from those which are all of one colour. Those which should be of the former description must belong to Jacob, while all the black and the ...

Speckled; from those which are all of one colour. Those which should be of the former description must belong to Jacob, while all the black and the white should be Laban's. ---

Brown, or of a dull mixture of white and black. ---

Spotted, having large patches of either colour. ---

Divers, little spots variegating the fleece. (Menochius) ---

The original is extremely obscure. Jacob asks only for the worst; the speckled sheep and goats, also the black sheep and the white goats, ver. 35. (Bochart.) (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 30:33 - Of theft Of theft, if they be found in my possession. I am so well convinced that God will reward my justice, that, even contrary to what might naturally be ...

Of theft, if they be found in my possession. I am so well convinced that God will reward my justice, that, even contrary to what might naturally be expected, he will enable me to have plenty of spotted sheep and goats, though their mothers be all of one colour. It is not certain, that Jacob agreed to have the flocks parted till the end of the year. (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 30:35 - His sons His sons. These continued to observe the conduct of Jacob, while Laban drove off all the flocks of divers colours to so great a distance, ver. 36, t...

His sons. These continued to observe the conduct of Jacob, while Laban drove off all the flocks of divers colours to so great a distance, ver. 36, that there was no danger of the sheep under Jacob's care getting to them. Thus Laban first began to violate the agreement; and the angel of the Lord suggested to Jacob, the plan by which he was preserved from serving a cruel and avaricious man without wages, chap. xxxi. 12. (Menochius)

Haydock: Gen 30:40 - All the white All the white, &c. Notwithstanding Jacob's stratagem, some had lambs all of a colour. The force of fancy is very surprising on such occasions. Opp...

All the white, &c. Notwithstanding Jacob's stratagem, some had lambs all of a colour. The force of fancy is very surprising on such occasions. Oppian, Aristotle, and others, recommend Jacob's plan as consonant to nature. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 30:42 - Later-coming Later-coming, in autumn, when the spring lambs were of an inferior value. These he was willing to abandon for the most part to Laban; and therefore ...

Later-coming, in autumn, when the spring lambs were of an inferior value. These he was willing to abandon for the most part to Laban; and therefore did not use his rods. Pliny, Natural History viii. 47; and Columella viii. 3, agree, that the lambs which are produced in spring do not thrive so well as those of autumn, at least in Italy, and in those countries where sheep lamb twice a year. Bis gravidæ pecudes, Virgil. (Calmet) ---

Many who have tried the same experiment as Jacob, have not experienced the same success; whence St. Chrysostom, and most of the Greek fathers, suppose that it was miraculous. (Tirinus)

Gill: Gen 30:1 - And when Rachel saw that she bare Jacob no children // Rachel envied her sister // and said unto Jacob, give me children, or else I die And when Rachel saw that she bare Jacob no children,.... In the space of three or four years after marriage, and when her sister Leah had had four son...

And when Rachel saw that she bare Jacob no children,.... In the space of three or four years after marriage, and when her sister Leah had had four sons:

Rachel envied her sister; the honour she had of bearing children, and the pleasure in nursing and bringing them up, when she lay under the reproach of barrenness: or, "she emulated her sisters" z; was desirous of having children even as she, which she might do, and yet not be guilty of sin, and much less of envy, which is a very heinous sin:

and said unto Jacob, give me children, or else I die; Rachel could never be so weak as to imagine that it was in the power of Jacob to give her children at his pleasure, or of a barren woman to make her a fruitful mother of children; though Jacob at sight seems so to have understood her: but either, as the Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it, that he would pray the Lord to give her children, as Isaac prayed for Rebekah; so Aben Ezra and Jarchi: or that he would, think of some means or other whereby she might have children, at least that might be called hers; and one way she had in view, as appears from what follows: or otherwise she suggests she could not live comfortably; not that she should destroy herself, as some have imagined; but that she should be so uneasy in her mind, that her life would be a burden to her; that death would be preferred to it, and her fretting herself for want of children, in all probability, would issue in it.

Gill: Gen 30:2 - And Jacob's anger was kindled against Rachel // and he said, am I in God's stead // who hath withheld from thee the fruit of the womb And Jacob's anger was kindled against Rachel,.... Whom yet he dearly loved, hearing her talk in such an extravagant manner, as her words seemed to be,...

And Jacob's anger was kindled against Rachel,.... Whom yet he dearly loved, hearing her talk in such an extravagant manner, as her words seemed to be, and were not: only expressive of great uneasiness and impatience, but implied what was not in the power of man to do:

and he said, am I in God's stead: do you take me to be God, or one that has a dispensing power from him to do what otherwise no creature can do; and which also he never gives to any? for, as the Targum of Jerusalem on Gen 30:22 says, this is one of the four keys which God delivers not to an angel or a seraph; even the key of barrenness. Children are the gift of God, and his only, and therefore he is to be sought unto for them: hence Onkelos land Jonathan paraphrase it;"wherefore dost thou seek them of me? shouldest thou not seek them of the Lord?"

who hath withheld from thee the fruit of the womb? children, Psa 127:3; not Jacob, but the Lord.

Gill: Gen 30:3 - And she said // behold my maid Bilhah, go in unto her // and she shall bear upon my knees // that I may also have children by her And she said,.... in order to pacify Jacob, and explain her meaning to him; which was, not that she thought it was in his power to make her the mother...

And she said,.... in order to pacify Jacob, and explain her meaning to him; which was, not that she thought it was in his power to make her the mother of children, but that he would think of some way or another of obtaining children for her, that might go for hers; so the Arabic version, "obtain a son for me": but, since no method occurred to him, she proposes one:

behold my maid Bilhah, go in unto her, take her and use her as thy wife:

and she shall bear upon my knees; either sit on her knees in the time of labour, and so bring forth as if it was she herself; or rather bear a child, which Rachel would take and nurse, and dandle upon her knees as her own, see Isa 66:12,

that I may also have children by her; children as well as her sister, though by her maid, and as Sarah proposed to have by Hagar, whose example, in all probability, she had before her, and uses her very words; See Gill on Gen 16:2.

Gill: Gen 30:4 - And she gave him Bilhah her handmaid // and Jacob went in unto her And she gave him Bilhah her handmaid,.... To be enjoyed as a wife, though she was no other than a concubine; yet such were sometimes called wives, and...

And she gave him Bilhah her handmaid,.... To be enjoyed as a wife, though she was no other than a concubine; yet such were sometimes called wives, and were secondary ones, and were under the proper lawful wife, nor did their children inherit; but those which Jacob had by his wives' maids did inherit with the rest:

and Jacob went in unto her; consenting to what Rachel his wife proposed to him: having concubines, as well as more wives than one, were not thought criminal in those times, and were suffered of God, and in this case for the multiplication of Jacob's seed; and perhaps he might the more readily comply with the motion of his wife, from the example of his grandfather Abraham, who took Hagar to wife at the instance of Sarah.

Gill: Gen 30:5 - And Bilhah conceived, and bare Jacob a son. And Bilhah conceived, and bare Jacob a son. This was so far countenanced by the Lord, that he blessed her with conception, and Jacob with a son by her...

And Bilhah conceived, and bare Jacob a son. This was so far countenanced by the Lord, that he blessed her with conception, and Jacob with a son by her.

Gill: Gen 30:6 - And Rachel said // God hath judged me // and hath also heard my voice // and hath given me a son // therefore called she his name Dan And Rachel said,.... As soon as she heard that Bilhah had bore a son: God hath judged me: and hereby testified his approbation, as she understood i...

And Rachel said,.... As soon as she heard that Bilhah had bore a son:

God hath judged me: and hereby testified his approbation, as she understood it, of the step she had took in giving her maid to her husband, and she was justified in what she had done:

and hath also heard my voice: of prayer; she had prayed to God that her maid might have a child, or she have one by her:

and hath given me a son; whom she reckoned her own, Bilhah being her servant, and so her children born of her, hers; or whom she adopted and called her own, and therefore took upon her to give it a name, as follows: and here let it be observed, that she looked upon this child as a gift of God, as the fruit of prayer, and as in mercy to her, God dealing graciously with her, and taking her part, and judging righteous judgment:

therefore called she his name Dan; which signifies "judgment"; the reason of it lies in the first clause of the verse.

Gill: Gen 30:7 - And Bilhah, Rachel's maid, conceived again // and bare Jacob a second son And Bilhah, Rachel's maid, conceived again,.... Soon after the birth of her first child: and bare Jacob a second son; this was his sixth son, but t...

And Bilhah, Rachel's maid, conceived again,.... Soon after the birth of her first child:

and bare Jacob a second son; this was his sixth son, but the second by Bilhah.

Gill: Gen 30:8 - And Rachel said, with great wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister // and I have prevailed // and she called his name Naphtali And Rachel said, with great wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister,.... Or, "with the wrestlings of God" a, wrestling and striving in prayer with G...

And Rachel said, with great wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister,.... Or, "with the wrestlings of God" a, wrestling and striving in prayer with God; being vehement and importunate in her petitions to him, that she might have children as well as her sister: some render it, "I used the craftinesses of God", or "great craftiness with my sisters" b; by giving her maid Bilhah to her husband, and having children by her:

and I have prevailed; as she strove in her desires and prayers to have another child before her sister had; in that she prevailed, or she was succeeded in her desires, she had children as she wished to have:

and she called his name Naphtali; which signifies "my wrestling", being a child she had been striving and wrestling for: these two sons of Bilhah were born, as say the Jews, Dan on the twenty ninth day of Elul or August, and lived one hundred and twenty seven years; Naphtali on the fifth of Tisri or September, and lived one hundred and thirty three years.

Gill: Gen 30:9 - When Leah saw that she had left bearing // she took Zilpah her maid, and gave her Jacob to wife When Leah saw that she had left bearing,.... For a little while, for she afterwards bore again, and observing also what her sister had done: she to...

When Leah saw that she had left bearing,.... For a little while, for she afterwards bore again, and observing also what her sister had done:

she took Zilpah her maid, and gave her Jacob to wife: in this she was less excusable than Rachel, since she had four children of her own, and therefore might have been content without desiring others by her maid; nor had she long left off bearing, and therefore had no reason to give up hope of having any more.

Gill: Gen 30:10 - And Zilpah, Leah's maid, bore Jacob a son. And Zilpah, Leah's maid, bore Jacob a son. For it seems he consented to take her to wife at the motion of Leah, as he had took Bilhah at the instance ...

And Zilpah, Leah's maid, bore Jacob a son. For it seems he consented to take her to wife at the motion of Leah, as he had took Bilhah at the instance of Rachel; and having gratified the one, he could not well deny the other; and went in to her, and she conceived, though neither of these things are mentioned, but are all necessarily supposed.

Gill: Gen 30:11 - And Leah said, a troop cometh // and she called his name Gad And Leah said, a troop cometh,.... A troop of children, having bore four herself, and now her maid another, and more she expected; or the commander of...

And Leah said, a troop cometh,.... A troop of children, having bore four herself, and now her maid another, and more she expected; or the commander of a troop cometh, one that shall head an army and overcome his enemies; which agrees with the prophecy of Jacob, Gen 49:19,

and she called his name Gad: which signifies a "troop", glorying in the multitude of her children, that she had or hoped to have.

Gill: Gen 30:12 - And Zilpah, Leah's maid, bare Jacob a second son. And Zilpah, Leah's maid, bare Jacob a second son. As well as Bilhah, and no more.

And Zilpah, Leah's maid, bare Jacob a second son. As well as Bilhah, and no more.

Gill: Gen 30:13 - And Leah said // happy am I // and she called his name Asher And Leah said,.... Upon the birth of the second son by her maid: happy am I; or, "in my happiness"; or, "for my happiness" c; that is, this child i...

And Leah said,.... Upon the birth of the second son by her maid:

happy am I; or, "in my happiness"; or, "for my happiness" c; that is, this child is an addition to my happiness, and will serve to increase it: for the daughters will call me blessed; the women of the place where she lived would speak of her as a happy person, that had so many children of her own, and others by her maid; see Psa 127:5,

and she called his name Asher, which signifies "happy" or "blessed". These two sons of Zilpah, according to the Jewish writers d, were born, Gad on the tenth day of Marchesvan or October, and lived one hundred and twenty five years; and Asher on the twenty second day of Shebet or January, and lived one hundred and twenty three years.

Gill: Gen 30:14 - And Reuben went in the days of wheat harvest // and found mandrakes in the field // and brought them unto his mother Leah // then Rachel said to Leah, give me, I pray thee, of thy son's mandrakes And Reuben went in the days of wheat harvest,.... Leah's eldest son, who is supposed to be at this time about four or five years of age e, who went ou...

And Reuben went in the days of wheat harvest,.... Leah's eldest son, who is supposed to be at this time about four or five years of age e, who went out from the tent to the field, to play there perhaps; and this was at the time of wheat harvest, in the month Sivan, as the Targum of Jonathan, which answers to part of our May; a time of the year when the earth is covered with flowers:

and found mandrakes in the field; the flowers or fruit of mandrakes, mandrake apples, as the Septuagint. This plant is said to excite love, provoke lust, dispose for, and help conception; for which reasons it is thought Rachel was so desirous of these "mandrakes", which seem to have their name "dudaim" from love: the word is only used here and in Son 7:13; where they are commended for their good smell, and therefore cannot be the plant which goes now by that name; since they neither give a good smell, nor bear good fruit, and are of a cold quality, and so not likely to produce the above effects ascribed unto them. It is very probable they were lovely and delightful flowers the boy picked up in the field, such as children delight in; some think the "jessamin", others lilies, and others violets f; it is not easy to determine what they were; See Gill on Son 7:13,

and brought them unto his mother Leah; as children are apt to do, to show what line flowers or fruit they have gathered:

then Rachel said to Leah, give me, I pray thee, of thy son's mandrakes; being taken with the colour or smell of them; for as for the notion of helping conception, or removing barrenness and the like, there is no foundation for it; for Rachel, who had them, did not conceive upon having them; and the conception both of her and Leah afterwards is ascribed to the Lord's remembering and hearkening to them.

Gill: Gen 30:15 - And she said unto her // is it a small thing that thou hast taken away my husband // and wouldest thou take away my son's mandrakes also // and Rachel said, therefore he shall lie with thee tonight for thy son's mandrakes And she said unto her,.... Leah to Rachel, taking this opportunity to bring out a thing which had some time lain with uneasiness upon her mind: is...

And she said unto her,.... Leah to Rachel, taking this opportunity to bring out a thing which had some time lain with uneasiness upon her mind:

is it a small thing that thou hast taken away my husband? got the greatest share of his affections, and had most of his company; which last was very probably the case, and more so, since Leah had left off bearing; and this she could not well stomach, and therefore upon this trifling occasion outs with it:

and wouldest thou take away my son's mandrakes also? which were poor things to be mentioned along with an husband; and besides, Rachel did not offer to take them away from the child without her leave, which she in very humble manner asked of her:

and Rachel said, therefore he shall lie with thee tonight for thy son's mandrakes; which showed no great affection to her husband, and a slight of his company, to be willing to part with it for such a trifle; and it seems by this as if they took their turns to lie with Jacob, and this night being Rachel's turn, she agrees to give it to Leah for the sake of the mandrakes: or however, if she had engrossed him to herself very much of late, as seems by the words of Leah above, she was willing to give him up to her this night, on that consideration; which Leah agreed she should have, as appears by what follows.

Gill: Gen 30:16 - And Jacob came out of the field in the evening // and Leah went out to meet him // and said, thou must come in unto me // for surely I have hired thee with my son's mandrakes // and he lay with her that night And Jacob came out of the field in the evening,.... From feeding his flocks: and Leah went out to meet him; knowing full well the time he used to c...

And Jacob came out of the field in the evening,.... From feeding his flocks:

and Leah went out to meet him; knowing full well the time he used to come home:

and said, thou must come in unto me; into her tent, for the women had separate tents from the men; as Sarah from Abraham; and so these wives of Jacob had not only tents separate from his, but from one another:

for surely I have hired thee with my son's mandrakes: that is, she had hired that night's lodging with him of Rachel, with the mandrakes her son Reuben had brought out of the field. Jacob made no objection to it; but consented, being willing to please both his wives, who he perceived had made this agreement between themselves:

and he lay with her that night; and that only, for the present: for, by the way of speaking, it looks as if he did not continue with her more nights together at that time, but went, as before that evening, to Rachel's tent.

Gill: Gen 30:17 - And God hearkened unto Leah // and she conceived, and bare Jacob the fifth son And God hearkened unto Leah,.... To the prayer of Leah, as the Targum of Jonathan, for more children: the desire of these good women for the company o...

And God hearkened unto Leah,.... To the prayer of Leah, as the Targum of Jonathan, for more children: the desire of these good women for the company of their husband was not from lust, or an amorous desire in them, but for the sake of having many children, as appears by giving their maids to him; and the reason of this was, as Bishop Patrick well observes, that the promise made to Abraham of the multiplication of his seed, and of the Messiah springing from thence, might be fulfilled; and is the true reason of Moses's taking such particular notice of those things, which might seem below the dignity of such a sacred history:

and she conceived, and bare Jacob the fifth son; the fifth he had by her, but the ninth in all, that were born unto him.

Gill: Gen 30:18 - And Leah said, God hath given me my hire // because I have given my maiden to my husband // and she called his name Issachar And Leah said, God hath given me my hire,.... Of the mandrakes with which she had hired of Rachel a night's lodging with Jacob, and for which she had ...

And Leah said, God hath given me my hire,.... Of the mandrakes with which she had hired of Rachel a night's lodging with Jacob, and for which she had a sufficient recompense, by the son that God had given her: and she added another reason, and a very preposterous one, and shows she put a wrong construction on the blessing she received:

because I have given my maiden to my husband; which, she judged, was so well pleasing to God, that he had rewarded her with another son:

and she called his name Issachar, which signifies "hire" or "reward"; or, there is a reward, or a man of reward.

Gill: Gen 30:19 - And Leah conceived again // and bare Jacob a sixth son And Leah conceived again,.... For bearing children Jacob took more to her, and more frequently attended her apartment and bed: and bare Jacob a six...

And Leah conceived again,.... For bearing children Jacob took more to her, and more frequently attended her apartment and bed:

and bare Jacob a sixth son; the sixth by her, but the tenth by her and his two maids.

Gill: Gen 30:20 - And Leah said, God hath endued me with a good dowry // now will my husband dwell with me // because I have borne him six sons // and she called his name Zebulun And Leah said, God hath endued me with a good dowry,.... Having so many children; for though her husband could give her nothing at marriage, and her ...

And Leah said, God hath endued me with a good dowry,.... Having so many children; for though her husband could give her nothing at marriage, and her father gave her no more than one handmaid, yet God had abundantly made it up to her, in giving her so many sons: these are the heritage of the Lord, Psa 127:3,

now will my husband dwell with me; constantly; and not come to her tent now and then only, as he had used to do:

because I have borne him six sons; this she thought would fix his affections to her, and cause him to cleave to her, and continue with her:

and she called his name Zebulun; which signifies "dwelling". These two sons of Leah, according to the Jewish writers g, were born, Issachar on the tenth day of Ab or July, and lived one hundred and twenty two years, and Zebulun on the seventh of Tisri or September, and lived one hundred and twenty four years.

Gill: Gen 30:21 - And afterwards she bare a daughter // and called her name Dinah And afterwards she bare a daughter,.... Which some writers, as Aben Ezra observes, say, was at the same birth with Zebulun, a twin with him; but being...

And afterwards she bare a daughter,.... Which some writers, as Aben Ezra observes, say, was at the same birth with Zebulun, a twin with him; but being said to be afterwards shows the contrary:

and called her name Dinah; which signifies "judgment": perhaps she may have some reference to the first son of Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid, whom she called Dan, a name of the same signification; intimating as if it was a clear case that judgment went on her side; and that by the number of children she had, it was plain God had determined in her favour.

Gill: Gen 30:22 - And God remembered Rachel // and God hearkened to her // and opened her womb And God remembered Rachel,.... In a way of mercy and kindness, whom he seemed to have forgotten, by not giving her children: and God hearkened to h...

And God remembered Rachel,.... In a way of mercy and kindness, whom he seemed to have forgotten, by not giving her children:

and God hearkened to her; to her prayer, which had been made time after time, that she might have children; but hitherto God had delayed to answer, but now gives one:

and opened her womb; gave her conception, and made her fruitful, and she became the mother of a child she so much desired.

Gill: Gen 30:23 - And she conceived and bare a son // and said, God hath taken away my reproach And she conceived and bare a son,.... Through the goodness of God unto her, and for which she was greatly thankful: and said, God hath taken away m...

And she conceived and bare a son,.... Through the goodness of God unto her, and for which she was greatly thankful:

and said, God hath taken away my reproach; the reproach of barrenness with which she was reproached among her neighbours; and perhaps by her sister Leah, and indeed it was a general reproach in those times; and especially, it was the more grievous to good women in the family of Abraham, because they were not the means of multiplying his seed according to the promise, and could have no hope of the Messiah springing from them.

Gill: Gen 30:24 - And she called his name Joseph // and said, the Lord shall add to me another son And she called his name Joseph,.... Which signifies "adding", or rather, "to be added"; or, "God shall add", giving this reason for it: and said, t...

And she called his name Joseph,.... Which signifies "adding", or rather, "to be added"; or, "God shall add", giving this reason for it:

and said, the Lord shall add to me another son: which is expressive of strong faith; that as she had begun to bear children, she should bear another, as she did; though some read the words as a wish or prayer, "may the Lord", or, "and that the Lord would add", &c. h; but our version seems best: the name Joseph is composed of two words, one which signifies to gather or take away, used in Gen 30:23, and another which signifies to add; and so has respect to the Lord's taking away her reproach, and adding to her another son: Melo, an Heathen writer, makes mention of Joseph by name, as Polyhistor i relates, and makes him the twelfth and last son of Abraham, whereas he was the eleventh of Jacob. He was born, as the Jews say k, the twenty seventh of Tammuz or June, and lived one hundred and ten years.

Gill: Gen 30:25 - And it came to pass, when Rachel had borne Joseph // that Jacob said unto Laban, send me away // that I may go unto mine own place, and to my own country And it came to pass, when Rachel had borne Joseph,.... At which time his fourteen years of servitude were ended; for Jacob was in Laban's house twenty...

And it came to pass, when Rachel had borne Joseph,.... At which time his fourteen years of servitude were ended; for Jacob was in Laban's house twenty years, fourteen were spent in serving for his wives, and the other six for his cattle, which begun from this time, as the context clearly shows; see Gen 31:41; so that, as the Jewish writers l truly observe, in seven years' time Jacob had twelve children born to him, eleven sons and one daughter; for he had served seven years before he had either of his wives: they also pretend that a twin was born with each, except with Joseph, but for that there is no foundation:

that Jacob said unto Laban, send me away; give me leave to depart thy house: he had a right to demand his liberty, and to insist upon it, since the time of his servitude was up; but he chose to have leave, and part in a friendly manner:

that I may go unto mine own place, and to my own country; to Beersheba, where his father and mother lived, and whom, no doubt, he longed to see; and to the land of Canaan, in which that place was, which was his native country and was given him by promise, and was to be the inheritance of his seed.

Gill: Gen 30:26 - Give me my wives // and my children // for whom I have served thee // and let me go // for thou knowest my service which I have done thee Give me my wives,.... His two wives, Leah and Rachel, and the two maids, Bilhah and Zilpah, which he had given him for wives also; he desires leave n...

Give me my wives,.... His two wives, Leah and Rachel, and the two maids, Bilhah and Zilpah, which he had given him for wives also; he desires leave not to have them, but to take them away with him:

and my children; his twelve children; he did not desire his father-in- law to take any of them, and keep them for him, but was desirous of having them with him: no doubt, for the sake of their education, though he had nothing of his own wherewith to support them; not doubting that God would make good his promise in giving him food and raiment, and returning him to his country; and which his faith applied to his family as well as to himself:

for whom I have served thee; not for his children, but for his wives, his two wives:

and let me go; free from thy service, and to my own country:

for thou knowest my service which I have done thee: how much and great it is, and with what diligence and faithfulness it has been performed, and that the time of it fixed and agreed upon was at an end.

Gill: Gen 30:27 - And Laban said unto him, I pray thee, if I have found favour in thine eyes, tarry // for I have learned by experience // that the Lord hath blessed me for thy sake And Laban said unto him, I pray thee, if I have found favour in thine eyes, tarry,.... One would think he could not expect to have much from him, by h...

And Laban said unto him, I pray thee, if I have found favour in thine eyes, tarry,.... One would think he could not expect to have much from him, by his treatment of him; but he craftily cajoles him in this fawning, flattering way, in order to gain a point, and begs of him, in a very humble and suppliant manner, if he had any love for him, that he would not depart from him, but stay with him, which he should take as a great favour; for he could not insist upon it, as bound in duty, or as a point of justice:

for I have learned by experience; by the observations made in the fourteen years past:

that the Lord hath blessed me for thy sake: Laban had so much religion as to ascribe the blessings, the good things he had, to the Lord, as the author and giver of them; and so much honour, or however, thought it was more his interest to own it, that it was for Jacob's sake that he was thus blessed: the word translated is used sometimes of divination, and the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem render it, "I have used divinations"; and according to Jarchi and Aben Ezra, Laban was a diviner and soothsayer; and by the teraphim he had in his house, Gen 31:19; he divined, and knew thereby that he was blessed for the sake of Jacob; but, as Schmidt observes, it is not credible that the devil should give so famous a testimony to Laban of Jehovah and Jacob.

Gill: Gen 30:28 - And he said, appoint me thy wages, and I will give it. And he said, appoint me thy wages, and I will give it. Say what thou wilt have, fix what salary thou thinkest sufficient, and I will agree to it, and...

And he said, appoint me thy wages, and I will give it. Say what thou wilt have, fix what salary thou thinkest sufficient, and I will agree to it, and punctually pay it: this he craftily said, not choosing to propose anything himself, but leaving it to Jacob, knowing very well the honesty and modesty of Jacob, that he would mention less wages than he could have the face to offer him.

Gill: Gen 30:29 - And he said unto him // thou knowest that I have served thee // and how thy cattle was with me And he said unto him,.... Jacob to Laban: thou knowest that I have served thee; not only diligently and faithfully, without any salary, excepting f...

And he said unto him,.... Jacob to Laban:

thou knowest that I have served thee; not only diligently and faithfully, without any salary, excepting for his wives; otherwise he had no wages for his service all this time, which therefore should be considered for the future:

and how thy cattle was with me: always under his care, and he ever watchful of them; spent all his time and labour with them, and had no opportunity of getting anything for himself.

Gill: Gen 30:30 - For it was little which thou hadst before I came // and it is now increased unto a multitude // and the Lord hath blessed thee since my coming // and now, when shall I provide for mine own house For it was little which thou hadst before I came,.... Perhaps but a single flock, and that not a very large one, since Rachel, his youngest daughter...

For it was little which thou hadst before I came,.... Perhaps but a single flock, and that not a very large one, since Rachel, his youngest daughter, had the care of it:

and it is now increased unto a multitude; or "broke forth" m, spread itself over the fields and plains, hills and mountains adjacent, so that they were covered with his sheep, these bringing forth thousands and ten thousands, Psa 144:13,

and the Lord hath blessed thee since my coming; or "at my foot" n; ever since he set foot in his house. Aben Ezra observes it as a proverbial saying, such an one has a good foot, a lucky one, wherever he comes a blessing or success goes with him; or the meaning may be, wherever Jacob went or led his flock, and fed it, it prospered, the blessing of God going with him. Onkelos renders it, "for my sake"; and so it is the same with what Laban had observed and owned, Gen 30:27,

and now, when shall I provide for mine own house? suggesting it was his duty to do it, and it was high time he did it, since he had a large family to provide for; see 1Ti 5:8.

Gill: Gen 30:31 - And he said, what shall I give thee // and Jacob said, thou shalt not give me anything // but if thou wilt do this thing for me // I will again feed and keep thy flock And he said, what shall I give thee?.... So said Laban to Jacob, still avoiding making any offer himself, but waiting for Jacob, and pressing upon him...

And he said, what shall I give thee?.... So said Laban to Jacob, still avoiding making any offer himself, but waiting for Jacob, and pressing upon him to fix his wages:

and Jacob said, thou shalt not give me anything; a speech Laban liked very well: his meaning is, that he should give him no certain settled salary, nor even of anything that Laban was now possessed of, and God had blessed him with for his sake he did not desire any part of it:

but if thou wilt do this thing for me; which he was about to mention, and does in Gen 30:32,

I will again feed and keep thy flock; there is an elegance in the original; "I will return, I will feed, I will keep thy flock": it seems by this that Jacob had relinquished the care of the flock, upon the time of his servitude being out; but, upon the following condition, proposes to return to it, lead it out to the pastures, and feed it on them, and keep it night and day, as he had used to do.

Gill: Gen 30:32 - I will pass through all thy flock today // removing from thence all the speckled and spotted cattle // and all the brown cattle among the sheep // and the spotted and speckled among the goats // and of such shall be my hire I will pass through all thy flock today,.... Not alone, but Laban and his sons with him: removing from thence all the speckled and spotted cattle; ...

I will pass through all thy flock today,.... Not alone, but Laban and his sons with him:

removing from thence all the speckled and spotted cattle; that is, such as were black and had white spots on them, or were white and had black spots on them; and the "speckled", according to Jarchi and Ben Melech, were such as had small spots on them; and the "spotted" were such as had larger:

and all the brown cattle among the sheep; the russet coloured ones, or the "black" o ones, as some render it; and so Aben Ezra, and who makes mention of another sort, called "barud", which signifies spotted with white spots like hailstones, but is not to be found in the text here, but in Gen 31:10; and besides coincide with those before described:

and the spotted and speckled among the goats: that had larger and lesser spots upon them as the sheep:

and of such shall be my hire; not those that were now in the flock, but such as were like them, that should be brought forth for the time to come; which seems to be a strange proposal, and what was not likely to turn out much to the advantage of Jacob; but he knew what he did, and very probably was directed of God, if not in a vision, yet by an impulse on his mind, that such a method would be right, and would succeed; see Gen 31:10.

Gill: Gen 30:33 - So shall my righteousness answer for me in time to come // when it shall come for my hire before thy face // and everyone that is not speckled and spotted amongst the goats // and brown among the sheep, that shall be accounted stolen with me So shall my righteousness answer for me in time to come,.... Either by the success I shall have, and the blessing of God upon me, making it prosperous...

So shall my righteousness answer for me in time to come,.... Either by the success I shall have, and the blessing of God upon me, making it prosperous; it will appear in time to come, and to all posterity, that I have most righteously and faithfully served thee: or rather, such a separation being made in Laban's flock, all the spotted ones being removed, and only white ones left with Jacob to keep; it would be a clear case hereafter, if any such should be found with Jacob, they were not taken from Laban's flock, but were what in Providence he was blessed with, and came by honestly and righteously:

when it shall come for my hire before thy face; when any spotted ones would be brought forth, it would be plain and manifest to his face, that they belonged to him for his hire or wages; or, as Schmidt, when any complaint should come before Laban concerning his hire, or about any speckled and spotted cattle that were Jacob's hire, as if he had wronged him of it, the action now done, by making such a separation, would be a sufficient vindication of him, and justify him from such an aspersion:

and everyone that is not speckled and spotted amongst the goats,

and brown among the sheep, that shall be accounted stolen with me; if any such were found among those that Jacob should hereafter call his flock, as were without specks and spots, or were not brown, he was content they should be reckoned as stolen, and what he had no right unto.

Gill: Gen 30:34 - And Laban said // behold, I would it might be according to thy word And Laban said,.... Being well pleased with the proposal Jacob made, as knowing that, generally speaking, cattle of a colour produced those that were ...

And Laban said,.... Being well pleased with the proposal Jacob made, as knowing that, generally speaking, cattle of a colour produced those that were of the same; and whereas Jacob proposed to have a flock of sheep of only white in colour, committed to his care, and to have such for his own that should be produced of them, that were speckled, spotted, and brown, Laban concluded from the general nature of things that he could have but very few, if any, and therefore was for striking the bargain at once:

behold, I would it might be according to thy word; he agreed it should be as Jacob had settled it, and he hoped and wished he would abide by it; he was afraid he would not keep to it.

Gill: Gen 30:35 - And he removed that day the he goats that were ringstraked and spotted // and all the she goats that were speckled and spotted // and everyone that had some white in it // and all the brown among the sheep // and, gave them into the hands of his sons And he removed that day the he goats that were ringstraked and spotted,.... That had strakes of a different colour from the rest on their shoulders, t...

And he removed that day the he goats that were ringstraked and spotted,.... That had strakes of a different colour from the rest on their shoulders, thighs, logs, or feet, or in any part of the body: the word here used stands in the room of that before translated "speckled"; this Laban did, as the context shows; he went about it immediately at the motion of Jacob, with which he was pleased:

and all the she goats that were speckled and spotted; so that there might be neither male nor female of those mixed colours; this he did to prevent any generation of them:

and everyone that had some white in it; any white spot in it, as the Targum of Jonathan; that is, everyone of the brown or black colour, that had any white in it:

and all the brown among the sheep: that were entirely so:

and, gave them into the hands of his sons; not the sons of Jacob, as some in Aben Ezra; for they were not fit for the care of a flock, the eldest son, Reuben, not being seven years of age; but the sons of Laban, who were now grown up and fit for such service.

Gill: Gen 30:36 - And he set three days' journey between himself and Jacob // and Jacob fed the rest of Laban's flock And he set three days' journey between himself and Jacob,.... Not three days' journey for a man, but for cattle; this distance there was between the p...

And he set three days' journey between himself and Jacob,.... Not three days' journey for a man, but for cattle; this distance there was between the place where Laban and his sons kept the spotted, speckled, and brown cattle, and that in which Jacob kept the flock only consisting of white sheep; and this was done, that the flocks might not be mixed, and that there might be no opportunity to take any of the spotted ones, and that they might not stray into Jacob's flock; or lest any of his seeing them might bring forth the like, such precaution was used:

and Jacob fed the rest of Laban's flock; those that remained after the spotted, speckled, and brown were taken out; and Jacob having none but white sheep, there was no great likelihood, according to the course of nature, of his having much for his hire; since he was only to have the spotted, speckled, and brown ones that came from them, and generally like begets like; and, according to the Jewish writers p, those that were committed to his care were old and barren, and sick, and infirm, that so he might have no profit from them.

Gill: Gen 30:37 - And Jacob took him rods of green poplar // and of the hazel and chestnut tree // and pilled white strakes in them // and made the white appear which was in the rods And Jacob took him rods of green poplar,.... Of the white poplar tree, called green, not from the colour, but from the moisture, being such as were cu...

And Jacob took him rods of green poplar,.... Of the white poplar tree, called green, not from the colour, but from the moisture, being such as were cut off of the tree:

and of the hazel and chestnut tree; the former some take to be the almond tree, as Saadiah Gaon, and others; and the latter to be the plantain or plane tree, so Ainsworth, and others:

and pilled white strakes in them; took off the bark of them in some places, and left it on in others, which made white strakes:

and made the white appear which was in the rods; that part of the rods which was stripped of the bark appeared white; and it appeared the whiter for the bark that was left on in other parts; and both made the rods to appear to have various colours, which was the design of Jacob in pilling them.

Gill: Gen 30:38 - And he set the rods which he had pilled before the flocks // in the gutters in the watering troughs, when the flocks came to drink // that they should conceive when they came to drink And he set the rods which he had pilled before the flocks,.... Opposite them, in the view of them: in the gutters in the watering troughs, when the...

And he set the rods which he had pilled before the flocks,.... Opposite them, in the view of them:

in the gutters in the watering troughs, when the flocks came to drink; that is, in places of water, where troughs or vessels were made, into which the water ran convenient for the cattle to drink out of; and here he placed his party coloured rods right over against the flocks:

that they should conceive when they came to drink; as it was most likely they should when they were together at the water, and had refreshed themselves with it; and being "heated" q, as the word signifies, with a desire of copulation, might conceive in sight of the above rods; which were set to move upon their imagination at the time of their conception, in order to produce cattle of different colours; to which no doubt he was directed of God, and it had, through his blessing, the wished for success, as follows:

Gill: Gen 30:39 - And the flocks conceived before the rods // brought forth cattle ringstraked, speckled, and spotted And the flocks conceived before the rods,.... At them, and in sight of them; which had such influence upon them through thee force of imagination, and...

And the flocks conceived before the rods,.... At them, and in sight of them; which had such influence upon them through thee force of imagination, and a divine power and providence so directing and succeeding this device, that they

brought forth cattle ringstraked, speckled, and spotted; such as Jacob was to have for his hire; and, though there was no doubt a more than ordinary concourse of divine Providence attending this affair; yet there have been many strange things brought about in a natural way by the strength of imagination, as may be observed in those marks which women are said to mark their children with, while with child of them; as also in conceiving and bearing such like unto them they have fancied, as the woman that bore a blackamoor, through often looking at the picture of one in her chamber; and an Ethiopian queen, who by the same means bore a white child, fair and beautiful, which she exposed, lest she should be thought an adulteress r: and what comes nearer to the case here, Jerom reports s the like things done in Spain among horses and mares, by placing beautiful horses before mares at the time of leaping; and the Apis, or Egyptian ox, which had peculiar spots in it, was produced in like manner, so that there was always in succession one of the same form and colour, as Austin asserts t; and it may be observed, what is affirmed by some writers u, that sheep will change their colours according to the different waters they drink of at the time of their being covered; and that some rivers drank of will make white sheep black, and black white, and others red and yellow. But as Jacob was directed of God to take this method, this is sufficient to justify him, and upon his blessing and providence the success depended, whatever there may be in nature to bring about such an effect; and as it was to do himself justice, who had been greatly injured by Laban, it was equally as just and righteous a thing to take this course, as it was for the Israelites by a divine direction to borrow jewels, &c. of the Egyptians, whereby they were repaid for their hard service. (This was written over one hundred years before the laws of genetics were discovered. We know that the result was from God not of Jacob's schemes. Ed.)

Gill: Gen 30:40 - And Jacob did separate the lambs // and set the faces of the flocks // towards the ringstraked, and all the brown in the flock of Laban // and he put his own flocks by themselves, and put them not unto Laban's cattle And Jacob did separate the lambs,.... The ringstraked, speckled, and spotted: and set the faces of the flocks, that were all white: towards the ...

And Jacob did separate the lambs,.... The ringstraked, speckled, and spotted:

and set the faces of the flocks, that were all white:

towards the ringstraked, and all the brown in the flock of Laban; either to go before those that were all white, that they by looking at them might conceive and bring forth such, which was another artifice of Jacob's to increase his own sheep; or else he set at the water troughs the white sheep on one side of them, and on the opposite side the speckled ones, &c. that the same effect might also be produced the more successfully both by the rods and by the speckled lambs:

and he put his own flocks by themselves, and put them not unto Laban's cattle; partly that they might not be mixed together, but kept distinct, that what was his property might be discerned from Laban's; and partly, lest his spotted ones, being mixed with Laban's white sheep, by continual looking at them, should conceive and bring forth such likewise, and so his flocks be lessened.

Gill: Gen 30:41 - And it came to pass, whensoever the stronger cattle did conceive // that Jacob laid the rods before the eyes of the cattle in the gutters // that they might conceive among the rods And it came to pass, whensoever the stronger cattle did conceive,.... Whose limbs were well compact, and were strong and healthy: that Jacob laid t...

And it came to pass, whensoever the stronger cattle did conceive,.... Whose limbs were well compact, and were strong and healthy:

that Jacob laid the rods before the eyes of the cattle in the gutters,

that they might conceive among the rods; and bring forth party coloured ones, and such as were robust and strong like themselves; and this was another device of Jacob's to get the best of the flock. Aben Ezra thinks this refers to the two seasons of the year, when the flocks conceived; the one was in Nisan, in the spring, and such as were brought on that conception were strong, and therefore Jacob chose to lay the rods in the gutters at that time, that he might have the best cattle; and so the Targum of Jonathan calls these here the forward ones, as it does those in Gen 30:42 we render feeble, the latter ones; which, according to Aben Ezra, conceived in Tisri or September, and what they brought were weak and feeble. (Based on the laws of genetics, Jacob's breeding of the best of the flock would produce higher quality offspring. Ed.)

Gill: Gen 30:42 - And when the cattle were feeble, he put them not in // so the feebler were Laban's, and the stronger Jacob's And when the cattle were feeble, he put them not in,.... Or "when covered", as Menachem, that is, with wool, and so not so desirous of copulation with...

And when the cattle were feeble, he put them not in,.... Or "when covered", as Menachem, that is, with wool, and so not so desirous of copulation with the males, nor so fit and strong for generation; and therefore he put not in the rods into the gutters, partly that he might have none feeble in his flock, and partly that he might not spoil Laban of his whole flock, strong and weak:

so the feebler were Laban's, and the stronger Jacob's; not only his flocks became more numerous than Laban's, but were a better quality.

Gill: Gen 30:43 - And the man increased exceedingly // and had much cattle // and maidservants, and menservants // and camels, and asses And the man increased exceedingly,.... Jacob grew very rich: and had much cattle; the greater part of Laban's flocks brought forth speckled, spotte...

And the man increased exceedingly,.... Jacob grew very rich:

and had much cattle; the greater part of Laban's flocks brought forth speckled, spotted, and brown cattle, which, according to agreement, were Jacob's:

and maidservants, and menservants; which he got to take care of his household affairs, and to assist him in keeping his flocks:

and camels, and asses; for his flocks increasing so very much, he sold many of his sheep at a good price, as Jarchi observes, and with it bought camels and asses; and these were very fit for his use, when he should be obliged or think fit to remove into his own country, and which he was meditating, and had a direction from the Lord for, as in the following chapter.

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NET Notes: Gen 30:1 Heb “sons.”

NET Notes: Gen 30:2 Heb “who has withheld from you the fruit of the womb.”

NET Notes: Gen 30:3 Heb “and I will be built up, even I, from her.” The prefixed verbal form with the conjunction is subordinated to the preceding prefixed ve...

NET Notes: Gen 30:4 Heb “went in to.” The expression “went in to” in this context refers to sexual intercourse.

NET Notes: Gen 30:5 Heb “and she bore for Jacob a son.”

NET Notes: Gen 30:6 The name Dan means “he vindicated” or “he judged.” The name plays on the verb used in the statement which appears earlier in t...

NET Notes: Gen 30:7 Heb “and she became pregnant again and Bilhah, the servant of Rachel, bore a second son for Jacob.”

NET Notes: Gen 30:8 The name Naphtali (נַפְתָּלִי, naftali) must mean something like “my struggle”...

NET Notes: Gen 30:9 Heb “she took her servant Zilpah and gave her.” The verbs “took” and “gave” are treated as a hendiadys in the tran...

NET Notes: Gen 30:10 Heb “and Zilpah, the servant of Leah, bore for Jacob a son.”

NET Notes: Gen 30:11 The name Gad (גָּד, gad) means “good fortune.” The name reflects Leah’s feeling that good fortune has come h...

NET Notes: Gen 30:12 Heb “and Zilpah, the servant of Leah, bore a second son for Jacob.”

NET Notes: Gen 30:13 The name Asher (אָשֶׁר, ’asher) apparently means “happy one.” The name plays on the words used i...

NET Notes: Gen 30:14 Mandrake plants were popularly believed to be an aphrodisiac in the culture of the time.

NET Notes: Gen 30:15 Heb “lie down.” The expression “lie down with” in this context (here and in the following verse) refers to sexual intercourse....

NET Notes: Gen 30:16 This is the same Hebrew verb (שָׁכַב, shakhav) translated “sleep with” in v. 15. In direct discourse t...

NET Notes: Gen 30:17 Heb “and she bore for Jacob a fifth son,” i.e., this was the fifth son that Leah had given Jacob.

NET Notes: Gen 30:18 The name Issachar (יְשָּׁשכָר, yishakhar) appears to mean “man of reward” or p...

NET Notes: Gen 30:19 Heb “and she bore a sixth son for Jacob,” i.e., this was the sixth son that Leah had given Jacob.

NET Notes: Gen 30:20 The name Zebulun (זְבֻלוּן, zevulun) apparently means “honor.” The name plays on the verb ...

NET Notes: Gen 30:22 Heb “and God listened to her and opened up her womb.” Since “God” is the subject of the previous clause, the noun has been rep...

NET Notes: Gen 30:23 Heb “my reproach.” A “reproach” is a cutting taunt or painful ridicule, but here it probably refers by metonymy to Rachel̵...

NET Notes: Gen 30:24 The name Joseph (יוֹסֵף, yoseph) means “may he add.” The name expresses Rachel’s desire to have ...

NET Notes: Gen 30:25 Heb “to my place and to my land.”

NET Notes: Gen 30:26 Heb “for you, you know my service [with] which I have served you.”

NET Notes: Gen 30:27 Or perhaps “I have grown rich and the Lord has blessed me” (cf. NEB). See J. Finkelstein, “An Old Babylonian Herding Contract and Ge...

NET Notes: Gen 30:28 Heb “set your wage for me so I may give [it].”

NET Notes: Gen 30:29 Heb “and how your cattle were with me.”

NET Notes: Gen 30:30 Heb “How long [until] I do, also I, for my house?”

NET Notes: Gen 30:31 Heb “I will return, I will tend,” an idiom meaning “I will continue tending.”

NET Notes: Gen 30:32 Heb “and it will be my wage.” The referent collective singular pronoun (“it) has been specified as “these animals” in th...

NET Notes: Gen 30:33 Heb “every one which is not speckled and spotted among the lambs and dark among the goats, stolen it is with me.”

NET Notes: Gen 30:34 Heb “and Laban said, ‘Good, let it be according to your word.’” On the asseverative use of the particle לוּ ...

NET Notes: Gen 30:35 Heb “and he gave [them] into the hand.”

NET Notes: Gen 30:36 The disjunctive clause (introduced by the vav with subject) is circumstantial/temporal; Laban removed the animals while Jacob was taking care of the r...

NET Notes: Gen 30:38 He put the branches in front of the flocks…when they came to drink. It was generally believed that placing such “visual aids” before...

NET Notes: Gen 30:39 Heb “the sheep.” The noun has been replaced by the pronoun (“they”) in the translation for stylistic reasons.

NET Notes: Gen 30:40 Heb “and he set the faces of.”

NET Notes: Gen 30:41 Heb “and at every breeding-heat of the flock.”

NET Notes: Gen 30:42 Heb “were for Laban.”

NET Notes: Gen 30:43 Heb “and there were to him.”

Geneva Bible: Gen 30:2 And Jacob's anger was kindled against Rachel: and he said, [Am] I in ( a ) God's stead, who hath withheld from thee the fruit of the womb? ( a ) It i...

Geneva Bible: Gen 30:3 And she said, Behold my maid Bilhah, go in unto her; and she shall bear upon my ( b ) knees, that I may also have children by her. ( b ) I will recei...

Geneva Bible: Gen 30:8 And Rachel said, With great wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister, ( c ) and I have prevailed: and she called his name Naphtali. ( c ) The arroga...

Geneva Bible: Gen 30:11 And Leah said, ( d ) A troop cometh: and she called his name Gad. ( d ) That is, God increases me with a multitude of children for so Jacob explains ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 30:14 And Reuben went in the days of wheat harvest, and found ( e ) mandrakes in the field, and brought them unto his mother Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah,...

Geneva Bible: Gen 30:18 And Leah said, God hath given me my hire, because I have given my ( f ) maiden to my husband: and she called his name Issachar. ( f ) Instead of ackn...

Geneva Bible: Gen 30:23 And she conceived, and bare a son; and said, God hath taken away my ( g ) reproach: ( g ) Because fruitfulness came as God's blessing, who said "Incr...

Geneva Bible: Gen 30:30 For [it was] little which thou hadst before I [came], and it is [now] increased unto a multitude; and the LORD hath blessed thee since my coming: and ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 30:32 I will pass through all thy flock to day, removing from thence all the speckled and spotted cattle, and all the brown cattle among the sheep, and the ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 30:33 So shall my ( k ) righteousness answer for me in time to come, when it shall come for my hire before thy face: every one that [is] not speckled and sp...

Geneva Bible: Gen 30:37 And Jacob ( l ) took him rods of green poplar, and of the hazel and chesnut tree; and pilled white strakes in them, and made the white appear which [w...

Geneva Bible: Gen 30:41 And it came to pass, whensoever the ( m ) stronger cattle did conceive, that Jacob laid the rods before the eyes of the cattle in the gutters, that th...

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MHCC: Gen 30:1-13 - --Rachel envied her sister: envy is grieving at the good of another, than which no sin is more hateful to God, or more hurtful to our neighbours and our...

MHCC: Gen 30:14-24 - --The desire, good in itself, but often too great and irregular, of being the mother of the promised Seed, with the honour of having many children, and ...

MHCC: Gen 30:25-43 - --The fourteen years being gone, Jacob was willing to depart without any provision, except God's promise. But he had in many ways a just claim on Laban'...

Matthew Henry: Gen 30:1-13 - -- We have here the bad consequences of that strange marriage which Jacob made with the two sisters. Here is, I. An unhappy disagreement between him an...

Matthew Henry: Gen 30:14-24 - -- Here is, I. Leah fruitful again, after she had, for some time, left off bearing. Jacob, it should seem, associated more with Rachel than with Leah. ...

Matthew Henry: Gen 30:25-36 - -- We have here, I. Jacob's thoughts of home. He faithfully served his time out with Laban, even his second apprenticeship, though he was an old man, h...

Matthew Henry: Gen 30:37-43 - -- Here is Jacob's honest policy to make his bargain more advantageous to himself than it was likely to be. If he had not taken some course to help him...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 30:1-8 - -- Bilhah's Sons. - When Rachel thought of her own barrenness, she became more and more envious of her sister, who was blessed with sons. But instead o...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 30:9-13 - -- Zilpah's Sons. - But Leah also was not content with the divine blessing bestowed upon her by Jehovah . The means employed by Rachel to retain the f...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 30:14-21 - -- The Other Children of Leah. - How thoroughly henceforth the two wives were carried away by constant jealousy of the love and attachment of their hus...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 30:22-24 - -- Birth of Joseph. - At length God gave Rachel also a son, whom she named Joseph , יוסף , i.e., taking away (= יאסף , cf. 1Sa 15:6; 2Sa 6:1...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 30:25-33 - -- New Contract of Service Between Jacob and Laban. - As the second period of seven years terminated about the time of Joseph's birth, Jacob requested ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 30:34-40 - -- Laban cheerfully accepted the proposal, but did not leave Jacob to make the selection. He undertook that himself, probably to make more sure, and th...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 30:41-43 - -- He did not adopt the trick with the rods, however, on every occasion of copulation, for the sheep in those countries lamb twice a year, but only at ...

Constable: Gen 11:27--Exo 1:1 - --II. PATRIARCHAL NARRATIVES 11:27--50:26 One of the significant changes in the emphasis that occurs at this point...

Constable: Gen 25:19--36:1 - --C. What became of Isaac 25:19-35:29 A new toledot begins with 25:19. Its theme is "the acquisition of th...

Constable: Gen 29:31--30:25 - --8. Jacob's mishandling of God's blessing 29:31-30:24 God formed Jacob's family, the ancestors of the tribes of Israel, as He had promised Jacob at Bet...

Constable: Gen 30:25-43 - --9. Jacob's new contract with Laban 30:25-43 Jacob and Laban ("White") made an agreement that eac...

Guzik: Gen 30:1-43 - The Children Born to Jacob Genesis 30 - The Children Born to Jacob A. Two sons born to Bilhah. 1. (1-4) Rachel, out of frustration, gives her maid Bilhah to Jacob in a "s...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Bible Query: Gen 30:8 Q: In Gen 30:8, how do you pronounce "Naphtali"? A: Cruden’s Concordance, the Wycliffe Bible Dictionary, and Harper’s Bible Dictionary all say i...

Bible Query: Gen 30:14-15 Q: In Gen 30:14-15, doesn’t using mandrakes sound like a superstition? A: Much of folk medicine does not work. The long time Rachel was childless a...

Bible Query: Gen 30:27 Q: In Gen 30:27, how could Laban use divination to find out about Jacob? A: Assuming Laban was telling the truth here, sometimes people get correct a...

Bible Query: Gen 30:37-43 Q: In Gen 30:37-43, doesn’t Jacob "causing" sheep and goats to become spotted sound like superstition? A: There is no hint of superstition, only fa...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) GENESIS, the book of the origin or production of all things, consists of two parts: the first, comprehended in the first through eleventh chapters, gi...

JFB: Genesis (Garis Besar) THE CREATION OF HEAVEN AND EARTH. (Gen 1:1-2) THE FIRST DAY. (Gen 1:3-5) SECOND DAY. (Gen 1:6-8) THIRD DAY. (Gen 1:9-13) FOURTH DAY. (Gen 1:14-19) FI...

TSK: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Genesis is the most ancient record in the world; including the History of two grand and stupendous subjects, Creation and Providence; of e...

TSK: Genesis 30 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Gen 30:1, Rachel, in grief for her barrenness, gives Bilhah her maid unto Jacob; Gen 30:5, Bilhah bears Dan and Naphtali; Gen 30:9, Leah ...

Poole: Genesis 30 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 30 Rachel being barren, envies her sister, impatiently desires children of Jacob, Gen 30:1 . He is angry, and reproves her, Gen 30:2 . She ...

MHCC: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) Genesis is a name taken from the Greek, and signifies " the book of generation or production;" it is properly so called, as containing an account of ...

MHCC: Genesis 30 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Gen 30:1-13) A further account of Jacob's family. (Gen 30:14-24) Rachel beareth Joseph. (v. 25-43) Jacob's new agreement with Laban to serve him fo...

Matthew Henry: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The First Book of Moses, Called Genesis We have now before us the holy Bible, or book, for so bible ...

Matthew Henry: Genesis 30 (Pendahuluan Pasal) In this chapter we have an account of the increase, I. Of Jacob's family. Eight children more we find registered in this chapter; Dan and Naphtali...

Constable: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title Each book of the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testam...

Constable: Genesis (Garis Besar) Outline The structure of Genesis is very clear. The phrase "the generations of" (toledot in Hebrew, from yalad m...

Constable: Genesis Bibliography Aalders, Gerhard Charles. Genesis. The Bible Student's Commentary series. 2 vols. Translated by William Hey...

Haydock: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF GENESIS. INTRODUCTION. The Hebrews now entitle all the Five Books of Moses, from the initial words, which originally were written li...

Gill: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO GENESIS This book, in the Hebrew copies of the Bible, and by the Jewish writers, is generally called Bereshith, which signifies "in...

Gill: Genesis 30 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO GENESIS 30 This chapter gives an account of Rachel's envy of her sister for her fruitfulness, and of her earnest desire of having c...

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