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Teks -- Judges 9:1-57 (NET)

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Konteks
Abimelech Murders His Brothers
9:1 Now Abimelech son of Jerub-Baal went to Shechem to see his mother’s relatives. He said to them and to his mother’s entire extended family, 9:2 “Tell all the leaders of Shechem this: ‘Why would you want to have seventy men, all Jerub-Baal’s sons, ruling over you, when you can have just one ruler? Recall that I am your own flesh and blood.’” 9:3 His mother’s relatives spoke on his behalf to all the leaders of Shechem and reported his proposal. The leaders were drawn to Abimelech; they said, “He is our close relative.” 9:4 They paid him seventy silver shekels out of the temple of Baal-Berith. Abimelech then used the silver to hire some lawless, dangerous men as his followers. 9:5 He went to his father’s home in Ophrah and murdered his half-brothers, the seventy legitimate sons of Jerub-Baal, on one stone. Only Jotham, Jerub-Baal’s youngest son, escaped, because he hid. 9:6 All the leaders of Shechem and Beth Millo assembled and then went and made Abimelech king by the oak near the pillar in Shechem.
Jotham’s Parable
9:7 When Jotham heard the news, he went and stood on the top of Mount Gerizim. He spoke loudly to the people below, “Listen to me, leaders of Shechem, so that God may listen to you! 9:8 “The trees were determined to go out and choose a king for themselves. They said to the olive tree, ‘Be our king!’ 9:9 But the olive tree said to them, ‘I am not going to stop producing my oil, which is used to honor gods and men, just to sway above the other trees!’ 9:10 “So the trees said to the fig tree, ‘You come and be our king!’ 9:11 But the fig tree said to them, ‘I am not going to stop producing my sweet figs, my excellent fruit, just to sway above the other trees!’ 9:12 “So the trees said to the grapevine, ‘You come and be our king!’ 9:13 But the grapevine said to them, ‘I am not going to stop producing my wine, which makes gods and men so happy, just to sway above the other trees!’ 9:14 “So all the trees said to the thornbush, ‘You come and be our king!’ 9:15 The thornbush said to the trees, ‘If you really want to choose me as your king, then come along, find safety under my branches! Otherwise may fire blaze from the thornbush and consume the cedars of Lebanon!’ 9:16 “Now, if you have shown loyalty and integrity when you made Abimelech king, if you have done right to Jerub-Baal and his family, if you have properly repaid repaid him– 9:17 my father fought for you; he risked his life and delivered you from Midian’s power. 9:18 But you have attacked my father’s family today. You murdered his seventy legitimate sons on one stone and made Abimelech, the son of his female slave, king over the leaders of Shechem, just because he is your close relative. 9:19 So if you have shown loyalty and integrity to Jerub-Baal and his family today, then may Abimelech bring you happiness and may you bring him happiness! 9:20 But if not, may fire blaze from Abimelech and consume the leaders of Shechem and Beth Millo! May fire also blaze from the leaders of Shechem and Beth Millo and consume Abimelech!” 9:21 Then Jotham ran away to Beer and lived there to escape from Abimelech his half-brother.
God Fulfills Jotham’s Curse
9:22 Abimelech commanded Israel for three years. 9:23 God sent a spirit to stir up hostility between Abimelech and the leaders of Shechem. He made the leaders of Shechem disloyal to Abimelech. 9:24 He did this so the violent deaths of Jerub-Baal’s seventy sons might be avenged and Abimelech, their half-brother who murdered them, might have to pay for their spilled blood, along with the leaders of Shechem who helped him murder them. 9:25 The leaders of Shechem rebelled against Abimelech by putting bandits in the hills, who robbed everyone who traveled by on the road. But Abimelech found out about it. 9:26 Gaal son of Ebed came through Shechem with his brothers. The leaders of Shechem transferred their loyalty to him. 9:27 They went out to the field, harvested their grapes, squeezed out the juice, and celebrated. They came to the temple of their god and ate, drank, and cursed Abimelech. 9:28 Gaal son of Ebed said, “Who is Abimelech and who is Shechem, that we should serve him? Is he not the son of Jerub-Baal, and is not Zebul the deputy he appointed? Serve the sons of Hamor, the father of Shechem! But why should we serve Abimelech? 9:29 If only these men were under my command, I would get rid of Abimelech!” He challenged Abimelech, “Muster your army and come out for battle!” 9:30 When Zebul, the city commissioner, heard the words of Gaal son of Ebed, he was furious. 9:31 He sent messengers to Abimelech, who was in Arumah, reporting, “Beware! Gaal son of Ebed and his brothers are coming to Shechem and inciting the city to rebel against you. 9:32 Now, come up at night with your men and set an ambush in the field outside the city. 9:33 In the morning at sunrise quickly attack the city. When he and his men come out to fight you, do what you can to him.” 9:34 So Abimelech and all his men came up at night and set an ambush outside Shechem– they divided into four units. 9:35 When Gaal son of Ebed came out and stood at the entrance to the city’s gate, Abimelech and his men got up from their hiding places. 9:36 Gaal saw the men and said to Zebul, “Look, men are coming down from the tops of the hills.” But Zebul said to him, “You are seeing the shadows on the hills– it just looks like men.” 9:37 Gaal again said, “Look, men are coming down from the very center of the land. A unit is coming by way of the Oak Tree of the Diviners.” 9:38 Zebul said to him, “Where now are your bragging words, ‘Who is Abimelech that we should serve him?’ Are these not the men you insulted? Go out now and fight them!” 9:39 So Gaal led the leaders of Shechem out and fought Abimelech. 9:40 Abimelech chased him, and Gaal ran from him. Many Shechemites fell wounded at the entrance of the gate. 9:41 Abimelech went back to Arumah; Zebul drove Gaal and his brothers out of Shechem. 9:42 The next day the Shechemites came out to the field. When Abimelech heard about it, 9:43 he took his men and divided them into three units and set an ambush in the field. When he saw the people coming out of the city, he attacked and struck them down. 9:44 Abimelech and his units attacked and blocked the entrance to the city’s gate. Two units then attacked all the people in the field and struck them down. 9:45 Abimelech fought against the city all that day. He captured the city and killed all the people in it. Then he leveled the city and spread salt over it. 9:46 When all the leaders of the Tower of Shechem heard the news, they went to the stronghold of the temple of El-Berith. 9:47 Abimelech heard that all the leaders of the Tower of Shechem were in one place. 9:48 He and all his men went up on Mount Zalmon. He took an ax in his hand and cut off a tree branch. He put it on his shoulder and said to his men, “Quickly, do what you have just seen me do!” 9:49 So each of his men also cut off a branch and followed Abimelech. They put the branches against the stronghold and set fire to it. All the people of the Tower of Shechem died– about a thousand men and women. 9:50 Abimelech moved on to Thebez; he besieged and captured it. 9:51 There was a fortified tower in the center of the city, so all the men and women, as well as the city’s leaders, ran into it and locked the entrance. Then they went up to the roof of the tower. 9:52 Abimelech came and attacked the tower. When he approached the entrance of the tower to set it on fire, 9:53 a woman threw an upper millstone down on his head and shattered his skull. 9:54 He quickly called to the young man who carried his weapons, “Draw your sword and kill me, so they will not say, ‘A woman killed him.’” So the young man stabbed him and he died. 9:55 When the Israelites saw that Abimelech was dead, they went home. 9:56 God repaid Abimelech for the evil he did to his father by murdering his seventy half-brothers. 9:57 God also repaid the men of Shechem for their evil deeds. The curse spoken by Jotham son of Jerub-Baal fell on them.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abimelech priest (Eli Ithamar) of Nob, whom Saul killed; Ahimelech I,a priest, Ahimelech II; son of Abiathar son of Ahimelech I,a man who was part of David's fugitive band; a Hittite
 · Arumah a town SE of Shechem (OS)
 · Baal a pagan god,a title of a pagan god,a town in the Negeb on the border of Simeon and Judah,son of Reaiah son of Micah; a descendant of Reuben,the forth son of Jeiel, the Benjamite
 · Beer a place where Israel encamped north of the Arnon in Moab (OS),a town located perhaps west of Beth-Shan (OS)
 · Beth-millo a town near or attached to Shechem
 · Beth-Millo a town near or attached to Shechem
 · Ebed father of Gaal, the rascal of Shechem in the days of the judges,son of Jonathan; head of the Adin Clan returnees from exile
 · El-berith a pagan god of the Canaanites
 · El-Berith a pagan god of the Canaanites
 · Gaal son of Ebed; the enemy of Abimelech
 · Gerizim a mountain just south of Mount Ebal overlooking Shechem
 · Hamor the father of Shechem.,father of Shechem whose people Simeon and Levi destroyed
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jerubbaal son of Joash of Abiezer of Manasseh; a judge of Israel
 · Jotham the son who succeeded King Uzziah of Judah; the father of Ahaz; an ancestor of Jesus,the youngest son of Jerubbaal (Gideon),son and successor of King Azariah of Judah,son of Jahdai of Judah
 · Lebanon a mountain range and the adjoining regions (IBD)
 · Midian resident(s) of the region of Midian
 · Ophrah a town of Benjamin on the border of Ephraim, 4 km ENE of Bethel,a town of Manasseh, possibly 7 km NW of Jezreel,son of Meonothai of Judah
 · Shechem member of the Shechem Clan and/or resident of Shechem
 · Thebez a town of west Manasseh about 15 km north of Shechem
 · Zalmon a mountain or promontory joined on to Mount Gerizim,an Ahohite man who was one of David's military elite
 · Zebul one of Gideon's officers


Topik/Tema Kamus: Abimelech | Shechem | Gaal | Israel | Zebul | Judge | Jotham | Hamor | Ebed | Conspiracy | Ambush | FABLE | Thebez | Sarcasm | CITY | ACCOMMODATION | Allegory | Millo | REIGN | Parables | selebihnya
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Catatan Kata/Frasa
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Catatan Kata/Frasa
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MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Jdg 9:2 - Reign He supposed they would take that government which their father refused; and that the multitude of his sons would occasion divisions, and confusions, w...

He supposed they would take that government which their father refused; and that the multitude of his sons would occasion divisions, and confusions, which they might avoid by chusing him king; and so they might enjoy the monarchy which they had long desired.

Wesley: Jdg 9:2 - Your bone and flesh Your kinsman, of the same tribe and city with you; which will be no small honour and advantage to you.

Your kinsman, of the same tribe and city with you; which will be no small honour and advantage to you.

Wesley: Jdg 9:3 - Brethren That is, kinsmen.

That is, kinsmen.

Wesley: Jdg 9:3 - He is our brother They were easily persuaded to believe what served their own interest.

They were easily persuaded to believe what served their own interest.

Wesley: Jdg 9:4 - Pieces of silver Not shekels, which were too small a sum for this purpose; but far larger pieces, the exact worth whereof it is not possible for us now to know.

Not shekels, which were too small a sum for this purpose; but far larger pieces, the exact worth whereof it is not possible for us now to know.

Wesley: Jdg 9:4 - The house of Baal berith - Out of his sacred treasury; having since Gideon's death built this temple (which he would never have suffered whilst he lived) and endowed it...

berith - Out of his sacred treasury; having since Gideon's death built this temple (which he would never have suffered whilst he lived) and endowed it with considerable revenues.

Wesley: Jdg 9:4 - Light persons Unsettled, idle and necessitous persons, the proper instruments of tyranny and cruelty.

Unsettled, idle and necessitous persons, the proper instruments of tyranny and cruelty.

Wesley: Jdg 9:5 - His brethren The only persons who were likely to hinder him in establishing his tyranny.

The only persons who were likely to hinder him in establishing his tyranny.

Wesley: Jdg 9:5 - Threescore and ten Wanting one, who is here expressed.

Wanting one, who is here expressed.

Wesley: Jdg 9:5 - Jotham was left Whereby he would signify, that this was an act of justice, in cutting them all off in an orderly manner, for some supposed crime, probably, as designi...

Whereby he would signify, that this was an act of justice, in cutting them all off in an orderly manner, for some supposed crime, probably, as designing sedition and rebellion.

Wesley: Jdg 9:6 - House of Millo Some eminent and potent family living in Shechem, or near it.

Some eminent and potent family living in Shechem, or near it.

Wesley: Jdg 9:6 - King Over all Israel, Jdg 9:22, which was a strange presumption for the inhabitants of one city; but they had many advantages for it; as the eager, and gen...

Over all Israel, Jdg 9:22, which was a strange presumption for the inhabitants of one city; but they had many advantages for it; as the eager, and general, and constant inclination of the Israelites to kingly government; Abimelech's being the son of Gideon, to whom, and to his sons, they offered the kingdom. And though the father could, and did refuse it for himself; yet they might imagine, that he could not give away his sons' right, conveyed to them by the Israelites, in their offer; the universal defection of the Israelites from God to Baal, whose great patron and champion Abimelech pretended to be; the power and prevalency of the tribe of Ephraim, in which Shechem was, whose proud and imperious spirit, would make them readily close with a king of their own brethren; and Abimelech's getting the start of all others, having the crown actually put upon his head, and an army already raised to maintain his tyranny.

Wesley: Jdg 9:6 - Of the pillar Or, by the oak of the pillar, by the oak, where Joshua erected a pillar as a witness of the covenant renewed between God and Israel, Jos 24:26. This p...

Or, by the oak of the pillar, by the oak, where Joshua erected a pillar as a witness of the covenant renewed between God and Israel, Jos 24:26. This place they chose, to signify that they still owned God, and their covenant with him; and did not worship Baal in opposition to God, but in conjunction with him, or in subordination to him.

Wesley: Jdg 9:7 - Mount Gerizim Which lay near Shechem. The valley between Gerizim and Ebal, was a famous place, employed for the solemn reading of the law, and its blessings and cur...

Which lay near Shechem. The valley between Gerizim and Ebal, was a famous place, employed for the solemn reading of the law, and its blessings and curses: and it is probable it was still used, even by the superstitious and idolatrous Israelites for such occasions, who delighted to use the same places which their ancestors had used.

Wesley: Jdg 9:7 - Cried So that they who stood in the valley might hear him, though not suddenly come at him to take him.

So that they who stood in the valley might hear him, though not suddenly come at him to take him.

Wesley: Jdg 9:7 - Men of Shechem Who were here met together upon a solemn occasion, as Josephus notes, Abimelech being absent.

Who were here met together upon a solemn occasion, as Josephus notes, Abimelech being absent.

Wesley: Jdg 9:7 - That God may hearken When you cry unto him for mercy; so he conjures and persuades them to give him patient audience.

When you cry unto him for mercy; so he conjures and persuades them to give him patient audience.

Wesley: Jdg 9:8 - The trees, &c. _A parabolical discourse, usual among the ancients, especially in the eastern parts.

_A parabolical discourse, usual among the ancients, especially in the eastern parts.

Wesley: Jdg 9:8 - To anoint To make a king, which was done among the Israelites, and some others, with the ceremony of anointing.

To make a king, which was done among the Israelites, and some others, with the ceremony of anointing.

Wesley: Jdg 9:8 - Olive tree - By which he understands Gideon.

tree - By which he understands Gideon.

Wesley: Jdg 9:9 - Honour God In whose worship oil was used for divers things; as, about the lamps, and offerings, and for anointing sacred persons and things.

In whose worship oil was used for divers things; as, about the lamps, and offerings, and for anointing sacred persons and things.

Wesley: Jdg 9:9 - And man For oil was used in the constitution of kings, and priests, and prophets, and for a present to great persons, and to anoint the head and face.

For oil was used in the constitution of kings, and priests, and prophets, and for a present to great persons, and to anoint the head and face.

Wesley: Jdg 9:9 - Promoted Heb. to move hither and thither, to wander to and fro, to exchange my sweet tranquility, for incessant cares and travels.

Heb. to move hither and thither, to wander to and fro, to exchange my sweet tranquility, for incessant cares and travels.

Wesley: Jdg 9:10 - Fig tree - Gideon refused this honour, both for himself, and for his sons; and the sons of Gideon, whom Abimelech had slain, upon pretence of their affect...

tree - Gideon refused this honour, both for himself, and for his sons; and the sons of Gideon, whom Abimelech had slain, upon pretence of their affecting the kingdom, were as far from such thoughts as their father.

Wesley: Jdg 9:13 - Cheareth God Wherewith God is well pleased, because it was offered to God.

Wherewith God is well pleased, because it was offered to God.

Wesley: Jdg 9:14 - Bramble Or, thorn, fitly representing Abimelech, the son of a concubine, and a person of small use, and great cruelty.

Or, thorn, fitly representing Abimelech, the son of a concubine, and a person of small use, and great cruelty.

Wesley: Jdg 9:15 - If in truth If you deal truly and justly in making me king.

If you deal truly and justly in making me king.

Wesley: Jdg 9:15 - Then trust Then you may expect protection under my government.

Then you may expect protection under my government.

Wesley: Jdg 9:15 - Devour the cedars In stead of protection, you shall receive destruction by me; especially you cedars, that is, nobles, such as the house of Millo, who have been most fo...

In stead of protection, you shall receive destruction by me; especially you cedars, that is, nobles, such as the house of Millo, who have been most forward in this work.

Wesley: Jdg 9:18 - Ye have slain Abimelech's fact is justly charged upon them, as done by their consent, approbation and assistance.

Abimelech's fact is justly charged upon them, as done by their consent, approbation and assistance.

Wesley: Jdg 9:18 - Maidservant His concubine, whom he so calls by way of reproach.

His concubine, whom he so calls by way of reproach.

Wesley: Jdg 9:18 - Over Shechem By which limitation of their power, and his kingdom, he reflects contempt upon him, and chargeth them with presumption, that having only power over th...

By which limitation of their power, and his kingdom, he reflects contempt upon him, and chargeth them with presumption, that having only power over their own city, they durst impose a king upon all Israel.

Wesley: Jdg 9:20 - Devour Abimelech This is not so much a prediction as an imprecation, which, being grounded upon just cause, had its effect, as others in like case had.

This is not so much a prediction as an imprecation, which, being grounded upon just cause, had its effect, as others in like case had.

Wesley: Jdg 9:21 - And fled Which he might easily do, having the advantage of the hill, and because the people were not forward to pursue a man whom they knew to have such just c...

Which he might easily do, having the advantage of the hill, and because the people were not forward to pursue a man whom they knew to have such just cause to speak, and so little power to do them hurt.

Wesley: Jdg 9:21 - To Beer A place remote from Shechem, and out of Abimelech's reach.

A place remote from Shechem, and out of Abimelech's reach.

Wesley: Jdg 9:22 - Over Israel For though the men of Shechem were the first authors of Abimelech's advancement, the rest of the people easily consented to that form of government wh...

For though the men of Shechem were the first authors of Abimelech's advancement, the rest of the people easily consented to that form of government which they so much desired.

Wesley: Jdg 9:23 - God sent God gave the devil commission to work upon their minds.

God gave the devil commission to work upon their minds.

Wesley: Jdg 9:24 - The cruelty That is, the punishment of the cruelty.

That is, the punishment of the cruelty.

Wesley: Jdg 9:25 - For him To seize his person.

To seize his person.

Wesley: Jdg 9:25 - Robbed all Such as favoured or served Abimelech; for to such only their commission reached, though it may be, they went beyond their bounds, and robbed all passe...

Such as favoured or served Abimelech; for to such only their commission reached, though it may be, they went beyond their bounds, and robbed all passengers promiscuously.

Wesley: Jdg 9:26 - Gaal It is not known who he was; but it is evident, he was a man very considerable for wealth, and strength and interest; and ill - pleased with Abimelech'...

It is not known who he was; but it is evident, he was a man very considerable for wealth, and strength and interest; and ill - pleased with Abimelech's power.

Wesley: Jdg 9:26 - Went to Shechem By his presence and council to animate and assist them against Abimelech.

By his presence and council to animate and assist them against Abimelech.

Wesley: Jdg 9:27 - Went out Which, 'till his coming they durst not do, for fear of Abimelech.

Which, 'till his coming they durst not do, for fear of Abimelech.

Wesley: Jdg 9:27 - Made merry Both from the custom of rejoicing, and singing songs in vintage time, and for the hopes of their redemption from Abimelech's tyranny.

Both from the custom of rejoicing, and singing songs in vintage time, and for the hopes of their redemption from Abimelech's tyranny.

Wesley: Jdg 9:27 - Their goals Baal - berith, Jdg 9:4, either to beg his help against Abimelech, or to give him thanks for the hopes of recovering their liberty.

Baal - berith, Jdg 9:4, either to beg his help against Abimelech, or to give him thanks for the hopes of recovering their liberty.

Wesley: Jdg 9:27 - Eat and drink To the honour of their idols, and out of the oblations made to them, as they used to do to the honour of Jehovah, and out of his sacrifices.

To the honour of their idols, and out of the oblations made to them, as they used to do to the honour of Jehovah, and out of his sacrifices.

Wesley: Jdg 9:27 - Cursed Either by reviling him after their manner, or, rather in a more solemn and religious manner, cursing him by their god, as Goliath did David.

Either by reviling him after their manner, or, rather in a more solemn and religious manner, cursing him by their god, as Goliath did David.

Wesley: Jdg 9:28 - Who is Abimelech What is he but a base - born person, a cruel tyrant, and one every way unworthy to govern you? Who is Shechem - That is, Abimelech, named in the foreg...

What is he but a base - born person, a cruel tyrant, and one every way unworthy to govern you? Who is Shechem - That is, Abimelech, named in the foregoing words, and described in those which follow. He is called Shechem for the Shechemite. The sense is, who is this Shechemite? For so he was by the mother's side, born of a woman of your city, and she but his concubine and servant; why should you submit to one so basely descended? Of Jerubbaal - Of Gideon, a person famous only by his fierceness against that Baal which you justly honour and reverence, whose altar he overthrew, and whose worship he endeavoured to abolish.

Wesley: Jdg 9:28 - And Zebul And you are so mean spirited, that you do not only submit to him, but suffer his very servants to bear rule over you; and particularly, this ignoble a...

And you are so mean spirited, that you do not only submit to him, but suffer his very servants to bear rule over you; and particularly, this ignoble and hateful Zebul.

Wesley: Jdg 9:28 - Serve, &c. If you love bondage, call in the old master and lord of the place; chuse not an upstart, as Abimelech is; but rather take one of the old flock, one de...

If you love bondage, call in the old master and lord of the place; chuse not an upstart, as Abimelech is; but rather take one of the old flock, one descended from Hamor, Gen 34:2, who did not carry himself like a tyrant, as Abimelech did; but like a father of his city. This he might speak sincerely, as being himself a Canaanite and Shechemite, and possibly came from one of those little ones whom Simeon and Levi spared when they slew all the grown males, Gen 34:29. And it may be that he was one of the royal blood, a descendent of Hamor, who hereby sought to insinuate himself into the government, as it follows, Jdg 9:29. Would to God that this people were under my hand; which he might judge the people more likely to chuse both because they were now united with the Canaanites in religion; and because their present distress might oblige them to put themselves under him, a valiant and expert commander.

Wesley: Jdg 9:29 - My hand That is, under my command; I wish you would unanimously submit to me, as your captain and governor; for he found them divided; and some of them hearke...

That is, under my command; I wish you would unanimously submit to me, as your captain and governor; for he found them divided; and some of them hearkening after Abimelech, whom they had lately rejected, according to the levity of the popular humour.

Wesley: Jdg 9:29 - I would remove As you have driven him out of your city, I would drive him out of your country.

As you have driven him out of your city, I would drive him out of your country.

Wesley: Jdg 9:29 - He said He sent this message or challenge to him.

He sent this message or challenge to him.

Wesley: Jdg 9:29 - Increase thine army I desire not to surprise thee at any disadvantage; strengthen thyself as much as thou canst, and come out into the open field, that thou and I may dec...

I desire not to surprise thee at any disadvantage; strengthen thyself as much as thou canst, and come out into the open field, that thou and I may decide it by our arms.

Wesley: Jdg 9:35 - And stood To put his army in order, and to conduct them against Abimelech, whom he supposed to be at a great distance.

To put his army in order, and to conduct them against Abimelech, whom he supposed to be at a great distance.

Wesley: Jdg 9:36 - To Zebul Who concealed the anger which he had conceived, Jdg 9:30, and pretended compliance with him in this expedition, that he might draw him forth into the ...

Who concealed the anger which he had conceived, Jdg 9:30, and pretended compliance with him in this expedition, that he might draw him forth into the field where Abimelech might have the opportunity of fighting with him, and overthrowing him.

Wesley: Jdg 9:36 - The shadow For in the morning, as this was, and in the evening, the shadows are longest, and move quickest.

For in the morning, as this was, and in the evening, the shadows are longest, and move quickest.

Wesley: Jdg 9:38 - Where is now, &c. _Now shew thyself a man, and fight valiantly for thyself and people.

_Now shew thyself a man, and fight valiantly for thyself and people.

Wesley: Jdg 9:40 - He fled Being surprised by the unexpected coming of Abimelech, and probably not fully prepared for the encounter.

Being surprised by the unexpected coming of Abimelech, and probably not fully prepared for the encounter.

Wesley: Jdg 9:41 - Dwelt at Arumah He did not prosecute his victory, but retreated to Arumah, to see whether the Shechemites would not of themselves return to his government, or else, t...

He did not prosecute his victory, but retreated to Arumah, to see whether the Shechemites would not of themselves return to his government, or else, that being hereby grown secure, he might have the greater advantage against them.

Wesley: Jdg 9:41 - Thrust out It seems the same night. Probably the multitude, which is generally light and unstable, were now enraged against Gaal, suspecting him of cowardice or ...

It seems the same night. Probably the multitude, which is generally light and unstable, were now enraged against Gaal, suspecting him of cowardice or ill - conduct. Zebul's interest was not so considerable with them, that he could prevail with them either to kill Gaal and his brethren, or to yield themselves to Abimelech; and therefore he still complies with the people, and waits for a fairer opportunity.

Wesley: Jdg 9:42 - Went out to their usual employments about their land.

to their usual employments about their land.

Wesley: Jdg 9:43 - Three companies Whereof he kept one with himself, Jdg 9:44, and put the rest under other commanders.

Whereof he kept one with himself, Jdg 9:44, and put the rest under other commanders.

Wesley: Jdg 9:44 - Entering of the gate To prevent their retreat into the city, and give the other two companies opportunity to cut them off.

To prevent their retreat into the city, and give the other two companies opportunity to cut them off.

Wesley: Jdg 9:45 - With salt In token of his desire of their utter and irrecoverable destruction.

In token of his desire of their utter and irrecoverable destruction.

Wesley: Jdg 9:46 - The tower A strong place belonging to the city of Shechem, made for its defence without the city.

A strong place belonging to the city of Shechem, made for its defence without the city.

Wesley: Jdg 9:46 - Berith Or, Baal - berith, Jdg 9:4. Hither they fled out of the town belonging to it, fearing the same event with Shechem; and here they thought to be secure;...

Or, Baal - berith, Jdg 9:4. Hither they fled out of the town belonging to it, fearing the same event with Shechem; and here they thought to be secure; partly by the strength of the place, partly by the religion of it, thinking that either their god would protect them there, or that Abimelech would spare them out of pity to that god.

Wesley: Jdg 9:48 - Zalmon A place so called from its shadiness.

A place so called from its shadiness.

Wesley: Jdg 9:50 - Thebez Another town near to Shechem; and, as it seems, within its territory.

Another town near to Shechem; and, as it seems, within its territory.

Wesley: Jdg 9:51 - And all All that were not slain in the taking of the town.

All that were not slain in the taking of the town.

Wesley: Jdg 9:51 - Top of the tower Which was flat and plain, after their manner of building.

Which was flat and plain, after their manner of building.

Wesley: Jdg 9:53 - Mill stone - Such great stones no doubt they carried up with them, whereby they might defend themselves, or offend those who assaulted them. Here the justi...

stone - Such great stones no doubt they carried up with them, whereby they might defend themselves, or offend those who assaulted them. Here the justice of God is remarkable in suiting the punishment to his sin. He slew his brethren upon a stone, Jdg 9:5, and he loseth his own life by a stone.

Wesley: Jdg 9:54 - A women Which was esteemed a matter of disgrace.

Which was esteemed a matter of disgrace.

Wesley: Jdg 9:56 - Wickedness In rooting out, as far as he could, the name and memory of his father.

In rooting out, as far as he could, the name and memory of his father.

Wesley: Jdg 9:57 - Render upon their heads Thus God preserved the honour of his government, and gave warning to all ages, to expect blood for blood.

Thus God preserved the honour of his government, and gave warning to all ages, to expect blood for blood.

JFB: Jdg 9:1 - Abimelech the son of Jerubbaal went to Shechem The idolatry which had been stealthily creeping into Israel during the latter years of Gideon was now openly professed; Shechem was wholly inhabited b...

The idolatry which had been stealthily creeping into Israel during the latter years of Gideon was now openly professed; Shechem was wholly inhabited by its adherents; at least, idolaters had the ascendency. Abimelech, one of Gideon's numerous sons, was connected with that place. Ambitious of sovereign power, and having plied successfully the arts of a demagogue with his maternal relatives and friends, he acquired both the influence and money by which he raised himself to a throne.

JFB: Jdg 9:1 - communed . . . with all the family of the house of his mother's father Here is a striking instance of the evils of polygamy--one son has connections and interests totally alien to those of his brothers.

Here is a striking instance of the evils of polygamy--one son has connections and interests totally alien to those of his brothers.

JFB: Jdg 9:2 - Whether is better for you, either that all the sons of Jerubbaal, . . . or that one reign over you A false insinuation, artfully contrived to stir up jealousy and alarm. Gideon had rejected, with abhorrence, the proposal to make himself or any of hi...

A false insinuation, artfully contrived to stir up jealousy and alarm. Gideon had rejected, with abhorrence, the proposal to make himself or any of his family king, and there is no evidence that any of his other sons coveted the title.

JFB: Jdg 9:4 - the house of Baal-berith Either the temple, or the place where this idol was worshipped; Baal-berith, "god of the covenant," by invocation of whom the league of cities was for...

Either the temple, or the place where this idol was worshipped; Baal-berith, "god of the covenant," by invocation of whom the league of cities was formed.

JFB: Jdg 9:4 - Abimelech hired vain and light persons, which followed him Idle, worthless vagabonds, the scum of society, who had nothing to lose, but much to gain from the success of a revolutionary movement.

Idle, worthless vagabonds, the scum of society, who had nothing to lose, but much to gain from the success of a revolutionary movement.

JFB: Jdg 9:5 - went unto . . . Ophrah, and slew his brethren i. e., upon one stone This is the first mention of a barbarous atrocity which has, with appalling frequency, been perpetrated in the despotic countries of the East--that of...

This is the first mention of a barbarous atrocity which has, with appalling frequency, been perpetrated in the despotic countries of the East--that of one son of the deceased monarch usurping the throne and hastening to confirm himself in the possession by the massacre of all the natural or legitimate competitors. Abimelech slew his brethren on one stone, either by dashing them from one rock, or sacrificing them on one stone altar, in revenge for the demolition of Baal's altar by their father. This latter view is the more probable, from the Shechemites (Jdg 9:24) aiding in it.

JFB: Jdg 9:5 - threescore and ten persons A round number is used, but it is evident that two are wanting to complete that number.

A round number is used, but it is evident that two are wanting to complete that number.

JFB: Jdg 9:6 - all the men of Shechem . . ., and all the house of Millo That is, a mound or rampart, so that the meaning is, all the men in the house or temple; namely, the priests of Baal.

That is, a mound or rampart, so that the meaning is, all the men in the house or temple; namely, the priests of Baal.

JFB: Jdg 9:6 - made Abimelech king, by the plain of the pillar Rather, "by the oak near a raised mound"--so that the ceremony of coronation might be conspicuous to a crowd.

Rather, "by the oak near a raised mound"--so that the ceremony of coronation might be conspicuous to a crowd.

JFB: Jdg 9:7 - he . . . stood in the top of mount Gerizim and lifted up his voice The spot he chose was, like the housetops, the public place of Shechem; and the parable [Jdg 9:8-15] drawn from the rivalry of the various trees was a...

The spot he chose was, like the housetops, the public place of Shechem; and the parable [Jdg 9:8-15] drawn from the rivalry of the various trees was appropriate to the diversified foliage of the valley below. Eastern people are exceedingly fond of parables and use them for conveying reproofs, which they could not give in any other way. The top of Gerizim is not so high in the rear of the town, as it is nearer to the plain. With a little exertion of voice, he could easily have been heard by the people of the city; for the hill so overhangs the valley, that a person from the side or summit would have no difficulty in speaking to listeners at the base. Modern history records a case, in which soldiers on the hill shouted to the people in the city and endeavored to instigate them to an insurrection. There is something about the elastic atmosphere of an Eastern clime which causes it to transmit sound with wonderful celerity and distinctness [HACKETT].

JFB: Jdg 9:13 - wine, which cheereth God and man Not certainly in the same manner. God might be said to be "cheered" by it, when the sacrifices were accepted, as He is said also to be honored by oil ...

Not certainly in the same manner. God might be said to be "cheered" by it, when the sacrifices were accepted, as He is said also to be honored by oil (Jdg 9:9).

JFB: Jdg 9:21 - Joatham . . . went to Beer The modern village El-Bireh, on the ridge which bounds the northern prospect of Jerusalem.

The modern village El-Bireh, on the ridge which bounds the northern prospect of Jerusalem.

JFB: Jdg 9:22 - When Abimelech had reigned three years His reign did not, probably at first, extend beyond Shechem; but by stealthy and progressive encroachments he subjected some of the neighboring towns ...

His reign did not, probably at first, extend beyond Shechem; but by stealthy and progressive encroachments he subjected some of the neighboring towns to his sway. None could "reign" in Israel, except by rebellious usurpation; and hence the reign of Abimelech is expressed in the original by a word signifying "despotism," not that which describes the mild and divinely authorized rule of the judge.

JFB: Jdg 9:23 - Then God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem In the course of providence, jealousy, distrust, secret disaffection, and smothered rebellion appeared among his subjects disappointed and disgusted w...

In the course of providence, jealousy, distrust, secret disaffection, and smothered rebellion appeared among his subjects disappointed and disgusted with his tyranny; and God permitted those disorders to punish the complicated crimes of the royal fratricide and idolatrous usurper.

JFB: Jdg 9:26 - Gaal . . . came with his brethren . . ., and the men of Shechem put their confidence in him An insurrection of the original Canaanites, headed by this man, at last broke out in Shechem.|| 06783||1||18||0||@would to God this people were under ...

An insurrection of the original Canaanites, headed by this man, at last broke out in Shechem.|| 06783||1||18||0||@would to God this people were under my hand==--He seems to have been a boastful, impudent, and cowardly person, totally unfit to be a leader in a revolutionary crisis. The consequence was that he allowed himself to be drawn into an ambush, was defeated, the city of Shechem destroyed and strewn with salt. The people took refuge in the stronghold, which was set on fire, and all in it perished.

JFB: Jdg 9:50 - Then went Abimelech to Thebez, and encamped against Thebez Now Tubas--not far from Shechem.

Now Tubas--not far from Shechem.

JFB: Jdg 9:51-53 - all the men and women, . . . gat them up to the top of the tower The Canaanite forts were generally mountain fastnesses or keeps, and they often had a strong tower which served as a last refuge. The Assyrian bas-rel...

The Canaanite forts were generally mountain fastnesses or keeps, and they often had a strong tower which served as a last refuge. The Assyrian bas-reliefs afford counterparts of the scene here described so vivid and exact, that we might almost suppose them to be representations of the same historic events. The besieged city--the strong tower within--the men and women crowding its battlements--the fire applied to the doors, and even the huge fragments of stone dropping from the hands of one of the garrison on the heads of the assailants, are all well represented to the life--just as they are here described in the narrative of inspired truth [GOSS].

Clarke: Jdg 9:1 - Abimelech - went to Shechem Abimelech - went to Shechem - We have already seen that Abimelech was the son of Gideon, by his concubine at Shechem. His going thither immediately ...

Abimelech - went to Shechem - We have already seen that Abimelech was the son of Gideon, by his concubine at Shechem. His going thither immediately after his father’ s death was to induce his townsmen to proclaim him governor in the place of his father. Shechem was the residence of his mother, and of all her relatives.

Clarke: Jdg 9:2 - Whether is better for you, either that all the sons Whether is better for you, either that all the sons - This was a powerful argument: Whether will you have seventy tyrants or only one? For, as he ha...

Whether is better for you, either that all the sons - This was a powerful argument: Whether will you have seventy tyrants or only one? For, as he had no right to the government, and God alone was king at that time in Israel; so he must support his usurped rule by whatever means were most likely to effect it: a usurped government is generally supported by oppression and the sword.

Clarke: Jdg 9:3 - He is our brother He is our brother - We shall be raised to places of trust under him, and our city will be the capital of the kingdom.

He is our brother - We shall be raised to places of trust under him, and our city will be the capital of the kingdom.

Clarke: Jdg 9:4 - Threescore and ten pieces of silver Threescore and ten pieces of silver - Probably shekels; and this was the whole of his exchequer. As he was now usurping the government of God, he be...

Threescore and ten pieces of silver - Probably shekels; and this was the whole of his exchequer. As he was now usurping the government of God, he begins with a contribution from the idol temple. A work begun under the name and influence of the devil is not likely to end to the glory of God, or to the welfare of man

Clarke: Jdg 9:4 - Hired vain and light persons Hired vain and light persons - אנשים ריקים ופחזים anashim reykim uphochazim , worthless and dissolute men; persons who were living ...

Hired vain and light persons - אנשים ריקים ופחזים anashim reykim uphochazim , worthless and dissolute men; persons who were living on the public, and had nothing to lose. Such was the foundation of his Babel government. By a cunning management of such rascals most revolutions have been brought about.

Clarke: Jdg 9:5 - Slew his brethren Slew his brethren - His brothers by the father’ s side, Jdg 8:30. This was a usual way of securing an ill-gotten throne; the person who had no ...

Slew his brethren - His brothers by the father’ s side, Jdg 8:30. This was a usual way of securing an ill-gotten throne; the person who had no right destroying all those that had right, that he might have no competitors

Clarke: Jdg 9:5 - Yet Jotham - was left Yet Jotham - was left - That is, all the seventy were killed except Jotham, if there were not seventy besides Jotham. All the histories of all the n...

Yet Jotham - was left - That is, all the seventy were killed except Jotham, if there were not seventy besides Jotham. All the histories of all the nations of the earth are full of cruelties similar to those of Abimelech: cousins, uncles, brothers, husbands, and fathers have been murdered by their cousins, nephews, brothers, wives, and children, in order that they might have the undisturbed possession of an ill-gotten throne. Europe, Asia, and Africa, can witness all this. Even now, some of these horribly obtained governments exist.

Clarke: Jdg 9:6 - And all the house of Millo And all the house of Millo - If Millo be the name of a place, it is nowhere else mentioned in the sacred writings. But it is probably the name of a ...

And all the house of Millo - If Millo be the name of a place, it is nowhere else mentioned in the sacred writings. But it is probably the name of a person of note and influence in the city of Shechem - the men of Shechem and the family of Millo.

Clarke: Jdg 9:7 - Stood in the top of Mount Gerizim Stood in the top of Mount Gerizim - Gerizim and Ebal were mounts very near to each other; the former lying to the north, the latter to the south, an...

Stood in the top of Mount Gerizim - Gerizim and Ebal were mounts very near to each other; the former lying to the north, the latter to the south, and at the foot of them Shechem. But see some remarks on the extent of the human voice in some hilly countries in the following extract from a late traveler in the East: -

"The great extent to which the sound of the voice is conveyed may be mentioned. Some persons have thought this a proof of the extreme rarity of the atmosphere. A similar observation is made by Captain Parry in his Voyage of Discovery to the Polar Regions in 1819-20, where he states that in the depth of winter the sound of the men’ s voices was heard at a much greater distance than usual. This phenomenon is constantly observed on the Neilgherries. I have heard the natives, especially in the morning and evening, when the air was still, carry on conversation from one hill to another, and that apparently without any extraordinary effort. They do not shout in the manner that strangers think necessary in order to be heard at so great a distance, but utter every syllable as distinctly as if they were conversing face to face. When listening to them, I have often been reminded of those passages in holy writ where it is recorded that Jotham addressed the ungrateful men of Shechem from Mount Gerizim, that David cried ‘ from the top of a hill afar off’ to Abner and to the people that lay about their master Saul, and that Abner addressed Joab from the top of a hill."- Letters on the Climate, Inhabitants, Productions, etc., etc., of the Neilgherries, or Blue Mountains of Coimbatoor, South India, by James Hough, of Madras: 1829

Clarke: Jdg 9:7 - That God may hearken unto you That God may hearken unto you - It appears that Jotham received this message from God, and that he spoke on this occasion by Divine inspiration.

That God may hearken unto you - It appears that Jotham received this message from God, and that he spoke on this occasion by Divine inspiration.

Clarke: Jdg 9:8 - The trees went forth on a time The trees went forth on a time - This is the oldest, and without exception the best fable or apologue in the world. See the observations at the end ...

The trees went forth on a time - This is the oldest, and without exception the best fable or apologue in the world. See the observations at the end of this chapter, Jdg 9:56 (note). It is not to be supposed that a fable, if well formed, requires much illustration; every part of this, a few expressions excepted, illustrates itself, and tells its own meaning

Clarke: Jdg 9:8 - To anoint a king To anoint a king - Hence it appears that anointing was usual in the installation of kings, long before there was any king in Israel; for there is mu...

To anoint a king - Hence it appears that anointing was usual in the installation of kings, long before there was any king in Israel; for there is much evidence that the book of Judges was written before the days of Saul and David

Clarke: Jdg 9:8 - The olive tree The olive tree - The olive was the most useful of all the trees in the field or forest, as the bramble was the meanest and the most worthless.

The olive tree - The olive was the most useful of all the trees in the field or forest, as the bramble was the meanest and the most worthless.

Clarke: Jdg 9:9 - Wherewith - they honor God and man Wherewith - they honor God and man - I believe the word אלהים elohim here should be translated gods, for the parable seems to be accommodate...

Wherewith - they honor God and man - I believe the word אלהים elohim here should be translated gods, for the parable seems to be accommodated to the idolatrous state of the Shechemites. Thus it was understood by the Vulgate, Arabic, and others. It is true that olive oil was often used in the service of God: the priests were anointed with it; the lamps in the tabernacle lighted with it; almost all the offerings of fine flour, cakes prepared in the pan, etc., had oil mingled with them; therefore Jotham might say that with it they honor God; and as priests, prophets, and kings were anointed, and their office was the most honorable, he might with propriety say, therewith they honor man. But I am persuaded he used the term in the first sense. See on Jdg 9:13 (note).

Clarke: Jdg 9:11 - But the fig tree said - Should I forsake my sweetness But the fig tree said - Should I forsake my sweetness - The fruit of the fig tree is the sweetest or most luscious of all fruits. A full-ripe fig, i...

But the fig tree said - Should I forsake my sweetness - The fruit of the fig tree is the sweetest or most luscious of all fruits. A full-ripe fig, in its own climate, has an indescribable sweetness; so much so that it is almost impossible to eat it, till a considerable time after it is gathered from the trees, and has gone through an artificial preparation. This I have often noticed.

Clarke: Jdg 9:13 - Which cheereth God and man Which cheereth God and man - I believe אלהים elohim here is to be taken in the same sense proposed on Jdg 9:9. Vast libations of wine, as we...

Which cheereth God and man - I believe אלהים elohim here is to be taken in the same sense proposed on Jdg 9:9. Vast libations of wine, as well as much oil, were used in heathenish sacrifices and offerings; and it was their opinion that the gods actually partook of, and were delighted with, both the wine and oil. The pagan mythology furnishes the most exquisite wines to its gods in heaven, and hence the nectar and ambrosia so much talked of and praised by the ancients. It is not reasonable to suppose that Jotham makes any reference here to the sacrifices, oblations, and perfumes offered to the true God. This language the idolatrous Shechemites could scarcely understand. What could the worshippers of Baal-berith know of the worship of the God who gave his law to Moses? And it is not very likely that Jotham himself was well acquainted with the sacred rites of the Mosaic religion, as they had been little preached in his time.

Clarke: Jdg 9:14 - Then said all the trees unto the bramble Then said all the trees unto the bramble - The word אטד atad , which we translate bramble, is supposed to mean the rhamnus, which is the largest...

Then said all the trees unto the bramble - The word אטד atad , which we translate bramble, is supposed to mean the rhamnus, which is the largest of thorns, producing dreadful spikes, similar to darts. See Theodoret on Psa 58:10. There is much of the moral of this fable contained in the different kinds of trees mentioned

1.    The olive; the most profitable tree to its owner, having few equals either for food or medicine

2.    The fig tree; one of the most fruitful of trees, and yielding one of the most delicious fruits, and superior to all others for sweetness

3.    The vine, which alone yields a liquor that, when properly prepared, and taken in strict moderation, is friendly both to the body and mind of man, having a most direct tendency to invigorate both

4.    The bramble or thorn, which, however useful as a hedge, is dangerous to come near; and is here the emblem of an impious, cruel, and oppressive king

As the olive, fig, and vine, are said in this fable to refuse the royalty, because in consequence, they intimate, they should lose their own privileges, we learn that to be invested with power for the public good can be no privilege to the sovereign. If he discharge the office faithfully, it will plant his pillow with thorns, fill his soul with anxious cares, rob him of rest and quiet, and, in a word, will be to him a source of distress and misery. All this is represented here under the emblem of the trees losing their fatness, their sweetness and good fruits, and their cheering influence. In short, we see from this most sensible fable that the beneficent, benevolent, and highly illuminated mind, is ever averse from the love of power; and that those who do seek it are the thoughtless, the vain, the ambitious, and those who wish for power merely for the purpose of self-gratification; persons who have neither the disposition nor the knowledge to use power for the advantage of the community; and who, while they boast great things, and make great pretensions and promises, are the tyrants of the people, and often through their ambition, like the bramble in the fable kindle a flame of foreign or domestic war, in which their subjects are consumed. The sleepless nights and corroding cares of sovereignty, are most forcibly described by a poet of our own, whose equal in describing the inward workings of the human heart, in all varieties of character and circumstances, has never appeared either in ancient or modern times. Hear what he puts in the mouth of two of his care-worn kings: -

"How many thousand of my poorest subject

Are at this hour asleep? - Sleep, gentle sleep

Nature’ s soft nurse! how have I frighted thee

That thou no more wilt weigh my eyelids down

And steep my senses in forgetfulness

Why rather, sleep, liest thou in smoky cribs

Upon uneasy pallets stretching thee

And hush’ d with buzzing night-flies to thy slumbe

Than in the perfumed chambers of the great

Under the canopies of costly state

And lull’ d with sounds of sweetest melody

O thou dull god! why liest thou with the vil

In loathsome beds; and leav’ st the kingly couc

A watch-case, or a common ‘ larum bell

Wilt thou upon the high and giddy mas

Seal up the ship-boy’ s eyes, and rock his brain

In cradle of the rude imperious surge

And in the visitation of the winds

Who take the ruffian billows by the top

Curling their monstrous heads and hanging them

With deafening clamours, in the slippery clouds

That, with the hurly, death itself awakes

Canst thou, O partial sleep! give thy repos

To the wet sea-boy, in an hour so rude

And, in the calmest and most stillest night

With all appliances and means to boot

Deny it to a king? Then, happy low, lie down

Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown."-

"O hard condition! twin-born with greatness

Subjected to the breath of every fool

Whose sense no more can feel but his own wringing

What infinite heart’ s ease must kings neglect

That private men enjoy

And what have kings, that privates have not too

Save ceremony, save general ceremony?"-

"‘ Tis not the balm, the scepter, and the ball

The sword, the mace, the crown imperial

The intertissued robe of gold and pearl

The farced title running ’ fore the king

The throne he sits on, nor the tide of pom

That beats upon the high shore of this world

No, not all these, thrice gorgeous ceremony

Not all these, laid in bed majestical

Can sleep so soundly as the wretched slave.

Shakespear

This is precisely the sentiment expressed in the denial of the olive, fig tree, and vine.

Clarke: Jdg 9:15 - Come and put your trust in any shadow Come and put your trust in any shadow - The vain boast of the would-be sovereign; and of the man who is seeking to be put into power by the suffrage...

Come and put your trust in any shadow - The vain boast of the would-be sovereign; and of the man who is seeking to be put into power by the suffrages of the people. All promise, no performance

Clarke: Jdg 9:15 - Let fire come out of the bramble Let fire come out of the bramble - A strong catachresis. The bramble was too low to give shelter to any tree; and so far from being able to consume ...

Let fire come out of the bramble - A strong catachresis. The bramble was too low to give shelter to any tree; and so far from being able to consume others, that the smallest fire will reduce it to ashes, and that in the shortest time. Hence the very transitory mirth of fools is said to be like the cracking of thorns under a pot. Abimelech was the bramble; and the cedars of Lebanon, all the nobles and people of Israel. Could they therefore suppose that such a low-born, uneducated, cruel, and murderous man, could be a proper protector, or a humane governor? He who could imbrue his hands in the blood of his brethren in order to get into power, was not likely to stop at any means to retain that power when possessed. If, therefore, they took him for their king, they might rest assured that desolation and blood would mark the whole of his reign. The condensed moral of the whole fable is this: Weak, worthless, and wicked men, will ever be foremost to thrust themselves into power; and, in the end, to bring ruin upon themselves, and on the unhappy people over whom they preside.

Clarke: Jdg 9:20 - Let fire come out from Abimelech Let fire come out from Abimelech - As the thorn or bramble may be the means of kindling other wood, because it may be easily ignited; so shall Abime...

Let fire come out from Abimelech - As the thorn or bramble may be the means of kindling other wood, because it may be easily ignited; so shall Abimelech be the cause of kindling a fire of civil discord among you, that shall consume the rulers and great men of your country. A prophetic declaration of what would take place.

Clarke: Jdg 9:21 - Went to Beer Went to Beer - Mr. Maundrell, in his journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, p. 64, 5th edit., mentions a place of this name, which he thinks to be that t...

Went to Beer - Mr. Maundrell, in his journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, p. 64, 5th edit., mentions a place of this name, which he thinks to be that to which Jotham fled, and supposed to be the same as Mishmash, 1Sa 14:5, 1Sa 14:31. It is situated, he says, towards the south, on an easy declivity; and has a fountain of excellent water at the bottom of the hill from which it has taken its name.

Clarke: Jdg 9:23 - God sent an evil spirit God sent an evil spirit - He permitted jealousies to take place which produced factions; and these factions produced insurrections, civil contention...

God sent an evil spirit - He permitted jealousies to take place which produced factions; and these factions produced insurrections, civil contentions, and slaughter.

Clarke: Jdg 9:25 - The men of Shechem set liers in wait The men of Shechem set liers in wait - It pleased God to punish this bad man by the very persons who had contributed to his iniquitous elevation. So...

The men of Shechem set liers in wait - It pleased God to punish this bad man by the very persons who had contributed to his iniquitous elevation. So God often makes the instruments of men’ s sins the means of their punishment. It is likely that although Abimelech had his chief residence at Shechem, yet he frequently went to Ophrah, the city of his father; his claim to which there was none to oppose, as he had slain all his brethren. It was probably in his passage between those two places that the Shechemites had posted cut-throats, in order to assassinate him; as such men had no moral principle, they robbed and plundered all who came that way.

Clarke: Jdg 9:26 - Gaal the son of Ebed Gaal the son of Ebed - Of this person we know no more than is here told. He was probably one of the descendants of the Canaanites, who hoped from th...

Gaal the son of Ebed - Of this person we know no more than is here told. He was probably one of the descendants of the Canaanites, who hoped from the state of the public mind, and their disaffection to Abimelech, to cause a revolution, and thus to restore the ancient government as it was under Hamor, the father of Shechem.

Clarke: Jdg 9:28 - Zebul his officer Zebul his officer - פקידו pekido , his overseer; probably governor of Shechem in his absence.

Zebul his officer - פקידו pekido , his overseer; probably governor of Shechem in his absence.

Clarke: Jdg 9:29 - Would to God this people were under my hand Would to God this people were under my hand - The very words and conduct of a sly, hypocritical demagogue

Would to God this people were under my hand - The very words and conduct of a sly, hypocritical demagogue

Clarke: Jdg 9:29 - Increase thine army, and come out Increase thine army, and come out - When he found his party strong, and the public feeling warped to his side, then he appears to have sent a challe...

Increase thine army, and come out - When he found his party strong, and the public feeling warped to his side, then he appears to have sent a challenge to Abimelech, to come out and fight him.

Clarke: Jdg 9:31 - They fortify the city against thee They fortify the city against thee - Under pretense of repairing the walls and towers, they were actually putting the place in a state of defense, i...

They fortify the city against thee - Under pretense of repairing the walls and towers, they were actually putting the place in a state of defense, intending to seize on the government as soon as they should find Abimelech coming against them. Fortifying the city may mean seducing the inhabitants from their loyalty to Abimelech.

Clarke: Jdg 9:35 - Stood in the entering of the gate Stood in the entering of the gate - Having probably got some intimation of the designs of Zebul and Abimelech.

Stood in the entering of the gate - Having probably got some intimation of the designs of Zebul and Abimelech.

Clarke: Jdg 9:37 - By the plain of Meonenim By the plain of Meonenim - Some translate, by the way of the oaks, or oaken groves; others, by the way of the magicians, or regarders of the times, ...

By the plain of Meonenim - Some translate, by the way of the oaks, or oaken groves; others, by the way of the magicians, or regarders of the times, as in our margin. Probably it was a place in which augurs and soothsayers dwelt.

Clarke: Jdg 9:45 - And sowed it with salt And sowed it with salt - Intending that the destruction of this city should be a perpetual memorial of his achievements. The salt was not designed t...

And sowed it with salt - Intending that the destruction of this city should be a perpetual memorial of his achievements. The salt was not designed to render it barren, as some have imagined; for who would think of cultivating a city? but as salt is an emblem of incorruption and perpetuity, it was no doubt designed to perpetuate the memorial of this transaction, and as a token that he wished this desolation to be eternal. This sowing a place with salt was a custom in different nations to express permanent desolation and abhorrence. Sigonius observes that when the city of Milan was taken, in a.d. 1162, the walls were razed, and it was sown with salt. And Brantome informs us that it was ancient custom in France to sow the house of a man with salt, who had been declared a traitor to his king. Charles IX., king of France, the most base and perfidious of human beings, caused the house of the Admiral Coligni (whom he and the Duke of Guise caused to be murdered, with thousands more of Protestants, on the eve of St. Bartholomew, 1572) to be sown with salt! How many houses have been since sown with salt in France by the just judgments of God, in revenge for the massacre of the Protestants on the eve of St. Bartholomew! Yet for all this God’ s wrath is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.

Clarke: Jdg 9:46 - A hold of the house of the god Berith A hold of the house of the god Berith - This must mean the precincts of the temple, as we find there were a thousand men and women together in that ...

A hold of the house of the god Berith - This must mean the precincts of the temple, as we find there were a thousand men and women together in that place.

Clarke: Jdg 9:53 - A piece of a millstone A piece of a millstone - פלח רכב pelach recheb , a piece of a chariot wheel; but the word is used in other places for upper millstones, and i...

A piece of a millstone - פלח רכב pelach recheb , a piece of a chariot wheel; but the word is used in other places for upper millstones, and is so understood here by the Vulgate, Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic

Clarke: Jdg 9:53 - And all to break his skull And all to break his skull - A most nonsensical version of ותרץ את גלגלתו vattarits eth gulgolto , which is literally, And she brake, o...

And all to break his skull - A most nonsensical version of ותרץ את גלגלתו vattarits eth gulgolto , which is literally, And she brake, or fractured, his skull. Plutarch, in his life of Pyrrhus, observes that this king was killed at the siege of Thebes, by a piece of a tile, which a woman threw upon his head.

Clarke: Jdg 9:54 - Draw thy sword, and slay me Draw thy sword, and slay me - It was a disgrace to be killed by a woman; on this account, Seneca the tragedian deplores the death of Hercules: - O ...

Draw thy sword, and slay me - It was a disgrace to be killed by a woman; on this account, Seneca the tragedian deplores the death of Hercules: -

O turpe fatum! femina Herculeae neci

Autor feritur

Herc. Oetaeus, ver. 1177

"O dishonorable fate! a woman is reported t

have been author of the death of Hercules.

Abimelech was also afraid that if he fell thus mortally wounded into the hands of his enemies they might treat him with cruelty and insult.

Clarke: Jdg 9:56 - Thus God rendered, etc. Thus God rendered, etc. - Both the fratricide Abimelech, and the unprincipled men of Shechem, had the iniquity visited upon them of which they had b...

Thus God rendered, etc. - Both the fratricide Abimelech, and the unprincipled men of Shechem, had the iniquity visited upon them of which they had been guilty. Man’ s judgment may be avoided; but there is no escape from the judgments of God

I Have said that the fable of Jotham is the oldest, and perhaps the best, in the world; and referred for other particulars to the end of the chapter

On the general subject of fable, apologue, and parable, the reader will find a considerable dissertation at the end of Mat 13:58; I shall add but a few things here, and they shall refer to the oldest collection of fables extant. These are of Indian origin, and are preserved in the Sanscreet, from which they have been translated into different languages, both Asiatic and European, under various titles. The collection is called Hitopadesa, and the author Veshnoo Sarma; but they are known in Europe by The Tales and Fables of Bidpay, or Pilpay, an ancient Indian Philosopher. Of this collection Sir William Jones takes the following notice: - "The fables of Veshnoo Sarma, whom we ridiculously call Pilpay, are the most beautiful, if not the most ancient, collection of apologues in the world. They were first translated from the Sanscreet, in the sixth century, by Buzerchumihr, or bright as the sun, the chief physician, and afterwards the vizir of the great Anushirwan; and are extant under various names, in more than twenty languages. But their original title is Hitopadesa, or amicable instruction; and as the very existence of Aesop, whom the Arabs believe to have been an Abyssinian, appears rather doubtful, I am not disinclined to suppose that the first moral fables which appeared in Europe were of Indian or Aethiopian origin.

Mr. Frazer, in his collection of Oriental MSS. at the end of his History of Nadir Shah, gives us the following account of this curious and instructive work: -

"The ancient brahmins of India, after a good deal of time and labor, compiled a treatise, (which they called Kurtuk Dumnik), in which were inserted the choicest treasure of wisdom and the most perfect rules for governing a people. This book they presented to their rajahs, who kept it with the greatest secrecy and care. About the time of Mohammed’ s birth or the latter end of the sixth century, Noishervan the Just, who then reigned in Persia, discovered a great inclination to see that book; for which purpose Burzuvia, a physician, who had a surprising talent in learning several languages, particularly Sanskerritt, was introduced to him as the most proper person to be employed to get a copy of it. He went to India, where, after some years’ stay, and great trouble, he procured it. It was translated into the Pehluvi (the ancient Persian language) by him and Buzrjumehr, the vizir. Noishervan, ever after, and all his successors, the Persian kings, had this book in high esteem, and took the greatest care to keep it secret. At last Abu Jaffer Munsour zu Nikky, who was the second caliph of the Abassi reign, by great search got a copy of it in the Pehluvi language, and ordered Imam Hassan Abdal Mokaffa, who was the most learned of the age, to translate it into Arabic. This prince ever after made it his guide, not only in affairs relating to the government, but also in private life

"In the year 380 of the Hegira, Sultan Mahmud Ghazi put into verse; and afterwards, in the year 515, by order of Bheram Shah ben Massaud, that which Abdal Mokaffa had translated was retranslated into Persic by Abdul Mala Nasser Allah Mustofi; and this is that Kulila Dumna which is now extant. As this latter had too many Arabic verses and obsolete phrases in it, Molana Ali beg Hessein Vaes, at the request of Emir Soheli, keeper of the seals to Sultan Hossein Mirza, put it into a more modern style, and gave it the title of Anuar Soheli

"In the year 1002, the great moghul Jalal o Din Mohommed Akbar ordered his own secretary and vizir, the learned Abul Fazl, to illustrate the obscure passages, abridge the long digressions, and put it into such a style as would be most familiar to all capacities; which he accordingly did, and gave it the name of Ayar Danish, or the Criterion of Wisdom."This far Mr. Frazer, under the word Ayar Danish

"In the year 1709,"says Dr. Wilkins, "the Kulila Dumna, the Persian version of Abul Mala Nasser Allah Mustofi, made in the 515th year of the Hegira, was translated into French, with the title of Les Conseils et les Maximes de Pilpay, Philosophe Indien, sur les divers Etats de la Vie. This edition resembles the Hitopadesa more than any other then seen; and is evidently the immediate original of the English Instructive and entertaining Fables of Pilpay, an ancient Indian philosopher, which, in 1775, had gone through five editions

"The Anuar Soheli, above mentioned, about the year 1540, was rendered into the Turkish language; and the translator is said to have bestowed twenty years’ labor upon it. In the year 1724, this edition M. Galland began to translate into French, and the first four chapters were then published; but, in the year 1778, M. Cardonne completed the work, in three volumes, giving it the name of Contes et Fables Indiennes de Bidpai et de Lokman; traduites d’ Ali Tcheleby ben Saleh, amateur Turk; ‘ Indian Tales and Fables of Bidpay and Lockman, translated from Aly Tcheleby ben Saleh, a Turkish author.’

The fables of Lockman were published in Arabic and Latin, with notes, by Erpenius, 4th. Amstel., 1636; and by the celebrated Golius, at the end of his edition of Erpen’ s Arabic Grammar, Lugd. Bat., 1656, with additional notes; and also in the edition of the same Grammar, by Albert Schultens, Lugd. Bat., 1748, 4th. They are only thirty-seven in number

Of the Hitopadesa, or fables of Veshnoo Sarma, we have two very elegant English translations from the original Sanscreet: one by Sir William Jones, printed in his works, 4th., vol. 6, Lond. 1799; the other by the father of Sanscreet literature in Europe, Dr. Charles Wilkins, of the India House, 8 vo., Bath, 1787, with a collection of very important notes

The Bahar Danush, or Sea of Wisdom, abounds with maxims, apothegms, etc., similar to those in the preceding works; this was most faithfully translated from the Persian, by Dr. Jonathan Scott, late Persian secretary to his excellency Warren Hastings, published in three vols. 12 mo., with notes, Shrewsbury, 1799. This is the most correct version of any Persian work yet offered to the public. The original is by Einaut Ullah. Of these works it may be said, they contain the wisdom of the oriental world; and many of the numerous maxims interspersed through them yield in importance only to those in the sacred writings. The fables attributed to Aesop have been repeatedly published in Greek and Latin, as well as in all the languages of Europe, and are well known. Those of Phaedrus are in general only a metrical version of the fables of Aesop. The compositions of La Fontaine, in French, and those of Mr. Gay, in English, are very valuable.

Defender: Jdg 9:8 - trees went forth This parable of the trees is not only the first parable in the Bible but probably also the first fable or parable recorded in all ancient literature. ...

This parable of the trees is not only the first parable in the Bible but probably also the first fable or parable recorded in all ancient literature. The olive tree was considered the most fruitful of all the trees of the land, the bramble the most painful. Yet it has often been true - just as in the ancient reign of Abimelech - that national leadership is assumed by the most ruthless of men rather than the best of men."

TSK: Jdg 9:1 - Abimelech // Shechem // communed Abimelech : Jdg 8:31 Shechem : Gen 33:18, Gen 34:2; 1Ki 12:1 communed : 2Sa 15:6; 1Ki 12:3, 1Ki 12:20; Psa 83:2-4; Jer 18:18

TSK: Jdg 9:2 - Whether // whether // threescore // your bone Whether : etc. Heb. What is good whether : etc threescore : Jdg 8:30 your bone : Gen 29:14; 2Sa 19:13; 1Ch 11:1; Eph 5:30; Heb 2:14

Whether : etc. Heb. What is good

whether : etc

threescore : Jdg 8:30

your bone : Gen 29:14; 2Sa 19:13; 1Ch 11:1; Eph 5:30; Heb 2:14

TSK: Jdg 9:3 - spake // to follow // our brother spake : Psa 10:3; Pro 1:11-14 to follow : Heb. after our brother : Gen 29:15

spake : Psa 10:3; Pro 1:11-14

to follow : Heb. after

our brother : Gen 29:15

TSK: Jdg 9:4 - house // vain house : Jdg 9:46-49, Jdg 8:33 vain : etc. Anashim raikim oophochozim , ""worthless and dissolute men;""persons who were living on the public, and ...

house : Jdg 9:46-49, Jdg 8:33

vain : etc. Anashim raikim oophochozim , ""worthless and dissolute men;""persons who were living on the public, and had nothing to lose. Such was the foundation of his Babel government. By a cunning management of such unprincipled men most revolutions are brought about. Jdg 11:3; 1Sa 22:2; 2Ch 13:7; Job 30:8; Pro 12:11; Act 17:5

TSK: Jdg 9:5 - at Ophrah // slew at Ophrah : Jdg 6:24 slew : 2Ki 10:17, 2Ki 11:1, 2Ki 11:2; 2Ch 21:4; Mat 2:16, Mat 2:20

TSK: Jdg 9:6 - the house // Millo // plain the house : 2Sa 5:9; 2Ki 12:20 Millo : Probably the name of a person of note in Shechem. plain : or, oak, Jos 24:26; 1Ki 12:1, 1Ki 12:20, 1Ki 12:25

the house : 2Sa 5:9; 2Ki 12:20

Millo : Probably the name of a person of note in Shechem.

plain : or, oak, Jos 24:26; 1Ki 12:1, 1Ki 12:20, 1Ki 12:25

TSK: Jdg 9:7 - mount Gerizim // Hearken mount Gerizim : Deu 11:29, Deu 27:12; Jos 8:33; Joh 4:20 Hearken : Psa 18:40, Psa 18:41, Psa 50:15-21; Pro 1:28, Pro 1:29, Pro 21:13, Pro 28:9; Isa 1:...

TSK: Jdg 9:8 - The trees // olive tree // Reign The trees : This is the most ancient fable or apologue extant; and is extremely beautiful, apposite, and intelligible. 2Ki 14:9; Eze 17:3-10; Dan 4:10...

The trees : This is the most ancient fable or apologue extant; and is extremely beautiful, apposite, and intelligible. 2Ki 14:9; Eze 17:3-10; Dan 4:10-18

olive tree : The zayith , or olive tree, in the Linnean system, is a genus of the diandra monogynia class of plants. It is of a moderate height, and grows best in sunny places. Its trunk is knotty; bark smooth, of an ash colourcaps1 . wcaps0 ood solid and yellowish; leaves oblong, almost like those of the willow, of a dark green colour on the upper side, and whitish below. In June it puts forth white flowers, growing in bunches, each of one piece, widening towards the top, and dividing into four parts. After this succeeds the fruit, which is oblong and plump; first green, then pale, and when quite ripe, black. Within it is enclosed a hard stone, filled with oblong seeds. It was the most useful of all trees in the forest; as the bramble was the meanest and most worthless.

Reign : Jdg 8:22, Jdg 8:23

TSK: Jdg 9:9 - wherewith // God // to be promoted over the trees wherewith : Exo 29:2, Exo 29:7, Exo 35:14; Lev 2:1; 1Ki 19:15, 1Ki 19:16; Psa 89:20, Psa 104:15; Act 4:27; Act 10:38; 1Jo 2:20 God : Elohim , rather...

wherewith : Exo 29:2, Exo 29:7, Exo 35:14; Lev 2:1; 1Ki 19:15, 1Ki 19:16; Psa 89:20, Psa 104:15; Act 4:27; Act 10:38; 1Jo 2:20

God : Elohim , rather gods; the parable being adapted to the idolatrous Shechemites.

to be promoted over the trees : Heb. up and down for other trees, Job 1:7, Job 2:2

TSK: Jdg 9:11 - -- Luk 13:6, Luk 13:7

TSK: Jdg 9:13 - cheereth cheereth : Num 15:5, Num 15:7, Num 15:10; Psa 104:15; Pro 31:6; Ecc 10:19

TSK: Jdg 9:14 - bramble bramble : or, thistle, 2Ki 14:9

bramble : or, thistle, 2Ki 14:9

TSK: Jdg 9:15 - shadow // let fire // the cedars shadow : Isa 30:2; Dan 4:12; Hos 14:7; Mat 13:32 let fire : Jdg 9:20, Jdg 9:49; Num 21:28; Isa 1:31; Eze 19:14 the cedars : 2Ki 14:9; Psa 104:16; Isa ...

TSK: Jdg 9:16 - according according : Jdg 8:35

according : Jdg 8:35

TSK: Jdg 9:17 - fought // adventured his life fought : Judg. 7:1-25, Jdg 8:4-10 adventured his life : Heb. cast his life, Est 4:16; Rom 5:8, Rom 16:4; Rev 12:11

fought : Judg. 7:1-25, Jdg 8:4-10

adventured his life : Heb. cast his life, Est 4:16; Rom 5:8, Rom 16:4; Rev 12:11

TSK: Jdg 9:18 - are risen // Abimelech are risen : Jdg 9:5, Jdg 9:6, Jdg 8:35; Psa 109:4 Abimelech : Jdg 9:6, Jdg 9:14, Jdg 8:31

are risen : Jdg 9:5, Jdg 9:6, Jdg 8:35; Psa 109:4

Abimelech : Jdg 9:6, Jdg 9:14, Jdg 8:31

TSK: Jdg 9:19 - rejoice rejoice : Isa 8:6; Phi 3:3; Jam 4:16

rejoice : Isa 8:6; Phi 3:3; Jam 4:16

TSK: Jdg 9:20 - let fire come out let fire come out : Jdg 9:15, Jdg 9:23, Jdg 9:56, Jdg 9:57, Jdg 7:22; 2Ch 20:22, 2Ch 20:23; Psa 21:9, Psa 21:10, Psa 28:4, Psa 52:1-5; Psa 120:3, Psa ...

TSK: Jdg 9:21 - Beer Beer : Probably the Beer mentioned by Mr. Maundrell, three hours and a half, or about ten miles, north of Jerusalem, towards Shechem. It is situated ...

Beer : Probably the Beer mentioned by Mr. Maundrell, three hours and a half, or about ten miles, north of Jerusalem, towards Shechem. It is situated toward the south, on an easy declivity; and has a fountain of excellent water at the bottom of the hill, from which it has taken its name. Close to the well are the mouldering walls of a ruined khan ; and on the summit of the hill two large arches still remain of a ruined convent. Dr. Richardson says, that it seems to have been once a place of considerable consequence. Num 21:16; Jos 19:8; 2Sa 20:14

TSK: Jdg 9:23 - God // An // dealt am 2771, bc 1233 God : That is, God permitted the evil spirit of jealousy, treachery, and discord, to break out between Abimelech and the Shechemites....

am 2771, bc 1233

God : That is, God permitted the evil spirit of jealousy, treachery, and discord, to break out between Abimelech and the Shechemites. Jdg 9:15, Jdg 9:20; 1Sa 16:14-16, 1Sa 18:9, 1Sa 18:10; 1Ki 12:15, 1Ki 22:22, 1Ki 22:23; 2Ch 10:15; 2Ch 18:19-22; Isa 19:2, Isa 19:14; 2Th 2:11, 2Th 2:12

An : Ex, Is, 258

dealt : Jdg 9:16; Isa 33:1; Mat 7:2

TSK: Jdg 9:24 - That the // aided him in the killing of That the : 1Sa 15:33; 1Ki 2:32; Est 9:25; Psa 7:16; Mat 23:34-36 aided him in the killing of : Heb. strengthened his hands to kill, Sooner or later, G...

That the : 1Sa 15:33; 1Ki 2:32; Est 9:25; Psa 7:16; Mat 23:34-36

aided him in the killing of : Heb. strengthened his hands to kill, Sooner or later, God will make inquisition for blood, and will return it on the heads of those that shed it. Accessories will be reckoned with, as well as principals, in that and other sins. The Shechemites, who countenanced Abimelech’ s pretensions, aided and abetted him in his bloody project, and avowed the fact by making him king after he had done it, must fall with him, fall by him, and fall first. Those that combine together to do wickedly, are justly dashed in pieces one against another. Blood cannot be a lasting cement to any interest.

TSK: Jdg 9:25 - -- Jos 8:4, Jos 8:12, Jos 8:13; Pro 1:11, Pro 1:12

TSK: Jdg 9:26 - brethren brethren : Gen 13:8, Gen 19:7

brethren : Gen 13:8, Gen 19:7

TSK: Jdg 9:27 - merry // the house // did eat // cursed merry : or, songs, Isa 16:9, Isa 16:10, Isa 24:7-9; Jer 25:30; Amo 6:3-6 the house : Jdg 9:4, Jdg 16:23; Exo 32:6, Exo 32:19; Dan 5:1-4, Dan 5:23 did ...

TSK: Jdg 9:28 - Who is Abimelech // Hamor Who is Abimelech : 1Sa 25:10; 2Sa 20:1; 1Ki 12:16 Hamor : Gen 34:2, Gen 34:6

Who is Abimelech : 1Sa 25:10; 2Sa 20:1; 1Ki 12:16

Hamor : Gen 34:2, Gen 34:6

TSK: Jdg 9:29 - would to God // And he said // Increase thine army would to God : The very words and conduct of a sly, hypocritical demagogue. 2Sa 15:4; 1Ki 20:11; Psa 10:3; Rom 1:30, Rom 1:31 And he said : Rather, ""...

would to God : The very words and conduct of a sly, hypocritical demagogue. 2Sa 15:4; 1Ki 20:11; Psa 10:3; Rom 1:30, Rom 1:31

And he said : Rather, ""and I would say to Abimelech,""as the LXX renders; for as Dr. Wall observes, this was probably not said in the presence of Abimelech; but at an intemperate feast, in his absence, when he boasted he would challenge him.

Increase thine army : 2Sa 2:14-17; 2Ki 14:8, 2Ki 18:23; Isa 36:8, Isa 36:9

TSK: Jdg 9:30 - kindled kindled : or, hot, Jdg 9:30

kindled : or, hot, Jdg 9:30

TSK: Jdg 9:31 - privily // they fortify privily : Heb. craftily, or, to Tormah they fortify : Under pretence of repairing the walls and towers, they were actually putting the place in a stat...

privily : Heb. craftily, or, to Tormah

they fortify : Under pretence of repairing the walls and towers, they were actually putting the place in a state of defence, intending to seize on the government as soon as they found Abimelech coming against them. Jdg 9:31

TSK: Jdg 9:32 - by night by night : Job 24:14-17; Psa 36:4; Pro 1:11-16, Pro 4:16; Rom 3:15

TSK: Jdg 9:33 - as thou shalt find as thou shalt find : Heb. as thine hand shall find, Lev 25:26 *marg. 1Sa 10:7, 1Sa 25:8; Ecc 9:10

as thou shalt find : Heb. as thine hand shall find, Lev 25:26 *marg. 1Sa 10:7, 1Sa 25:8; Ecc 9:10

TSK: Jdg 9:35 - Gaal // the people Gaal : Of this person we know no more than is here recorded. He was probably one of the descendants of the Canaanites, who hoped, from the state of t...

Gaal : Of this person we know no more than is here recorded. He was probably one of the descendants of the Canaanites, who hoped, from the state of the public mind and their disaffection to Abimelech, to cause a revolution, and thus to restore the ancient government as it was under Hamor, the father of Shechem. Josephus says he was a man of authority, who sojourned with them, with his armed men and kinsmen; and that the Shechemites desired that he would allow them a guard during the vintage.

the people : Jdg 9:44

TSK: Jdg 9:36 - seest the shadow seest the shadow : Doubdan states, that in some parts of the Holy Land there are many detached rocks scattered up and down, some growing out of the gr...

seest the shadow : Doubdan states, that in some parts of the Holy Land there are many detached rocks scattered up and down, some growing out of the ground, and others fragments broken off from rocky precipices, the shadow of which, it appears, Josephus thought might be most naturally imagined to look like troops of men at a distance, rather than that of the mountains; for he represents Zebul as saying to Gaal, that he mistook the shadow of the rocks for men. Eze 7:7; Mar 8:24

TSK: Jdg 9:37 - middle // Meonenim middle : Heb. navel Meonenim : or, the regarders of the times, Deu 18:14

middle : Heb. navel

Meonenim : or, the regarders of the times, Deu 18:14

TSK: Jdg 9:38 - -- Jdg 9:28, Jdg 9:29; 2Sa 2:26, 2Sa 2:27; 2Ki 14:8-14; Jer 2:28

TSK: Jdg 9:40 - he fled before he fled before : 1Ki 20:18-21, 1Ki 20:30

he fled before : 1Ki 20:18-21, 1Ki 20:30

TSK: Jdg 9:41 - Arumah // Zebul Arumah : This place appears from the next verse to have been near Shechem; and is perhaps the same as Ruma, a village of Galilee, mentioned by Josephu...

Arumah : This place appears from the next verse to have been near Shechem; and is perhaps the same as Ruma, a village of Galilee, mentioned by Josephus, Bell. 1. iii. c. 7.

Zebul : Jdg 9:28, Jdg 9:30

TSK: Jdg 9:44 - rushed forward rushed forward : Jdg 9:15, Jdg 9:20; Gal 5:15

rushed forward : Jdg 9:15, Jdg 9:20; Gal 5:15

TSK: Jdg 9:45 - he took // beat // sowed he took : Jdg 9:20 beat : Deu 29:23; 1Ki 12:25; 2Ki 3:25; Psa 107:34 *marg. Eze 47:11; Zep 2:9; Jam 2:13 sowed : Salt in small quantities renders land...

he took : Jdg 9:20

beat : Deu 29:23; 1Ki 12:25; 2Ki 3:25; Psa 107:34 *marg. Eze 47:11; Zep 2:9; Jam 2:13

sowed : Salt in small quantities renders land extremely fertile; but too much of it destroys vegetation. Every place, says Pliny, in which salt is found is barren, and produces nothing. Hence the sowing of a place with salt was a custom in different nations to express permanent desolation. Sigonius observes, that when Milan was taken, ad 1162, the walls were razed, and it was sown with salt. And Brantome informs us, that it was an ancient custom in France, to sow the house of a man with salt, who had been declared a traitor to his king. Charles IX., king of France, the most base and perfidious of human beings, caused the house of Admiral Coligni (whom he and the Duke of Guise caused to be murdered, with thousands more of Protestants, on the eve of St. Bartholomew, 1572), to be sown with salt!

TSK: Jdg 9:46 - an hold an hold : Jdg 9:4, Jdg 9:27, Jdg 8:33; 1Ki 8:26; 2Ki 1:2-4; Psa 115:8; Isa 28:15-18, Isa 37:38

TSK: Jdg 9:48 - Zalmon // What ye // me do Zalmon : Psa 68:14 What ye : Jdg 7:17, Jdg 7:18; Pro 1:11, Pro 1:12 me do : Heb. I have done

Zalmon : Psa 68:14

What ye : Jdg 7:17, Jdg 7:18; Pro 1:11, Pro 1:12

me do : Heb. I have done

TSK: Jdg 9:49 - put them put them : Jdg 9:15, Jdg 9:20; Gal 5:15; Jam 3:16

TSK: Jdg 9:50 - Thebez Thebez : According to Eusebius, thirteen miles from Shechem, towards Scythopolis. Jdg 9:50

Thebez : According to Eusebius, thirteen miles from Shechem, towards Scythopolis. Jdg 9:50

TSK: Jdg 9:52 - -- Jdg 9:48, Jdg 9:49; 2Ki 14:10, 2Ki 15:16

TSK: Jdg 9:53 - woman // and all to woman : Jdg 9:15, Jdg 9:20; 2Sa 11:21, 2Sa 20:21; Job 31:3; Jer 49:20, Jer 50:45 and all to : An antiquated expression, meaning ""full intention""to c...

woman : Jdg 9:15, Jdg 9:20; 2Sa 11:21, 2Sa 20:21; Job 31:3; Jer 49:20, Jer 50:45

and all to : An antiquated expression, meaning ""full intention""to complete an object. ""All to,""observes Dr. Johnson, ""is a particle of mere enforcement.""The original is wattaritz eth gulgalto , which is simply as the LXX render και εκλασε το κρανιον αυτου , ""and she brake his skull.""Plutarch relates, that Pyrrhus was killed at the siege of Thebes, by a piece of a tile, which a woman threw upon his head.

TSK: Jdg 9:54 - Draw thy // And his young man Draw thy : 1Sa 31:4, 1Sa 31:5 And his young man : It was a disgrace to be killed by a woman.

Draw thy : 1Sa 31:4, 1Sa 31:5

And his young man : It was a disgrace to be killed by a woman.

TSK: Jdg 9:55 - -- 2Sa 18:16, 2Sa 20:21, 2Sa 20:22; 1Ki 22:35, 1Ki 22:36; Pro 22:10

TSK: Jdg 9:56 - God rendered God rendered : Both the fratricide Abimelech and the unprincipled men of Shechem had the iniquity visited upon them of which they had been guilty. Ma...

God rendered : Both the fratricide Abimelech and the unprincipled men of Shechem had the iniquity visited upon them of which they had been guilty. Man’ s judgment may be avoided; but there is no escape from that of God. How many houses have been sown with salt in France, by the just judgment of God, for the massacre of the Protestants on the eve of St. Bartholomew! See note on Jdg 9:45. Jdg 9:24; Job 31:3; Psa 9:12, Psa 11:6, Psa 58:10, Psa 58:11, Psa 94:23; Pro 5:22; Mat 7:2; Act 28:4; Gal 6:7; Rev 19:20, Rev 19:21

TSK: Jdg 9:57 - upon them upon them : Jdg 9:20, Jdg 9:45; Jos 6:26; 1Ki 16:34

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Jdg 9:2 - the sons of Jerubbaal // Your bone and your flesh He supposeth that the sons of Jerubbaal would take that government which their father modestly refused, and that the multitude of his sons would o...

He supposeth that

the sons of Jerubbaal would take that government which their father modestly refused, and that the multitude of his sons would occasion horrible divisions, and confusions, and contests about the sovereign power; all which they might avoid by choosing him king; and so they might enjoy the monarchy which they had long and oft desired.

Your bone and your flesh your kinsman, of the same tribe and city with you; which will be no small honour and advantage to you.

Poole: Jdg 9:3 - His mother’ s brethren // He is our brother His mother’ s brethren i.e. kinsmen, as that word is oft used, as Gen 14:16 29:12 . He is our brother they were easily persuaded to believe an...

His mother’ s brethren i.e. kinsmen, as that word is oft used, as Gen 14:16 29:12 .

He is our brother they were easily persuaded to believe and follow what served their own interest.

Poole: Jdg 9:4 - Threescore and ten // Pieces of silver // Out of the house of Baal-berith // Vain and light persons Threescore and ten agreeably to the number of his enemies, Gideon’ s seventy sons. Pieces of silver not shekels, as some fancy, which were too...

Threescore and ten agreeably to the number of his enemies, Gideon’ s seventy sons.

Pieces of silver not shekels, as some fancy, which were too small a sum for this purpose; but far larger pieces, the exact worth whereof it is neither possible nor needful for us now to know.

Out of the house of Baal-berith out of his sacred treasury; for even they; who were very parsimonious and base in their expenses about God’ s service, were liberal in their contributions to idols; having since Gideon’ s death built this temple, (which he would never have suffered whilst he lived,) and endowed it with considerable revenues.

Vain and light persons unsettled, idle, and necessitous persons, the most proper instruments for tyranny and cruelty.

Poole: Jdg 9:5 - The sons of Jerubbaal // Threescore and ten persons // Upon one stone The sons of Jerubbaal the only persons who were likely to hinder him in establishing his tyranny. Threescore and ten persons wanting one, who is he...

The sons of Jerubbaal the only persons who were likely to hinder him in establishing his tyranny.

Threescore and ten persons wanting one, who is here expressed; and these synecdochical expressions are frequent in Scripture: see Gen 35:26 42:13 Num 14:32,33Jo 20:24 1Co 15:5 .

Upon one stone whereby he would signify that this was either,

1. An act of justice, in cutting them all off in an orderly manner, for some supposed crime probably as designing sedition and rebellion; or,

2. An act of religion, in avenging the dishonour and injury done to Baal by Gideon, Jud 6:27,28 , upon his children, whom he offered up as so many sacrifices to Baal upon this stone, which served for an altar; and for this reason it seems the money was taken out of Baal’ s house, because it was to be laid out in his service.

Poole: Jdg 9:6 - Of Millo // Made Abimelech king // the plain of the pillar Of Millo of a place or person so called; some eminent and potent family living in Shechem, or near to it; either the family of Abimelech’ s moth...

Of Millo of a place or person so called; some eminent and potent family living in Shechem, or near to it; either the family of Abimelech’ s mother, or some other: or, and all Beth-millo ; so Beth is not a house, but a part of the name of the place.

Made Abimelech king to wit, over all Israel, Jud 9:22 , which was a strange presumption for the inhabitants of one city to undertake; but they had many advantages and encouragements for it; as the eager, and general, and constant inclination of the Israelites to kingly government; Abimelech’ s being the son of Gideon, to whom and to his sons they offered the kingdom, Jud 8:22 ; and though the father could and did refuse it for himself, yet they might imagine that he could not give away his son’ s right, conveyed to them by the Israelites, in their offer; the universal defection of the Israelites from God to Baal, whose great patron and champion Abimelech pretended to be; the power and prevalency of the tribe of Ephraim, in which Shechem was, Jos 20:7 , whose proud and imperious spirit, manifested Jud 8:1 12:1 , would make them readily close with a king of their own brethren; and Abimelech’ s getting the start of all others, having the crown actually put upon his head, and an army already raised to maintain his tyranny. By

the plain of the pillar or, by the oak of the pillar , i.e. by the oak, where Joshua erected a pillar as a witness of the covenant renewed between God and Israel, Jos 24:26 . This place they chose, to signify that they still owned God, and their covenant with him; and did not worship Baal in opposition to God, but in conjunction with him, or in subordination to him.

Poole: Jdg 9:7 - Mount Gerzim // Lifted up his voice, and cried // Ye men of Shechem // That God may harken unto you Mount Gerzim lay near Shechem, and near Mount Ebal. The valley between these two mountains of Gerizim and Ebal was a famous place, employed for a rel...

Mount Gerzim lay near Shechem, and near Mount Ebal. The valley between these two mountains of Gerizim and Ebal was a famous place, employed for a religious use, even for the solemn reading of the law, and its blessings and curses, Deu 11:29 27:12 Jos 8:33 ; and therefore it is probable it was still used, even by the superstitious and idolatrous Israelites, for such-like occasions, who delighted to use the same places which their religious ancestors had consecrated and used.

Lifted up his voice, and cried so as they that stood in the valley might hear him, though not suddenly come at him to take him.

Ye men of Shechem who are here met together upon a solemn occasion, as Josephus notes, Abimelech being absent.

That God may harken unto you when you cry unto him for mercy; so he conjures and persuades to give him patient audience, as they did.

Poole: Jdg 9:8 - To anoint a king // the olive tree A parabolical discourse, usual among the ancients, especially in the eastern parts; wherein, under the names of trees, men are represented. To anoi...

A parabolical discourse, usual among the ancients, especially in the eastern parts; wherein, under the names of trees, men are represented.

To anoint a king i.e. to make a king, which was oft done among the Israelites, and some others, with the ceremony of anointing. By

the olive tree he understands Gideon.

Poole: Jdg 9:9 - To be promoted In the worship and service of God oil was used for divers things; as, about the lamps, Exo 35:14 , and offerings, Lev 2:6,7 , and for the anointing ...

In the worship and service of God oil was used for divers things; as, about the lamps, Exo 35:14 , and offerings, Lev 2:6,7 , and for the anointing of sacred persons and things. Oil was also used in the constitution of kings, and priests, and prophets, and for a present to great persons, and to anoint the head and face, &c.

To be promoted Heb. to move hither and thither, to wander to and fro, to exchange my sweet tranquillity for incessant cares and travels for the good of others, as a king ought to do.

Poole: Jdg 9:10 - -- This, as also the vine, Jud 9:12 , signifies the same thing with the olive tree; but here are various expressions used, either for the decency of th...

This, as also the vine, Jud 9:12 , signifies the same thing with the olive tree; but here are various expressions used, either for the decency of the parable; or because Gideon refused this honour, both for himself and for his sons; or to signify that the sons of Gideon, whom Abimelech had so cruelly slain, upon pretence of their affecting the kingdom, were as far from such thoughts as their father, and therefore were unjustly and wickedly murdered.

Poole: Jdg 9:11 - My sweetness My sweetness for which that fruit is particularly commended.

My sweetness for which that fruit is particularly commended.

Poole: Jdg 9:13 - -- Wherewith God is well-pleased, because it was offered to God, Num 15:5,7,10 . See also Psa 104:15 Pro 31:6 .

Wherewith God is well-pleased, because it was offered to God, Num 15:5,7,10 . See also Psa 104:15 Pro 31:6 .

Poole: Jdg 9:14 - The bramble The bramble or thorn ; a mean, and barren, and hurtful tree, fitly representing Abimelech, the son of a concubine, and a person of small use, and gr...

The bramble or thorn ; a mean, and barren, and hurtful tree, fitly representing Abimelech, the son of a concubine, and a person of small use, and great cruelty.

Poole: Jdg 9:15 - If in truth you anoint me king over you // Put your trust in my shadow // Let fire come out of the bramble If in truth you anoint me king over you if you deal truly and justly in making me king. Put your trust in my shadow then you may expect protection ...

If in truth you anoint me king over you if you deal truly and justly in making me king.

Put your trust in my shadow then you may expect protection under my government.

Let fire come out of the bramble instead of protection, you shall receive destruction by me; especially you cedars, i.e. nobles, such as the house of Millo, who have been most forward in this work.

Poole: Jdg 9:17 - -- Heb. cast away his soul or life far off, out of his reach or power to recover it, i.e. exposed himself to utmost hazard for your sakes.

Heb. cast away his soul or life far off, out of his reach or power to recover it, i.e. exposed himself to utmost hazard for your sakes.

Poole: Jdg 9:18 - His maid-servant // Over the men of Shechem Abimelech’ s fact is justly charged upon them, as done by their consent, approbation, and assistance. His maid-servant his concubine, whom he...

Abimelech’ s fact is justly charged upon them, as done by their consent, approbation, and assistance.

His maid-servant his concubine, whom he so calls by way of reproach, because maid-servants were oft made concubines, Exo 21:7-10 .

Over the men of Shechem by which limitation of their power, and his kingdom, he reflects contempt upon him, and chargeth them with presumption, that having only power over their own city, they durst impose a king upon all Israel.

Poole: Jdg 9:20 - -- This is not a prediction, but an imprecation or curse, as it is called, Jud 9:57 , which, being grounded upon just cause, and being the only way by ...

This is not a prediction, but an imprecation or curse, as it is called, Jud 9:57 , which, being grounded upon just cause, and being the only way by which Jotham could perform the duty of the avenger of his brethren’ s blood, which was incumbent upon him, had its effect, as others in like case had, as Jos 6:26 , compared with 1Ki 16:34 2Ki 2:24 .

Poole: Jdg 9:21 - Beer He might easily flee, having the advantage of the hill and other accommodations for flight, and because the people were not forward to pursue a man ...

He might easily flee, having the advantage of the hill and other accommodations for flight, and because the people were not forward to pursue a man whom they knew to have such just cause and great provocation to speak, and so little power to do them any hurt.

Beer ; a place remote from Shechem, and out of Abimelech’ s reach. There were divers places of that name.

Poole: Jdg 9:22 - -- For though the men of Shechem were the first authors of Abimelech’ s advancement, it is more than probable that the rest of the people easily c...

For though the men of Shechem were the first authors of Abimelech’ s advancement, it is more than probable that the rest of the people easily consented to that form of government which they so much desired; or, at least, made no resistance against it.

Poole: Jdg 9:23 - -- God gave the devil commission to enter into or work upon their minds and hearts; knowing that he of himself, and by his own inclination, would fill ...

God gave the devil commission to enter into or work upon their minds and hearts; knowing that he of himself, and by his own inclination, would fill them with mistakes, and jealousies, and dissensions, and heart-burnings, which would end in civil wars and mutual ruin.

Poole: Jdg 9:24 - The cruelty The cruelty i.e. the punishment of the cruelty.

The cruelty i.e. the punishment of the cruelty.

Poole: Jdg 9:25 - Liers in wait for him // All that came along that way by them // It was told Abimelech Liers in wait for him to seize his person. All that came along that way by them , to wit, such as favoured or served Abimelech; for to such only the...

Liers in wait for him to seize his person.

All that came along that way by them , to wit, such as favoured or served Abimelech; for to such only their commission reached, though it may be they went beyond their bounds, and by military license robbed all passengers promiscuously.

It was told Abimelech who, as it is here implied, exercised hostility towards the men of Shechem.

Poole: Jdg 9:26 - Gaal // Went over to Shechem It is not known who or of what tribe Gaal was; but it is evident that he was a man very considerable for wealth, and strength, and counsel, and in...

It is not known who or of what tribe

Gaal was; but it is evident that he was a man very considerable for wealth, and strength, and counsel, and interest, and ill-pleased with Abimelech’ s power.

Went over to Shechem by his presence and counsel to animate and assist them against Abimelech.

Poole: Jdg 9:27 - They went out into the fields // Made merry // The house of their god // Did eat and drink // Cursed Abimelech They went out into the fields which, till his coming, they durst not do, for fear of Abimelech; but now took confidence to do so, in contempt of him....

They went out into the fields which, till his coming, they durst not do, for fear of Abimelech; but now took confidence to do so, in contempt of him.

Made merry partly from the custom of rejoicing and singing songs in vintage time, Lev 19:24 Isa 16:10 Jer 25:30 ; and partly for the hopes of their redemption from Abimelech’ s tyranny.

The house of their god Baal-berith, Jud 9:4 ; either to beg his help against Abimelech, or to give him thanks, either for the fruits of the earth now received, or for the hopes of recovering their former and lost liberty.

Did eat and drink to the honour of their idols, and out of the oblations made to them, as they used to do to the honour of Jehovah, and out of his sacrifices.

Cursed Abimelech either by reviling and reproaching him after their manner; or rather in a more solemn and religious manner, cursing him by their god, as Goliath did David, 1Sa 17:43 ; or calling upon their god to ratify their curses pronounced against him.

Poole: Jdg 9:28 - Who is Abimelech? // Who is Shechem? // the son of Jerubbaal // The son of Jerubbaal // And Zebul his officer Who is Abimelech? what is he but a base-born person, an ambitious, imperious, and cruel tyrant, and one every way unfit and unworthy to govern you? ...

Who is Abimelech? what is he but a base-born person, an ambitious, imperious, and cruel tyrant, and one every way unfit and unworthy to govern you?

Who is Shechem? Shechem is here the name, either,

1. Of the place or city of Shechem; and so the Hebrew particle mi, who , is put for mah, what , as it is Jud 13:17 ; and then the sense of the place is this: Consider how obscure and unworthy a person Abimelech is, and what a potent and honourable city Shechem is; and judge you whether it be fit that such a city should be subject to such a person. Or rather,

2. Of a person, even of Abimelech, named in the foregoing words, and described in those which follow;

the son of Jerubbaal between which Shechem is hemmed in, and therefore cannot conveniently belong to any other. He is called Shechem for the Shechemite, by a metonymy of the subject, whereby the place is put for the person contained in it, and belonging to it; as Egypt, Ethiopia, Seba, Judea, Macedonia, and Achaia, &c., are put for the people of those countries Job 1:15 6:19 Psa 68:31 105:38 Isa 43:3 Mat 3:5 Rom 15:26 . Thus mi is taken properly, and the sense is, Who is this Shechemite ? for so he was by the mother’ s side, born of a woman of your city, and she but his concubine and servant; why should you submit to one so basely descended?

The son of Jerubbaal i.e. of Gideon; a person obscure by his on n confession, Jud 6:15 , and famous only by his boldness and fierceness against that Baal which you justly honour and reverence, whose altar he overthrew, and whose worship he endeavoured to abolish.

And Zebul his officer and you are so unworthy and mean-spirited, that you do not only submit to him, but suffer his very servants to bear rule over you, and enslave you; and particularly this noble and hateful person Zebul. Serve the men of Hamor the father of Shechem : if you love bondage, call in the old master and lord of the place; choose not an upstart, as Abimelech is; but rather take one of the old stock, one descended from Hamor, Gen 34:2 , who did not carry himself like a tyrant, as Abimelech did, but like a father of his city of Shechem. This he might speak, either,

1. Sincerely, as being himself a Canaanite and a Shechemite, and possibly come from one of those little ones whom Simeon and Levi spared when they slew all the grown males, Gen 34:29 . And it may be that he was one of the royal blood, a descendant of Hamor, who hereby sought to insinuate himself into their minds and government, as it follows, Jud 9:29 , Would to God this people were under my hand! which he might judge the people more likely to do, both because they were now united with the Canaanites in religion, and because their present distress might oblige them to put themselves under him, who seemed or pretended to be a valiant and expert commander. Or,

2. In way of derision, he being an Israelite: If you are so servile, serve some of the children of Hamor; which because you rightly judge to be absurd and dishonourable, do not now submit to a far baser person; but cast off his yoke, and recover your lost liberties.

Poole: Jdg 9:29 - Under my hand // Then would I remove Abimelech // He said to Abimelech Under my hand i.e. under my command; I wish you would unanimously submit to me, as your captain and governor; for he found them divided, and some of ...

Under my hand i.e. under my command; I wish you would unanimously submit to me, as your captain and governor; for he found them divided, and some of them hearkening after Abimelech, whom they had lately rejected, according to the levity of the popular humour.

Then would I remove Abimelech as you have driven him out of your city, I would drive him out of your country.

He said to Abimelech he sent this message or challenge to him, I desire not to surprise thee at any disadvantage; strengthen thyself as much as thou canst, and come out into the open field, that thou and I may decide it by our arms.

Poole: Jdg 9:30 - -- It seems he had temporized and complied with the people’ s humour and plot against Abimelech, either in dissimulation and design, and by Abimel...

It seems he had temporized and complied with the people’ s humour and plot against Abimelech, either in dissimulation and design, and by Abimelech’ s connivance or advice, or really; but when he heard Gaal’ s words, and himself traduced and struck at by them, he changed his mind, repented of his defection from Abimelech, and intended to return himself, and to bring the people again to the obedience of their lord and king.

Poole: Jdg 9:31 - Privily // They fortify the city against thee Privily so as Gaal and his confederates might not know it. Or, in Tormah ; or, who was in Tormah ; for some make it the name of the place where Abi...

Privily so as Gaal and his confederates might not know it. Or, in Tormah ; or, who was in Tormah ; for some make it the name of the place where Abimelech was, which is called with some variation Arumah , Jud 9:41 .

They fortify the city against thee they besiege or guard the city of Shechem, so as none may go out to thee, nor come in from thee.

Poole: Jdg 9:33 - Behold, when he Behold, when he i.e. Gaal, mentioned Jud 9:31 .

Behold, when he i.e. Gaal, mentioned Jud 9:31 .

Poole: Jdg 9:35 - Stood in the entering of the gate of the city Stood in the entering of the gate of the city to put his army in order, and to conduct them against Abimelech, whom he supposed to be at a great dist...

Stood in the entering of the gate of the city to put his army in order, and to conduct them against Abimelech, whom he supposed to be at a great distance.

Poole: Jdg 9:36 - Zebul // Thou seest the shadow of the mountains Zebul concealed the anger which he had conceived, Jud 9:30 , and pretended compliance with him in this expedition, that he might draw him forth into ...

Zebul concealed the anger which he had conceived, Jud 9:30 , and pretended compliance with him in this expedition, that he might draw him forth into the field, where Abimelech might have the opportunity of lighting with him, and overthrowing him.

Thou seest the shadow of the mountains for in the morning, as this was, and in the evening, the shadows are longest, and move most quickly. He intimates that he was afraid of shadows.

Poole: Jdg 9:37 - By the middle of the land By the middle of the land Heb. by the navel of the land . So he calls either, first, The middle of it, as the middle part of Greece and of Sicily ar...

By the middle of the land Heb. by the navel of the land . So he calls either, first, The middle of it, as the middle part of Greece and of Sicily are called the navel of them by the Roman writers, because the navel is in the midst of man’ s body; or, secondly, The higher part of it, called the mountains , Jud 9:36 , and here the navel , because it was raised above the other ground, as the navel is above the rest of the body.

Poole: Jdg 9:38 - Thy mouth Thy mouth i.e. thy brags. Now thou betrayest thy fears; and therefore now show thyself a man, and fight valiantly for thyself and people.

Thy mouth i.e. thy brags. Now thou betrayest thy fears; and therefore now show thyself a man, and fight valiantly for thyself and people.

Poole: Jdg 9:40 - He fled before him // Many were overthrown and wounded He fled before him being surprised by the unexpected coming of Abimelech, and possibly not fully prepared for the encounter. Many were overthrown an...

He fled before him being surprised by the unexpected coming of Abimelech, and possibly not fully prepared for the encounter.

Many were overthrown and wounded being pursued and overtaken by Abimelech.

Poole: Jdg 9:41 - Zebul thrust out Gaal and his brethren Abimelech did not prosecute his victory, but retreated to Arumah, partly to see the effect of this fight, and whether the Shechemites would not of t...

Abimelech did not prosecute his victory, but retreated to Arumah, partly to see the effect of this fight, and whether the Shechemites would not of themselves return to his government, being either persuaded by Zebul upon this occasion, or terrified by his strength and valour, or now by his clemency in proceeding no further against them; and partly that, being hereby grown more secure, he might have the greater advantage against them, which accordingly he here makes use of.

Zebul thrust out Gaal and his brethren which he was enabled to do, because the multitude, which is generally light and unstable, and judgeth of all things by events, were now enraged against Gaal, suspecting him guilty either of treachery, or cowardice, or ill conduct; and besides, they thought the expulsion of Gaal would sweeten and satisfy Abimelech, and make him give over the war against them. But though they were offended with Gaal, yet Zebul’ s interest was not so considerable with them, that he could prevail with them either to kill Gaal and his brethren, or to yield themselves to Abimelech; and therefore he still complies with the people, and waits for a fairer opportunity, though in vain.

Poole: Jdg 9:42 - The people went out into the field The people went out into the field either, first, To renew the fight, and avenge themselves for their last loss, the great God hardening their hearts...

The people went out into the field either, first, To renew the fight, and avenge themselves for their last loss, the great God hardening their hearts to their destruction, and the accomplishment of his word delivered to them by Jotham. But here is not one word about the people’ s arming, or resisting, or fighting, as there was before, Jud 9:39 , but only of their slaughter, Jud 9:43,44 . Or, secondly, To their usual and then proper employments about their lands; for though their vintage was past, the seed-time was now come, and other things were to be done in the fields. Or, thirdly, Upon some solemn occasion, not here expressed; possibly to make a solemn procession, or perform some other rites in the fields, to the honour of their god Baal-berith, as the manner of the heathen was, to make supplication to him for his help, and for better success; or only to go for that end to the house of their god Baal-berith, which is thought to have been in the fields, as may seem from Jud 9:27,46 , on a mountain upon the east side of the city.

Poole: Jdg 9:43 - Three companies Three companies whereof he kept one with himself, Jud 9:44 , and put the rest under other commanders.

Three companies whereof he kept one with himself, Jud 9:44 , and put the rest under other commanders.

Poole: Jdg 9:44 - Stood in the entering of the gate of the city Stood in the entering of the gate of the city to prevent their retreat into the city, and give the other two companies opportunity to cut them off.

Stood in the entering of the gate of the city to prevent their retreat into the city, and give the other two companies opportunity to cut them off.

Poole: Jdg 9:45 - -- Not to make the place barren, as salt will do, for then he would have sowed the fields, not the city; but in token of his detestation and desire of ...

Not to make the place barren, as salt will do, for then he would have sowed the fields, not the city; but in token of his detestation and desire of their utter and irrecoverable destruction; for salt is the symbol or sign of perpetuity: compare Num 18:19 Deu 29:23 2Ch 13:5 Zep 2:9 .

Poole: Jdg 9:46 - The tower of Shechem // The house of the god Berith The tower of Shechem a strong place belonging to the city of Shechem, and made for its defence or security, but without the city. It is thought this ...

The tower of Shechem a strong place belonging to the city of Shechem, and made for its defence or security, but without the city. It is thought this was that Milo which was confederate with Shechem in their design for Abimelech, Jud 9:6 , which also Jotham cursed with Shechem, Jud 9:20 , and that curse is noted to have its effect, Jud 9:57 . And this place may be called the tower of Shechem , either because those who possessed and defended it were sent from Shechem, or because it was built and kept for the safeguard of Shechem.

The house of the god Berith or, Baal-berith , Jud 9:4 . Hither they fled out of the town belonging to it, fearing the same event with Shechem; and here they thought to be secure; partly by the strength of the place, as the temples of idols were ofttimes built in the highest and strongest places, as the capitol at Rome, and the temple at Jerusalem; and such this place seems to have been, because they laid their treasure here, Jud 9:4 , partly by the religion of it, thinking that either their god would protect them there, or that Abimelech would spare them there, if not out of piety to that god, yet out of thankfulness for the benefit which he received thence, Jud 9:4 .

Poole: Jdg 9:48 - Zalmon Zalmon a place so called from its shadiness, because there were many trees there.

Zalmon a place so called from its shadiness, because there were many trees there.

Poole: Jdg 9:50 - Thebez Thebez another town near to Shechem; and, as it seems, within its territory.

Thebez another town near to Shechem; and, as it seems, within its territory.

Poole: Jdg 9:51 - All the men and women // The top of the tower All the men and women all that were not slain in the taking of the town; or they all forsook the town, and retired to their strong hold. The top of ...

All the men and women all that were not slain in the taking of the town; or they all forsook the town, and retired to their strong hold.

The top of the tower was flat and plain, after their manner of building.

Poole: Jdg 9:53 - -- Such great stones no doubt they carried up with them, whereby they might defend themselves, or offend those who assaulted them. Here the justice of ...

Such great stones no doubt they carried up with them, whereby they might defend themselves, or offend those who assaulted them. Here the justice of God is remarkable in suiting the punishment to his sin. He slew his brethren upon a stone, Jud 9:5 , and he loseth his own life by a stone.

Poole: Jdg 9:54 - -- A woman slew him; which was esteemed a matter of disgrace.

A woman slew him; which was esteemed a matter of disgrace.

Poole: Jdg 9:56 - The wickedness which he did unto his father The wickedness which he did unto his father in rooting out, as far as he could, the name, and memory, and remainders of his father.

The wickedness which he did unto his father in rooting out, as far as he could, the name, and memory, and remainders of his father.

Haydock: Jdg 9:1 - Abimelech Abimelech was encouraged to contend with his brethren as he saw the indifference which the people shewed for them, and as he was of a bold enterprisi...

Abimelech was encouraged to contend with his brethren as he saw the indifference which the people shewed for them, and as he was of a bold enterprising temper. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 9:2 - Men // Flesh Men, particularly to those who have the greatest influence. Hebrew Bahalim. (Menochius) --- The argumentation of Abimelech tended to prove that ...

Men, particularly to those who have the greatest influence. Hebrew Bahalim. (Menochius) ---

The argumentation of Abimelech tended to prove that monarchy was the most perfect and eligible form of government, and that it would be hard upon the people, and greatly weaken the state, if seventy princes were to be supported in al the dignity of kings. But it was easy to discern the fallacy of his reasons. The dignity of judge was not hereditary, and it does not appear that the sons of Gedeon claimed it. If it had belonged to his family, the eldest would have been entitled to it, or any of the children, in preference to this son of the servant, ver. 18. He was, indeed, born at Sichem; but the others were by no means strangers: (Calmet) and what right had the men of this town to give a ruler to Israel? (Haydock) ---

Flesh, an usual expression in Scripture to denote kindred, ver. 3., Genesis ii. 23., and 2 Kings xix. 13. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 9:4 - Weight // Baalberith // Vagabonds Weight. Hebrew, Chaldean, and Septuagint do not express what quantity of silver was given. (Menochius) --- But sicle on such occasions is generall...

Weight. Hebrew, Chaldean, and Septuagint do not express what quantity of silver was given. (Menochius) ---

But sicle on such occasions is generally supplied. (Calmet) ---

Hence this sum would amount to little more than 8 l. sterling. (Haydock) ---

As this appears too insignificant a sum to maintain an army, (Calmet) some would supply pounds, each consisting of 24 sicles, or talents, which were equivalent to 3000 sicles. (Menochius) ---

But this is without example, and the army of Abimelech was, probably, a company of banditti, or villains, who went with him to Ephra, to murder his brethren, and afterwards kept near his person. When he had got possession of his father's estate, and of the sovereign power, he found means to supply his wants. (Calmet) ---

Baalberith. That is, Baal of the covenant, so called from the covenant they had made with Baal, chap. viii. 33. (Challoner) ---

The custom of keeping money in temples was formerly very common. Almost all the cities of Greece sent money to the temple of Apollo, at Delphos, (Marsham, sæc. xvii.) where the people of Rome and of Marseilles had also some. The different cities had likewise holes cut in the rock of Olympia, in Elis, for the same purpose. The public treasury was, almost universally, some temple. That of Rome was the temple of Saturn. ---

Vagabonds. Hebrew, "empty and inconstant" (Calmet) people who had nothing to lose, and who would not embrace any proper method of getting a livelihood. (Haydock) ---

Chaldean, "seekers." Septuagint, "stupid." Symmachus, "idle and of desperate fortunes, or frantic." (Calmet) ---

Such people are generally at the head of every revolution, or, at least, are ready to follow the directions of some powerful and designing man; as but too many instances, both in ancient and modern times evince; which ought to be a caution for all to watch their motions. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 9:5 - Stone Stone where criminals were, perhaps, commonly executed, that he might seem to act with justice, (Tostat) or he might slaughter his brethren on the ve...

Stone where criminals were, perhaps, commonly executed, that he might seem to act with justice, (Tostat) or he might slaughter his brethren on the very altar, which had been erected to God by Gedeon, after he had thrown down that of Baal. By doing so, he would seem to vindicate the idol, and gratify the people of Sichem, who were zealous idolaters, ver. 46. Joatham escaped his fury, yet he, also, uses a round number, 70, when he says you have killed 70 men, ver. 18. (Calmet) ---

Abimelech himself must also be deducted from the number. Thus we say the seventy interpreters, (Menochius) though the Greek interpreters of the Bible are supposed (Haydock) to have been 72. (Menochius) ---

The history of nations is full of similar instances of cruelty. Ochus, king of Persia, killed his uncle, and 80 or 100 of his sons. Phraartees, son of Herod, king of the Parthians, by a concubine, slew his father and his 30 children. (Justin. x. and xlii.) ---

The Turkish emperors have shewn equal barbarity on many occasions, and they still murder or confine all their brothers. (Serar. q. 6.)

Haydock: Jdg 9:6 - Mello // Oak Mello. We know of no such city in the vicinity of Sichem. Hebrew, "all the house of Millo:" which some take to be the town-house of Sichem, full of...

Mello. We know of no such city in the vicinity of Sichem. Hebrew, "all the house of Millo:" which some take to be the town-house of Sichem, full of the chief citizens, as Mello signifies "filled up;" (Vatable) or it might designate some part of the city which had been levelled, like the deep valley at Jerusalem, (3 Kings ix. 15.; Haydock) and where some powerful family, probably the father of Abimelech's mother, might dwell. (Calmet) ---

This family would interest itself the most in the advancement of the tyrant, ver. 3. (Haydock) ---

Oak. Hebrew, "the plain, or oak of the statue," (alluding to the monument which was left here by Josue, ver. 37., Josue xxiv. 26) or Septuagint, "of the station," as those of Sichem might assemble here to deliberate on public affairs, (Calmet) in memory of the solemn covenant between God and the people. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 9:7 - Stood on // Garizim Stood on. As Abimelech was a figure of Antichrist, who will reign for a time, so Joatham denotes the pastors of the church, who shall stand up for t...

Stood on. As Abimelech was a figure of Antichrist, who will reign for a time, so Joatham denotes the pastors of the church, who shall stand up for the truth. (Worthington) ---

Garizim. At the foot of this mountain Sichem was built. Joatham addressed the people of the city, probably during the absence of Abimelech, (Calmet) when, Josephus ([Antiquities?] v. 9.) says, a great festival was celebrated.

Haydock: Jdg 9:8 - Us Us. By this parable, Joatham expostulates with the men of Sichem, who had so basely requited the labours of Gedeon, and had given the preference to ...

Us. By this parable, Joatham expostulates with the men of Sichem, who had so basely requited the labours of Gedeon, and had given the preference to the son of a servant, who was of the most savage temper. (Haydock) ---

In a spiritual sense, which the Fathers chiefly regard, heretics and schismatics act in this manner, and choose rather to be governed by those who will allow them to follow their passions, than by such governors as God has appointed, though the latter be endued with the grace of the Holy Ghost, and with all virtues, signified by the olive and other fruit trees. They prefer the bramble, or the worst dispositions, like Nemrod, Mahomet, Antichrist, &c., who, after persecuting the virtuous, and Catholics for a time, 2 Thessalonians ii.) will, in the end, prove their ruin, though they themselves be involved in the common destruction. "Fire shall rise (says Ven. Bede, q. 6.) against this bramble, Antichrist, and shall devour him, and all his together." (Worthington) ---

The use of parables has been very general. (Menochius) ---

Agrippa brought the Roman plebeians, who had retired to the sacred mount, to a sense of their duty, and to a love of mutual harmony with the nobles, by observing that the members once refused to supply the wants of the belly, because it did not labour like the rest. (Livy ii.) ---

In the application of these parables, Maimonides justly remarks, that we must consider their general scope, and not pretend to explain every circumstance; (More. Neboc.) a remark which Origen had already made. Many things are only added for the sake of ornament. (Haydock) ---

Thus we need not imagine that the people of Sichem offered the sovereign authority to many, who refused to accept of it, and at last only prevailed upon Abimelech. Gedeon had, indeed, rejected a similar offer, (chap. viii. 22.) and his other sons not endeavouring to retain the authority of their father, the Sichemites acceded to the petition of Abimelech, to anoint him king. This expression does not always imply a material unction, though such was used among the Jews. It signifies the granting of all the power of a king; in which sense it is applied to foreign princes, (Isaias lxv. 1.) and to Jesus Christ, (Daniel ix. 24.) who received the reality of that sovereign dominion, of which this unction was only a figure. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 9:9 - Leave // Use of // Promoted Leave. But, would this advancement prove any disadvantage? The king is bound to give himself up wholly for the good of the public, so that he must ...

Leave. But, would this advancement prove any disadvantage? The king is bound to give himself up wholly for the good of the public, so that he must frequently be full of anxiety and care. (Calmet) ---

Use of. The olive-tree is introduced, speaking in this manner, because oil was used, both in the worship of the true God, and in that of the false gods, whom the Sichemites served. (Challoner) ---

The pagans burnt lamps in honour of their idols, and anointed their statues: unguentoque lares humescere nigro. (Prud., contra Sym. 1.) ---

They also anointed their military standards at Rome. (Pliny, [Natural History?] xiii. 3.) ---

The same author observes, that "two sorts of liquor are very delightful to the bodies of men: wine to drink and oil for the outside: intus vini, foris olei. (B. xiv. 22.) ---

Men use oil to strengthen and foment their bodies, as well as to give them light. (Calmet) ---

It spiritually denotes the grace of God, which establishes the peace of the soul, as the fig-tree signifies the sweetness of God's law, producing good works, and the vine shews forth those noble actions, which are performed without the affection of outward show; and which are therefore, most agreeable both to God and to men. (Worthington) ---

Promoted. Some translate the Hebrew, "to put myself in motion for," Syriac, &c. We might also render, "which honoureth the gods, (or the judges) and men to come to be promoted among (or disquieted on account of) the trees."

Haydock: Jdg 9:11 - Sweetness Sweetness. The fig is the sweetest of fruits, and is regarded as the symbol of sweetness. (Aristop.[Aristophanes?]; Bonfrere)

Sweetness. The fig is the sweetest of fruits, and is regarded as the symbol of sweetness. (Aristop.[Aristophanes?]; Bonfrere)

Haydock: Jdg 9:13 - Cheereth God and men // Tunc veniunt risus, tunc pauper cornua sumit.---Tunc dolor et curæ rugaque frontis abit Cheereth God and men. Wine is here represented as agreeable to God, because he had appointed it to be offered up with his sacrifices. But we are no...

Cheereth God and men. Wine is here represented as agreeable to God, because he had appointed it to be offered up with his sacrifices. But we are not obliged to take these words, spoken by the trees in Joatham's parable, according to the strict rigour of divinity; but only in a sense accommodated to the design of the parable expressed in the conclusion of it. (Challoner) ---

The same word, Elohim, which is translated God may also signify any powerful man, as in ver. 9. (Haydock) ---

Yet wine may be said to cheer God, in the same figurative sense, as the odour of victims is sweet and delightful to him. (Calmet) ---

He is pleased with the devotion of men, and requires these things as a testimony of their love and fidelity. (Haydock) ---

Joatham might speak according to the notions of the idolaters, who thought that their gods really fed on ambrosia and nectar, and were pleased with the smell of victims and of perfumes. That wine cheereth the heart of man needs no proof, Psalm ciii. 15. ---

Tunc veniunt risus, tunc pauper cornua sumit.---Tunc dolor et curæ rugaque frontis abit. (Ovid)

Haydock: Jdg 9:14 - Bramble Bramble. Septuagint rhamnos, "the white, or hawthorn." Some suppose that atad means "a wild rose, (Vatable) thistle," &c. (Calmet) --- It i...

Bramble. Septuagint rhamnos, "the white, or hawthorn." Some suppose that atad means "a wild rose, (Vatable) thistle," &c. (Calmet) ---

It is here put for any base and ambitious man. (Worthington)

Haydock: Jdg 9:15 - Shadow Shadow or protection, Psalm xvi. 8., and Baruch i. 12. (Calmet) --- Joatham hints at the insolence of Abimelech, (Haydock) and foretels that he and...

Shadow or protection, Psalm xvi. 8., and Baruch i. 12. (Calmet) ---

Joatham hints at the insolence of Abimelech, (Haydock) and foretels that he and his foolish subjects will soon be at variance, and destroy each other. Fire is often put for war. The people of Sichem began soon to despise their new king, and he made war upon them, and destroyed their city; though the people afterwards took ample revenge, ver. 20. (Calmet) ---

Tyrants promise much, but their rage soon falls upon the more wealthy and powerful citizens, (Haydock) here signified by the cedars. (Menochius)

Haydock: Jdg 9:18 - You are // Brother You are. People are answerable for the injuries which they do not prevent, when they have it in their power. (Calmet) --- Many of the citizens of ...

You are. People are answerable for the injuries which they do not prevent, when they have it in their power. (Calmet) ---

Many of the citizens of Sichem had assisted Abimelech, ver. 4. ---

Brother. The ties of kindred could not hide their ingratitude and cruelty. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 9:20 - Town of Town of. Hebrew, "the house of Mello," ver. 6. (Calmet) --- the imprecation of Joatham was prophetical. He had not the smallest doubt but the peo...

Town of. Hebrew, "the house of Mello," ver. 6. (Calmet) ---

the imprecation of Joatham was prophetical. He had not the smallest doubt but the people had done wrong; (Haydock) and the three different fruit-trees, which rejected the offer of promotion, represented all the virtuous Israelites, who knew that they could not lawfully assume the regal or judicial authority, without the divine call. Ezechiel (xvii. 24,) attributes knowledge to trees by the same figure of speech, as Joatham does here. (Menochius)

Haydock: Jdg 9:21 - Bera Bera. Hebrew, Bar or Beera, "the well." There was a place of this name in the tribe of Ruben, where the Israelites encamped, Numbers xxi. 16. Bers...

Bera. Hebrew, Bar or Beera, "the well." There was a place of this name in the tribe of Ruben, where the Israelites encamped, Numbers xxi. 16. Bersabee, in the tribe of Juda, was another famous well, and it is probable that Joatham would retire to some distant place. (Haydock) ---

St. Jerome mentions a Bera, eight miles north of Eleutheropolis; and Maundrell speaks of another, about 21 miles from Sichem, on the road to Jerusalem. The dominion of Abimelech did not extend far. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 9:23 - Spirit // Detest him Spirit. God permitted the spirit of discord to arise, like an executioner, (Calmet) to punish the sins both of the ruler and of his subjects. (Hayd...

Spirit. God permitted the spirit of discord to arise, like an executioner, (Calmet) to punish the sins both of the ruler and of his subjects. (Haydock) ---

St. Augustine (q. 45.) observes, that God caused the people to be sorry for what they had done: but they afterwards proceeded to acts of violence and enmity, at the instigation of the devil, to whose advice they gave ear, in consequence of their former transgression. (Worthington) ---

The common people began to open their eyes, and beheld the cruelty of Abimelech, and of some of the principal citizens, who had espoused his cause, with abhorrence. (Menochius) ---

They reflected on the justice of Joatham's parable, which tended to rouse them not to suffer the tyrant to remain unpunished any longer. (Haydock) ---

Detest him. Hebrew, "revolted against (or dealt treacherously with) Abimelech, ( 24 ) that the crime (or punishment of the murder) of the, &c., might come, and their blood be laid upon," &c. (Haydock) ---

God permitted that Abimelech should be punished by those very men who had been the occasion of his sin. To obtain the sceptre over them, he had committed the most horrible cruelty. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 9:25 - Coming Coming. Abimelech resided at Ephra, having appointed Zebul governor of Sichem, from whom he received information of what was doing. The malcontents...

Coming. Abimelech resided at Ephra, having appointed Zebul governor of Sichem, from whom he received information of what was doing. The malcontents began to plunder his adherents; (Calmet) and as it was the time of vintage, they gave way to all the sallies which fury, heated by wine, can suggest; particularly after Gaal, a powerful man of the neighbourhood, came to put himself at their head, ver. 28. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 9:27 - Cups Cups. Such revellings were common in the days of vintage; (Isaias xvi. 10., and Jeremias xlviii. 33,) and they generally accompanied the heathenish ...

Cups. Such revellings were common in the days of vintage; (Isaias xvi. 10., and Jeremias xlviii. 33,) and they generally accompanied the heathenish sacrifices, chap. xvi. 24. They went to give thanks to their god, for having delivered them, (Calmet) as they thought, from the power of Abimelech. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 9:28 - Sichem Sichem. Why should this ancient city be thus degraded? This son of Jerobaal deigns not to reside among us, but sets one of his servants over us! (...

Sichem. Why should this ancient city be thus degraded? This son of Jerobaal deigns not to reside among us, but sets one of his servants over us! (Haydock) ---

He mentions Jerobaal instead of Gedeon, to remind the people of the indignity formerly offered to their great idol, by the father of their present ruler. (Menochius) ---

Hebrew may have another sense. "Who is Abimelech?....Is he not the son of Jerobaal, and Zebul his officer? Serve the men of Hemor," &c. It seems that Gaal was of the race of Chanaan, by the manner in which he speaks of Hemor, whose history is given, Genesis xxxiv. Many of the same nations might still inhabit Sichem, (Calmet) which made the people so bold and zealous in the adoration of Baal. (Haydock) ---

The insidious Gaal hence takes occasion to propose to his countrymen, that they had better acknowledge the authority of their ancient magistrates, who occupied the place of Hemor. (Calmet) ---

But he immediately insinuates, that the most effectual method to expel the tyrant, would be to vest him with the sovereign authority. (Haydock) (ver. 29.) ---

The party of Abimelech was now the weaker. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 9:31 - Thee Thee. Hebrew, "they besiege (Calmet) or fortify the city." (Haydock) --- The partizans of Gaal attacked those who were still favourable to Abimele...

Thee. Hebrew, "they besiege (Calmet) or fortify the city." (Haydock) ---

The partizans of Gaal attacked those who were still favourable to Abimelech, and fortified themselves as much as possible, in those parts which they had already seized. (Vatable; Drusius) ---

Or as tsarim means "enemies," we may as well translate, "lo, the enemies are in (or with) the city against thee." (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 9:34 - Places Places. Hebrew, "companies, (Haydock) or heads." He divided his army into four parts, over each of which he appointed a commander. (Calmet)

Places. Hebrew, "companies, (Haydock) or heads." He divided his army into four parts, over each of which he appointed a commander. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 9:36 - To Zebul To Zebul. It seems the latter had acted with such dissimulation, that Gaal supposed he had come over to his party. Zebul laughs at him, as if he we...

To Zebul. It seems the latter had acted with such dissimulation, that Gaal supposed he had come over to his party. Zebul laughs at him, as if he were disturbed with groundless fears, (Haydock) in order that Abimelech may take him unawares. (Menochius)

Haydock: Jdg 9:37 - Midst // Oak Midst. Hebrew Tabur, here signifies "a little hill, or the navel," which title is given to places which are elevated and in the centre of the co...

Midst. Hebrew Tabur, here signifies "a little hill, or the navel," which title is given to places which are elevated and in the centre of the country, Ezechiel xxxviii. 12. (Josephus, Jewish Wars iii. 2.) Varro mentions the lake of Cutilia, as the navel of Italy. The wood of Enna and Etolia are styled the navel of Sicily and of Greece, by Cicero and Livy. (Bonfrere; Calmet) ---

Oak, which is probably mentioned, ver. 6. (Menochius) ---

Hebrew, "another company comes by the oak or plain of Mehonenim," which may signify, "of the augurs." Septuagint, "of those who make observations," apobleponton. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 9:41 - Ruma Ruma may be the same place as Arimathea, between Joppe and Lidda. (St. Jerome) (Menochius) --- But this seems to be too remote from Sichem, (Haydo...

Ruma may be the same place as Arimathea, between Joppe and Lidda. (St. Jerome) (Menochius) ---

But this seems to be too remote from Sichem, (Haydock; Bonfrere) in the neighbourhood of which Abimelech halted, to give the citizens time to enter into themselves, (Calmet) and to open their gates to him without farther resistance. Gaal entered the city after his defeat: but was forced the next day to leave it by Zebul. Whereupon he was met by two divisions of Abimelech's army, which routed him, and pursued the fugitives, while the king marched straight to the city; and though he had a party within the walls, headed by Zebul, (Haydock) unless he was slain, (Calmet) the rest of the inhabitants made such a stout resistance, that the tyrant resolved to demolish the city, when he took it, at night. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 9:45 - Sowed salt // Salsa autem tellus & quæ perhibetur amara---Frugibus infelix Sowed salt. To make the ground barren, and fit for nothing; (Challoner) and to testify his eternal hatred towards the place, as salt is the symbol o...

Sowed salt. To make the ground barren, and fit for nothing; (Challoner) and to testify his eternal hatred towards the place, as salt is the symbol of duration. See Deuteronomy xxix. 23., Sophonias ii. 9., and Jeremias xvii. 6. ---

Salsa autem tellus & quæ perhibetur amara---Frugibus infelix. (Virgil, Georg. ii.) Notwithstanding the fury of Abimelech, Sichem was afterwards rebuilt, and became as fertile as before. The city of Milan was destroyed and sowed with salt in 1162. (Sigon.) ---

The houses of traitors were formerly treated in this manner in France, (Brantome) as was that of the admiral ed Chatillon. (Calmet) ---

See on this custom Bochart, animal. iii. 16. ---

Some think it denoted that the ground might henceforth be cultivated, and grow corn where houses had stood. Salt is the source of fertility, if there be not too much of it. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 9:46 - Tower // Berith // Where Tower. Serarius thinks it was the house of Mello, out of the city, ver. 6. (Menochius) --- It was the citadel, large enough to contain 1000 soldie...

Tower. Serarius thinks it was the house of Mello, out of the city, ver. 6. (Menochius) ---

It was the citadel, large enough to contain 1000 soldiers. They durst not, however, stop here to encounter Abimelech, but retired to the temple, either because it was still stronger and higher, or in hopes that they would be secure, on account of the veneration (Calmet) to which the place was entitled among the idolaters. ---

Berith. Protestants, "they entered into an hold of the house of the god Berith." Septuagint, "of the covenant." (Haydock) ---

Where, &c., is added by way of explanation, (Calmet) except the word strong, which the Septuagint render ochuroma, "a fortress." The tower and temple seem to have been contiguous, since Abimelech, by setting fire to the tower, destroyed these people at the same time, ver. 49. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 9:48 - Selmon // Bough Selmon. This mountain lay towards the Jordan, and was covered with trees and snow, Psalm lxvii. 16. (Menochius) --- Bough. Septuagint, "a burden...

Selmon. This mountain lay towards the Jordan, and was covered with trees and snow, Psalm lxvii. 16. (Menochius) ---

Bough. Septuagint, "a burden or faggot of sticks." Josephus observes that they were dry. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 9:49 - And so And so. Hebrew and Septuagint, "upon them, so that all the men of the tower of Sichem died also, about a thousand men and women." The sanctity of t...

And so. Hebrew and Septuagint, "upon them, so that all the men of the tower of Sichem died also, about a thousand men and women." The sanctity of the place where they had taken refuge, made no impression upon the tyrant's mind, who was equally devoid of religion as of humanity. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 9:50 - Thebes // Besieged Thebes, about 13 miles from Sichem, towards Scythopolis. (Eusebius) --- Besieged. Hebrew, &c., "took," as the sequel shews, (ver. 52,) since Abim...

Thebes, about 13 miles from Sichem, towards Scythopolis. (Eusebius) ---

Besieged. Hebrew, &c., "took," as the sequel shews, (ver. 52,) since Abimelech was killed, as he was attacking the tower or citadel, in the midst of the city. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 9:51 - Battlements Battlements, or roof of the tower, which was flat. Hence the defendants hurled down stones, &c., upon the enemy.

Battlements, or roof of the tower, which was flat. Hence the defendants hurled down stones, &c., upon the enemy.

Haydock: Jdg 9:53 - Above // Skull Above, or "of the upper millstone," according to the Hebrew and Septuagint. Pyrrhus met with a similar fate at Argos. Plutarch observes, (in Scylla...

Above, or "of the upper millstone," according to the Hebrew and Septuagint. Pyrrhus met with a similar fate at Argos. Plutarch observes, (in Scylla) that the Lacedemonians did not like to attack walls, because the bravest men are there often slain by the greatest cowards. (Calmet) ---

Hence Joab puts this advice in the mouth of David, that it is imprudent to come too near the walls, 2 Kings xi. 21. ---

Skull, (cerebrum) "brain." Yet the tyrant's understanding was not perhaps so much impaired, as to excuse him for commanding his armour-bearer to kill him. (Menochius)

Haydock: Jdg 9:54 - Slew him Slew him. The ancient heroes were always attended by their armour-bearers. (Calmet) --- Marius ordered his servant to run him through, that he mig...

Slew him. The ancient heroes were always attended by their armour-bearers. (Calmet) ---

Marius ordered his servant to run him through, that he might not be exposed to the insults of his enemies; and V. Maximus (vi. 8,) greatly commends the servant for doing so. Nihil eorum pietati cedit, a quibus salus Dominorum protecta est. David was not of the same opinion, since he punished the Amalecite who pretended that he had rendered this service to Saul, 2 Kings i. 16. The Christian religion condemns both those who engage others to take away their life, and those who comply with the impious request. Hercules was affected in the same manner as Abimelech, when he found that he was to die by the malice of a woman. O turpe fatum! femina Herculeæ necis---Auctor feratur. (Seneca) ---

The Lacedemonians were not eager to besiege Argos, when they saw that the women were engaged in its defence. (Pausan. ii.) (Calmet) ---

Notwithstanding the wicked precaution of Abimelech, what he so much feared took place; for Joab said, Did not a woman cast a piece of a millstone upon him from the wall, and slay him in Thebes? (2 Kings xi. 21.) His skull was so much fractured, that he had received a mortal wound: the sword only hastened his death. Thus was he justly punished with a stone, who had slaughtered 68 or 69 of his brethren upon one stone. (Haydock) ---

He can only be considered as an usurper or tyrant, since he was neither chosen by God nor by the Israelites in general. Hence he is only said to have reigned at Sichem. (Cornelius a Lapide) ---

He was going to extend his conquests over other cities and tribes, when he was slain at Thebes. (Josephus) (Haydock)

Gill: Jdg 9:1 - And Abimelech the son of Jerubbaal went to Shechem, unto his mother's brethren // and communed with them // and with all the family of the house of his mother's father // saying And Abimelech the son of Jerubbaal went to Shechem, unto his mother's brethren,.... It seems that though the mother of Abimelech lived at Shechem, he ...

And Abimelech the son of Jerubbaal went to Shechem, unto his mother's brethren,.... It seems that though the mother of Abimelech lived at Shechem, he was taken and brought up in his father's house at Ophrah, where he was when he died; and from hence he came to Shechem, to pay a visit to his uncles there; whether his mother was now living, is not certain:

and communed with them; about the death of his father, the state of his family, and the government of Israel:

and with all the family of the house of his mother's father; that descended from his grandfather, the several branches of them, and of the family, the heads of them at least:

saying, as follows.

Gill: Jdg 9:2 - Speak, I pray you, in the ears of all the men of Shechem // whether is better for you, either that all the sons of Jerubbaal, which are seventy persons, reign over you, or that one reign over you // remember also that I am your bone and your flesh Speak, I pray you, in the ears of all the men of Shechem,.... Which, though the Targum calls the inhabitants of the place, Ben Melech better interpret...

Speak, I pray you, in the ears of all the men of Shechem,.... Which, though the Targum calls the inhabitants of the place, Ben Melech better interprets it the lords of Shechem, as the phrase will bear to be rendered; for it is more likely he would have this first whispered and suggested to the principal men of the city, before the common people were acquainted with it, and indeed in order to use their influence with them:

whether is better for you, either that all the sons of Jerubbaal, which are seventy persons, reign over you, or that one reign over you? intimating thereby, that though Gideon his father had refused the regal government when offered him, it was but reasonable that his sons, or some one of them, should be tried, whether it would be acceptable to them; nay, he would insinuate, that the sons of Gideon, who were seventy in number, were either contending with one another about it, or contriving to divide the government among them, and therefore desired it might be moved to consideration, whether it would not be more eligible to fix upon some one person to be their ruler, than to be under the government of seventy; or, in other words, whether it was not better to have one king than seventy kings; but in reality there was no necessity for any consultation about this matter, the sons of judges never succeeded their fathers in government; nor does it appear that any of Gideon's sons had any thought about it, nor any desire to be made kings, as appears from Jotham's parable; and this was only a wicked insinuation of this man's, with an ambitious view of getting the kingdom to himself, as follows:

remember also that I am your bone and your flesh; was of the same tribe and city with them, born among them, his mother always living with them, and he having now many near relations by his mother's side that dwelt there; and therefore while they had this affair of government under consideration, he would have them think of him to be their king, which would be to their honour, and to their advantage, to have one so nearly related to them on the throne, from whom they might expect many favours.

Gill: Jdg 9:3 - And his mother's brethren spake of him in the ears of the men of Shechem all these words // and their hearts inclined to follow Abimelech, for they said, he is our brother And his mother's brethren spake of him in the ears of the men of Shechem all these words,.... Got them together in some certain place, and laid before...

And his mother's brethren spake of him in the ears of the men of Shechem all these words,.... Got them together in some certain place, and laid before them all that Abimelech had suggested to them, and spake in his favour to them:

and their hearts inclined to follow Abimelech, for they said, he is our brother; being fond of kingly government, as the Israelites generally were, it seemed most agreeable to them to have one king over them, and none more acceptable than one so nearly related to them, who they doubted not, from his alliance to them, would be ready to oblige them on all occasions.

Gill: Jdg 9:4 - And they gave him seventy pieces of silver out of the house of Baalbirith // wherewith Abimelech hired vain and light persons, which followed him And they gave him seventy pieces of silver out of the house of Baalbirith,.... The temple of their idol; of this name See Gill on Jdg 8:33, out of the...

And they gave him seventy pieces of silver out of the house of Baalbirith,.... The temple of their idol; of this name See Gill on Jdg 8:33, out of the money which had been dedicated to his service by freewill offering, or out of a bank which they deposited there for greater safety, and perhaps out of a superstitious notion of its being more prosperous and successful: of what value these pieces were is not certain; by pieces of silver, commonly shekels are meant; but these are thought to be of too little value to be given to a man to raise an army with, or carry on a scheme to advance himself to the throne; and talents are judged to be too large a sum for such a city to contribute out of a temple of theirs, and that but lately built, as it must be since the death of Gideon; they are therefore thought to be pounds, as the Vulgate Latin version renders it; however, in the number of them there seems to be some reference to the number of Gideon's sons, who were to be destroyed by bribing men with this sum, which was the scheme concerted between Abimelech and the men of Shechem:

wherewith Abimelech hired vain and light persons, which followed him; perhaps seventy of them, giving to each a piece or pound of silver; these were a base scoundrel sort of people, that lived in an idle scandalous manner, a sort of freebooters, that lived upon what they could lay hold on in a way of force and rapine; men of light heads and empty brains, and whose pockets were as light and empty as their heads, and fit to engage in any enterprise, though ever so barbarous, for the sake of a little money.

Gill: Jdg 9:5 - And he went to his father's house at Ophrah // and slew his brethren the sons of Jerubbaal, being seventy persons, upon one stone // notwithstanding, yet Jotham the youngest son of Jerubbaal was left // for he hid himself And he went to his father's house at Ophrah,.... Which, according to Bunting a, was ten miles from Shechem: and slew his brethren the sons of Jerub...

And he went to his father's house at Ophrah,.... Which, according to Bunting a, was ten miles from Shechem:

and slew his brethren the sons of Jerubbaal, being seventy persons, upon one stone: in which he was assisted by the ruffians he had hired with seventy pieces of silver; these were laid one after another upon one and the same stone, as being convenient for the execution of them; or as serving as an altar on which they were sacrificed to Baal, out of whose temple the money was taken to hire the executioners with. They are said to be seventy that were slain, though one escaped, the round number being given, as in many other instances, as in Gen 46:27,

notwithstanding, yet Jotham the youngest son of Jerubbaal was left; or remained alive, not out of compassion to his youth, but because he could not be found:

for he hid himself; for no doubt Abimelech, and his crew, were most forward to lay hold of the eldest, and sacrifice them first, as being most in his way; this gave Jotham the youngest not only notice of their design, but an opportunity of providing for his safety, or however his friends; for it may be rendered, as in some versions, "he was hidden" b, that is, by others.

Gill: Jdg 9:6 - And all the men of Shechem gathered together // and all the house of Millo // and went and made Abimelech king And all the men of Shechem gathered together,.... Upon the return of Abimelech, after he with his banditti had committed the execrable murder of his b...

And all the men of Shechem gathered together,.... Upon the return of Abimelech, after he with his banditti had committed the execrable murder of his brethren:

and all the house of Millo; which was either the men of a place near to Shechem, or of his brother's family, or of some grand leading family in Shechem; or it may mean the town hall, where the principal inhabitants met in full house, as Millo signifies, on this occasion:

and went and made Abimelech king; which was a most bold and daring action; being done without asking counsel of God, without which no king was to be set over Israel, and by a single city, without the knowledge, advice, and consent of the body of the people of Israel: by the plain of the pillar that was in Shechem; the place where they met together, and did this business in voting Abimelech to be king, was near a place where a pillar was set in Shechem; or by the oak of the pillar in Shechem, and so may mean the stone under an oak, which Joshua placed there as a testimony between God and the people, Jos 24:25 and here, in the same place where Joshua convened the people of Israel, and made his last speech to them, was this business done.

Gill: Jdg 9:7 - And when they told it to Jotham // he went and stood in the top of Mount Gerizim // and he lifted up his voice, and cried // and said unto them, hearken unto me, ye men of Shechem, that God may hearken unto you And when they told it to Jotham,.... Or when it was told him that Abimelech was made king in Shechem by some of his friends: he went and stood in t...

And when they told it to Jotham,.... Or when it was told him that Abimelech was made king in Shechem by some of his friends:

he went and stood in the top of Mount Gerizim; a mount near Shechem; it hung over the city, as Josephus says c, and so a very proper place to stand on and deliver a speech from it to the inhabitants of it; who, as the same writer says, were now keeping a festival, on what account he says not, perhaps to Baalberith their idol: over against this mountain was another, called Ebal, and between them a valley; and very likely they were assembled in this valley, where the children of Israel stood when the blessings were delivered from Gerizim, and the curses from Ebal; and if so, Jotham might be heard very well by the Shechemites:

and he lifted up his voice, and cried; that he might be heard by them:

and said unto them, hearken unto me, ye men of Shechem, that God may hearken unto you; which was a very solemn manner of address to them, tending to excite attention, as having somewhat of importance to say to them, and suggesting, that if they did not hearken to him, God would not hearken to them when they cried to him, and therefore it behoved them to attend: it is an adjuration of them to hearken to him, or a wish that God would not hearken to them if they were inattentive to him.

Gill: Jdg 9:8 - The trees went forth on a time to anoint a king over them // and they said unto the olive tree, reign thou over us The trees went forth on a time to anoint a king over them,.... This is an apologue or fable, and a very fine and beautiful one; it is fitly expressed ...

The trees went forth on a time to anoint a king over them,.... This is an apologue or fable, and a very fine and beautiful one; it is fitly expressed to answer the design, and the most ancient of the kind, being made seven hundred years before the times of Aesop, so famous for his fables, and exceeds anything written by him. By the trees are meant the people of Israel in general, and the Shechemites in particular, who had been for some time very desirous of a king, but could not persuade any of their great and good men to accept of that office:

and they said unto the olive tree, reign thou over us; a fit emblem of a good man, endowed with excellent virtues and qualifications for good, as David king of Israel, who is compared to such a tree, Psa 52:8, Jarchi applies this to Othniel the first judge; but it may be better applied to Gideon, an excellent good man, full of fruits of righteousness, and eminently useful, and to whom kingly government was offered, and was refused by him; and the men of Shechem could scarcely fail of thinking of him, and applying it to him, as Jotham was delivering his fable.

Gill: Jdg 9:9 - But the olive tree said unto them // should I leave my fatness, wherewith by me they honour God and man // and go to be promoted over the trees But the olive tree said unto them,.... In reply to the request of the trees: should I leave my fatness, wherewith by me they honour God and man; by...

But the olive tree said unto them,.... In reply to the request of the trees:

should I leave my fatness, wherewith by me they honour God and man; by "fatness" oil is meant, pressed out of the fruit of the olive tree, and which was much made use of both in the burning of the lamps in the tabernacle, and in many sacrifices, as the meat offerings and others, whereby God was honoured; and it was also made use of in the investiture of the greatest personages with the highest offices among men, as kings, priests, and prophets, as well as eaten with pleasure and delight by all sorts of men, and even by the greatest, and so men are honoured by it:

and go to be promoted over the trees; desert so useful a station, in which it was planted and fixed, to move to and fro, as the word signifies, and reign over trees; suggesting that it was unreasonable, at least not eligible to a good man to desert a private station in life, to which he was called of God, and in which he acted with honour and usefulness to others, and take upon him a public office, attended with much care and trouble, and with neglect of private affairs, and with the loss of much personal peace and comfort.

Gill: Jdg 9:10 - And the trees said to the fig tree // come thou, and reign over us And the trees said to the fig tree,.... Another useful and fruit bearing tree, and to which also good men are sometimes compared, see Son 2:13, com...

And the trees said to the fig tree,.... Another useful and fruit bearing tree, and to which also good men are sometimes compared, see Son 2:13,

come thou, and reign over us: which Jarchi applies to Deborah, but may be better applied to one of Gideon's sons, who, though they had not a personal offer of kingly government themselves, yet it was made to them through their father, and refused, as for himself, so for them; and had it been offered to them, they would have rejected it, as Jotham seems to intimate by this parable.

Gill: Jdg 9:11 - And the fig tree said unto them // should I forsake my sweetness and my good fruit // and go to be promoted over the trees And the fig tree said unto them,.... Rejecting the offer made: should I forsake my sweetness and my good fruit; for such the fruit of the fig tree ...

And the fig tree said unto them,.... Rejecting the offer made:

should I forsake my sweetness and my good fruit; for such the fruit of the fig tree is, sweet and good: so Julian d the emperor shows from various authors, Aristophanes, Herodotus, and Homer, that nothing is sweeter than figs, excepting honey, and that no kind of fruit is better, and, where they are, no good is wanting:

and go to be promoted over the trees? the same is designed by this as the former.

Gill: Jdg 9:12 - Then said the trees unto the vine // come thou, and reign over us Then said the trees unto the vine,.... Another emblem of good and useful men; and it may be observed, that Jotham takes no notice of any trees but fru...

Then said the trees unto the vine,.... Another emblem of good and useful men; and it may be observed, that Jotham takes no notice of any trees but fruitful ones till he comes to the bramble, and them only such as were well known, and of the greatest use, in the land of Judea, as olives, figs, and vines, see Deu 8:8.

come thou, and reign over us; this Jarchi applies to Gideon; but since there are three sorts of trees brought into the fable, and when the kingdom was offered to Gideon, it was proposed to him, and to his son, and his son's son, and refused, some reference may be had unto it in this apologue. Abarbinel thinks three sorts of men are intended as proper persons for rule and government, as honourable ones, such as are wealthy and rich, and also of good behaviour to God and man, as Gideon's sons were; but Abimelech was all the reverse.

Gill: Jdg 9:13 - And the vine said unto them // shall I leave my wine, which cheereth God and man // and go to be promoted over the trees And the vine said unto them,.... By way of denial and refusal, as the other two: shall I leave my wine, which cheereth God and man; which being use...

And the vine said unto them,.... By way of denial and refusal, as the other two:

shall I leave my wine, which cheereth God and man; which being used in the drink offerings was acceptable to God, and of a sweet savour to him, Num 15:7 and being drank by than, revives, refreshes, and makes glad, when before sorrowful, drooping, faint, and weary, Psa 104:15 though some by Elohim, rendered God, understand great personages, as men of quality, magistrates, &c. and by man the common people, and so in Jdg 9:9.

and go to be promoted over the trees? all speak the same language, being of the same sentiment.

Gill: Jdg 9:14 - Then said all the trees unto the bramble // come thou, and reign over us Then said all the trees unto the bramble,.... Perceiving they could not prevail upon any of the useful and fruitful trees to take the government of th...

Then said all the trees unto the bramble,.... Perceiving they could not prevail upon any of the useful and fruitful trees to take the government of them, they unite in a request to a bramble, scarce to be called a tree, and however a very barren and fruitless one, yea, hurtful and distressing:

come thou, and reign over us; this respects Abimelech, and describes him as a mean person, the son of a concubine, as having no goodness in him, not any good qualifications to recommend him to government, but all the reverse, cruel, tyrannical, and oppressive; and this exposes the folly of the Shechemites, and their eagerness to have a king at any rate, though ever so mean and despicable, useless and pernicious.

Gill: Jdg 9:15 - And the bramble said unto the trees // if ye in trust anoint me king over you // then come and put your trust in my shadow // and if not, let fire come out of the bramble, and devour the cedars of Lebanon And the bramble said unto the trees,.... Accepting of their offer at once: if ye in trust anoint me king over you; suspecting they were not hearty ...

And the bramble said unto the trees,.... Accepting of their offer at once:

if ye in trust anoint me king over you; suspecting they were not hearty and cordial in their choice and call to the kingly authority over them:

then come and put your trust in my shadow; promising protection to them as his subjects, requiring their confidence in him, and boasting of the good they should receive from him, as is common with wicked princes at their first entering on their office; but, alas! what shadow or protection can there be in a bramble? if a man attempts: to put himself under it for shelter, he will find it will be of no use to him, but harmful, since, the nearer and closer he comes to it, the more he will be scratched and torn by it:

and if not, let fire come out of the bramble, and devour the cedars of Lebanon; signifying, that if they did not heartily submit to his government, and put confidence in him, and prove faithful to him, they should smart for it, and feel his wrath and vengeance, even the greatest men among them, comparable to the cedars of Lebanon; for thorns and brambles catching fire, as they easily do, or fire being put to them, as weak as they are, and placed under the tallest and strongest cedars, will soon fetch them down to the ground; and the words of the bramble, or Abimelech, proved true to the Shechemites, he is made to speak in this parable.

Gill: Jdg 9:16 - Now therefore, if ye have done truly and sincerely, in that ye have made Abimelech king // if ye have dealt well with Jerubbaal, and his house // and have done unto him according to the deserving of his hands Now therefore, if ye have done truly and sincerely, in that ye have made Abimelech king,.... If they had done this conscientiously, and in the upright...

Now therefore, if ye have done truly and sincerely, in that ye have made Abimelech king,.... If they had done this conscientiously, and in the uprightness of their hearts, to take such a base man, and a murderer, and make him their king, which Jotham doubted, and put it in this manner to them, that they might consider of it themselves:

if ye have dealt well with Jerubbaal, and his house; if they could think so, which surely they could not, when they reflected upon the murder of his family they had consented to:

and have done unto him according to the deserving of his hands; to his memory, and to his family, according to the merit of his works which he had performed on their account, next mentioned.

Gill: Jdg 9:17 - For my father fought for you // and adventured his life far // and delivered you out of the hand of Midian For my father fought for you,.... In the valley of Jezreel, and at Karkor, where with three hundred men he routed and destroyed an army of 135,000: ...

For my father fought for you,.... In the valley of Jezreel, and at Karkor, where with three hundred men he routed and destroyed an army of 135,000:

and adventured his life far: which, according to our version, may seem to have respect to his going over Jordan, and following the Midianites, fleeing into their country, and fighting them at Karkor, at a great distance from his native place; but the phrase in the original text is, "he cast away his life afar" e, made no account of it, exposed it to the greatest danger; or, as the Targum,"he delivered his life as it were to destruction:"

and delivered you out of the hand of Midian; from the oppression and bondage of the Midianites, under which they had laboured seven years.

Gill: Jdg 9:18 - And ye are risen up against my father's house this day // and have slain his sons, seventy persons on one stone // and have made Abimelech, the son of his handmaid, king over the men of Shechem // because he is your brother And ye are risen up against my father's house this day,.... Which was an instance of great ingratitude in them, after such services done for them, and...

And ye are risen up against my father's house this day,.... Which was an instance of great ingratitude in them, after such services done for them, and favours received by them:

and have slain his sons, seventy persons on one stone; excepting one, himself, and he was intentionally slain, their design was to cut off everyone; and all being slain but one, the round number is given, and this being so large, is the rather observed; and though Abimelech committed the fact, the men of Shechem were accessory to it, they gave him money, with which he hired men to assist him in it, see Jdg 9:20 and it is very probable they were privy to his intention, and encouraged him to it; and certain it is they showed their approbation of it, by making Abimelech king after it, and therefore they are justly charged with it:

and have made Abimelech, the son of his handmaid, king over the men of Shechem; which was both to the disgrace of Gideon, and his family, and of themselves too, that a base son of his should be made their king; when it would have been more to the credit of Gideon, and his family, that he had lived in obscurity, and had not been known as a son of his; and this was to the reproach of the men of Shechem, and especially to the princes thereof; for, by the men of Shechem are meant the lords, and great men thereof, as Kimchi observes; and great contempt is cast on Abimelech himself, who is here represented as making a very poor figure, being by extraction the son of an handmaid, and king only over the men of Shechem; and who made him so for no other reason but this:

because he is your brother; not because he had any right to the kingdom, or had any qualification for it, but because his mother lived among them, and her family belonged to them, and so he was related to many of them, and they hoped on that account to have preferment and favours from him.

Gill: Jdg 9:19 - If ye then have dealt truly and sincerely with Jerubbaal and his house this day // then rejoice ye in Abimelech, and let him also rejoice in you If ye then have dealt truly and sincerely with Jerubbaal and his house this day,.... If they could in their consciences think and believe they had don...

If ye then have dealt truly and sincerely with Jerubbaal and his house this day,.... If they could in their consciences think and believe they had done well, and acted the faithful and upright part by him and his family, which he left with them to consider of:

then rejoice ye in Abimelech, and let him also rejoice in you; may you be happy in him as a king, and he be happy in you as his subjects, and live peaceably and comfortably together; and this he suggests as a test of their former conduct, that should this alliance between Abimelech and them be attended with happiness, which he could not believe would be the case, then it would seem that they had done a right part by Gideon and his family; but if they should be unhappy together, as he supposed they would, then it would be clear that they had acted a base and disingenuous part by his father's family.

Gill: Jdg 9:20 - But if not // let fire come out of Abimelech, and devour the men of Shechem, and the house of Millo // and let fire come out from the men of Shechem, and from the house of Millo, and devour Abimelech But if not,.... If it appeared that they had not acted uprightly and sincerely in this matter: let fire come out of Abimelech, and devour the men o...

But if not,.... If it appeared that they had not acted uprightly and sincerely in this matter:

let fire come out of Abimelech, and devour the men of Shechem, and the house of Millo; let wrath, rage, and fury, break out from Abimelech like fire, and issue in the destruction of those that made him king, both those of Shechem and of Millo:

and let fire come out from the men of Shechem, and from the house of Millo, and devour Abimelech; let them be incensed against Abimelech, and seek his ruin, and procure it: the sense is, that he wishes that strife, contention, and quarrels, might arise among them, and they mutually destroy each other; the words are imprecative of evil upon them both, and which had its exact fulfilment.

Gill: Jdg 9:21 - And Jotham ran away, and fled // and went to Beer // and dwelt there for fear of Abimelech his brother And Jotham ran away, and fled,.... Having delivered his fable, and the application of it, he made his escape, having the advantage of being on the top...

And Jotham ran away, and fled,.... Having delivered his fable, and the application of it, he made his escape, having the advantage of being on the top of a mountain, at some distance from the people, and perhaps they might not be inclined to do him any harm:

and went to Beer; which some take to be the same with Baalathbeer in the tribe of Simeon, Jos 19:8 Jerom f says, the village Bera, whither Jotham fled, is eight miles from Eleutheropolis to the north; but Mr. Maundrell g, who was in those parts in 1697, gives us a better account of it; and, according to him, it is about two hours and a half's travel from Bethel to it, and three hours and one third from it to Jerusalem; Beer, he says, enjoys a very pleasant situation, on an easy declivity, fronting southward; at the bottom of the hill it has a plentiful fountain of excellent water, from which it had its name:

and dwelt there for fear of Abimelech his brother; how long he dwelt there is not certain, and we hear no more of him after this, Josephus says h he lay hid in the mountains three years for fear of Abimelech, which perhaps he concluded from Abimelech's reigning three years, as follows.

Gill: Jdg 9:22 - When Abimelech had reigned three years over Israel. When Abimelech had reigned three years over Israel. The people in general consenting to what the men of Shechem had done, at least not opposing it, al...

When Abimelech had reigned three years over Israel. The people in general consenting to what the men of Shechem had done, at least not opposing it, all being desirous of a king, and therefore put up with a mean person, rather than have none; though it is amazing they should, and that they had not rose up as one man against Abimelech, and avenged the blood of the sons of Gideon, who had been so useful and serviceable to them; it is indeed said that he reigned over all Israel, and his reign, such as it was, was very short, as is often the case with wicked princes.

Gill: Jdg 9:23 - Then God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem // and the men of Shechem dealt treacherously with Abimelech Then God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem,.... Permitted, yea, gave a commission to Satan, the evil spirit, to go among th...

Then God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem,.... Permitted, yea, gave a commission to Satan, the evil spirit, to go among them, who stirred up suspicions, jealousies, hatred, and ill will to one another, and sowed the seeds of discord and contention among them; or God gave them up to their own hearts' lusts, to think ill of one another, grow jealous, and meditate revenge:

and the men of Shechem dealt treacherously with Abimelech; did not openly declare their minds, but secretly conspired against him, and privately consulted ways to find means to get rid of him, and shake off his government.

Gill: Jdg 9:24 - That the cruelty done to the seventy sons of Jerubbaal might come // and their blood be laid upon Abimelech their brother, which slew them // and upon the men of Shechem which aided him in killing of his brethren That the cruelty done to the seventy sons of Jerubbaal might come,.... That vengeance might come on the authors of it; so things were ordered in Provi...

That the cruelty done to the seventy sons of Jerubbaal might come,.... That vengeance might come on the authors of it; so things were ordered in Providence that this might come to pass:

and their blood be laid upon Abimelech their brother, which slew them; be charged to his account, and he suffer for shedding it:

and upon the men of Shechem which aided him in killing of his brethren; by giving him money to hire men to go with him to do it, and perhaps by words encouraging the assassins, and who might be of the city of Shechem.

Gill: Jdg 9:25 - And the men of Shechem set liers in wait for him in the top of the mountains // and they robbed all that came along that way by them // and it was told Abimelech And the men of Shechem set liers in wait for him in the top of the mountains,.... Of Ebal and Gerizim, which were near Shechem, by the way of which he...

And the men of Shechem set liers in wait for him in the top of the mountains,.... Of Ebal and Gerizim, which were near Shechem, by the way of which he passed when he came to that city, and these they set there, either to slay him, or to seize his person, and bring him to them:

and they robbed all that came along that way by them; that belonged to Abimelech and others also; and this they did to show their contempt of his government, and that they were no longer under it, and every man did what was right in his own eyes, as if they had no governor over them; though some think this was done to draw him thither to secure his subjects from such rapine and violence, that they might have an opportunity to lay hold upon him, or this they did on purpose to begin a civil war:

and it was told Abimelech; that they lay in wait for him, and so he kept himself from them.

Gill: Jdg 9:26 - And Gaal the son or Ebed came with his brethren, and went over to Shechem // and the men of Shechem put their confidence in him And Gaal the son or Ebed came with his brethren, and went over to Shechem,.... Who this Gaal was, and who his brethren, and from whence he came, and t...

And Gaal the son or Ebed came with his brethren, and went over to Shechem,.... Who this Gaal was, and who his brethren, and from whence he came, and the place he went over, are all uncertain. Jarchi thinks he was a Gentile, and it looks, by some speeches of his afterwards, as if he was a descendant of Hamor, prince of Shechem, in the times of Jacob, who, since the expulsion of the Canaanites, his family had retired to some distant parts; but hearing of a difference between Abimelech and the Shechemites, Gaal, with some of the family, came over, perhaps over Jordan, to make what advantage he could of it:

and the men of Shechem put their confidence in him; freely told him their mind, the ill opinion they had of Abimelech, and what was their design against him; and he assuring them he would take their part, and defend them to the uttermost, they depended on him, and therefore very securely went about their business in the fields, as follows.

Gill: Jdg 9:27 - and trode the grapes, and made merry // and they went into the house of their god // and did eat and drink // and cursed Abimelech Before they kept within the city, and durst not stir out to gather in the vintage, the time being come, for fear of the troops of Abimelech; for their...

Before they kept within the city, and durst not stir out to gather in the vintage, the time being come, for fear of the troops of Abimelech; for their lying in wait for him, and the robberies committed being made known to him, he had prepared to raise some forces, and attack them, of which they had had information; but now being encouraged with the protection of Gaal, they ventured out to gather their grapes in their vineyards without fear:

and trode the grapes, and made merry: sung songs and danced, as was usual at the ingathering of the fruits of the earth, and treading the winepress, Isa 16:10 though Abendana thinks this joy and merriment were made to their idol, to whom they gave the praise of their vintage, they should have done to the true God, and what follows may seem to confirm it:

and they went into the house of their god; the temple of Baalberith, Jdg 9:5.

and did eat and drink; in their idol temple, as was the manner of idolaters to do, bringing their firstfruits to rejoice, and make glad with:

and cursed Abimelech; wished they had never seen him and known him, hoped they should be rid of him in a little time, and that he would meet with his deserved disgrace and punishment; and this they did in that very temple from whence they had taken money to assist him in making way for his government of them; so fickle and changeable were they.

Gill: Jdg 9:28 - And Gaal the son of Ebed said // who is Abimelech, and who is Shechem, that we should serve him // is not he the son of Jerubbaal // and Zebul his officer // serve the men of Hamor--for why should we serve him And Gaal the son of Ebed said,.... As they were then making merry, drinking and carousing: who is Abimelech, and who is Shechem, that we should ser...

And Gaal the son of Ebed said,.... As they were then making merry, drinking and carousing:

who is Abimelech, and who is Shechem, that we should serve him? who is this Abimelech the Shechemite? or who is he more than Shechem, the old prince of this place, long ago dispossessed of it? the one is no better than the other, nor has a better title to rule and government than the other, that we should serve him; nay, of the two, the descendants of the old Shechem have the best title:

is not he the son of Jerubbaal? that pleaded against Baal, and threw down his altar, the god you now serve:

and Zebul his officer? has he not set him over you? not content to rule you himself, he has set up another as an officer over you under him, and thus you are like to be governed in a tyrannical manner, and oppressed:

serve the men of Hamor--for why should we serve him? that is, rather serve them than him; which was speaking very contemptuously of his government, preferring the descendants of Hamor, the old Canaanitish prince, that ruled in this place, to Abimelech; and if Gaal was a descendant of his, he spoke in good earnest, and thought this a proper opportunity to get the government of the city restored to him and his family, since their old religion and idolatry were established among them; and if they had received the one, why not the other?

Gill: Jdg 9:29 - And would to God this people were under my hand // then would I remove Abimelech // and he said to Abimelech // increase thine army, and come out And would to God this people were under my hand,.... Or government, that I were but the ruler of their city, and general of their forces: then woul...

And would to God this people were under my hand,.... Or government, that I were but the ruler of their city, and general of their forces:

then would I remove Abimelech; from his kingly office, and rid Shechem of him, and all the country round about, and indeed remove him out of the world:

and he said to Abimelech; as if he was present, in a hectoring and blustering manner; or he said what follows to his officer under him, that represented him; or he sent a messenger to him, saying:

increase thine army, and come out; bidding him defiance, challenging him to come into the open field and fight him, and bring as many forces along with him as he could or would, not doubting but he should be a match for him; and the men of Shechem would see they had nothing to fear from him, having such a man as Gaal at the head of them; this he said to engage the Shechemites to make him their ruler.

Gill: Jdg 9:30 - And when Zebul the ruler of the city // the words of Gaal the son of Ebed, his anger was kindled And when Zebul the ruler of the city,.... Whom Abimelech had placed there under him: heard the words of Gaal the son of Ebed, his anger was kindled...

And when Zebul the ruler of the city,.... Whom Abimelech had placed there under him: heard

the words of Gaal the son of Ebed, his anger was kindled; because he spoke slightly of him, and wished to have his place; perhaps before Zebul was inclined to be on the side of the Shechemites against Abimelech, or at least dissembled that he was; but now, being incensed at the words of Gaal, determined to take the side of Abimelech, and let him know how things were carrying on against him.

Gill: Jdg 9:31 - And he sent messengers unto Abimelech privily // saying, Gaal the son of Ebal, and his brethren, be come to Shechem // and, behold, they fortify the city against thee And he sent messengers unto Abimelech privily,.... In a secret manner, unknown to Gaal and the men of Shechem; or "craftily", as Jarchi and Kimchi int...

And he sent messengers unto Abimelech privily,.... In a secret manner, unknown to Gaal and the men of Shechem; or "craftily", as Jarchi and Kimchi interpret it, still dissembling, notwithstanding his anger, to be in the interest of Gaal, and the men of Shechem, as appears indeed afterwards by a show of friendliness with Gaal, Jdg 9:36 though, according to Joseph Kimchi and Ben Gersom, Thormah is the name of the place where Abimelech was, the same with Arumah, Jdg 9:41 and the sense is, that he sent messengers to Abimelech at Thormah or Arumah:

saying, Gaal the son of Ebal, and his brethren, be come to Shechem; a family that Abimelech well knew, and if they were of the race of the old Canaanites, he would easily perceive their design:

and, behold, they fortify the city against thee; by repairing its fortifications, or adding new works; or "besiege" i it, which, as that is done by placing an army around it without, that none can come out of it, so by setting a watch within, and upon the walls, and at the gates of it, that none can come in, which is here meant; though some interpret it of their design to besiege the city Thormah, where Abimelech was, of which he gives him notice; or rather they set the city against thee, make the inhabitants thine enemies.

Gill: Jdg 9:32 - Now therefore up by night // and the people that is with thee // and lie in wait in the fields Now therefore up by night,.... The night following, that no time might be lost: and the people that is with thee; the troops he had with him; not o...

Now therefore up by night,.... The night following, that no time might be lost:

and the people that is with thee; the troops he had with him; not only such he had for his own guards, but what he had been raising, having intelligence before this of the revolt of the Shechemites from him:

and lie in wait in the fields; he thought it most advisable for him to march with the forces he had, from the place where he was in the night, and less liable to be discovered, and remain in the fields of Shechem till morning, and then come upon Shechemites before they were aware, and surprise them.

Gill: Jdg 9:33 - And it shall be, that in the morning, as soon as the sun is up, thou shalt rise early, and set upon the city // and, behold, when he and the people that is with him come out against thee // thou mayest do to them as thou shalt find occasion And it shall be, that in the morning, as soon as the sun is up, thou shalt rise early, and set upon the city,.... For being with his forces advanced n...

And it shall be, that in the morning, as soon as the sun is up, thou shalt rise early, and set upon the city,.... For being with his forces advanced near to it by a march in the night, he would be able by sunrising to attack the city before the inhabitants were up to defend it, and so surprise them:

and, behold, when he and the people that is with him come out against thee; that is, Gaul, and the men with him, as many as he upon a surprise can get together:

thou mayest do to them as thou shalt find occasion; as the situation of things would direct him, and he, in his wisdom, and according to his ability, and as opportunity offered, would see plainly what was fit and right to be done; Zebul did not pretend to advise him further, but left the rest to his discretion, as things should appear to him.

Gill: Jdg 9:34 - And Abimelech rose up, and all the people that were with him, by night // and they laid wait against Shechem in four companies And Abimelech rose up, and all the people that were with him, by night,.... According to the advice of Zebul: and they laid wait against Shechem in...

And Abimelech rose up, and all the people that were with him, by night,.... According to the advice of Zebul:

and they laid wait against Shechem in four companies; he divided his army into four parts, which he placed on the four sides of the city, at some distance from it, to act as they should have opportunity, to find ways and means of getting into it on either quarter.

Gill: Jdg 9:35 - And Gaul the son or Ebed went out // and stood in the entering of the gate of the city // and Abimelech rose up, and the people that were with him, from lying in wait And Gaul the son or Ebed went out,.... He rose up early that morning, being a man of vigilance and activity, and perhaps had some intelligence of the ...

And Gaul the son or Ebed went out,.... He rose up early that morning, being a man of vigilance and activity, and perhaps had some intelligence of the preparations of Abimelech, his design against the city, though he did not expect he was so near at hand:

and stood in the entering of the gate of the city; to see whether the guards were on their duty within, and whether he could observe any thing without, any approaching danger:

and Abimelech rose up, and the people that were with him, from lying in wait; came out of their ambush, and appeared just as Gaul was at the gate.

Gill: Jdg 9:36 - And when Gaal saw the people, he said to Zebul // behold, there come people down from the tops of the mountains // and Zebul said unto him, thou seest the shadow of the mountains, as if they were men And when Gaal saw the people, he said to Zebul,.... Who was up as early, and came to the gate of the city, to see how things went, and whether there w...

And when Gaal saw the people, he said to Zebul,.... Who was up as early, and came to the gate of the city, to see how things went, and whether there was any appearance of Abimelech and his forces, and whether any opportunity offered to let him into the city; and it seems as if he came and stood by Gaul, and appeared friendly with him:

behold, there come people down from the tops of the mountains; the mountains of Ebal and Gerizim, which were near to Shechem:

and Zebul said unto him, thou seest the shadow of the mountains, as if they were men; either deriding him, as being just out of his bed, and his eyes scarce open, that he could not discern shadows from men; or rather as being of such a timorous spirit, that he was afraid of shadows; or else he said this, putting on an air of seriousness, as if he really believed this to be the case, on purpose to deceive him, and keep him from talking about them, while Abimelech and his men made further advances before Gaul could make any preparation to meet them.

Gill: Jdg 9:37 - And Gaal spake again, and said // see, there come people down by the middle of the land // and another company come along by the plain of Meonenim And Gaal spake again, and said,.... Looking towards the mountains, and taking another view of what he before saw, for further satisfaction: see, th...

And Gaal spake again, and said,.... Looking towards the mountains, and taking another view of what he before saw, for further satisfaction:

see, there come people down by the middle of the land; either in the valley between the two mountains; or rather those he first saw on the top of the mountains were now come down about the middle of them, called in the Hebrew text the navel, from the prominence of the mountains thereabout, or because the navel is in the middle of the body, as this part of them was the middle on which he saw them. R. Isaiah interprets it, between the two cities:

and another company come along by the plain of Meonenim; of which we read nowhere else. Montanus renders it, "the oak of Meonenim"; or of the soothsayers; oaks being had in great esteem with idolaters for their oracles and divinations; and perhaps this was a place, whether an oak or, a plain, where such persons used to meet to make their divinations.

Gill: Jdg 9:38 - Then said Zebul unto him // where is now thy mouth, wherewith thou saidst, who is Abimelech, that we should serve him // is not this the people thou hast despised // go out, I pray thee, now, and fight with them Then said Zebul unto him,.... Not being able to put him off any longer, and willing to take the opportunity to upbraid him with what he had said: w...

Then said Zebul unto him,.... Not being able to put him off any longer, and willing to take the opportunity to upbraid him with what he had said:

where is now thy mouth, wherewith thou saidst, who is Abimelech, that we should serve him? darest thou say the same thou hast done, and utter the contemptuous language concerning Abimelech, asking who he was, that he should be served? Here he is, speak to his face; what are become of those boasts and brags, and great swelling words, what thou wouldest do if thou hadst the command of this city?

is not this the people thou hast despised? as small and insignificant, bidding Abimelech increase his army, and come out and fight:

go out, I pray thee, now, and fight with them; and show thyself to be a man of courage, and not a mere blusterer, a man that can use his sword as well as his tongue.

Gill: Jdg 9:39 - And Gaal went out before the men of Shechem // and fought with Abimelech And Gaal went out before the men of Shechem,.... At the head of them, to meet Abimelech, having gathered together as many, and put them in as good ord...

And Gaal went out before the men of Shechem,.... At the head of them, to meet Abimelech, having gathered together as many, and put them in as good order, as he could, and the time would admit of:

and fought with Abimelech; without the city.

Gill: Jdg 9:40 - And Abimelech chased him, and he fled before him // and many were overthrown and wounded, even unto the entering of the gate And Abimelech chased him, and he fled before him,.... Abimelech got the better of him in the battle, and obliged him to give way, and he pursued him c...

And Abimelech chased him, and he fled before him,.... Abimelech got the better of him in the battle, and obliged him to give way, and he pursued him closely as he was fleeing:

and many were overthrown and wounded, even unto the entering of the gate; or, "they fell many wounded" k, or slain, as the Targum; that is, many were killed and wounded, as in the battle, so in the pursuit, and lay all the way to the entrance into the gate of the city, to which Gaal, and the men of Shechem, made for their safety, and got in.

Gill: Jdg 9:41 - And Abimelech dwelt at Arumah // and Zebul thrust out Gaal and his brethren, that they should not dwell in Shechem And Abimelech dwelt at Arumah,.... Called also Aarima as Jerom l says, and in his time called Remphtis; it seems to be not far off from Shechem, he re...

And Abimelech dwelt at Arumah,.... Called also Aarima as Jerom l says, and in his time called Remphtis; it seems to be not far off from Shechem, he returned to the place where he was before, see Jdg 9:31 contenting himself with the advantage he had got, and waiting when another opportunity would offer, which quickly did, to be revenged on the Shechemites:

and Zebul thrust out Gaal and his brethren, that they should not dwell in Shechem; there seems to have been two parties in Shechem before, one that hated Abimelech, and another more friendly to his interest; by which means Zebul his officer kept his post, and Gaal could not get the government into his hand; and now by the loss in the late battle, who were Abimelech's sworn enemies, and the disgrace Gaal fell into by being beaten, Zebul was able, so far able to carry his point, as to drive Gaul and his brethren out of the city; though he had not strength to put him to death, or to seize him and deliver him into the hands of Abimelech.

Gill: Jdg 9:42 - And it came to pass on the morrow // that the people went out into the field // and they told Abimelech And it came to pass on the morrow,.... The day after the battle: that the people went out into the field; some think to fight, and try the event of...

And it came to pass on the morrow,.... The day after the battle:

that the people went out into the field; some think to fight, and try the event of another battle, in order to be freed from Abimelech, but that seems not so likely: rather to finish their vintage, as Josephus l, or to till their ground, to plough and sow, which quickly came on after the vintage was ended; find this they might do the more securely, since Abimelech had withdrawn himself and his forces to his place of habitation, and so concluded he would not soon at least return to them; and the rather they might think he would be more easy, with then, since Gaal was thrust out from among them:

and they told Abimelech; or it was told Abimelech, that the people came out into the field, and so an opportunity offered to him to come and cut them off, as they were at their business unarmed.

Gill: Jdg 9:43 - And he took the people // and divided them into three companies // and laid wait in the field // and looked, and, behold, the people were come forth out of the city // and he rose up against them, and smote them And he took the people,.... That is, the forces he had with him at Arumah: and divided them into three companies: each having a separate leader, an...

And he took the people,.... That is, the forces he had with him at Arumah:

and divided them into three companies: each having a separate leader, and the command of one of them he had himself:

and laid wait in the field; in the field of Shechem, one company in one part, and one in another part of the field:

and looked, and, behold, the people were come forth out of the city; he watched them when they did:

and he rose up against them, and smote them; the companies rose up out of their ambush, in different parts, and killed them.

Gill: Jdg 9:44 - And Abimelech, and the company that was with him // rushed forward, and stood in the entering of the gate of the city // and the two other companies ran upon all the people that were in the fields, and slew them And Abimelech, and the company that was with him,.... Which he had the particular command of; or "the heads" m, for in the company with him, as Kimchi...

And Abimelech, and the company that was with him,.... Which he had the particular command of; or "the heads" m, for in the company with him, as Kimchi observes, were great men; and so the Septuagint renders it, the princes that were with him:

rushed forward, and stood in the entering of the gate of the city; to prevent the people that were in the field getting into it, and any from coming out of it to their relief:

and the two other companies ran upon all the people that were in the fields, and slew them; so that by this means none escaped.

Gill: Jdg 9:45 - And Abimelech fought against the city all that day // and he took the city // and slew the people that was therein // and beat down the city // and sowed it with salt And Abimelech fought against the city all that day,.... By throwing stones or arrows into it: and he took the city; it was surrendered to him, not ...

And Abimelech fought against the city all that day,.... By throwing stones or arrows into it:

and he took the city; it was surrendered to him, not being able to stand out against his forces:

and slew the people that was therein; all but those that were of his own family and his friends; all that had taken up arms against him, or had shown their dislike of his government, and were his enemies:

and beat down the city; the houses in it, and walls of it, though it was his native place:

and sowed it with salt; not to make it barren, for he would rather then have sowed the field, though this would not have had any effect of that kind, for any time at least; but to show his detestation of it, because of the ill usage he had met with, and as a token of its perpetual destruction, to which he devoted it, determining that if it was in his power it should never be rebuilt; but it was hereafter, and became again a very flourishing city in Jeroboam's time. Thus the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa, in the year 1162, when he took Milan, not only ploughed it up, but sowed it with salt; and in memory of it there is a street in it, now called "la contrada della Sala" n: besides, Abimelech did this to deter other cities from rebelling against him; for if he so used his own city, more severely, if possible, would he use others.

Gill: Jdg 9:46 - And when all the men of the tower of Shechem heard that // they entered into an hold of the house of the god Berith And when all the men of the tower of Shechem heard that,.... That the city of Shechem was taken, the inhabitants of it slain, the city beaten down, an...

And when all the men of the tower of Shechem heard that,.... That the city of Shechem was taken, the inhabitants of it slain, the city beaten down, and sowed with salt; by which it appears that this tower was not within the city, for then the men of it would have seen what was done, and not be said only to hear it; though it was not far from it, and possessed by Shechemites, and whither some of the principal inhabitants had now fled for safety; perhaps it is the same with the house of Millo, and so that part of Jotham's curse, which respected that, had now its accomplishment, otherwise no account is given of it:

they entered into an hold of the house of the god Berith; not thinking themselves safe enough in the tower, they betook themselves to the temple of Baalberith their god, see Jdg 9:4 which was a strong fortified place, as temples often were; or however had a strong hold belonging to it, and hither they fled, either because of the greater strength of the place, or because of the sanctity of it, and imagining Abimelech would not destroy it on that account; and the rather, because of the supply he had from it, which enabled him to raise himself to the government of Israel.

Gill: Jdg 9:47 - And it was told Abimelech // that all the men of the tower of Shechem were gathered together And it was told Abimelech,.... Who had his spies about, and particularly to observe the motions of the men in this tower: that all the men of the t...

And it was told Abimelech,.... Who had his spies about, and particularly to observe the motions of the men in this tower:

that all the men of the tower of Shechem were gathered together; in the hold of the temple of Baalberith.

Gill: Jdg 9:48 - And Abimelech got him up to Mount Zalmon // he and all the people that were with him // and Abimelech took an axe in his hand, and cut down a bough from the trees // and took it, and laid it on his shoulders // and said unto the people that were with him, what ye have seen me do, make haste, and do as I have done And Abimelech got him up to Mount Zalmon,.... A mountain near Shechem, and thought to be the same with Salmon in Psa 68:14 which seems to have had its...

And Abimelech got him up to Mount Zalmon,.... A mountain near Shechem, and thought to be the same with Salmon in Psa 68:14 which seems to have had its name from the shade of the trees which grew upon it:

he and all the people that were with him; his whole army:

and Abimelech took an axe in his hand, and cut down a bough from the trees; which grew upon Mount Zalmon:

and took it, and laid it on his shoulders; and carried it along with him:

and said unto the people that were with him, what ye have seen me do, make haste, and do as I have done; take an axe, and every man cut down a bough with all possible haste, and lay it on his shoulder.

Gill: Jdg 9:49 - And all the people likewise cut down every man his bough, and followed Abimelech // and put them to the hold, and set the hold on fire upon them // so that all the men of the tower of Shechem died also // about a thousand men and women And all the people likewise cut down every man his bough, and followed Abimelech,.... With their boughs on their shoulders, so that they were men that...

And all the people likewise cut down every man his bough, and followed Abimelech,.... With their boughs on their shoulders, so that they were men that seemed to be as trees walking:

and put them to the hold, and set the hold on fire upon them; upon the men in it, or with them, the boughs of trees; it is probable the hold was made of wood, and so could the more easily be set on fire. Jarchi says it was a wood or forest, where they bent the trees, and divided them round about, and made a fence of them; but they would scarcely have left the tower for such a shelter:

so that all the men of the tower of Shechem died also; fire being put to the hold, and they burnt in it; the Vulgate Latin version adds, with fire and smoke; for they being boughs of trees just cut down, with which they set fire to the hold, they would not burn easily and clearly, but make a prodigious smoke, with which many might be suffocated, as others burnt with fire; and it is unaccountable that Josephus o should say that faggots of dry wood were taken, and with them fire set to the hold, when the text is so express for it that they were boughs of green trees just cut off:

about a thousand men and women; but the above historian makes them to be many more; he says the men were about 1500, and the rest a great multitude; this literally fulfilled Jotham's curse.

Gill: Jdg 9:50 - Then went Abimelech to Thebez // and encamped against Thebez, and took it Then went Abimelech to Thebez,.... Which, according to Ben Gersom, had rebelled against him; it was near to Shechem. Adrichomius says p, the ruins, wh...

Then went Abimelech to Thebez,.... Which, according to Ben Gersom, had rebelled against him; it was near to Shechem. Adrichomius says p, the ruins, where he thinks stood the city of Thebez, were but one furlong from Neapolis or Shechem, where, to the left of Jacob's well, were to be seen ruins of a large town, marble stones, whole pillars, and other signs of large palaces, and the soil wonderfully fruitful; and Jerome says q, that in his time there was a village called Thebes, on the borders of Neapolis or Shechem, as you go to Scythopolis, thirteen miles from it. It must be near Shechem, inhabited by Shechemites, to fulfil Jotham's curse, Jdg 9:20.

and encamped against Thebez, and took it: it seems not to have held out long, being deserted by its inhabitants, who fled to the tower, as follows.

Gill: Jdg 9:51 - But there was a strong tower within the city // and hither fled all the men and women, and all they of the city // and shut it to them // and gat them up to the top of the tower But there was a strong tower within the city,.... The tower of Shechem was without the city, but this within, as towers generally are: and hither f...

But there was a strong tower within the city,.... The tower of Shechem was without the city, but this within, as towers generally are:

and hither fled all the men and women, and all they of the city; men, women, and children, man and maid servants, all the inhabitants of the city; the tower being a large place, having not only many rooms in it, but perhaps a large area in the midst of it, as well as it had battlements on the top of it:

and shut it to them; the gates of it, and which no doubt they strongly barred and bolted, to keep out the enemy:

and gat them up to the top of the tower; to observe the motions of Abimelech, and annoy him as much as they could with what they carried with them, as stones, and the like.

Gill: Jdg 9:52 - And Abimelech came unto the tower // and fought against it // and went hard unto the door of the tower to burn it with fire And Abimelech came unto the tower,.... With his army to besiege it: and fought against it; using all the methods he could to oblige those in it to ...

And Abimelech came unto the tower,.... With his army to besiege it:

and fought against it; using all the methods he could to oblige those in it to surrender:

and went hard unto the door of the tower to burn it with fire; in order to get entrance into it; and perhaps the tower was built of stone, so that no other part could be set fire to; and to do this he drew near to the door himself, for nothing more is meant by the phrase, "went hard", than drawing near in his own person to the door; hazarding his life in the enterprise, being so bent upon it, thinking to do by this tower what he had done to the hold of the temple of Baalberith.

Gill: Jdg 9:53 - And a certain woman cast a piece of a millstone // upon Abimelech's head, and all to break his skull And a certain woman cast a piece of a millstone,.... Of the upper millstone, as the word signifies, which is observed by Jarchi and other Jewish comme...

And a certain woman cast a piece of a millstone,.... Of the upper millstone, as the word signifies, which is observed by Jarchi and other Jewish commentators; this with other stones being carried up to the top of the tower, to do what execution they could with them: and a woman observing Abimelech making up to the door of the tower, took up this piece of millstone, and threw it down

upon Abimelech's head, and all to break his skull; she did it with that view, though it may as well be rendered, or "she", or "it broke his skull" r; it made a fracture in it, which was mortal. Abendana observes, and so others, that that was measure for measure, a righteous retaliation, that as he had slain seventy of his brethren on one stone, he should die by means of a stone.

Gill: Jdg 9:54 - Then he called hastily to the young man his armourbearer // and said unto him, draw thy sword and slay me, that men say not of me, a woman slew him Then he called hastily to the young man his armourbearer,.... Perceiving it was a mortal blow that was given him, and he should soon expire; and that ...

Then he called hastily to the young man his armourbearer,.... Perceiving it was a mortal blow that was given him, and he should soon expire; and that the cast of the stone was by the hand of a woman, and therefore he was in haste to have the young man come to him:

and said unto him, draw thy sword and slay me, that men say not of me, a woman slew him; it being reckoned very ignominious and reproachful to die by the hand of a woman, and especially any great personage, as a king or general of an army s; to avoid this, he chose rather to be guilty of suicide, or of what cannot well be excused from it, and so died by suicide; which, added to all his other sins, he seemed to have no sense of, or repentance for; and the method he took to conceal the shame of his death served the more to spread it; for this circumstance of his death could not be given without the reason of it, and which was remembered and related punctually near two hundred years afterwards, 2Sa 11:21.

Gill: Jdg 9:55 - And when the men of Israel saw that Abimelech was dead // they departed every man to his place And when the men of Israel saw that Abimelech was dead,.... That is, those that were with him, the men of his army, who were all Israelites: they d...

And when the men of Israel saw that Abimelech was dead,.... That is, those that were with him, the men of his army, who were all Israelites:

they departed every man to his place; disbanded themselves, and went everyone to their own home, and so the inhabitants of Thebez escaped the vengeance of Abimelech.

Gill: Jdg 9:56 - Thus God rendered the wickedness of Abimelech which he did unto his father // in slaying his seventy brethren Thus God rendered the wickedness of Abimelech which he did unto his father,.... To the disgrace of his father's character, and to the hurt of his fath...

Thus God rendered the wickedness of Abimelech which he did unto his father,.... To the disgrace of his father's character, and to the hurt of his father's family:

in slaying his seventy brethren; excepting one, which was a piece of unheard of wickedness, attended with most sad aggravations; the shedding such blood required blood to be shed again, and it was righteous judgment God rendered to him; this, and the following verse contain the remarks made upon this history by the writer of it, who, as we have seen, in all probability, was the Prophet Samuel.

Gill: Jdg 9:57 - And all the evil of the men of Shechem // did God render upon their heads // and upon them came the curse of Jotham the son of Jerubbaal And all the evil of the men of Shechem,.... In aiding Abimelech to slay his brethren, and in making him king after so foul a fact committed: did Go...

And all the evil of the men of Shechem,.... In aiding Abimelech to slay his brethren, and in making him king after so foul a fact committed:

did God render upon their heads; by suffering Abimelech to beat down their city, and destroy the inhabitants of it, and by burning the hold in which the men of the tower of Shechem were, and them in it:

and upon them came the curse of Jotham the son of Jerubbaal; both upon Abimelech, and the men of Shechem, they being destroyed by one another, as Jotham imprecated they might, and foretold they would, see Jdg 9:20.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Jdg 9:1 Heb “to all the extended family of the house of the father of his mother.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:2 Heb “your bone and your flesh.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:3 Heb “our brother.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:4 Heb “and they followed him.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:5 Heb “remained.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:6 The translation assumes that the form in the Hebrew text (מֻצָּב, mutsav) is a corruption of an original מ&#...

NET Notes: Jdg 9:7 Heb “He lifted his voice and called and said to them.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:8 Or “Rule over us!”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:9 Heb “Should I stop my abundance, with which they honor gods and men, and go to sway over the trees?” The negative sentence in the translat...

NET Notes: Jdg 9:10 Or “and rule over us!”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:11 Heb “Should I stop my sweetness and my good fruit and go to sway over the trees? The negative sentence in the translation reflects the force of ...

NET Notes: Jdg 9:12 Or “and rule over us!”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:13 Heb “Should I stop my wine, which makes happy gods and men, and go to sway over the trees?” The negative sentence in the translation refle...

NET Notes: Jdg 9:14 Or “and rule over us!”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:15 Heb “If not.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:16 Heb “if according to the deeds of his hands you have done to him.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:17 Heb “hand.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:18 Heb “your brother.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:19 Heb “then rejoice in Abimelech, and may he also rejoice in you.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:21 Heb “his brother.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:22 Abimelech commanded Israel. Perhaps while ruling as king over the city-state of Shechem, Abimelech also became a leader of the Israelite tribal allian...

NET Notes: Jdg 9:23 Heb “The leaders of Shechem were disloyal.” The words “he made” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

NET Notes: Jdg 9:24 Heb “so that the violence done to the seventy sons of Jerub-Baal might come, and their blood might be placed on Abimelech, their brother, who mu...

NET Notes: Jdg 9:25 Heb “It was told to Abimelech.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:26 Heb “trusted in him.” Here the verb probably describes more than a mental attitude. It is likely that the Shechemites made an alliance wit...

NET Notes: Jdg 9:27 Heb “house.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:28 Heb “him”; the referent (Abimelech) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Jdg 9:29 The words “for battle” are interpretive.

NET Notes: Jdg 9:30 Heb “his anger burned.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:31 The words “to rebel” are interpretive. The precise meaning of the Hebrew verb צוּר (tsur) is unclear here. It is b...

NET Notes: Jdg 9:32 The words “outside the city” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

NET Notes: Jdg 9:33 Heb “Look! He and the people who are with him will come out to you, and you will do to him what your hand finds [to do].”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:34 Heb “four heads.” The words “they divided into” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

NET Notes: Jdg 9:36 Heb “the shadow on the hills you are seeing, like men.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:37 Some English translations simply transliterated this as a place name (Heb “Elon-meonenim”); cf. NAB, NRSV.

NET Notes: Jdg 9:38 Or “despised.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:39 Heb “So Gaal went out before the leaders of Shechem.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:40 The word “Shechemites” is not in the Hebrew text, but is supplied for clarification.

NET Notes: Jdg 9:41 Heb “drove…out from dwelling in Shechem.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:42 Heb “And they told Abimelech.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:43 Heb “he arose against them and struck them.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:44 Heb “stood [at].”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:45 The spreading of salt over the city was probably a symbolic act designed to place the site under a curse, deprive it of fertility, and prevent any fut...

NET Notes: Jdg 9:46 The name El-Berith means “God of the Covenant.” It is probably a reference to the Canaanite high god El.

NET Notes: Jdg 9:47 Heb “were assembled.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:48 Heb “What you have seen me do, quickly do like me.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:49 Or “men,” but the word seems to have a more general sense here, as the conclusion to the sentence suggests.

NET Notes: Jdg 9:50 Heb “he camped near Thebez and captured it.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:51 Or “fortress.” The same Hebrew term occurs once more in this verse and twice in v. 52.

NET Notes: Jdg 9:53 Heb “Abimelech’s.” The proper name has been replaced by the pronoun “his” in the translation in keeping with conventions...

NET Notes: Jdg 9:54 The Hebrew text adds, “concerning me.” This has not been included in the translation for stylistic reasons.

NET Notes: Jdg 9:55 Heb “each to his own place.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:56 Heb “seventy brothers.”

NET Notes: Jdg 9:57 Heb “came.”

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:1 And Abimelech the son of Jerubbaal went to Shechem unto his ( a ) mother's brethren, and communed with them, and with all the family of the house of h...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:2 Speak, I pray you, in the ears of all the men of Shechem, Whether [is] better for you, either that all the sons of Jerubbaal, [which are] threescore a...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:5 And he went unto his father's house at Ophrah, and ( c ) slew his brethren the sons of Jerubbaal, [being] threescore and ten persons, upon one stone: ...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:6 And all the men of Shechem gathered together, and all the house of ( d ) Millo, and went, and made Abimelech king, by the plain of the pillar that [wa...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:8 ( e ) The trees went forth [on a time] to anoint a king over them; and they said unto the olive tree, Reign thou over us. ( e ) By this parable he de...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:15 And the bramble said unto the trees, If in truth ye anoint me king over you, [then] come [and] put your trust in my shadow: and if not, let ( f ) fire...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:19 If ye then have dealt truly and sincerely with Jerubbaal and with his house this day, [then] ( g ) rejoice ye in Abimelech, and let him also rejoice i...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:23 Then God ( h ) sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem; and the men of Shechem dealt treacherously with Abimelech: ( h ) Because...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:27 And they ( i ) went out into the fields, and gathered their vineyards, and trode [the grapes], and made merry, and went into the house of their god, a...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:29 And would to God this people were under my hand! then would I remove Abimelech. And he said to ( k ) Abimelech, Increase thine army, and come out. ( ...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:36 And when Gaal saw the people, he said to Zebul, Behold, there come people down from the top of the mountains. And Zebul said unto him, Thou seest the ...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:39 And Gaal ( m ) went out before the men of Shechem, and fought with Abimelech. ( m ) As their captain.

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:43 And he took the ( n ) people, and divided them into three companies, and laid wait in the field, and looked, and, behold, the people [were] come forth...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:45 And Abimelech fought against the city all that day; and he took the city, and slew the people that [was] therein, and beat down the city, and sowed it...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:46 And when all the men of the tower of Shechem heard [that], they entered into an hold of the house of the god ( p ) Berith. ( p ) That is, of Baniberi...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:49 And all the people likewise cut down every man his bough, and followed Abimelech, and put [them] to the hold, and set the hold on fire upon them; so t...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:54 Then he called hastily unto the young man his armourbearer, and said unto him, Draw thy sword, and slay me, that men say not of me, A woman slew him. ...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 9:57 And all the evil of the men of Shechem did God render upon their heads: and upon them came the ( f ) curse of Jotham the son of Jerubbaal. ( f ) For ...

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Jdg 9:1-6 - --The men of Shechem chose Abimelech king. God was not consulted whether they should have any king, much less who it should be. If parents could see wha...

MHCC: Jdg 9:7-21 - --There was no occasion for the trees to choose a king, they are all the trees of the Lord which he has planted. Nor was there any occasion for Israel t...

MHCC: Jdg 9:22-29 - --Abimelech is seated in the throne his father refused. But how long does this glory last? Stay but three years, and see the bramble withered and burned...

MHCC: Jdg 9:30-49 - --Abimelech intended to punish the Shechemites for slighting him now, but God punished them for their serving him formerly in the murder of Gideon's son...

MHCC: Jdg 9:50-57 - --The Shechemites were ruined by Abimelech; now he is reckoned with, who was their leader in villany. Evil pursues sinners, and sometimes overtakes them...

Matthew Henry: Jdg 9:1-6 - -- We are here told by what arts Abimelech got into authority, and made himself great. His mother perhaps had instilled into his mind some towering amb...

Matthew Henry: Jdg 9:7-21 - -- We have here the only testimony that appears to have been borne against the wicked confederacy of Abimelech and the men of Shechem. It was a sign th...

Matthew Henry: Jdg 9:22-49 - -- Three years Abimelech reigned, after a sort, without any disturbance; it is not said, He judged Israel, or did any service at all to his country, bu...

Matthew Henry: Jdg 9:50-57 - -- We have seen the ruin of the Shechemites completed by the hand of Abimelech; and now it comes to his turn to be reckoned with who was their leader i...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:1-6 - -- Jdg 9:1-2 Having gone to Shechem, the home of his mother (Jdg 8:31), Abimelech applied to his mother's brothers and the whole family (all the rela...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:7-15 - -- When Jotham, who had escaped after the murder, was told of the election which had taken place, he went to the top of Mount Gerizim, which rises as a...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:16-20 - -- In Jdg 9:16-20 Jotham gives the application of his fable, for there was no necessity for any special explanation of it, since it was perfectly clear...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:21 - -- But Jotham fled to Beer , after charging the Shechemites with their iniquity, and dwelt there before his brother Abimelech ("before,"i.e., "for fea...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:22-24 - -- Abimelech's reign lasted three years. ויּשׂר , from שׂוּר to govern, is used intentionally, as it appears, in the place of ויּמלך , b...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:25-29 - -- The faithlessness of the Shechemites towards Abimelech commenced by their placing liers in wait for him ( לו , dat . incomm ., to his disadvant...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:30-31 - -- This rebellious speech of Gaal was reported to Abimelech by the town-prefect Zebul, who sent messengers to him בּתרמה , either with deceit ( ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:32-33 - -- At the same time he called upon Abimelech to draw near, with the people that he had with him, during the night, and to lie in wait in the field ( ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:34 - -- On receiving this intelligence, Abimelech rose up during the night with the people that were with him, i.e., with such troops as he had, and placed ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:35-36 - -- When Gaal went out in the morning with his retinue upon some enterprise, which is not more clearly defined, and stood before the city gate, Abimelec...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:37 - -- But Gaal said again, " Behold, people come down from the navel of the land, "i.e., from the highest point of the surrounding country, " and a crowd ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:38 - -- Then Zebul declared openly against Gaal, and reproached him with his foolhardy speech, whilst Abimelech was drawing nearer with his troops: " Where ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:39-40 - -- Then Gaal went out "before the citizens of Shechem;"i.e., not at their head as their leaders, which is the meaning of לפני in Gen 33:3; Exo 13:...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:41 - -- Abimelech did not force his way into the city, but remained ( ישׁב , lit . sat down) with his army in Arumah , a place not mentioned again, wh...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:42-43 - -- The next day the people of Shechem went into the field, apparently not to make war upon Abimelech, but to work in the field, possibly to continue th...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:44 - -- That is to say, Abimelech and the companies with him spread themselves out and took their station by the city gate to cut off the retreat of the She...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:45 - -- Thus Abimelech fought all that day against the city and took it; and having slain all the people therein, he destroyed the city and strewed salt upo...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:46-49 - -- When the inhabitants of the castle of Shechem ("lords of the tower of Shechem"= "all the house of Millo,"Jdg 9:6) heard of the fate of the town of S...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 9:50-57 - -- At length the fate predicted by Jotham (Jdg 9:20) overtook Abimelech. Jdg 9:50-54 He went from Shechem to Thebez, besieged the town, and took it...