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Teks -- Genesis 28:1-22 (NET)

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Konteks
28:1 So Isaac called for Jacob and blessed him. Then he commanded him, “You must not marry a Canaanite woman! 28:2 Leave immediately for Paddan Aram! Go to the house of Bethuel, your mother’s father, and find yourself a wife there, among the daughters of Laban, your mother’s brother. 28:3 May the sovereign God bless you! May he make you fruitful and give you a multitude of descendants! Then you will become a large nation. 28:4 May he give you and your descendants the blessing he gave to Abraham so that you may possess the land God gave to Abraham, the land where you have been living as a temporary resident.” 28:5 So Isaac sent Jacob on his way, and he went to Paddan Aram, to Laban son of Bethuel the Aramean and brother of Rebekah, the mother of Jacob and Esau. 28:6 Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob and sent him off to Paddan Aram to find a wife there. As he blessed him, Isaac commanded him, “You must not marry a Canaanite woman.” 28:7 Jacob obeyed his father and mother and left for Paddan Aram. 28:8 Then Esau realized that the Canaanite women were displeasing to his father Isaac. 28:9 So Esau went to Ishmael and married Mahalath, the sister of Nebaioth and daughter of Abraham’s son Ishmael, along with the wives he already had.
Jacob’s Dream at Bethel
28:10 Meanwhile Jacob left Beer Sheba and set out for Haran. 28:11 He reached a certain place where he decided to camp because the sun had gone down. He took one of the stones and placed it near his head. Then he fell asleep in that place 28:12 and had a dream. He saw a stairway erected on the earth with its top reaching to the heavens. The angels of God were going up and coming down it 28:13 and the Lord stood at its top. He said, “I am the Lord, the God of your grandfather Abraham and the God of your father Isaac. I will give you and your descendants the ground you are lying on. 28:14 Your descendants will be like the dust of the earth, and you will spread out to the west, east, north, and south. All the families of the earth will pronounce blessings on one another using your name and that of your descendants. 28:15 I am with you! I will protect you wherever you go and will bring you back to this land. I will not leave you until I have done what I promised you!” 28:16 Then Jacob woke up and thought, “Surely the Lord is in this place, but I did not realize it!” 28:17 He was afraid and said, “What an awesome place this is! This is nothing else than the house of God! This is the gate of heaven!” 28:18 Early in the morning Jacob took the stone he had placed near his head and set it up as a sacred stone. Then he poured oil on top of it. 28:19 He called that place Bethel, although the former name of the town was Luz. 28:20 Then Jacob made a vow, saying, “If God is with me and protects me on this journey I am taking and gives me food to eat and clothing to wear, 28:21 and I return safely to my father’s home, then the Lord will become my God. 28:22 Then this stone that I have set up as a sacred stone will be the house of God, and I will surely give you back a tenth of everything you give me.”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abraham a son of Terah; the father of Isaac; ancestor of the Jewish nation.,the son of Terah of Shem
 · Aramean members of the nation of Syria
 · Beer-Sheba a famous well, its town and district in southern Judah
 · Beer-sheba a famous well, its town and district in southern Judah
 · Bethel a town of Benjamin bordering Ephraim 18 km north of Jerusalem
 · Bethuel son of Milcah and Nahor, the brother of Abraham; Bethuel was the father of Rebecca,a town; early home of the descendants of Shime-i of Simeon
 · Canaanite residents of the region of Canaan
 · Esau a son of Isaac and Rebekah,son of Isaac & Rebekah; Jacob's elder twin brother,a people (and nation) descended from Esau, Jacob's brother
 · Haran a town of upper Mesopotamia,an English name representing two different Hebrew names,as representing the Hebrew name 'Haran',son of Terah; brother of Abraham,a Levitical chief of the descendants of Ladan under King David; son of Shimei,as representing the Hebrew name 'Xaran', beginning with a velar fricative,son of Caleb of Judah and Ephah his concubine
 · Ishmael son of Abraham and Hagar,father of Zebadiah, governor of Judah under Jehoshaphat,son of Azel of Benjamin,son of Jehohanan,a priest of the Pashur clan who put away his heathen wife,son of Nethaniah; a militia leader who assasinated Gedaliah
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · Laban son of Bethuel; brother of Rebecca; father of Leah and Rachel; uncle and father-in-law of Jacob,a town in Moab
 · Luz a town of Canaanites about 20 km north of Jerusalem later named Bethel by the Israelites,a town established in the land of the Hittites by a refugee from old Luz
 · Mahalath daughter of Ishmael; wife of her cousin Esau,grand-daughter of David; wife of Rehoboam,a musical term (perhaps 'a sad tone' NASB marg.)
 · Nebaioth son of Ishmael son of Abraham and Hagar,the descendants of Ishmael
 · Paddan-Aram the extreme upper end of Mesopotamia inhabited by the Arameans
 · Paddan-aram the extreme upper end of Mesopotamia inhabited by the Arameans
 · Rebekah daughter of Bethuel, nephew of Abraham
 · Syrian members of the nation of Syria


Topik/Tema Kamus: Jacob | BETHEL | JESUS CHRIST, 4B | Beth-el | Vows | Religion | Esau | Mesopotamia | Stones | Covenant | Children | Pillar | JACOB (1) | God | Emulation | Benedictions | Blessing | Paddan Aram | Padan-aram | PALESTINE, 1 | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Bible Query

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Gen 28:1 - Isaac blessed him, and charged him Those that have the blessing must keep the charge annexed to it, and not think to separate what God has joined.

Those that have the blessing must keep the charge annexed to it, and not think to separate what God has joined.

Wesley: Gen 28:3-4 - -- Two great promises Abraham was blessed with, and Isaac here entails them both upon Jacob. The promise of heirs, God make thee fruitful and multiply th...

Two great promises Abraham was blessed with, and Isaac here entails them both upon Jacob. The promise of heirs, God make thee fruitful and multiply thee. Through his loins that people should descend from Abraham which should be numerous as the stars of heaven. Through his loins should descend from Abraham that person in whom all the families of the earth should be blessed. The promise of an inheritance for those heirs, Gen 28:4.

Wesley: Gen 28:3-4 - That thou mayest inherit the land of thy sojournings (So the Hebrew) Canaan was hereby entailed upon the seed of Jacob, exclusive of the seed of Esau. Isaac was now sending Jacob away into a distant coun...

(So the Hebrew) Canaan was hereby entailed upon the seed of Jacob, exclusive of the seed of Esau. Isaac was now sending Jacob away into a distant country to settle there for some time; and lest this should look like disinheriting him, he here confirms the settlement of it upon him. This promise looks as high as heaven, of which Canaan was a type. That was the better country which Jacob, with the other patriarchs, had in his eye when he confessed himself a stranger and pilgrim on the earth, Heb 11:16.

Wesley: Gen 28:5 - Rebekah is here called Jacob's and Esau's mother Jacob is named first, not only because he had always been his mother's darling, but because he was now made his father's heir, and Esau was postponed.

Jacob is named first, not only because he had always been his mother's darling, but because he was now made his father's heir, and Esau was postponed.

Wesley: Gen 28:6 - -- This passage comes in, in the midst of Jacob's story, to shew the influence of a good example. Esau now begins to think Jacob the better man, and disd...

This passage comes in, in the midst of Jacob's story, to shew the influence of a good example. Esau now begins to think Jacob the better man, and disdains not to take him for his pattern in this particular instance of marrying with a daughter of Abraham.

Wesley: Gen 28:11 - -- The stones for his pillow, and the heavens for his canopy! Yet his comfort in the divine blessing, and his confidence in the divine protection, made h...

The stones for his pillow, and the heavens for his canopy! Yet his comfort in the divine blessing, and his confidence in the divine protection, made him easy, even when he lay thus exposed: being sure that his God made him to dwell in safety, he could lie down and sleep upon a stone.

Wesley: Gen 28:12 - Behold a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached heaven, the angels ascending and descending on it, and the Lord stood above it This might represent The providence of God, by which there is a constant correspondence kept up between heaven and earth. The counsels of heaven are e...

This might represent The providence of God, by which there is a constant correspondence kept up between heaven and earth. The counsels of heaven are executed on earth, and the affairs of this earth are all known in heaven. Providence doth his work gradually and by steps; angels are employed as ministering spirits to serve all the designs of providence, and the wisdom of God is at the upper end of the ladder, directing all the motions of second causes to his glory. The angels are active spirits, continually ascending and descending; they rest not day nor night. They ascend to give account of what they have done, and to receive orders; and desend to execute the orders they have received. This vision gave seasonable comfort to Jacob, letting him know that he had both a good guide and good guard; that though he was to wander from his father's house, yet he was the care of Providence, and the charge of the holy angels. The mediation of Christ. He is this ladder: the foot on earth in his human nature, the top in heaven in his divine nature; or the former is his humiliation, the latter is his exaltation. All the intercourse between heaven and earth since the fall is by this ladder. Christ is the way: all God's favours come to us, and all our services come to him, by Christ. If God dwell with us, and we with him, it is by Christ: we have no way of getting to heaven but by this ladder; for the kind offices the angels do us, are all owing to Christ, who hath reconciled things on earth and things in heaven, Col 1:20.

Wesley: Gen 28:14 - In thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed Christ is the great blessing of the world: all that are blessed, whatever family they are of, are blessed in him, and none of any family are excluded ...

Christ is the great blessing of the world: all that are blessed, whatever family they are of, are blessed in him, and none of any family are excluded from blessedness in him, but those that exclude themselves.

Wesley: Gen 28:15 - Behold I am with thee Wherever we are, we are safe, if we have God's favourable presence with us. He knew not, but God foresaw what hardships he would meet with in his uncl...

Wherever we are, we are safe, if we have God's favourable presence with us. He knew not, but God foresaw what hardships he would meet with in his uncle's service, and therefore promiseth to preserve him in all places. God knows how to give his people graces and comforts accommodated to the events that shall be, as well as to those that are. He was now going as an exile into a place far distant, but God promiseth him to bring him again to this land. He seemed to be forsaken of all his friends, but God gives him this assurance, I will not leave thee.

Wesley: Gen 28:16 - Surely the Lord is in this place, and I knew it not God's manifestations of himself to his people carry their own evidence along with them. God can give undeniable demonstrations of his presence, such a...

God's manifestations of himself to his people carry their own evidence along with them. God can give undeniable demonstrations of his presence, such as give abundant satisfaction to the souls of the faithful, that God is with them of a truth; satisfaction not communicable to others, but convincing to themselves. We sometimes meet with God there, where we little thought of meeting with him. He is there where we did not think he had been, is found there where we asked not for him.

Wesley: Gen 28:17 - He was afraid So far was he from being puffed up. The more we see of God, the more cause we see for holy trembling and blushing before him. Those whom God is please...

So far was he from being puffed up. The more we see of God, the more cause we see for holy trembling and blushing before him. Those whom God is pleased to manifest himself to, are laid and kept very low in their own eyes, and see cause to fear even the Lord and his goodness, Hos 3:5. And said, How dreadful is this place! - That is, the appearance of God in this place is to be thought of, but with a holy awe and reverence; I shall have a respect for this place, and remember it by this token as long as I live. Not that he thought the place itself any nearer the divine visions than any other places; but what he saw there at this time was, as it were, the house of God, the residence of the Divine Majesty, and the gate of heaven, that is, the general rendezvous of the inhabitants of the upper world; as the meetings of a city were in their gates; or, the angels ascending and descending were like travellers passing and repassing through the gates of a city.

Wesley: Gen 28:18 - He set up the stone for a pillar To mark the place again, if he came back, and erect a lasting monument of God's favour to him: and because he had not time now to build an altar here,...

To mark the place again, if he came back, and erect a lasting monument of God's favour to him: and because he had not time now to build an altar here, as Abraham did in the places where God appeared to him, Gen 12:7, he therefore poured oil on the top of this stone, which probably was the ceremony then used in dedicating their altars, as an earnest of his building an altar when he should have conveniencies for it, as afterwards he did, in gratitude to God, Gen 35:7. Grants of mercy call for our returns of duty and the sweet communion we have with God ought ever to be remembered.

Wesley: Gen 28:19 - It had been called Luz, an almond tree, but he will have it henceforth called Beth - el, the house of God.

tree, but he will have it henceforth called Beth - el, the house of God.

Wesley: Gen 28:19 - This gracious appearance of God to him made it more remarkable than all the almond trees that flourished there.

trees that flourished there.

Wesley: Gen 28:20 - And Jacob vowed a vow By religious vows we give glory to God, and own our dependance upon him, and we lay a bond upon our own souls, to engage and quicken our obedience to ...

By religious vows we give glory to God, and own our dependance upon him, and we lay a bond upon our own souls, to engage and quicken our obedience to him. Jacob was now in fear and distress, and in times of trouble it is seasonable to make vows, or when we are in pursuit of any special mercy, Jon 1:16; Psa 66:13-14; 1Sa 1:11; Num 21:1-3. Jacob had now had a gracious visit from heaven, God had renewed his covenant with him, and the covenant is mutual; when God ratifies his promises to us, it is proper for us to repeat our promises to him.

Wesley: Gen 28:20 - If thou wilt be with me and keep me We need desire no more to make us easy and happy wherever we are, but to have God's presence with us, and to be under his protection. It is comfortabl...

We need desire no more to make us easy and happy wherever we are, but to have God's presence with us, and to be under his protection. It is comfortable in a journey to have a guide in an unknown way, a guard in a dangerous way, to be well carried, well provided for, and to have good company in any way; and they that have God with them, have all this in the best manner.

Wesley: Gen 28:20 - Then shall the Lord be my God Then I will rejoice in him as my God, then I will be the more strongly engaged to abide with him.

Then I will rejoice in him as my God, then I will be the more strongly engaged to abide with him.

Wesley: Gen 28:20 - And this pillar shall be God's house That is, an altar shall be erected here to the honour of God.

That is, an altar shall be erected here to the honour of God.

Wesley: Gen 28:20 - And of all that thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee To be spent either upon God's altar or upon his poor, which are both his receivers in the world. The tenth is a very fit proportion to be devoted to G...

To be spent either upon God's altar or upon his poor, which are both his receivers in the world. The tenth is a very fit proportion to be devoted to God, and employed for him; though as circumstances vary, it may be more or less, as God prospers us.

JFB: Gen 28:1 - Isaac called Jacob and blessed him He entered fully into Rebekah's feelings, and the burden of his parting counsel to his son was to avoid a marriage alliance with any but the Mesopotam...

He entered fully into Rebekah's feelings, and the burden of his parting counsel to his son was to avoid a marriage alliance with any but the Mesopotamian branch of the family. At the same time he gave him a solemn blessing--pronounced before unwittingly, now designedly, and with a cordial spirit. It is more explicitly and fully given, and Jacob was thus acknowledged "the heir of the promise."

JFB: Gen 28:6-9 - when Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob, &c. Desirous to humor his parents and, if possible, get the last will revoked, he became wise when too late (see Mat 25:10), and hoped by gratifying his p...

Desirous to humor his parents and, if possible, get the last will revoked, he became wise when too late (see Mat 25:10), and hoped by gratifying his parents in one thing to atone for all his former delinquencies. But he only made bad worse, and though he did not marry a "wife of the daughters of Canaan," he married into a family which God had rejected. It showed a partial reformation, but no repentance, for he gave no proofs of abating his vindictive purposes against his brother, nor cherishing that pious spirit that would have gratified his father--he was like Micah (see Jdg 17:13).

JFB: Gen 28:10 - Jacob went out, &c. His departure from his father's house was an ignominious flight; and for fear of being pursued or waylaid by his vindictive brother, he did not take t...

His departure from his father's house was an ignominious flight; and for fear of being pursued or waylaid by his vindictive brother, he did not take the common road, but went by lonely and unfrequented paths, which increased the length and dangers of the journey.

JFB: Gen 28:11 - he lighted upon a certain place By a forced march he had reached Beth-el, about forty-eight miles from Beer-sheba, and had to spend the night in the open field.

By a forced march he had reached Beth-el, about forty-eight miles from Beer-sheba, and had to spend the night in the open field.

JFB: Gen 28:11 - he took of the stones, etc. "The nature of the soil is an existing comment on the record of the stony territory where Jacob lay" [CLARKE'S Travels].

"The nature of the soil is an existing comment on the record of the stony territory where Jacob lay" [CLARKE'S Travels].

JFB: Gen 28:12 - he dreamed . . . and behold a ladder Some writers are of opinion that it was not a literal ladder that is meant, as it is impossible to conceive any imagery stranger and more unnatural th...

Some writers are of opinion that it was not a literal ladder that is meant, as it is impossible to conceive any imagery stranger and more unnatural than that of a ladder, whose base was on earth, while its top reached heaven, without having any thing on which to rest its upper extremity. They suppose that the little heap of stones, on which his head reclined for a pillow, being the miniature model of the object that appeared to his imagination, the latter was a gigantic mountain pile, whose sides, indented in the rock, gave it the appearance of a scaling ladder. There can be no doubt that this use of the original term was common among the early Hebrews; as JOSEPHUS, describing the town of Ptolemais (Acre), says it was bounded by a mountain, which, from its projecting sides, was called "the ladder," and the stairs that led down to the city are, in the original, termed a ladder (Neh 3:15) though they were only a flight of steps cut in the side of the rock. But whether the image presented to the mental eye of Jacob were a common ladder, or such a mountain pile as has been described, the design of this vision was to afford comfort, encouragement, and confidence to the lonely fugitive, both in his present circumstances and as to his future prospects. His thoughts during the day must have been painful--he would be his own self-accuser that he had brought exile and privation upon himself--and above all, that though he had obtained the forgiveness of his father, he had much reason to fear lest God might have forsaken him. Solitude affords time for reflection; and it was now that God began to bring Jacob under a course of religious instruction and training. To dispel his fears and allay the inward tumult of his mind, nothing was better fitted than the vision of the gigantic ladder, which reached from himself to heaven, and on which the angels were continually ascending and descending from God Himself on their benevolent errands (Joh 1:51).

JFB: Gen 28:13 - The Lord stood above it, and said That Jacob might be at no loss to know the purport of the vision, he heard the divine voice; and the announcement of His name, together with a renewal...

That Jacob might be at no loss to know the purport of the vision, he heard the divine voice; and the announcement of His name, together with a renewal of the covenant, and an assurance of personal protection, produced at once the most solemnizing and inspiriting effect on his mind.

JFB: Gen 28:16 - Jacob awaked out of his sleep His language and his conduct were alike that of a man whose mind was pervaded by sentiments of solemn awe, of fervent piety, and lively gratitude (Jer...

His language and his conduct were alike that of a man whose mind was pervaded by sentiments of solemn awe, of fervent piety, and lively gratitude (Jer 31:36).

JFB: Gen 28:18-19 - Jacob set up a stone, etc. The mere setting up of the stone might have been as a future memorial to mark the spot; and this practice is still common in the East, in memory of a ...

The mere setting up of the stone might have been as a future memorial to mark the spot; and this practice is still common in the East, in memory of a religious vow or engagement. But the pouring oil upon it was a consecration. Accordingly he gave it a new name, Beth-el, "the house of God" (Hos 12:4); and it will not appear a thing forced or unnatural to call a stone a house, when one considers the common practice in warm countries of sitting in the open air by or on a stone, as are those of this place, "broad sheets of bare rock, some of them standing like the cromlechs of Druidical monuments" [STANLEY].

JFB: Gen 28:20 - Jacob vowed a vow His words are not to be considered as implying a doubt, far less as stating the condition or terms on which he would dedicate himself to God. Let "if"...

His words are not to be considered as implying a doubt, far less as stating the condition or terms on which he would dedicate himself to God. Let "if" be changed into "since," and the language will appear a proper expression of Jacob's faith--an evidence of his having truly embraced the promise. How edifying often to meditate on Jacob at Beth-el.

Clarke: Gen 28:1 - And Isaac called Jacob And Isaac called Jacob - See note on Gen 27:46

And Isaac called Jacob - See note on Gen 27:46

Clarke: Gen 28:1 - And blessed him And blessed him - Now voluntarily and cheerfully confirmed to him the blessing, which he had before obtained through subtlety. It was necessary that...

And blessed him - Now voluntarily and cheerfully confirmed to him the blessing, which he had before obtained through subtlety. It was necessary that he should have this confirmation previously to his departure; else, considering the way in which he had obtained both the birthright and the blessing, he might be doubtful, according to his own words, whether he might not have got a curse instead of a blessing. As the blessing now pronounced on Jacob was obtained without any deception on his part, it is likely that it produced a salutary effect upon his mind, might have led him to confession of his sin, and prepared his heart for those discoveries of God’ s goodness with which he was favored at Luz.

Clarke: Gen 28:2 - Go to Padan-aram Go to Padan-aram - This mission, in its spirit and design, is nearly the same as that in Genesis 24 (note). There have been several ingenious conjec...

Go to Padan-aram - This mission, in its spirit and design, is nearly the same as that in Genesis 24 (note). There have been several ingenious conjectures concerning the retinue which Jacob had, or might have had, for his journey; and by some he has been supposed to have been well attended. Of this nothing is mentioned here, and the reverse seems to be intimated elsewhere. It appears, from Gen 28:11, that he lodged in the open air, with a stone for his pillow; and from Gen 32:10, that he went on foot with his staff in his hand; nor is there even the most indirect mention of any attendants, nor is it probable there were any. He no doubt took provisions with him sufficient to carry him to the nearest encampment or village on the way, where he would naturally recruit his bread and water to carry him to the next stage, and so on. The oil that he poured on the pillar might be a little of that which he had brought for his own use, and can be no rational argument of his having a stock of provisions, servants, camels, etc., for which it has been gravely brought. He had God alone with him.

Clarke: Gen 28:3 - That thou mayest be a multitude of people That thou mayest be a multitude of people - לקהל עמים likhal ammim . There is something very remarkable in the original words: they signif...

That thou mayest be a multitude of people - לקהל עמים likhal ammim . There is something very remarkable in the original words: they signify literally for an assembly, congregation, or church of peoples; referring no doubt to the Jewish Church in the wilderness, but more particularly to the Christian Church, composed of every kindred, and nation, and people, and tongue. This is one essential part of the blessing of Abraham. See Gen 28:4.

Clarke: Gen 28:4 - Give thee the blessing of Abraham Give thee the blessing of Abraham - May he confirm the inheritance with all its attendant blessings to thee, to the exclusion of Esau; as he did to ...

Give thee the blessing of Abraham - May he confirm the inheritance with all its attendant blessings to thee, to the exclusion of Esau; as he did to me, to the exclusion of Ishmael. But, according to St. Paul, much more than this is certainly intended here, for it appears, from Gal 3:6-14, that the blessing of Abraham, which is to come upon the Gentiles through Jesus Christ, comprises the whole doctrine of justification by faith, and its attendant privileges, viz., redemption from the curse of the law, remission of sins, and the promise of the Holy Spirit, including the constitution and establishment of the Christian Church.

Clarke: Gen 28:5 - Bethuel the Syrian Bethuel the Syrian - Literally the Aramean, so called, not because he was of the race of Aram the son of Shem, but because he dwelt in that country ...

Bethuel the Syrian - Literally the Aramean, so called, not because he was of the race of Aram the son of Shem, but because he dwelt in that country which had been formerly possessed by the descendants of Aram.

Clarke: Gen 28:9 - Then went Esau unto Ishmael Then went Esau unto Ishmael - Those who are apt to take every thing by the wrong handle, and who think it was utterly impossible for Esau to do any ...

Then went Esau unto Ishmael - Those who are apt to take every thing by the wrong handle, and who think it was utterly impossible for Esau to do any right action, have classed his taking a daughter of Ishmael among his crimes; whereas there is nothing more plain than that he did this with a sincere desire to obey and please his parents. Having heard the pious advice which Isaac gave to Jacob, he therefore went and took a wife from the family of his grandfather Abraham, as Jacob was desired to do out of the family of his maternal uncle Laban. Mahalath, whom he took to wife, stood in the same degree of relationship to Isaac his father as Rachel did to his mother Rebekah. Esau married his father’ s niece; Jacob married his mother’ s niece. It was therefore most obviously to please his parents that Esau took this additional wife. It is supposed that Ishmael must have been dead thirteen or fourteen years before this time, and that going to Ishmael signifies only going to the family of Ishmael. If we follow the common computation, and allow that Isaac was now about one hundred and thirty-six or one hundred and thirty-seven years of age, and Jacob seventy-seven, and as Ishmael died in the one hundred and thirty-seventh year of his age, which according to the common computation was the one hundred and twenty-third of Isaac, then Ishmael must have been dead about fourteen years. But if we allow the ingenious reasoning of Mr. Skinner and Dr. Kennicott, that Jacob was at this time only fifty-seven years of age, and Isaac consequently only one hundred and seventeen, it will appear that Ishmael did not die till six years after this period; and hence with propriety it might be said, Esau went unto Ishmael, and took Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael to be his wife. See note on Gen 26:34, etc.

Clarke: Gen 28:11 - A certain place, and tarried there A certain place, and tarried there - From Gen 28:19, we find this certain place was Luz, or some part of its vicinity. Jacob had probably intended t...

A certain place, and tarried there - From Gen 28:19, we find this certain place was Luz, or some part of its vicinity. Jacob had probably intended to reach Luz; but the sun being set, and night coming on, he either could not reach the city, or he might suspect the inhabitants, and rather prefer the open field, as he must have heard of the character and conduct of the men of Sodom and Gomorrah. Or the gates might be shut by the time he reached it, which would prevent his admission; for it frequently happens, to the present day, that travelers not reaching a city in the eastern countries previously to the shutting of the gates, are obliged to lodge under the walls all night, as when once shut they refuse to open them till the next day. This was probably Jacob’ s case

Clarke: Gen 28:11 - He took of the stones He took of the stones - He took one of the stones that were in that place: from Gen 28:18 we find it was one stone only which he had for his pillow....

He took of the stones - He took one of the stones that were in that place: from Gen 28:18 we find it was one stone only which he had for his pillow. Luz was about forty-eight miles distant from Beer-sheba; too great a journey for one day, through what we may conceive very unready roads.

Clarke: Gen 28:12 - He dreamed, and behold a ladder He dreamed, and behold a ladder - A multitude of fanciful things have been spoken of Jacob’ s vision of the ladder, and its signification. It m...

He dreamed, and behold a ladder - A multitude of fanciful things have been spoken of Jacob’ s vision of the ladder, and its signification. It might have several designs, as God chooses to accomplish the greatest number of ends by the fewest and simplest means possible. 1. It is very likely that its primary design was to point out the providence of God, by which he watches over and regulates all terrestrial things; for nothing is left to merely natural causes; a heavenly agency pervades, actuates, and directs all. In his present circumstances it was highly necessary that Jacob should have a clear and distinct view of this subject, that he might be the better prepared to meet all occurrences with the conviction that all was working together for his good. 2. It might be intended also to point out the intercourse between heaven and earth, and the connection of both worlds by the means of angelic ministry. That this is fact we learn from many histories in the Old Testament; and it is a doctrine that is unequivocally taught in the New: Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation? 3. It was probably a type of Christ, in whom both worlds meet, and in whom the Divine and human nature are conjoined. The Ladder was set up on the Earth, and the Top of it reached to Heaven; for God was manifested in the Flesh, and in him dwelt all the fullness of the Godhead bodily. Nothing could be a more expressive emblem of the incarnation and its effects; Jesus Christ is the grand connecting medium between heaven and earth, and between God and man. By him God comes down to man; through him man ascends to God. It appears that our Lord applies the vision in this way himself, first, In that remarkable speech to Nathanael, Hereafter ye shall see the heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of man, Joh 1:51. Secondly, in his speech to Thomas, Joh 14:6 : I am the Way, and the truth, and the life; no man cometh unto the Father but by me.

Clarke: Gen 28:13 - I am the Lord God of Abraham I am the Lord God of Abraham - Here God confirms to him the blessing of Abraham, for which Isaac had prayed, Gen 28:3, Gen 28:4.

I am the Lord God of Abraham - Here God confirms to him the blessing of Abraham, for which Isaac had prayed, Gen 28:3, Gen 28:4.

Clarke: Gen 28:14 - Thy seed shall be as the dust Thy seed shall be as the dust - The people that shall descend from thee shall be extremely numerous, and in thee and thy seed - the Lord Jesus desce...

Thy seed shall be as the dust - The people that shall descend from thee shall be extremely numerous, and in thee and thy seed - the Lord Jesus descending from thee, according to the flesh, shall all the families of the earth - not only all of thy race, but all the other families or tribes of mankind which have not proceeded from any branch of the Abrahamic family, be blessed; for Jesus Christ by the grace of God tasted death For Every Man, Heb 2:9.

Clarke: Gen 28:15 - And, behold, I am with thee And, behold, I am with thee - For I fill the heavens and the earth. "My Word shall be thy help."- Targum. And will keep thee in all places, εν τ...

And, behold, I am with thee - For I fill the heavens and the earth. "My Word shall be thy help."- Targum. And will keep thee in all places, εν τῃ ὁδῳ πασῃ, in all this way - Septuagint. I shall direct, help, and support thee in a peculiar manner, in thy present journey, be with thee while thou sojournest with thy uncle, and will bring thee again into this land; so that in all thy concerns thou mayest consider thyself under my especial providence, for I will not leave thee. Thy descendants also shall be my peculiar people, whom I shall continue to preserve as such until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of - until the Messiah shall be born of thy race, and all the families of the earth - the Gentiles, be blessed through thee; the Gospel being preached to them, and they, with the believing Jews, made One Fold under One Shepherd, and one Bishop or Overseer of souls. And this circumstantial promise has been literally and punctually fulfilled.

Clarke: Gen 28:16 - The Lord is in this place; and I knew it not The Lord is in this place; and I knew it not - That is, God has made this place his peculiar residence; it is a place in which he meets with and rev...

The Lord is in this place; and I knew it not - That is, God has made this place his peculiar residence; it is a place in which he meets with and reveals himself to his followers. Jacob might have supposed that this place had been consecrated to God. And it has already been supposed that, his mind having been brought into a humble frame, he was prepared to hold communion with his Maker.

Clarke: Gen 28:17 - How dreadful is this place! How dreadful is this place! - The appearance of the ladder, the angels, and the Divine glory at the top of the ladder, must have left deep, solemn, ...

How dreadful is this place! - The appearance of the ladder, the angels, and the Divine glory at the top of the ladder, must have left deep, solemn, and even awful impressions on the mind of Jacob; and hence the exclamation in the text, How dreadful is this place! This is none other but the house of God - The Chaldee gives this place a curious turn: "This is not a common place, but a place in which God delights; and opposite to this place is the gate of heaven."Onkelos seems to suppose that the gate or entrance into heaven was actually above this spot, and that when the angels of God descended to earth, they came through that opening into this place, and returned by the same way. And it really appears that Jacob himself had a similar notion.

Clarke: Gen 28:18 - And Jacob - took the stone - and set it up for a pillar And Jacob - took the stone - and set it up for a pillar - He placed the stone in an erect posture, that it might stand as a monument of the extraord...

And Jacob - took the stone - and set it up for a pillar - He placed the stone in an erect posture, that it might stand as a monument of the extraordinary vision which he had in this place; and he poured oil upon it, thereby consecrating it to God, so that it might be considered an altar on which libations might be poured, and sacrifices offered unto God. See Gen 35:14

The Brahmins anoint their stone images with oil before bathing; and some anoint them with sweet-scented oil. This is a practice which arises more from the customs of the Hindoos than from their idolatry. Anointing persons as an act of homage has been transferred to their idols

There is a foolish tradition that the stone set up by Jacob was afterwards brought to Jerusalem, from which, after a long lapse of time, it was brought to Spain, from Spain to Ireland, from Ireland to Scotland, and on it the kings of Scotland sat to be crowned; and concerning which the following leonine verses were made: -

Ni fallat fatum, - Scoti quocunque locatu

Invenient lapidem, - regnare tenentur ibidem

Or fate is blind - or Scots shall fin

Where’ er this stone - the royal throne

Camden’ s Perthshire

Edward I. had it brought to Westminster; and there this stone, called Jacob’ s pillar, and Jacob’ s pillow, is now placed under the chair on which the king sits when crowned! It would be as ridiculous to attempt to disprove the truth of this tradition, as to prove that the stone under the old chair in Westminster was the identical stone which served the patriarch for a bolster

Clarke: Gen 28:18 - And poured oil upon the top of it And poured oil upon the top of it - Stones, images, and altars, dedicated to Divine worship, were always anointed with oil. This appears to have bee...

And poured oil upon the top of it - Stones, images, and altars, dedicated to Divine worship, were always anointed with oil. This appears to have been considered as a consecration of them to the object of the worship, and a means of inducing the god or goddess to take up their residence there, and answer the petitions of their votaries. Anointing stones, images, etc., is used in idolatrous countries to the present day, and the whole idol is generally smeared over with oil. Sometimes, besides the anointing, a crown or garland was placed on the stone or altar to honor the divinity, who was supposed, in consequence of the anointing, to have set up his residence in that place. It appears to have been on this ground that the seats of polished stone, on which the kings sat in the front of their palaces to administer justice, were anointed, merely to invite the deity to reside there, that true judgment might be given, and a righteous sentence always be pronounced. Of this we have an instance in Homer, Odyss. lib. v., ver. 406-410: -

Εκ δ ελθων, κατ αρ ἑζετ επι ξεστοισι λιθοσιν

Οἱ οἱ εσαν προπαροιθε θυραων ὑψηλαων

Δευκοι, αποστιλβοντες αλειφατος· οἱς επι μεν πριν

Νηλευς ἱζεσκεν, θεοφιν μηστωρ αταλαντος

The old man early rose, walk’ d forth, and sat

On polish’ d stone before his palace gate

With unguent smooth the lucid marble shone

Where ancient Neleus sate, a rustic throne

Pope

This gives a part of the sense of the passage; but the last line, on which much stress should be laid, is very inadequately rendered by the English poet. It should be translated, -

Where Neleus sat, equal in counsel to the gods; because inspired by their wisdom, and which inspiration he and his successor took pains to secure by consecrating with the anointing oil the seat of judgment on which they were accustomed to sit. Some of the ancient commentators on Homer mistook the meaning of this place by not understanding the nature of the custom; and these Cowper unfortunately follows, translating "resplendent as with oil;"which as destroys the whole sense, and obliterates the allusion. This sort of anointing was a common custom in all antiquity, and was probably derived from this circumstance. Arnobius tells us that it was customary with himself while a heathen, "when he saw a smooth polished stone that had been smeared with oils, to kiss and adore it, as if possessing a Divine virtue.

Si quando conspexeram lubricatum lapidem

et ex olivi unguine sordidatum (ordinatum

tanquam inesset vis prasens, adulabar, affabar

And Theodoret, in his eighty-fourth question on Genesis, asserts that many pious women in his time were accustomed to anoint the coffins of the martyrs, etc. And in Catholic countries when a church is consecrated they anoint the door-posts, pillars, altars, etc. So under the law there was a holy anointing oil to sanctify the tabernacle, laver, and all other things used in God’ s service, Exo 40:9, etc.

Clarke: Gen 28:19 - He called the name of that place Beth-el He called the name of that place Beth-el - That is, the house of God; for in consequence of his having anointed the stone, and thus consecrated it t...

He called the name of that place Beth-el - That is, the house of God; for in consequence of his having anointed the stone, and thus consecrated it to God, he considered it as becoming henceforth his peculiar residence; see on the preceding verse. This word should be always pronounced as two distinct syllables, each strongly accented, Beth-El

Clarke: Gen 28:19 - Was called Luz at the first Was called Luz at the first - The Hebrew has אולם לוז Ulam Luz , which the Roman edition of the Septuagint translates Ουλαμλουζ Ou...

Was called Luz at the first - The Hebrew has אולם לוז Ulam Luz , which the Roman edition of the Septuagint translates Ουλαμλουζ Oulamlouz ; the Alexandrian MS., Ουλαμμους Oulammaus ; the Aldine, Ουλαμμαους Oulammaous ; Symmachus, Λαμμαους Lammaous ; and some others, Ουλαμ Oulam . The Hebrew אולם ulam is sometimes a particle signifying as, just as; hence it may signify that the place was called Beth-El, as it was formerly called Luz. As Luz signifies an almond, almond or hazel tree, this place probably had its name from a number of such trees growing in that region. Many of the ancients confounded this city with Jerusalem, to which they attribute the eight following names, which are all expressed in this verse: -

Solyma, Luza, Bethel, Hierosolyma, Jebus, Aelia

Urbs sacra, Hierusalem dicitur atque Salem

Solyma, Luz, Beth-El, Hierosolyma, Jebus, Aelia

The holy city is call’ d, as also Jerusalem and Salem

From Beth-El came the Baetylia, Bethyllia, Βαιτυλια, or animated stones, so celebrated in antiquity, and to which Divine honors were paid. The tradition of Jacob anointing this stone, and calling the place Beth-El, gave rise to all the superstitious accounts of the Baetylia or consecrated stones, which we find in Sanchoniathon and others. These became abused to idolatrous purposes, and hence God strongly prohibits them, Lev 26:1; and it is very likely that stones of this kind were the most ancient objects of idolatrous worship; these were afterwards formed into beautiful human figures, male and female, when the art of sculpture became tolerably perfected, and hence the origin of idolatry as far as it refers to the worshipping of images, for these, being consecrated by anointing, etc., were supposed immediately to become instinct with the power and energy of some divinity. Hence, then, the Baetylia or living stones of the ancient Phoenicians, etc. As oil is an emblem of the gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit, so those who receive this anointing are considered as being alive unto God, and are expressly called by St. Peter living stones, 1Pe 2:4, 1Pe 2:5. May not the apostle have reference to those living stones or Baetyllia of antiquity, and thus correct the notion by showing that these rather represented the true worshippers of God, who were consecrated to his service and made partakers of the Holy Ghost, and that these alone could be properly called the living stone, out of which the true spiritual temple is composed?

Clarke: Gen 28:20 - Vowed a vow Vowed a vow - A vow is a solemn, holy promise, by which a man bound himself to do certain things in a particular way, time, etc., and for power to a...

Vowed a vow - A vow is a solemn, holy promise, by which a man bound himself to do certain things in a particular way, time, etc., and for power to accomplish which he depended on God; hence all vows were made with prayer

Clarke: Gen 28:20 - If God will be with me, etc. If God will be with me, etc. - Jacob seems to make this vow rather for his posterity than for himself, as we may learn from Gen 28:13-15; for he par...

If God will be with me, etc. - Jacob seems to make this vow rather for his posterity than for himself, as we may learn from Gen 28:13-15; for he particularly refers to the promises which God had made to him, which concerned the multiplication of his offspring, and their establishment in that land. If, then, God shall fulfill these promises, he binds his posterity to build God a house, and to devote for the maintenance of his worship the tenth of all their earthly goods. This mode of interpretation removes that appearance of self-interest which almost any other view of the subject presents. Jacob had certainly, long ere this, taken Jehovah for his God; and so thoroughly had he been instructed in the knowledge of Jehovah, that we may rest satisfied no reverses of fortune could have induced him to apostatize: but as his taking refuge with Laban was probably typical of the sojourning of his descendants in Egypt, his persecution, so as to be obliged to depart from Laban, the bad treatment of his posterity by the Egyptians, his rescue from death, preservation on his journey, re-establishment in his own country, etc., were all typical of the exodus of his descendants, their travels in the desert, and establishment in the promised land, where they built a house to God, and where, for the support and maintenance of the pure worship of God, they gave to the priests and Levites the tenth of all their worldly produce. If all this be understood as referring to Jacob only, the Scripture gives us no information how he performed his vow.

Clarke: Gen 28:22 - This stone shall be God’ s house This stone shall be God’ s house - That is, (as far as this matter refers to Jacob alone), should I be preserved to return in safety, I shall w...

This stone shall be God’ s house - That is, (as far as this matter refers to Jacob alone), should I be preserved to return in safety, I shall worship God in this place. And this purpose he fulfilled, for there he built an altar, anointed it with oil, and poured a drink-offering thereon

For a practical use of Jacob’ s vision, see note on Gen 28:12

On the doctrine of tithes, or an adequate support for the ministers of the Gospel, I shall here register my opinion. Perhaps a word may be borne from one who never received any, and has none in prospect. Tithes in their origin appear to have been a sort of eucharistic offering made unto God, and probably were something similar to the minchah , which we learn from Genesis 4 was in use almost from the foundation of the world. When God established a regular, and we may add an expensive worship, it was necessary that proper provision should be made for the support of those who were obliged to devote their whole time to it, and consequently were deprived of the opportunity of providing for themselves in any secular way. It was soon found that a tenth part of the produce of the whole land was necessary for this purpose, as a whole tribe, that of Levi, was devoted to the public service of God; and when the land was divided, this tribe received no inheritance among their brethren. Hence, for their support, the law of tithes was enacted; and by these the priests and Levites were not only supported as the ministers of God, but as the teachers and intercessors of the people, performing a great variety of religious duties for them which otherwise they themselves were bound to perform. As this mode of supporting the ministers of God was instituted by himself, so we may rest assured it was rational and just. Nothing can be more reasonable than to devote a portion of the earthly good which we receive from the free mercy of God, to his own service; especially when by doing it we are essentially serving ourselves. If the ministers of God give up their whole time, talents, and strength, to watch over, labor for, and instruct the people in spiritual things, justice requires that they shall receive their support from the work. How worthless and wicked must that man be, who is continually receiving good from the Lord’ s hands without restoring any part for the support of true religion, and for charitable purposes! To such God says, Their table shall become a snare to them, and that he will curse their blessings. God expects returns of gratitude in this way from every man; he that has much should give plenteously, he that has little should do his diligence to give of that little

It is not the business of these notes to dispute on the article of tithes; certainly it would be well could a proper substitute be found for them, and the clergy paid by some other method, as this appears in the present state of things to be very objectionable; and the mode of levying them is vexatious in the extreme, and serves to sow dissensions between the clergyman and his parishioners, by which many are not only alienated from the Church, but also from the power as well as the form of godliness. But still the laborer is worthy of his hire; and the maintenance of the public ministry of the word of God should not be left to the caprices of men. He who is only supported for his work, will be probably abandoned when he is no longer capable of public service. I have seen many aged and worn-out ministers reduced to great necessity, and almost literally obliged to beg their bread among those whose opulence and salvation were, under God, the fruits of their ministry! Such persons may think they do God service by disputing against "tithes, as legal institutions long since abrogated,"while they permit their worn-out ministers to starve: - but how shall they appear in that day when Jesus shall say, I was hungry, and ye gave me no meat; thirsty, and ye gave me no drink; naked, and ye clothed me not? It is true, that where a provision is established on a certain order of priesthood by the law, it may be sometimes claimed and consumed by the worthless and the profane; but this is no necessary consequence of such establishment, as there are laws which, if put in action, have sufficient energy to expel every wicked and slothful servant from the vineyard of Christ. This however is seldom done. At all events, this is no reason why those who have served God and their generation should not be comfortably supported during that service; and when incapable of it, be furnished at least with the necessaries of life. Though many ministers have reason to complain of this neglect, who have no claims on a legal ecclesiastical establishment, yet none have cause for louder complaint than the generality of those called curates, or unbeneficed ministers, in the Church of England: their employers clothe themselves with the wool, and feed themselves with the fat; they tend not the flock, and their substitutes that perform the labor and do the drudgery of the office, are permitted at least to half starve on an inadequate remuneration. Let a national worship be supported, but let the support be derived from a less objectionable source than tithes; for as the law now stands relative to them, no one purpose of moral instruction or piety can be promoted by the system. On their present plan tithes are oppressive and unjust; the clergyman has a right by law to the tenth of the produce of the soil, and to the tenth of all that is supported by it. He claims even the tenth egg, as well as the tenth apple; the tenth of all grain, of all hay, and even of all the produce of the kitchen garden; but he contributes nothing to the cultivation of the soil. A comparatively poor man rents a farm; it is entirely out of heart, for it has been exhausted; it yields very little, and the tenth is not much; at the expense of all he has, he dresses and manures this ungrateful soil; to repay him and keep up the cultivation would require three years’ produce. It begins to yield well, and the clergyman takes the tenth which is now in quantity and quality more in value than a pound, where before it was not a shilling. But the whole crop would not repay the farmer’ s expenses. In proportion to the farmer’ s improvement is the clergyman’ s tithe, who has never contributed one shilling to aid in this extra produce! Here then not only the soil pays tithes, but the man’ s property brought upon the soil pays tithes: his skill and industry also are tithed; or if he have been obliged to borrow cash, he not only has to pay tithes on the produce of this borrowed money, but five per cent interest for the money itself. All this is oppressive and cruelly unjust. I say again, let there be a national religion, and a national clergy supported by the state; but let them be supported by a tax, not by tithes, or rather let them be paid out of the general taxation; or, if the tithe system must be continued, let the poor-rates be abolished, and the clergy, out of the tithes, support the poor in their respective parishes, as was the original custom.

Calvin: Gen 28:1 - And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him 1.And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him. It may be asked, whether the reason why Isaac repeats anew the benediction which he had before pronounced,...

1.And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him. It may be asked, whether the reason why Isaac repeats anew the benediction which he had before pronounced, was that the former one had been of no force; whereas, if he was a prophet and interpreter of the will of God, what had once proceeded from his mouth ought to have been firm and perpetual. I answer, although the benedictions was in itself efficacious, yet the faith of Jacob required support of this kind: just as the Lord, in reiterating, frequently the same promises, derogates nothing either from himself or from his word, but rather confirms the certainty of that word to his servants, lest, at any time, their confidence should be shaken through the infirmity of the flesh. What I have said must also be kept in mind, that Isaac prayed, not as a private person, but as one furnished with a special command of God, to transmit the covenant deposited with himself to his son Jacob. It was also of the greatest importance that now, at length, Jacob should be blessed by his father, knowingly and willingly; lest at a future time a doubt, arising from the recollection of his father’s mistake and of his own fraud, might steal over his mind. Therefore Isaac, now purposely directing his words to his son Jacob, pronounces the blessing to be due to him by right, lest it should be thought that, having been before deceived, he had uttered words in vain, under a false character.

Calvin: Gen 28:2 - Arise, go to Padan-aram 2.Arise, go to Padan-aram. In the first place, he commands him to take a wife from his maternal race. He might have sent for her by some one of his s...

2.Arise, go to Padan-aram. In the first place, he commands him to take a wife from his maternal race. He might have sent for her by some one of his servants, as Rebekah had been brought to him; but perhaps he took this course to avoid the envy of Esau, who might regard it as a reproach if more solicitude were manifested about his brother’s marriage than about his own.

Calvin: Gen 28:3 - And God Almighty bless thee 3.And God Almighty bless thee. Here follows the form of benediction, which slightly differs in words from the former, but nevertheless tends to the s...

3.And God Almighty bless thee. Here follows the form of benediction, which slightly differs in words from the former, but nevertheless tends to the same end. First, he desires that Jacob should be blessed by God; that is, that he should be so increased and amplified in his own offspring, as to grow into a multitude of nations; or, in other words, that he should produce many people who might combine into one body under the same head; as if he had said, Let there arise from thee many tribes, who shall constitute one people. And this truly was, in some measure, fulfilled when Moses distributed the people into thirteen divisions. Nevertheless, Isaac looked for a further result, namely, that many were at length to be gathered together out of various nations, to the family of his son, that, in this manner, from a vast and previously scattered multitude, might be formed one assembly. For it is not to be doubted, that he wished to hand down what he had received; seeing that he immediately afterwards celebrates the memory of the original covenant, deriving his present benediction from thence as its source: as if he had said, that he transferred whatever right he had from his father; to his son Jacob, in order that the inheritance of life might remain with him, according to the covenant of God made with Abraham. They who expound this as being said in the way of comparison, as if Isaac 53 wished those benefits which God had before conferred on Abraham to be in the same manner granted to his son, attenuate the meaning of the words. For since God, in making his covenant with Abraham, had annexed this condition, that it should descend to his posterity, it was necessary to trace its commencement to his person as its root. Therefore, Isaac constitutes his son Jacob the heir of Abraham, as successor to the benediction deposited with him, and promised to his seed. This also appears more clearly from the context following, where he assigns to him the dominion over the land, because it had been given to Abraham. Moreover, we perceive, in this member of the sentence, with what consistency of faith the holy fathers rested on the word of the Lord; for otherwise, they would have found it no small temptation to be driven about as strangers and pilgrims in the very land, the possession of which had been divinely assigned them a hundred years before. But we see, that in their wanderings and their unsettled mode of life, they no less highly estimated what God had promised them, than if they had already been in the full enjoyment of it. And this is the true trial of faith; when relying on the word of God alone, although tossed on the waves of the world, we stand as firmly as if our abode were already fixed in heaven. Isaac expressly fortifies his son against this temptation, when he calls the land of which he constitutes him lord, the land of his wanderings. For by these words he teaches him that it was possible he might be a wanderer all the days of his life: but this did not hinder the promise of God from being so ratified, that he, contented with that alone, might patiently wait for the time of revelation. Even the plural number 54 seems to express something significant, namely, that Jacob would be a wanderer not once only, but in various ways and perpetually. Since, however, the Hebrew plural has not always such emphasis, I do not insist on this interpretation. It is more worthy of notice, that the faith of Jacob was proved by a severe and rigid trial, seeing, that for this very reason, the land is promised to him in word only, while in fact, he is cast far away from it. For he seems to be the object of ridicule, when he is commanded to possess the dominion of the land, and yet to leave it and to bid it farewell, and to depart into distant exile.

Calvin: Gen 28:6 - When Esau saw 6.When Esau saw. A brief narration concerning Esau is here inserted, which it is useful to know; because we learn from it that the wicked, though the...

6.When Esau saw. A brief narration concerning Esau is here inserted, which it is useful to know; because we learn from it that the wicked, though they exalt themselves against God, and though, in contempt of his grace, they please themselves in obtaining their desires, are yet not able to despise that grace altogether. So now, Esau is penetrated with a desire of the blessing; not that he aspires to it sincerely and from his heart; but perceiving it to be something valuable, he is impelled to seek after it, though with reluctance. A further fault is, that he does not seek it as he ought: for he devises a new and strange method of reconciling God and his father to himself; and therefore all his diligence is without profit. At the same time he does not seem to be careful about pleasing God, so that he may but propitiate his father. Before all things, it was his duty to cast aside his profane disposition, his perverse manners, and his corrupt affections of the flesh, and then to bear with meekness the chastisement inflicted upon him: for genuine repentance would have dictated to him this sentiment, Seeing I have hitherto rendered myself unworthy of the birthright, my brother is deservedly preferred before me. Nothing, therefore, remains for me but to humble myself, and since I am deprived of the honor of being the head, let it suffice me to be at least one of the members of the Church. And, certainly, it would have been more desirable for him to remain in some obscure corner of the Church, than, as one cut off and torn away from the elect people, to shine with a proud preeminence on earth. He aims, however, at nothing of this kind, but attempts, by I know not what prevarications, to appease his father in whatever way he may be able. Moses, in this example, depicts all hypocrites to the life. For as often as the judgment of God urges them, though they are wounded with the pain of their punishment, they yet do not seek a true remedy; for having aimed at offering one kind of satisfaction only, they entirely neglect a simple and real conversion: and even in the satisfaction offered, they only make a pretense. Whereas Esau ought thoroughly to have repented, he only tried to correct the single fault of his marriage; and this too in a most absurd manner. Yet another defect follows: for while he retains the wives who were so hateful to his parents, he supposes he has discharged his duty by marrying a third. But by this method, neither was the trouble of his parents alleviated, nor his house cleansed from guilt. And now truly, whence does he marry his third wife? From the race of Ishmael, whom we know to have been himself degenerate, and whose posterity had departed from the pure worship of God. A remarkable proof of this is discernible at the present day, in the pretended and perfidious intermeddlers, who imagine they can admirably adjust religious differences by simply adorning their too gross corruptions with attractive colors. 55 The actual state of things compels them to confess that the vile errors and abuses of Popery have so far prevailed as to render a Reformation absolutely necessary: but they are unwilling that the filth of this Camarine marsh be stirred; 56 they only desire to conceal its impurities, and even that they do by compulsion. For they had previously called their abominations the sacred worship of God; but since these are now dragged to light by the word of God, they therefore descend to novel artifices. They flatter themselves, however; in vain, seeing they are here condemned by Moses, in the person of Esau. Away, then, with their impure pretended reformation, which has nothing simple nor sincere. Moreover, since it is a disease inherent in the human race, willingly to attempt to deceive God by some fictitious pretext, let us know that we do nothing effectually, until we tear up our sins by the roots, and thoroughly devote ourselves to God.

Calvin: Gen 28:10 - And Jacob went out 10.And Jacob went out. In the course of this history we must especially observe, how the Lord preserved his own Church in the person of one man. For ...

10.And Jacob went out. In the course of this history we must especially observe, how the Lord preserved his own Church in the person of one man. For Isaac, on account of his age, lay like a dry trunk; and although the living root of piety was concealed within his breast, yet no hope of further offspring remained in his exhausted and barren old age. Esau, like a green and flourishing branch, had much of show and splendor, but his vigor was only momentary. Jacob, as a severed twig, was removed into a far distant land; not that, being ingrafted or planted there, he should acquire strength and greatness, but that, being moistened with the dew of heaven, he might put forth his shoots as into the air itself. For the Lord wonderfully nourishes him, and supplies him with strength, until he shall bring him back again to his father’s house. Meanwhile, let the reader diligently observe, that while he who was blessed by God is cast into exile; occasion of glorying was given to the reprobate Esau, who was left in the possession of everything, so that he might securely reign without a rival. Let us not, then, be disturbed, if at any time the wicked sound their triumphs, as having gained their wishes, while we are oppressed. Moses mentions the name of Beersheba, because, as it formed one of the boundaries of the land of Canaan, and lay towards the great desert and the south, it was the more remote from the eastern region towards which Jacob was going. He afterwards adds Charran, (Gen 29:1,) where Abraham, when he left his own country, dwelt for some time. Now, it appears that not only the pious old man Terah, when he followed his son, or accompanied him on his journey, came to Charran where he died; but that his other son Nahor, with his family, also came to the same place. For we read in the eleventh chapter (Gen 11:1,) that Terah took his son Abraham, and Lot his grandson, and Sarai his daughter-in-law. Whence we infer that Nahor, at that time, remained in Chaldea, his native country. But now, since Moses says, that Laban dwelt at Charran, we may hence conjecture, that Nahor, in order that he might not appear guilty of the inhumanity of deserting his father, afterwards gathered together his goods and came to him.

Moses here, in a few words, declares what a severe and arduous journey the holy man (Jacob) had, on account of its great length: to which also another circumstance is added; namely, that he lay on the ground, under the open sky, without a companion, and without a habitation. But as Moses only briefly alludes to these facts, so will I also avoid prolixity, as the thing speaks for itself. Wherefore, if, at any time, we think ourselves to be roughly treated, let us remember the example of the holy man, as a reproof to our fastidiousness.

Calvin: Gen 28:12 - And he dreamed // And behold a ladder 12.And he dreamed. Moses here teaches how opportunely, and (as we may say) in the critical moment, the Lord succoured his servant. For who would not ...

12.And he dreamed. Moses here teaches how opportunely, and (as we may say) in the critical moment, the Lord succoured his servant. For who would not have said that holy Jacob was neglected by God, since he was exposed to the incursion of wild beasts, and obnoxious to every kind of injury from earth and heaven, and found nowhere any help or solace? But when he was thus reduced to the last necessity, the Lord suddenly stretches out his hand to him, and wonderfully alleviates his trouble by a remarkable oracle. As, therefore, Jacob’s invincible perseverance had before shone forth, so now the Lord gives a memorable example of his paternal care towards the faithful. Three things are here to be noticed in their order; first, that the Lord appeared unto Jacob in a dream; secondly, the nature of the vision as described by Moses; thirdly, the words of the oracle. When mention is made of a dream, no doubt that mode of revelation is signified, which the Lord formerly was wont to adopt towards his servants. (Num 12:6.) Jacob, therefore, knew that this dream was divinely sent to him, as one differing from common dreams; and this is intimated in the words of Moses, when he says that God appeared to him in a dream. For Jacob could not see God, nor perceive him present, unless his majesty had been distinguishable by certain marks.

And behold a ladder. Here the form of the vision is related, which is very pertinent to the subject of it; namely, that God manifested himself as seated upon a ladder, the extreme parts of which touched heaven and earth, and which was the vehicle of angels, who descended from heaven upon earth. The interpretation of some of the Hebrews, that the ladder is a figure of the Divine Providence, cannot be admitted: for the Lord has given another sign more suitable. 57 But to us, who hold to this principle, that the covenant of God was founded in Christ, and that Christ himself was the eternal image of the Father, in which he manifested himself to the holy patriarchs, there is nothing in this vision intricate or ambiguous. For since men are alienated from God by sin, though he fills and sustains all things by his power; yet that communication by which he would draw us to himself is not perceived by us; but, on the other hand, so greatly are we at variance with him, that, regarding him as adverse to us, we, in our turn, flee from his presence. Moreover the angels, to whom is committed the guardianship of the human race, while strenuously applying themselves to their office, yet do not communicate with us in such a way that we become conscious of their presence. It is Christ alone, therefore, who connects heaven and earth: he is the only Mediator who reaches from heaven down to earth: he is the medium through which the fullness of all celestial blessings flows down to us, and through which we, in turn, ascend to God. He it is who, being the head over angels, causes them to minister to his earthly members. Therefore, (as we read in Joh 1:51,) he properly claims for himself this honor, that after he shall have been manifested in the world, angels shall ascend and descend. If, then, we say that the ladder is a figure of Christ, the exposition will not be forced. For the similitude of a ladder well suits the Mediator, through whom ministering angels, righteousness and life, with all the graces of the Holy Spirit, descend to us step by step. We also, who were not only fixed to the earth, but plunged into the depths of the curse, and into hell itself, ascend even unto God. Also, the God of hosts is seated on the ladder; because the fullness of the Deity dwells in Christ; and hence also it is, that it reaches unto heaven. For although all power is committed even to his human nature by the Father, he still would not truly sustain our faith, unless he were God manifested in the flesh. And the fact that the body of Christ is finite, does not prevent him from filling heaven and earth, because his grace and power are everywhere diffused. Whence also, Paul being witness, he ascended into heaven that he might fill all things. They who translate the particle על ( al) by the word “near,” entirely destroy the sense of the passage. For Moses wishes to state that the fullness of the Godhead dwelt in the person of the Mediator. Christ not only approached unto us, but clothed himself in our nature, that he might make us one with himself. That the ladder was a symbol of Christ, is also confirmed by this consideration, that nothing was more suitable than that God should ratify his covenant of eternal salvation in his Son to his servant Jacob. And hence we feel unspeakable joy, when we hear that Christ, who so far excels all creatures, is nevertheless joined with us. The majesty, indeed, of God, which here presents itself conspicuously to view, ought to inspire terror; so that every knee should bow to Christ, that all creatures should look up to him and adore him, and that all flesh should keep silence in his presence. But his friendly and lovely image is at the same time depicted; that we may know by his descent, that heaven is opened to us, and the angels of God are rendered familiar to us. For hence we have fraternal society with them, since the common Head both of them and us has his station on earth.

Calvin: Gen 28:13 - I am the Lord God of Abraham // The land whereon thou liest 13.I am the Lord God of Abraham. This is the third point which, I said, was to be noticed: for mute visions are cold; therefore the word of the Lord ...

13.I am the Lord God of Abraham. This is the third point which, I said, was to be noticed: for mute visions are cold; therefore the word of the Lord is as the soul which quickens them. The figure, therefore, of the ladder was the inferior appendage of this promise; just as God illustrates and adorns his word by external symbols, that both greater clearness and authority may be added to it. Whence also we prove that sacraments in the Papacy are frivolous, because no voice is heard in them which may edify the soul. We may therefore observe, that whenever God manifested himself to the fathers, he also spoke, lest a mute vision should have held them in suspense. Under the name יהוה Jehovah God teaches that he is the only Creator of the world, that Jacob might not seek after other gods. But since his majesty is in itself incomprehensible, he accommodates himself to the capacity of his servant, by immediately adding, that he is the God of Abraham and Isaac. For though it is necessary to maintain that the God whom we worship is the only God; yet because when our senses would aspire to the comprehension of his greatness, they fail at the first attempt; we must diligently cultivate that sobriety which teaches us not to desire to know more concerning him than he reveals unto us; and then he, accommodating himself to our weakness, according to his infinite goodness, sill omit nothing which tends to promote our salvation. And whereas he made a special covenant with Abraham and Isaac, proclaiming himself their God, he recalls his servant Jacob to the true source of faith, and retains him also in his perpetual covenant. This is the sacred bond of religion, by which all the sons of God are united among themselves, when from the first to the last they hear the same promise of salvation, and agree together in one common hope. And this is the effect of that benediction which Jacob had lately received from his father; because God with his own mouth pronounces him to be the heir of the covenant, lest the mere testimony of man should be thought illusive.

The land whereon thou liest. We read that the land was given to his posterity; yet he himself was not only a stranger in it to the last, but was not permitted even to die there. Whence we infer, that under the pledge or earnest of the land, something better and more excellent was given, seeing that Abraham was a spiritual possessor of the land, and contented with the mere beholding of it, fixed his chief regard on heaven. We, may observe, however, that the seed of Jacob is here placed in opposition to the other sons of Abraham, who, according to the flesh, traced their origin to him, but were cut off from the holy people: yet, from the time when the sons of Jacob entered the land of Canaan, they had the perpetual inheritance unto the coming of Christ, by whose advent the world was renewed.

Calvin: Gen 28:14 - And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth // And in thee, and in thy seed, shall all the families of the earth be blessed 14.And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth. The sum of the whole is this, Whatever the Lord had promised to Abraham, Jacob transmitted to his ...

14.And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth. The sum of the whole is this, Whatever the Lord had promised to Abraham, Jacob transmitted to his sons. Meanwhile it behoved the holy man, in reliance on this divine testimony, to hope against hope; for though the promise was vast and magnificent, yet, wherever Jacob turned himself, no ray of good hope shone upon him. He saw himself a solitary man; no condition better than that of exile presented itself; his return was uncertain and full of danger; but it was profitable for him to be thus left destitute of all means of help, that he might learn to depend on the word of God alone. Thus, at the present time, if God freely promises to give us all things, and yet seems to approach us empty-handed, it is still proper that we should pay such honor and reverence to his word, that we may be enriched and filled with faith. At length, indeed, after the death of Jacob, the event declared how efficacious had been this promise: by which example we are taught that the Lord by no means disappoints his people, even when he defers the granting of those good things which he has promised, till after their death.

And in thee, and in thy seed, shall all the families of the earth be blessed 58 This clause has the greater weight, because in Jacob and in his seed the blessing is to be restored from which the whole human race had been cut off in their first parent. But what this expression means, I have explained above; namely, that Jacob will not only be an exemplar, or formula of blessing, but its fountain, cause, or foundation; for though a certain exquisite degree of happiness is often signified by an expression of this kind; yet, in many passages of Scripture, it means the same as to desire from any one his blessing, and to acknowledge it as his gift. Thus men are said to bless themselves in God, when they acknowledge him as the author of all good. So here God promises that in Jacob and his seed all nations shall bless themselves, because no happiness will ever be found except what proceeds from this source. That, however, which is peculiar to Christ, is without impropriety transferred to Jacob, in whose loins Christ then was. Therefore, inasmuch as Jacob, at that time, represented the person of Christ, it is said that all nations are to be blessed in him; but, seeing that the manifestation of a benefit so great depended on another, the expression in thy seed is immediately added in the way of explanation. That the word seed is a collective noun, forms no objection to this interpretation, (as I have elsewhere said,) for since all unbelievers deprive themselves of honor and of grace, and are thus accounted strangers; it is necessary to refer to the Head, in order that the unity of the seed may appear. Whoever will reverently ponder this, will easily see that, in this interpretation, which is that of Paul, there is nothing tortuous or constrained.

Calvin: Gen 28:15 - I am with thee, and will keep thee 15.I am with thee, and will keep thee. God now promptly anticipates the temptation which might steal over the mind of holy Jacob; for though he is, f...

15.I am with thee, and will keep thee. God now promptly anticipates the temptation which might steal over the mind of holy Jacob; for though he is, for a time, thrust out into a foreign land, God declares that he will be his keeper until he shall have brought him back again. He then extends his promise still further; saying, that he will never desert him till all things are fulfilled. There was a twofold use of this promise: first, it retained his mind in the faith of the divine covenant; and, secondly, it taught him that it could not be well with him unless he were a partaker of the promised inheritance.

Calvin: Gen 28:16 - And Jacob awaked 16.And Jacob awaked. Moses again affirms that this was no common dream; for when any one awakes he immediately perceives that he had been under a del...

16.And Jacob awaked. Moses again affirms that this was no common dream; for when any one awakes he immediately perceives that he had been under a delusions in dreaming. But God impressed a sign on the mind of his servant, by which, when he awoke, he might recognize the heavenly oracle which he had heard in his sleep. Moreover, Jacob, in express terms, accuses himself, and extols the goodness of God, who deigned to present himself to one who sought him not; for Jacob thought that he was there alone: but now, after the Lord appeared, he wonders, and exclaims that he had obtained more than he could have dared to hope for. It is not, however, to be doubted that Jacob had called upon God, and had trusted that he would be the guide of his journey; but, because his faith had not availed to persuade him that God was thus near unto him, he justly extols this act of grace. So, whenever God anticipates our wishes, and grants us more than our minds have conceived; let us learn, after the example of this patriarch, to wonder that God should have been present with us. Now, if each of us would reflect how feeble his faith is, this mode of speaking would appear always proper for us all; for who can comprehend, in his scanty measure, the immense multitude of gifts which God is perpetually heaping upon us?

Calvin: Gen 28:17 - And he was afraid, and said 17.And he was afraid, and said. It seems surprising that Jacob should fear, when God spoke so graciously to him; or that he should call that place ...

17.And he was afraid, and said. It seems surprising that Jacob should fear, when God spoke so graciously to him; or that he should call that place “dreadful,” where he had been filled with incredible joy. I answer, although God exhilarates his servants, he at the same time inspires them with fear, in order that they may learn, with true humility and self-denial, to embrace his mercy. We are not therefore to understand that Jacob was struck with terror, as reprobates are, as soon as God shows himself; but he was inspired with a fear which produces pious submission. He also properly calls that place the gate of heaven, on account of the manifestation of God: for, because God is placed in heaven as on his royal throne, Jacob truly declares that, in seeing God, he had penetrated into heaven. In this sense the preaching of the gospel is called the kingdom of heaven, and the sacraments may be called the gate of heaven, because they admit us into the presence of God. The Papists, however, foolishly misapply this passage to their temples, as if God dwelt in filthy places. 59 But if we concede, that the places which they designate by this title, are not polluted with impious superstitions, yet this honor belongs to no peculiar place, since Christ has filled the whole world with the presence of his Deity. Those helps to faith only, (as I have before taught,) by which God raises us to himself, can be called the gates of heaven.

Calvin: Gen 28:18 - And Jacob rose up early // And set it up for a pillar 18.And Jacob rose up early. Moses relates that the holy father was not satisfied with merely giving thanks at the time, but would also transmit a mem...

18.And Jacob rose up early. Moses relates that the holy father was not satisfied with merely giving thanks at the time, but would also transmit a memorial of his gratitude to posterity. Therefore he raised a monument, and gave a name to the place, which implied that he thought such a signal benefit of God worthy to be celebrated in all ages. For this reason, the Scripture not only commands the faithful to sing the praises of God among their brethren; but also enjoins them to train their children to religious duties, and to propagate the worship of God among their descendants.

And set it up for a pillar. Moses does not mean that the stone was made an idol, but that it should be a special memorial. God indeed uses this word מצבה ( matsbah,) when he forbids statues to be erected to himself, (Lev 26:1,) because almost all statues were objects of veneration, as if they were likenesses of God. But the design of Jacob was different; namely, that he might leave a testimony of the vision which had appeared unto him, not that he might represent God by that symbol or figure. Therefore the stone was not there placed by him, for the purpose of depressing the minds of men into any gross superstition, but rather of raising them upward. He used oil as a sign of consecration, and not without reason; for as, in the world, everything is profane which is destitute of the Spirit of God, so there is no pure religion except that which the heavenly unction sanctifies. And to this point the solemn right of consecration, which God commanded in his law, tends, in order that the faithful may learn to bring in nothing of their own, lest they should pollute the temple and worship of God. And though, in the times of Jacob, no teaching had yet been committed to writing; it is, nevertheless, certain that he had been imbued with that principle of piety which God from the beginning had infused into the hearts of the devout: wherefore, it is not to be ascribed to superstition that he poured oil upon the stone; but he rather testified, as I have said, that no worship can be acceptable to God, or pure, without the sanctification of the Spirit. Other commentators argue, with more subtlety, that the stone was a symbol of Christ, on whom all the graces of the Spirit were poured out, that all might draw out of his fullness; but I do not know that any such thing entered the mind of Moses or of Jacob. I am satisfied with what I have before stated, that a stone was erected to be a witness or a memorial (so to speak) of a vision, the benefit of which reaches to all ages. It may be asked, Whence did the holy man obtain oil in the desert? They who answer that it had been brought from a neighboring city are, in my opinion, greatly deceived; for this place was then void of inhabitants, as I shall soon show. I therefore rather conjecture, that on account of the necessity of the times, seeing that suitable accommodations could not always be had, he had taken some portion of food for his journey along with him; and as we know that great use was made of oil in those parts, it is no wonder if he carried a flagon of oil with his bread.

Calvin: Gen 28:19 - And he called the name of that place Beth-el 19.And he called the name of that place Beth-el. It may appear absurd that Moses should speak of that place as a city, respecting which he had a litt...

19.And he called the name of that place Beth-el. It may appear absurd that Moses should speak of that place as a city, respecting which he had a little while before said that Jacob had slept there in the open air; for why did not he seek an abode, or hide himself in some corner of a house? But the difficulty is easily solved, because the city was not yet built; neither did the place immediately take the name which Jacob had assigned, but lay long concealed. Even when a town was afterwards built on the spot, no mention is made of Beth-el, as if Jacob had never passed that way; for the inhabitants did not know what had been done there, and therefore they called the city Luz, 60 according to their own imagination; which name it retained until the Israelites, having taken possession of the land, recalled into common use, as by an act of restoration, the former name which had been abolished. And it is to be observed, that when posterity, by a foolish emulation, worshipped God in Beth-el, seeing that it was done without a divine command, the prophets severely inveighed against that worship, calling the name of the place Bethaven, that is, the house of iniquity: whence we infer how unsafe it is to rely upon the examples of the fathers without the word of God. The greatest care, therefore, must be taken, in treating of the worship of God, that what has been once done by men, should not be drawn into a precedent; but that what God himself has prescribed in his word should remain an inflexible rule.

Calvin: Gen 28:20 - And Jacob vowed a vow 20.And Jacob vowed a vow. The design of this vow was, that Jacob would manifest his gratitude, if God should prove favorable unto him. Thus they offe...

20.And Jacob vowed a vow. The design of this vow was, that Jacob would manifest his gratitude, if God should prove favorable unto him. Thus they offered peace-offerings under the law, to testify their gratitude; and since thanksgiving is a sacrifice of a sweet odour, the Lord declares vows of this nature to be acceptable to him; and therefore we must also have respect to this point, when we are asked what and how it is lawful to vow to God; for some are too fastidious, who would utterly condemn all vows rather than open the door to superstitions. But if the rashness of those persons is perverse, who indiscriminately pour forth their vows, we must also beware lest we become like those on the opposite side, who disallow all vows without exception. Now, in order that a vow may be lawful and pleasing to God, it is first necessary that it should tend to a right end; and next, that men should devote nothing by a vow but what is in itself approved by God, and what he has placed within their own power. When the separate parts of this vow are examined, we shall see holy Jacob so regulating his conduct as to omit none of these things which I have mentioned. In the first place, he has nothing else in his mind than to testify his gratitude. Secondly, he confines whatever he is about to do, to the lawful worship of God. Inthe third place, he does not proudly promise what he had not the power to perform, but devotes the tithe of his goods as a sacred oblation. Wherefore, the folly of the Papists is easily refuted; who, in order to justify their own confused farrago of vows, catch at one or another vow, soberly conceived, as a precedent, when in the meantime their own license exceeds all bounds. Whatever comes uppermost they are not ashamed to obtrude upon God. One man makes his worship to consist in abstinence from flesh, another in pilgrimages, a third in sanctifyingcertain days by the use of sackcloth, or by other things of the same kind; and not to God only do they make their vows, but also admit any dead person they please into a participation of this honor. They arrogate to themselves the choice of perpetual celibacy. What do they find in the example of Jacob which has any similitude or affinity to such rashness, that they should hence catch at such a covering for themselves? But, for the purpose of bringing all these things clearly to light, we must first enter upon an explanation of the words. It may seem absurd that Jacob here makes a covenant with God, to be his worshipper, if he will give him what he desires; as if truly he did not intend to worship God for nothing. I answer, that, by interposing this condition, Jacob did not by any means act from distrust, as if he doubted of God’s continual protection; but that in this manner made provision against his own infirmity, in preparing himself to celebrate the divine goodness by a vow previously made. 61 The superstitious deal with God just as they do with mortal man; they try to soothe him with their allurements. The design of Jacob was far different; namely, that he might the more effectually stimulate himself to the duties of religion. He had often heard from the mouth of God, I will be always with thee; and he annexes his vow as an appendage to that promise. He seems indeed, at first sight, like a mercenary, acting in a servile manner; but since he depends entirely upon the promises given unto him, and forms both his language and his affections in accordance with them, he aims at nothing but the confirmation of his faith, and gathers together those aids which he knows to be suitable to his infirmity. When, therefore, he speaks of food and clothing, we must not, on that account, accuse him of solicitude respecting this earthly life alone; whereas he rather contends, like a valiant champion, against violent temptations. He found himself in want of all things; hunger and nakedness were continually threatening him with death, not to mention his other innumerable dangers: therefore he arms himself with confidence, that he might proceed through all difficulties and obstacles, being fully assured that every kind of assistance was laid up for him in the grace of God: for he confesses himself to be in extreme destitution, when he says, If the Lord will supply me with food and raiment. It may nevertheless be asked, since his grandfather Abraham had sent his servant with a splendid retinue, with camels and precious ornaments; why does Isaac now send away his son without a single companion, and almost without provisions? It is possible that he was thus dismissed, that the mind of cruel Esau might be moved to tenderness by a spectacle so miserable. Yet, in my judgment, another reason was of greater weight; for Abraham, fearing lest his son Isaac should remain with his relatives, took an oath from his servant that he would not suffer his son to go into Mesopotamia. But now, since necessity compels holy Isaac to determine differently for his son Jacob; he, at least, takes care not to do anything which might retard his return. He therefore supplies him with no wealth, and with no delicacies which might ensnare his mind, but purposely sends him away poor and empty, that he might be the more ready to return. Thus we see that Jacob preferred his father’s house to all kingdoms, and had no desire of settled repose elsewhere.

Calvin: Gen 28:21 - Then shall the Lord be my God 21.Then shall the Lord be my God. In these words Jacob binds himself never to apostatize from the pure worship of the One God; for there is no doubt ...

21.Then shall the Lord be my God. In these words Jacob binds himself never to apostatize from the pure worship of the One God; for there is no doubt that he here comprises the sum of piety. But he may seem to promise what far exceeds his strength; for newness of life, spiritual righteousness, integrity of heart, and a holy regulation of the whole life, were not in his own power. I answer, when holy men vow those things which God requires of them, and which are due from them as acts of piety; they, at the same time, embrace what God promises concerning the remission of sins by the help of his Holy Spirit. Hence it follows that they ascribe nothing to their own strength; and also, that whatever falls short of entire perfection does not vitiate their worship, because God, mercifully and with paternal indulgence, pardons them.

Calvin: Gen 28:22 - And this stone which I have set for a pillar 22.And this stone which I have set for a pillar. This ceremony was an appendage to divine worship; for external rites do not make men true worshipper...

22.And this stone which I have set for a pillar. This ceremony was an appendage to divine worship; for external rites do not make men true worshippers of God, but are only aids to piety. But because the holy fathers were then at liberty to erect altars wherever they pleased, Jacob poured a libation upon the stone, because he had then no other sacrifice to offer; not that he worshipped God according to his own will, (for the direction of the Spirit was instead of the written law,) but he erected in that place a stone — as he was permitted to do by the kindness and permission of God, which should be a testimony of the vision. Moreover, this form of speech, that the stone shall be Beth-el, is metonymical; as we are sanctioned, by common usage, to transfer to external signs what properly belongs to the things represented. I have lately shown how ignorantly posterity has abused this holy exercise of piety. What next follows respecting the offering of tithes, is not a simple ceremony, but has a duty of charity annexed; for Jacob enumerates, in a threefold order, first, the spiritual worship of God; then the external rite, by which he both assists his own piety, and makes profession of it before men; in the third place, an oblation, by which he exercises himself in giving friendly aid to his brethren; for there is no doubt that tithes were applied to that use.

Defender: Gen 28:1 - blessed him At this point, Isaac repeated and expanded his blessing to Jacob, indicating his full realization that God's will had been accomplished.

At this point, Isaac repeated and expanded his blessing to Jacob, indicating his full realization that God's will had been accomplished.

Defender: Gen 28:1 - daughters of Canaan Jacob was probably seventy-five years old, and Isaac had been inexcusably negligent in not attempting long before this (as Abraham had done for him) t...

Jacob was probably seventy-five years old, and Isaac had been inexcusably negligent in not attempting long before this (as Abraham had done for him) to find suitable wives among his home countrymen for his sons. Esau's bigamous marriage to two Hittite women had been one tragic consequence of his negligence."

Defender: Gen 28:9 - unto Ishmael Esau, finally realizing his troubles were of his own doing and realizing that his father no longer supported his position, was belatedly trying to hel...

Esau, finally realizing his troubles were of his own doing and realizing that his father no longer supported his position, was belatedly trying to help matters by marrying an Ishmaelite woman. Even Ishmael, however, was outside the scope of God's promises regarding the Seed.

Defender: Gen 28:9 - Mahalath There is an apparent contradiction between the names of Esau's wives in Gen 26:34 and Gen 28:9. The probable resolution of this problem is discussed i...

There is an apparent contradiction between the names of Esau's wives in Gen 26:34 and Gen 28:9. The probable resolution of this problem is discussed in the notes on Genesis 36."

Defender: Gen 28:12 - reached to heaven This was a theophany, the first of about eight Jacob would experience. It appeared in the form of a remarkable dream. Jacob was assured of God's inten...

This was a theophany, the first of about eight Jacob would experience. It appeared in the form of a remarkable dream. Jacob was assured of God's intense interest, and of his own key role in God's plan. The great ladder with ascending and descending angels, bridging the gulf between earth and heaven, symbolized Christ Himself (Joh 1:51; Joh 3:13; Eph 4:8-10), as well as assuring Jacob of his own access to God through prayer and obedience."

Defender: Gen 28:20 - If God The word "if" here should be read with the connotation of "since." Jacob was not bargaining with God, as some think, but gratefully accepting God's pr...

The word "if" here should be read with the connotation of "since." Jacob was not bargaining with God, as some think, but gratefully accepting God's promised blessing outlined by Him (Gen 28:13-15). Jacob was reciprocating by vowing that the Lord would always be his God and that he would serve Him."

Defender: Gen 28:22 - the tenth This is the second reference to tithing. Abraham had given tithes to Melchizedek as God's priest (Gen 14:20), and Jacob evidently intended to do the s...

This is the second reference to tithing. Abraham had given tithes to Melchizedek as God's priest (Gen 14:20), and Jacob evidently intended to do the same although it is not clear at this stage in history just how this could be done since the Aaronic priesthood had not yet been established. Jacob had built an altar here at Bethel (meaning "the house of God") as his first effort in this direction."

TSK: Gen 28:1 - blessed // Thou shalt blessed : Gen 28:3, Gen 28:4, Gen 27:4, Gen 27:27-33, Gen 48:15, Gen 49:28; Deu 33:1; Jos 22:7 Thou shalt : Gen 6:2, Gen 24:3, Gen 24:37, Gen 26:34, G...

TSK: Gen 28:2 - Arise // Padanaram // Laban Arise : Hos 12:12 Padanaram : Gen 28:5, Gen 22:20-23, Gen 24:10, Gen 24:15-24, Gen 25:20, Gen 29:1, Gen 31:18, Gen 32:10, Gen 35:9, Gen 46:15 Laban : ...

TSK: Gen 28:3 - God // and make // a multitude God : Gen 17:1-6, Gen 22:17, Gen 22:18, Gen 35:11, Gen 43:14, Gen 48:3; Exo 6:3; Psa 127:1; 2Co 6:18; Rev 21:22 and make : Gen 1:28, Gen 9:1, Gen 13:1...

TSK: Gen 28:4 - the blessing // wherein thou art a stranger // which the blessing : Gen 12:1-3, Gen 12:7, Gen 15:5-7, Gen 17:6-8, Gen 22:17, Gen 22:18; Psa 72:17; Rom 4:7, Rom 4:8; Gal 3:8, Gal 3:14; Eph 1:3 wherein tho...

TSK: Gen 28:5 - sent away Jacob // Padanaram sent away Jacob : Whoever observes Jacob’ s life, after he had surreptitiously obtained his father’ s blessing, will perceive that he enjoye...

sent away Jacob : Whoever observes Jacob’ s life, after he had surreptitiously obtained his father’ s blessing, will perceive that he enjoyed very little worldly felicity. His brother purposed to murder him, to avoid which he was forced to flee from his father’ s house; his uncle Laban deceived him, as he had deceived his father, and treated him with great rigour; after a servitude of 21 years, he was obliged to leave him in a clandestine manner, not without danger of being brought back, or murdered by his enraged brother; no sooner were these fears over, than he experienced the baseness of his son Reuben, in defiling his bed; he had next to bewail the treachery and cruelty of Simeon and Levi toward the Shechemites; then he had to feel the loss of his beloved wife; he was next imposed upon by his own sons, and had to lament the supposed untimely end of Joseph; and to complete all, he was forced by famine to go into Egypt, and there died, in a strange land. So just, wonderful, and instructive are all the ways of Providence!

Padanaram : Gen 28:2

TSK: Gen 28:6 - Esau // Thou Esau : Gen 27:33 Thou : Gen 28:1

Esau : Gen 27:33

Thou : Gen 28:1

TSK: Gen 28:7 - -- Gen 27:43; Exo 20:12; Lev 19:3; Pro 1:8, Pro 30:17; Eph 6:1, Eph 6:3; Col 3:20

TSK: Gen 28:8 - the daughters // pleased not the daughters : Gen 28:1, Gen 24:3, Gen 26:34, Gen 26:35 pleased not : Heb. were evil in the eyes, 1Sa 8:6

the daughters : Gen 28:1, Gen 24:3, Gen 26:34, Gen 26:35

pleased not : Heb. were evil in the eyes, 1Sa 8:6

TSK: Gen 28:9 - unto Ishmael // Mahalath unto Ishmael : Gen 25:13-17, Gen 36:3, Gen 36:13, Gen 36:18 Mahalath : called also, Bashemath, Gen 36:3 the sister.

unto Ishmael : Gen 25:13-17, Gen 36:3, Gen 36:13, Gen 36:18

Mahalath : called also, Bashemath, Gen 36:3 the sister.

TSK: Gen 28:10 - -- Gen 11:31, Gen 32:10; Hos 12:12; Act 7:2, Act 25:13

TSK: Gen 28:11 - took // put them took : Gen 28:18, Gen 31:46; Mat 8:20; 2Co 1:5 put them : This should be ""put it;""for we find (Gen 28:18) it was only one stone.

took : Gen 28:18, Gen 31:46; Mat 8:20; 2Co 1:5

put them : This should be ""put it;""for we find (Gen 28:18) it was only one stone.

TSK: Gen 28:12 - he dreamed // ladder he dreamed : Gen 15:1, Gen 15:12, Gen 20:3, Gen 20:6, Gen 20:7, Gen 37:5-11, 40:1-41:57; Num 12:6; Job 4:12-21; Job 33:15, Job 33:16; Dan. 2:1-49, 4:1...

TSK: Gen 28:13 - the Lord stood // I am // the land the Lord stood : Gen 35:1, Gen 35:6, Gen 35:7, Gen 48:3 I am : Gen 15:1, Gen 17:6, Gen 17:7, Gen 26:24, Gen 31:42, Gen 32:9, Gen 46:3; Exo 3:6, Exo 3:...

TSK: Gen 28:14 - thy seed // spread abroad // to the west // and in thee thy seed : Gen 13:16, Gen 32:12, Gen 35:11, Gen 35:12; Num 23:10; Act 3:25; Rev 7:4, Rev 7:9 spread abroad : Heb. break forth to the west : Gen 13:14;...

TSK: Gen 28:15 - I am // keep // bring // for I // until I am : Gen 28:20, Gen 28:21, Gen 26:24, Gen 31:3, Gen 32:9, Gen 39:2, Gen 39:21, Gen 46:4; Exo 3:12; Jdg 6:16; Psa 46:7, Psa 46:11; Isa 7:14, Isa 8:10...

TSK: Gen 28:16 - and I and I : Exo 3:5, Exo 15:11; Jos 5:15; 1Sa 3:4-7; Job 9:11, Job 33:14; Psa 68:35; Isa 8:13

TSK: Gen 28:17 - he was // the house he was : Exo 3:6; Jdg 13:22; Mat 17:6; Luk 2:9, Luk 8:35; Rev 1:17 the house : Gen 28:22, Gen 35:1-13; 2Ch 5:14; Ecc 5:1; 1Ti 3:15; Heb 10:21; 1Pe 4:1...

TSK: Gen 28:18 - rose up // and took // set it // poured rose up : Gen 22:3; Psa 119:60; Ecc 9:10 and took : The practice of setting up stones as a memorial by travellers still exists in Persia, and other pa...

rose up : Gen 22:3; Psa 119:60; Ecc 9:10

and took : The practice of setting up stones as a memorial by travellers still exists in Persia, and other parts of the East.

set it : Gen 31:13, Gen 31:45, Gen 35:14, Gen 35:20; Jos 24:26, Jos 24:27; 1Sa 7:12; 2Sa 18:18; Isa 19:19

poured : Lev 8:10-12; Num 7:1

TSK: Gen 28:19 - the name // Bethel the name : Gen 12:8, Gen 35:1, Gen 48:3; Jdg 1:22-26; 1Ki 12:29; Hos 4:15, Hos 12:4, Hos 12:5 Bethel : i.e. the house of God

the name : Gen 12:8, Gen 35:1, Gen 48:3; Jdg 1:22-26; 1Ki 12:29; Hos 4:15, Hos 12:4, Hos 12:5

Bethel : i.e. the house of God

TSK: Gen 28:20 - vowed // If God // will give vowed : Gen 31:13; Lev. 27:1-34; Num. 6:1-20, Num 21:2, Num 21:3; Jdg 11:30, Jdg 11:31; 1Sa 1:11, 1Sa 1:28; 1Sa 14:24; 2Sa 15:8; Neh. 9:1-10:39; Psa 2...

TSK: Gen 28:21 - I come // then I come : Jdg 11:31; 2Sa 19:24, 2Sa 19:30 then : Exo 15:2; Deu 26:17; 2Sa 15:8; 2Ki 5:17

TSK: Gen 28:22 - God’ s // I will God’ s : Gen 28:17, Gen 12:8, Gen 21:33, Gen 33:20, Gen 35:1, Gen 35:15 I will : Gen 14:20; Lev 27:30-33; Deu 14:22, Deu 14:23

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Gen 28:1 - -- 1760 Blessed him, confirmed his former blessing, being now thoroughly sensible both of God’ s purpose, and of his own duty, wishing him als...

1760 Blessed him, confirmed his former blessing, being now thoroughly sensible both of God’ s purpose, and of his own duty, wishing him also a prosperous and successful journey, as the word is used, Jos 22:7 .

Poole: Gen 28:2 - The house of Bethuel The house of Bethuel See Gen 22:22,23 25:20 .

The house of Bethuel See Gen 22:22,23 25:20 .

Poole: Gen 28:5 - Bethuel the Syrian // Object // Answ Bethuel the Syrian Object. He was no Syrian, but a Mesopotamian. Answ Syria is sometimes largely taken, and so it comprehends Mesopotamia, or Ch...

Bethuel the Syrian

Object. He was no Syrian, but a Mesopotamian.

Answ Syria is sometimes largely taken, and so it comprehends Mesopotamia, or Chaldea, yea, and Assyria, as appears from Isa 36:11 Dan 2:4 .

Poole: Gen 28:9 - Esau went unto Ishmael // Mahalath // Nebajoth 1760 Esau went unto Ishmael either to his person, or rather to his family, called Ishmael by their father’ s name, as David is sometimes pu...

1760

Esau went unto Ishmael either to his person, or rather to his family, called Ishmael by their father’ s name, as David is sometimes put for David’ s posterity; for Ishmael seems to have been dead before this, from Gen 25:17 , though that may possibly be a prolepsis, and then this may be Ishmael himself.

Mahalath called also Bashemath, Gen 36:3 . He thought by this means to ingratiate himself with his father, and so to get another and a better blessing; but he takes no care to reconcile himself to God, nor observes his hand in the business. Besides, he mends one fault by committing another, and taking a third wife when he had one too many before, and her too he unwisely fetcheth out of that stock which was begotten to bondage, and was utterly uncapable of the inheritance.

Nebajoth was Ishmael’ s eldest son, Gen 25:13 , who alone is here mentioned, either in the name of all the rest, whose sister she is by consequence supposed to be; or because peradventure she and Nebajoth were Ishmael’ s children by the same mother, and the rest by another.

Poole: Gen 28:10 - -- It is not strange that Jacob went alone, as it appears that he did from Gen 32:10 , when his grandfather’ s servant was attended with a so grea...

It is not strange that Jacob went alone, as it appears that he did from Gen 32:10 , when his grandfather’ s servant was attended with a so great retinue, Gen 24:1-67 , because attendance was then necessary to procure him reputation, and to obtain the consent of the virgin and her parents to long a journey; but here, as it was unnecessary, so it would have been troublesome and prejudicial, exposing him both to the envy and snares of his brother Esau, which by this private departure he did avoid. Besides, God in his wise providence did so order this, and some other matters of the like nature, for the greater illustration of his care and kindness towards his children. Add to this the great simplicity, humility, and innocency of those times, if compared with ours, which made many things then usual which now would be ridiculous.

Poole: Gen 28:12 - -- This ladder may be considered, either, 1. Literally, and so it represented to Jacob the providence of God, who, though he dwell in heaven, extends ...

This ladder may be considered, either,

1. Literally, and so it represented to Jacob the providence of God, who, though he dwell in heaven, extends his care and government to the earth, and particularly makes use of the angels as ministering spirits for the good of his people. And these angels do not appear idle, or standing still, but always in motion, either ascending to God to receive his commands, or descending to earth for the execution of them. Which was a most seasonable vision for Jacob in his sad and sorrowful condition, that he might see that though he was forsaken and persecuted by men, and forced to flee away secretly for fear of his life, yet he neither was, nor should be, neglected or forsaken by God in this whole journey. Or,

2. Mystically, and so it represents Christ, by whom heaven and earth are united, who is called the way to heaven, which this ladder was, who, as the Head of angels, is perpetually sending them forth either to God or from God to minister to the heirs of salvation, Heb 1:14 ; and this explication or accommodation of this vision, is warranted by our Saviour himself, Joh 1:51 .

Poole: Gen 28:14 - -- i.e. The nations of the earth, as that word is used.

i.e. The nations of the earth, as that word is used.

Poole: Gen 28:15 - -- Nor ever after; for so the word until is frequently used, as 2Sa 6:23 Mat 1:25 ; not so as to exclude the time following, but so as to include all...

Nor ever after; for so the word until is frequently used, as 2Sa 6:23 Mat 1:25 ; not so as to exclude the time following, but so as to include all the foregoing time, wherein the thing spoken of might be most suspected or feared; as here the worst and most dangerous state in which Jacob was, or was like to be, was this time of his banishment from his country and kindred, against which he is therefore particularly armed and comforted in these words.

Poole: Gen 28:16 - Surely the Lord is in this place Surely the Lord is in this place by his special and gracious presence, and the manifestation of his mind and will to me; and I little expected to mee...

Surely the Lord is in this place by his special and gracious presence, and the manifestation of his mind and will to me; and I little expected to meet with such a revelation out of my father’ s house, much less in this desert and doleful state and place, when I thought myself rejected by God, as well as abandoned by men.

Poole: Gen 28:17 - How dreadful is this place // The house of God How dreadful is this place or venerable, both for the majesty of the Person present, and for the glorious manner of his discovery of himself! The...

How dreadful is this place or venerable, both for the majesty of the Person present, and for the glorious manner of his discovery of himself!

The house of God the habitation of God and of his holy angels.

Poole: Gen 28:18 - oil // and poured it upon the top of the stone As a monument of God’ s great kindness and gracious manifestation of himself to him, which might bring this mercy to his remembrance in his ret...

As a monument of God’ s great kindness and gracious manifestation of himself to him, which might bring this mercy to his remembrance in his return, Gen 31:13 . This was an ancient practice among the patriarchs, Gen 35:14 ; but afterwards, upon the growing abuse of it among the heathens, it was forbidden by God, Lev 26:1 Deu 7:5 12:3 . The

oil he brought with him either for food or medicine, or for the anointing of himself, as need required;

and poured it upon the top of the stone as a token of his consecration thereof to this use to be a memorial of God’ s favour to him. Oil was used in sacrifices, and in the consecration of persons and places, Exo 30:25,26 40:9 .

Poole: Gen 28:19 - Bethel Either of that city which was nearest to the field in which Jacob lay; or of that city which afterwards was built in or near to this place, and was ...

Either of that city which was nearest to the field in which Jacob lay; or of that city which afterwards was built in or near to this place, and was known by the name of

Bethel

Poole: Gen 28:20 - Jacob vowed a vow // If God will be with me // Bread // bread Jacob vowed a vow i.e. bound himself by a solemn promise or obligation. Compare Gen 14:22 Ecc 5:4 . If God will be with me He speaks not thus as if...

Jacob vowed a vow i.e. bound himself by a solemn promise or obligation. Compare Gen 14:22 Ecc 5:4 .

If God will be with me He speaks not thus as if he doubted of the truth of God’ s promises, or would, like a mercenary person, make a bargain with God, but rather supposeth that God will do this for him, as he had in effect promised, Gen 28:15 , and thereupon obligeth himself to a grateful return to God for this mercy:

If God will be with me, & c., as he hath just now assured me he will; or, Seeing God will be with me, & c., for the Hebrew im doth not always imply a doubt, but rather a supposition, and is oft rendered seeing that, as Exo 20:25 Num 36:4 1Sa 15:17 Amo 7:2 . And so the Greek particle answering to the Hebrew im is used, Mat 6:22 Luk 11:34 .

Bread ; food convenient, as it is called, Pro 30:8 , which is oft signified by the name of

bread See Gen 3:19 .

Poole: Gen 28:21 - -- I will publicly own him for my God and the Saviour of men, and will establish his solemn worship, as it follows.

I will publicly own him for my God and the Saviour of men, and will establish his solemn worship, as it follows.

Poole: Gen 28:22 - God’ s house // I will surely give the tenth unto thee God’ s house i.e. a place where I will offer prayers and sacrifices to God; such places being commonly called God’ s houses, and God is oft...

God’ s house i.e. a place where I will offer prayers and sacrifices to God; such places being commonly called God’ s houses, and God is oft said to dwell in them, in regard of his special presence there. See Exo 20:24 . Compare Gen 28:17 , and Gen 35:1,3,7 .

I will surely give the tenth unto thee to be laid out in thy service, and for sacrifices, and for the use and benefit of those who shall attend upon sacred things; as also for the relief of the poor and needy, whom God hath substituted in his room, and to whom part of the tithes were to be given by a following law, Deu 14:28,29 .

Haydock: Gen 28:2 - Take // Thy uncle Take. Septuagint, "flee;" as if Isaac began at last to be apprized of Esau's designs. Wisdom (x. 10) conducted the just when he fled from his brot...

Take. Septuagint, "flee;" as if Isaac began at last to be apprized of Esau's designs. Wisdom (x. 10) conducted the just when he fled from his brother's wrath, &c. ---

Thy uncle. He points out the house, but leaves the woman to his choice.

Haydock: Gen 28:4 - Grandfather Grandfather. Isaac, out of modesty, does not mention that the same promises had been made to himself. He determines the right over Chanaan to belon...

Grandfather. Isaac, out of modesty, does not mention that the same promises had been made to himself. He determines the right over Chanaan to belong solely to Jacob, and to his posterity. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 28:9 - To Ismael's To Ismael's family; for he had been dead fourteen years. Esau asks no advice. It is doubtful whether he meant to appease or irritate his parents, (...

To Ismael's family; for he had been dead fourteen years. Esau asks no advice. It is doubtful whether he meant to appease or irritate his parents, (Menochius) by this marriage with the daughter of Ismael. She lived with her brother, the head of the Nabutheans, and is called Basemath, chap. xxxvi. 3. (Calmet)

Haydock: Gen 28:11 - Head Head for a pillow. Behold the austerity of the heir of all that country! (Haydock) --- He departs from home in haste, with his staff only, that Es...

Head for a pillow. Behold the austerity of the heir of all that country! (Haydock) ---

He departs from home in haste, with his staff only, that Esau might not know. (Worthington)

Haydock: Gen 28:12 - A ladder and angels A ladder and angels, &c. This mysterious vision tended to comfort the patriarch, with the assurance that God would now take him under his more parti...

A ladder and angels, &c. This mysterious vision tended to comfort the patriarch, with the assurance that God would now take him under his more particular protection, when he was destitute of human aid. (Haydock) ---

The angels ascending, foretold that his journey would be prosperous; and descending, shewed that he would return with safety. (Menochius) ---

Or rather, the ladder represented the incarnation of Jesus Christ, born of so many patriarchs from Adam, who was created by God, to the blessed Virgin. He is the way by which we must ascend, by observing the truth, till we obtain life eternal. (Haydock) ---

Mercy and truth are like the two sides; the virtues of Christ are signified by the steps. Angels descend to announces this joyful mystery to men; they ascend to convey the prayers and ardent desires of the ancient saints, to hasten their redemption. (Menochius) ---

Our Saviour seems to allude to this passage, John i. 51; xiv. 6. The Providence of God, watching over all things, appears here very conspicuous.

Haydock: Gen 28:13 - Thy father Thy father, or grandfather. God joins the dead with the living, to shew that all live to him, and that the soul is immortal. (Haydock)

Thy father, or grandfather. God joins the dead with the living, to shew that all live to him, and that the soul is immortal. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 28:16 - Knew it not Knew it not. Jacob was not ignorant that God fills all places. But he thought that he would not manifest himself thus in a land given to idolatry. ...

Knew it not. Jacob was not ignorant that God fills all places. But he thought that he would not manifest himself thus in a land given to idolatry. He begins to suspect that the place had been formerly consecrated to the worship of the true God, (Calmet) as it probably had by Abraham, who dwelt near Bethel, (chap. xii. 8, ) and built an altar on Mount Moria, chap. xxii. 14. Interpreters are not agreed on which of these places Jacob spent the night. St. Augustine, q. 83, supposes it was on the latter, "where God appointed the tabernacle to remain." The Chaldean paraphrases it very well in this sense, ver. 17, "How terrible is this place! It is not an ordinary place, but a place beloved by God, and over against this place is the door of heaven." (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 28:18 - A title A title. That is a pillar or monument. (Challoner) --- Or an altar, consecrated by that rite to the service of the true God. This he did without ...

A title. That is a pillar or monument. (Challoner) ---

Or an altar, consecrated by that rite to the service of the true God. This he did without any superstition; as the Catholic Church still pours oil or chrism upon her altars, in imitation of Jacob. (Raban. Instit. i. 45.) If pagans did the like, this is no reason why we should condemn the practice. They were blamable for designing thus to worship false gods. (Clement of Alexandria, strom. vii; Apul. Florid. i; &c.) If Protestants pull down altars, under the plea of their being superstitious, we cannot but pity their ignorance or malice. (Worthington)

Haydock: Gen 28:19 - Bethel // Luza Bethel. This name signifies the house of God. (Challoner) --- Bethel was the name which Jacob gave to the place; and the town, which was built aft...

Bethel. This name signifies the house of God. (Challoner) ---

Bethel was the name which Jacob gave to the place; and the town, which was built after his return, was called by the same name. Hence those famous animated stones or idols, received their title ( Bethules, Eusebius, præp. i. 10.) being consecrated to Saturn, the Sun, &c. Till the days of Mahomet, the Arabs adored a rough stone, taken from the temple of Mecca, which they pretended was built by Abraham. (Chardin.) ---

Luza, so called from the number of nut or almond trees. Here the golden calf was afterwards set up, on the confines of the tribes of Benjamin and of Ephraim, (Calmet) the southern limits of the kingdom of Jeroboam. (Haydock)

Haydock: Gen 28:20 - A vow A vow; not simply that he would acknowledge one God, but that he would testify his peculiar veneration for him, by erecting an altar, at his return, ...

A vow; not simply that he would acknowledge one God, but that he would testify his peculiar veneration for him, by erecting an altar, at his return, and by giving voluntarily the tithes of all he had. (Worthington) (chap. xxxv. 7.) How he gave these tithes, we do not read. Perhaps he might herby engage his posterity to give them under the law of Moses. (Calmet)

Gill: Gen 28:1 - And Isaac called Jacob // and blessed him // and charged him, and said unto him, thou shall not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan And Isaac called Jacob,.... Or therefore d, because of what Rebekah had said to him, related in the latter part of the preceding chapter, he sent for ...

And Isaac called Jacob,.... Or therefore d, because of what Rebekah had said to him, related in the latter part of the preceding chapter, he sent for Jacob to come to him from his tent or apartment where he was, or from the field where he was keeping the flocks; thus paying a great regard to what his wife Rebekah had suggested to him, and which appeared to him very right and reasonable:

and blessed him; he did not send for him to chide and reprove him for his fraudulent dealings with him to get the blessing from his brother, much less to revoke it, but to confirm it; which was necessary to prevent doubts that might arise in the mind of Jacob about it, and to strengthen him against the temptations of Satan; since he was about to be sent away from his father's house solitary and destitute, to go into another country, where he was to be for awhile in a state of servitude; all which might seem to contradict the blessing and promises he had received, and would be a trial of his faith in them, as well as a chastisement on him for the fraudulent manner in which he obtained them:

and charged him, and said unto him, thou shall not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan; it was time that he was married; for he was now, as the Jewish writers e say, seventy seven, years of age, which exactly agrees with what Polyhistor f, an Heathen writer, relates from Demetrius, that Jacob was seventy seven years of age when he came to Haran, and also his father Isaac was then one hundred and thirty seven years old; and so it is calculated by the best chronologers, and as he must be, since he was born when his father was sixty years of age; see Gill on Gen 27:1; and being now declared the heir of the promised land, it was proper he should marry, but not with any of the Canaanites, who were to be dispossessed of the land of Canaan, and therefore their seed, and Abraham's, to whom it was given, must not be mixed. Isaac takes the same care, and gives the same charge concerning the marriage of his son Jacob, on whom the entail of the land was settled, as his father Abraham did concerning his, Gen 24:3.

Gill: Gen 28:2 - Arise, go to Padanaram // to the house of Bethuel thy mother's father // and take thee a wife from thence of the daughters of Laban thy mother's brother Arise, go to Padanaram,.... Of this place; see Gill on Gen 25:20; either he is bid to go directly, in haste and alone; perhaps by this time Rebekah ha...

Arise, go to Padanaram,.... Of this place; see Gill on Gen 25:20; either he is bid to go directly, in haste and alone; perhaps by this time Rebekah had given Isaac some hint of the ill design of Esau against him, which made Isaac the more urgent upon him to be gone, as well as it was high time he had took to himself a wife:

to the house of Bethuel thy mother's father; who though now dead in all probability, yet the house and family went by his name:

and take thee a wife from thence of the daughters of Laban thy mother's brother: who had daughters unmarried, of which no doubt Isaac and Rebekah had knowledge, a correspondence being kept up between the two families, though at a great distance.

Gill: Gen 28:3 - And God Almighty bless thee // and make thee fruitful, and multiply thee // that thou mayest be a multitude of people And God Almighty bless thee,.... This is not a new blessing, distinct from that in Gen 28:1, but the same; there it is expressed in general, here the ...

And God Almighty bless thee,.... This is not a new blessing, distinct from that in Gen 28:1, but the same; there it is expressed in general, here the particulars of it are given; and by which it appears, that Isaac's blessing Jacob was a prayer, wishing a blessing from God upon him, and was the prayer of faith, delivered out under the spirit of prophecy; and they are blessed indeed that are blessed of God, and they must needs be blessed who are blessed by the Almighty; for what is it he cannot do or give? The Targum of Jonathan adds,"with much riches;''but no doubt all kind of blessings are included, both temporal and spiritual:

and make thee fruitful, and multiply thee; with a numerous offspring:

that thou mayest be a multitude of people; or an "assembly" or "congregation" g of them; which may all unite in one body and make one nation, as the twelve tribes descending from Jacob did.

Gill: Gen 28:4 - And give thee the blessing of Abraham, to thee, and to thy seed with thee // that thou mayest inherit the land wherein thou art a stranger, which God gave to Abraham And give thee the blessing of Abraham, to thee, and to thy seed with thee,.... Which was promised to Abraham, and was entailed upon Isaac and his seed...

And give thee the blessing of Abraham, to thee, and to thy seed with thee,.... Which was promised to Abraham, and was entailed upon Isaac and his seed, and now upon Jacob and his seed, which follows:

that thou mayest inherit the land wherein thou art a stranger, which God gave to Abraham; the land of Canaan, which was given to Abraham by promise, but not in possession; he was a sojourner and stranger in it, and so Isaac had been all his days, and now Jacob, who through the blessing was become heir of it; but as yet neither he nor his posterity must enjoy it, but be strangers and sojourners in it, for the exercise of faith, and for the leading of their minds off of all earthly enjoyments, to the better and heavenly country God has provided for his people; see Heb 11:9.

Gill: Gen 28:5 - And Isaac sent away Jacob // and he went to Padanaram // unto Laban, son of Bethuel the Syrian // the brother of Rebekah // Jacob's and Esau's mother And Isaac sent away Jacob,.... From Beersheba; not in anger, or in a dishonourable way, but took his leave of him no doubt in an affectionate manner; ...

And Isaac sent away Jacob,.... From Beersheba; not in anger, or in a dishonourable way, but took his leave of him no doubt in an affectionate manner; as it is clear he went with his blessing, and had his good wishes for a prosperous journey:

and he went to Padanaram; which from Beersheba, according to some h, was four hundred and eighty miles:

unto Laban, son of Bethuel the Syrian; some versions make Laban to be the Syrian, others Bethuel; it is a matter of no great moment which is here so called, since they were both called Syrians, see Gen 25:20,

the brother of Rebekah; this refers to Laban, for Bethuel was her father:

Jacob's and Esau's mother; Jacob is set first, not only as being most beloved by his mother, but as now having the birthright and the blessing.

Gill: Gen 28:6 - And when Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob // and sent him away to Padanaram, to take him a wife from thence // and that as he blessed him, he gave him a charge, saying, thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan And when Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob,.... Had conferred the blessing before given, or had wished him a good journey; which perhaps may be al...

And when Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob,.... Had conferred the blessing before given, or had wished him a good journey; which perhaps may be all that Esau understood by it, and so was not so much offended with it:

and sent him away to Padanaram, to take him a wife from thence; which likewise might not be displeasing to him, partly as he understood it to be only on account of taking a wife, and not on account of his ill design upon him, which he might imagine his parents knew nothing of; and partly as he would now be out of the way, and he might find means the easier to ingratiate himself into his father's favour, and get him to revoke the blessing, and settle the inheritance upon him:

and that as he blessed him, he gave him a charge, saying, thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan; or of the Canaanites, of any of the tribes or nations that belonged to that people, whether Hittites or others.

Gill: Gen 28:7 - And that Jacob obeyed his father and his mother // and was gone to Padanaram And that Jacob obeyed his father and his mother,.... As it became him, and as it becomes all children to be obedient to their parents in all things la...

And that Jacob obeyed his father and his mother,.... As it became him, and as it becomes all children to be obedient to their parents in all things lawful they command them; and it would have been well if Esau had been obedient to them also in a like case, the case of his marriage:

and was gone to Padanaram; as they had enjoined him, to take a wife from thence.

Gill: Gen 28:8 - And Esau seeing that the daughters of Canaan pleased not Isaac his father. And Esau seeing that the daughters of Canaan pleased not Isaac his father. Who he perceived was displeased with the daughters of Canaan, or that they ...

And Esau seeing that the daughters of Canaan pleased not Isaac his father. Who he perceived was displeased with the daughters of Canaan, or that they were "evil in his eyes" i, offensive to him, and disapproved of by him, because of their ill manners: Rebekah is not mentioned, whose displeasure he cared not for.

Gill: Gen 28:9 - Then went Esau unto Ishmael // and took unto the wives which he had // Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael, Abraham's son // the sister of Nebajoth, to be his wife Then went Esau unto Ishmael,.... Not to Ishmael in person, for he was now dead, Gen 25:17, and had been dead as is reckoned about fourteen years befor...

Then went Esau unto Ishmael,.... Not to Ishmael in person, for he was now dead, Gen 25:17, and had been dead as is reckoned about fourteen years before this, but to the house of Ishmael:

and took unto the wives which he had; the daughters of Heth, and who seem by this to be both alive at this time:

Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael, Abraham's son; the same with Bashemath, Gen 36:3; as the Targum of Jonathan expresses it, this person having two names, and is further described:

the sister of Nebajoth, to be his wife; who was the eldest son of Ishmael, and, his father being dead, was the principal in the family; and this woman Esau took to wife was his sister by his mother's side, as the above Targum expresses, as well as by his father's; whereas he might have other sisters only by his father's side, he having had more wives than one. This Esau seems to have done in order to curry favour with his father, who was displeased with his other wives, and therefore takes one of his father's brother's daughters; but in this he acted an unwise part, on more accounts than one; partly as it was taking to wife the daughter of one that was cast out of his grandfather's house, and had been a persecutor of his father, and therefore not likely to be agreeable to him; and partly as being a daughter of the bondmaid's son: children born of her could not inherit the land promised to Abraham and Isaac.

Gill: Gen 28:10 - And Jacob went out from Beersheba // and went toward Haran And Jacob went out from Beersheba,.... Where Isaac and Rebekah now lived: from hence he went alone, without any servants to attend him, though perhaps...

And Jacob went out from Beersheba,.... Where Isaac and Rebekah now lived: from hence he went alone, without any servants to attend him, though perhaps not without letters of recommendation from his parents, testifying their affection to him, and that he came with their knowledge and consent, and was their heir, as Isaac had been to Abraham; nor without provisions, at least not without money to purchase them by the way, as appears by the oil he had, Gen 28:18,

and went toward Haran: for thither he could not get in one day, being many days' journey; See Gill on Gen 28:5.

Gill: Gen 28:11 - And he lighted upon a certain place // and tarried there all night, because the sun was set // and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place and slept And he lighted upon a certain place,.... Without any design to take up there, but as it were casually to him, though very providentially, after he had...

And he lighted upon a certain place,.... Without any design to take up there, but as it were casually to him, though very providentially, after he had travelled forty eight miles; for so far it seems it was from Beersheba to Luz or Bethel k, as this place was called:

and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; which hindered his pursuing his journey any further that day, and therefore took a night's lodging here: and he took of the stones of that place; one of the stones that lay there, as Aben Ezra and Ben Melech rightly interpret it, as appears from Gen 28:13; though the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem will have it, that these were four stones that he took, and that by a miracle they became one, and is one of the five miracles they say were done for Jacob on that day:

and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place and slept; being weary with his journey though he had no other bed than the earth, and for his pillow a stone, and for his canopy or curtain the open heaven; a different lodging this from what he had been used to in his father's house, and under the indulgence of his mother; and one would wonder how he could sleep in such circumstances, and that he did not take cold, after such a journey: but it must be considered that it was in a warm climate, and in an age when they did not use themselves to such soft beds as now, and especially that he was under the particular care of divine Providence.

Gill: Gen 28:12 - And he dreamed // and, behold, a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven // and, behold, the angels of God ascending and descending on it And he dreamed,.... As he slept; not a common dream, but under divine direction and influence: and, behold, a ladder set upon the earth, and the to...

And he dreamed,.... As he slept; not a common dream, but under divine direction and influence:

and, behold, a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven: denoting either the providence of God, and the various steps of it, bringing about his own glory and the good of his people; and which is steady, firm, and sure, and reaches to all things here on earth; and in an especial manner is concerned about the people of God, their protection and safety; and is directed and governed according to the will, counsels, and purposes of God in heaven; a view of which must be very encouraging to Jacob in his present circumstances: or else the incarnation and mediation of Christ, who in his human nature was to be in the fulness of time on earth, there to live a while, obey, suffer, and die, and so was the ladder set on earth; and his divine nature was the top of it, which reached heaven; here he was in that nature before his incarnation, and from hence he came; and indeed here he was in that when on earth; and as man, he ascended on high when he had done his work, and is now higher than the heavens; he may be fitly represented hereby as the Mediator, who has reconciled things in heaven and things on earth, and has as it were joined and united heaven and earth together: and the various rungs in this ladder, so considered, are Christ's interposition as a surety front eternity; his incarnation in time; his being under the law, and his obedience to it; his sufferings, the shedding of his blood, and the death of the cross; his resurrection from the dead, ascension to heaven, session at the right hand of God, and intercession there. Moreover this may point out to us Christ as the way to his Father, of access unto him, and acceptance with him, by which he communicates the blessings of his grace to men, and by which they ascend to God with their prayers and praises to him: as also as being the way to heaven and eternal happiness; the various steps to which are election in him, redemption by him, regeneration by his Spirit and grace, the several graces of his Spirit, faith, hope, and love, justification by his righteousness, pardon by his blood, adoption through him, and the resurrection of the dead:

and, behold, the angels of God ascending and descending on it: which may be expressive of the employment of angels in the affairs of Providence, who receive their commission from heaven, and execute it on earth, in which they are diligent, faithful, and constant; and of the ministry of them, both to Christ personal, and to his church and people, even to every particular believer; see Joh 1:51.

Gill: Gen 28:13 - And behold, the Lord stood above it // and said, I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac // the land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed And behold, the Lord stood above it,.... Ordering, directing, and overruling all things in Providence, for the glory of his name and the good of his p...

And behold, the Lord stood above it,.... Ordering, directing, and overruling all things in Providence, for the glory of his name and the good of his people; and may signify, as the ladder may be a figure of Christ, that Jehovah the Father, is above him, as man and Mediator, and makes himself known in and by him, and delivers out all his blessings and promises through him, both temporal and spiritual, and such as follow:

and said, I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac: their covenant God and Father in Christ, who had made promises unto them, and bestowed blessings upon them; and the same was and would continue to be the God of Jacob, which is strongly intimated:

the land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed; meaning not that small pittance of land only on which his body then lay, and which it covered, but all the land of which it was a part, even the whole land of Canaan; hereby entailing it on him and his seed, and so explaining and confirming the blessing of his father Isaac; and by which it appears, that all that had been done was under a divine direction, and according to the will of God.

Gill: Gen 28:14 - And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth // and thou shalt spread abroad to the west // and to the east, and to the north, and to the south // and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth,.... Innumerable, see Gen 13:16, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west; or "the sea", the Mediter...

And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth,.... Innumerable, see Gen 13:16,

and thou shalt spread abroad to the west; or "the sea", the Mediterranean sea, which was west of the land of Canaan:

and to the east, and to the north, and to the south; not of the whole world, but of the land of Canaan: the meaning is, that his posterity should be numerous, and break out and spread themselves like a flood of water, and reach to the utmost bounds of the land on all sides:

and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed; that is, in that eminent and principal seed that should spring from him, the Messiah, in whom some of all nations should, as they have been, be blessed with all spiritual blessings, as redemption, peace, pardon, justification, adoption, and eternal life; the same promise had been made to Abraham, was renewed to Isaac, and now confirmed to Jacob, see Gen 22:18.

Gill: Gen 28:15 - And, behold, I am with thee // and will keep thee in all places, whither thou goest // and will bring thee again into this land // for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of And, behold, I am with thee,.... Though alone, at a distance from his father's house, no friend to keep him company, or servant to attend him; but th...

And, behold, I am with thee,.... Though alone, at a distance from his father's house, no friend to keep him company, or servant to attend him; but the presence of God here promised is abundantly more than an equivalent for all this:

and will keep thee in all places, whither thou goest; from beasts of prey, in lonesome places through which he might travel; from thieves and robbers, to whom he might be exposed; from his brother Esau, and all his ill designs against him; and from being always under the bondage of Laban, into which he would be brought:

and will bring thee again into this land: the land of Canaan, which was entailed on him and his seed for an inheritance; but, as he would now soon be out of it, and continue in another land for many years, as he did, which would make it look very unpromising that he and his seed should inherit it, this is said unto him:

for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of; made good all his promises to him: and the sense is, not that he would then leave him when he had done so, but as not before, so never after; for God never does, nor never will, utterly forsake his people.

Gill: Gen 28:16 - And Jacob awaked out of his sleep // and he said, surely the Lord is in this place, and I knew it not And Jacob awaked out of his sleep,.... Which had been sweet unto him, and out of his dream, it being now over; and it having left such a weight upon h...

And Jacob awaked out of his sleep,.... Which had been sweet unto him, and out of his dream, it being now over; and it having left such a weight upon his mind, and such an awe upon his spirits, it might tend the sooner to awaken him; what time it was is not said, perhaps it was in the middle of the night or towards morning, since after this it is said that he rose early in the morning:

and he said, surely the Lord is in this place, and I knew it not; God is everywhere, in a general way, upholding all things by his power, as he is immense and omnipresent; but here he was in a special sense, by some signal token of his presence; by a stream of light and glory darting from the heavens, hence Onkelos and Jonathan paraphrase it,"the glory of the Lord, and the glory of the majesty of the Lord;''and by the appearance of angels, and by the communications of his mind and will, and grace to Jacob, and that communion he had with him in his dream, of which he was very sensible: for, when he says, "I knew it not", the meaning is, he did not think or expect to meet with God in such a place; he did not know that God ever appeared anywhere but in the houses of his people, such as his father's house; and in the congregation of the faithful, or where the saints met for public worship, or where an altar was erected for God: though sometimes God is present with his people, and they are not sensible of it; as the church in Isa 41:10; and as Mary, when Christ was at her elbow, and she knew him not, Joh 20:13.

Gill: Gen 28:17 - And he was afraid // and said, how dreadful is this place // this is none other but the house of God // and this is the gate of heaven And he was afraid,.... Not with a servile but filial fear; not with a fear of the wrath and displeasure of God, but with a fear of his grace and goodn...

And he was afraid,.... Not with a servile but filial fear; not with a fear of the wrath and displeasure of God, but with a fear of his grace and goodness; not with a fear of distrust of it, of which he had just had such a comfortable assurance; but with an awe of the greatness and glory of God, being conscious of his own unworthiness to receive such favours from him:

and said, how dreadful is this place! not terrible and horrible, being not like Mount Sinai, but like Sion; not as the suburbs of hell, but as the gate of heaven majestic and venerable, because of the glory of God that appeared in it, whose name is holy and reverend and because of the holy angels here present: and so the church, of which this was an emblem, is a solemn assembly, awful and venerable; a city of solemnities, because of the worship of God in it, and his presence there; who is to be feared in the assembly of his saints, and to be had in reverence of all that are about him; and where persons should behave in a serious and solemn manner. The Targum of Jonathan is,"how tremendous and praiseworthy is this place! this is not a common place:"

this is none other but the house of God; wherefore he afterwards called it Bethel, which signifies the house of God; and so the church of God is often called, Psa 23:6; which is of God's building, where he dwells, and his family is, of which he is the master and governor; which he beautifies and adorns, fills, repairs, and defends:

and this is the gate of heaven: Mr. Mede renders it "the court of heaven", because of the angels; since in gates justice was administered by kings, attended with their retinue; but royal courts were not kept there, only courts of judicature: this place seems to be so called, because the heavens were opened and the glory of God was seen, attended by his angels, who were passing and repassing, as people through the streets of a city; and was an emblem of the church of Christ, who is figured by the ladder set on earth, whose top reached to heaven, the door, the gate, the way of ascent to it; here he is preached in the word as the way of salvation, the way to heaven and eternal happiness; here he is held forth in the ordinances; here he grants his presence to his people, and indulges them with communion with him, which makes it like and next to heaven unto them: and, generally speaking, though not always, God brings his people to heaven this way, through a Gospel church state, and by means of the word and ordinances; and here angels also attend, 1Co 11:10.

Gill: Gen 28:18 - And Jacob rose up early in the morning // took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar // and poured oil upon the top of it And Jacob rose up early in the morning,.... In order to proceed on his journey, being comfortably refreshed both in body and mind: but first he too...

And Jacob rose up early in the morning,.... In order to proceed on his journey, being comfortably refreshed both in body and mind: but first he

took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar; not for a statue or an idol to be worshipped, but for a memorial of the mercy and goodness of God unto him, see Jos 4:3; indeed, among the Heathens, stones, even rude and unpolished ones, were worshipped as gods; and this was the ancient custom among the Greeks, and which, as Pausanias l says, universally obtained among them:

and poured oil upon the top of it; which he had brought with him for necessary uses in his journey, or fetched from the neighbouring city; the former is most likely: and this he did, that he might know it again when he returned, as Aben Ezra remarks, and not for the consecration of it for religious use; though it is thought, by some learned men m, that the Phoenicians worshipped this stone which Jacob anointed; and that from this anointed stone at Bethel came the Boetylia, which were anointed stones consecrated to Saturn and Jupiter, and others, and were worshipped as gods; the original of which Sanchoniatho n ascribes to Uranus, who, he says, devised the Boetylia, forming animated stones, which Bochart renders anointed stones; and so Apuleius o, Minutius Felix p, Arnobius q, and others, speak of anointed stones, worshipped as deities; and hence it may be through the early and ancient abuse of such pillars it was, that they were forbidden by the law of Moses, and such as the Heathens had erected were to be pulled down, Lev 26:1.

Gill: Gen 28:19 - And he called the name of that place Bethel // but the name of that city was called Luz at the first And he called the name of that place Bethel,.... The house of God, which he took this place to be: but the name of that city was called Luz at the...

And he called the name of that place Bethel,.... The house of God, which he took this place to be:

but the name of that city was called Luz at the first; which signifies an almond or hazel nut, Gen 30:37; perhaps from the number of this sort of trees that grew there, under which Jacob might lay himself down, which was probably in the field of Luz; and being at night, he might not know there was a city so near, until the morning. Though Josephus r says he did it purposely, out of hatred to the Canaanites, and chose rather to lie under the open air. This was about twelve miles from Jerusalem, as Jerom s says.

Gill: Gen 28:20 - And Jacob vowed a vow // saying, if God will be with me // and will keep me in this way that I go // and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on And Jacob vowed a vow,.... Which is the first vow we read of in Scripture: saying, if God will be with me; the word if is not a sign of doubting, b...

And Jacob vowed a vow,.... Which is the first vow we read of in Scripture:

saying, if God will be with me; the word if is not a sign of doubting, but is either an adverb of time, and may be rendered, "when God shall be with me" t; or as a supposition, expressive of an inference or conclusion drawn, "seeing God will be with me" u; which he had the utmost reason to believe he would, since he had not only promised it, but had so lately granted him his presence in a very singular and remarkable manner, referring to the promise of God, Gen 28:15,

and will keep me in this way that I go; as he had said he would, and as hitherto he had, and for the future he had reason to believe he still would:

and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on; which is included in that clause, "I will not leave thee", &c. Gen 28:15, even not without food and raiment; which is all men can desire or use, and therefore with them should be content.

Gill: Gen 28:21 - So that I come again to my father's house in peace // then the Lord shall be my God So that I come again to my father's house in peace,.... In safety from Esau, and all other enemies, as God promised him he should: then the Lord sh...

So that I come again to my father's house in peace,.... In safety from Esau, and all other enemies, as God promised him he should:

then the Lord shall be my God; not as if he should not be his God if he did not do all this for him; which would savour not only of a mercenary spirit, but of great impiety; neither of which were to be found in Jacob: but the meaning is, that he should not only continue to own him as his God, and to worship him, but having fresh obligations upon him, should be stirred up more eagerly and devoutly to serve him in a very singular way and manner, and particularly by doing what is expressed in Gen 28:22. Some think he has respect to the Messiah, owning him to be the true God with the Father and the blessed Spirit, who had appeared to Abraham, and was the fear of Isaac, and whom Jacob now owned as his God: this receives some confirmation from the Targum of Jonathan, which begins the paragraph thus,"if the Word of the Lord will be my help, &c. then the Lord shall be my God.''

Gill: Gen 28:22 - And this stone, which I have set for a pillar, shall be God's house // and of all that thou shalt give me, I will surely give the tenth unto thee And this stone, which I have set for a pillar, shall be God's house,.... Building an altar of it with some others, and sacrificing to God on it; and w...

And this stone, which I have set for a pillar, shall be God's house,.... Building an altar of it with some others, and sacrificing to God on it; and wherever God is worshipped, that place is his house, be it what or where it will; and Jacob did as he promised to do, see Gen 35:3,

and of all that thou shalt give me, I will surely give the tenth unto thee; for the support of his worship; for the maintenance of such that were employed in it; for the provision of sacrifice, and for the relief of the poor, or for any use or service in which God might be glorified: this was imitated by the Heathens in later times, who gave the tenth of their substance to their gods, Jupiter, Hercules, and others w.

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NET Notes: Gen 28:1 Heb “you must not take a wife from the daughters of Canaan.”

NET Notes: Gen 28:2 Heb “Arise! Go!” The first of the two imperatives is adverbial and stresses the immediacy of the departure.

NET Notes: Gen 28:3 Heb “an assembly of peoples.”

NET Notes: Gen 28:4 Heb “the land of your sojournings,” that is, the land where Jacob had been living as a resident alien, as his future descendants would aft...

NET Notes: Gen 28:6 Heb “you must not take a wife from the daughters of Canaan.”

NET Notes: Gen 28:8 Heb “evil in the eyes of.”

NET Notes: Gen 28:9 Heb “took for a wife.”

NET Notes: Gen 28:11 Heb “lay down.”

NET Notes: Gen 28:12 The Hebrew noun סֻלָּם (sullam, “ladder, stairway”) occurs only here in the OT, but there appears to b...

NET Notes: Gen 28:13 The Hebrew term אֶרֶץ (’erets) can mean “[the] earth,” “land,” “region,” ̶...

NET Notes: Gen 28:14 Heb “and they will pronounce blessings by you, all the families of the earth, and by your offspring.”

NET Notes: Gen 28:15 Heb “Look, I [am] with you.” The clause is a nominal clause; the verb to be supplied could be present (as in the translation) or future, &...

NET Notes: Gen 28:16 Heb “said.”

NET Notes: Gen 28:18 Sacred stone. Such a stone could be used as a boundary marker, a burial stone, or as a shrine. Here the stone is intended to be a reminder of the stai...

NET Notes: Gen 28:19 For location see Map4 G4; Map5 C1; Map6 E3; Map7 D1; Map8 G3.

NET Notes: Gen 28:20 Heb “bread,” although the term can be used for food in general.

NET Notes: Gen 28:21 Heb “and I return in peace to the house of my father.”

NET Notes: Gen 28:22 Heb “and all which you give to me I will surely give a tenth of it to you.” The disjunctive clause structure (conjunction + noun/object) h...

Geneva Bible: Gen 28:1 And Isaac called Jacob, and ( a ) blessed him, and charged him, and said unto him, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan. ( a ) This ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 28:4 And give thee the blessing of Abraham, to thee, and to thy seed with thee; that thou mayest inherit the land wherein thou art a ( b ) stranger, which ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 28:9 Then went Esau unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives which he had Mahalath the daughter of ( c ) Ishmael Abraham's son, the sister of Nebajoth, to be ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 28:12 And he dreamed, and behold a ( d ) ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven: and behold the angels of God ascending and descend...

Geneva Bible: Gen 28:13 And, behold, the LORD stood above it, and said, I [am] the LORD God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac: the land whereon thou liest, to thee ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 28:17 And he was ( f ) afraid, and said, How dreadful [is] this place! this [is] none other but the house of God, and this [is] the gate of heaven. ( f ) H...

Geneva Bible: Gen 28:18 And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put [for] his pillows, and ( g ) set it up [for] a pillar, and poured oil upon ...

Geneva Bible: Gen 28:20 And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If ( h ) God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put...

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Maclaren: Gen 28:10-22 - The Heavenly Pathway And The Earthly Heart Genesis 28:10-22 From Abraham to Jacob is a great descent. The former embodies the nobler side of the Jewish character,--its capacity for religious id...

MHCC: Gen 28:1-5 - --Jacob had blessings promised both as to this world and that which is to come; yet goes out to a hard service. This corrected him for the fraud on his ...

MHCC: Gen 28:6-9 - --Good examples impress even the profane and malicious. But Esau thought, by pleasing his parents in one thing, to atone for other wrong doings. Carnal ...

MHCC: Gen 28:10-15 - --Jacob's conduct hitherto, as recorded, was not that of one who simply feared and trusted in God. But now in trouble, obliged to flee, he looked only t...

MHCC: Gen 28:16-19 - --God manifested himself and his favour, to Jacob, when he was asleep. The Spirit, like the wind, blows when and where it listeth, and God's grace, like...

MHCC: Gen 28:20-22 - --Jacob made a solemn vow on this occasion. In this observe, 1. Jacob's faith. He trusts that God will be with him, and will keep him; he depends upon i...

Matthew Henry: Gen 28:1-5 - -- Jacob had no sooner obtained the blessing than immediately he was forced to flee from his country; and, as it if were not enough that he was a stran...

Matthew Henry: Gen 28:6-9 - -- This passage concerning Esau comes in in the midst of Jacob's story, either, 1. To show the influence of a good example. Esau, though the greater ma...

Matthew Henry: Gen 28:10-15 - -- We have here Jacob upon his journey towards Syria, in a very desolate condition, like one that was sent to seek his fortune; but we find that, thoug...

Matthew Henry: Gen 28:16-22 - -- God manifested himself and his favour to Jacob when he was asleep and purely passive; for the spirit, like the wind, blows when and where he listeth...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 28:1-9 - -- Jacob's Departure from his Parents' House. - Rebekah's complaint reminded Isaac of his own call, and his consequent duty to provide for Jacob's marr...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 28:10-15 - -- Jacob's Dream at Bethel. - As he was travelling from Beersheba, where Isaac was then staying (Gen 26:25), to Haran, Jacob came to a place where he w...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 28:16-17 - -- Jacob gave utterance to the impression made by this vision as soon as he awoke from sleep, in the words, "Surely Jehovah is in this place, and I kne...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 28:18-19 - -- In the morning Jacob set up the stone at his head, as a monument ( מצּבה ) to commemorate the revelation he had received from God; and poured oi...

Keil-Delitzsch: Gen 28:20-22 - -- Lastly, Jacob made a vow: that if God would give him the promised protection on his journey, and bring him back in safety to his father's house, Je...

Constable: Gen 11:27--Exo 1:1 - --II. PATRIARCHAL NARRATIVES 11:27--50:26 One of the significant changes in the emphasis that occurs at this point...

Constable: Gen 25:19--36:1 - --C. What became of Isaac 25:19-35:29 A new toledot begins with 25:19. Its theme is "the acquisition of th...

Constable: Gen 26:34--28:10 - --5. Jacob's deception for Isaac's blessing 26:34-28:9 Reacting to Isaac's disobedient plan to ble...

Constable: Gen 27:1--28:6 - --Isaac's blessing 27:1-28:5 Here we have the third round of Jacob's battle with Esau. The first was at birth (25:21-28) and the second was over the bir...

Constable: Gen 28:6-9 - --Esau's further marriages 28:6-9 Esau sought to obtain his parents' approval by marrying ...

Constable: Gen 28:10-22 - --6. Jacob's vision at Bethel 28:10-22 Yahweh appeared at the top of an angel-filled stairway restating the promise to Abraham and adding more promises ...

Guzik: Gen 28:1-22 - Jacob Flees From Esau Genesis 28 - Jacob Flees From Esau A. Isaac's farewell to Jacob. 1. (1-2) Instructions to not take a Canaanite wife. Then Isaac called Jacob and b...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Lainnya

Bible Query: Gen 28:3 Q: In Gen 17:1; 28:3; 35:11; 43:14; 48:3; Ex 6:3, what exactly does the name El Shaddai mean? A: El-Shaddai is a name for God that most literally me...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) GENESIS, the book of the origin or production of all things, consists of two parts: the first, comprehended in the first through eleventh chapters, gi...

JFB: Genesis (Garis Besar) THE CREATION OF HEAVEN AND EARTH. (Gen 1:1-2) THE FIRST DAY. (Gen 1:3-5) SECOND DAY. (Gen 1:6-8) THIRD DAY. (Gen 1:9-13) FOURTH DAY. (Gen 1:14-19) FI...

TSK: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) The Book of Genesis is the most ancient record in the world; including the History of two grand and stupendous subjects, Creation and Providence; of e...

TSK: Genesis 28 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Gen 28:1, Isaac blesses Jacob, and sends him to Padan-aram; Gen 28:6, Esau marries Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael; Gen 28:10, Jacob jou...

Poole: Genesis 28 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 28 Isaac calls Jacob; charges him not to marry a Canaanite, but one of his kindred in Padan-aram, Gen 28:1,2 ; confirms the blessing to him...

MHCC: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) Genesis is a name taken from the Greek, and signifies " the book of generation or production;" it is properly so called, as containing an account of ...

MHCC: Genesis 28 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Gen 28:1-5) Isaac sends Jacob to Padan-aram. (Gen 28:6-9) Esau marries the daughter of Ishmael. (Gen 28:10-15) Jacob's vision. (Gen 28:16-19) The ...

Matthew Henry: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The First Book of Moses, Called Genesis We have now before us the holy Bible, or book, for so bible ...

Matthew Henry: Genesis 28 (Pendahuluan Pasal) We have here, I. Jacob parting with his parents, to go to Padanaram; the charge his father gave him (Gen 28:1, Gen 28:2), the blessing he sent him...

Constable: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title Each book of the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testam...

Constable: Genesis (Garis Besar) Outline The structure of Genesis is very clear. The phrase "the generations of" (toledot in Hebrew, from yalad m...

Constable: Genesis Bibliography Aalders, Gerhard Charles. Genesis. The Bible Student's Commentary series. 2 vols. Translated by William Hey...

Haydock: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF GENESIS. INTRODUCTION. The Hebrews now entitle all the Five Books of Moses, from the initial words, which originally were written li...

Gill: Genesis (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO GENESIS This book, in the Hebrew copies of the Bible, and by the Jewish writers, is generally called Bereshith, which signifies "in...

Gill: Genesis 28 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO GENESIS 28 In this chapter an account is given of the charge Isaac gave to Jacob not to marry a Canaanitess, but to go to Padanaram...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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