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Teks -- Hebrews 3:1-19 (NET)

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Konteks
Jesus and Moses
3:1 Therefore, holy brothers and sisters, partners in a heavenly calling, take note of Jesus, the apostle and high priest whom we confess, 3:2 who is faithful to the one who appointed him, as Moses was also in God’s house. 3:3 For he has come to deserve greater glory than Moses, just as the builder of a house deserves greater honor than the house itself! 3:4 For every house is built by someone, but the builder of all things is God. 3:5 Now Moses was faithful in all God’s house as a servant, to testify to the things that would be spoken. 3:6 But Christ is faithful as a son over God’s house. We are of his house, if in fact we hold firmly to our confidence and the hope we take pride in.
Exposition of Psalm 95: Hearing God’s Word in Faith
3:7 Therefore, as the Holy Spirit says, “Oh, that today you would listen as he speaks! 3:8 “Do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion, in the day of testing in the wilderness. 3:9 “There your fathers tested me and tried me, and they saw my works for forty years. 3:10 “Therefore, I became provoked at that generation and said, ‘Their hearts are always wandering and they have not known my ways.’ 3:11 “As I swore in my anger, ‘They will never enter my rest!’” 3:12 See to it, brothers and sisters, that none of you has an evil, unbelieving heart that forsakes the living God. 3:13 But exhort one another each day, as long as it is called “Today,” that none of you may become hardened by sin’s deception. 3:14 For we have become partners with Christ, if in fact we hold our initial confidence firm until the end. 3:15 As it says, “Oh, that today you would listen as he speaks! Do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion.” 3:16 For which ones heard and rebelled? Was it not all who came out of Egypt under Moses’ leadership? 3:17 And against whom was God provoked for forty years? Was it not those who sinned, whose dead bodies fell in the wilderness? 3:18 And to whom did he swear they would never enter into his rest, except those who were disobedient? 3:19 So we see that they could not enter because of unbelief.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law


Topik/Tema Kamus: MOSES | HEBREWS, EPISTLE TO THE | Procrastination | MEDIATION; MEDIATOR | Symbols and Similitudes | Self-will | Reprobacy | Backsliders | Decision | Quotations and Allusions | Prophecy | Types | Unbelief | Holy Ghost | Call | PROVOCATION; PROVOKE | Perseverance | AUTHOR | HARDEN | Heart | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Heb 3:1 - Holy brethren Holy brethren ( adelphoi hagioi ). Only here in N.T., for hagiois in 1Th 5:27 only in late MSS. See Heb 2:11 for same idea. First time the author m...

Holy brethren ( adelphoi hagioi ).

Only here in N.T., for hagiois in 1Th 5:27 only in late MSS. See Heb 2:11 for same idea. First time the author makes direct appeal to the readers, though first person in Heb 2:1.

Robertson: Heb 3:1 - Partakers Partakers ( metochoi ). See Luk 5:7 for "partners"in the fishing, elsewhere in N.T. only in Hebrews (Heb 1:9; Heb 6:4; Heb 12:8) in N.T.

Partakers ( metochoi ).

See Luk 5:7 for "partners"in the fishing, elsewhere in N.T. only in Hebrews (Heb 1:9; Heb 6:4; Heb 12:8) in N.T.

Robertson: Heb 3:1 - Of a heavenly calling Of a heavenly calling ( klēseōs epouraniou ). Only here in the N.T., though same idea in Heb 9:15. See hē anō klēsis in Phi 3:14 (the upw...

Of a heavenly calling ( klēseōs epouraniou ).

Only here in the N.T., though same idea in Heb 9:15. See hē anō klēsis in Phi 3:14 (the upward calling). The call comes from heaven and is to heaven in its appeal.

Robertson: Heb 3:1 - Consider Consider ( katanoēsate ). First aorist active imperative of katanoeō , old compound verb (kata ,nous ), to put the mind down on a thing, to fix...

Consider ( katanoēsate ).

First aorist active imperative of katanoeō , old compound verb (kata ,nous ), to put the mind down on a thing, to fix the mind on as in Mat 7:3; Luk 12:24.

Robertson: Heb 3:1 - Even Jesus Even Jesus ( Iēsoun ). No "even"in the Greek, just like the idiom in Heb 2:9, the human name held up with pride.

Even Jesus ( Iēsoun ).

No "even"in the Greek, just like the idiom in Heb 2:9, the human name held up with pride.

Robertson: Heb 3:1 - The Apostle and High Priest of our confession The Apostle and High Priest of our confession ( ton apostolon kai archierea tēs homologias hēmōn ). In descriptive apposition with Iēsoun a...

The Apostle and High Priest of our confession ( ton apostolon kai archierea tēs homologias hēmōn ).

In descriptive apposition with Iēsoun and note the single article ton . This is the only time in the N.T. that Jesus is called apostolos , though he often used apostellō of God’ s sending him forth as in Joh 17:3 (apesteilas ). This verb is used of Moses as sent by God (Exo 3:10). Moffatt notes that apostolos is Ionic for presbeutēs , "not a mere envoy, but an ambassador or representative sent with powers."The author has already termed Jesus high priest (Heb 2:17). For homologia (confession) see 2Co 9:13; 1Ti 6:12. These Hebrew Christians had confessed Jesus as their Apostle and High Priest. They do not begin to understand what Jesus is and means if they are tempted to give him up. The word runs through Hebrews with an urgent note for fidelity (Heb 4:14; Heb 10:23). See homologeō (homon , same, legō , say), to say the same thing, to agree, to confess, to profess.

Robertson: Heb 3:2 - Who was faithful Who was faithful ( piston onta ). Present active participle with predicate accusative agreeing with Iēsoun , "as being faithful."

Who was faithful ( piston onta ).

Present active participle with predicate accusative agreeing with Iēsoun , "as being faithful."

Robertson: Heb 3:2 - That appointed him That appointed him ( tōi poiēsanti auton ). See 1Sa 12:6. Dative case of the articular participle (aorist active) of poieō and the reference ...

That appointed him ( tōi poiēsanti auton ).

See 1Sa 12:6. Dative case of the articular participle (aorist active) of poieō and the reference is to God. Note pistos as in Heb 2:17.

Robertson: Heb 3:2 - As also was Moses As also was Moses ( hōs kai Mōusēs ). The author makes no depreciatory remarks about Moses as he did not about the prophets and the angels. He ...

As also was Moses ( hōs kai Mōusēs ).

The author makes no depreciatory remarks about Moses as he did not about the prophets and the angels. He cheerfully admits that Moses was faithful "in all his house"(en holōi tōi oikōi autou ), an allusion to Num 12:7 (ean holōi tōi oikōi mou ) about Moses. The "his"is God’ s. The use of oikos for the people (family) of God, not the building, but the group (1Ti 3:15) in which God is the Father. But wherein is Jesus superior to Moses? The argument is keen and skillful.

Robertson: Heb 3:3 - Hath been counted worthy of more glory than Moses Hath been counted worthy of more glory than Moses ( pleionos doxēs para Mōusēn ēxiōtai ). Perfect passive indicative of axioō , to deem w...

Hath been counted worthy of more glory than Moses ( pleionos doxēs para Mōusēn ēxiōtai ).

Perfect passive indicative of axioō , to deem worthy, permanent situation described with definite claim of Christ’ s superiority to Moses. Doxēs in genitive case after ēxiōtai . For para after the comparative pleionos see Heb 1:4, Heb 1:9; Heb 2:7.

Robertson: Heb 3:3 - By so much as By so much as ( kath' hoson ). A proportionate measurement (common use of kata and the quantitative relative hosos ).

By so much as ( kath' hoson ).

A proportionate measurement (common use of kata and the quantitative relative hosos ).

Robertson: Heb 3:3 - Than the house Than the house ( tou oikou ). Ablative case of comparison after pleiona . The architect is superior to the house just as Sir Christopher Wren is supe...

Than the house ( tou oikou ).

Ablative case of comparison after pleiona . The architect is superior to the house just as Sir Christopher Wren is superior to St. Paul’ s Cathedral. The point in the argument calls for Jesus as the builder (ho kataskeuasas , first aorist active participle of kataskeuazō , to found or build). But it is God’ s house as autou means (Heb 3:2, Heb 3:5) and hou in Heb 3:6. This house of God existed before Moses (Heb 11:2, Heb 11:25). Jesus as God’ s Son founded and supervised this house of God.

Robertson: Heb 3:4 - Is God Is God ( theos ). God is the Creator of all things and so of his "house"which his Son, Jesus Christ, founded and supervises.

Is God ( theos ).

God is the Creator of all things and so of his "house"which his Son, Jesus Christ, founded and supervises.

Robertson: Heb 3:5 - And Moses And Moses ( kai Mōusēs men ). "Now Moses indeed on his part"(men contrasted with de ).

And Moses ( kai Mōusēs men ).

"Now Moses indeed on his part"(men contrasted with de ).

Robertson: Heb 3:5 - In In ( en ). Moses was in "God’ s house""as a servant"(hōs therapōn ). Old word, in lxx, only here in N.T. and quoted from Num 12:7. Kin to t...

In ( en ).

Moses was in "God’ s house""as a servant"(hōs therapōn ). Old word, in lxx, only here in N.T. and quoted from Num 12:7. Kin to the verb therapeuō , to serve, to heal, and therapeia , service (Luk 9:11) and a group of servants (Luk 12:42).

Robertson: Heb 3:5 - For a testimony of those things which were afterward to be spoken For a testimony of those things which were afterward to be spoken ( eis marturion tōn lalēthēsomenōn ). Objective genitive of the articular f...

For a testimony of those things which were afterward to be spoken ( eis marturion tōn lalēthēsomenōn ).

Objective genitive of the articular future passive participle of laleō . It is not certain what it means whether the "testimony"(marturion ) is to Moses or to God and whether it points on to Christ. In Heb 9:9 see parabolē applied to the old dispensation as a symbol pointing to Christ and Christianity.

Robertson: Heb 3:5 - But Christ But Christ ( Christos de ). In contrast with Moses (men in Heb 3:5).

But Christ ( Christos de ).

In contrast with Moses (men in Heb 3:5).

Robertson: Heb 3:5 - As a son As a son ( hōs huios ). Instead of a therapōn (servant).

As a son ( hōs huios ).

Instead of a therapōn (servant).

Robertson: Heb 3:5 - Over his house Over his house ( epi ton oikon autou ). The difference between epi and en added to that between huios and therapōn . It is very neat and quit...

Over his house ( epi ton oikon autou ).

The difference between epi and en added to that between huios and therapōn . It is very neat and quite conclusive, especially when we recall the high place occupied by Moses in Jewish thought. In Act 7:11 the Jews accused Stephen of speaking "blasphemous words against Moses and God"(putting Moses on a par with God).

Robertson: Heb 3:6 - Whose house are we Whose house are we ( hou oikos esmen hēmeis ). We Christians (Jew and Gentile) looked at as a whole, not as a local organization.

Whose house are we ( hou oikos esmen hēmeis ).

We Christians (Jew and Gentile) looked at as a whole, not as a local organization.

Robertson: Heb 3:6 - If we hold fast If we hold fast ( ean kataschōmen ). Condition of third class with ean and second aorist (effective) active subjunctive of katechō . This note ...

If we hold fast ( ean kataschōmen ).

Condition of third class with ean and second aorist (effective) active subjunctive of katechō . This note of contingency and doubt runs all through the Epistle. We are God’ s house if we do not play the traitor and desert.

Robertson: Heb 3:6 - Boldness Boldness ( parrēsian ) and glorying (kai kauchēma ) some had lost. The author makes no effort to reconcile this warning with God’ s elect...

Boldness ( parrēsian )

and glorying (kai kauchēma ) some had lost. The author makes no effort to reconcile this warning with God’ s elective purpose. He is not exhorting God, but these wavering Christians. All these are Pauline words. B does not have mechri telous bebaian (firm unto the end), but it is clearly genuine in Heb 3:14. He pleads for intelligent confidence.

Robertson: Heb 3:7 - Wherefore Wherefore ( dio ). Probably this inferential conjunction (dia ,ho , because of which) goes with mē sklērunēte (harden not) in Heb 3:8 rather...

Wherefore ( dio ).

Probably this inferential conjunction (dia ,ho , because of which) goes with mē sklērunēte (harden not) in Heb 3:8 rather than with blepete (take heed) in Heb 3:12 unless the long quotation be considered a parenthesis. The long quotation in Heb 3:7-11 is from Psa 95:7-11. After the quotation the author has "three movements"(Moffatt) in his discussion of the passage as applied to the Jewish Christians (Heb 3:12-19; Heb 4:1-10; Heb 4:11-13). The peril of apostasy as shown by the example of the Israelites is presented with vividness and power.

Robertson: Heb 3:7 - As the Holy Ghost saith As the Holy Ghost saith ( kathōs legei to pneuma to hagion ). Just this phrase nowhere else in the N.T., except Act 21:11 (Agabus), though practica...

As the Holy Ghost saith ( kathōs legei to pneuma to hagion ).

Just this phrase nowhere else in the N.T., except Act 21:11 (Agabus), though practically the same idea in Heb 9:8; Heb 10:15. In 1Ti 4:1 the adjective "Holy"is wanting as in Rev 2; 3. But the writer quotes this Psalm as the Word of God and in Heb 4:7 attributes it to David.

Robertson: Heb 3:7 - If ye shall hear If ye shall hear ( ean akousēte ). Condition of third class with ean and first aorist active subjunctive of akouō .

If ye shall hear ( ean akousēte ).

Condition of third class with ean and first aorist active subjunctive of akouō .

Robertson: Heb 3:8 - Harden not Harden not ( mē sklērunēte ). Prohibition with mē and first aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive of sklērunō , late verb from sklēr...

Harden not ( mē sklērunēte ).

Prohibition with mē and first aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive of sklērunō , late verb from sklēros (dried up, stiff, hard) as in Act 19:9; Rom 9:18.

Robertson: Heb 3:8 - As in the provocation As in the provocation ( hōs ēn tōi parapikrasmōi ). Late compound from parapikrainō , late verb to embitter (para ,pikros ), found only i...

As in the provocation ( hōs ēn tōi parapikrasmōi ).

Late compound from parapikrainō , late verb to embitter (para ,pikros ), found only in lxx and here and Heb 3:15. It means embitterment, exasperation. For the simple verb pikrainō , to make bitter, see Col 3:19. The reference is to Meribah (Exo 17:1-7).

Robertson: Heb 3:8 - Like as in the day Like as in the day ( kata tēn hēmeran ). "According to the day"as in Act 12:1; Act 19:23.

Like as in the day ( kata tēn hēmeran ).

"According to the day"as in Act 12:1; Act 19:23.

Robertson: Heb 3:8 - Of the temptation Of the temptation ( tou peirasmou ). The reference is to Massah which took place at Rephidim.

Of the temptation ( tou peirasmou ).

The reference is to Massah which took place at Rephidim.

Robertson: Heb 3:9 - Wherewith Wherewith ( hou ). Literally, "where"(the wilderness) as in Deu 8:15.

Wherewith ( hou ).

Literally, "where"(the wilderness) as in Deu 8:15.

Robertson: Heb 3:9 - Tempted me by proving me Tempted me by proving me ( epeirasan en dokimasiāi ). No word for "me."The Israelites "tested"God "in putting to the proof"(only N.T. use of this w...

Tempted me by proving me ( epeirasan en dokimasiāi ).

No word for "me."The Israelites "tested"God "in putting to the proof"(only N.T. use of this word from dokimazō and this from the lxx). They were not content with God’ s promise, but demanded objective proof (erga , deeds) of God.

Robertson: Heb 3:10 - And saw And saw ( kai eidon ). "And yet saw."

And saw ( kai eidon ).

"And yet saw."

Robertson: Heb 3:10 - Wherefore Wherefore ( dio ). Not in the lxx, but it makes clear the argument in the Psalm.

Wherefore ( dio ).

Not in the lxx, but it makes clear the argument in the Psalm.

Robertson: Heb 3:10 - I was displeased I was displeased ( prosōchthisa ). First aorist active of prosochthizō , late compound for extreme anger and disgust. In N.T. only here and Heb 3...

I was displeased ( prosōchthisa ).

First aorist active of prosochthizō , late compound for extreme anger and disgust. In N.T. only here and Heb 3:17.

Robertson: Heb 3:10 - Err Err ( planōntai ). Present middle indicative of planaō , to wander astray, common verb.

Err ( planōntai ).

Present middle indicative of planaō , to wander astray, common verb.

Robertson: Heb 3:10 - They did not know They did not know ( ouk egnōsan ). In spite of God’ s works (erga ) and loving patience the Israelites failed to understand God’ s ways ...

They did not know ( ouk egnōsan ).

In spite of God’ s works (erga ) and loving patience the Israelites failed to understand God’ s ways with them. Are we any better? They "cared not to take my road"(Moffatt).

Robertson: Heb 3:11 - As I sware As I sware ( hōs ōmosa ). "Correlating the oath and the disobedience"(Vincent). First aorist active indicative of omnuō , old verb for solemn o...

As I sware ( hōs ōmosa ).

"Correlating the oath and the disobedience"(Vincent). First aorist active indicative of omnuō , old verb for solemn oath (Heb 6:13).

Robertson: Heb 3:11 - They shall not enter They shall not enter ( ei eiseleusontai ). Future middle of eiserchomai with ei as an anacoluthon for the Hebrew im (not). Really it is a condi...

They shall not enter ( ei eiseleusontai ).

Future middle of eiserchomai with ei as an anacoluthon for the Hebrew im (not). Really it is a condition of the first class with the conclusion not expressed, common in the lxx as here (Robertson, Grammar , p. 1024).

Robertson: Heb 3:11 - Into my rest Into my rest ( eis tēn katapausin mou ). Old word from katapauō (Heb 4:8), to give rest, in lxx, in N.T. only in Act 7:49; Heb 3:11-4:11. Prima...

Into my rest ( eis tēn katapausin mou ).

Old word from katapauō (Heb 4:8), to give rest, in lxx, in N.T. only in Act 7:49; Heb 3:11-4:11. Primarily the rest in Canaan and then the heavenly rest in which God dwells.

Robertson: Heb 3:12 - Take heed Take heed ( blepete ). Present active imperative as in Phi 3:2 (three times) of blepō in place of the more usual horate . Solemn warning to the J...

Take heed ( blepete ).

Present active imperative as in Phi 3:2 (three times) of blepō in place of the more usual horate . Solemn warning to the Jewish Christians from the experience of the Israelites as told in Psa 95:1-11.

Robertson: Heb 3:12 - Lest haply there shall be Lest haply there shall be ( mē pote estai ). Negative purpose with mē pote and the future indicative as in Mar 14:2. But we have in Col 2:8 me...

Lest haply there shall be ( mē pote estai ).

Negative purpose with mē pote and the future indicative as in Mar 14:2. But we have in Col 2:8 mē tis estai as in Heb 12:25; mē occurs with the aorist subjunctive, and mē pote with present subjunctive (Heb 4:1) or aorist subjunctive (Act 5:39).

Robertson: Heb 3:12 - In any one of you In any one of you ( en tini humōn ). The application is personal and pointed.

In any one of you ( en tini humōn ).

The application is personal and pointed.

Robertson: Heb 3:12 - An evil heart of unbelief An evil heart of unbelief ( kardia ponēra apistias ). A remarkable combination.

An evil heart of unbelief ( kardia ponēra apistias ).

A remarkable combination.

Robertson: Heb 3:12 - Heart Heart ( kardia ) is common in the lxx (about 1,000 times), but "evil heart"only twice in the O.T. (Jer 16:12; Jer 18:12). Apistias is more than mer...

Heart ( kardia )

is common in the lxx (about 1,000 times), but "evil heart"only twice in the O.T. (Jer 16:12; Jer 18:12). Apistias is more than mere unbelief, here rather disbelief, refusal to believe, genitive case describing the evil heart marked by disbelief which is no mark of intelligence then or now.

Robertson: Heb 3:12 - In falling away from the living God In falling away from the living God ( en tōi apostēnai apo theou zōntos ). "In the falling away"(locative case with en of the second aorist a...

In falling away from the living God ( en tōi apostēnai apo theou zōntos ).

"In the falling away"(locative case with en of the second aorist active (intransitive) infinitive of aphistēmi , to stand off from, to step aside from (apo with the ablative case theou ) the living God (common phrase in the O.T. and the N.T. for God as opposed to lifeless idols)). "Remember that to apostatize from Christ in whom you have found God is to apostatize from God"(Dods). That is true today. See Eze 20:8 for this use of the verb.

Robertson: Heb 3:13 - So long as it is called today So long as it is called today ( achris hou to sēmeron kaleitai ). The only instance in the N.T. of this conjunction (achri or achris or achris ...

So long as it is called today ( achris hou to sēmeron kaleitai ).

The only instance in the N.T. of this conjunction (achri or achris or achris hou , etc.) with the present indicative in the sense of "so long as"or "while"like heōs . Elsewhere it means "until"and with either the aorist indicative (Act 7:18), the future (Rev 17:17), or the aorist subjunctive (Rev 7:3).

Robertson: Heb 3:13 - Lest any one of you be hardened Lest any one of you be hardened ( hina mē sklērunthēi tis ex humōn ). Negative purpose clause with hina mē (that not) and the first aoris...

Lest any one of you be hardened ( hina mē sklērunthēi tis ex humōn ).

Negative purpose clause with hina mē (that not) and the first aorist passive subjunctive of sklērunō , the vivid verb from Heb 3:8.

Robertson: Heb 3:13 - By the deceitfulness of sin By the deceitfulness of sin ( apatēi tēs hamartias ). Instrumental case apatēi (trick, fraud) as is always the case with sin (Rom 7:11; 2Th 2...

By the deceitfulness of sin ( apatēi tēs hamartias ).

Instrumental case apatēi (trick, fraud) as is always the case with sin (Rom 7:11; 2Th 2:10). Apostasy (Heb 12:4) is their peril and it is a trick of sin.

Robertson: Heb 3:14 - For we are become partakers of Christ For we are become partakers of Christ ( metochoi gar tou Christou gegonamen ). Second perfect active of ginomai , "we have become,"not the equivalent...

For we are become partakers of Christ ( metochoi gar tou Christou gegonamen ).

Second perfect active of ginomai , "we have become,"not the equivalent of esmen (are). For metochoi see Heb 1:9; Heb 3:1; Heb 6:4. We have become partners with Christ and hence (gar , for) should not be tricked into apostasy.

Robertson: Heb 3:14 - If we hold fast If we hold fast ( ean per kataschōmen ). The same condition as in Heb 3:6 with per (indeed, forsooth) added to ean . Jonathan Edwards once said t...

If we hold fast ( ean per kataschōmen ).

The same condition as in Heb 3:6 with per (indeed, forsooth) added to ean . Jonathan Edwards once said that the sure proof of election is that one holds out to the end.

Robertson: Heb 3:14 - The beginning of our confidence The beginning of our confidence ( tēn archēn tēs hupostaseōs ). For hupostasis see Heb 1:3; Heb 11:1. These faltering believers (some even ...

The beginning of our confidence ( tēn archēn tēs hupostaseōs ).

For hupostasis see Heb 1:3; Heb 11:1. These faltering believers (some even apostates) began with loud confidence and profession of loyalty. And now?

Robertson: Heb 3:15 - While it is said While it is said ( en tōi legesthai ). Locative case with en of the articular present passive infinitive of legō , "in the being said."Thus the...

While it is said ( en tōi legesthai ).

Locative case with en of the articular present passive infinitive of legō , "in the being said."Thus the author (cf. same phrase in Psa 42:4) introduces the repeated quotation from Heb 3:7, Heb 3:8. Probably it is to be connected with kataschōmen , though it can be joined with parakaleite in Heb 3:13 (treating Heb 3:14 as a parenthesis).

Robertson: Heb 3:16 - Who Who ( Tines ). Clearly interrogative, not indefinite (some).

Who ( Tines ).

Clearly interrogative, not indefinite (some).

Robertson: Heb 3:16 - Did provoke Did provoke ( parepikranan ). First aorist active indicative of parapikrinō , apparently coined by the lxx like parapikrasmos (Heb 3:15) to which...

Did provoke ( parepikranan ).

First aorist active indicative of parapikrinō , apparently coined by the lxx like parapikrasmos (Heb 3:15) to which it points, exasperating the anger of God.

Robertson: Heb 3:16 - Nay, did not all Nay, did not all ( all' ou pantes ). "A favourite device of the diatribe style"(Moffatt), answering one rhetorical question with another (Luk 17:8) a...

Nay, did not all ( all' ou pantes ).

"A favourite device of the diatribe style"(Moffatt), answering one rhetorical question with another (Luk 17:8) as in Heb 3:17, Heb 3:18, There was a faithful minority mentioned by Paul (1Co 10:7.).

Robertson: Heb 3:17 - With them that sinned With them that sinned ( tois hamartēsasin ). Dative masculine plural after prosōchthisen (cf. Heb 3:10) of the articular first aorist active pa...

With them that sinned ( tois hamartēsasin ).

Dative masculine plural after prosōchthisen (cf. Heb 3:10) of the articular first aorist active participle of hamartanō (hamartēsas , not hamartōn ).

Robertson: Heb 3:17 - Carcases Carcases ( kōla ). Old word for members of the body like the feet, in lxx a dead body (Num 14:29), here only in N.T.

Carcases ( kōla ).

Old word for members of the body like the feet, in lxx a dead body (Num 14:29), here only in N.T.

Robertson: Heb 3:18 - That they should not enter That they should not enter ( mē eiseleusesthai ). Negative mē (cf. ei in Heb 3:11) and the future middle infinitive in indirect discourse.

That they should not enter ( mē eiseleusesthai ).

Negative mē (cf. ei in Heb 3:11) and the future middle infinitive in indirect discourse.

Robertson: Heb 3:18 - To them that were disobedient To them that were disobedient ( tois apeithēsasin ). Dative masculine plural of the articular first aorist active participle of apeitheō , active...

To them that were disobedient ( tois apeithēsasin ).

Dative masculine plural of the articular first aorist active participle of apeitheō , active disobedience with which compare apistias in Heb 3:12, Heb 3:19.

Robertson: Heb 3:19 - And we see And we see ( kai blepomen ). Triumphant conclusion of the exegesis of Psa 95:1-11. "So we see."

And we see ( kai blepomen ).

Triumphant conclusion of the exegesis of Psa 95:1-11. "So we see."

Vincent: Heb 3:1 - Wherefore The leading ideas of the preceding section are echoed in this verse: brethren , of whom Christ made himself the brother: holy , in virtue of the wo...

The leading ideas of the preceding section are echoed in this verse: brethren , of whom Christ made himself the brother: holy , in virtue of the work of the sanctifier.

Wherefore ( ὅθεν )

Drawing a conclusion from Heb 2:9-18.

Vincent: Heb 3:1 - Holy brethren Holy brethren ( ἀδελφοὶ ἅγιοι ) The phrase N.T.o . Ἀδελφοί brethren , in address, is not found in the Gospels. In...

Holy brethren ( ἀδελφοὶ ἅγιοι )

The phrase N.T.o . Ἀδελφοί brethren , in address, is not found in the Gospels. In Acts mostly ἄνδρες ἀδελφοὶ brother men . In Paul, ἀδ. ἀγαπητοί brethren beloved , or ἀδ. ἀγαπ. καὶ ἐπιπόθητοι brethren beloved and longed for (once, Phi 4:1), ἀδ. ἠγαπημένοι ὐπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ and τοῦ κυρίου brethren beloved of God or of the Lord , and ἀδ. μου my brethren . In James mostly ἀδ. μου. In Hebrews, except here, ἀδελφοὶ simply. Holy brethren (see Heb 2:11) are worshippers of God, taking the place of God's O.T. people, as called and consecrated to ethical and spiritual service according to the Christian ideal.

Vincent: Heb 3:1 - Partakers of a heavenly calling Partakers of a heavenly calling ( κλήσεως ἐπουρανίου μέτοχοι ) Μέτοχοι partakers only in Hebrews excep...

Partakers of a heavenly calling ( κλήσεως ἐπουρανίου μέτοχοι )

Μέτοχοι partakers only in Hebrews except Luk 5:7. See on μετέσχεν took part , Heb 2:14. The phrase heavenly calling N.T.o . Comp. τῆς ἄσω κλήσεως the upward calling , Phi 3:14. The expression points to the lordship of the world to be (Heb 2:5); and the world to be is the abiding world, the place of realities as contrasted with types and shadows. The calling comes from that world and is to that world. See Heb 13:14.

Vincent: Heb 3:1 - Consider Consider ( κατανοήσατε ) Attentively, thoughtfully (κατὰ ). See on Jam 1:23. The writer's habit is to use the communicative ...

Consider ( κατανοήσατε )

Attentively, thoughtfully (κατὰ ). See on Jam 1:23. The writer's habit is to use the communicative we or us identifying himself with his readers.

Vincent: Heb 3:1 - The apostle and high priest The apostle and high priest ( τὸν ἀπόστολον καὶ ἀρχιερέα ) In calling Jesus apostle , the writer is thinking ...

The apostle and high priest ( τὸν ἀπόστολον καὶ ἀρχιερέα )

In calling Jesus apostle , the writer is thinking of Moses as one sent by God to lead Israel to Canaan. Comp. lxx, where ἀποστέλλειν to send is often used of Moses. See Exodus 3-7. Often of Jesus, as Luk 10:16; Joh 3:17; Joh 5:36; Joh 6:29.

Vincent: Heb 3:1 - Of our profession Of our profession ( τῆς ὁμολογίας ἡμῶν ) Rend. confession for profession . The apostle and high priest whom we confe...

Of our profession ( τῆς ὁμολογίας ἡμῶν )

Rend. confession for profession . The apostle and high priest whom we confess. Comp. 1Ti 6:12.

Vincent: Heb 3:2 - Who was faithful Who was faithful ( πιστὸν ὄντα ) Rend. " is faithful." A general designation of inherent character. He is faithful as he eve...

Who was faithful ( πιστὸν ὄντα )

Rend. " is faithful." A general designation of inherent character. He is faithful as he ever was .

Vincent: Heb 3:2 - To him that appointed him To him that appointed him ( τῷ ποιήσαντι αὐτὸν ) Constituted him apostle and high priest. Some render created , refe...

To him that appointed him ( τῷ ποιήσαντι αὐτὸν )

Constituted him apostle and high priest. Some render created , referring to Christ's humanity or to his eternal generation. So the Old Latin, creatori suo ; but this does not suit the context. Ποιεῖν often in Class. in the sense of institute , as sacrifices, funerals, assemblies, etc., and in the middle voice of adoption as a son. See 1Sa 12:6; Mar 3:14; Act 2:36.

Vincent: Heb 3:2 - As also Moses As also Moses ( ὡς καὶ Μωυσῆς ) The highest example of human fidelity known to the readers.

As also Moses ( ὡς καὶ Μωυσῆς )

The highest example of human fidelity known to the readers.

Vincent: Heb 3:2 - In all his house In all his house ( ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ ) Const. with was faithful . Jesus was faithful even as Moses wa...

In all his house ( ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ )

Const. with was faithful . Jesus was faithful even as Moses was faithful.

The subject of the high-priesthood of Christ, introduced in this verse, is not carried out in detail by showing the superiority of Jesus to earthly high priests. This is reserved for chs. 5-7. Instead, the writer proceeds to show that Christ is superior to Moses, as he has already shown his superiority to angels. He will thus have shown Christ's superiority to both the agencies by which the old covenant was mediated. The subject is a delicate one to treat for Jewish readers to whom Moses was the object of the deepest veneration; but the treatment displays tact by placing Moses in the foreground beside Christ as an example of fidelity to his commission. Justice is thus done to the familiar historical record, and to God's own testimony, Num 12:7. The general sense of the comparison is that Moses was as faithful as any servant in a house can be, while Christ was not a servant in the house, but a son, and displayed his fidelity in that capacity.

Vincent: Heb 3:3 - Was counted worthy Was counted worthy ( ἠξίωται ) Used both of reward which is due (1Ti 5:17) and of punishment (Heb 10:29).

Was counted worthy ( ἠξίωται )

Used both of reward which is due (1Ti 5:17) and of punishment (Heb 10:29).

Vincent: Heb 3:3 - Of more glory Of more glory ( πλείονος δόξης ) Comp. Heb 2:8, Heb 2:9.

Of more glory ( πλείονος δόξης )

Comp. Heb 2:8, Heb 2:9.

Vincent: Heb 3:3 - Inasmuch as Inasmuch as ( καθ ' ὅσον ) Rend. by so much as . The argument is based on the general principle that the founder of a house is ...

Inasmuch as ( καθ ' ὅσον )

Rend. by so much as . The argument is based on the general principle that the founder of a house is entitled to more honor than the house and its individual servants. There is an apparent confusion in the working out, since both God and Christ appear as builders , and Moses figures both as the house and as a servant in the house. The point of the whole, however, is that Moses was a part of the O.T. system - a servant in the house; while Christ, as one with God who established all things, was the founder and establisher of both the Old and the New Testament economies.

Vincent: Heb 3:4 - He that built all things is God He that built all things is God ( ὁ πάντα κατασκευάσας θεός ) The verb includes not only erection , but furnishin...

He that built all things is God ( ὁ πάντα κατασκευάσας θεός )

The verb includes not only erection , but furnishing with the entire equipment . See Heb 9:2; 1Pe 2:10. The verb o P. The application of built or established to Christ (Heb 3:3) is guarded against possible misapprehension. Christ is the establisher, but not by any independent will or agency. As the Son he is he that built , but it is as one with God who built all things . The special foundership of Christ does not contradict or exclude the general foundership of God.

Vincent: Heb 3:5 - And Moses And Moses Καὶ and introduces the further development of the thought of Heb 3:2, Heb 3:3 - fidelity , and the corresponding honor. It is n...

And Moses

Καὶ and introduces the further development of the thought of Heb 3:2, Heb 3:3 - fidelity , and the corresponding honor. It is not a second proof of the superiority of Christ to Moses. See Num 12:7.

Vincent: Heb 3:5 - A servant A servant ( θεράπων ) N.T.o . Comp. Rev 15:3. Often in lxx, mostly as translation of òֶáֶã , servant , slave , bondman . Also, ...

A servant ( θεράπων )

N.T.o . Comp. Rev 15:3. Often in lxx, mostly as translation of òֶáֶã , servant , slave , bondman . Also, when coupled with the name of a deity, a worshipper , devotee . Sometimes applied to angels or prophets. Of Moses, θεράπων κυρίου servant of the Lord , Wisd. 10:16. In Class. and N.T. the word emphasizes the performance of a present service, without reference to the condition of the doer, whether bond or free. An ethical character attaches to it, as to the kindred verb θεραπεύειν : service of an affectionate, hearty character, performed with care and fidelity. Hence the relation of the θεράπων is of a nobler and freer character than that of the δοῦλος or bondservant. The verb is used of a physician's tendance of the sick. Xenophon ( Mem . iv. 3, 9) uses it of the gods taking care of men, and, on the other hand, of men's worshipping the gods (ii, 1. 28). See Eurip. Iph . Taur . 1105; and on heal , Mat 8:7; Luk 10:15, and on is worshipped , Act 17:25.

Vincent: Heb 3:5 - For a testimony of those things which were to be spoken For a testimony of those things which were to be spoken ( εἰς μαρτύριον τῶν λαληθησομένων ) Ἐις for , w...

For a testimony of those things which were to be spoken ( εἰς μαρτύριον τῶν λαληθησομένων )

Ἐις for , with the whole preceding clause. Moses' faithful service in God's house was for a testimony , etc. The things which were to be spoken are the revelations afterward to be given in Christ . Others, however, explain of the things which Moses himself was afterward to speak to the people by God's command, referring to Num 12:8. According to this explanation, the fidelity hitherto exhibited by Moses ought to command respect for all that he might say in future. But (1) in the present connection that thought is insignificant. (2) It would be an exaggeration to speak of Moses's fidelity to God throughout his whole official career as a witness of the things which he was to speak to the people by God's command. (3) The future participle requires a reference to a time subsequent to Moses's ministry. The meaning is that Moses, in his entire ministry, was but a testimony to what was to be spoken in the future by another and a greater than he. Comp. Deu 18:15, explained of Christ in Act 3:22, Act 3:23.

Vincent: Heb 3:6 - But Christ But Christ Replacing the human name Jesus , and being the official name which marks his position over the house.

But Christ

Replacing the human name Jesus , and being the official name which marks his position over the house.

Vincent: Heb 3:6 - As a son As a son ( ὡς υἱὸς ) The fidelity of Moses and the fidelity of Christ are exhibited in different spheres: of Moses in that of servant...

As a son ( ὡς υἱὸς )

The fidelity of Moses and the fidelity of Christ are exhibited in different spheres: of Moses in that of servant; of Christ in that of son.

Vincent: Heb 3:6 - Over his own house Over his own house ( ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ ) Comp. Heb 10:21, and notice ἐπὶ over his house, and ἐν in ...

Over his own house ( ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ )

Comp. Heb 10:21, and notice ἐπὶ over his house, and ἐν in all his house, of Moses. For " his own house" rend. " his house," referring to God. Reference to Christ would destroy the parallel. It is said by some that the matter of respective positions is irrelevant: that the main point is fidelity , and that therefore it does not matter whether Moses was a son or a servant, provided he was faithful. But the writer evidently feels that Christ's position as a son enhanced his fidelity. Comp. Heb 5:8. The implication is that Christ's position involved peculiar difficulties and temptations.

Vincent: Heb 3:6 - Whose house Whose house ( οὗ ) God's house. The church is nowhere called the house of Christ.

Whose house ( οὗ )

God's house. The church is nowhere called the house of Christ.

Vincent: Heb 3:6 - We We ( ἡμεῖς ) Even as was the house in which Moses served. The Christian community is thus emphatically designated as the house of ...

We ( ἡμεῖς )

Even as was the house in which Moses served. The Christian community is thus emphatically designated as the house of God , implying the transitoriness of the Mosaic system. Comp. 1Co 3:16, 1Co 3:17; 2Co 6:16; Eph 2:22; 1Pe 4:17.

Vincent: Heb 3:6 - Hold fast Hold fast ( κατάσξωμεν ) The verb is used in N.T. as here, 1Th 5:21; Phm 1:13; of restraining or preventing , Luk 4:42; of holdin...

Hold fast ( κατάσξωμεν )

The verb is used in N.T. as here, 1Th 5:21; Phm 1:13; of restraining or preventing , Luk 4:42; of holding back or holding down with an evil purpose, Rom 1:18; 2Th 2:7; of holding one's course toward , bearing down for , Act 27:40.

Vincent: Heb 3:6 - The confidence and the rejoicing of the hope The confidence and the rejoicing of the hope ( τὴν παρρησίαν καὶ τὸ καύχημα τῆς ἐλπίδος ) The c...

The confidence and the rejoicing of the hope ( τὴν παρρησίαν καὶ τὸ καύχημα τῆς ἐλπίδος )

The combination confidence and rejoicing N.T.o . Rejoicing or boasting of hope N.T.o , but comp. 1Th 2:19. For παρρησία confidence see on 1Ti 3:13. The entire group of words, καύχημα ground of glorying , καύχησις act of glorying , and καυχᾶσθαι to glory , is peculiarly Pauline. Outside of the Pauline letters καυχᾶσθαι occurs only Jam 1:9; Jam 4:16; καύχησις only Jam 4:16; and καύχημα only here. The thought here is that the condition of being and continuing the house of God is the holding fast of the hope in Christ (ἐλπίδος of the object of hope) and in the consummation of God's kingdom in him; making these the ground of boasting, exultantly confessing and proclaiming this hope. There must be, not only confidence, but joyful confidence. Comp. Rom 5:3; Eph 3:12, Eph 3:13; Phi 3:3.

Vincent: Heb 3:6 - Firm unto the end Firm unto the end ( μέχρι τέλους βεβαίαν ) Textually, there is some doubt about these words. Westcott and Hort bracket th...

Firm unto the end ( μέχρι τέλους βεβαίαν )

Textually, there is some doubt about these words. Westcott and Hort bracket them. Tischendorf retains, and Weiss rejects them. The latter part of this verse marks the transition to the lesson of the wilderness-life of the exodus; the writer fearing that the fate of the exodus-generation may be repeated in the experience of his readers. We are God's house if we steadfastly hold fast our Christian hope, and do not lose our faith as Israel did in the wilderness. The exhortation to faith is thrown into the form of warning against unbelief. Faith is the condition of realizing the divine promise. The section is introduced by a citation from Psa 95:7, Psa 95:8.

Vincent: Heb 3:7 - Wherefore as the Holy Ghost saith Wherefore as the Holy Ghost saith ( διὸ καθὼς λέγει τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον ) See on Heb 1:6. The formula ...

Wherefore as the Holy Ghost saith ( διὸ καθὼς λέγει τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον )

See on Heb 1:6. The formula the Spirit the holy ( Spirit ) is common in the N.T. with the exception of the Catholic Epistles, where it does not occur. The construction of the passage is as follows: Διὸ wherefore is connected with βλέπετε take heed , Heb 3:12. The point is the writer's warning, not the warning of the citation . The whole citation including the introductory formula, down to rest , Heb 3:11, is parenthetical.

Vincent: Heb 3:7 - Today if ye will hear his voice Today if ye will hear his voice ( σήμερον ἐάν τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ ἀκούσητε ) The Hebrew reads, O ...

Today if ye will hear his voice ( σήμερον ἐάν τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ ἀκούσητε )

The Hebrew reads, O that you would hear his voice today . Today is prophetically interpreted by the writer as referring to the Christian present, the time of salvation inaugurated by the appearance of Christ.

Vincent: Heb 3:8 - Harden not Harden not ( μὴ σκληρύνητε ) In N.T. mostly in this epistle. Comp. Act 19:9; Rom 9:18, see note. The group of kindred words consi...

Harden not ( μὴ σκληρύνητε )

In N.T. mostly in this epistle. Comp. Act 19:9; Rom 9:18, see note. The group of kindred words consists of σκληρός hard (see on Mat 25:24; see on Jud 1:14); σκλψρότης hardness (Rom 2:5); σκληρύνειν to harden (Act 19:9; Rom 9:18); and the compounds σκληροκαρδία hardness of heart (Mat 19:8; Mar 10:5), and σκληροτράχηλος stiff-necked (Act 7:5). All occur in lxx, with the addition of σκληρῶς hardly , painfully (not in N.T.).

Vincent: Heb 3:8 - In the provocation In the provocation ( ἐν τῷ παραπικρασμῷ ) Only here and Heb 3:15. In lxx only Psa 94:8. The verb παραπικραί...

In the provocation ( ἐν τῷ παραπικρασμῷ )

Only here and Heb 3:15. In lxx only Psa 94:8. The verb παραπικραίνειν to provoke , only in Heb 3:16. Often in lxx. The simple verb πικραίνειν to make bitter , Col 3:19; Rev 8:11; Rev 10:9, Rev 10:10. From πικρός bitter , pungent: hence to stir up to bitterness , to irritate . Comp. lxx Eze 2:4.

Vincent: Heb 3:8 - In the day In the day ( κατὰ τὴν ἡμέραν ) Κατὰ in a temporal sense, as Act 12:1; Act 19:23; Act 27:27. Comp. κατ ' ἀρχα...

In the day ( κατὰ τὴν ἡμέραν )

Κατὰ in a temporal sense, as Act 12:1; Act 19:23; Act 27:27. Comp. κατ ' ἀρχάς in the beginning , Heb 1:10.

Vincent: Heb 3:8 - Of temptation Of temptation ( τοῦ πειρασμοῦ ) Rend. " of the temptation," referring to a definite event, the murmuring against Moses at Reph...

Of temptation ( τοῦ πειρασμοῦ )

Rend. " of the temptation," referring to a definite event, the murmuring against Moses at Rephidim on account of the lack of water, Exo 17:1-7. In that passage the lxx gives for the two proper names Massah and Meribah , πειρασμὸς temptation , which is correct, and λοιδόρησις railing or reviling , which is loose, since Meribah signifies strife . In Psalm 94, lxx renders Meribah παραπικρασμός provocation , which is inexact, and Massah πειρασμὸς temptation , which is correct.

Vincent: Heb 3:9 - When When ( οὗ ) Rend. where . See οὗ after ἔρημος wilderness , Deu 8:15.

When ( οὗ )

Rend. where . See οὗ after ἔρημος wilderness , Deu 8:15.

Vincent: Heb 3:9 - Tempted me, proved me Tempted me, proved me ( ἐπείρασαν ἐν δοκιμασία ) Lit. tried ( me ) in proving . The text differs from lxx, which...

Tempted me, proved me ( ἐπείρασαν ἐν δοκιμασία )

Lit. tried ( me ) in proving . The text differs from lxx, which reads ἐπείρασαν, ἐδοκίμασαν tempted , proved , as A.V. The phrase here means tempted by putting to the test . Comp. ἐκπειράζειν to tempt or try with a view to seeing how far one can go . See on 1Co 10:9.

Vincent: Heb 3:9 - And saw my works And saw my works ( καὶ εἶδον τὰ ἔργα μου ) Some construe my works with both verbs: tried and saw my wor...

And saw my works ( καὶ εἶδον τὰ ἔργα μου )

Some construe my works with both verbs: tried and saw my works: but it is better to supply me after ἐπείρασαν tempted , to take works with saw only, and to give καὶ the force of and yet (see on Luk 18:7). " They tempted and yet saw my works;" although they saw my works. The Hebrew is " tried me, proved me, yea saw my works."

Vincent: Heb 3:9 - Forty years Forty years In lxx this is connected with saw my works . In the Hebrew forty years begins the next clause.

Forty years

In lxx this is connected with saw my works . In the Hebrew forty years begins the next clause.

Vincent: Heb 3:10 - Wherefore I was grieved Wherefore I was grieved ( διὸ προσώχθισα ) The Hebrew omits wherefore . It was inserted because of the transfer of forty yea...

Wherefore I was grieved ( διὸ προσώχθισα )

The Hebrew omits wherefore . It was inserted because of the transfer of forty years to the preceding clause. The verb προσώχθισα I was grieved , only here and Heb 3:17. In lxx for ÷åֹà , to spue out ; âָּòַì , to exclude , reject , abhor ; îָàַֽí , to repudiate .

Vincent: Heb 3:11 - So I swear So I swear ( ὡς ) Rend. " according as I swear" : the ὡς correlating the oath and the disobedience.

So I swear ( ὡς )

Rend. " according as I swear" : the ὡς correlating the oath and the disobedience.

Vincent: Heb 3:11 - They shall not enter into my rest They shall not enter into my rest ( εἰ ἐλεύσονται εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσιν μου ) Lit. if they shall e...

They shall not enter into my rest ( εἰ ἐλεύσονται εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσιν μου )

Lit. if they shall enter , etc. A common Hebraistic formula in oaths. Where God is speaking, as here, the ellipsis is " may I not be Jehovah if they shall enter." Where man is speaking, " so may God punish me if " ; or " God do so to me and more if ." Comp. Mar 8:12 : lxx, Gen 14:23; Deu 1:35; 1Ki 1:51; 1Ki 2:8. Sometimes the ellipsis is filled out, as 1Sa 3:17; 2Sa 3:35. Κατάπαυσιν rest , only in Hebrews, and Act 7:49. The verb καταπαύειν to lay to rest also only in Acts and Hebrews. In Class. the verb sometimes means to kill or to depose from power. In the original citation the reference is to Canaan. Paul uses κληρονομία inheritance in a similar sense.

Vincent: Heb 3:12 - Lest there be Note how the following exhortation is colored by the O.T. citation: evil heart ; the to-day ; be hardened ; take heed (βλέπετε ...

Note how the following exhortation is colored by the O.T. citation: evil heart ; the to-day ; be hardened ; take heed (βλέπετε ). See to it. Often in warnings or admonitions: sometimes with ἀπὸ from , with genitive of that against which the warning is given, as Mar 8:15; Mar 12:38; but so only in the Gospels. In construction connect with διὸ Heb 3:7; therefore beware .

Lest there be ( μήποτε ἔσται )

The indicative with μὴ lest shows that with the fear that the event may occur, there is blended a suspicion that it will occur.

Vincent: Heb 3:12 - In any of you In any of you ( ἔν τινι ὑμῶν ) They are appealed to individually.

In any of you ( ἔν τινι ὑμῶν )

They are appealed to individually.

Vincent: Heb 3:12 - An evil head of unbelief An evil head of unbelief ( καρδία πονηρὰ ἀπιστίας ) The whole phrase N.T.o . Neither do the combinations evil hear...

An evil head of unbelief ( καρδία πονηρὰ ἀπιστίας )

The whole phrase N.T.o . Neither do the combinations evil heart or heart of unbelief occur elsewhere. In lxx, among nearly a thousand instances of καρδία heart , καρδία πονηρὰ evil heart appears only five times, and in three of the five in apocryphal books. See Sir. 9:1; Bar. 1:22; 2:8. In lxx proper, Jer 16:12; Jer 18:12. Ἀπιστίας of unbelief , specifies that in which the more general πονηρὰ evil consists. An evil heart is an unbelieving heart.

Vincent: Heb 3:12 - In departing from the living God In departing from the living God ( ἐν τῷ ἀποστῆναι ἀπὸ θεοῦ ζῶντος ) The characteristic of unbelief. ...

In departing from the living God ( ἐν τῷ ἀποστῆναι ἀπὸ θεοῦ ζῶντος )

The characteristic of unbelief. Faith is personal union with God. Unbelief separates from God. The phrase living God is common to both Testaments. For the bearing of the words upon the question of the Gentile destination of the Epistle, see Introduction.

Vincent: Heb 3:13 - While it is called to-day While it is called to-day ( ἄρχις οὗ τὸ σήμερον καλεῖται ) Lit. so long as the to-day is being...

While it is called to-day ( ἄρχις οὗ τὸ σήμερον καλεῖται )

Lit. so long as the to-day is being named . The article points to the former expression - the " to-day" of Heb 3:7. It is the day of grace, while salvation through Christ is still attainable.

Vincent: Heb 3:13 - Through the deceitfulness of sin Through the deceitfulness of sin ( ἀπάτῃ τῆς ἁμαρίας ) Ἀπάτη is rather a trick , stratagem , deceit , tha...

Through the deceitfulness of sin ( ἀπάτῃ τῆς ἁμαρίας )

Ἀπάτη is rather a trick , stratagem , deceit , than the quality of deceitfulness. The warning is against being hardened by a trick which their sin may play them. Note the article, the or his sin - the sin of departing from the living God. The particular deceit in this case would be the illusion of faithfulness to the past.

Vincent: Heb 3:14 - We are made partakers of Christ We are made partakers of Christ ( μέτοχοι γὰρ τοῦ Χριστοῦ γεγόναμεν ) Rend. we are become fellows ...

We are made partakers of Christ ( μέτοχοι γὰρ τοῦ Χριστοῦ γεγόναμεν )

Rend. we are become fellows with Christ . For fellows see Luk 5:7; Heb 1:9. It marks even a closer relation than " brethren." See Luk 22:30; Rom 8:17; Rev 3:21.

Vincent: Heb 3:14 - Beginning of our confidence Beginning of our confidence ( τὴν ἀρχὴν τῆς ὑποστάσεως ) The believing confidence with which we began our Christ...

Beginning of our confidence ( τὴν ἀρχὴν τῆς ὑποστάσεως )

The believing confidence with which we began our Christian life. For ὑπόστασις confidence see on Heb 1:3. The Greek fathers render substance ; that in virtue of which we are believers.

Vincent: Heb 3:14 - Unto the end Unto the end ( μέχρι τέλους ) Better, the consummation . It is more than mere termination . It is the point into which the who...

Unto the end ( μέχρι τέλους )

Better, the consummation . It is more than mere termination . It is the point into which the whole life of faith finally gathers itself up. See Rom 6:21; 2Co 11:15; Phi 3:19; Heb 6:8; 1Pe 1:9.

Vincent: Heb 3:15 - While it is said While it is said ( ἐν τῷ λέγεσθαι ) The formula by which the writer reverts to the previous citation. Connect with if we ...

While it is said ( ἐν τῷ λέγεσθαι )

The formula by which the writer reverts to the previous citation. Connect with if we hold fast . The exhortation of Heb 3:12 answered to Psa 95:1-11; so the condition of fulfillment in Heb 3:14 is declared to rest on the same Scripture. Only on the ground of what is said in that Psalm does the holding fast come to pass. Rend. therefore, " We are fellows of Christ if we hold the beginning of our confidence steadfast unto the end, seeing it is said," etc.

Vincent: Heb 3:16 - For some, when they had heard, did provoke For some, when they had heard, did provoke ( τίνες γὰρ ἀκούσαντες παρεπίκραναν ) Rend. who , when the...

For some, when they had heard, did provoke ( τίνες γὰρ ἀκούσαντες παρεπίκραναν )

Rend. who , when they heard , did provoke? The interrogative τίνες calls special attention to those who provoked God. The writer would say, " My warning against apostasy is not superfluous or irrelevant: for , consider: who were they that provoked God? They were those who had fairly begun their journey to Canaan, as you have begun your Christian course. They provoked God, so may you .

Vincent: Heb 3:16 - Howbeit not all Howbeit not all ( ἀλλ ' οὐ πάντες ) Wrong. The interrogation should be continued. Who were they? But (ἀλλ ') why do I ask? ...

Howbeit not all ( ἀλλ ' οὐ πάντες )

Wrong. The interrogation should be continued. Who were they? But (ἀλλ ') why do I ask? Were they not all who came out of Egypt by Moses? They were so numerous that they practically constituted the whole generation of the exodus. So far from its being true that a good ending necessarily follows a good beginning, a whole generation of God's chosen people failed to reach the Land of Promise because they provoked God.

Vincent: Heb 3:17 - Carcasses The interrogation still continued. " With whom was he displeased forty years? Was it not with them?" etc. Carcasses ( τὰ κῶλα ) N.T.o...

The interrogation still continued. " With whom was he displeased forty years? Was it not with them?" etc.

Carcasses ( τὰ κῶλα )

N.T.o . lxx for ôֶּֽâֶø , a corpse . Κῶλον properly a limb . The idea of dismemberment underlies the use of the word. Comp. Num 14:29 (lxx), and 1Co 10:5, of the rebellious Israelites, who κατεστρώθησαν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ were strewn down along in the wilderness .

Vincent: Heb 3:18 - To them that believed not To them that believed not ( τοῖς ἀπειθήσασιν ) Rend. to them that disobeyed .

To them that believed not ( τοῖς ἀπειθήσασιν )

Rend. to them that disobeyed .

Wesley: Heb 3:1 - The heavenly calling God calls from heaven, and to heaven, by the gospel.

God calls from heaven, and to heaven, by the gospel.

Wesley: Heb 3:1 - Consider the Apostle The messenger of God, who pleads the cause of God with us.

The messenger of God, who pleads the cause of God with us.

Wesley: Heb 3:1 - And High Priest Who pleads our cause with God. Both are contained in the one word Mediator. He compares Christ, as an Apostle, with Moses; as a Priest, with Aaron. Bo...

Who pleads our cause with God. Both are contained in the one word Mediator. He compares Christ, as an Apostle, with Moses; as a Priest, with Aaron. Both these offices, which Moses and Aaron severally bore, he bears together, and far more eminently.

Wesley: Heb 3:1 - Of our profession The religion we profess.

The religion we profess.

Wesley: Heb 3:2 - His house The church of Israel, then the peculiar family of God. Num 12:7.

The church of Israel, then the peculiar family of God. Num 12:7.

Wesley: Heb 3:3 - He that hath builded it hath more glory than the house Than the family itself, or any member of it.

Than the family itself, or any member of it.

Wesley: Heb 3:4 - Now Christ, he that built not only this house, but all things, is God And so infinitely greater than Moses or any creature.

And so infinitely greater than Moses or any creature.

Wesley: Heb 3:5 - And Moses verily Another proof of the pre - eminence of Christ above Moses. Was faithful in all his house, as a servant, for a testimony of the things which were after...

Another proof of the pre - eminence of Christ above Moses. Was faithful in all his house, as a servant, for a testimony of the things which were afterwards to be spoken - That is, which was a full confirmation of the things which he afterward spake concerning Christ.

Wesley: Heb 3:6 - -- But Christ was faithful as a Son; whose house we are, while we hold fast, and shall be unto the end, if we hold fast our confidence in God, and gloryi...

But Christ was faithful as a Son; whose house we are, while we hold fast, and shall be unto the end, if we hold fast our confidence in God, and glorying in his promises; our faith and hope.

Wesley: Heb 3:7 - Wherefore Seeing he is faithful, be not ye unfaithful. Psa 95:7, &c.

Seeing he is faithful, be not ye unfaithful. Psa 95:7, &c.

Wesley: Heb 3:8 - As in the provocation When Israel provoked me by their strife and murmurings.

When Israel provoked me by their strife and murmurings.

Wesley: Heb 3:8 - In the day of temptation When at the same time they tempted me, by distrusting my power and goodness. Exo 17:7.

When at the same time they tempted me, by distrusting my power and goodness. Exo 17:7.

Wesley: Heb 3:9 - Where your fathers That hard - hearted and stiff - necked generation. So little cause had their descendants to glory in them.

That hard - hearted and stiff - necked generation. So little cause had their descendants to glory in them.

Wesley: Heb 3:9 - Tempted me Whether I could and would help them.

Whether I could and would help them.

Wesley: Heb 3:9 - Proved me Put my patience to the proof, even while they saw my glorious works both of judgment and mercy, and that for forty years.

Put my patience to the proof, even while they saw my glorious works both of judgment and mercy, and that for forty years.

Wesley: Heb 3:10 - Wherefore To speak after the manner of men.

To speak after the manner of men.

Wesley: Heb 3:10 - I was grieved Displeased, offended with that generation, and said, They always err in their hearts - They are led astray by their stubborn will and vile affections.

Displeased, offended with that generation, and said, They always err in their hearts - They are led astray by their stubborn will and vile affections.

Wesley: Heb 3:10 - And For this reason, because wickedness has blinded their understanding.

For this reason, because wickedness has blinded their understanding.

Wesley: Heb 3:10 - They have not known my ways By which I would have led them like a flock.

By which I would have led them like a flock.

Wesley: Heb 3:10 - Into my rest In the promised land.

In the promised land.

Wesley: Heb 3:12 - Take heed, lest there be in any of you As there was in them.

As there was in them.

Wesley: Heb 3:12 - An evil heart of unbelief Unbelief is the parent of all evil, and the very essence of unbelief lies in departing from God, as the living God - The fountain of all our life, hol...

Unbelief is the parent of all evil, and the very essence of unbelief lies in departing from God, as the living God - The fountain of all our life, holiness, happiness.

Wesley: Heb 3:13 - But, to prevent it, exhort one another, while it is called To day - This to - day will not last for ever. The day of life will end soon, and perhaps the day of grace yet sooner.

day - This to - day will not last for ever. The day of life will end soon, and perhaps the day of grace yet sooner.

Wesley: Heb 3:14 - For we are made partakers of Christ And we shall still partake of him and all his benefits, if we hold fast our faith unto the end.

And we shall still partake of him and all his benefits, if we hold fast our faith unto the end.

Wesley: Heb 3:14 - If But not else; and a supposition made by the Holy Ghost is equal to the, strongest assertion. Both the sentiment and the manner of expression are the s...

But not else; and a supposition made by the Holy Ghost is equal to the, strongest assertion. Both the sentiment and the manner of expression are the same as Heb 3:6.

Wesley: Heb 3:16 - Were they not all that came out of Egypt An awful consideration! The whole elect people of God (a very few excepted) provoked God presently after their great deliverance, continued to grieve ...

An awful consideration! The whole elect people of God (a very few excepted) provoked God presently after their great deliverance, continued to grieve his Spirit for forty years, and perished in their sin!

Wesley: Heb 3:19 - So we see they could not enter in Though afterward they desired it.

Though afterward they desired it.

JFB: Heb 3:1 - Wherefore Greek, "Whence," that is, seeing we have such a sympathizing Helper you ought to "consider attentively," "contemplate"; fix your eyes and mind on Him ...

Greek, "Whence," that is, seeing we have such a sympathizing Helper you ought to "consider attentively," "contemplate"; fix your eyes and mind on Him with a view to profiting by the contemplation (Heb 12:2). The Greek word is often used by Luke, Paul's companion (Luk 12:24, Luk 12:27).

JFB: Heb 3:1 - brethren In Christ, the common bond of union.

In Christ, the common bond of union.

JFB: Heb 3:1 - partakers "of the Holy Ghost."

"of the Holy Ghost."

JFB: Heb 3:1 - heavenly calling Coming to us from heaven, and leading us to heaven whence it comes. Phi 3:14, "the high calling"; Greek "the calling above," that is, heavenly.

Coming to us from heaven, and leading us to heaven whence it comes. Phi 3:14, "the high calling"; Greek "the calling above," that is, heavenly.

JFB: Heb 3:1 - the Apostle and High Priest of our profession There is but one Greek article to both nouns, "Him who is at once Apostle and High Priest"--Apostle, as Ambassador (a higher designation than "angel"-...

There is but one Greek article to both nouns, "Him who is at once Apostle and High Priest"--Apostle, as Ambassador (a higher designation than "angel"-messenger) sent by the Father (Joh 20:21), pleading the cause of God with us; High Priest, as pleading our cause with God. Both His Apostleship and High Priesthood are comprehended in the one title, Mediator [BENGEL]. Though the title "Apostle" is nowhere else applied to Christ, it is appropriate here in addressing Hebrews, who used the term of the delegates sent by the high priest to collect the temple tribute from Jews resident in foreign countries, even as Christ was Delegate of the Father to this world far off from Him (Mat 21:37). Hence as what applies to Him, applies also to His people, the Twelve are designated His apostles, even as He is the Father's (Joh 20:21). It was desirable to avoid designating Him here "angel," in order to distinguish His nature from that of angels mentioned before, though he is "the Angel of the Covenant." The "legate of the Church" (Sheliach Tsibbur) offered up the prayers in the synagogue in the name of all, and for all. So Jesus, "the Apostle of our profession," is delegated to intercede for the Church before the Father. The words "of our profession," mark that it is not of the legal ritual, but of our Christian faith, that He is the High Priest. Paul compares Him as an Apostle to Moses; as High Priest to Aaron. He alone holds both offices combined, and in a more eminent degree than either, which those two brothers held apart.

JFB: Heb 3:1 - profession "confession," corresponds to God having spoken to us by His Son, sent as Apostle and High Priest. What God proclaims we confess.

"confession," corresponds to God having spoken to us by His Son, sent as Apostle and High Priest. What God proclaims we confess.

JFB: Heb 3:2 - -- He first notes the feature of resemblance between Moses and Christ, in order to conciliate the Hebrew Christians whom He addressed, and who still ente...

He first notes the feature of resemblance between Moses and Christ, in order to conciliate the Hebrew Christians whom He addressed, and who still entertained a very high opinion of Moses; he afterwards brings forward Christ's superiority to Moses.

JFB: Heb 3:2 - Who was faithful The Greek implies also that He still is faithful, namely, as our mediating High Priest, faithful to the trust God has assigned Him (Heb 2:17). So Mose...

The Greek implies also that He still is faithful, namely, as our mediating High Priest, faithful to the trust God has assigned Him (Heb 2:17). So Moses in God's house (Num 12:7).

JFB: Heb 3:2 - appointed him "made Him" HIGH PRIEST; to be supplied from the preceding context. Greek, "made"; so in Heb 5:5; 1Sa 12:6, Margin; Act 2:36; so the Greek fathers. Not...

"made Him" HIGH PRIEST; to be supplied from the preceding context. Greek, "made"; so in Heb 5:5; 1Sa 12:6, Margin; Act 2:36; so the Greek fathers. Not as ALFORD, with AMBROSE and the Latins, "created Him," that is, as man, in His incarnation. The likeness of Moses to Messiah was foretold by Moses himself (Deu 18:15). Other prophets only explained Moses, who was in this respect superior to them; but Christ was like Moses, yet superior.

JFB: Heb 3:3 - For Assigning the reason why they should "consider" attentively "Christ" (Heb 3:1), highly as they regard Moses who resembled Him in faithfulness (Heb 3:2...

Assigning the reason why they should "consider" attentively "Christ" (Heb 3:1), highly as they regard Moses who resembled Him in faithfulness (Heb 3:2).

JFB: Heb 3:3 - was Greek, "has been."

Greek, "has been."

JFB: Heb 3:3 - counted worthy of more glory By God, when He exalted Him to His own right hand. The Hebrew Christians admitted the fact (Heb 1:13).

By God, when He exalted Him to His own right hand. The Hebrew Christians admitted the fact (Heb 1:13).

JFB: Heb 3:3 - builded the house Greek, "inasmuch as He hath more honor than the house, who prepared it," or "established it" [ALFORD]. The Greek verb is used purposely instead of "bu...

Greek, "inasmuch as He hath more honor than the house, who prepared it," or "established it" [ALFORD]. The Greek verb is used purposely instead of "builded," in order to mark that the building meant is not a literal, but a spiritual house: the Church both of the Old Testament and New Testament; and that the building of such a house includes all the preparations of providence and grace needed to furnish it with "living stones" and fitting "servants." Thus, as Christ the Founder and Establisher (in Old Testament as well as the New Testament) is greater than the house so established, including the servants, He is greater also than Moses, who was but a "servant." Moses, as a servant, is a portion of the house, and less than the house; Christ, as the Instrumental Creator of all things, must be God, and so greater than the house of which Moses was but a part. Glory is the result of honor.

JFB: Heb 3:4 - -- Someone must be the establisher of every house; Moses was not the establisher of the house, but a portion of it (but He who established all things, an...

Someone must be the establisher of every house; Moses was not the establisher of the house, but a portion of it (but He who established all things, and therefore the spiritual house in question, is God). Christ, as being instrumentally the Establisher of all things, must be the Establisher of the house, and so greater than Moses.

JFB: Heb 3:5 - faithful in all his house That is in all GOD'S house (Heb 3:4).

That is in all GOD'S house (Heb 3:4).

JFB: Heb 3:5 - servant Not here the Greek for "slave," but "a ministering attendant"; marking the high office of Moses towards God, though inferior to Christ, a kind of stew...

Not here the Greek for "slave," but "a ministering attendant"; marking the high office of Moses towards God, though inferior to Christ, a kind of steward.

JFB: Heb 3:5 - for a testimony of, &c. In order that he might in his typical institutions give "testimony" to Israel "of the things" of the Gospel "which were to be spoken afterwards" by Ch...

In order that he might in his typical institutions give "testimony" to Israel "of the things" of the Gospel "which were to be spoken afterwards" by Christ (Heb 8:5; Heb 9:8, Heb 9:23; Heb 10:1).

JFB: Heb 3:6 - But Christ Was and is faithful (Heb 3:2).

Was and is faithful (Heb 3:2).

JFB: Heb 3:6 - as a son over his own house Rather, "over His (GOD'S, Heb 3:4) house"; and therefore, as the inference from His being one with God, over His own house. So Heb 10:21, "having an H...

Rather, "over His (GOD'S, Heb 3:4) house"; and therefore, as the inference from His being one with God, over His own house. So Heb 10:21, "having an High Priest over the house of God." Christ enters His Father's house as the Master [OVER it], but Moses as a servant [IN it, Heb 3:2, Heb 3:5] [CHRYSOSTOM]. An ambassador in the absence of the king is very distinguished--in the presence of the king he falls back into the multitude [BENGEL].

JFB: Heb 3:6 - whose house are we Paul and his Hebrew readers. One old manuscript, with Vulgate and LUCIFER, reads, "which house"; but the weightiest manuscripts support English Versio...

Paul and his Hebrew readers. One old manuscript, with Vulgate and LUCIFER, reads, "which house"; but the weightiest manuscripts support English Version reading.

JFB: Heb 3:6 - the rejoicing Rather, "the matter of rejoicing."

Rather, "the matter of rejoicing."

JFB: Heb 3:6 - of the hope "of our hope." Since all our good things lie in hopes, we ought so to hold fast our hopes as already to rejoice, as though our hopes were realized [CH...

"of our hope." Since all our good things lie in hopes, we ought so to hold fast our hopes as already to rejoice, as though our hopes were realized [CHRYSOSTOM].

JFB: Heb 3:6 - firm unto the end Omitted in LUCIFER and AMBROSE, and in one oldest manuscript, but supported by most oldest manuscripts.

Omitted in LUCIFER and AMBROSE, and in one oldest manuscript, but supported by most oldest manuscripts.

JFB: Heb 3:7-11 - -- Exhortation from Psa 95:7-11, not through unbelief to lose participation in the spiritual house. Seeing that we are the house of God if we hold fast o...

Exhortation from Psa 95:7-11, not through unbelief to lose participation in the spiritual house. Seeing that we are the house of God if we hold fast our confidence . . . (Heb 3:6). Jesus is "faithful," be not ye unfaithful (Heb 3:2, Heb 3:12). The sentence beginning with "wherefore," interrupted by the parenthesis confirming the argument from Psa 95:7-11, is completed at Heb 3:12, "Take heed," &c.

JFB: Heb 3:7-11 - Holy Ghost saith By the inspired Psalmist; so that the words of the latter are the words of God Himself.

By the inspired Psalmist; so that the words of the latter are the words of God Himself.

JFB: Heb 3:7-11 - To-day At length; in David's day, as contrasted with the days of Moses in the wilderness, and the whole time since then, during which they had been rebelliou...

At length; in David's day, as contrasted with the days of Moses in the wilderness, and the whole time since then, during which they had been rebellious against God's voice; as for instance, in the wilderness (Heb 3:8). The Psalm, each fresh time when used in public worship, by "to-day," will mean the particular day when it was, or is, used.

JFB: Heb 3:7-11 - hear Obediently.

Obediently.

JFB: Heb 3:7-11 - his voice Of grace.

Of grace.

JFB: Heb 3:8 - Harden not your hearts This phrase here only is used of man's own act; usually of God's act (Rom 9:18). When man is spoken of as the agent in hardening, the phrase usually i...

This phrase here only is used of man's own act; usually of God's act (Rom 9:18). When man is spoken of as the agent in hardening, the phrase usually is, "harden his neck," or "back" (Neh 9:17).

JFB: Heb 3:8 - provocation . . . temptation "Massah-meribah," translated in Margin "tentation . . . chiding," or "strife" (Exo 17:1-7). Both names seem to refer to that one event, the murmuring ...

"Massah-meribah," translated in Margin "tentation . . . chiding," or "strife" (Exo 17:1-7). Both names seem to refer to that one event, the murmuring of the people against the Lord at Rephidim for want of water. The first offense especially ought to be guarded against, and is the most severely reproved, as it is apt to produce many more. Num 20:1-13 and Deu 33:8 mention a second similar occasion in the wilderness of Sin, near Kadesh, also called Meribah.

JFB: Heb 3:8 - in the day Greek, "according to the day of."

Greek, "according to the day of."

JFB: Heb 3:9 - When Rather, "Where," namely, in the wilderness.

Rather, "Where," namely, in the wilderness.

JFB: Heb 3:9 - your fathers The authority of the ancients is not conclusive [BENGEL].

The authority of the ancients is not conclusive [BENGEL].

JFB: Heb 3:9 - tempted me, proved me The oldest manuscripts read, "tempted (Me) in the way of testing," that is, putting (Me) to the proof whether I was able and willing to relieve them, ...

The oldest manuscripts read, "tempted (Me) in the way of testing," that is, putting (Me) to the proof whether I was able and willing to relieve them, not believing that I am so.

JFB: Heb 3:9 - saw my works forty years They saw, without being led thereby to repentance, My works of power partly in affording miraculous help, partly in executing vengeance, forty years. ...

They saw, without being led thereby to repentance, My works of power partly in affording miraculous help, partly in executing vengeance, forty years. The "forty years" joined in the Hebrew and Septuagint, and below, Heb 3:17, with "I was grieved," is here joined with "they saw." Both are true; for, during the same forty years that they were tempting God by unbelief, notwithstanding their seeing God's miraculous works, God was being grieved. The lesson intended to be hinted to the Hebrew Christians is, their "to-day" is to last only between the first preaching of the Gospel and Jerusalem's impending overthrow, namely, FORTY YEARS; exactly the number of years of Israel's sojourn in the wilderness, until the full measure of their guilt having been filled up all the rebels were overthrown.

JFB: Heb 3:10 - grieved Displeased. Compare "walk contrary," Lev 26:24, Lev 26:28.

Displeased. Compare "walk contrary," Lev 26:24, Lev 26:28.

JFB: Heb 3:10 - that generation "that" implies alienation and estrangement. But the oldest manuscripts read, "this."

"that" implies alienation and estrangement. But the oldest manuscripts read, "this."

JFB: Heb 3:10 - said "grieved," or "displeased," at their first offense. Subsequently when they hardened their heart in unbelief still more, He sware in His wrath (Heb 3:1...

"grieved," or "displeased," at their first offense. Subsequently when they hardened their heart in unbelief still more, He sware in His wrath (Heb 3:11); an ascending gradation (compare Heb 3:17-18).

JFB: Heb 3:10 - and they have not known Greek, "But these very persons," &c. They perceived I was displeased with them, yet they, the same persons, did not a whit the more wish to know my wa...

Greek, "But these very persons," &c. They perceived I was displeased with them, yet they, the same persons, did not a whit the more wish to know my ways [BENGEL]; compare "but they," Psa 106:43.

JFB: Heb 3:10 - not known my ways Not known practically and believingly the ways in which I would have had them go, so as to reach My rest (Exo 18:20).

Not known practically and believingly the ways in which I would have had them go, so as to reach My rest (Exo 18:20).

JFB: Heb 3:11 - So Literally, "as."

Literally, "as."

JFB: Heb 3:11 - I sware BENGEL remarks the oath of God preceded the forty years.

BENGEL remarks the oath of God preceded the forty years.

JFB: Heb 3:11 - not Literally, "If they shall enter . . . (God do so to me and more also)," 2Sa 3:35. The Greek is the same, Mar 8:12.

Literally, "If they shall enter . . . (God do so to me and more also)," 2Sa 3:35. The Greek is the same, Mar 8:12.

JFB: Heb 3:11 - my rest Canaan, primarily, their rest after wandering in the wilderness: still, even when in it, they never fully enjoyed rest; whence it followed that the th...

Canaan, primarily, their rest after wandering in the wilderness: still, even when in it, they never fully enjoyed rest; whence it followed that the threat extended farther than the exclusion of the unbelieving from the literal land of rest, and that the rest promised to the believing in its full blessedness was, and is, yet future: Psa 25:13; Psa 37:9, Psa 37:11, Psa 37:22, Psa 37:29, and Christ's own beatitude (Mat 5:5) all accord with this, Heb 3:9.

JFB: Heb 3:12 - Take heed To be joined with "wherefore," Heb 3:7.

To be joined with "wherefore," Heb 3:7.

JFB: Heb 3:12 - lest there be Greek (indicative), "lest there shall be"; lest there be, as I fear there is; implying that it is not merely a possible contingency, but that there is...

Greek (indicative), "lest there shall be"; lest there be, as I fear there is; implying that it is not merely a possible contingency, but that there is ground for thinking it will be so.

JFB: Heb 3:12 - in any "in any one of you." Not merely ought all in general be on their guard, but they ought to be so concerned for the safety of each one member, as not to...

"in any one of you." Not merely ought all in general be on their guard, but they ought to be so concerned for the safety of each one member, as not to suffer any one to perish through their negligence [CALVIN].

JFB: Heb 3:12 - heart The heart is not to be trusted. Compare Heb 3:10, "They do always err in their heart."

The heart is not to be trusted. Compare Heb 3:10, "They do always err in their heart."

JFB: Heb 3:12 - unbelief Faithlessness. Christ is faithful; therefore, saith Paul to the Hebrews, we ought not to be faithless as our fathers were under Moses.

Faithlessness. Christ is faithful; therefore, saith Paul to the Hebrews, we ought not to be faithless as our fathers were under Moses.

JFB: Heb 3:12 - departing Apostatizing. The opposite of "come unto" Him (Heb 4:16). God punishes such apostates in kind. He departs from them--the worst of woes.

Apostatizing. The opposite of "come unto" Him (Heb 4:16). God punishes such apostates in kind. He departs from them--the worst of woes.

JFB: Heb 3:12 - the living God Real: the distinctive characteristic of the God of Israel, not like the lifeless gods of the heathen; therefore One whose threats are awful realities....

Real: the distinctive characteristic of the God of Israel, not like the lifeless gods of the heathen; therefore One whose threats are awful realities. To apostatize from Christ is to apostatize from the living God (Heb 2:3).

JFB: Heb 3:13 - one another Greek, "yourselves"; let each exhort himself and his neighbor.

Greek, "yourselves"; let each exhort himself and his neighbor.

JFB: Heb 3:13 - daily Greek, "on each day," or "day by day."

Greek, "on each day," or "day by day."

JFB: Heb 3:13 - while it is called To-day While the "to-day" lasts (the day of grace, Luk 4:21, before the coming of the day of glory and judgment at Christ's coming, Heb 10:25, Heb 10:37). To...

While the "to-day" lasts (the day of grace, Luk 4:21, before the coming of the day of glory and judgment at Christ's coming, Heb 10:25, Heb 10:37). To-morrow is the day when idle men work, and fools repent. To-morrow is Satan's to-day; he cares not what good resolutions you form, if only you fix them for to-morrow.

JFB: Heb 3:13 - lest . . . of you The "you" is emphatic, as distinguished from "your fathers" (Heb 3:9). "That from among you no one (so the Greek order is in some of the oldest manusc...

The "you" is emphatic, as distinguished from "your fathers" (Heb 3:9). "That from among you no one (so the Greek order is in some of the oldest manuscripts) be hardened" (Heb 3:8).

JFB: Heb 3:13 - deceitfulness Causing you to "err in your heart."

Causing you to "err in your heart."

JFB: Heb 3:13 - sin Unbelief.

Unbelief.

JFB: Heb 3:14 - For, &c. Enforcing the warning, Heb 3:12.

Enforcing the warning, Heb 3:12.

JFB: Heb 3:14 - partakers of Christ (Compare Heb 3:1, Heb 3:6). So "partakers of the Holy Ghost" (Heb 6:4).

(Compare Heb 3:1, Heb 3:6). So "partakers of the Holy Ghost" (Heb 6:4).

JFB: Heb 3:14 - hold Greek, "hold fast."

Greek, "hold fast."

JFB: Heb 3:14 - the beginning of our confidence That is, the confidence (literally, substantial, solid confidence) of faith which we have begun (Heb 6:11; Heb 12:2). A Christian so long as he is not...

That is, the confidence (literally, substantial, solid confidence) of faith which we have begun (Heb 6:11; Heb 12:2). A Christian so long as he is not made perfect, considers himself as a beginner [BENGEL].

JFB: Heb 3:14 - unto the end Unto the coming of Christ (Heb 12:2).

Unto the coming of Christ (Heb 12:2).

JFB: Heb 3:15 - While it is said Connected with Heb 3:13, "exhort one another . . . while it is said, To-day": Heb 3:14, "for we are made partakers," &c., being a parenthesis. "It ent...

Connected with Heb 3:13, "exhort one another . . . while it is said, To-day": Heb 3:14, "for we are made partakers," &c., being a parenthesis. "It entirely depends on yourselves that the invitation of the ninety-fifth Psalm be not a mere invitation, but also an actual enjoyment." ALFORD translates, "Since (that is, 'for') it is said," &c., regarding Heb 3:15 as a proof that we must "hold . . . confidence . . . unto the end," in order to be "partakers of Christ."

JFB: Heb 3:16 - For some Rather interrogatively, "For WHO was it that, when they had heard (referring to 'if ye will hear,' Heb 3:15), did provoke (God)?" The "For" implies, Y...

Rather interrogatively, "For WHO was it that, when they had heard (referring to 'if ye will hear,' Heb 3:15), did provoke (God)?" The "For" implies, Ye need to take heed against unbelief: for, was it not because of unbelief that all our fathers were excluded (Eze 2:3)? "Some," and "not all," would be a faint way of putting his argument, when his object is to show the universality of the evil. Not merely some, but all the Israelites, for the solitary exceptions, Joshua and Caleb, are hardly to be taken into account in so general a statement. So Heb 3:17-18, are interrogative: (1) the beginning of the provocation, soon after the departure from Egypt, is marked in Heb 3:16; (2) the forty years of it in the wilderness, Heb 3:17; (3) the denial of entrance into the land of rest, Heb 3:18. Compare Note, see on 1Co 10:5, "with the majority of them God was displeased."

JFB: Heb 3:16 - howbeit "Nay (why need I put the question?), was it not all that came out of Egypt?" (Exo 17:1-2).

"Nay (why need I put the question?), was it not all that came out of Egypt?" (Exo 17:1-2).

JFB: Heb 3:16 - by Moses By the instrumentality of Moses as their leader.

By the instrumentality of Moses as their leader.

JFB: Heb 3:17 - But Translate, "Moreover," as it is not in contrast to Heb 3:16, but carrying out the same thought.

Translate, "Moreover," as it is not in contrast to Heb 3:16, but carrying out the same thought.

JFB: Heb 3:17 - corpses Literally, "limbs," implying that their bodies fell limb from limb.

Literally, "limbs," implying that their bodies fell limb from limb.

JFB: Heb 3:18 - to them that believed not Rather as Greek, "to them that disobeyed." Practical unbelief (Deu 1:26).

Rather as Greek, "to them that disobeyed." Practical unbelief (Deu 1:26).

JFB: Heb 3:19 - they could not enter Though desiring it.

Though desiring it.

Clarke: Heb 3:1 - Holy brethren Holy brethren - Persons consecrated to God, as the word literally implies, and called, in consequence, to be holy in heart, holy in life, and useful...

Holy brethren - Persons consecrated to God, as the word literally implies, and called, in consequence, to be holy in heart, holy in life, and useful in the world. The Israelites are often called a holy people, saints, etc., because consecrated to God, and because they were bound by their profession to be holy; and yet these appellations are given to them in numberless instances where they were very unholy. The not attending to this circumstance, and the not discerning between actual positive holiness, and the call to it, as the consecration of the persons, has led many commentators and preachers into destructive mistakes. Antinomianism has had its origin here: and as it was found that many persons were called saints, who, in many respects, were miserable sinners, hence it has been inferred that they were called saints in reference to a holiness which they had in another; and hence the Antinomian imputation of Christ’ s righteousness to unholy believers, whose hearts were abominable before God, and whose lives were a scandal to the Gospel. Let, therefore, a due distinction be made between persons by their profession holy, i.e. consecrated to God; and persons who are faithful to that profession, and are both inwardly and outwardly holy. They are not all Israel who are of Israel: a man, by a literal circumcision, may be a Jew outwardly; but the circumcision of the heart by the Spirit makes a man a Jew inwardly. A man may be a Christian in profession, and not such in heart; and those who pretend that, although they are unholy in themselves, they are reputed holy in Christ, because his righteousness is imputed to them, most awfully deceive their own souls

Dr. Owen has spoken well on the necessity of personal holiness against the Antinomians of his day. "If a man be not made holy he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. It is this that makes them meet for the inheritance of the saints in light; as without it they are not meet for their duty, so are they not capable of their reward. Yea, heaven itself, in the true light and notion of it, is undesirable to an unsanctified person. Such a one neither can nor would enjoy God if he might. In a word, there is no one thing required of the sons of God that an unsanctified person can do, and no one thing promised unto them that he can enjoy

"There is surely then a woful mistake in the world. If Christ sanctify all whom he saves, many will appear to have been mistaken in their expectations at another day. It is grown amongst us almost an abhorrency to all flesh to say, the Church of God is to be holy. What! though God has promised that it should be so; that Christ has undertaken to make it so? What! if it be required to be so? What! if all the duties of it be rejected of God, if it be not so? It is all one, if men be baptized, whether they will or not, and outwardly profess the name of Christ, though not one of them be truly sanctified, yet they are, it is said, the Church of Christ. Why then let them be so; but what are they the better for it? Are their persons or their services therefore accepted with God? Are they related or united to Christ? Are they under his conduct unto glory? Are they meet for the inheritance of the saints in light? Not at all: not all nor any of these things do they obtain thereby. What is it then that they get by the furious contest which they make for the reputation of this privilege? Only this: that, satisfying their minds by it, resting if not priding themselves in it, they obtain many advantages to stifle all convictions of their condition, and so perish unavoidably. A sad success, and for ever to be bewailed! Yet is there nothing at all at this day more contended for in this world than that Christ might be thought to be a captain of salvation to them, unto whom he is not a sanctifier; that he may have an unholy Church, a dead body. These things tend neither to the glory of Christ, nor to the good of the souls of men. Let none then deceive themselves; sanctification is a qualification indispensably necessary to them who will be under the conduct of the Lord Christ unto salvation; he leads none to heaven but whom he sanctifies on earth. The holy God will not receive unholy persons. This living head will not admit of dead members, nor bring men into possession of a glory which they neither love nor like.

Clarke: Heb 3:1 - Heavenly calling Heavenly calling - The Israelites had an earthly calling; they were called out of Egypt to go into the promised land: Christians have a heavenly cal...

Heavenly calling - The Israelites had an earthly calling; they were called out of Egypt to go into the promised land: Christians have a heavenly calling; they are invited to leave the bondage of sin, and go to the kingdom of God. These were made partakers of this calling; they had already embraced the Gospel, and were brought into a state of salvation

Clarke: Heb 3:1 - Apostle and High Priest of our profession Apostle and High Priest of our profession - Among the Jews the high priest was considered to be also the apostle of God; and it is in conformity to ...

Apostle and High Priest of our profession - Among the Jews the high priest was considered to be also the apostle of God; and it is in conformity to this notion that the apostle speaks. And he exhorts the Hebrews to consider Jesus Christ to be both their High Priest and Apostle; and to expect these offices to be henceforth fulfilled by him, and by him alone. This was the fullest intimation that the Mosaic economy was at an end, and the priesthood changed. By της ὁμολογιας ἡμων, our profession, or that confession of ours, the apostle undoubtedly means the Christian religion. Jesus was the Apostle of the Father, and has given to mankind the new covenant; and we are to consider the whole system of Christianity as coming immediately from him. Every system of religion must have a priest and a prophet; the one to declare the will of God, the other to minister in holy things. Moses was the apostle under the old testament, and Aaron the priest. When Moses was removed, the prophets succeeded him; and the sons of Aaron were the priests after the death of their father. This system is now annulled; and Jesus is the Prophet who declares the Father’ s will, and he is the Priest who ministers in the things pertaining to God, see Heb 2:17; as he makes atonement for the sins of the people, and is the Mediator between God and man.

Clarke: Heb 3:2 - Who was faithful to him Who was faithful to him - In Num 12:7, God gives this testimony to Moses: My servant Moses - is faithful in all my house; and to this testimony the ...

Who was faithful to him - In Num 12:7, God gives this testimony to Moses: My servant Moses - is faithful in all my house; and to this testimony the apostle alludes. House not only means the place where a family dwells, but also the family itself. The whole congregation of Israel was the house or family of God, and God is represented as dwelling among them; and Moses was his steward, and was faithful in the discharge of his office; strictly enforcing the Divine rights; zealously maintaining God’ s honor; carefully delivering the mind and will of God to the people; proclaiming his promises, and denouncing his judgments, with the most inflexible integrity, though often at the risk of his life. Jesus Christ has his house - the whole great family of mankind, for all of whom he offered his sacrificial blood to God; and the Christian Church, which is especially his own household, is composed of his own children and servants, among and in whom he lives and constantly resides. He has been faithful to the trust reposed in him as the apostle of God; he has faithfully proclaimed the will of the Most High; vindicated the Divine honor against the corrupters of God’ s worship; testified against them at the continual hazard of his life; and, at last, not only died as a victim to cancel sin, but also as a martyr to his faithfulness. Christ’ s faithfulness, says Leigh, consists in this: "That he has as fully revealed unto us the doctrine of the Gospel, as Moses did that of the law; and that he hath faithfully performed and fulfilled all the types of himself and all the things signified by Moses’ ceremonies, as Moses hath faithfully and distinctly set them down.

But there is a sense given to the word נאמן neeman , Num 12:7, which we translate faithful, by several of the Jewish writers, which is well worthy of note: it signifies, say they, "one to whom secrets are confided, with the utmost confidence of their being safely and conscientiously kept."The secret of God was with Moses, but all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge were in Christ. Life and immortality were comparatively secrets till Christ revealed and illustrated them, and even the Divine nature was but little known, and especially the Divine philanthropy, till Jesus Christ came; and it was Jesus alone who declared that God whom no man had ever seen. Moses received the secrets of God, and faithfully taught them to the people; Jesus revealed the whole will of God to mankind. Moses was thus faithful to a small part of mankind, viz. the Jewish people; but in this sense Jesus was faithful to all mankind: for he was the light to enlighten the Gentiles, and the glory of his people Israel.

Clarke: Heb 3:3 - For this man was counted For this man was counted - As Jesus Christ, in the character of apostle and high priest, is here intended, the word apostle, or this person or perso...

For this man was counted - As Jesus Christ, in the character of apostle and high priest, is here intended, the word apostle, or this person or personage, should have been supplied, if any, instead of man. Indeed, the pronoun οὑτος should have been translated this person, and this would have referred immediately to Jesus Christ, Heb 3:1

Clarke: Heb 3:3 - More glory than Moses More glory than Moses - We have already seen that the apostle’ s design is to prove that Jesus Christ is higher than the angels, higher than Mo...

More glory than Moses - We have already seen that the apostle’ s design is to prove that Jesus Christ is higher than the angels, higher than Moses, and higher than Aaron. That he is higher than the angels has been already proved; that he is higher than Moses he is now proving

Clarke: Heb 3:3 - He who hath builded the house He who hath builded the house - There can be no doubt that a man who builds a house for his own accommodation is more honorable than the house itsel...

He who hath builded the house - There can be no doubt that a man who builds a house for his own accommodation is more honorable than the house itself; but the house here intended is the Church of God. This Church, here called a house or family, is built by Christ; he is the Head, Governor, Soul and Life of it; he must therefore be greater than Moses, who was only a member and officer in that Church, who never put a stone in this spiritual building but was even himself put in it by the great Architect. Moses was in this house, and faithful in this house; but the house was the house of God, and builded and governed by Christ.

Clarke: Heb 3:4 - For every house is builded by some man For every house is builded by some man - The literal sense is plain enough: "Every structure plainly implies an, architect, and an end for which it ...

For every house is builded by some man - The literal sense is plain enough: "Every structure plainly implies an, architect, and an end for which it was formed. The architect may be employed by him for whose use the house is intended; but the efficient cause of the erection is that which is here to he regarded."The word house, here, is still taken in a metaphorical sense as above, it signifies family or Church. Now the general meaning of the words, taken in this sense, is: "Every family has an author, and a head or governor. Man may found families, civil and religious communities, and be the head of these; but God alone is the Head, Author, and Governor, of all the families of the earth; he is the Governor of the universe. But the apostle has a more restricted meaning in the words τα παντα, all these things; and as he has been treating of the Jewish and Christian Churches, so he appears to have them in view here. Who could found the Jewish and Christian Church but God? Who could support, govern, influence, and defend them, but himself? Communities or societies, whether religious or civil, may be founded by man; but God alone can build his own Church. Now as all these things could be builded only by God, so he must be God who has built all these things. But as Jesus is the Founder of the Church, and the Head of it, the word God seems here to be applied to him; and several eminent scholars and critics bring this very text as a proof of the supreme Deity of Christ: and the apostle’ s argument seems to require this; for, as he is proving that Christ is preferred before Moses because he built this house, which Moses could not do, where he to be understood as intimating that this house was built by another, viz. the Father, his whole argument would fall to the ground; and for all this, Moses might be equal, yea, superior to Christ. On this ground Dr. Owen properly concludes: "This then is that which the apostle intends to declare; namely, the ground and reason whence it is that the house was or could be, in that glorious manner, built by Christ, even because he is God, and so able to effect it; and by this effect of his power, he is manifested so to be."

Clarke: Heb 3:5 - As a servant As a servant - The fidelity of Moses was the fidelity of a servant; he was not the framer of that Church or house; he was employed, under God, to ar...

As a servant - The fidelity of Moses was the fidelity of a servant; he was not the framer of that Church or house; he was employed, under God, to arrange and order it: he was steward to the Builder and Owner

Clarke: Heb 3:5 - For a testimony of those things For a testimony of those things - Every ordinance under the law was typical; every thing bore a testimony to the things which were to be spoken afte...

For a testimony of those things - Every ordinance under the law was typical; every thing bore a testimony to the things which were to be spoken after; i.e. to Jesus Christ, his suffering, death, and the glory which should follow; and to his Gospel in all its parts. The faithfulness of Moses consisted in his scrupulous attention to every ordinance of God; his framing every thing according to the pattern showed him by the Lord; and his referring all to that Christ of whom he spoke as the prophet who should come after him, and should be raised up from among themselves; whom they should attentively hear and obey, on pain of being cut off from being the people of the Lord. Hence our Lord told the Jews, Joh 5:46 : If ye had believed Moses, ye would have believed me, for he wrote of me; "namely;"says Dr. Macknight, "in the figures, but especially in the prophecies, of the law, where the Gospel dispensation, the coming of its Author, and his character as Messiah, are all described with a precision which adds the greatest lustre of evidence to Jesus and to his Gospel."

Clarke: Heb 3:6 - But Christ as a Son over his own house But Christ as a Son over his own house - Moses was faithful as a servant In the house; Jesus was faithful, as the first-born Son, Over the house of ...

But Christ as a Son over his own house - Moses was faithful as a servant In the house; Jesus was faithful, as the first-born Son, Over the house of which he is the Heir and Governor. Here, then, is the conclusion of the argument in reference to Christ’ s superiority over Moses. Moses did not found the house or family, Christ did; Moses was but in the house, or one of the family, Christ was over the house as its Ruler; Moses was but servant in the house, Christ was the Son and Heir; Moses was in the house of another, Christ in his own house

It is well known to every learned reader that the pronoun αυτου, without an aspirate, signifies his simply; and that with the aspirate, αὑτου, it signifies his own: the word being in this form a contraction, not uncommon, of ἑαυτου . If we read αυτου without the aspirate, then his must refer to God, Heb 3:4

But Christ as a Son over his (that is, God’ s) house: if we read αὑτου, with the aspirate, as some editions do, then what is spoken refers to Christ; and the words above convey the same sense as those words, Act 20:28 : Feed the Church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood. Some editions read the word thus; and it is evident that the edition which our translators used had the word αὑτου, his own, and not αυτου, his. The Spanish and London Polyglots have the same reading. From the most ancient MSS. we can get no help to determine which is to be preferred, as they are generally written without accents. The two first editions of the Greek Testament, that of Complutum, 1514, and that of Erasmus, 1516, have αυτου, his; and they are followed by most other editions: but the celebrated edition of Robert Stephens, 1550, has αὑτου, his own. The reading is certainly important; but it belongs to one of those difficulties in criticism which, if the context or collateral evidence do not satisfactorily solve it, must remain in doubt; and every reader is at liberty to adopt which reading he thinks best

Clarke: Heb 3:6 - Whose house are we Whose house are we - We Christians are his Church and family; he is our Father, Governor, and Head

Whose house are we - We Christians are his Church and family; he is our Father, Governor, and Head

Clarke: Heb 3:6 - If we hold fast the confidence If we hold fast the confidence - We are now his Church, and shall continue to be such, and be acknowledged by him If we maintain our Christian profe...

If we hold fast the confidence - We are now his Church, and shall continue to be such, and be acknowledged by him If we maintain our Christian profession, την παρῥησιαν, that liberty of access to God, which we now have, and the rejoicing of the hope, i.e. of eternal life, which we shall receive at the resurrection of the dead. The word παρῥησια, which is here translated confidence, and which signifies freedom of speech, liberty of access, etc., seems to be used here to distinguish an important Christian privilege. Under the old testament no man was permitted to approach to God: even the very mountain on which God published his laws must not be touched by man nor beast; and only the high priest was permitted to enter the holy of holies, and that only once a year, on the great day of atonement; and even then he must have the blood of the victim to propitiate the Divine justice. Under the Christian dispensation the way to the holiest is now laid open; and we have παρῥησιαν, liberty of access, even to the holiest, by the blood of Jesus. Having such access unto God, by such a Mediator, we may obtain all that grace which is necessary to fit us for eternal glory; and, having the witness of his Spirit in our heart, we have a well grounded hope of endless felicity, and exult in the enjoyment of that hope. But If we retain not the grace, we shall not inherit the glory.

Clarke: Heb 3:7 - Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, Today Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, Today - These words are quoted from Psa 95:7; and as they were written by David, and attributed here to the Holy...

Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, Today - These words are quoted from Psa 95:7; and as they were written by David, and attributed here to the Holy Ghost, it proves that David wrote, by the inspiration of God’ s Holy Spirit. As these words were originally a warning to the Israelites not to provoke God, lest they should be excluded from that rest which he had promised them, the apostle uses them here to persuade the Christians in Palestine to hold fast their religious privileges, and, the grace they had received, lest they should come short of that state of future glory which Christ had prepared for them. The words strongly imply, as indeed does the whole epistle, the possibility of falling from the grace of God, and perishing everlastingly; and without this supposition these words, and all such like, which make more than two-thirds of the whole of Divine revelation, would have neither sense nor meaning. Why should God entreat man to receive his mercy, if he have rendered this impossible? Why should he exhort a believer to persevere, if it be impossible for him to fall away? What contemptible quibbling have men used to maintain a false and dangerous tenet against the whole tenor of the word of God! Angels fell - Adam fell - Solomon fell - and multitudes of believers have fallen, and, for aught we know, rose no more; and yet we are told that we cannot finally lose the benefits of our conversion! Satan preached this doctrine to our first parents; they believed him, sinned, and fell; and brought a whole world to ruin!

Clarke: Heb 3:8 - Harden not your hearts Harden not your hearts - Which ye will infallibly do, if ye will not hear his voice

Harden not your hearts - Which ye will infallibly do, if ye will not hear his voice

Clarke: Heb 3:8 - Provocation Provocation - Παραπικρασμος· From παρα, signifying intensity, and πικραινω, to make bitter; the exasperation, or bitte...

Provocation - Παραπικρασμος· From παρα, signifying intensity, and πικραινω, to make bitter; the exasperation, or bitter provocation. "The Israelites provoked God first in the wilderness of Sin, (Pelusium), when they murmured for want of bread, and had the manna given them, Exo 16:4. From the wilderness of Sin they journeyed to Rephidim, where they provoked God a second time for want of water, and insolently saying, Is the Lord God among us or not? Exo 17:2-9, on which account the place was called Massah and Meribah. See 1Co 10:4 (note), note 1. From Rephidim they went into the wilderness of Sinai, where they received the law, in the beginning of the third year from their coming out of Egypt. Here they provoked God again, by making the golden calf, Exo 32:10. After the law was given they were commanded to go directly to Canaan, and take possession of the promised land, Deu 1:6, Deu 1:7 : God spake unto us in Horeb, saying, Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount: turn you, and take your journey, and go to the mount of the Amorites, and unto all the places nigh thereunto, in the plain, in the hills, and in the vales, and in the south, and by the seaside, to the land if the Canaanites, and unto Lebanon, and unto the great river, the river Euphrates. The Israelites, having received this order, departed from Horeb, and went forward three days’ journey, Num 10:33, till they came to Taberah, Num 11:3, where they provoked God the fourth time, by murmuring for want of flesh to eat; and for that sin were smitten with a very great plague, Num 11:33; this place was called Kibroth-hattaavah, because there they buried the people who lusted. From Kibroth-hattaavah they went to Hazeroth, Num 11:35, and from thence into the wilderness of Paran, Num 12:16, to a place called Kadesh, Num 13:26. Their journey from Horeb to Kadesh is thus described by Moses, Deu 1:19-21 : And when we departed from Horeb, we went through all that great and terrible wilderness, which you saw by the way of the mountain of the Amorites, as the Lord our God commanded us; and, we came to Kadesh-barnea. And I said unto you, Ye are come unto the mountain of the Amorites, which the Lord our God doth give unto us. Behold, the Lord thy God hath set the land before thee; go up and possess it. But the people proposed to Moses to send spies, to bring them an account of the land, and of its inhabitants, Deu 1:22. These after forty days returned to Kadesh; and, except Caleb and Joshua, they all agreed in bringing an evil report of the land, Num 13:25-32; whereby the people were so discouraged that they refused to go up, and proposed to make a captain, and return into Egypt, Num 14:4. Wherefore, having thus shown an absolute disbelief of God’ s promises, and an utter distrust of his power, he sware that not one of that generation should enter Canaan, except Caleb and Joshua, but should all die in the wilderness, Num 14:20; Deu 1:34, Deu 1:35; and ordered them to turn, and get into the wilderness, by the way of the Red Sea. In that wilderness the Israelites, as Moses informs us, sojourned thirty-eight years, Deu 2:14 : And the space in which we came from Kadesh-barnea, until we were come over the brook Zereb, was thirty and eight years; until all the generation of the men of war were wasted out from among the host, as the Lord sware unto them. Wherefore, although the Israelites provoked God to wrath in the wilderness, from the day they came out of the land of Egypt until their arrival in Canaan, as Moses told them, Deu 9:7, their greatest provocation, the provocation in which they showed the greatest degree of evil disposition, undoubtedly was their refusing to go into Canaan from Kadesh. It was therefore very properly termed the bitter provocation and the day of temptation, by way of eminence; and justly brought on them the oath of God, excluding them from his rest in Canaan. To distinguish this from the provocation at Rephidim, it is called Meribah-Kadesh,"Deu 32:51. See Dr. Macknight.

Clarke: Heb 3:9 - When your fathers tempted me When your fathers tempted me - It would be better to translate οὑ where than when, as the Vulgate has done in its ubi ; and this translation ...

When your fathers tempted me - It would be better to translate οὑ where than when, as the Vulgate has done in its ubi ; and this translation has been followed by Wiclif, Coverdale, Tindal, and our first translators in general. In my old MS. Bible the 7th, 8th, and 9th verses stand thus: -

Wherefore as the Holy Gost seith, to-day gif yhe han herde his voyce: nye yhe herden ghour hertis as in wrath-thinge, after the day of temptacioun in desert. Where ghoure fadris temptiden me: provyden and saiden my werkis. Wherefore fourtye yeere I was offendid or wrothe to this generatoun

In behalf of this translation, Dr. Macknight very properly argues: "The word When implies that, at the time of the bitter provocation, the Israelites had seen God’ s works forty years; contrary to the history, which shows that the bitter provocation happened, in the beginning of the third year after the Exodus: whereas the translation where, as well as the matter of fact, represents God as saying, by David, that the Israelites tempted God in the wilderness during forty years, notwithstanding all that time they had seen God’ s miracles."

Clarke: Heb 3:10 - Wherefore I was grieved Wherefore I was grieved - God represents himself as the Father of this great Jewish family, for whose comfort and support he had made every necessar...

Wherefore I was grieved - God represents himself as the Father of this great Jewish family, for whose comfort and support he had made every necessary provision, and to whom he had given every proof of tenderness and fatherly affection; and because, they disobeyed him, and walked ill that way in which they could not but be miserable, therefore he represents himself as grieved and exceedingly displeased with them

Clarke: Heb 3:10 - They do alway err in their hearts They do alway err in their hearts - Their affections are set on earthly things, and they do not acknowledge my ways to be right - holy, just, and go...

They do alway err in their hearts - Their affections are set on earthly things, and they do not acknowledge my ways to be right - holy, just, and good. They are radically evil; and they are evil, continually. They have every proof, of my power and goodness, and lay nothing to heart. They might have been saved, but they would not. God was grieved on this account. Now, can we suppose that it would have grieved him if, by a decree of his own, he had rendered their salvation impossible?

Clarke: Heb 3:11 - So I sware in my wrath So I sware in my wrath - God’ s grief at their continued disobedience became wrath at their final impenitence, and therefore he excluded them f...

So I sware in my wrath - God’ s grief at their continued disobedience became wrath at their final impenitence, and therefore he excluded them from the promised rest.

Clarke: Heb 3:12 - Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you - Take warning by those disobedient Israelites; they were brought out of the house of bondage, and ...

Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you - Take warning by those disobedient Israelites; they were brought out of the house of bondage, and had the fullest promise of a land of prosperity and rest. By their disobedience they came short of it, and fell in the wilderness. Ye have been brought from the bondage of sin, and have a most gracious promise of an everlasting inheritance among the saints in light; through unbelief and disobedience they lost their rest, through the same ye may lose yours. An evil heart of unbelief will head away from the living God. What was possible in their case, is possible in yours. The apostle shows here five degrees of apostasy

1.    Consenting to sin, being deceived by its solicitations

2.    Hardness of heart, through giving way to sin

3.    Unbelief in consequence of this hardness which leads them to call even the truth of the Gospel in question

4.    This unbelief causing them to speak evil of the Gospel, and the provision God has made for the salvation of their souls

5.    Apostasy itself, or falling off from the living God; and thus extinguishing all the light that was in them, and finally grieving the Spirit of God, so that he takes his flight, and leaves them to a seared conscience and reprobate mind

See Leigh. He who begins to give the least way to sin is in danger of final apostasy; the best remedy against this is to get the evil heart removed, as one murderer in the house is more to be dreaded than ten without.

Clarke: Heb 3:13 - But exhort one another daily But exhort one another daily - This supposes a state of chose Church fellowship, without which they could not have had access to each other

But exhort one another daily - This supposes a state of chose Church fellowship, without which they could not have had access to each other

Clarke: Heb 3:13 - While it is called to-day While it is called to-day - Use time while you have: it, for by and by there will be no more present time; all will be future; all will be eternity....

While it is called to-day - Use time while you have: it, for by and by there will be no more present time; all will be future; all will be eternity. Daily signifies time continued. To-day, all present time. Your fathers said: Let us make ourselves a captain, and return back unto Egypt, Num 14:4. Thus they exhorted each other to depart from the living God. Be ye warned by their example; let not that unbelieving heart be in you that was in them; exhort each other daily to cleave to the living God; lest, if ye, do not, ye, like them, may be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin.

Clarke: Heb 3:14 - For we are made partakers of Christ For we are made partakers of Christ - Having believed in Christ as the promised Messiah, and embraced the whole Christian system, they were conseque...

For we are made partakers of Christ - Having believed in Christ as the promised Messiah, and embraced the whole Christian system, they were consequently made partakers of all its benefits in this life, and entitled to the fulfillment of all its exceeding great and precious promises relative to the glories of the eternal world. The former they actually possessed, the latter they could have only in case of their perseverance; therefore the apostle says, If we hold fast the beginning of our confidence steadfast unto the end, i.e. of our life. For our participation of glory depends on our continuing steadfast in the faith, to the end of our Christian race

The word ὑποστασις, which we here translate confidence, from ὑπο, under, and ἱστημι, to place or stand, signifies properly a basis or foundation; that on which something else is builded, and by which it is supported. Their faith in Christ Jesus was this hypostasis or foundation; on that all their peace, comfort, and salvation were builded. If this were not held fast to the end, Christ, in his saving influences, could not be held fast; and no Christ, no heaven. He who has Christ in him, has the well-founded hope of glory; and he who is found in the great day with Christ in his heart, will have an abundant entrance into eternal glory.

Clarke: Heb 3:15 - While it is said, To-day While it is said, To-day - You may see the necessity of perseverance from the saying, "Today, if ye will hear his voice,"therefore harden not your h...

While it is said, To-day - You may see the necessity of perseverance from the saying, "Today, if ye will hear his voice,"therefore harden not your hearts - do not neglect so great a salvation; hold fast what ye have obtained, and let no man take your crown. See on Heb 3:7-9 (note) and Heb 3:12 (note).

Clarke: Heb 3:16 - For some, when they had heard, did provoke For some, when they had heard, did provoke - There is a various reading here, which consists merely in the different placing of an accent, and yet g...

For some, when they had heard, did provoke - There is a various reading here, which consists merely in the different placing of an accent, and yet gives the whole passage a different turn: - τινες, from τις, who, if read with the accent on the epsilon, τινὲς, is the plural indefinite, and signifies some, as in our translation; if read with the accent on the iota, τίνες, it has an interrogative meaning; and, according to this, the whole clause, τίνες γαρ ακουσαντες παρεπικραναν ; But who were those hearers who did bitterly provoke? αλλ ου παντες οἱ εξελθοντες εξ Αιγυπτου δια Μωσεως ; Were they not all they who came out of the land of Egypt by Moses? Or, the whole clause may be read with one interrogation: But who were those hearers that did bitterly provoke, but all those who came out of Egypt by Moses? This mode of reading is followed by some editions, and by Chrysostom and Theodoret, and by several learned moderns. It is more likely that this is the true reading, as all that follows to the end of the 18th verse is a series of interrogations

Should it be said that all did not provoke, for Joshua and Caleb are expressly excepted; I answer, that the term all may be with great propriety used, when out of many hundreds of thousands only two persons were found who continued faithful. To these also we may add the priests and the whole tribe of Levi, who, it is very likely, did not provoke; for, as Dr. Macknight very properly remarks, they were not of the number of those who were to fight their way into Canaan, being entirely devoted to the service of the sanctuary. See Num 1:3, Num 1:45, and Num 1:49. And therefore what remained of them after forty years, no doubt, entered Canaan; for it appears from Num 34:17, and Jos 24:33, that Eleazar, the son of Aaron, was one of those who did take possession of Canaan. Should it be still said our version appears to be most proper, because all did not provoke; it may be answered, that the common reading, τινὲς, some, is too contracted in its meaning to comprehend the hundreds of thousands who did rebel.

Clarke: Heb 3:17 - But with whom was he grieved forty years? But with whom was he grieved forty years? - I believe it was Surenhusius who first observed that "the apostle, in using the term forty years, elegan...

But with whom was he grieved forty years? - I believe it was Surenhusius who first observed that "the apostle, in using the term forty years, elegantly alludes to the space of time which had elapsed since the ascension of our Lord till the time in which this epistle was written, which was about forty years."But this does not exactly agree with what appears to be the exact date of this epistle. However, God had now been a long time provoked by that race rejecting the manifested Messiah, as he was by the conduct of their forefathers in the wilderness; and as that provocation was punished by a very signal judgment, so they might expect this to be punished also. The analogy was perfect in the crimes, and it might reasonably be expected to be so in the punishment. And was not the destruction of Jerusalem a proof of the heinous nature of their crimes, and of the justice of God’ s outpoured wrath

Clarke: Heb 3:17 - Whose carcasses fell Whose carcasses fell - Ὡν τα κωλα επεσεν· Whose members fell; for τα κωλα properly signifies the members of the body, and...

Whose carcasses fell - Ὡν τα κωλα επεσεν· Whose members fell; for τα κωλα properly signifies the members of the body, and here may be an allusion to the scattered, bleached bones of this people, that were a long time apparent in the wilderness, continuing there as a proof of their crimes, and of the judgments of God.

Clarke: Heb 3:18 - To whom sware he To whom sware he - God never acts by any kind of caprice; whenever he pours out his judgments, there are the most positive reasons to vindicate his ...

To whom sware he - God never acts by any kind of caprice; whenever he pours out his judgments, there are the most positive reasons to vindicate his conduct

Those whose carcasses fell in the wilderness were they who had sinned. And those who did not enter into his rest were those who believed not. God is represented here as swearing that they should not enter in, in order to show the determinate nature of his purpose, the reason on which it was founded, and the height of the aggravation which occasioned it.

Clarke: Heb 3:19 - So we see that they could not enter in So we see that they could not enter in - It was no decree of God that prevented them, it was no want of necessary strength to enable them, it was th...

So we see that they could not enter in - It was no decree of God that prevented them, it was no want of necessary strength to enable them, it was through no deficiency of Divine counsel to instruct them; all these they had in abundance: but they chose to sin, and would not believe. Unbelief produced disobedience, and disobedience produced hardness of heart and blindness of mind; and all these drew down the judgments of God, and wrath came upon them to the uttermost

1.    This whole chapter, as the epistle in general, reads a most awful lesson against backsliders, triflers, and loiterers in the way of salvation. Every believer in Christ is in danger of apostasy, while any remains of the evil heart of unbelief are found in him. God has promised to purify the heart; and the blood of Christ cleanses from all sin. It is therefore the highest wisdom of genuine Christians to look to God for the complete purification of their souls; this they cannot have too soon, and for this they cannot be too much in earnest

2.    No man should defer his salvation to any future time. If God speaks to-day, it is to-day that he should be heard and obeyed. To defer reconciliation to God to any future period, is the most reprehensible and destructive presumption. It supposes that God will indulge us in our sensual propensities, and cause his mercy to tarry for us till we have consummated our iniquitous purposes. It shows that we prefer, at least for the present, the devil to Christ, sin to holiness, and earth to heaven. And can we suppose that God will be thus mocked? Can we suppose that it can at all consistent with his mercy to extend forgiveness to such abominable provocation? What a man sows that shall he reap. If he sows to the flesh, he shall of the flesh reap corruption. Reader, it is a dreadful thing to fall into the hands of the living God

3.    Unbelief has generally been considered the most damning of all sins. I wish those who make this assertion would condescend to explain themselves. What is this unbelief that damns and ruins mankind? Their not permitting their minds to be persuaded of the truths which God speaks. Απιστια, from α, negative, and πιστις, faith, signifies faithless or to be without faith. And this is an effect from another cause. In Heb 4:11, these very people are said to have fallen through unbelief; but there the word is απειθεια, from α, negative, and πειθω, to persuade. They heard the Divine instructions, they saw God’ s stupendous miracles; but they would not suffer themselves to be persuaded, that he who said and did such things would perform those other things which he had either threatened or promised: hence they had no faith, because they were unpersuaded; and their unbelief was the effect of their unpersuaded or unpersuadable mind. And their minds were not persuaded of God’ s truth, because they had ears open only to the dictates of the flesh; see on Heb 4:2 (note). Here then is the damning sin, the not inferring, from what God has said and done, that he will do those other things which he has either threatened or promised. And how few are there who are not committing this sin daily! Reader, dost thou in this state dream of heaven? Awake out of sleep

4.    Where there are so many snares and dangers it is impossible to be too watchful and circumspect. Satan, as a roaring lion, as a subtle serpent, or in the guise of an angel of light, is momentarily going about seeking whom he may deceive, blind, and devour; and, when it is considered that the human heart, till entirely renewed, is on his side, it is a miracle of mercy that any soul escapes perdition: no man is safe any longer than he maintains the spirit of watchfulness and prayer; and to maintain such a spirit, he has need of all the means of grace. He who neglects any of them which the mercy of God has placed in his power, tempts the devil to tempt him. As a preventive of backsliding and apostasy, the apostle recommends mutual exhortation. No Christian should live for himself alone; he should consider his fellow Christian as a member of the same body, and feel for him accordingly, and have, succor, and protect him. When this is carefully attended to in religious society, Satan finds it very difficult to make an inroad on the Church; but when coldness, distance, and a want of brotherly love take place, Satan can attack each singly, and, by successive victories over individuals, soon make an easy conquest of the whole.

Calvin: Heb 3:1 - NO PHRASE 1.=== Wherefore, holy brethren, === etc. He concludes the preceding doctrine with a necessary exhortation, that the Jews should attentively consider...

1.=== Wherefore, holy brethren, === etc. He concludes the preceding doctrine with a necessary exhortation, that the Jews should attentively consider what sort of being and how great Christ is. As he had before, by naming him a teacher and a priest, briefly compared him with Moses and Aaron, so he now includes both clauses; for he adorns him with two titles, as he sustains a twofold character in the Church of God. Moses was a prophet and a teacher, and Aaron was a priest; but the two offices belong to Christ. If then we seek rightly to know him, we must inquire what sort of being he is; yea, he must be clothed with his own power, lest we lay hold on an empty shadow and not on him. 53

First, the word consider, is important, for it intimates that singular attention is required, as he cannot be disregarded with impunity, and that at the same time the true knowledge of Christ is sufficient to dissipate the darkness of all errors. And to encourage them the more to pursue this study, he reminds them of their calling; as though he had said, “God favored you with no common grace when He called you into his kingdom; 54 it now remains that you have your eyes fixed on Christ as your leader in the way.” 55 For the calling of the godly cannot be otherwise confirmed than by a thorough surrender of themselves to Christ. We ought not therefore to regard this as said only to the Jews, but that it is a general truth addressed to all who desire to come into the kingdom of God; they ought sedulously to attend to Christ, for he is the sole instructor of our faith, and has confirmed it by the sacrifice of himself; for confession, or profession, is to be taken here for faith, as thought he had said, that the faith we profess is vain and of no avail, unless Christ be its object. 56

Calvin: Heb 3:2 - Who was, 2.Who was, or is faithful, etc. This is a commendation of the apostleship of Christ, in order that the faithful may securely acquiesce in him; and ...

2.Who was, or is faithful, etc. This is a commendation of the apostleship of Christ, in order that the faithful may securely acquiesce in him; and he commends it on two grounds, because the Father has set him to be over us as our teacher, and because Christ himself has faithfully performed the office committed to him. These two things are always necessary to secure authority to a doctrine; for God alone ought to be attended to, as the whole Scripture testifies; hence Christ declares, that the doctrine which he delivered was not his own, but the Father’s, (Joh 7:16;) and in another place he says, “He who received me, receiveth him who has sent me.” (Luk 9:48.) For we say of Christ, that as he is clothed with our flesh, he is the Father’s minister to execute his commands. To the calling of God is added the faithful and upright performance of duty on the part of Christ; and this is required in true ministers, in order that they may obtain credence in the Church. Since these two things are found in Christ, doubtless he cannot be disregarded without despising God in him.

===As also Moses, === etc. Omitting for a while the priesthood, he speaks here of his apostleship. For as there are two parts in God’s covenant, the promulgation of the truth, and so to speak, its real confirmation, the full perfection of the covenant would not appear in Christ, were not both parts found in him. Hence the writer of the epistle, after having mentioned both, roused attention by a brief exhortation. But he now enters on a longer discussion, and begins with the office of a teacher: he therefore now compares Christ only with Moses. The words, in all his house, may be applied to Moses; but I prefer to apply them to Christ, as he may be said to be faithful to his Father in ruling his whole house. It hence follows, that none belong to the Church of God except those who acknowledge Christ. 57

Calvin: Heb 3:3 - For this man 3.For this man (or, he) was counted worthy, etc. Lest he might appear to make Moses equal to Christ, he reminds us of his superior excellency; and...

3.For this man (or, he) was counted worthy, etc. Lest he might appear to make Moses equal to Christ, he reminds us of his superior excellency; and this he proves by two arguments, ­Moses so ruled the Church, that he was still a part and member of it; but Christ being the builder, is superior to the whole building, — Moses while ruling others, was ruled also himself, as he was a servant; but Christ being a Son possesses supreme power.

It is a frequent and well­known metaphor used in Scripture to call the Church the house of God. (1Ti 3:15.) And as it is composed of the faithful, each of them is called a living stone. (1Pe 2:5.) They are also sometimes called the vessels with which the house is furnished. (2Ti 2:20.) There is then no one so eminent that he is not a member, and included in the universal body. God being the builder, alone is to be set above his own work; but God dwells in Christ, so that whatever is said of God is applicable to him.

If any one objects and says that Christ is also a part of the building because he is the foundation, because he is our brother, because he has a union with us and then that he is not the master­builder because he himself was formed by God: in reply to these things we say that our faith is so founded on him that he still rules over us that he is in such a way our brother that he is yet our Lord, that he was so formed by God as man that he nevertheless by his Spirit revives and restores all things as the eternal God. The Scripture employs us various metaphors to set forth Christ s grace towards us; but there is no one which derogates from his honor mentioned here by the Apostle; for what is stated here is that all ought to be brought down to their own state because they ought to be in subjection to the head and that Christ alone is exempt from this submission, because he is the head.

If it be again objected and said that Moses was no less a master­builder than Paul who gloried in this title: to this I reply that this name is applied to prophets and teachers but not with strict correctness; for they are only the instruments and indeed dead instruments, except the Lord from heaven gives efficacy to what they do; and then they so labor in building the Church, that they themselves form a part of the structure; but the case is wholly different as to Christ, for he ever builds up the Church by the power of his own Spirit. Besides, he stands far above the rest, for he is in such a way the true temple of God, that he is at the same time the God who inhabits it.

Calvin: Heb 3:4 - NO PHRASE 4.=== He that built, === etc. Though these words may be extended to the creation of the whole world, yet I confine them to the present subject. We a...

4.=== He that built, === etc. Though these words may be extended to the creation of the whole world, yet I confine them to the present subject. We are then to understand that nothing is done in the Church which ought not to he ascribed to Gods power; for he alone has founded it by his own hand, (Psa 87:5;) and Paul says of Christ that he is the head, from whom the whole body, joined together and connected by every subservient juncture, makes an increase according to what is done proportionally by every member. (Eph 4:16.) Hence he often declares that the success of his ministry was God’s work. In a word, if we take a right view of things, it will appear that how much soever God may use the labors of men in building his Church, yet he himself performs everything — the instrument derogates nothing from the workman. 58

Calvin: Heb 3:5 - And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant, === etc. The second difference is, that to Moses was committed a doctrine to which he, in common with others, was to submit; but Christ, though he put on the form of a servant, is yet Master and Lord, to whom all ought to be subject; for, as we found in Heb 1:2, he is constituted heir of all things.

===For a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after, 5.And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant, === etc. The second difference is, that to Moses was committed a doctrine to which h...

5.And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant, === etc. The second difference is, that to Moses was committed a doctrine to which he, in common with others, was to submit; but Christ, though he put on the form of a servant, is yet Master and Lord, to whom all ought to be subject; for, as we found in Heb 1:2, he is constituted heir of all things.

===For a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after, or which were afterwards to be said or declared. I explain this simply in this way, — that Moses, while a herald of that doctrine which was to be published for a time to the ancient people, did at the same time render a testimony to the Gospel, the publication of which was not as yet to be made; for it is doubtless evident, that the end and completion of the Law is that perfection of wisdom contained in the Gospel. This exposition seems to comport with the future tense of the participle. The meaning indeed is, that Moses faithfully delivered to the people what the Lord had committed to him, but that limits were prescribed to him which it was not lawful for him to pass. God formerly spoke at different times and in various ways by the prophets, but he deferred to the fullness of time the complete revelation of the Gospel.

Calvin: Heb 3:6 - NO PHRASE 6.=== Whose house are we, === etc. As Paul in his Epistle to the Romans, after having prefaced that he was appointed to be the Apostle of the Gentil...

6.=== Whose house are we, === etc. As Paul in his Epistle to the Romans, after having prefaced that he was appointed to be the Apostle of the Gentiles, adds, for the sake of gaining credit among them, that they were of that number; so now the author of this epistle exhorts the Jews who had already made a profession of Christ to persevere in the faith, that they might be deemed as being in Gods household. He had said before that God’s house was subject to the authority of Christ. Suitably to this declaration is added the admonition that they would then have a place in God’s family when they obeyed Christ. But as they had already embraced the gospel, he mentions their condition if they persevered in the faith. For the word hope I take for faith; and indeed hope is nothing else but the constancy of faith. He mentions confidence and rejoicing, or glorying, in order to express more fully the power of faith. 59 And we hence conclude that those who assent to the Gospel doubtfully and like those who vacillate, do not truly and really believe; for faith cannot be without a settled peace of mind, from which proceeds the bold confidence of rejoicing. And so these two things, confidence and rejoicing, are ever the effects of faith, as we stated in explaining Romans the 5th chapter, and Ephesians the 3rd chapter

But to these things the whole teaching of the Papists is opposed; and this very fact, were there nothing else, sufficiently proves that they pull down the Church of God rather than build it. For the certainty by which alone we are made, as the Apostle teaches us, holy temples to God, they not only darken by their glosses, but also condemn as presumption. Besides, what firmness of confidence can there be when men know not what they ought to believe? And yet that monstrous thing, implicit faith, which they have invented, is nothing else than a license to entertain errors. This passage reminds us that we are always to make progress even unto death; for our whole life is as it were a race.

Calvin: Heb 3:7 - NO PHRASE He proceeds in his exhortation, that they were to obey Christ speaking to them; and that he might add more weight to it, he confirms it by the testim...

He proceeds in his exhortation, that they were to obey Christ speaking to them; and that he might add more weight to it, he confirms it by the testimony of David; for since they were to be sharply goaded, it was better, for the sake of avoiding offense, to bring forward another person. Had he simply reproached them for the unbelief of the fathers, they would have less favorably attended to him; but when he brought forward David, it was less offensive. Now, the import of the whole is, — As God from the beginning would his voice obeyed, and could not endure perverseness without punishing it severely, so at this day he will not lightly punish our stubbornness, unless we become teachable. But the discourse is suspended until we come to the words, “Take heed, brethren, lest there be at any time in any of you,” etc. That the passage, then, may flow better, it would be proper to include the rest in a parenthesis. 60 Let us now consider the words in order.

7.=== As the Holy Ghost saith, === etc. This availed much more to touch their hearts than if he had quoted David by name. And it is useful for us to familiarize ourselves with such expressions, so that we may remember that the words adduced from the books of the prophets are those of God and not of men.

But as this sentence, Today, if ye will hear his voice, is a part of a former verse, some have not unsuitably rendered it thus, “Would to God you would this day hear his voice.” It is indeed certain that when David called the Jews God’s people, he immediately drew this conclusion, that the voice of God ought to have been heard by them; for as to those whom he there invited to sing praises to God and to celebrate his goodness, he reminded them at the same time that obedience was the chief worship which he required, and that it was better than all sacrifices. The chief thing, then, was to obey the word of God.

Calvin: Heb 3:8 - Harden not your hearts 8. Then follows, Harden not your hearts By which words is intimated that our rebellion against God flows from no other fountain than willful wickedne...

8. Then follows, Harden not your hearts By which words is intimated that our rebellion against God flows from no other fountain than willful wickedness, by which we obstruct the entrance of his grace, We have indeed by nature a heart of stone, and there is in all an innate hardness from the womb, which God alone can mollify and amend. That we, however, reject the voice of God, it happens through a spontaneous obstinacy, not through an external impulse, a fact of which every one is a witness to himself. Rightly, then, does the Spirit accuse all the unbelieving that they resist God, and that they are the teachers and authors of their own perverseness, so that they can throw the blame on none else. It is hence, however, absurdly concluded that we have, on the other hand, a free power to form the heart for God’s service; nay rather, it must ever be the case with men, that they harden their heart until another be given them from heaven; for as we are bent towards wickedness, we shall never cease to resist God until we shall be tamed and subdued by his hand.

===As in the provocation, === etc. It was for two reasons necessary for them to be reminded of the disobedience of their fathers; for as they were foolishly inflated on account of the glory of their race, they often imitated the vices of their fathers as though they were virtues, and defended themselves by their examples; and further, when they heard that their fathers were so disobedient to God, they were thus more fully taught that this admonition was not superfluous. As both these reasons existed even in the Apostle’s time, he readily accommodated to his own purpose what had been formerly said by David, in order that those whom he addressed might not imitate their fathers too much.

And hence may be learnt a general truth, that we are not to defer too much to the authority of the fathers lest it should draw us away from God; for if any fathers have ever been worthy of honor, no doubt the Jews possessed that preeminence; and yet David distinctly commanded their children to beware of being like them.

And I have no doubt but that he referred to the history recorded in Exo 17:1 : for David uses here the two names which Moses relates were given to a certain place, מרבה Meribah, which means strife or provocation, and מסה Massah, which means temptation. They tempted God by denying that he was in the midst of them, because they were distressed for want of water; and they also provoked him by contending with Moses. Though indeed they gave many examples of unbelief, yet David selected this in an especial manner, because it was more memorable then any other, and also, because in order of time it followed for the most part the rest, as it evidently appears from the fourth book of Moses, where from chap. 10 to 20 a series of many temptations is described; but this narrative is given in the twentieth chapter. This circumstance increased not a little the atrocity of their wickedness; for they had often experienced the power of God, and yet they perversely contended with him, and renounced all confidence in him: how great was their ingratitude! He then mentioned one particular instance instead of many.

Calvin: Heb 3:9 - Tempted, === etc. This word is to be taken in a bad sense; it means to provoke in a proud and insulting manner, which we express in French by saying, defier comme en depitant For though God had often brought them help, yet they forgot all, and scornfully asked, where was his power. Proved, etc. This clause is to be thus explained, “When yet they had proved me and seen my works”. For it enhanced the guilt of their impiety, that having been taught by so many evidences of divine power, they had made so bad a progress. For it was a marvelous supineness and stupidity to esteem God’s power as nothing, which had been so fully proved. 61

===Forty years 9.Tempted, === etc. This word is to be taken in a bad sense; it means to provoke in a proud and insulting manner, which we express in French by sayi...

9.Tempted, === etc. This word is to be taken in a bad sense; it means to provoke in a proud and insulting manner, which we express in French by saying, defier comme en depitant For though God had often brought them help, yet they forgot all, and scornfully asked, where was his power. Proved, etc. This clause is to be thus explained, “When yet they had proved me and seen my works”. For it enhanced the guilt of their impiety, that having been taught by so many evidences of divine power, they had made so bad a progress. For it was a marvelous supineness and stupidity to esteem God’s power as nothing, which had been so fully proved. 61

===Forty years These are connected by David with what follows. But we know that the Apostles in quoting passages attend more to the general meaning than to the words. And no doubt God complained that the people had been vexatious to him for forty years, because so many benefits had availed nothing for the purpose of teaching them; for though God did good continually to them who were wholly unworthy, they yet never ceased to rise up against him. Hence arose his continual indignation, as though he had said “Not once or for a short time have they provoked me, but by their incessant wickedness for forty years.” Generation means race, or men of one age.

Calvin: Heb 3:10 - NO PHRASE 10.=== And I said, === etc. This was God’s sentence, by which he declared that they were destitute of a sound mind, and he adds the reason, For t...

10.=== And I said, === etc. This was God’s sentence, by which he declared that they were destitute of a sound mind, and he adds the reason, For they have not known my ways. In short, he regarded them as past hope, for they were without sense and reason. And here he assumed the character of man, who at length after long trials declares that he has discovered obstinate madness, for he says that they always went astray, and no hope of repentance appeared.

Calvin: Heb 3:11 - NO PHRASE 11.=== So I sware, === etc. It was the punishment of their madness, that they were deprived of the rest promised them. Moreover, the Lord calls the ...

11.=== So I sware, === etc. It was the punishment of their madness, that they were deprived of the rest promised them. Moreover, the Lord calls the land, where they might have had their dwelling, his rest. For they had been sojourners in Egypt and wanderers in the wilderness; but the land of Canaan was to be, according to the promise, their perpetual inheritance; and it was in reference to this promise that God called it his rest: for nowhere can we have a settled dwelling, except where we are fixed by his hand. But their right to a sure possession was founded on what God said to Abraham,

“To thy seed will I give this land.” (Gen 12:7.)

By God swearing, If they shall enter, etc., the atrocity of their evil conduct is made more evident and is more forcibly set forth, for it is an evidence of wrath greatly inflamed. “If they shall enter,” is in the form of an oath, in which something is to be understood, as an imprecation, or some such thing, when men speak; but when God speaks, it is the same as though he said, “Let me not be deemed true,”, or, “Let me not be hereafter believed, if such a thing shall not be so.” However, this defective mode of speaking recommends fear and reverence to us, so that we may not rashly swear, as many do, who are often in the habit of pouring forth dreadful curses.

But as to the present passage, we ought not to think that they were then for the first time denied entrance into the land by God’s oath, when they tempted him in Rephidim; for they had long before been excluded, even from the time they had refused to march forward at the report of the spies. God then does not here ascribe their expulsion from the land to this instance of tempting him as to the first cause; but he intimates that by no chastisement could they have been restored to a sound mind, but that they continually added new offenses: and thus he shows that they fully deserved to be thus severely punished, for they never ceased to increase more and more his wrath by various sins, as though he had said, “This is the generation to which I denied the possession of the promised land, for during whole forty years afterwards it betrayed its obstinate madness by innumerable sins.”

Calvin: Heb 3:12 - Take heed, 12.Take heed, (or See,) brethren, lest there be at any time in any of you a wicked heart of unbelief, etc. I have preferred to retain literally wh...

12.Take heed, (or See,) brethren, lest there be at any time in any of you a wicked heart of unbelief, etc. I have preferred to retain literally what the Apostle states, rather than to give a paraphrase as to the wicked or depraved heart of unbelief, by which he intimates that unbelief would be connected with depravity or wickedness, if after having received the knowledge of Christ they departed from his faith. For he addressed them who had been imbued with the elements of Christianity; hence he immediately added, By departing; for the sin of defection is accompanied with perfidy. 62

Calvin: Heb 3:13 - While it is called today 13. He also pointed out the remedy, so that they might not fall into this wickedness, and that was, to exhort one another. For as by nature we are...

13. He also pointed out the remedy, so that they might not fall into this wickedness, and that was, to exhort one another. For as by nature we are inclined to evil, we have need of various helps to retain us in the fear of God. Unless our faith be now and then raised up, it will lie prostrate; unless it be warmed, it will be frozen; unless it be roused, it will grow torpid. He would have us then to stimulate one another by mutual exhortations, so that Satan may not creep into our hearts, and by his fallacies draw us away from God. And this is a way of speaking that ought to be especially observed; for we fall not immediately by the first assault into this madness of striving against God; but Satan by degrees accosts us artfully by indirect means, until he holds us ensnared in his delusions. Then indeed being blinded, we break forth into open rebellion. 63

We must then meet this danger in due time, and it is one that is nigh us all, for nothing is more possible than to be deceived; and from this deception comes at length hardness of heart. We hence see how necessary it is for us to be roused by the incessant goads of exhortations. Nor does the Apostle give only a general precept, that all should take heed to themselves, but he should have them also to be solicitous for the salvation of every member, so that they should not suffer any of those who had been once called to perish through their neglect, and he who feels it his duty so to watch over the salvation of the whole flock as to neglect no one sheep, performs in this case the office of a good shepherd.

While it is called today He now applies what David said more particularly to his own subjects; for he reminds us that the word today, mentioned in the Psalm, ought not to be confined to the age of David, but that it comprehends every time in which God may address us. As often, then, and as long as he opened his sacred mouth to teach us, let this sentence come to our minds, “Today, if ye will hear his voice”. In the same way Paul teaches us that when the Gospel is preached to us, it is the accepted time in which God hears us, and the Day of salvation in which he helps us. (2Co 6:2.)

Now, of this opportunity we ought to avail ourselves; for if through our sloth we suffer it to pass by, we shall hereafter in vain deplore its loss. So Christ says,

“Walk while ye have the light; come shortly shall the night.” (Joh 12:35.)

The particle while, then, or as long as, intimates that, The seasonable time will not continue always, if we be too slothful to follow when the Lord calls us. God knocks at our door; unless we open to him he will no doubt in his turn close against us the gate of his kingdom. In a word, too late will be their groans who despise the grace offered to them today. As, then, we know not whether God will extend his calling to tomorrow, let us not delay. Today he calls us; let us immediately respond to him, for there is no faith except where there is such a readiness to obey.

Calvin: Heb 3:14 - NO PHRASE 14.=== For we are made partakers, === etc. He commends them for having begun well; but lest, under the pretext of the grace which they had obtained,...

14.=== For we are made partakers, === etc. He commends them for having begun well; but lest, under the pretext of the grace which they had obtained, they should indulge themselves in carnal security, he says that there was need of perseverance; for many having only tasted the Gospel, do not think of any progress as though they had reached the summit. Thus it is that they not only stop in the middle of their race, yea, nigh the starting­posts, but turn another way. Plausible indeed is this objection, “What can we wish more after having found Christ?” But if he is possessed by faith, we must persevere in it, so that he may be our perpetual possession. Christ then has given himself to be enjoyed by us on this condition, that by the same faith by which we have been admitted into a participation of him, we are to preserve so great a blessing even to death. 64

Hence he says beginning, intimating that their faith was only begun. As hypostasis sometimes means confidence, it may be so taken here; yet the term substance, as some have rendered it, I do not dislike, though I explain it in a way somewhat different. They think that faith is thus called, because the whole of what man may have without it is nothing but vanity; but I so regard it, because we recumb on it alone, as there is no other support on which we can rely. And suitable to this view is the word steadfast or firm; for we shall be firmly fixed and beyond the danger of vacillating, provided faith be our foundation. The sum of the whole then is, that faith whose beginnings only appear in us, is to make constant and steady progress to the end. 65

Calvin: Heb 3:15 - NO PHRASE 15.=== While it is said, === etc. He intimates that the reason for making progress never ceases as long as we live, because God calls us daily. For ...

15.=== While it is said, === etc. He intimates that the reason for making progress never ceases as long as we live, because God calls us daily. For since faith responds to the preaching of the Gospel, as preaching continues through the whole course of our life, so we ought to continue growing in faith. The phrase, then, while it is said, is the same as though he had said, “Since God never makes an end of speaking, it is not enough for us readily to receive his doctrine, except we exhibit the same teachableness and obedience tomorrow and every following day.” 66

Calvin: Heb 3:16 - NO PHRASE 16.=== For some, when they had heard, === etc. David spoke of the fathers as though that whole generation were unbelieving; but it appears that some...

16.=== For some, when they had heard, === etc. David spoke of the fathers as though that whole generation were unbelieving; but it appears that some who truly feared God mingled with the wicked. The apostle mentions this to modify what had been more severely said by David, in order that we may know that the word is preached to all for this end, that all may obey it with one consent, and that the whole people were justly condemned for unbelief, when the body was torn and mutilated by the defection of the greatest part.

But by saying that some provoked, while yet they were by far the greatest part, this object was not only to avoid giving offense, but also to encourage the Jews to imitate those who believed; as though he had said, “As God forbids you to follow the unbelief of the fathers, so he sets before you other fathers whose faith is to be your example”. Thus is mitigated what otherwise might have appeared too hard; that is, had they been commanded wholly to dissent from their fathers. To come out by Moses, means by the hand of Moses, for he was the minister of their deliverance. But there is an implied comparison between the benefit which God had bestowed on them by Moses, and the participation of Christ previously mentioned.

Calvin: Heb 3:17 - But with whom was he grieved, 17.But with whom was he grieved, or angry, etc. He means that God had never been angry with his people except for just causes, as Paul also reminds...

17.But with whom was he grieved, or angry, etc. He means that God had never been angry with his people except for just causes, as Paul also reminds us in 1Co 10:5. Therefore as many chastisements of God as we read were inflicted on the ancient people, so many grievous sins shall we find which provoked God’s vengeance. At the same time we must come to this conclusion, that unbelief was the chief of all their evils; for though he mentions this the last, he yet means that it was the primary cause of their curse; and no doubt from the time they once became unbelievers, they never ceased to add one sin to another, and thus they brought on themselves new scourges continually. Hence those very persons who through unbelief rejected the possession of the land offered to them, pursued their own obstinacy, now lusting, then murmuring, now committing adultery, then polluting themselves with heathen superstitions, so that their depravity became more fully manifested.

The unbelief, then, which they showed from the beginning, prevented them from enjoying the kindness of God; for the contempt of his word ever led them to sin. And as at first they deserved through their unbelief that God should deprive them of the promised rest, so whatever sin they committed afterwards flowed from the same fountain.

It may be further asked, whether Moses, and Aaron, and those like them, were included in this number? To this I answer, that the Apostle speaks of the whole community rather than of individuals. It is certain that there were many godly men who were either not entangled in the general impiety or soon repented. Moses’ faith was once shaken and only once, and that for a moment. The Apostle’s words, therefore, contain a statement of the whole instead of a part, a mode of speaking frequently employed when a multitude or body of people are spoken of.

Defender: Heb 3:1 - Apostle This is the only time Christ is called an Apostle (meaning literally "one who is sent"). He was sent by the Father as the Apostle of our profession (J...

This is the only time Christ is called an Apostle (meaning literally "one who is sent"). He was sent by the Father as the Apostle of our profession (Joh 17:18; Joh 20:21).

Defender: Heb 3:1 - High Priest As an Apostle, Christ represents God to man; as our High Priest, He represents man to God."

As an Apostle, Christ represents God to man; as our High Priest, He represents man to God."

Defender: Heb 3:4 - built all things From Heb 3:3, it is evident that Christ is the builder of the cosmic house. From this verse, therefore, it follows that Christ is God. He is the one w...

From Heb 3:3, it is evident that Christ is the builder of the cosmic house. From this verse, therefore, it follows that Christ is God. He is the one who created all things (Col 1:16; Joh 1:3)."

Defender: Heb 3:7 - Holy Ghost saith Psa 95:7-11 is under discussion in Hebrews 3:7 through 4:10, with the author (possibly Paul) drawing an analogy between the rebellious Israelites in t...

Psa 95:7-11 is under discussion in Hebrews 3:7 through 4:10, with the author (possibly Paul) drawing an analogy between the rebellious Israelites in the wilderness under Moses and the professing Jewish believers of his own day who were being tempted back into Jewish legalism. Specifically, he is quoting this passage here (Heb 3:7-11) as an assertion of the Holy Spirit Himself. In Heb 4:7, he indicates that the author of the words was David, even though Psa 95:1-11 carries no superscript of authorship (the same situation occurs when Psa 2:1, Psa 2:2 is quoted in Act 4:25, Act 4:26 as written by David). It is a significant characteristic of divine inspiration that a section of Scripture is attributed both to David and the Holy Spirit, even when the section seems officially anonymous."

Defender: Heb 3:9 - forty years It was no coincidence that God gave Israel forty years to repent after Christ's crucifixion before sending the Roman army under Titus (in a.d. 70) to ...

It was no coincidence that God gave Israel forty years to repent after Christ's crucifixion before sending the Roman army under Titus (in a.d. 70) to destroy Jerusalem and its temple."

Defender: Heb 3:12 - evil heart Note that an "evil heart of unbelief" (Heb 3:12) is also an "erring heart" (Heb 3:10) and a "hardened heart" (Heb 3:8)."

Note that an "evil heart of unbelief" (Heb 3:12) is also an "erring heart" (Heb 3:10) and a "hardened heart" (Heb 3:8)."

Defender: Heb 3:13 - one another There are many "one another" passages in Scripture, and it is important to practice them daily. Not only should we "exhort one another daily," but als...

There are many "one another" passages in Scripture, and it is important to practice them daily. Not only should we "exhort one another daily," but also "edify one another" (1Th 5:11), "pray for one another" (Jam 5:16), "comfort one another" (1Th 4:18), "be kind one to another" (Eph 4:32), and especially, "love one another" (Joh 13:34). There are many other such admonitions in Scripture."

Defender: Heb 3:14 - partakers The word "partakers" in this verse is used in the sense of "fellows" or "partners." Those who hold their confidence in Christ until the end demonstrat...

The word "partakers" in this verse is used in the sense of "fellows" or "partners." Those who hold their confidence in Christ until the end demonstrate that they were true believers in Christ from the beginning, rather than shallow professors of faith without real understanding or commitment (1Jo 2:19)."

Defender: Heb 3:15 - To day The writer makes it clear that the use of "today" in Psa 95:7 was applicable to any time, not just to David's time. "Now is the accepted time; behold,...

The writer makes it clear that the use of "today" in Psa 95:7 was applicable to any time, not just to David's time. "Now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of salvation" (2Co 6:2).

Defender: Heb 3:15 - provocation "The provocation" refers to the rebellion of the Israelites at the waters of Meribah (Exo 17:5-7; Num 20:7-13) when the Lord provided water out of the...

"The provocation" refers to the rebellion of the Israelites at the waters of Meribah (Exo 17:5-7; Num 20:7-13) when the Lord provided water out of the rock for them. The word for "provocation" in Psa 95:8, from which this is quoted, is the Hebrew Meribah."

Defender: Heb 3:17 - carcases One of the difficulties posed by skeptics is that, if a million or more Israelites perished in the wilderness during their forty years in the desert, ...

One of the difficulties posed by skeptics is that, if a million or more Israelites perished in the wilderness during their forty years in the desert, why have none of their graves been found by archaeologists? This verse suggests that the bodies may not have been buried at all but simply left to decay and return to dust under the desert sun. These all died "because of unbelief" (Heb 3:19), without seeing the promised land."

TSK: Heb 3:1 - holy // partakers // the heavenly // consider // the apostle // and holy : Col 1:22, Col 3:12; 1Th 5:27; 2Ti 1:9; 1Pe 2:9, 1Pe 3:5; 2Pe 1:3-10; Rev 18:20 partakers : Heb 3:14; Rom 11:17, Rom 15:27; 1Co 9:23, 1Co 10:17;...

TSK: Heb 3:2 - faithful // appointed // as // all faithful : Heb 2:17; Joh 6:38-40, Joh 7:18, Joh 8:29, Joh 15:10, Joh 17:4 appointed : Gr. made, 1Sa 12:6 as : Heb 3:5; Num 12:7; Deu 4:5; 1Ti 1:12 all...

TSK: Heb 3:3 - this // who this : Heb 3:6, Heb 1:2-4, Heb 2:9; Col 1:18 who : Zec 4:9, Zec 6:12, Zec 6:13; Mat 16:18; 1Co 3:9; 1Pe 2:5-7

TSK: Heb 3:4 - but but : Heb 3:3, Heb 1:2; Est 2:10, Est 3:9

TSK: Heb 3:5 - faithful // as // for faithful : Heb 3:2; Num 12:7; Mat 24:45, Mat 25:21; Luk 12:42, Luk 16:10-12; 1Co 4:2; 1Ti 1:12 as : Exo 14:31; Deu 3:24, Deu 34:5; Jos 1:2, Jos 1:7, J...

TSK: Heb 3:6 - as // whose // if // rejoicing as : Heb 1:2, Heb 4:14; Psa 2:6, Psa 2:7, Psa 2:12; Isa 9:6, Isa 9:7; Joh 3:35, Joh 3:36; Rev 2:18 whose : Heb 3:2, Heb 3:3; Mat 16:18; 1Co 3:16, 1Co ...

TSK: Heb 3:7 - as // To day // hear as : Heb 9:8; 2Sa 23:2; Mat 22:43; Mar 12:36; Act 1:16, Act 28:25; 2Pe 1:21 To day : Heb 3:13, Heb 3:15, Heb 4:7; Psa 95:7-11; Pro 27:1; Ecc 9:10; Isa...

TSK: Heb 3:8 - Harden // as // of Harden : Heb 3:12, Heb 3:13; Exo 8:15; 1Sa 6:6; 2Ki 17:14; 2Ch 30:8, 2Ch 36:13; Neh 9:16; Job 9:4; Pro 28:14, Pro 29:1; Jer 7:26; Eze 3:7-9; Dan 5:20;...

TSK: Heb 3:9 - and // forty and : Exo 19:4, Exo 20:22; Deu 4:3, Deu 4:9, Deu 11:7, Deu 29:2; Jos 23:3, Jos 24:7; Luk 7:22 forty : Num 14:33; Deu 8:2, Deu 8:4; Jos 5:6; Amo 2:10; ...

TSK: Heb 3:10 - I was // err // they have I was : Gen 6:6; Jdg 10:16; Psa 78:40; Isa 63:10; Mar 3:5; Eph 4:30 err : Heb 3:12; Psa 78:8; Isa 28:7; Hos 4:12; Joh 3:19, Joh 3:20, Joh 8:45; Rom 1:...

TSK: Heb 3:11 - I sware // They shall not enter // my rest I sware : Heb 3:18, Heb 3:19, Heb 4:3; Num 14:20-23, Num 14:25, Num 14:27-30,Num 14:35, Num 32:10-13; Deu 1:34, Deu 1:35, Deu 2:14 They shall not ente...

I sware : Heb 3:18, Heb 3:19, Heb 4:3; Num 14:20-23, Num 14:25, Num 14:27-30,Num 14:35, Num 32:10-13; Deu 1:34, Deu 1:35, Deu 2:14

They shall not enter : Gr. If they shall enter

my rest : Heb 4:9

TSK: Heb 3:12 - Take // an // in // the Take : Heb 2:1-3, Heb 12:15; Mat 24:4; Mar 13:9, Mar 13:23, Mar 13:33; Luk 21:8; Rom 11:21; 1Co 10:12 an : Heb 3:10; Gen 8:21; Jer 2:13, Jer 3:17, Jer...

TSK: Heb 3:13 - exhort // daily // the deceitfulness exhort : Heb 10:24, Heb 10:25; Act 11:23; 1Th 2:11, 1Th 4:18, 1Th 5:11; 2Ti 4:2 daily : Heb 3:7 the deceitfulness : Pro 28:26; Isa 44:20; Oba 1:3; Rom...

TSK: Heb 3:14 - we are // if we are : Heb 3:1, Heb 6:4, Heb 12:10; Rom 11:17; 1Co 1:30, 1Co 9:23, 1Co 10:17; Eph 3:6; 1Ti 6:2; 1Pe 4:13, 1Pe 5:1; 1Jo 1:3 if : Heb 3:6, Heb 6:11

TSK: Heb 3:15 - To day To day : Heb 3:7, Heb 3:8, Heb 10:38, Heb 10:29

TSK: Heb 3:16 - some // not some : Heb 3:9, Heb 3:10; Num 14:2, Num 14:4, Num 26:65; Psa 78:17 not : Num 14:24, Num 14:30,Num 14:38; Deu 1:36, Deu 1:38; Jos 14:7-11; Rom 11:4, Ro...

TSK: Heb 3:17 - was it // whose with him, Heb 3:10 was it : Num 26:64, Num 26:65; 1Co 10:1-13 whose : Num 14:22, Num 14:29, Num 14:32, Num 14:33; Deu 2:15, Deu 2:16; Jer 9:22; Jud 1:...

TSK: Heb 3:18 - to whom // but to whom : Heb 3:11; Num 14:30; Deu 1:34, Deu 1:35 but : Num 14:11, Num 20:12; Deu 1:26-32, Deu 9:23; Psa 106:24-26

TSK: Heb 3:19 - -- Mar 16:16; Joh 3:18, Joh 3:36; 2Th 2:12; 1Jo 5:10; Jud 1:5

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Poole: Heb 3:1 - Partakers of the heavenly calling // Consider // The Apostle // And High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus Heb 3:1-6 Christ is showed to be more worthy than Moses. Heb 3:7-19 We must be careful therefore not to follow the example of the obstinate and unb...

Heb 3:1-6 Christ is showed to be more worthy than Moses.

Heb 3:7-19 We must be careful therefore not to follow the example of

the obstinate and unbelieving Israelites in the wilderness.

Several uses the Holy Ghost makes, from the beginning of this chapter to the end of chapter four, Heb 3:1-4:16of the gospel doctrine of God the Son incarnate, set by the Father in office, to deal for sinners towards God as their great Prophet. The counsel he giveth is comprehended in; Heb 3:1-6and as directing these Hebrews to their duty, so further explaining and confirming his office to them, by comparing of him with Moses, and setting him as above angels, so above him; and to be so valued, esteemed, and preferred by these Hebrews: seeing this great gospel Prophet was for a little while made lower than the angels in his humanity, and it was infinitely beneficial to us upon the account of what he suffered in it in our stead, and purchased by it for our good; therefore should those who are partakers of it, being related in the flesh to him as Hebrews, descending with them from Abraham, consider, but much more as Christians, believing and adopted in him to be God’ s children, and sanctified by his Spirit, 1Pe 1:1-5 2Pe 1:1 .

Partakers of the heavenly calling and made thus a Christian fraternity by the heavenly calling of them out of the world by the gospel; when by his Spirit he enlightened their minds, and renewed their wills, and made them obedient to it, so as for the temper of their souls they are made holy, and for their condition happy; the work of God’ s power and mercy eminently appearing in it: God therein preventing man, so as he influenceth him to hear him from heaven, walk worthy of heaven, and at last to rest in heaven for ever.

Considerkatanohsate imports not a bare single act of the mind, to think on, or understand, but a repeated one, to think again and again, expressed by that periphrasis of laying it to heart, pressing on their spirits the due effort of faith and obedience arising out of this observation, Isa 52:15 .

The Apostle God’ s Messenger, his own Son sent from heaven to be incarnate, with authority to execute in his human nature his prophetical, as all his offices, and with authority to send forth his apostles to do their part, Joh 20:21 ; which is no more than is intimated in that title, the Messenger of the covenant, Isa 42:19 Mal 3:1 ; that was, to propose it to and confirm it with them. This was he by whom Moses desired God’ s message might be sent to them, Exo 4:13 ; and whom he foretold should bring it, Deu 18:15 Act 3:22,23 .

And High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus: the Son is the great gospel High Priest, to deal in all matters with God for them, Heb 2:17 . The offices divided among other persons in the Old Testament church were all united in his person, he doth transcend them all, being a High Priest peculiar to the called and sanctified ones of God, of which all preceding were faint resemblances and types; he, the most excellent Minister of the Christian faith and religion professed by them, being anointed unto all these offices in the flesh by the Father with the Holy Ghost, Heb 1:2 ; and being Jesus a Saviour, our Emmanuel, God on our side, saving his people from their sins, and re-uniting them to God, Mat 1:21,23Jo 17:21-23 .

Poole: Heb 3:2 - Who was faithful to him that appointed him // As also Moses was faithful in all his house The Spirit enforceth the duty counselled on them from the fidelity of that grand gospel Minister in his offices; exemplified in a parallel with Mose...

The Spirit enforceth the duty counselled on them from the fidelity of that grand gospel Minister in his offices; exemplified in a parallel with Moses, whom he did exceed.

Who was faithful to him that appointed him he did most exactly perform all he was intrusted with, according to the intention and end of his commission. He did most faithfully reveal God, Joh 1:18 , and his whole saving will, to whom God sent him, Joh 3:31-34 5:34 Joh 8:28,38 ; as his great Prophet, Act 3:22 . He as faithfully discharged the office of his priesthood in sacrificing himself to atone God for sinners, and as faithfully intercedes for all with him unto this day, and will do so for ever, with all truth and fidelity discharging his trust, Heb 7:24-28 9:11,12,14,24,26 . He was faithful in fulfilling all his types, and in changing and finishing all the ceremonial constitutions, and filling them up with gospel ones, according to God’ s will revealed to him about it. He was true to his Father, who appointed and constituted him to these offices, and solemnly invested him in them; poihsanti here not signifying the making of a creature, but the making of an officer, the person existing before; he puts him into this special charge and office by anointing him for it, Act 2:36 .

As also Moses was faithful in all his house: Moses was the Jewish mediator, and brought them the law moral, judicial, and ceremonial from God; as he was highly esteemed by them, so God testifieth of his fidelity. Christ was not only like to him in fidelity, but, as to both the truth and degree of it, exceeding him. Moses kept to his pattern shown him in the mount, and Christ fulfilled entirely his Father’ s will, Joh 5:30 6:38 , and is preferred to him. Moses was so in the whole church of Israel, set out by this metaphor of a house; but Christ ill all God’ s house and family both in heaven and in earth; not the least thing that concerned the family, but Christ fulfilled; not the meanest person in it, but he careth for and saveth.

Poole: Heb 3:3 - For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses // Inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses: the Spirit proves to the Hebrews, that the gospel Prophet was not only like to, but more ex...

For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses: the Spirit proves to the Hebrews, that the gospel Prophet was not only like to, but more excellent than, their greatest prophet, and who had familiarity with God beyond others, as God testifieth, Num 12:6-8 . This he proves by an undeniable supposition, that God is better than man; such is Christ; which he demonstrates by a work of God, his making the church and all things. If he made the church, then he is better than the whole church, and worthy of more honour than Moses, who is but a member of it. For this, man is not in the original, this gospel Prophet, who was God as well as man, the apostle and High Priest of Christians, was esteemed and accounted by God the Father, the best judge of worth, and who appointed him to his offices: he treated him more honourably than Moses, as he deserved it, having real excellency and worth in himself. He was God’ s Son, Moses his servant. He lay in God’ s bosom, saw his face, was his fellow, Zec 13:7 Joh 1:14,18 ; Moses only heard his voice, and saw his back parts, Exo 33:19,20,23 34:5-7 . Moses’ s face only shined, but Christ’ s person was entirely glorious, Exo 34:29,30 2Co 3:7 : compare Mat 17:2-6 2Pe 1:17 .

Inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house he is the cause, principal, efficient, and architect of this building, not a stone is laid in it without him. By this metaphor of house to which it relateth, is meant God’ s spiritual building and temple, 1Co 3:10,16,17 ; styled God’ s household or family, Eph 2:19-22 : in sum, God’ s church, built by and on Christ, of which Moses was but one living stone or member, 1Pe 2:4-8 . Therefore this builder ought to be esteemed and honoured above the church, or Moses, a member of it.

Poole: Heb 3:4 - For every house is builded by some man // But he that built all things is God The excellency of this builder is evinced by his nature and preference beyond his building, as any man is beyond his. For every house is builded by...

The excellency of this builder is evinced by his nature and preference beyond his building, as any man is beyond his.

For every house is builded by some man for every earthly artificial building, a material house built for habitation, though it may metaphorically and analogically be understood of a commonwealth, or political one, which is contrived, framed, and raised by some man; yet an effect cannot produce itself, nor a house raise itself; both must have a cause, both the house wherein Moses was faithful, and Christ’ s house.

But he that built all things is God but he who built his church in all ages, whether the Israelitish or Christian, and all things about it of which we speak, and all things else, Mat 16:18 Joh 1:1,3 Col 1:20 ; he is God essentially; and Christ, doing God’ s work and building all things, is not by name only, but by nature, God. The whole world is his workmanship, but the church is the most rare, curious, and excellent piece of it. Christ is not part of the house, as Moses is, but the builder of it; he is the Creator and builder both of the church and him, and so infinitely above him.

Poole: Heb 3:5 - And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant // For a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after The gospel Minister doth not only excel Moses as much as a builder doth his work, but as a son doth a servant, proved in this and Heb 3:6 . And Mos...

The gospel Minister doth not only excel Moses as much as a builder doth his work, but as a son doth a servant, proved in this and Heb 3:6 .

And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant your great legal prophet, in whom many of you Hebrews trust, Joh 5:45 , did truly and fully reveal and do what God charged him, in ministering his will to his church, Exo 40:16-33 ; he did not diminish from, nor add the least to, God’ s charge, yerapwn , Num 12:7 . As a minister, Moses was as faithful as any God had; not a slave or a drudge, but a free, willing, ingenuous servant, most entirely and obsequiously addicting himself in that honourable place and office of great trust, to which God called him; a stewardly servant, a prophet and a prince, inspecting and ordering all according to God’ s will; in all Christ’ s house and family, his church, he is but a servant.

For a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after: his faithfulness was evident in his bearing true witness to the church, of all God made known to him, that they might not be uncertain of the truth; even all that truth, which was more fully and clearly to be spoken by the prophets after him, and by Christ and his apostles; but which the Spirit shall speak to them further concerning Christ and his church in this Epistle, Joh 5:46 . In which is insinuated, that Christ was the truth himself witnessed to by Moses, who was a witness of an inferior degree, though in his work faithful, and conformed unto Christ.

Poole: Heb 3:6 - But Christ as a son over his own house // Whose house are we // If we hold fast the confidence // And the rejoicing of the hope // Firm unto the end But Christ as a son over his own house the anointed gospel Prophet by God the Father, Heb 1:9 , who was eminently faithful and true to his trust, who...

But Christ as a son over his own house the anointed gospel Prophet by God the Father, Heb 1:9 , who was eminently faithful and true to his trust, who is Heir and Lord of all, and therefore by the law of nature and nations is above the best servant, Gal 4:1 . Who is the Head and Lord over his own church, which he purchased by his own blood, Act 20:28 , and built for himself. Moses was in it but a servant, fulfilling his Master’ s will and pleasure, and ordering all in it agreeable to it.

Whose house are we the Hebrews’ personal privilege, as well as the Prophet’ s excellency, persuading and obliging them to know by consideration what is represented to them, and to influence their hearts to a perseverance under his teaching and government in their Christian course, because they are parts of his house, and members of his church; a particular house, and body, and church to him, and members of the catholic one. A temple, wherein God doth inhabit and dwell by his Spirit, 1Co 3:16,17 : compare Eph 2:21 3:17 1Ti 3:15 . A house he will glorify and perfect with his own presence, and which he will fill with transcendently more glory than he did the literal temple, Exo 40:34,35 2Ch 7:1,2 Isa 6:1,5 : compare Hag 2:6 . But how completely shall it be filled with his glory in heaven! Phi 3:21 . How should such a glorious state influence them to a sincere perseverance in his religion!

If we hold fast the confidence a tenacious holding, as with both hands, with our utmost strength, against all insinuations and temptations of all adversaries whatsoever, which would either entice or force them from it. parrhsian thv elpidov , is an ingenuous, bold, and confident profession of our hope before all the world, without doubting, wavering, or fearful shaking about what is the true object of it, let the persecutions or sufferings for it be what they will.

And the rejoicing of the hope: hope here is a firm expectation of salvation in eternal glory by Jesus Christ. It necessarily includes in it faith, for we cannot hope for that we do not believe; and faith representing to the soul from the gospel, Christ purchasing, and the Father in him covenanting and promising to give it to us, if we truly believe in and sincerely obey him, so as we may on the surest and best grounds look out for it, and expect it, Heb 3:14 6:11 Act 26:6,7 : compare Col 1:5,23 Tit 2:13 1Pe 1:3 . This hope keeps up the soul in a joyous and glorious condition under all threatening evil; it makes Christians glory in tribulation, Rom 5:2,3 12:12 ; rejoicing in want of sensible good, 2Co 6:10 ; compare 1Pe 5:10 .

Firm unto the end both this confidence and glorying of hope must be retained firm to the end. Persevere they must in the exercise of them with stability and constancy, till they reach the salvation of their souls, Col 1:23 1Pe 1:5-10 ; which Christians are not to trust to their own power to compass, but on the continued assistance of God in the use of those means that he hath appointed thereunto, who will never be wanting to such who do so rely on him, and constantly seek it from him, 1Co 1:8,9 .

Poole: Heb 3:7 - Wherefore // As the Holy Ghost saith // To-day if ye will hear his voice The Spirit enforceth his counsel for those Hebrews’ improvement of his doctrine about the gospel Prophet, by alleging a sad example of their f...

The Spirit enforceth his counsel for those Hebrews’ improvement of his doctrine about the gospel Prophet, by alleging a sad example of their fathers refusing to hear and obey him, from Heb 3:7-11 . The allegation might be best placed in parenthesis, and the introductive illative particle:

Wherefore may refer to Heb 3:12 : Take heed, brethren

As the Holy Ghost saith as the Spirit, the Holy One, that third relation in the Trinity, whose essence is holiness, is the author of what the psalmist doth write, and is here quoted by him, Psa 95:7-11 . So that the example registered is true and infallible, and should suitably affect them, reading it.

To-day if ye will hear his voice every present time, wherein the great Builder and Lord of God’ s church speaketh to them; God would not have a hearer of his Prophet to procrastinate a day, but to be exercising all those internal acts, which this word of sense hear doth comprehend, such as reacheth the heart as well as the ear; if you will attend, intend, believe, love, and obey; a hearing better than all external sacrifices, 1Sa 15:22 . The angel of the covenant speaking his mind and will to them by Moses and the prophets, which was for the matter of it faith in God’ s covenant, made with them in and through Christ, Psa 95:7 : compare Exo 23:20-23 .

Poole: Heb 3:8 - Harden not your hearts // As in the provocation // In the day of temptation in the wilderness Harden not your hearts: to help in the former duty the Spirit subjoins this negative counsel. That is styled hard, which will not yield to any impres...

Harden not your hearts: to help in the former duty the Spirit subjoins this negative counsel. That is styled hard, which will not yield to any impression: make not your heart a stone, so as not to understand, believe, or obey God’ s voice to it, Deu 15:17 1Sa 6:6 ; for God requires them to be fleshy tables, to write his will on, 2Co 3:3 . The hardening of this part is the hardening of the whole person, and when hardened by themselves, is provoking God’ s judicial hardening of them to their destruction.

As in the provocationen tw parapikrasmw , in the bitter contention, comprehending in it both work, season, and place; called Meribah, Num 20:13,14 ; names of places and persons by words of the same signification, though not of the same sound.

In the day of temptation in the wilderness in the day of Massah, when Israel in the wilderness did murmur, and strive against, and vexed God, (after he had divided the sea for them), for their want of water, Exo 17:2,7 De 6:16 33:8 ; that bitter contest of unbelief after the sight of so many miracles, when they cried out: Is the Lord among us? Psa 95:8 . It may also refer to the whole forty years’ time of their murmuring and tempting him in the wilderness.

Poole: Heb 3:9 - When your fathers tempted me // Proved me // And saw my works forty years When your fathers tempted me in the time and place forementioned, the fathers from whom you derive your being and corruption, yet glory in them and t...

When your fathers tempted me in the time and place forementioned, the fathers from whom you derive your being and corruption, yet glory in them and their traditions, whose state is aggravated from your line of successive rebellion, Act 7:51-53 . They have imbittered my Spirit by their unbelief; for upon the want of water, they questioned his power, wisdom, truth, and providence, to the denial of all, and sometimes multiplied it, Num 16:1-50 , &c.

Proved me a discontented quarrel with, and scrutiny of, Christ the Redeemer, that if he would not serve their lust, they would deny him, and apostatize from him, and return to Egypt; notwithstanding their having sufficient proof of him, yet they would contend with him, 1Co 10:9 .

And saw my works forty years all the Redeemer’ s miracles, which he wrought for them in Egypt and the wilderness, they saw them plainly and presently on their tempting him; miracles of mercy and of punishments, by fire, by the earth opening, by fiery serpents, by the sword, by consuming six hundred thousand of them: all which were evidences sufficient to convince any of the wickedness of mistrusting him, Deu 29:2-4 . This hardening of their hearts yet continued forty years, till all but two of them, Joshua and Caleb, were consumed; God by their sin was so grieved with them after such experience of his power for so long a time: see Exo 32:10 Num 14:22 .

Poole: Heb 3:10 - Wherefore I was grieved with that generation // was grieved // And said, They do alway err in their heart // And they have not known my ways Wherefore I was grieved with that generation because they thus tempted and proved him by hardening their hearts in unbelief forty years, God the Rede...

Wherefore I was grieved with that generation because they thus tempted and proved him by hardening their hearts in unbelief forty years, God the Redeemer, Isa 63:16 1Co 10:9 ,

was grieved which is attributed to him improperly, who is not subject to passions; but as men grown impatient with grievous and oppressive burdens, so he expresseth his dislike, disdain of them, and, resolution to bear no longer, as Amo 2:13 . They split on him, as a ship on a sharp point of a rock, so as God hath loss, offence, and trouble by it; and all of them did so carry it to him, the whole age of them but Caleb and Joshua, Psa 95:10 .

And said, They do alway err in their heart they follow deceit and lying in their doctrine and worship with all their heart, so that it is diffused through their persons, and that seat of truth is made a depth of error, to the stupifying of their hearts even to very madness; and this was their state all their time.

And they have not known my ways notwithstanding God’ s works were among them, and his word, yet they would not know his mind, so as to approve, love, and walk in God’ s ways; his law, doctrine, revealed truth, and commands were all cast behind their back, Eze 23:35 .

Poole: Heb 3:11 - So I sware in my wrath // They shall not enter into my rest So I sware in my wrath: such were their provocations and temptations of their Redeemer, that he determined their punishment; the certainty of which h...

So I sware in my wrath: such were their provocations and temptations of their Redeemer, that he determined their punishment; the certainty of which he fixed by an irreversible oath, which is the highest confirmation of vengeance when it cometh from wrath; as of his promise, when it issueth from grace, Num 14:27-36 Psa 95:11 : compare Heb 6:17,18 . And the spring of it here is wrath, enraged by their murmurings and unbelief.

They shall not enter into my rest: the punishment is expressed in an expostulatory form, which is vehemently asserting the negative of the question; They shall never enter into my rest. If they enter in, then I am neither true nor God. The rest literal was the land of Canaan, Deu 12:9 ; in the truth of that type, heaven. It is the Redeemer who speaks this, whose rest is by way of efficiency, purchase, and donation; he gives entrance into it, and shuts out of it, Mat 7:21-23 . This is a shutting them out of all peace, into eternal sorrow, anguish, distress, and trouble, and every other evil contrary unto this rest.

Poole: Heb 3:12 - Take heed, brethren // Brethren // Lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief // Unbelief // In departing from the living God Here the Spirit applieth the former dreadful example of sin and judgment to the Hebrews, to forewarn them how they sinned as these did, lest they pa...

Here the Spirit applieth the former dreadful example of sin and judgment to the Hebrews, to forewarn them how they sinned as these did, lest they partake of the like vengeance; and so enters his caution against unbelief.

Take heed, brethren: Blepete signifies not an act of sight, but of the mind, circumspection, watchfulness, and heed, taking exactest caution of the evil forbidden, Heb 12:15,25 1Co 8:9 .

Brethren they were to Paul in the flesh, and more so as true believers in Christ; he cautions them particularly, one by one, lest any root of bitterness should be amongst them, Heb 12:15 .

Lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief: the heart is the first, and proper, and chief subject, wherein all sin riseth, and from thence issueth into words and works, Mat 15:18,19 ; compare Jam 1:14,15 . This comprehendeth the mind, will, and affections, the whole inward man: and this heart in every man is naturally and habitually evil, continually forging and framing of it, Gen 6:5 ; compare Jer 17:9 . Almighty grace only can change this heart; yet it works by counsel, and makes the soul willing to use the means appointed to effect it.

Unbelief though but in itself, is but a denial to assent to or rely on the will of God revealed to it, yet is the spring and fountain of all other sin, the teeming womb from whence all issueth, as uncleanness, idolatry, unrighteousness, superstition, &c. It was the hardening sin of their forefathers, they would not believe, and then did murmur and rebel. It is the root of apostacy; men breaking their covenant with God in Christ, do then desert him. Against this perfidious, impious, perverted temper doth he caution them to watch, that neither for measure, nor season they ever do admit or allow it; that there be not at all in the least degree, or at any time, such a base, malignant quality in their hearts, Rom 11:20,21 .

In departing from the living God turning away, standing off, and separating the heart; it implies in it a real, total, final defection; actual and formal apostacy from him whom they had owned and received; and is actual rebellion against their lawful Sovereign, by turning either Jews or heathens, and renouncing the Christian religion and its Author; who is the living God, not only formally, as opposed to dead idols, but efficiently the Author and Fountain of all sorts of life, but especially of spiritual and eternal life, Joh 5:19-21,25,26 : which living God is our Lord Jesus Christ, Heb 3:7 , whose voice they were to hear, who was tempted by their unbelief in the wilderness, 1Co 10:9 , who gave the law to them at Sinai, Heb 12:26 . So that to apostatize from him and his religion, is to apostatize from God, and to renounce eternal life, and to subject themselves to eternal punishments, which he ever liveth to inflict on them. Unless they took heed to avoid this unbelief, it was impossible for them to persevere in Christianity, when threatened with persecutions, and the loss of peace, liberty, safety, estates, honours, relations, and life itself for it.

Poole: Heb 3:13-14 - Lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin Ver. 13,14 But exhort one another daily, while it is called To-day: the means to avoid the former evil is, to exhort; which, as a private duty, i...

Ver. 13,14 But exhort one another daily, while it is called To-day: the means to avoid the former evil is, to exhort; which, as a private duty, is an earnest, frequent calling on, stirring up, or persuading, encouraging to perseverance in the Christian religion, and to put away all heart evil, especially unbelief, which traineth to apostacy; to which are subservient God’ s precepts, promises, threatenings suitably applied by them. And this is not only privately, but especially publicly, by the regular ministration of the word and ordinances to the whole society of Christians, as they are personally obliged to it, being members one of another, 1Co 12:25,27 . And this they are to do instantly, for no man is sure what may be on the morrow, he being but a days-man, living, and supplied, as working by the day: Sufficient to the day is the duty as well as the evil in it, Mat 6:11,34 . Whilst then the day of grace and repentance lasts, in which God calls and entreats, and will hear and help, the opportune time of exhorting, the very instant wherein God expecteth it, Heb 3:7 Psa 95:7 . And every one, as thus to look to another, must begin with himself, lest any miscarry; charity, especially as to this, should begin in every Christian at home.

Lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin lest themselves or others refuse the gospel tendered, or reject and apostatize from it after professing it, so as to become not only obstinate, but rebellious, by unbelief, and an habitual hardened heart; so as the sinful, natural habit of our soul, Jam 1:12,15 , so horribly vile in itself, that were it not masked nature would abhor it, might be drawn forth by the false colours, as the devil blinds sin with, to delude the understanding, and to catch and insnare the malignant will, that it swallows it more and more, to the hardening of the heart; that Divine promises, threatenings, nor admonitions, can make any impression; it being unmoved under the application of all these, disregards the Christian faith, and hath its issue in a total apostacy, Jer 17:9 Eph 4:22 1Ti 1:19 .

Poole: Heb 3:15 - -- This is another circumstance of the example of the Jews applied to them: That since now Christ is speaking to you, as he did to your forefathers the...

This is another circumstance of the example of the Jews applied to them: That since now Christ is speaking to you, as he did to your forefathers then; the same voice concerning you both, so as, not to-morrow, or when you will, but To-day, if you will believe what God speaketh to you by him, and hath recorded in his word concerning his being the Messiah, and render not yourselves deaf to God’ s voice, or obdurate through unbelief, as your forefathers did, when their unbelief and hardness of heart imbittered God’ s Spirit against them, because acting in it against their solemn vows and engagements to him, so as to apostatize from him.

Poole: Heb 3:16 - For some, when they had heard, did provoke // Howbeit not all that came out of Egypt by Moses For some, when they had heard, did provoke: this is a rational enforcement of the former duty pressed; it being as possible for them to provoke Chris...

For some, when they had heard, did provoke: this is a rational enforcement of the former duty pressed; it being as possible for them to provoke Christ as others, they should look to it, and not harden their hearts; for the greater some, the most of the congregation of Israel, imbittered God’ s Spirit by their unbelief and hardness of heart; though Christ spake to them from heaven, as never was before done, and daily by Moses they were hearing counsels by which they might live, yet provoked they him, and would not believe.

Howbeit not all that came out of Egypt by Moses: this rightly interprets the psalmist, and sets a better example of their fathers for them to follow. Let Caleb and Joshua, believers, and obedient to God, be your patterns to imitate. He aggravates the disobedience of the one, and the obedience of the other. They all had equally a clear exemption and deliverance from the place of bondage, and that by Moses, by whom God wrought such miracles as might command faith from any; yet these some, by murmuring and striving with the Redeemer, provoked him: how great is their sin! How suitable and pleasing the obedience of the others to him!

Poole: Heb 3:17 - -- By these questions the Spirit makes a more lively representation of these unbelieving provokers of God, that his reason may have the more force with...

By these questions the Spirit makes a more lively representation of these unbelieving provokers of God, that his reason may have the more force with them. Do ye observe with whom God was grieved? The form puts them on more exact notice for their caution: God suffers not by passion, but these redeemed out of Egypt carried it contrary to him, and crossed his will, that which usually grieveth us. Concerning the word, see Heb 3:10 . It is used by the Septuagint, Deu 7:26 , to express that detestation and abhorrence which Israel was to show against idols, that they should be a grief to their soul not to be endured: idols are called grievances. He was displeased and grieved with their covenant breaking with him forty years together. These sinners, by their unbelief, murmuring, idolatry, rebellion against his officers and ordinances, and their other lusts, so imbittered his Spirit, that he by various judgments destroyed them, and turned them into the grave and hell together, 1Co 10:5-11 . Moses and others of God’ s own cannot be numbered among these sinners, for their sins were pardoned and persons accepted; and though they came short of the literal, had a much more abundant entrance administered to them into the heavenly Canaan.

Poole: Heb 3:18 - Them that believed not To prevent these Hebrews falling, the Spirit repeats the direful oath of God to apostates in the wilderness; the form of which was opened, Heb 3:11 ...

To prevent these Hebrews falling, the Spirit repeats the direful oath of God to apostates in the wilderness; the form of which was opened, Heb 3:11 : compare Num 14:30 . The matter sworn was, that they should be so far from possessing, that they should not so much as enter into the land of promise, Canaan, which was God’ s property, as the whole earth is; he promised it to them, could only dispossess their enemies, did give it in possession to their seed, and made it a type of heaven, and of his rest there; he swore this in his severe vindictive justice, so as his sentence was irreversible; which oath stands good against all total and final apostates from him, who have thereby forfeited any title to God’ s eternal rest.

Them that believed not those who were unbelieving under all God’ s miracles of mercies and judgments, which they saw, and so became obstinately disobedient to God’ s commands, and broke his covenant, Heb 8:9 Jer 31:32 , and apostatized from him, and so perished in their gainsaying.

Poole: Heb 3:19 - -- The execution of the matter sworn was felt by these Hebrews, which should make them and all that read it to dread both their sin and punishment, whi...

The execution of the matter sworn was felt by these Hebrews, which should make them and all that read it to dread both their sin and punishment, which the gospel would as justly inflict on them, if unbelievers. It is to be seen in God’ s written record of it, and the experienced downfal of such, that God’ s oath had shut the door as to their entrance there, and his judgments consumed them in the wilderness, because of their denial of resting on God’ s word, and the impious practices that issued from it, in their rejecting promises, rebelling against precepts, and murmuring against providence. God is no respecter of persons; if we sin so against his Son and gospel, how much sorer punishment will overtake us! Heb 10:27,29 .

PBC: Heb 3:1 - holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider, // consider the Apostle and High Priest // I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I command him. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him. // Hebrews, "holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider," Hear below They are not viewed diminutively by the writer but rather they are honored,...

"holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider,"

Hear below

They are not viewed diminutively by the writer but rather they are honored, they are holy brethren.  There was a brotherhood among the Jews, they could all claim Abraham as their father.  In terms of God setting the nation of Israel apart with the call of Abraham, there was indeed a holy calling to the Jews of the Old Testament, but this calling is not a matter of relationship to Abraham.  A. T. Robertson observes that by calling it a heavenly calling it refers to a call that came from heaven and a call whose authority and appeal is to heaven.  It is not an appeal from one man to another.  It is not an appeal that says, " I don’t know any more than you do but I think this would be a good idea."  It is indeed a call from God and the authority of this call is from God and the appeal is to God.  God doesn’t tend to give His commandments as kind recommendations.  He issues commands. 

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The issue here is not that these people had an exclusive claim on the divine calling or the family of God, but rather that they were sharers of a greater family than Abraham’s.  They participated in a calling that embraced people beyond Abraham and his family.

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"consider the Apostle and High Priest"

To "consider" Christ as here enjoined, means to thoroughly ponder who and what He is; to attentively weigh His dignity, His excellency, His authority; to think of what is due to Him. It is failure to thoroughly weigh important considerations which causes us to let them "slip" Heb 2:4. On the other hand, it is by diligently pondering things of moment and value that the understanding is enabled to better apprehend them, the memory to retain them, the heart to be impressed, and the individual to make a better use of them. To "consider" Christ means to behold Him, not simply by a passing glance or giving to Him an occasional thought, but by the heart being fully occupied with Him. "Set Me as a seal upon thine heart" Song 8:7, is His call to us. And it is our failure at this point which explains why we know so little about Him, why we love Him so feebly, why we trust Him so imperfectly.

A. W. Pink

Consider the Apostle and High Priest - settle your mind.  The word consider literally comes from two Greek words which means " to put the mind down."  He’s saying you may be unsettled about some things but here’s one thing where you need to settle your mind, put your mind down, nail it down tight, don’t go anywhere on this point, settle your mind on the Lord Jesus Christ.  Today, no less than in the first century everything about a person’s religion can be answered in how they think about the Lord Jesus Christ.  Everything!  No matter what!  Their theology, their view of salvation, their view of Christian living, their view of authority, their whole world view can be answered when you get to the bottom line of what they really think about the Lord Jesus Christ.  So, for us today, no less than in the gospels, when Jesus asks the question, " What think ye of Christ, who’s Son is He?" it is a relevant question, it lies at the heart of every issue about our faith.  Every issue! 275

Repeatedly in the gospels Jesus refers to Himself as either coming from or being sent from the Father.  It’s a similar word, but only here in the entire New Testament does inspired scripture refer to Jesus as the Apostle of our faith or profession.  The word " apostle" literally (if you will look it up in a New Testament Greek dictionary) means " one who is sent" – not one who volunteers and goes on his own but one who is sent - but implied in the word is far more, it is one who is sent as an official messenger with endued powers that accompany that message, not terribly unlike the role in our national politics of ambassador.  He is sent by our government to a foreign country with specific powers vested in that office as he functions in the interest of United States citizens who are living abroad in that country.  The Lord Jesus Christ in this role is compared to Moses.

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Heb 3:2-19 "Who was faithful to him that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his house. For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house. For every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God. And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after; But Christ as a son over his own house; whose house are we, if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end. Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, To day if ye will hear his voice, Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness: When your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my works forty years. Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, They do alway err in their heart; and they have not known my ways. So I sware in my wrath, They shall not enter into my rest.) Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God. But exhort one another daily, while it is called To day; lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin. For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end; While it is said, To day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation. For some, when they had heard, did provoke: howbeit not all that came out of Egypt by Moses. But with whom was he grieved forty years? was it not with them that had sinned, whose carcases fell in the wilderness? And to whom sware he that they should not enter into his rest, but to them that believed not? So we see that they could not enter in because of unbelief."

A Greater Than Moses Heb 3:1-19

What is the writer’s purpose in Hebrews? He is concerned to demonstrate the superior value of the Christian faith to the Jew’s religion. Under the relentless pressure of persecution, the Hebrew Christians to whom he writes are considering a return to Judaism. Such a return, the writer argues, would constitute the abandoning of the superior for the inferior, the substitution of the shadow for the substance.

The Jews greatly valued their religion because it had been given through eminent prophets like Samuel, Elijah, and Daniel and through the medium of angels. The Christian faith, however, was superior to the Jewish religion because it came directly from the Son of God, One who is superior to prophets and angels. The Jews, furthermore, highly esteemed Moses, a man who spoke "face to face with God" and was sent as God’s special messenger to the fathers. Through Moses, God delivered the people from Egypt, gave the Law, and led them through the wilderness. He was God’s "apostle" [i.e. one who is sent on a special mission], God’s "prophet," {De 18:15} and God’s mediator [the word "priest" in Heb 3:1 (pontifex) means "bridge builder" or "mediator"]. But Christianity has the advantage over the Jew’s religion because the Lord Jesus Christ is superior to Moses. In fact, He is our "Moses," our prophet and mediator, as Moses himself predicted:

"I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I command him. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him." {De 18:18-19}

Jesus is, then, the fulfillment of this prophecy. He is superior to Moses in terms of the fact that Moses was God’s servant but Jesus is God’s Son. The author of the Christian religion, then, is preferable to Moses. He is the builder of the "house of God;" Moses was merely a part of that "house." The danger of apostasy from the Christian faith, then, is more grave than the consequences of disobedience to Moses. The question inherent in these words is sobering: "Are you in God’s household? Are you a part of his dwelling place among men?" The writer answers that participation in "God’s house" is conditional on "holding fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end." {Heb 3:6}

What exactly is he saying? He is saying: "You claim that Moses is your leader? Very well, then. Moses was faithful to God. He held fast the revelation that God gave to him. That revelation pointed forward to a greater Prophet that God would raise up. Now that greater Prophet has come. His name is Jesus Christ. Just as Moses was faithful to hold fast God’s truth, Jesus Christ was faithful to the truth the Father committed to him. You have ‘professed’ {Heb 3:1} faith in Him, leaving the inferior (Moses’ law) for the superior (Christ’s gospel). But now, you are in danger of apostasy; you are ready to abandon your confession of Christ and return to the Jew’s religion. Be aware, then, that you are in danger of forfeiting God’s presence, for you are only His ‘house,’ that is, He will only dwell among you ‘if you hold fast’ your confession at the beginning until the very end. You must be faithful, like Moses and like Jesus, if you want God to acknowledge you as His special people."

In the light of this riveting argument, the writer proceeds to startle them with the second warning in the epistle- a warning against "unbelief." Don’t let your heart become hardened, he warns. Alluding to the failure of the Israelites to trust God in the wilderness, he implies that they are responding in the same way in the midst of their adversity. The Israelites murmured and complained, questioning "Is the Lord among us or not." {Ex 17:1-7} They accused Him of leading them out into the wilderness to die. Finally they conspired to appoint themselves a leader to return back to Egypt. {Nu 14:1-4} At that point, God’s patience was exhausted. He would tolerate their unbelief no longer. Since they wished to die instead of trusting Him to supply their needs and protect them each day, He granted their request. The people dropped dead, one by one, beneath the scorching Arabian sun. The story stands as an everlasting reminder of the seriousness of unbelief and the subtle danger of a gradual hardening of the heart.

"Hebrews," the writer warns, "guard your heart. Don’t repeat the mistake of your forefathers. Beware of the hardened heart of unbelief. Instead, hold fast your confidence and hope. Consider Jesus who was faithful to his task. Remember your confession of Christ at the beginning and be faithful to the very end. Don’t murmur or complain, lest you provoke the Lord to anger."

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PBC: Heb 3:3 - holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider, // consider the Apostle and High Priest // I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I command him. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him. // Hebrews, "holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider," Hear below They are not viewed diminutively by the writer but rather they are honored,...

"holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider,"

Hear below

They are not viewed diminutively by the writer but rather they are honored, they are holy brethren.  There was a brotherhood among the Jews, they could all claim Abraham as their father.  In terms of God setting the nation of Israel apart with the call of Abraham, there was indeed a holy calling to the Jews of the Old Testament, but this calling is not a matter of relationship to Abraham.  A. T. Robertson observes that by calling it a heavenly calling it refers to a call that came from heaven and a call whose authority and appeal is to heaven.  It is not an appeal from one man to another.  It is not an appeal that says, " I don’t know any more than you do but I think this would be a good idea."  It is indeed a call from God and the authority of this call is from God and the appeal is to God.  God doesn’t tend to give His commandments as kind recommendations.  He issues commands. 

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The issue here is not that these people had an exclusive claim on the divine calling or the family of God, but rather that they were sharers of a greater family than Abraham’s.  They participated in a calling that embraced people beyond Abraham and his family.

275

"consider the Apostle and High Priest"

To "consider" Christ as here enjoined, means to thoroughly ponder who and what He is; to attentively weigh His dignity, His excellency, His authority; to think of what is due to Him. It is failure to thoroughly weigh important considerations which causes us to let them "slip" Heb 2:4. On the other hand, it is by diligently pondering things of moment and value that the understanding is enabled to better apprehend them, the memory to retain them, the heart to be impressed, and the individual to make a better use of them. To "consider" Christ means to behold Him, not simply by a passing glance or giving to Him an occasional thought, but by the heart being fully occupied with Him. "Set Me as a seal upon thine heart" Song 8:7, is His call to us. And it is our failure at this point which explains why we know so little about Him, why we love Him so feebly, why we trust Him so imperfectly.

A. W. Pink

Consider the Apostle and High Priest - settle your mind.  The word consider literally comes from two Greek words which means " to put the mind down."  He’s saying you may be unsettled about some things but here’s one thing where you need to settle your mind, put your mind down, nail it down tight, don’t go anywhere on this point, settle your mind on the Lord Jesus Christ.  Today, no less than in the first century everything about a person’s religion can be answered in how they think about the Lord Jesus Christ.  Everything!  No matter what!  Their theology, their view of salvation, their view of Christian living, their view of authority, their whole world view can be answered when you get to the bottom line of what they really think about the Lord Jesus Christ.  So, for us today, no less than in the gospels, when Jesus asks the question, " What think ye of Christ, who’s Son is He?" it is a relevant question, it lies at the heart of every issue about our faith.  Every issue! 275

Repeatedly in the gospels Jesus refers to Himself as either coming from or being sent from the Father.  It’s a similar word, but only here in the entire New Testament does inspired scripture refer to Jesus as the Apostle of our faith or profession.  The word " apostle" literally (if you will look it up in a New Testament Greek dictionary) means " one who is sent" – not one who volunteers and goes on his own but one who is sent - but implied in the word is far more, it is one who is sent as an official messenger with endued powers that accompany that message, not terribly unlike the role in our national politics of ambassador.  He is sent by our government to a foreign country with specific powers vested in that office as he functions in the interest of United States citizens who are living abroad in that country.  The Lord Jesus Christ in this role is compared to Moses.

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Heb 3:2-19 "Who was faithful to him that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his house. For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house. For every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God. And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after; But Christ as a son over his own house; whose house are we, if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end. Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, To day if ye will hear his voice, Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness: When your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my works forty years. Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, They do alway err in their heart; and they have not known my ways. So I sware in my wrath, They shall not enter into my rest.) Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God. But exhort one another daily, while it is called To day; lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin. For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end; While it is said, To day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation. For some, when they had heard, did provoke: howbeit not all that came out of Egypt by Moses. But with whom was he grieved forty years? was it not with them that had sinned, whose carcases fell in the wilderness? And to whom sware he that they should not enter into his rest, but to them that believed not? So we see that they could not enter in because of unbelief."

A Greater Than Moses Heb 3:1-19

What is the writer’s purpose in Hebrews? He is concerned to demonstrate the superior value of the Christian faith to the Jew’s religion. Under the relentless pressure of persecution, the Hebrew Christians to whom he writes are considering a return to Judaism. Such a return, the writer argues, would constitute the abandoning of the superior for the inferior, the substitution of the shadow for the substance.

The Jews greatly valued their religion because it had been given through eminent prophets like Samuel, Elijah, and Daniel and through the medium of angels. The Christian faith, however, was superior to the Jewish religion because it came directly from the Son of God, One who is superior to prophets and angels. The Jews, furthermore, highly esteemed Moses, a man who spoke "face to face with God" and was sent as God’s special messenger to the fathers. Through Moses, God delivered the people from Egypt, gave the Law, and led them through the wilderness. He was God’s "apostle" [i.e. one who is sent on a special mission], God’s "prophet," {De 18:15} and God’s mediator [the word "priest" in Heb 3:1 (pontifex) means "bridge builder" or "mediator"]. But Christianity has the advantage over the Jew’s religion because the Lord Jesus Christ is superior to Moses. In fact, He is our "Moses," our prophet and mediator, as Moses himself predicted:

"I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I command him. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him." {De 18:18-19}

Jesus is, then, the fulfillment of this prophecy. He is superior to Moses in terms of the fact that Moses was God’s servant but Jesus is God’s Son. The author of the Christian religion, then, is preferable to Moses. He is the builder of the "house of God;" Moses was merely a part of that "house." The danger of apostasy from the Christian faith, then, is more grave than the consequences of disobedience to Moses. The question inherent in these words is sobering: "Are you in God’s household? Are you a part of his dwelling place among men?" The writer answers that participation in "God’s house" is conditional on "holding fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end." {Heb 3:6}

What exactly is he saying? He is saying: "You claim that Moses is your leader? Very well, then. Moses was faithful to God. He held fast the revelation that God gave to him. That revelation pointed forward to a greater Prophet that God would raise up. Now that greater Prophet has come. His name is Jesus Christ. Just as Moses was faithful to hold fast God’s truth, Jesus Christ was faithful to the truth the Father committed to him. You have ‘professed’ {Heb 3:1} faith in Him, leaving the inferior (Moses’ law) for the superior (Christ’s gospel). But now, you are in danger of apostasy; you are ready to abandon your confession of Christ and return to the Jew’s religion. Be aware, then, that you are in danger of forfeiting God’s presence, for you are only His ‘house,’ that is, He will only dwell among you ‘if you hold fast’ your confession at the beginning until the very end. You must be faithful, like Moses and like Jesus, if you want God to acknowledge you as His special people."

In the light of this riveting argument, the writer proceeds to startle them with the second warning in the epistle- a warning against "unbelief." Don’t let your heart become hardened, he warns. Alluding to the failure of the Israelites to trust God in the wilderness, he implies that they are responding in the same way in the midst of their adversity. The Israelites murmured and complained, questioning "Is the Lord among us or not." {Ex 17:1-7} They accused Him of leading them out into the wilderness to die. Finally they conspired to appoint themselves a leader to return back to Egypt. {Nu 14:1-4} At that point, God’s patience was exhausted. He would tolerate their unbelief no longer. Since they wished to die instead of trusting Him to supply their needs and protect them each day, He granted their request. The people dropped dead, one by one, beneath the scorching Arabian sun. The story stands as an everlasting reminder of the seriousness of unbelief and the subtle danger of a gradual hardening of the heart.

"Hebrews," the writer warns, "guard your heart. Don’t repeat the mistake of your forefathers. Beware of the hardened heart of unbelief. Instead, hold fast your confidence and hope. Consider Jesus who was faithful to his task. Remember your confession of Christ at the beginning and be faithful to the very end. Don’t murmur or complain, lest you provoke the Lord to anger."

373

PBC: Heb 3:5 - -- Jesus as a Son over His own house!  He wasn’t a servant – it belonged to Him.  Moses was faithful in all of his house as a servant for a testimo...

Jesus as a Son over His own house!  He wasn’t a servant – it belonged to Him.  Moses was faithful in all of his house as a servant for a testimony of those things that should be spoken after, but Jesus as a Son over His own house, whose house are we if we continue in the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end.  Yes, there’s something for you to do in the hope that He has given you.  Continue to rejoice in it - He’ll dwell in your heart.  You’re His house.  You’re His dwelling place.  You’re where He is to dwell and He dwells in our hearts as we journey down the rugged road of life and all of these things that He was doing was not to stand and read the law to us but He would say to His children, " Children I know that you make mistakes.  I even know your thought afar off" and let me assure you that you have a High Priest at the right hand of God and telling you very carefully that you can reach out and touch Him by the feeling of your infirmities and One that will say unto you, " Cast all your cares on Me."  You couldn’t do that under the law.  Cast all your cares on Me – for He careth for you.

Eld. I W. Gillam

PBC: Heb 3:6 - if we hold fast the confidence " if we hold fast the confidence" SGreek: 3954. parrhesia He's not questioning God's elective purpose nor God's effectiveness in election, he's just...

" if we hold fast the confidence" SGreek: 3954. parrhesia He's not questioning God's elective purpose nor God's effectiveness in election, he's just admonishing wavering believers. 

All Jews were brothers in Abraham, but all Jews did not participate equally in the blessings of God to the children of Abraham.  Why?  Because they were not all equally obedient and respectful to the words of God.  The blessings God poured out upon His people in their time (the Old Testament Jew, the New Testament Christian) were in exact relationship - not proportional to - Thank the Lord, He always gives more than He gets but they were in relation to faithful obedience.  The whole twelve tribes came from Abraham, but when Solomon died the greater part of ten tribes rebelled from the divine authority and within 300 years lost forever their identity as Abraham's children.  You tell me just because you are a child of Abraham you have equal access to blessings and frankly don't tell me because you're a child of God you have equal access  to the blessings of God here in time.  You don't!  Your blessing is in direct correlation to your faithfulness to the words revealed by God in scripture.  You can be His child but frankfully in the sense of this text not live in His house.

Leon Morris makes a comment on this passage:  "the word parrhesis SGreek: 3954. parrhesia has about it the feeling of being quite at home where words flow freely."  What this text is talking about is that warm familial relationship and the joys that go with it when you live in faithful obedience to the Lord.  He's not the Sunday, mystical figure you hear about at Church but never think about for six days out of the week.  He's not the person who is written about in that book you never open except to put in a death notice or a birth notice or a dried flower and keep on your coffee table as a look-book.  This text is talking about an intimate family member that you love and respect and you miss when you're not with Him.  That's the house he's talking about here and we're that house when we live with Him all the time instead of visiting Him on Sunday morning. 275 

What exactly is he saying? He is saying: " You claim that Moses is your leader? Very well, then. Moses was faithful to God. He held fast the revelation that God gave to him. That revelation pointed forward to a greater Prophet that God would raise up. Now that greater Prophet has come. His name is Jesus Christ. Just as Moses was faithful to hold fast God’s truth, Jesus Christ was faithful to the truth the Father committed to him. You have ‘professed’ Heb 3:1 faith in Him, leaving the inferior (Moses’ law) for the superior (Christ’s gospel). But now, you are in danger of apostasy; you are ready to abandon your confession of Christ and return to the Jew’s religion. Be aware, then, that you are in danger of forfeiting God’s presence, for you are only His ‘house,’ that is, He will only dwell among you ‘if you hold fast’ your confession at the beginning until the very end. You must be faithful, like Moses and like Jesus, if you want God to acknowledge you as His special people."

71

PBC: Heb 3:11 - Hebrews, Alluding to the failure of the Israelites to trust God in the wilderness, he implies that they are responding in the same way in the midst of their ad...

Alluding to the failure of the Israelites to trust God in the wilderness, he implies that they are responding in the same way in the midst of their adversity. The Israelites murmured and complained, questioning " Is the Lord among us or not." Ex 17:1-7 They accused Him of leading them out into the wilderness to die. Finally they conspired to appoint themselves a leader to return back to Egypt. Nu 14:1-4 At that point, God’s patience was exhausted. He would tolerate their unbelief no longer. Since they wished to die instead of trusting Him to supply their needs and protect them each day, He granted their request. The people dropped dead, one by one, beneath the scorching Arabian sun. The story stands as an everlasting reminder of the seriousness of unbelief and the subtle danger of a gradual hardening of the heart.

" Hebrews," the writer warns, " guard your heart. Don’t repeat the mistake of your forefathers. Beware of the hardened heart of unbelief. Instead, hold fast your confidence and hope. Consider Jesus who was faithful to his task. Remember your confession of Christ at the beginning and be faithful to the very end. Don’t murmur or complain, lest you provoke the Lord to anger."

71

Haydock: Heb 3:1 - The....high priest of our profession The....high priest of our profession. That is, of the faith we confess, or profess. Christ is also here called our apostle, i.e. sent by his Fath...

The....high priest of our profession. That is, of the faith we confess, or profess. Christ is also here called our apostle, i.e. sent by his Father. (Witham) ---

Jesus Christ is not only our apostle, he is the doctor, the legislator or the religion we profess. He is our high priest, who offered himself in sacrifice for the sanctification of his Church, and who is now exercising at the right hand of his Father the office of the priesthood in our behalf, both in heaven and on earth. We here see our dignity: we have a God for the apostle and high priest of our religion.

Haydock: Heb 3:2 - Faithful to him Faithful to him, &c. To be made, may apply to Christ as man; but here the sense is, who made him head over all his Church. (Witham)

Faithful to him, &c. To be made, may apply to Christ as man; but here the sense is, who made him head over all his Church. (Witham)

Haydock: Heb 3:3 - Of greater glory Of greater glory, &c. The apostle shews Christ to be greater than Moses several ways. 1. Christ is as much above Moses, as an architect above the h...

Of greater glory, &c. The apostle shews Christ to be greater than Moses several ways. 1. Christ is as much above Moses, as an architect above the hour which he has made; for Christ (who, as God, made all things) is the builder of that very house, that is, of the house of Israel, of which Moses was only a part of a member. 2. Moses was only employed in the house, as a servant, to give testimony to others, as he was ordered. (Witham)

Haydock: Heb 3:6 - Christ, as a Son in his own house: which house Christ, as a Son in his own house: which house, or Church of the faithful are we: and Christ is our only Lord and Master, equally with the Father, ...

Christ, as a Son in his own house: which house, or Church of the faithful are we: and Christ is our only Lord and Master, equally with the Father, and the Holy Ghost; but we are all members, and profitable members, if we retain firm confidence in him, and the glory of hope, or a glorious hope unto the end. (Witham) ---

Hitherto St. Paul endeavours to detach the Hebrews from Moses and the law, to attach them to Christ and his gospel. What follows, is an exhortation to persevere in the faith, lest we come to be cast off like the Jews.

Haydock: Heb 3:8 - -- This alludes to the 17th chapter of Exodus, where the history of provocations and contradictions of the Israelites is related at large.

This alludes to the 17th chapter of Exodus, where the history of provocations and contradictions of the Israelites is related at large.

Haydock: Heb 3:11 - As I have sworn in my wrath As I have sworn in my wrath: [1] if they shall enter into my rest. But if here implies the same as they shall not. See Mark viii. 12. And th...

As I have sworn in my wrath: [1] if they shall enter into my rest. But if here implies the same as they shall not. See Mark viii. 12. And that this is the sense here, appears by the 18th verse, where it is expressly said, they should not enter into his rest; i.e. to rest in the land of Chanaan [Canaan], promised to them. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Si introibunt, Greek: ei eiseleusontai.

Haydock: Heb 3:12 - Take heed Take heed, &c. Not to imitate their incredulous obstinacy, lest you never enter into the place of eternal rest, by departing from God by sin. (Witha...

Take heed, &c. Not to imitate their incredulous obstinacy, lest you never enter into the place of eternal rest, by departing from God by sin. (Witham) ---

To abandon Christ is to abandon God, since Christ is God. He who denies the Son, believes not the Father, who has wrought so many miracles to sanction his mission. (1 John ii. 23.) It is of little consequence to eternity whether it be the doctrine of faith or life of faith we reject, if persons are equally lost by either practical or speculative infidelity.

Haydock: Heb 3:13 - To day To day. The duration of the present life may be accounted but a day, which God destines for the trial of our faith and obedience; we ought, therefor...

To day. The duration of the present life may be accounted but a day, which God destines for the trial of our faith and obedience; we ought, therefore, to labour hard during the short time of the present day, that we may live and reign with God for all eternity. We cannot too often entertain this truth in our hearts, if we wish to square our lives after the gospel. The heart of man becomes insensibly hardened to Christian truths, when its natural corruption is not courageously attacked.

Haydock: Heb 3:14 - -- You have already been made partakers of the benefits of Christ, at your conversion and baptism, to the beginning of his substance, [2] by which s...

You have already been made partakers of the benefits of Christ, at your conversion and baptism, to the beginning of his substance, [2] by which seems to be understood the faith of Christ. (Witham) ---

If to subsist in Jesus Christ, to be washed in his blood, to be animated with his spirit, to be nourished with his flesh, is but a sketch, a seed of that union with him which on a future day is to be effected, how comes it that we are so attached to this earth, how can we hazard for such a mere trifle such immense felicity?

===============================

[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Initium substantiæ ejus, Greek: ten archen tes upostaseos. See Chap. xi. 1. Est fides sperandarum substantia rerum, Greek: elpizomenon upostasis.

====================

Haydock: Heb 3:15 - -- From the 6th and 14th verses we learn the great happiness conferred on us at baptism; but all this, happily, we are taught is dependent on faith, on t...

From the 6th and 14th verses we learn the great happiness conferred on us at baptism; but all this, happily, we are taught is dependent on faith, on the foundation of our spiritual and divine being.

Haydock: Heb 3:16 - -- Let us not flatter ourselves with having quitted Egypt by our baptism, unless we also quit that opposition, and that disobedience of our heart to the ...

Let us not flatter ourselves with having quitted Egypt by our baptism, unless we also quit that opposition, and that disobedience of our heart to the laws and maxims of the gospel. The Israelites, under the guidance of Moses, left Egypt for the promised land, and after travelling in the desert for the space of two years, found themselves on the confines of that so much desired country; but the possession of it was denied them, and they were left to perish in the desert, because they distrusted God's promises, and were incredulous to his word. All that happened to this chosen people, says St. Paul, was a figure of what was to happen to us. Here then we may read our destiny, if, like them, we prove ungrateful to God.

Haydock: Heb 3:17 - Whose carcasses were laid Whose carcasses were laid, or buried in the desert? None of those who were reckoned up (Numbers xiv.) entered the land of Chanaan [Canann], except...

Whose carcasses were laid, or buried in the desert? None of those who were reckoned up (Numbers xiv.) entered the land of Chanaan [Canann], except Josue [Joshua] and Caleb; but then we may take notice, that none were there numbered under twenty years of age, nor the Levites, nor the women. (Witham)

Gill: Heb 3:1 - Wherefore, holy brethren // partakers of the heavenly calling // to consider the apostle and high priest of our profession, Christ Jesus Wherefore, holy brethren,.... The apostle calls the Hebrews "brethren", not because they were of the same natural stock and lineage, but because they ...

Wherefore, holy brethren,.... The apostle calls the Hebrews "brethren", not because they were of the same natural stock and lineage, but because they were in the same spiritual relation; they all had the same Father, belonged to the same family, were the adopted sons of God, the brethren of Christ, of one another, and of the apostle; and they were "holy", not by birth, nor by their external separation from other nations, but through sanctification of the Spirit; and they were so by profession, and in the opinion of the apostle:

partakers of the heavenly calling; by which is meant not any business, or employment of life; nor a call to any office in church or state; nor a mere external call by the ministry of the word; but an internal special call of grace, to the enjoyment of the blessings of grace here, and to glory hereafter; and which is not according, to works, but according to the grace of God, and is by powerful, efficacious, and irresistible grace: and this is said to be "heavenly", because the grace by which the saints are called is from heaven, and it is to heaven they are called; and the means of their calling, the Gospel, is from heaven; and this epistle epithet is used to show the excellency of their calling, and to distinguish it from all others: and this the Hebrews are said to be "partakers of"; which shows, that God had not utterly cast off that people, and yet that they were not the only persons that enjoyed the grace of the effectual calling, they were but partners with others; and that the saints are alike sharers in this blessing, they are called in one hope of their calling; and it denotes the truth and reality of it: the duty they are exhorted to is,

to consider the apostle and high priest of our profession, Christ Jesus; the Alexandrian copy, the Vulgate Latin and Ethiopic versions, read, only "Jesus"; who is called "the apostle", because he was sent of God to preach the Gospel, work miracles, and do the will of God, particularly to obtain redemption and salvation for his people, which mission does not suppose any inequality of persons, or change of place, or any compulsion or disrespect to Christ, but love to men; and is to be understood of him as in office as Mediator, and shows his authority, and that he was no impostor. The high priest among the Jews was, on the day of atonement, considered as שליח, "an apostle", or "messenger" s; for so the elders of the sanhedrim address him on that day, saying,

"Lord high priest, we are the messengers of the sanhedrim, and thou art שלוחינו, "our apostle", or "messenger", and the messenger of the sanhedrim.''

And it follows here, and "the high priest of our profession"; which may be understood either objectively, whom they professed, both by words or deeds; for a profession of him should be public, visible, and sincere; or efficiently, he being the author, sum, and substance of the religion, faith, and Gospel which was professed by them: and he is to be "considered" in the greatness and dignity of his person, as the Son of God; and in his wondrous grace and love in assuming human nature, and dying for his people; and in the relations he stands in to them as a Father, husband, brother, friend; and in his several offices, as Mediator, and particularly as sent of God, to be the Saviour of sinners; and as the high priest, who has offered himself a sacrifice, and ever lives to make intercession; and all this to encourage the saints to hold fast their profession of him.

Gill: Heb 3:2 - Who was faithful to him that appointed him // as also Moses was faithful in all his house Who was faithful to him that appointed him,.... Or "made him"; Christ, as man, was made, but not as God; nor is the apostle speaking of the divine nat...

Who was faithful to him that appointed him,.... Or "made him"; Christ, as man, was made, but not as God; nor is the apostle speaking of the divine nature of Christ, but of his offices: wherefore this phrase designs the constitution and settlement of him in office; which may take in the eternal appointment of him as Mediator; the open promise of him in time; his mission, unction, and attestation from God; and his manifestation and declaration as such, at his ascension and session at God's right hand, when he was made Lord and Christ. Now, as Mediator, he had a trust reposed in him; as the persons of all God's elect, and a fulness of all grace for them; the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, and eternal life and happiness; and also the glory of God in their salvation: which trust he has faithfully discharged as an apostle, and high priest; in a declaration of the whole will of God; in acknowledging it was his Father's doctrine he brought, and in seeking not his own, but his Father's glory; in redeeming and saving the persons committed to him; in distributing his grace to them; and in bringing them safe to glory; and in taking care of things pertaining to God:

as also Moses was faithful in all his house; the passage referred to is in Num 12:7 and which seems not so much to intend the fidelity of Moses in managing the affairs of God's house, as the largeness of the trust reposed in him, the dignity and honour conferred on him, and the power and authority he was invested with, in having the whole house of Israel committed to his care and charge, in which he exceeded all other prophets; and so the faithfulness of Christ is not so much to be understood of the discharge of his trust, as of the trust itself; and the sense is, that he was trusted much by God the Father, who constituted him Mediator, even as Moses was; and this sense best agrees with Heb 3:5. And De Dieu has observed, that the Hebrew word נאמן, in Misnic writings t, signifies, as it does, one that is trusted, or is fit to be trusted, as Christ and Moses were; though the former is much more worthy than the latter, as follows.

Gill: Heb 3:3 - For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses // Inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses,.... Moses was counted worthy of glory and honour, and had it given him, both by God and by m...

For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses,.... Moses was counted worthy of glory and honour, and had it given him, both by God and by men; by God, as appears from the work he called him to, to deliver his people Israel, to reveal his mind and will to them, and to rule and govern them; and from the favours he showed him, as the miracles he did by him, the near converse he admitted him to, and the view he gave him of his glory, which he made to pass before him, and his regard to him at his death and burial, as well as the testimony he gave of him; and he was counted worthy of honour by men, and who gave it him, as Pharaoh and his people, and the Israelites. The Jews give very great commendations of him; they call him a father in the law, a father in wisdom, and a father in prophecy u; and say, that he is the father, master, head, and prince of all the prophets w; yea, the great prophet expected in the last days, they say, will be but next to Moses, their master x: they observe, that there were more miracles wrought by, and for him, than were wrought by, and for all the prophets that have been since the world began y; so that he not only exceeded them in the excellency and sublimity of prophecy, but in the multitude of miracles; but Christ is worthy of more glory than Moses, and has it given him by God, angels, and men: he is a greater Saviour than Moses; Moses was but a temporal saviour, but he is the author of spiritual and eternal salvation: he is a greater prophet than Moses, being the only begotten Son of God, who lay in the bosom of the Father, and has declared him, his mind and will, his Gospel, grace, and truth, as Moses never did: he is a greater King than he, being made higher than the kings of the earth: he did more miracles than Moses, and had a greater testimony from God than he had, as that he was his beloved Son, and to be heard; he was also raised, from the dead, and is set down at the right hand of God, and is appointed Judge of all; he is ministered to, and worshipped by angels, is believed on by men, who ascribe the whole glory of their salvation to him.

Inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house; this "house", or "temple", as the Arabic version renders it, is the church, of which Christ is the builder; though not to the exclusion of the Father and the Spirit, who are coefficient builders with him, nor of ministers of the Gospel as instruments, nor of believers in a private capacity, who build up one another; but he has the chief concern in the building, which lies in the conversion of souls, and in the edification of them, and is carried on by his Spirit in the ministry of the word and ordinances, and from hence he has a glory; see Zec 6:12 a greater glory than Moses, seeing he was but a part of this house, at most but a pillar in it; but Christ is the builder, foundation, and cornerstone.

Gill: Heb 3:4 - For every house is built by some man // But he that built all things is God For every house is built by some man,.... Or by some one; for a house does not build itself: this is true of houses properly taken, or improperly, as ...

For every house is built by some man,.... Or by some one; for a house does not build itself: this is true of houses properly taken, or improperly, as nations, tribes, families, and kindred, of the whole church in general, of particular congregations, and of individual believers; the greatest saints, even apostles and prophets, such an one as Moses, are built by and upon Christ; their persons are built on him; they receive all their gifts for edification from him, and their success is owing to him; though they are to be esteemed of in their proper places: the apostle's design is to bring down the high esteem the Jews had of Moses, that they might rightly value Christ.

But he that built all things is God; Christ has built all things, and therefore he is God, and must be infinitely above Moses; for this is not to be understood of God and of the creation of the world, and of all things in it by him; but of Christ, and of his building the church, and of his ordering and managing of that, and all affairs relating to it; such as the constitution of it, settling the worship of God, and the ordinances in it, the redemption and salvation of the members of it, and its rule and government; all which prove him to be God, and above Moses.

Gill: Heb 3:5 - And Moses verily was faithful in all his house as a servant // for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after And Moses verily was faithful in all his house as a servant,.... Moses was not only a servant to the Israelites, but he was also the Lord's servant, a...

And Moses verily was faithful in all his house as a servant,.... Moses was not only a servant to the Israelites, but he was also the Lord's servant, a servant of his choosing, sending, and approving; he was a servant in holy things, and served the Lord heartily, sincerely, and ingenuously, with all becoming fear and reverence, respect, and honour, and with all ready and cheerful obedience; the house in which he was a servant, was not his own, but belonged to God, even the Son of God, as appears from the following verse; he was not a servant in the world, and with respect to civil things, and the affairs of Providence, but in the church of God, and in divine things; and he was faithful here, and that in all things; he did all things exactly according to the pattern showed him in the Mount; and the apostle strongly affirms all this, as well he might, since there was full proof of it, and God himself had bore a testimony to it: and the end of his being a servant here was,

for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after; these words may regard his faithful testification of God's will to the people of Israel, after he was fixed as a servant in God's house; or what he said afterwards concerning the Messiah, of whom he spake and wrote, and of whom he bore an honourable testimony, Deu 18:1 or they may have respect to the things spoken after Moses's time, by the prophets, Christ, and his apostles, which agreed with the testimony of Moses; or to the things afterwards spoken of in this epistle; to which may be added, that Moses in his office was typical of things to be spoken and done by the Messiah, when he came; as his deliverance of the children of Israel out of Egypt; his leading them through the Red sea and wilderness, to Canaan's land; his giving them the law from Mount Sinai; the erection of the tabernacle, with all its furniture, and the institution of sacrifices and the like.

Gill: Heb 3:6 - But Christ as a Son over his own house // whose house are we // if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end But Christ as a Son over his own house,.... As Moses was not, though the Jews say that he was מאריה דבית a and בעל הבית b, "lord and m...

But Christ as a Son over his own house,.... As Moses was not, though the Jews say that he was מאריה דבית a and בעל הבית b, "lord and master of the house"; yea, and בן בית, "the Son of the house" c; but this he was not: Christ is the Son and heir, the Lord and master; he is a Son, not by creation, or by adoption, or by office, but by nature: hence it appears that he is God, and is equal with God; and this his sonship is the foundation of his office, and he becomes the heir of all things: and when he is said to be "as a Son", it does not intend mere resemblance; but is expressive of his right to heirship and government, and of the esteem and reverence he had in his house, and of his fidelity as a Son there; and though he was a servant, as man and Mediator, and had a great piece of service to perform, and which he has performed with diligence and faithfulness, yet he was also a Son, Lord and heir, as Moses was not; and he is over the house of God, as King, priest, and prophet in it, and as the firstborn, Son and heir, and as the master and governor of it; and which is called his own, because given him by the Father, purchased by himself, and which he has built, and in which he dwells:

whose house are we; believers in Christ, whether Jews or Gentiles; who, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, in whom Christ dwells by faith, and over whom he presides and reigns:

if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end. These words are not to be understood as a condition of the former assertion; nor is a final falling away from grace to be inferred from hence, for the supposition proves not such an inference, but the contrary; namely, that they that have true faith, hope, and confidence, shall keep them to the end; and therefore are the house of Christ: besides, the doctrine of apostasy is quite repugnant to the apostle's argument; according to which, Christ might have no house, and can have none till men have persevered: but the apostle's design is to give a word of exhortation to himself and others, to hold fast the confidence; and so the words are rather descriptive of the persons, who are the house of Christ; such who have a good hope, through grace, wrought in them, and can rejoice in hope of the glory of God; and can use freedom of speech and boldness at the throne of grace; and have an holy confidence of interest in the love of God, and salvation by Christ, and go on in the exercise of these graces to the end of their days.

Gill: Heb 3:7 - Wherefore, as the Holy Ghost saith // today if you will hear his voice Wherefore, as the Holy Ghost saith,.... In Psa 95:7 today if you will hear his voice; either the precepts of Christ, to hear which is to obey them;...

Wherefore, as the Holy Ghost saith,.... In Psa 95:7

today if you will hear his voice; either the precepts of Christ, to hear which is to obey them; and this is an acknowledgment to Christ as King of saints, and is a testimony of love to him, and is wellpleasing in his sight; and in which the saints find pleasure themselves, and profit also: or the Gospel of Christ, which is a voice of love, grace, and mercy; of peace and reconciliation; of pardon and righteousness; of liberty, redemption, and salvation by Christ; and to hear it, is not only to hear it externally, but internally, so as to understand it, and distinguish it from the voice of a stranger, and to approve of it, and believe it, and put in practice what is heard: and "today" may intend some festival day in David's time, when, and on account of which, this psalm was penned; as the feast of tabernacles, which was a type of Christ tabernacling in human nature; or it may regard the time of man's life, while it is day, or the present instant of life: or rather the whole Gospel dispensation. The psalm from whence these and some following words are taken, belongs to the Messiah; for the person the subject of it, is called the rock of our salvation; and every thing in it is applicable to him; as the ascription of deity, and divine worship; the creation and preservation of the universe; yea, he is represented as a shepherd, and the saints as his sheep; which plainly points at the office of Christ; and these very words are often made use of by the Jews, and applied to the Messiah, showing that if the Jews would repent but one day, or keep the sabbath but one day, the son of David, the Messiah, would come; since it is said, "today if you will hear his voice" d; which the Chaldee paraphrase renders מימריה, "his Word", his essential Word, the Lord Jesus Christ.

Gill: Heb 3:8 - Harden not you hearts // as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness Harden not you hearts,.... There is a natural hardness of the heart; the heart of man is like a stone, destitute of spiritual life, motion, and activi...

Harden not you hearts,.... There is a natural hardness of the heart; the heart of man is like a stone, destitute of spiritual life, motion, and activity; it is senseless, stupid, impenitent, stubborn, and inflexible, on which no impressions can be made, but by powerful grace: and there is an acquired, habitual, and voluntary hardness of heart, to which men arrive by various steps; as entertaining pleasing thoughts of sin; an actual commission of it, with frequency, till it becomes customary, and so habitual; an extenuation or justification of it, and so they become hardened against all reproofs and sermons, and to all afflictions and judgments; are insensible and past feeling, and openly declare for sin, and glory in it: and there is a hardness which God's people are liable to, and should guard against; and which is brought on by a neglect of private and public worship, and by keeping bad company, and through the ill examples of others, and by giving way to lesser sins; for all sin is of an hardening nature:

as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness; the Jews provoked God in the wilderness by their unbelief, murmurings, ingratitude, and idolatry; and they tempted him there by distrusting his power and goodness; hence one of the places in which they murmured against him was called Massah and Meribah, Exo 17:7 and it is an aggravation of their sin, that it was in the wilderness, after they had been just brought out of bondage into liberty, and had lately had such an instance of the power and goodness of God, in bringing them through the Red sea; and where they could have no human supplies, and therefore should have been entirely dependent on God, and trust in him.

Gill: Heb 3:9 - When your fathers tempted me // proved me // and saw my works forty years When your fathers tempted me,.... This the apostle cites and repeats, to expose the glorying of the Jews in their ancestors; to dissuade them from fol...

When your fathers tempted me,.... This the apostle cites and repeats, to expose the glorying of the Jews in their ancestors; to dissuade them from following their sinful practices; to deter them from the same by observing both their sin and punishment; and to heighten their regards to the voice and Gospel of Christ:

proved me; this is either an explication of the former phrase; or it may design the experience this people had of the power and goodness of God, notwithstanding their tempting and provoking the Lord by a distrust of them; which is an aggravation of their sin and ingratitude, and shows the forbearance of God, and that wicked men may partake of outward favours:

and saw my works forty years; that is, God's works of providence, in furnishing them with the necessaries of life, in guiding, protecting, and supporting them for the space of forty years, in the wilderness; and his miracles, and the punishment of their enemies; yet they saw and perceived not, but all this time sinned against the Lord, see Deu 29:2 the space of time, forty years, is in the psalm placed to the beginning of the next verse, and is joined with God's grief and indignation at the people, as it is also by the apostle, in Heb 3:17 but the people's sin, and God's grief at it, being of equal duration, it matters not to which it is placed, and therefore to both; perhaps, one reason of its being repeated, and so much notice taken of it is, because there was just this number of years from Christ's sufferings, to the destruction of Jerusalem; which the apostle might have in view.

Gill: Heb 3:10 - Wherefore I was grieved with that generation // and said, they do alway err in their heart // and they have not known my ways Wherefore I was grieved with that generation,.... דור המדבר, "the generation of the wilderness", as the Jews often call them; and which they s...

Wherefore I was grieved with that generation,.... דור המדבר, "the generation of the wilderness", as the Jews often call them; and which they say was more beloved than any generation e; and yet they will not allow them a part in the world to come; See Gill on Heb 3:11. When God is said to be grieved with them, it is to be considered as an anthropopathy, as speaking after the manner of men, as in Gen 6:5. The word signifies, that he was wearied by them, and weary of them; that he loathed them, and was displeased with them; it shows the notice God took of their sin; the heinousness of it, his displicency at it, and determination to punish it: the cause of his grief and indignation were their unbelief, ingratitude, and idolatry:

and said, they do alway err in their heart; all sins are errors, or aberrations from the law of God; all men err in this sense: these people erred in their hearts, for there is error in the understanding, and will, and affections, as well as in life and actions; and they may be said to err in their hearts, because their sins not only sprung from the heart, but they were done heartily, or with their hearts, and that continually; which shows the sottishness of this people: their stubbornness and rebellion; their want of integrity, and their constancy in sinning: heart sins, as well as others, are taken notice of by God:

and they have not known my ways; they did not take notice of God's ways of providence towards them; nor did they approve of, and delight in his ways of worship and duty, or in his commands.

Gill: Heb 3:11 - So I sware in my wrath // they shall not enter into my rest So I sware in my wrath,.... Swearing is ascribed to God, to show the certainty of the thing spoken of; as of mercies, when he swears in love, and by h...

So I sware in my wrath,.... Swearing is ascribed to God, to show the certainty of the thing spoken of; as of mercies, when he swears in love, and by his holiness; so here, of punishment, when he swears in wrath, in indignation, in sore displeasure, and the threatened evil is irrevocable and inevitable:

they shall not enter into my rest; into the land of Canaan, called God's rest, because he promised it, and gave it to the Israelites as their rest; and where he himself had a place of rest; and where he gave the Messiah, the author of peace and rest; and which was a type of heaven, that rest from toil and labour, which remains for the people of God; and into which it is said this generation did not enter; for the Jews say f,

"the generation of the wilderness have no part in the world to come:''

but this seems too harsh, for doubtless there were many who died in the wilderness, that went safe to heaven, notwithstanding all their sins and provocations.

Gill: Heb 3:12 - Take heed, brethren // lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief // in departing from the living God Take heed, brethren,.... This exhortation is grounded upon the state and case of their ancestors before given, as a warning and caution to the then pr...

Take heed, brethren,.... This exhortation is grounded upon the state and case of their ancestors before given, as a warning and caution to the then present Hebrews; and whom the apostle styles "brethren", to show that he had no hard thoughts of them, and that his jealousy was a godly one, and not an evil suspicion; and may teach us that all exhortations, admonitions, and reproofs should be given in love:

lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief; or such an evil heart, in which unbelief prevails, and is predominant: there is in every man, whether a profane sinner, or an hypocritical professor, an evil heart, and an unbelieving one; and there is unbelief in regenerate persons, which when cherished and encouraged by them is a great evil, and should be avoided; and this sin is aggravated by the many instances of God's grace, and by the many declarations of it, and by the exceeding great and precious promises God has made, and by the great discoveries of his love to their souls in times past: and this sin, when it gets ahead, has a very great influence on the heart, to make it evil; and unbelief was the first sin of man, at least it very early appeared; it is the mother sin, and puts persons upon every sin; it defiles the conscience, hardens the heart, renders the word unprofitable, unfit for duty and makes men unstable, and therefore to be shunned; and especially because of the dreadful effect following:

in departing from the living God; that is, from Christ, who is the Son over his own house, and whose voice is to be heard; for of no other is the apostle speaking in the context; and who is not only the Son of the living God, but he is himself the living God; he is life in himself, and is the fountain and author of life, natural, spiritual, and eternal. This is mentioned to exalt the person of Christ, the apostle and high priest of our profession; and to discover the greatness and heinousness of the sin of such as depart from him and his Gospel, and to deter men from it: there is a final and total departure from Christ, from his Gospel and ordinances, from his people, and from a former profession of faith, which is never to be found in true believers; for they are as Mount Zion, which can never be removed; but there is a partial departure, and for a while, which they are liable to, and is attended with bad effects to them, and should be guarded against: saints should take heed of themselves, and of their hearts, and of the unbelief of them, that they do not in the least depart from Christ, by letting go their hold of him, or by a non-exercise of faith upon him; and this should be the care and concern of every individual member of the church, and at all times; unbelief is very dishonourable to God and Christ; contradicts the word and promises of God; is uncomfortable to the saints; it is a sin that very easily besets, and is very provoking to God, and is highly resented by him.

Gill: Heb 3:13 - But exhort one another daily // while it is called today // lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin But exhort one another daily,.... In order to prevent unbelief and apostasy. The phrase is sometimes rendered, "comfort one another", or, "yourselves ...

But exhort one another daily,.... In order to prevent unbelief and apostasy. The phrase is sometimes rendered, "comfort one another", or, "yourselves together", as in 1Th 5:11 which the saints may do, by discoursing together about divine things; by praying together; by instructing one another in the doctrines of the Gospel; by putting one another in mind of the covenant of grace, and its promises; and by observing the near approach of everlasting happiness with Christ. And though the business of exhortation greatly belongs to ministers of the word, yet it ought not to be neglected by private believers; who ought, when it becomes necessary, to exhort one another to prayer; to an attendance on the word and ordinances; to a regard to their conversations; to a close adherence to their profession; and to a believing view and consideration of Christ, the apostle and high priest of it; and to a due concern for his truth and interest: and this should be done in love, with good and consolatory words, and in things, in which the saints are concerned, and do themselves regard; and it is an affair which requires prudence and faithfulness; and supposes that God's own people may be dull, heavy, and sluggish; and this is to be done "daily", every day, as often as there is an occasion, and an opportunity for it; and

while it is called today; while the Gospel dispensation continues; or while the time of life lasts. This shows that the phrase "today", in Psa 95:7 did not respect David's time only. The Syriac version renders it, "until that day which is called today": until the everlasting day appears, when there will be no need of such exhortations, nor any danger of what follows:

lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin; actual sin, which is a transgression of the law; every sin is of an hardening nature, and by being often committed, an habit is contracted, and a callousness brought upon the heart and conscience; or the corruption of nature, indwelling sin, may be meant; an evil and a corrupt heart, which deceives through promises of pleasure, or profit to a man's self, or of secrecy and impunity; it suggests the power a man has to repent at pleasure, and the mercy of God, by which means the man is drawn in to it, and by frequent repeating it, grows hardened in it.

Gill: Heb 3:14 - For we are made partakers of Christ // if we hold fast the beginning of our confidence steadfast unto the end For we are made partakers of Christ,.... Being loved by him, given to him, and chosen in him before the foundation of the world; and so participate of...

For we are made partakers of Christ,.... Being loved by him, given to him, and chosen in him before the foundation of the world; and so participate of all spiritual blessings in him; for this respects something past, and may be rendered, "we have been made". The phrase is expressive of union to Christ, which is not by faith on man's part, and by the Spirit on Christ's part, but by his everlasting love, taking his people into an oneness with himself; thereby becoming their head, surety, and representative, which is the ground and foundation of all the blessings of grace being imparted to them: hence arises communion; as this is a conjugal union, there is communion of names, of persons, of goods, of honour and dignity, and of everlasting glory; as it is a federal or representative union, hence a non-imputation of sin, justification, and freedom from condemnation; and as it is an union of head and members; hence a communication of life, and the security of it, and of all grace and strength; hence holiness, fruitfulness, and perseverance, and everlasting happiness both of soul and body:

if we hold fast the beginning of our confidence steadfast unto the end; by "confidence" is meant faith, which is an hypostasis, or subsistence, which is the word here used; and is so called, because it gives a kind of subsistence, substance, or being, to things it is concerned with, Heb 11:1 and because it is a great support to believers, under their various exercises; and is that by which they have an open, spiritual, and comfortable subsistence, and abiding in Christ: the "beginning" of it, which is to be held fast, is either Christ himself, who is the αρχη, "the beginning", the author, and finisher of faith; and so this shows from whom, and in what way, this grace is distributed; and is expressive of communion with Christ, and is an evidence of the participation of him: or else the Gospel, which is the means of implanting faith, and directs to that which is the ground and foundation of it; and this is to be held fast, and never to be departed from: or else the grace of faith itself, which is a grace but begun, not yet finished, but shall continue, and is to be held fast, and constantly exercised; and perseverance in believing on Christ is an evidence of union to him.

Gill: Heb 3:15 - While it is said today While it is said today,.... Exhort one another, and hold fast Christ and his Gospel, and faith and confidence therein; what follows is a repetition of...

While it is said today,.... Exhort one another, and hold fast Christ and his Gospel, and faith and confidence therein; what follows is a repetition of the citation in Heb 3:7 in order to make a further improvement of it; which shows, that the words belong to the present times of the Gospel, and contain in them matter of moment, and great concern; and that Scripture instructions and exhortations are of perpetual use.

Gill: Heb 3:16 - For some, when, they had heard // did provoke // howbeit not all that came out of Egypt by Moses For some, when, they had heard,.... The Arabic version adds, "his voice"; the law on Mount Sinai; the voice of words, with the voices and thunderings ...

For some, when, they had heard,.... The Arabic version adds, "his voice"; the law on Mount Sinai; the voice of words, with the voices and thunderings that attended it; the book of the covenant read; the whole system of laws and ordinances delivered to Moses, and by him to them; and also the Gospel, for that was preached to the Israelites in the wilderness, and heard by them; as appears from Heb 4:2 and which seems chiefly intended: and yet some of the hearers of it

did provoke; not only Moses, to speak unadvisedly with his lips; but they provoked Jehovah himself, and the angel of his presence, and his Holy Spirit, by their idolatry, ingratitude, and unbelief: and the aggravation of their sin is, that they did it when they had heard the Gospel, and while they were hearing it; which shows that the Gospel may be heard to no advantage; as when it is heard in a careless and indifferent manner; when it makes no impression, takes no place, and has no root; when the world and the things of it are the great concern of the mind, while hearing it; when it is not attended with the power and Spirit of God; when it is not received in love, nor mixed with faith, nor put in practice: and hence the Gospel heard, comes to be an aggravation of men's condemnation:

howbeit not all that came out of Egypt by Moses; that is, they did not all provoke, but some did; which is another aggravation of their sin; they were just come out of Egyptian bondage; brought out of it by the Lord, with the mighty and outstretched arm of his power; and yet they provoked him: and this was done by Moses; by the hand of Moses, as the Syriac version renders it; by his means, by him as an instrument; and yet they provoked him: but however all did not, yet these were but few; it seems only Caleb and Joshua, out of six hundred thousand; God will have a few to serve him in the worst of times.

Gill: Heb 3:17 - But with whom was he grieved forty years // was it not with them that had sinned // whose carcasses fell in the wilderness But with whom was he grieved forty years?.... As is said in Psa 95:10; see Gill on Heb 3:10, was it not with them that had sinned; not merely by co...

But with whom was he grieved forty years?.... As is said in Psa 95:10; see Gill on Heb 3:10,

was it not with them that had sinned; not merely by committing personal iniquities, and particular provocations, which all men are guilty of, but by committing public sins; they sinned as a body of men; they joined together in the commission of sin; every sin is grieving to God, because it is contrary to his nature, is an act of enmity to him, is a transgression of his righteous law, and a contempt of his authority; but especially public sins, or the sins of a multitude, and when they are persisted in, which was the case of the Israelites; they sinned against him during the forty years they were in the wilderness; and so long was he grieved with them: the Alexandrian copy reads, "with them that believed not"; which points out the particular sin these men were guilty of, and which was so grieving to God, and suits well with the apostle's design:

whose carcasses fell in the wilderness? and so never entered into the land of Canaan. They died in the wilderness; and they did not die common and natural deaths, at least not all of them; their deaths were by way of punishment; in a way of wrath; in a judicial way: the Syriac version renders it, "their bones fell in the wilderness"; they lay scattered and unburied, and exposed to view, as an example of divine vengeance, see Num 14:29.

Gill: Heb 3:18 - And to whom sware he that they should not enter into his rest // but to them that believed not And to whom sware he that they should not enter into his rest,.... As in Psa 95:11, but to them that believed not? the Lord; notwithstanding the si...

And to whom sware he that they should not enter into his rest,.... As in Psa 95:11,

but to them that believed not? the Lord; notwithstanding the signs and wonders he showed among them, they would not be persuaded by Moses and Aaron, by Joshua and Caleb, to be still and quiet, to cease murmuring, and submit to the will of God, and believe in him; they were disobedient, stubborn, and rebellious, and would go up, when they were bid not to go up; for which reason God swore in his wrath that they should not enter into the good land. Unbelief is a source of sin, and cause of judgment, being greatly provoking to God.

Gill: Heb 3:19 - So we see that they could not enter in // because of unbelief So we see that they could not enter in,.... To God's rest, the land of Canaan, for they died by the plague before the Lord, and their carcasses fell i...

So we see that they could not enter in,.... To God's rest, the land of Canaan, for they died by the plague before the Lord, and their carcasses fell in the wilderness, before they came to it, Num 14:37 and the reason was,

because of unbelief; their distrust of God, his power, and his providence; this instance is produced by the apostle, to show the evil nature of unbelief, and the sad effects of it; to deter persons from it, and that they might take heed of encouraging it; and which instance he further improves in the following chapter.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Heb 3:1 Grk “of our confession.”

NET Notes: Heb 3:2 ‡ The reading adopted by the translation follows a few early mss and some versions (Ì13,46vid B vgms co Ambr). The majority of mss (א...

NET Notes: Heb 3:5 A quotation from Num 12:7.

NET Notes: Heb 3:6 Grk “the pride of our hope.”

NET Notes: Heb 3:7 Grk “today if you hear his voice.”

NET Notes: Heb 3:9 Grk “tested me by trial.”

NET Notes: Heb 3:10 Grk “they are wandering in the heart.”

NET Notes: Heb 3:11 Grk “if they shall enter my rest,” a Hebrew idiom expressing an oath that something will certainly not happen.

NET Notes: Heb 3:12 Grk “in forsaking the living God.”

NET Notes: Heb 3:14 Grk “the beginning of the confidence.”

NET Notes: Heb 3:15 A quotation from Ps 95:7b-8.

NET Notes: Heb 3:16 Grk “through Moses.”

NET Notes: Heb 3:17 An allusion to God’s judgment pronounced in Num 14:29, 32.

NET Notes: Heb 3:19 Here καί (kai) has been translated as “So” to indicate a summary or conclusion to the argument of the preceding paragraph.

Geneva Bible: Heb 3:1 Wherefore, ( 1 ) holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the ( a ) Apostle and High Priest of our ( b ) profession, Christ Jesus; ...

Geneva Bible: Heb 3:2 ( 2 ) Who was faithful to him that ( c ) appointed him, ( 3 ) as also Moses [was faithful] in all his house. ( 2 ) He confirms his exhortation with t...

Geneva Bible: Heb 3:3 ( 4 ) For this [man] was counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house. ( 4 ) Th...

Geneva Bible: Heb 3:5 And ( 5 ) Moses verily [was] faithful in all his house, as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after; ( 5 ) Another co...

Geneva Bible: Heb 3:6 But Christ as a son over his own house; ( 6 ) whose ( d ) house are we, if we hold fast the ( e ) confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto t...

Geneva Bible: Heb 3:7 Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, To day if ye ( f ) will hear his voice, ( f ) So that God was to speak once again after Moses.

Geneva Bible: Heb 3:8 Harden not your hearts, as in the ( g ) provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness: ( g ) In the day that they troubled the Lord, or str...

Geneva Bible: Heb 3:10 Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, They do alway ( h ) err in [their] heart; and they have not known my ways. ( h ) They are bru...

Geneva Bible: Heb 3:12 ( 7 ) Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God. ( 7 ) Now consider in the words o...

Geneva Bible: Heb 3:13 But exhort one another daily, ( i ) while it is called To day; lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin. ( i ) While today lasts,...

Geneva Bible: Heb 3:14 ( 8 ) For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the ( k ) beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end; ( 8 ) Now he considers these words...

Geneva Bible: Heb 3:15 ( l ) While it is said, To day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation. ( l ) So long as this voice sounds out.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: Heb 3:1 - A Libation To Jehovah Consider Jesus Consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus.' Heb. 3:1. Consider Him that endured'. Heb. 12:3. THE kinds of c...

Maclaren: Heb 3:6 - A Libation To Jehovah Confidence And Rejoicing Of Hope If we hold the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end.'--Heb. 3:6. Two of the favourite thoughts...

Maclaren: Heb 3:7-8 - A Libation To Jehovah Hear His Voice To-day if ye will hear His voice, harden not your hearts'--Heb. 3:7-8. WHOSE Voice? The writer of the psalm from which these words are...

Maclaren: Heb 3:13 - A Libation To Jehovah The Lies Of The Temptress" The deceitfulness of sin.'--Heb. 3:13. THERE is a possible reference here, in this personification of Sin, as leading men ...

Maclaren: Heb 3:14 - A Libation To Jehovah A Momentous If' We are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence steadfast unto the end.'--Heb. 3:14. One of the great cha...

MHCC: Heb 3:1-6 - --Christ is to be considered as the Apostle of our profession, the Messenger sent by God to men, the great Revealer of that faith which we profess to ho...

MHCC: Heb 3:7-13 - --Days of temptation are often days of provocation. But to provoke God, when he is letting us see that we entirely depend and live upon him, is a provoc...

MHCC: Heb 3:14-19 - --The saints' privilege is, they are made partakers of Christ, that is, of the Spirit, the nature, graces, righteousness, and life of Christ; they are i...

Matthew Henry: Heb 3:1-6 - -- In these verses we have the application of the doctrine laid down in the close of the last chapter concerning the priesthood of our Lord Jesus Chris...

Matthew Henry: Heb 3:7-19 - -- Here the apostle proceeds in pressing upon them serious counsels and cautions to the close of the chapter; and he recites a passage out of Psa 95:7,...

Barclay: Heb 3:1-6 - "GREATER THAN THE GREATEST" Let us remember the conviction with which the writer to the Hebrews starts. The basis of his thought is that the supreme revelation of God comes thro...

Barclay: Heb 3:7-19 - "WHILE TODAY STILL LASTS" The writer to the Hebrews has just been striving to prove the unique supremacy of Jesus and now he leaves argument for exhortation. He presses upon h...

Constable: Heb 1:1--3:1 - --I. The culminating revelation of God 1:1--2:18 Hebrews is a sermon reduced to writing (cf. 13:22; James). Indica...