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Teks -- Judges 3:1-31 (NET)

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Konteks
3:1 These were the nations the Lord permitted to remain so he could use them to test Israel– he wanted to test all those who had not experienced battle against the Canaanites. 3:2 He left those nations simply because he wanted to teach the subsequent generations of Israelites, who had not experienced the earlier battles, how to conduct holy war. 3:3 These were the nations: the five lords of the Philistines, all the Canaanites, the Sidonians, and the Hivites living in Mount Lebanon, from Mount Baal Hermon to Lebo-Hamath. 3:4 They were left to test Israel, so the Lord would know if his people would obey the commands he gave their ancestors through Moses. 3:5 The Israelites lived among the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites. 3:6 They took the Canaanites’ daughters as wives and gave their daughters to the Canaanites; they worshiped their gods as well.
Othniel: A Model Leader
3:7 The Israelites did evil in the Lord’s sight. They forgot the Lord their God and worshiped the Baals and the Asherahs. 3:8 The Lord was furious with Israel and turned them over to King Cushan-Rishathaim of Aram-Naharaim. They were Cushan-Rishathaim’s subjects for eight years. 3:9 When the Israelites cried out for help to the Lord, he raised up a deliverer for the Israelites who rescued them. His name was Othniel son of Kenaz, Caleb’s younger brother. 3:10 The Lord’s spirit empowered him and he led Israel. When he went to do battle, the Lord handed over to him King Cushan-Rishathaim of Aram and he overpowered him. 3:11 The land had rest for forty years; then Othniel son of Kenaz died.
Deceit, Assassination, and Deliverance
3:12 The Israelites again did evil in the Lord’s sight. The Lord gave King Eglon of Moab control over Israel because they had done evil in the Lord’s sight. 3:13 Eglon formed alliances with the Ammonites and Amalekites. He came and defeated Israel, and they seized the City of Date Palm Trees. 3:14 The Israelites were subject to King Eglon of Moab for eighteen years. 3:15 When the Israelites cried out for help to the Lord, he raised up a deliverer for them. His name was Ehud son of Gera the Benjaminite, a left-handed man. The Israelites sent him to King Eglon of Moab with their tribute payment. 3:16 Ehud made himself a sword– it had two edges and was eighteen inches long. He strapped it under his coat on his right thigh. 3:17 He brought the tribute payment to King Eglon of Moab. (Now Eglon was a very fat man.) 3:18 After Ehud brought the tribute payment, he dismissed the people who had carried it. 3:19 But he went back once he reached the carved images at Gilgal. He said to Eglon, “I have a secret message for you, O king.” Eglon said, “Be quiet!” All his attendants left. 3:20 When Ehud approached him, he was sitting in his well-ventilated upper room all by himself. Ehud said, “I have a message from God for you.” When Eglon rose up from his seat, 3:21 Ehud reached with his left hand, hand, pulled the sword from his right thigh, and drove it into Eglon’s belly. 3:22 The handle went in after the blade, and the fat closed around the blade, for Ehud did not pull the sword out of his belly. 3:23 As Ehud went out into the vestibule, he closed the doors of the upper room behind him and locked them. 3:24 When Ehud had left, Eglon’s servants came and saw the locked doors of the upper room. They said, “He must be relieving himself in the well-ventilated inner room.” 3:25 They waited so long they were embarrassed, but he still did not open the doors of the upper room. Finally they took the key and opened the doors. Right before their eyes was their master, sprawled out dead on the floor! 3:26 Now Ehud had escaped while they were delaying. When he passed the carved images, he escaped to Seirah. 3:27 When he reached Seirah, he blew a trumpet in the Ephraimite hill country. The Israelites went down with him from the hill country, with Ehud in the lead. 3:28 He said to them, “Follow me, for the Lord is about to defeat your enemies, the Moabites!” They followed him, captured the fords of the Jordan River opposite Moab, and did not let anyone cross. 3:29 That day they killed about ten thousand Moabites– all strong, capable warriors; not one escaped. 3:30 Israel humiliated Moab that day, and the land had rest for eighty years. 3:31 After Ehud came Shamgar son of Anath; he killed six hundred Philistines with an oxgoad and, like Ehud, delivered Israel.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Amalekites members of the nation of Amalek
 · Ammonites the tribe/nation of people descended from Ben-Ammi, Lot's son,Territory of the tribe/nation of Ammon
 · Amorites members of a pre-Israel Semitic tribe from Mesopotamia
 · Anath father of Shamgar, a judge of Israel
 · Baal a pagan god,a title of a pagan god,a town in the Negeb on the border of Simeon and Judah,son of Reaiah son of Micah; a descendant of Reuben,the forth son of Jeiel, the Benjamite
 · Benjaminite the tribe of Benjamin of Israel
 · Caleb son of Hezron son of Perez son of Judah
 · Canaan the region ofeast Mediterranean coastal land from Arvad (modern Lebanon) south to Gaza,the coast land from Mt. Carmel north to the Orontes River
 · Canaanites the region ofeast Mediterranean coastal land from Arvad (modern Lebanon) south to Gaza,the coast land from Mt. Carmel north to the Orontes River
 · city of palms Tamar: 35 km SSW of Dead Sea. Jericho: 30 km ENE of Jerusalem
 · City of Palms Tamar: 35 km SSW of Dead Sea. Jericho: 30 km ENE of Jerusalem
 · Cushan-rishathaim king of Mesopotamia in the time of the judges
 · Cushan-Rishathaim king of Mesopotamia in the time of the judges
 · Eglon a town in the western foothills of Judah near Lachish,king of Moab
 · Ehud son of Bilhan son of Jediael son of Benjamin; a war chief,son of Gera (Bela Benjamin); a judge of Israel before King Saul
 · Ephraim the tribe of Ephraim as a whole,the northern kingdom of Israel
 · Gera son of Ehud the judge son of Gera I son Bela son of Benjamin.
 · Gilgal a place where Israel encamped between Jericho and the Jordan,a town between Dor and Tirza in the territory of Ephraim (YC),a town just north of Joppa, originally a military base (YC),a place 12 miles south of Shechem now called Jiljiliah (YC)
 · hamath a town of Syria on the Orontes between Aleppo and Damascus (OS)
 · Hamath a town of unknown location
 · Hittite a person/people living in the land of Syro-Palestine
 · Hivite a person/people descended from Canaan son of Ham son of Noah
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jebusite resident(s) of the town of Jebus (Jerusalem)
 · Jordan the river that flows from Lake Galilee to the Dead Sea,a river that begins at Mt. Hermon, flows south through Lake Galilee and on to its end at the Dead Sea 175 km away (by air)
 · Kenaz son of Eliphaz son of Esau,a chief of Edom,a descendant of Jephunneh of Judah; brother to Caleb the friend of Joshua; father of Othniel,son of Elah of Jephunneh of Judah
 · Lebanon a mountain range and the adjoining regions (IBD)
 · Mesopotamia the country between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers,the region between (and around) the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
 · Moab resident(s) of the country of Moab
 · Moabite a female descendant of Moab
 · Moses a son of Amram; the Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them The Law of Moses,a Levite who led Israel out of Egypt and gave them the law


Topik/Tema Kamus: Ehud | Israel | JUDGES, PERIOD OF | Eglon | God | Judge | MOAB | Moabite | Deception | Othniel | Gilgal | PARLOR | Hypocrisy | Confidence | Lebanon | Lies and Deceits | Assassination | Homicide | CRIME; CRIMES | Regicide | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Jdg 3:1 - Had not known That is, such as had no experience of those wars, nor of God's extraordinary power and providence manifested in them.

That is, such as had no experience of those wars, nor of God's extraordinary power and providence manifested in them.

Wesley: Jdg 3:2 - Teach them war That by the neighbourhood of such warlike enemies, they might be purged from sloth and security, and obliged them to innure themselves to martial exer...

That by the neighbourhood of such warlike enemies, they might be purged from sloth and security, and obliged them to innure themselves to martial exercises, and to stand continually upon their guard, and consequently to keep close to that God whose assistance they had so great and constant need of.

Wesley: Jdg 3:3 - Five lords Whereof three had been in some sort subdued, Jdg 1:18. but afterwards recovered their strength.

Whereof three had been in some sort subdued, Jdg 1:18. but afterwards recovered their strength.

Wesley: Jdg 3:3 - Canaanites Properly so called, who were very numerous, and dispersed through several parts of the land, whence they gave denomination to all the rest of the peop...

Properly so called, who were very numerous, and dispersed through several parts of the land, whence they gave denomination to all the rest of the people.

Wesley: Jdg 3:3 - Zidonions The people living near Zidon, and subject to its jurisdiction.

The people living near Zidon, and subject to its jurisdiction.

Wesley: Jdg 3:3 - Baal hermon - Which was the eastern part about Lebanon.

hermon - Which was the eastern part about Lebanon.

Wesley: Jdg 3:4 - To know That is, that they and others might know by experience.

That is, that they and others might know by experience.

Wesley: Jdg 3:6 - Served their gods Were drawn to idolatry by the persuasions and examples of their yoke - fellows.

Were drawn to idolatry by the persuasions and examples of their yoke - fellows.

Wesley: Jdg 3:7 - And the groves That is, in the groves, in which the Heathens usually worshipped their Baalim or idols.

That is, in the groves, in which the Heathens usually worshipped their Baalim or idols.

Wesley: Jdg 3:8 - Served That is, were made subject to him. Mesopotamia was that part of Syria which lay between the two great rivers, Tigris and Euphrates. This lay at such a...

That is, were made subject to him. Mesopotamia was that part of Syria which lay between the two great rivers, Tigris and Euphrates. This lay at such a distance, that one would not have thought Israel's trouble should have come from such a far country: which shews so much the more of the hand of God in it.

Wesley: Jdg 3:9 - Cried That is, prayed fervently for deliverance.

That is, prayed fervently for deliverance.

Wesley: Jdg 3:10 - Came upon him With extraordinary influence, endowing him with singular wisdom and courage, and stirring him up to this great undertaking.

With extraordinary influence, endowing him with singular wisdom and courage, and stirring him up to this great undertaking.

Wesley: Jdg 3:10 - Judged Israel That is, pleaded and avenged the cause of Israel against their oppressors.

That is, pleaded and avenged the cause of Israel against their oppressors.

Wesley: Jdg 3:11 - Forty years It rested about forty years, or the greatest part of forty years: it being most frequent in scripture to use numbers in such a latitude. Nor is it unu...

It rested about forty years, or the greatest part of forty years: it being most frequent in scripture to use numbers in such a latitude. Nor is it unusual either in scripture, or in other authors, for things to be denominated from the greater part; especially, when they enjoyed some degrees of rest and peace even in their times of slavery.

Wesley: Jdg 3:12 - Strengthened Eglon By giving him courage, and power, and success against them.

By giving him courage, and power, and success against them.

Wesley: Jdg 3:13 - City of Palm trees - That is, Jericho. Not the city which was demolished, but the territory belonging to it. Here he fixed his camp, for the fertility of that soil...

trees - That is, Jericho. Not the city which was demolished, but the territory belonging to it. Here he fixed his camp, for the fertility of that soil, and because of its nearness to the passage over Jordan, which was most commodious both for the conjunction of his own forces which lay on both sides of Jordan; to prevent the conjunction of the Israelites in Canaan with their brethren beyond Jordan; and to secure his retreat into his own country.

Wesley: Jdg 3:14 - Eighteen years The former servitude lasted but eight years; this eighteen: for if smaller troubles do not the work, God will send greater.

The former servitude lasted but eight years; this eighteen: for if smaller troubles do not the work, God will send greater.

Wesley: Jdg 3:15 - A Benjamite This tribe was next to Eglon, and doubtless most afflicted by him; and hence God raiseth a deliverer.

This tribe was next to Eglon, and doubtless most afflicted by him; and hence God raiseth a deliverer.

Wesley: Jdg 3:15 - Left handed Which is here noted, as a considerable circumstance in the following story.

Which is here noted, as a considerable circumstance in the following story.

Wesley: Jdg 3:16 - A cubit length Long enough for his design, and not too long for concealment.

Long enough for his design, and not too long for concealment.

Wesley: Jdg 3:16 - His right thigh Which was most convenient both for the use of his left hand, and for avoiding suspicion.

Which was most convenient both for the use of his left hand, and for avoiding suspicion.

Wesley: Jdg 3:17 - The present Which was to be paid to him as a part of his tribute.

Which was to be paid to him as a part of his tribute.

Wesley: Jdg 3:18 - Sent the people He accompanied them part of the way, and then dismissed them, and returned to Eglon alone, that so he might have more easy access to him.

He accompanied them part of the way, and then dismissed them, and returned to Eglon alone, that so he might have more easy access to him.

Wesley: Jdg 3:19 - Turned again As if he had forgot some important business.

As if he had forgot some important business.

Wesley: Jdg 3:19 - Keep silence 'Till my servants be gone: whom he would not have acquainted with a business which he supposed to be of great importance.

'Till my servants be gone: whom he would not have acquainted with a business which he supposed to be of great importance.

Wesley: Jdg 3:20 - A summer parlour Into which he used to retire from company: which is mentioned as the reason why his servants waited so long ere they went in to him, Jdg 3:25.

Into which he used to retire from company: which is mentioned as the reason why his servants waited so long ere they went in to him, Jdg 3:25.

Wesley: Jdg 3:20 - A message To be delivered not in words, but by actions. He designedly uses the name Elohim, which was common to the true God, and false ones; and not Jehovah, w...

To be delivered not in words, but by actions. He designedly uses the name Elohim, which was common to the true God, and false ones; and not Jehovah, which was peculiar to the true God; because Ehud not knowing whether the message came; not from his own false god, he would more certainly rise, and thereby give Ehud more advantage for his blow; whereas he would possibly shew his contempt of the God of Israel by sitting still to hear his message.

Wesley: Jdg 3:20 - He arose In token of reverence to God.

In token of reverence to God.

Wesley: Jdg 3:23 - Went forth With a composed countenance and gait, being well assured, that God, who by his extraordinary call had put him upon that enterprise, would by his speci...

With a composed countenance and gait, being well assured, that God, who by his extraordinary call had put him upon that enterprise, would by his special providence carry him through it.

Wesley: Jdg 3:23 - Upon him Upon or after himself.

Upon or after himself.

Wesley: Jdg 3:23 - Locked them Either pulling it close after him, as we do when doors have spring locks; or taking the key with him.

Either pulling it close after him, as we do when doors have spring locks; or taking the key with him.

Wesley: Jdg 3:24 - Covereth his feet This phrase is used only here, and 1Sa 24:3. A late judicious interpreter expounds it, of composing himself to take a little sleep, as was very usual ...

This phrase is used only here, and 1Sa 24:3. A late judicious interpreter expounds it, of composing himself to take a little sleep, as was very usual to do in the day - time in those hot countries. And when they did so in cool places, such as this summer parlour unquestionably was, they used to cover their feet. And this may seem to be the more probable, both because the summer parlour was proper for this use, and because this was a more likely reason of their long waiting at his door, lest they should disturb his repose. And this sense best agrees with Saul's case in the cave, when being asleep, David could more securely cut off the lap of his garment.

Wesley: Jdg 3:25 - Ashamed Or, confounded, not knowing what to say or think; lest they should either disturb him, or be guilty of neglect towards him.

Or, confounded, not knowing what to say or think; lest they should either disturb him, or be guilty of neglect towards him.

Wesley: Jdg 3:25 - A key Another key, it being usual in princes courts to have divers keys for the same door.

Another key, it being usual in princes courts to have divers keys for the same door.

Wesley: Jdg 3:27 - The children of Israel Whom doubtless he had prepared by his emissaries gathered together in considerable numbers.

Whom doubtless he had prepared by his emissaries gathered together in considerable numbers.

Wesley: Jdg 3:28 - Fords of Jordan Where they passed over Jordan, that neither the Moabites that were got into Canaan, might escape, nor any more Moabites come over Jordan to their succ...

Where they passed over Jordan, that neither the Moabites that were got into Canaan, might escape, nor any more Moabites come over Jordan to their succour.

Wesley: Jdg 3:30 - Fourscore years Chiefly that part of it which lay east of Jordan: for the other side of the country, which lay south - west, was even then infested by the Philistines...

Chiefly that part of it which lay east of Jordan: for the other side of the country, which lay south - west, was even then infested by the Philistines.

Wesley: Jdg 3:31 - An ox goad As Samson did a thousand with the jaw - bone of an ass; both being miraculous actions, and not at all incredible to him that believes a God, who could...

As Samson did a thousand with the jaw - bone of an ass; both being miraculous actions, and not at all incredible to him that believes a God, who could easily give strength to effect this. It is probable Shamgar was following the plough, when the Philistines made an inroad into the country. And having neither sword nor spear, when God put it into his heart to oppose them, he took the instrument that was next at hand. It is no matter how weak the weapon is, if God direct and strengthen the arm.

JFB: Jdg 3:1 - these are the nations which the Lord left, to prove Israel This was the special design of these nations being left, and it evinces the direct influence of the theocracy under which the Israelites were placed. ...

This was the special design of these nations being left, and it evinces the direct influence of the theocracy under which the Israelites were placed. These nations were left for a double purpose: in the first instance, to be instrumental, by their inroads, in promoting the moral and spiritual discipline of the Israelites; and also to subserve the design of making them acquainted with war, in order that the young, more especially, who were total strangers to it, might learn the use of weapons and the art of wielding them.

JFB: Jdg 3:5-7 - the children of Israel dwelt among the Canaanites The two peoples by degrees came to be on habits of intercourse. Reciprocal alliances were formed by marriage till the Israelites, relaxing the austeri...

The two peoples by degrees came to be on habits of intercourse. Reciprocal alliances were formed by marriage till the Israelites, relaxing the austerity of their principles, showed a growing conformity to the manners and worship of their idolatrous neighbors.

JFB: Jdg 3:8-11 - sold them That is, "delivered them"

That is, "delivered them"

JFB: Jdg 3:8-11 - into the hand of Chushan-rishathaim Or, Chushan, "the wicked." This name had been probably given him from his cruel and impious character.

Or, Chushan, "the wicked." This name had been probably given him from his cruel and impious character.

JFB: Jdg 3:8-11 - served Chushan-rishathaim eight years By the payment of a stipulated tribute yearly, the raising of which must have caused a great amount of labor and privation.

By the payment of a stipulated tribute yearly, the raising of which must have caused a great amount of labor and privation.

JFB: Jdg 3:9 - when the children of Israel cried unto the Lord In their distress they had recourse to earnest prayer, accompanied by humble and penitent confession of their errors.

In their distress they had recourse to earnest prayer, accompanied by humble and penitent confession of their errors.

JFB: Jdg 3:9 - Othniel (See on Jos 15:16; Jdg 1:13). His military experience qualified him for the work, while the gallant exploits he was known to have performed, gained hi...

(See on Jos 15:16; Jdg 1:13). His military experience qualified him for the work, while the gallant exploits he was known to have performed, gained him the full confidence of his countrymen in his ability as a leader.

JFB: Jdg 3:10 - The Spirit of the Lord came upon him and he judged Israel, and went out to war Impelled by a supernatural influence, he undertook the difficult task of government at this national crisis--addressing himself to promote a general r...

Impelled by a supernatural influence, he undertook the difficult task of government at this national crisis--addressing himself to promote a general reformation of manners, the abolition of idolatry, and the revival of pure religion. After these preliminary measures, he collected a body of choice warriors to expel the foreign oppressors.

JFB: Jdg 3:10 - the Lord delivered Chushan-rishathaim king of Mesopotamia into his hand; and his hand prevailed against Chushan-rishathaim No details are given of this war, which, considering the resources of so potent a monarch, must have been a determined struggle. But the Israelitish a...

No details are given of this war, which, considering the resources of so potent a monarch, must have been a determined struggle. But the Israelitish arms were crowned through the blessing of God with victory, and Canaan regained its freedom and independence.

JFB: Jdg 3:11 - Othniel . . . died How powerful the influence of one good man is, in church or state, is best found in his loss [BISHOP HALL].

How powerful the influence of one good man is, in church or state, is best found in his loss [BISHOP HALL].

JFB: Jdg 3:12-14 - the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the Lord The Israelites, deprived of the moral and political influences of Othniel, were not long in following their native bias to idolatry.

The Israelites, deprived of the moral and political influences of Othniel, were not long in following their native bias to idolatry.

JFB: Jdg 3:12-14 - the Lord strengthened Eglon the king of Moab The reigning monarch's ambition was to recover that extensive portion of his ancient territory possessed by the Israelites. In conjunction with his ne...

The reigning monarch's ambition was to recover that extensive portion of his ancient territory possessed by the Israelites. In conjunction with his neighbors, the Ammonites and the Amalekites, sworn enemies of Israel, he first subjected the eastern tribes; then crossing the Jordan, he made a sudden incursion on western Canaan, and in virtue of his conquests, erected fortifications in the territory adjoining Jericho [JOSEPHUS], to secure the frontier, and fixed his residence there. This oppressor was permitted, in the providence of God, to triumph for eighteen years.

JFB: Jdg 3:15 - Ehud the son of Gera Descended from Gera, one of Benjamin's sons (Gen 46:21).

Descended from Gera, one of Benjamin's sons (Gen 46:21).

JFB: Jdg 3:15 - left-handed This peculiarity distinguished many in the Benjamite tribe (Jdg 20:16). But the original word is rendered in some versions "both-handed," a view count...

This peculiarity distinguished many in the Benjamite tribe (Jdg 20:16). But the original word is rendered in some versions "both-handed," a view countenanced by 1Ch 12:2.

JFB: Jdg 3:15 - by him the children of Israel sent a present unto Eglon the king of Moab The yearly tribute, which, according to Eastern fashion, would be borne with ostentatious ceremony and offered (Jdg 3:18) by several messengers.

The yearly tribute, which, according to Eastern fashion, would be borne with ostentatious ceremony and offered (Jdg 3:18) by several messengers.

JFB: Jdg 3:16 - Ehud made him a dagger . . . and he did gird it . . . upon his right thigh The sword was usually worn on the left side; so that Ehud's was the more likely to escape detection.

The sword was usually worn on the left side; so that Ehud's was the more likely to escape detection.

JFB: Jdg 3:19 - quarries Rather, "graven images" (Deu 7:25; Jer 8:19; Jer 51:52); statues of Moabite idols, the sight of which kindled the patriotic zeal of Ehud to avenge thi...

Rather, "graven images" (Deu 7:25; Jer 8:19; Jer 51:52); statues of Moabite idols, the sight of which kindled the patriotic zeal of Ehud to avenge this public insult to Israel on its author.

JFB: Jdg 3:19 - I have a secret errand unto thee, O king: who said, Keep silence "Privacy"--a signal for all to withdraw.

"Privacy"--a signal for all to withdraw.

JFB: Jdg 3:20 - a summer parlour Hebrew, "chamber of cooling"--one of those retired edifices which Oriental grandees usually have in their gardens, and in which they repose during the...

Hebrew, "chamber of cooling"--one of those retired edifices which Oriental grandees usually have in their gardens, and in which they repose during the heat of the day.

JFB: Jdg 3:21-26 - Ehud put forth his left hand The whole circumstance of this daring act--the death of Eglon without a shriek, or noise--the locking of the doors--the carrying off the key--the calm...

The whole circumstance of this daring act--the death of Eglon without a shriek, or noise--the locking of the doors--the carrying off the key--the calm, unhurried deportment of Ehud--show the strength of his confidence that he was doing God service.

JFB: Jdg 3:27 - he blew a trumpet in the mountain of Ephraim Summoned to arms the people of that mountainous region, which, adjoining the territory of Benjamin, had probably suffered most from the grievous oppre...

Summoned to arms the people of that mountainous region, which, adjoining the territory of Benjamin, had probably suffered most from the grievous oppression of the Moabites.

JFB: Jdg 3:28 - they went down after him, and took the fords (See on Jos 2:7). With the view of preventing all escape to the Moabite coast, and by the slaughter of ten thousand men [Jdg 3:29], Ehud rescued his c...

(See on Jos 2:7). With the view of preventing all escape to the Moabite coast, and by the slaughter of ten thousand men [Jdg 3:29], Ehud rescued his country from a state of ignominious vassalage.

JFB: Jdg 3:31 - after him was Shamgar No notice is given of the tribe or family of this judge; and from the Philistines being the enemy that roused him into public service, the suffering s...

No notice is given of the tribe or family of this judge; and from the Philistines being the enemy that roused him into public service, the suffering seems to have been local--confined to some of the western tribes.

JFB: Jdg 3:31 - slew . . . six hundred men with an oxgoad This instrument is eight feet long and about six inches in circumference. It is armed at the lesser end with a sharp prong for driving the cattle, and...

This instrument is eight feet long and about six inches in circumference. It is armed at the lesser end with a sharp prong for driving the cattle, and on the other with a small iron paddle for removing the clay which encumbers the plough in working. Such an instrument, wielded by a strong arm, would do no mean execution. We may suppose, however, for the notice is very fragmentary, that Shamgar was only the leader of a band of peasants, who by means of such implements of labor as they could lay hold of at the moment, achieved the heroic exploit recorded.

Clarke: Jdg 3:1 - Now these are the nations Now these are the nations - The nations left to prove the Israelites were the five lordships or satrapies of the Philistines, viz., Gath, Askelon, A...

Now these are the nations - The nations left to prove the Israelites were the five lordships or satrapies of the Philistines, viz., Gath, Askelon, Ashdod, Ekron, and Gaza; the Sidonians, the Hivites of Lebanon, Baal-hermon, etc.; with the remains of the Canaanites, viz., the Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, and Jebusites. Those who were left to be proved were those Israelites that had not seen all the wars of Canaan.

Clarke: Jdg 3:2 - That - Israel might know, to teach them war That - Israel might know, to teach them war - This was another reason why the Canaanites were left in the land, that the Israelites might not forget...

That - Israel might know, to teach them war - This was another reason why the Canaanites were left in the land, that the Israelites might not forget military discipline, but habituate themselves to the use of arms, that they might always be able to defend themselves against their foes. Had they been faithful to God, they would have had no need of learning the art of war; but now arms became a sort of necessary substitute for that spiritual strength which had departed from them. Thus Gods in his judgments leaves one iniquitous nation to harass and torment another. Were all to turn to God, men need learn war no more.

Clarke: Jdg 3:4 - To know whether they would hearken To know whether they would hearken - This would be the consequence of the Canaanites being left among them: if they should be faithful to God, their...

To know whether they would hearken - This would be the consequence of the Canaanites being left among them: if they should be faithful to God, their enemies would not be able to enslave them; should they be rebellious, the Lord would abandon them to their foes.

Clarke: Jdg 3:6 - And they took their daughters And they took their daughters - They formed matrimonial alliances with those proscribed nations, served their idols, and thus became one with them i...

And they took their daughters - They formed matrimonial alliances with those proscribed nations, served their idols, and thus became one with them in politics and religion.

Clarke: Jdg 3:7 - Served Baalim and the groves Served Baalim and the groves - No groves were ever worshipped, but the deities who were supposed to be resident in them; and in many cases temples a...

Served Baalim and the groves - No groves were ever worshipped, but the deities who were supposed to be resident in them; and in many cases temples and altars were built in groves, and the superstition of consecrating groves and woods to the honor of the deities was a practice very usual with the ancients. Pliny assures us that trees, in old times, served for the temples of the gods. Tacitus reports this custom of the old Germans; Quintus Curtius, of the Indians; and Caesar, and our old writers, mention the same of the Druids in Britain. The Romans were admirers of this way of worship and therefore had their luci or groves in most parts of the city, dedicated to some deity. But it is very probable that the word אשרות asheroth which we translate groves, is a corruption of the word עשתרות ashtaroth , the moon or Venus, (see on Jdg 2:13 (note)), which only differs in the letters ע ת, from the former. Ashtaroth is read in this place by the Chaldee Targum, the Syriac, the Arabic, and the Vulgate, and by one of Dr. Kennicott’ s MSS.

Clarke: Jdg 3:8 - Chushan-rishathaim Chushan-rishathaim - Kushan, the wicked or impious; and so the word is rendered by the Chaldee Targum, the Syriac, and the Arabic, wherever it occur...

Chushan-rishathaim - Kushan, the wicked or impious; and so the word is rendered by the Chaldee Targum, the Syriac, and the Arabic, wherever it occurs in this chapter

Clarke: Jdg 3:8 - King of Mesopotamia King of Mesopotamia - King of ארם נהרים Aram naharayim , "Syria of the two rivers;"translated Mesopotamia by the Septuagint and Vulgate. It...

King of Mesopotamia - King of ארם נהרים Aram naharayim , "Syria of the two rivers;"translated Mesopotamia by the Septuagint and Vulgate. It was the district situated between the Tigris and Euphrates, called by the Arabian geographers Maverannaher, "the country beyond the river,"it is now called Diarbek. See the note on Act 2:9

Clarke: Jdg 3:8 - Served Chushan - eight years Served Chushan - eight years - He overran their country, and forced them to pay a very heavy tribute.

Served Chushan - eight years - He overran their country, and forced them to pay a very heavy tribute.

Clarke: Jdg 3:9 - Raised up - Othniel, the son of Kenaz Raised up - Othniel, the son of Kenaz - This noble Hebrew was of the tribe of Judah, and nephew and son-in-law to Caleb, whose praise stands without...

Raised up - Othniel, the son of Kenaz - This noble Hebrew was of the tribe of Judah, and nephew and son-in-law to Caleb, whose praise stands without abatement in the sacred records. Othniel had already signalized his valor in taking Kirjath-sepher, which appears to have been a very hazardous exploit. By his natural valor, experience in war, and the peculiar influence of the Divine Spirit, he was well qualified to inspire his countrymen with courage, and to lead them successfully against their oppressors.

Clarke: Jdg 3:10 - His hand prevailed His hand prevailed - We are not told or what nature this war was, but it was most decisive; and the consequence was an undisturbed peace of forty ye...

His hand prevailed - We are not told or what nature this war was, but it was most decisive; and the consequence was an undisturbed peace of forty years, during the whole life of Othniel. By the Spirit of the Lord coming upon him, the Chaldee understands the spirit of prophecy; others understand the spirit of fortitude and extraordinary courage, as opposed to the spirit of fear or faintness of heart; but as Othniel was judge, and had many offices to fulfill besides that of a general, he had need of the Spirit of God, in the proper sense of the word, to enable him to guide and govern this most refractory and fickle people; and his receiving it for these purposes, shows that the political state of the Jews was still a theocracy. No man attempted to do any thing in that state without the immediate inspiration of God, the pretension to which was always justified by the event.

Clarke: Jdg 3:12 - The children of Israel did evil The children of Israel did evil - They forgat the Lord and became idolaters, and God made those very people, whom they had imitated in their idolatr...

The children of Israel did evil - They forgat the Lord and became idolaters, and God made those very people, whom they had imitated in their idolatrous worship, the means of their chastisement

Clarke: Jdg 3:12 - The Lord strengthened Eglon the king of Moab The Lord strengthened Eglon the king of Moab - The success he had against the Israelites was by the especial appointment and energy of God He not on...

The Lord strengthened Eglon the king of Moab - The success he had against the Israelites was by the especial appointment and energy of God

He not only abandoned the Israelites, but strengthened the Moabites against them. Eglon is supposed to have been the immediate successor of Balak. Some great men have borne names which, when reduced to their grammatical meaning, appear very ridiculous: the word עגלון Eglon signifies a little calf!

Clarke: Jdg 3:13 - The city of palm trees The city of palm trees - This the Targum renders the city of Jericho; but Jericho had been destroyed by Joshua, and certainly was not rebuilt till t...

The city of palm trees - This the Targum renders the city of Jericho; but Jericho had been destroyed by Joshua, and certainly was not rebuilt till the reign of Ahab, long after this, 1Ki 16:34. However, as Jericho is expressly called the city of palm trees, Deu 34:3, the city in question must have been in the vicinity or plain of Jericho, and the king of Moab had seized it as a frontier town contiguous to his own estates. Calmet supposes that the city of palm trees means En-gaddi.

Clarke: Jdg 3:15 - Ehud the son of Gera - a man left handed Ehud the son of Gera - a man left handed - איש אטר יד ימינו ish itter yad yemino , a man lame in his right hand, and therefore obliged...

Ehud the son of Gera - a man left handed - איש אטר יד ימינו ish itter yad yemino , a man lame in his right hand, and therefore obliged to use his left. The Septuagint render it ανδρα αμφοτεροδεξιον, an ambidexter, a man who could use both hands alike. The Vulgate, qui utraque manu pro dextera utebatur , a man who could use either hand as a right hand, or to whom right and left were equally ready. This is not the sense of the original, but it is the sense in which most interpreters understand it. It is well known that to be an ambidexter was in high repute among the ancients: Hector boasts of it: -

Αυταρ εγων εν οιδα μαχας τ, ανδροκτασιας τε·

Οιδ επι δεξια, οιδ επ αριστερα νωμησαι βων

Αζαλεην, το μοι εστι ταλαυρινον πολεμιζειν.

Iliad, lib. vii., ver. 237

"But am in arms well practiced; many a Gree

Hath bled by me, and I can shift my shiel

From right to left; reserving to the las

Force that suffices for severest toil.

Cowper

Asteropaeus is also represented by Homer as an ambidexter, from which he derives great advantages in fight: -

Ὡς φατ απειλησας· ὁ δ ανεσχετο διος Αχιλλευς

Πηλιαδα μελιην· ὁ δ ὁμαρτη δουρασιν αμφις

Ἡρως Αστεροπαιος, επει περιδεξιος ηε.

Iliad, lib. xxi., ver. 161

So threatened he. Then raised Achilles hig

The Pelian ash: - and his two spears at onc

Alike, (a practiced warrior), with both hand

Asteropaeus hurled.

Cowper

We are informed by Aristotle, that Plato recommended to all soldiers to acquire by study and exercise an equal facility of using both hands. Speaking of Plato, he says: Και την εν τοις πολεμικοισασκεσιν, ὁπως αμφιδεξιοι γινωνται κατα την μελετην, ὡς δεον μη την μεν χρησιμον ειναι ταιν χεροιν, την δε αχρηστον . - De Repub., lib. ii., cap. 12. "He (Plato) also made a law concerning their warlike exercises, that they should acquire a habit of using both hands alike; as it is not fit that one of the hands should be useful and the other useless."In Jdg 20:16 of this book we have an account of seven hundred men of Benjamin, each of whom was אטר יד ימינו itter yad yemino , lame of his right hand, and yet slinging stones to a hair’ s breadth without missing: these are generally thought to be ambidexters

Clarke: Jdg 3:15 - Sent a present unto Eglon Sent a present unto Eglon - This is generally understood to be the tribute money which the king of Moab had imposed on the Israelites.

Sent a present unto Eglon - This is generally understood to be the tribute money which the king of Moab had imposed on the Israelites.

Clarke: Jdg 3:16 - A dagger which had two edges, of a cubit length A dagger which had two edges, of a cubit length - The word גמד gomed , which we translate cubit, is of very doubtful signification. As the root ...

A dagger which had two edges, of a cubit length - The word גמד gomed , which we translate cubit, is of very doubtful signification. As the root seems to signify contracted, it probably means an instrument made for the purpose shorter than usual, and something like the Italian stiletto. The Septuagint translate it by σπιθαμη, a span, and most of the versions understand it in the same sense

Clarke: Jdg 3:16 - Upon his right thigh Upon his right thigh - Because he was left-handed. Ordinarily the sword is on the left side, that it may be readily drawn out by the right hand; but...

Upon his right thigh - Because he was left-handed. Ordinarily the sword is on the left side, that it may be readily drawn out by the right hand; but as Ehud was left-handed, to be convenient his sword must be on the right side.

Clarke: Jdg 3:17 - Eglon was a very fat man Eglon was a very fat man - The איש בריא ish bari of the text is translated by the Septuagint ανηρ αστειος σφοδρα, a very...

Eglon was a very fat man - The איש בריא ish bari of the text is translated by the Septuagint ανηρ αστειος σφοδρα, a very beautiful or polite man, and in the Syriac, a very rude man. It probably means what we call lusty or corpulent.

Clarke: Jdg 3:18 - Made an end to offer the present Made an end to offer the present - Presents, tribute, etc., in the eastern countries were offered with very great ceremony; and to make the more par...

Made an end to offer the present - Presents, tribute, etc., in the eastern countries were offered with very great ceremony; and to make the more parade several persons, ordinarily slaves, sumptuously dressed, and in considerable number, were employed to carry what would not be a burden even to one. This appears to have been the case in the present instance.

Clarke: Jdg 3:19 - He - turned - from the quarries He - turned - from the quarries - פסילים pesilim . Some of the versions understand this word as meaning idols or graven images, or some spot...

He - turned - from the quarries - פסילים pesilim . Some of the versions understand this word as meaning idols or graven images, or some spot where the Moabites had a place of idolatrous worship. As פסל pasal signifies to cut, hew, or engrave, it may be applied to the images thus cut, or to the place, or quarry whence they were digged: but it is most likely that idols are meant. Some think that trenches are meant, and that pesilim here may mean the boundaries of the two countries: and when Ehud had got thus far, he sent away the people that were with him, under pretense of having a secret message to Eglon, and so got rid of his attendants, in presence of whom he could not have executed his scheme, nor have secured his escape afterwards. But I do not see the evidence of this mode of interpretation.

Clarke: Jdg 3:20 - He was sitting in a summer parlor He was sitting in a summer parlor - Besides the platforms, says Dr. Shaw, which were upon the ancient houses of the East, and which are found there ...

He was sitting in a summer parlor - Besides the platforms, says Dr. Shaw, which were upon the ancient houses of the East, and which are found there to this day, it is probable that heretofore, as well as at present, most of the great houses had a smaller one annexed, which seldom consisted of more than one or two rooms and a terrace. Others, built as they frequently are above the porch or gateway, have, if we except the ground-floor, all the conveniences belonging to the house, properly so called. There is a door of communication from them into the gallery of the house, kept open or shut at the discretion of the master of the house, besides another door which opens immediately from a privy stairs down into the porch or street, without giving the least disturbance to the house. In these back houses strangers are usually lodged and entertained; hither the men are wont to retire from the hurry and noise of their families, to be more at leisure for meditation or diversions; and they are often used for wardrobes and magazines. These the Arabs call oleah , which exactly answers to the Hebrew word עלית aliyath found in this place; and without doubt such was the apartment in which Eglon received Ehud, by the privy stairs belonging to which he escaped, after having killed Eglon. The doors of the Eastern buildings are large, and their chambers spacious, conveniences well adapted to those hotter climates; but in the present passage something more seems to be meant; at least there are now other conveniences in the East to give coolness to particular rooms, which are very common. In Egypt the cooling their rooms is effected by openings at the top, which let in the fresh air. Mons. Maillet informs us that their halls are made very large and lofty, with a dome at the top, which towards the north has several open windows, so constructed as to throw the north wind down into the rooms; and by this means, though the country is excessively hot, they can make the coolness of those apartments so great, as often not to be borne without being wrapped in furs. Eglon’ s was a chamber; and some contrivance to mitigate the heat of it was the more necessary, as he appears to have kept his court at Jericho, Jdg 3:13, Jdg 3:28, where the heat is so excessive as sometimes to prove fatal. See Harmer’ s Observations

Clarke: Jdg 3:20 - I have a message from God unto thee I have a message from God unto thee - דבר אלהים לי אליך debar elohim li aleycha , a word of the gods to me, unto thee. It is very lik...

I have a message from God unto thee - דבר אלהים לי אליך debar elohim li aleycha , a word of the gods to me, unto thee. It is very likely that the word elohim is used here to signify idols, or the pesilim mentioned above, Jdg 3:19. Ehud, having gone so far as this place of idolatry, might feign he had there been worshipping, and that the pesilim had inspired him with a message for the king; and this was the reason why the king commanded silence, why every man went out, and why he rose from his seat or throne, that he might receive it with the greater respect. This, being an idolater, he would not have done to any message coming from the God of Israel. I have a message from God unto thee is a popular text: many are fond of preaching from it. Now as no man should ever depart from the literal meaning of Scripture in his preaching, we may at once see the absurdity of taking such a text as this; for such preachers, to be consistent, should carry a two-edged dagger of a cubit length on their right thigh, and be ready to thrust it into the bowels of all those they address! This is certainly the literal meaning of the passage, and that it has no other meaning is an incontrovertible truth.

Clarke: Jdg 3:22 - The haft also went in after the blade The haft also went in after the blade - As the instrument was very short, and Eglon very corpulent, this might readily take place

The haft also went in after the blade - As the instrument was very short, and Eglon very corpulent, this might readily take place

Clarke: Jdg 3:22 - And the dirt came out And the dirt came out - This is variously understood: either the contents of the bowels issued through the wound, or he had an evacuation in the nat...

And the dirt came out - This is variously understood: either the contents of the bowels issued through the wound, or he had an evacuation in the natural way through the fright and anguish. The original, פרשדונה parshedonah , occurs only here, and is supposed to be compounded of פרש peresh , dung, and שדה shadah , to shed, and may be very well applied to the latter circumstance; so the Vulgate understood it: Statinque per secreta naturae alvi stercora proruperunt .

Clarke: Jdg 3:24 - He covereth his feet He covereth his feet - He has lain down on his sofa in order to sleep; when this was done they dropped their slippers, lifted up their feet, and cov...

He covereth his feet - He has lain down on his sofa in order to sleep; when this was done they dropped their slippers, lifted up their feet, and covered them with their long loose garments. But the versions, in general, seem to understand it as implying a certain natural act.

Clarke: Jdg 3:26 - Passed beyond the quarries Passed beyond the quarries - Beyond the pesilim , which appear to have been the Moabitish borders, where they had set up those hewn stones as landma...

Passed beyond the quarries - Beyond the pesilim , which appear to have been the Moabitish borders, where they had set up those hewn stones as landmarks, or sacred boundary stones.

Clarke: Jdg 3:28 - Took the fords of Jordan Took the fords of Jordan - It is very likely that the Moabites, who were on the western side of Jordan, hearing of the death of Eglon, were panic-st...

Took the fords of Jordan - It is very likely that the Moabites, who were on the western side of Jordan, hearing of the death of Eglon, were panic-struck, and endeavored to escape over Jordan at the fords near Jericho, when Ehud blew his trumpet in the mountains of Ephraim, and thus to get into the land of the Moabites, which lay on the east of Jordan; but Ehud and his men, seizing the only pass by which they could make their escape, slew ten thousand of them in their attempt to cross at those fords. What is called here the fords was doubtless the place where the Israelites had passed Jordan when they (under Joshua) took possession of the promised land.

Clarke: Jdg 3:29 - All lusty, and all men of valor All lusty, and all men of valor - Picked, chosen troops, which Eglon kept among the Israelites to reduce and overawe them.

All lusty, and all men of valor - Picked, chosen troops, which Eglon kept among the Israelites to reduce and overawe them.

Clarke: Jdg 3:30 - The land had rest fourscore years The land had rest fourscore years - This is usually reckoned from the deliverance under Othniel, that being a term from which they dated every trans...

The land had rest fourscore years - This is usually reckoned from the deliverance under Othniel, that being a term from which they dated every transaction, as in other cases they dated from the exodus, from the building of Solomon’ s temple, etc., and as other nations did from particular events: the Romans, from the building of the city; the Mohammedans, from the Hijreh, or flight of Mohammed to Medina; the Christians, from the birth of Christ, etc., etc. But see the preface, and the different chronological schemes there mentioned.

Clarke: Jdg 3:31 - And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath - Dr. Hales supposes that "Shamgar’ s administration in the West included Ehud’ s administratio...

And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath - Dr. Hales supposes that "Shamgar’ s administration in the West included Ehud’ s administration of eighty years in the East; and that, as this administration might have been of some continuance, so this Philistine servitude which is not noticed elsewhere, might have been of some duration; as may be incidentally collected from Deborah’ s thanksgiving, Jdg 5:6.

Clarke: Jdg 3:31 - Slew - six hundred men with an ox-goad Slew - six hundred men with an ox-goad - מלמד הבקר malmad habbakar , the instructer of the oxen. This instrument is differently understood ...

Slew - six hundred men with an ox-goad - מלמד הבקר malmad habbakar , the instructer of the oxen. This instrument is differently understood by the versions: the Vulgate has vomere , with the coulter or ploughshare, a dreadful weapon in the hand of a man endued with so much strength; the Septuagint has αροτροποδι των βοων, with the ploughshare of the oxen; the Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic, understand it of the goad, as does our translation

1.    That the ox-goad, still used in Palestine, is a sufficiently destructive weapon if used by a strong and skillful hand, is evident enough from the description which Mr. Maundrell gives of this implement, having seen many of them both in Palestine and Syria: "It was observable,"says he, "that in ploughing they used goads of an extraordinary size; upon measuring of several I found them about eight feet long, and at the bigger end about six inches in circumference. They were armed at the lesser end with a sharp prickle for driving the oxen, and at the other end with a small spade or paddle of iron, strong and massy, for cleansing the plough from the clay that encumbers it in working."See his Journey from Aleppo, etc., 7th edit., pp. 110, 111. In the hands of a strong, skillful man, such an instrument must be more dangerous and more fatal than any sword. It is worthy of remark that the ox-goad is represented by Homer to have been used prior to this time in the same way. In the address of Diomed to Glaucus, Iliad. lib. vi., ver. 129, Lycurgus is represented as discomfiting Bacchus and the Bacchanals with this weapon. The siege of Troy, according to the best chronologers, happened within the time of the Israelitish judges

Ουκ αν εγωγε θεοισιν επουρανιοισι μαχοιμην·

Ουδε γαρ ουδε Δρυαντος υἱος κρατερος Λυκουργος

Σευε κατ ηγαθεον Νυσσηΐον· αἱ δ ἁμα πασα

Θυσθλα χαμαι κατεχευαν, ὑπ ανδροφονοιο Λυκουργο

Θεινομεναι βουπληγι.

"I fight not with the inhabitants of heaven

That war Lycurgus, son of Dryas, waged

Nor long survived. - From Nyssa’ s sacred height

He drove the nurses of the frantic god

Thought drowning Bacchus: to the ground they cas

All cast, their leafy wands; while, ruthless, h

Spared not to smite them with his murderous goad.

The meaning of this fable is: Lycurgus, king of Thrace, finding his subjects addicted to drunkenness, proscribed the cultivation of the vine in his dominions, and instituted agriculture in its stead; thus θυσθλα, the thyrsi , were expelled, βουπληγι, by the ox-goad. The account, however, shows that Shamgar was not the only person who used the ox-goad as an offensive weapon. If we translate βουπληξ a cart-whip, the parallel is lost

2.    It appears that Shamgar was merely a laboring man; that the Philistines were making an inroad on the Israelites when the latter were cultivating their fields; that Shamgar and his neighbors successfully resisted them; that they armed themselves with their more portable agricultural instruments; and that Shamgar, either with a ploughshare or an ox-goad, slew six hundred of those marauders

3.    The case of Ehud killing Eglon is a very serious one; and how far he was justified in this action is with all a question of importance, and with not a few a question of difficulty. "Is it right to slay a tyrant?"I, without hesitation, answer, No individual has a right to slay any man, except it be in his own defense, when a person attacks him in order to take away his life. "But may not any of his oppressed subjects put an end to the life of a tyrant?"No. The state alone can judge whether a king is ruling contrary to the laws and constitution of that state; and if that state have provided laws for the punishment of a ruler who is endeavoring to destroy or subvert that constitution, then let him be dealt with according to those laws. But no individual or number of individuals in that state has any right to dispose of the life of the ruler but according to law. To take his life in any other way is no less than murder. It is true God, the author of life and the judge of all men, may commission one man to take away the life of a tyrant. But the pretension to such a commission must be strong, clear, and unequivocal; in short, if a man think he have such a commission, to be safe, he should require the Lord to give him as full an evidence of it as he did to Moses; and when such a person comes to the people, they should require him to give as many proofs of his Divine call as the Hebrews did Moses, before they should credit his pretensions. "But had not Ehud a Divine call?"I cannot tell. If he had, he did not murder Eglon; if he had not, his act, however it succeeded, was a murderous act; and if he had no message from God, (and there is no proof that he had), then he was a most base and hypocritical assassin. The sacred historian says nothing of his motives nor call; he mentions simply the fact, and leaves it without either observation or comment, and every reader is left to draw his own inference. The life of any ruler can only be at the disposal of the constitution, or that system of rules, laws, and regulations, by which the people he rules should be governed; if he rule not according to these, he is, ipso facto, deposed from his government. If he break the constitution, to the great injury or ruin of his subjects, then he is to be judged by those laws according to which he must have pledged himself to govern. If a king be deposed on any other account, it is rebellion. If his life be taken away by any means but those provided by the constitution, it is murder. No pretended or proved tyranny can justify his being taken off in any other way, or on any other account. And what constitution in the civilized world provides for the death of the supreme magistrate? It is true the good people, as they were called, of England and France, have each under a pretense of law, beheaded their king; and they endeavored to justify their conduct on the ground that those kings had broken the constitution: this being proved, they should have been deposed. But by what law, either of those nations or of the civilized world, were their lives taken away? Let it be remembered that the inflation of the punishment of death, either against or without law, is murder.

Defender: Jdg 3:14 - eighteen years The listed periods of servitude in the book of Judges total 111 years and included subjection to no less than nine different nations. Israel's periods...

The listed periods of servitude in the book of Judges total 111 years and included subjection to no less than nine different nations. Israel's periods of apostasy were costly."

TSK: Jdg 3:1 - the nations // prove // as had not am 2561, bc 1443, An, Ex, Is, 48 the nations : Jdg 2:21, Jdg 2:22; Deu 7:22 prove : Deu 8:2, Deu 8:16; 2Ch 32:31; Job 23:10; Pro 17:3; Jer 6:27, Jer 1...

am 2561, bc 1443, An, Ex, Is, 48

the nations : Jdg 2:21, Jdg 2:22; Deu 7:22

prove : Deu 8:2, Deu 8:16; 2Ch 32:31; Job 23:10; Pro 17:3; Jer 6:27, Jer 17:9, Jer 17:10; Zec 13:9; Joh 2:24; 1Pe 1:7, 1Pe 4:12; Rev 2:23

as had not : Jdg 2:10

TSK: Jdg 3:2 - might know // to teach might know : Gen 2:17, Gen 3:5, Gen 3:7; 2Ch 12:8; Mat 10:34-39; Joh 16:33; 1Co 9:26, 1Co 9:27; Eph 6:11-18; 1Ti 6:12; 2Ti 2:3, 2Ti 4:7 to teach : The...

might know : Gen 2:17, Gen 3:5, Gen 3:7; 2Ch 12:8; Mat 10:34-39; Joh 16:33; 1Co 9:26, 1Co 9:27; Eph 6:11-18; 1Ti 6:12; 2Ti 2:3, 2Ti 4:7

to teach : Their fathers fought by a divine power. God taught their hands to war and their fingers to fight, that they might be the instruments of destruction to the wicked nations on whom the curse rested; but now that they had forfeited His favour, they must learn what it is to fight like other men.

TSK: Jdg 3:3 - five lords // Canaanites // Sidonians // in mount five lords : Jdg 10:7, Jdg 14:4; Jos 13:3; 1Sa 4:1, 1Sa 4:2, 1Sa 6:18, 1Sa 13:5, 1Sa 13:19-23, 1Sa 29:2 Canaanites : Jdg 4:2, Jdg 4:23, Jdg 4:24; Gen ...

TSK: Jdg 3:4 - to prove to prove : Jdg 3:1, Jdg 2:22; Exo 15:25; Deu 33:8; 1Co 11:19; 2Th 2:9-12

TSK: Jdg 3:5 - dwelt // Canaanites dwelt : Jdg 1:29-32; Psa 106:34-38 Canaanites : Gen 10:15-18, Gen 15:19-21; Exo 3:8, Exo 3:17; Deu 7:1; Jos 9:1; Neh 9:8

TSK: Jdg 3:6 - -- Exo 34:16; Deu 7:3, Deu 7:4; 1Ki 11:1-5; Ezr 9:11, Ezr 9:12; Neh 13:23-27; Eze 16:3

TSK: Jdg 3:7 - did evil // the groves did evil : Jdg 3:12, Jdg 2:11-13 the groves : Jdg 6:25; Exo 34:13; Deu 16:21; 1Ki 16:33, 1Ki 18:19; 2Ki 23:6, 2Ki 23:14; 2Ch 15:16, 2Ch 24:18, 2Ch 33:...

TSK: Jdg 3:8 - was hot // he sold // Chushanrishathaim // Mesopotamia am 2591, bc 1413, An, Ex, Is, 78 was hot : Jdg 2:14, Jdg 2:20; Exo 22:24; Deu 29:20; Psa 6:1, Psa 85:3 he sold : Jdg 2:14, Jdg 4:9; Deu 32:30; 1Sa 12:...

am 2591, bc 1413, An, Ex, Is, 78

was hot : Jdg 2:14, Jdg 2:20; Exo 22:24; Deu 29:20; Psa 6:1, Psa 85:3

he sold : Jdg 2:14, Jdg 4:9; Deu 32:30; 1Sa 12:9; Isa 50:1; Rom 7:14

Chushanrishathaim : Hab 3:7

Mesopotamia : Heb. Aram -naharaim . Aram-naharayim, ""Syria of the two rivers,""or Mesopotamia, ""between the rivers,""is a famous province situated between the Tigris and Euphrates. It is called by Arabian geographers, Maverannaher , ""the country beyond the river;""and is now called Diarbek.

TSK: Jdg 3:9 - cried // raised up // deliverer // Othniel am 2599, bc 1405, An, Ex, Is, 86 cried : Jdg 3:15, Jdg 4:3, Jdg 6:7, Jdg 10:10; 1Sa 12:10; Neh 9:27; Psa 22:5, Psa 78:34, Psa 106:41-44; Psa 107:13-19...

am 2599, bc 1405, An, Ex, Is, 86

cried : Jdg 3:15, Jdg 4:3, Jdg 6:7, Jdg 10:10; 1Sa 12:10; Neh 9:27; Psa 22:5, Psa 78:34, Psa 106:41-44; Psa 107:13-19

raised up : Jdg 2:16

deliverer : Heb. saviour

Othniel : Jdg 1:13

TSK: Jdg 3:10 - the Spirit // came // Mesopotamia the Spirit : Jdg 6:34, Jdg 11:29, Jdg 13:25, Jdg 14:6, Jdg 14:19; Num 11:17, Num 27:18; 1Sa 10:6, 1Sa 11:6, 1Sa 16:13; 2Ch 15:1, 2Ch 20:14; Psa 51:11;...

TSK: Jdg 3:11 - the land // Othniel the land : Jdg 3:30, Jdg 5:31, Jdg 8:28; Jos 11:23; Est 9:22 Othniel : Jdg 3:9; Jos 15:17; 1Ch 4:13

TSK: Jdg 3:12 - did evil // and the Lord // the king am 2662, bc 1342, An, Ex, Is, 148 did evil : Jdg 2:19; Hos 6:4 and the Lord : Exo 9:16; 2Ki 5:1; Isa 10:15, Isa 37:26, Isa 45:1-4; Eze 38:16; Dan 4:22...

am 2662, bc 1342, An, Ex, Is, 148

did evil : Jdg 2:19; Hos 6:4

and the Lord : Exo 9:16; 2Ki 5:1; Isa 10:15, Isa 37:26, Isa 45:1-4; Eze 38:16; Dan 4:22; Dan 5:18; Joh 19:11

the king : 1Sa 12:9

TSK: Jdg 3:13 - Ammon // the city Ammon : Jdg 5:14; Psa 83:6 the city : Jdg 1:16; Deu 34:3; Psa 83:7

Ammon : Jdg 5:14; Psa 83:6

the city : Jdg 1:16; Deu 34:3; Psa 83:7

TSK: Jdg 3:14 - served served : Lev 26:23-25; Deu 28:40, Deu 28:47, Deu 28:48

TSK: Jdg 3:15 - cried unto // a Benjamite // lefthanded // sent a present am 2679, bc 1325, An, Ex, Is, 166 cried unto : Jdg 3:9; Psa 50:15, Psa 78:34, Psa 90:15; Jer 29:12, Jer 29:13, Jer 33:3 a Benjamite : or, the son of J...

am 2679, bc 1325, An, Ex, Is, 166

cried unto : Jdg 3:9; Psa 50:15, Psa 78:34, Psa 90:15; Jer 29:12, Jer 29:13, Jer 33:3

a Benjamite : or, the son of Jemini

lefthanded : Heb. shut of his right hand, This Hebrew phrase intimates that, either through disease or disuse, he made little or no use of the right hand, but of his left only, and so was the less fit for war, because he would most likely wield a dagger awkwardlycaps1 . ycaps0 et God chose this left-handed man to be the minister of his retributive justice. It was God’ s right hand that gained Israel the victory, Psa 44:3; not the right hand of the instruments he employed. Jdg 20:16; 1Ch 12:2

sent a present : 1Sa 10:27; Pro 18:16, Pro 19:6, Pro 21:14; Isa 36:16

TSK: Jdg 3:16 - two edges // upon two edges : Psa 149:6; Heb 4:12; Rev 1:16, Rev 2:12 upon : Jdg 3:21; Psa 45:3; Son 3:8

TSK: Jdg 3:17 - a very fat a very fat : Jdg 3:29 *marg. 1Sa 2:29; Job 15:27; Psa 73:7, Psa 73:19; Jer 5:28, Jer 50:11; Eze 34:20

TSK: Jdg 3:19 - quarries // a secret // And all that quarries : or graven images, Jos 4:20 a secret : Jdg 3:20; 2Ki 9:5, 2Ki 9:6; Act 23:18, Act 23:19 And all that : Gen 45:1

quarries : or graven images, Jos 4:20

a secret : Jdg 3:20; 2Ki 9:5, 2Ki 9:6; Act 23:18, Act 23:19

And all that : Gen 45:1

TSK: Jdg 3:20 - a summer parlour // I have // he arose a summer parlour : Heb. a parlour of cooling, The aleeyah , or upper chamber, seems to have been of the same description as the oleah of the Arab...

a summer parlour : Heb. a parlour of cooling, The aleeyah , or upper chamber, seems to have been of the same description as the oleah of the Arabs, but properly ventilated, described by Dr. Shaw, who says, that to most of their houses there is a smaller one annexed, which sometimes rises one story higher than the house; at other times, it consists of one or two rooms only, and a terrace; while others that are built, as they frequently are, over the porch or gateway, have, if we except the ground floor, which they want, all the conveniences that belong to the house itself. There is a door of communication from them into the gallery of the house; besides another, which opens immediately from a private staircase, down into the porch or street, without giving the least disturbance to the house. In these back houses strangers are usually lodged and entertained; and to them likewise the men are wont to retire from the noise and hurry of their families, to be more at leisure for mediation or diversions. Amo 3:15

I have : Jdg 3:19; 2Sa 12:1-15, 2Sa 24:12; Mic 6:9

he arose : Psa 29:1; Jer 10:7

TSK: Jdg 3:21 - thrust it thrust it : Num 25:7, Num 25:8; 1Sa 15:33; Job 20:25; Zec 13:3; 2Co 5:16

TSK: Jdg 3:22 - the dirt came out the dirt came out : or, it came out at the fundament, Jdg 3:22

the dirt came out : or, it came out at the fundament, Jdg 3:22

TSK: Jdg 3:24 - covereth covereth : etc. or, doeth his easement, 1Sa 24:3

covereth : etc. or, doeth his easement, 1Sa 24:3

TSK: Jdg 3:26 - the quarries the quarries : Jdg 3:19

the quarries : Jdg 3:19

TSK: Jdg 3:27 - he blew // mountain he blew : Jdg 5:14, Jdg 6:34; 1Sa 13:3; 2Sa 20:22; 2Ki 9:13 mountain : Jdg 7:24, Jdg 17:1, Jdg 19:1; Jos 17:15, Jos 17:18

TSK: Jdg 3:28 - Follow // the Lord // the fords Follow : Jdg 4:10, Jdg 7:17 the Lord : Jdg 7:9, Jdg 7:15; 1Sa 17:47 the fords : Jdg 12:5; Jos 2:7

Follow : Jdg 4:10, Jdg 7:17

the Lord : Jdg 7:9, Jdg 7:15; 1Sa 17:47

the fords : Jdg 12:5; Jos 2:7

TSK: Jdg 3:29 - lusty lusty : Heb. fat, Jdg 3:17; Deu 32:15; Job 15:27; Psa 17:10

lusty : Heb. fat, Jdg 3:17; Deu 32:15; Job 15:27; Psa 17:10

TSK: Jdg 3:30 - And the land And the land : Jdg 3:11, Jdg 5:31

And the land : Jdg 3:11, Jdg 5:31

TSK: Jdg 3:31 - Shamgar // an ox goad // also // Israel Shamgar : Jdg 5:6, Jdg 5:8 an ox goad : This implement, Mr. Maundrell informs us, in Palestine and Syria is of an extraordinary size. He measured sev...

Shamgar : Jdg 5:6, Jdg 5:8

an ox goad : This implement, Mr. Maundrell informs us, in Palestine and Syria is of an extraordinary size. He measured several, and ""found them about eight feet long; and at the bigger end about six inches in circumference. They were armed at the lesser end with a sharp prickle for driving the oxen; and at the other end with a small paddle of iron, strong and massive, for cleansing the plough from the clay. In the hand of a powerful man such an instrument must be more dangerous and fatal than a sword.""Jdg 15:15; 1Sa 13:19-22, 1Sa 17:47, 1Sa 17:50; 1Co 1:17

also : Jdg 2:16

Israel : ""So part is called Israel.""Jdg 4:1, 3-24, Jdg 10:7, Jdg 10:17, 11:4-33; 1Sa 4:1 ""It seems to concern only the country next to the Philistines.""

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Jdg 3:2 - Might know, to teach them war Might know, to teach them war that by the neighbourhood of such warlike potent enemies, they might be purged from sloth and security, and obliged to ...

Might know, to teach them war that by the neighbourhood of such warlike potent enemies, they might be purged from sloth and security, and obliged to inure themselves to martial exercises, and to stand continually upon their guard, and consequently to keep close to that God whose assistance they had so great and constant need of.

Poole: Jdg 3:3 - Five lords of the Philistines // The Canaanites // The Sidonians // Mount Baal-hermon Five lords of the Philistines whereof three had been in some sort subdued, Jud 1:18 , but afterwards rescued themselves, and recovered their former s...

Five lords of the Philistines whereof three had been in some sort subdued, Jud 1:18 , but afterwards rescued themselves, and recovered their former strength. See Poole on "Jud 1:18" .

The Canaanites properly so called, who were very numerous, and dispersed through several parts of the land whence they gave denomination to all the rest of the people.

The Sidonians the people living near Sidon, and subject to its jurisdiction.

Mount Baal-hermon was the eastern part of Mount Lebanon: see Deu 3:8,9 .

Poole: Jdg 3:4 - To know To know i.e. that they and others might know by experience.

To know i.e. that they and others might know by experience.

Poole: Jdg 3:6 - -- Were drawn to idolatry by the persuasions and examples of their yoke-fellows, through the just judgment of God, punishing their sinful marriages by ...

Were drawn to idolatry by the persuasions and examples of their yoke-fellows, through the just judgment of God, punishing their sinful marriages by giving them up to idolatry.

Poole: Jdg 3:7 - Baalim i.e. In the groves, in which the heathens usually worshipped their Baalims or idols. Or, the groves are here put metonymically for the idols of ...

i.e. In the groves, in which the heathens usually worshipped their Baalims or idols. Or, the groves are here put metonymically for the idols of the groves, which are distinguished here from their

Baalim which seem to have been worshipped in other places, as the prophets of Baal are distinguished from the prophets of the groves , 1Ki 18:19 .

Poole: Jdg 3:8 - -- i.e. Were made subject and tributary to him.

i.e. Were made subject and tributary to him.

Poole: Jdg 3:9 - Cried unto the Lord // Caleb’ s younger brother Cried unto the Lord i.e. prayed fervently for deliverance. Caleb’ s younger brother ; of which See Poole "Jud 1:13" .

Cried unto the Lord i.e. prayed fervently for deliverance.

Caleb’ s younger brother ; of which See Poole "Jud 1:13" .

Poole: Jdg 3:10 - The Spirit of the Lord came upon him // He judged Israel The Spirit of the Lord came upon him with extraordinary influences, endowing him with singular wisdom, and courage, and resolution; and stirring him ...

The Spirit of the Lord came upon him with extraordinary influences, endowing him with singular wisdom, and courage, and resolution; and stirring him up to this great undertaking. Compare Jud 6:34 11:29 .

He judged Israel i.e. pleaded and avenged the cause of Israel against their oppressors; as that phrase is oft used, as Deu 32:36 Psa 10:18 43:1 .

Poole: Jdg 3:11 - The land had rest // the land The land had rest either, first, It rested about forty years, or the greatest part of forty years; it being most frequent in Scripture to use numbers...

The land had rest either, first, It rested about forty years, or the greatest part of forty years; it being most frequent in Scripture to use numbers in such a latitude. Thus the Israelites are said to bear their iniquities forty years in the wilderness , Num 14:34 , when there wanted near two years of that number; and to dwell in Egypt four hundred and thirty years , when there wanted many years of that number. Thus Joseph’ s kindred , sent for and called by him into Egypt, are numbered seventy-five souls, Act 7:14 , although they were but seventy, as is affirmed, Gen 46:27 Exo 1:5 . So here

the land is said to

rest forty years , although they were in servitude eight of those years, Jud 3:8 . And in like manner the land is said to have rest eighty years , though eighteen of them they served the king of Moab, Jud 3:14 . And so in some other instances. Nor is it strange and unusual, either in Scripture or in other authors, for things to be denominated from the greater part, as here it was; especially when they did enjoy some degrees of rest and peace, even in their times of slavery, which here they did. Or, secondly, It rested , i.e. began to rest, or recovered its interrupted rest, in the fortieth year , either after Joshua’ s death, or after the first and famous rest procured for them by Joshua, as is noted, Heb 4:9 , when he destroyed and subdued the Canaanites, and gave them quiet possession of the land; and the land had rest from war , as is said, Jos 11:23 14:15 . So there is this difference between the years of servitude and oppression, and those of rest, that in the former he tells us how long it lasted; in the latter, when it began; by which, compared with the other years, it was easy also to know how long the rest lasted. To strengthen this interpretation, two things must be noted.

1. That resting is here put for beginning to rest, as to beget is put for beginning to beget , Gen 5:32 11:26 ; and to reign , for to begin to reign , 2Sa 2:10 ; and to build , 1Ki 6:15,36 , for to begin to build , 2Ch 3:1 .

2. That forty years is put for the fortieth year ; the cardinal number for the ordinal, which is common both in the Holy Scripture, as Gen 1:5 2:11 Exo 12:2 Hag 1:1 Mar 16:2 and in other authors.

Poole: Jdg 3:12 - Strengthened Eglon Strengthened Eglon by giving him courage, and power, and success against them.

Strengthened Eglon by giving him courage, and power, and success against them.

Poole: Jdg 3:13 - -- i.e. Jericho, as may be gathered from Deu 24:3 Jud 1:16 2Ch 28:15 . Not the city, which was demolished, but the territory belonging to it. Here he f...

i.e. Jericho, as may be gathered from Deu 24:3 Jud 1:16 2Ch 28:15 . Not the city, which was demolished, but the territory belonging to it. Here he fixed his camp, partly for the admirable fertility of that soil; and partly because of its nearness to the passage over Jordan, which was most commodious, both for the conjunction of his own forces, which lay on both sides of Jordan; and to prevent the conjunction of the Israelites in Canaan with their brethren beyond Jordan; and to secure his retreat into his own country, which therefore the Israelites prevented, Jud 3:28 .

Poole: Jdg 3:15 - A Benjamite // Left-handed A Benjamite Heb. the son of Gemini , who was of the tribe of Benjamin, 2Sa 16:11 19:17 1Ki 2:8 . This tribe was next to him and doubtless most affli...

A Benjamite Heb. the son of Gemini , who was of the tribe of Benjamin, 2Sa 16:11 19:17 1Ki 2:8 . This tribe was next to him and doubtless most afflicted by him; and hence God raiseth a deliverer.

Left-handed which is here noted, partly as a mark of his courage, and strength, and activity; see Jud 20:16 ; and principally as a considerable circumstance in the following story, whereby he might more advantageously and unsuspectedly give the deadly blow.

Poole: Jdg 3:16 - A cubit length // Upon his right thigh A cubit length long enough for his design, and not too long for carriage and concealment. Upon his right thigh which was most convenient, both for ...

A cubit length long enough for his design, and not too long for carriage and concealment.

Upon his right thigh which was most convenient, both for the use of his left hand, and for the avoiding of suspicion.

Poole: Jdg 3:17 - The present // A very fat man The present was to be paid to him as a part of his tribute. A very fat man and therefore more unwieldy and unable to ward off Ehud’ s blow.

The present was to be paid to him as a part of his tribute.

A very fat man and therefore more unwieldy and unable to ward off Ehud’ s blow.

Poole: Jdg 3:18 - -- He accompanied them part of the way, and then dismissed them, and returned to Eglon alone, that so he might have more easy access to him, and privac...

He accompanied them part of the way, and then dismissed them, and returned to Eglon alone, that so he might have more easy access to him, and privacy with him; and that he might the better make his escape.

Poole: Jdg 3:19 - He turned again // From the quarries // Keep silence He turned again as if he had forgot and neglected some important business. From the quarries either, first, Whence they hewed stones. Or, secondly,...

He turned again as if he had forgot and neglected some important business.

From the quarries either, first, Whence they hewed stones. Or, secondly, The twelve stones which Joshua set up there; by the sight whereof he was animated to his work. Or, thirdly, The idols, as the word also signifies, which that heathen king might place there, either in spite and contempt to the Israelites, who had that place in great veneration; or that he might ascribe his conquest of the land to his idols, as the Israelites did to the true God, by setting up this monument in the entrance or beginning of it.

Keep silence till my servants be gone; whom he would not have acquainted with a business which he supposed to be of great and close importance.

Poole: Jdg 3:20 - Which he had for himself alone // I have a message // From God // He arose out of his seat They had divers houses and chambers, some for winter , others for summer . See Jer 36:22 Amo 3:15 . Which he had for himself alone into which he...

They had divers houses and chambers, some for winter , others for summer . See Jer 36:22 Amo 3:15 .

Which he had for himself alone into which he used to retire himself from company; which is mentioned as the reason why his servants waited so long ere they went in to him, Jud 3:25 .

I have a message to be delivered not in words, but by actions; Heb. a word , or thing , or business . So that there is no need to charge Ehud with a lie, as some do.

From God: this he saith to amuse him, by raising his expectation and wonder, to divert him from any apprehension of his danger, and to oblige him to rise out of his seat, which he knew he would do from the common practice of the heathens in their intercourses with God. And he designedly useth the name Elohim, which was common to the true God and false ones, and not Jehovah, which was peculiar to the true God, because Ehud not knowing whether the message came not from his own false god, he would more certainly rise, and thereby give Ehud more advantage for his blow; whereas he would possibly show his contempt of the God of Israel by sitting still to hear his message.

He arose out of his seat in token of humble subjection and reverence to God; see Num 23:18 2Ki 23:3 ; which condemns those Christians that behave themselves irreverently in the presence and service of the true God.

Poole: Jdg 3:22 - -- i.e. His excrements came forth, not at the wound, which closed up, but at the fundament, as is usual when persons die either a natural or violent de...

i.e. His excrements came forth, not at the wound, which closed up, but at the fundament, as is usual when persons die either a natural or violent death.

Poole: Jdg 3:23 - Ehud went forth // Upon him // Locked them Ehud went forth with a composed countenance and gait, without any fear; being well assured that God, who by his extraordinary call had put him upon t...

Ehud went forth with a composed countenance and gait, without any fear; being well assured that God, who by his extraordinary call had put him upon that enterprise, would by his special providence preserve him, and carry him through it.

Upon him either upon the king, or upon or after himself.

Locked them either by pulling it close after him, as we do when doors have spring-locks; or by taking the key with him for more caution; and this he did, that they supposing the king to be retired, might wait till he was gone.

Poole: Jdg 3:24 - -- Covereth his feet: this phrase is used only here and 1Sa 24:3 . It is commonly understood in both places, of easing nature; because the men not then...

Covereth his feet: this phrase is used only here and 1Sa 24:3 . It is commonly understood in both places, of easing nature; because the men not then wearing breeches, as we do, but long coats, they did in that act cover their feet, as women do: but a late judicious interpreter expounds it of composing himself to take a little sleep or rest, as was very usual to do in the day-time in those hot countries, 2Sa 4:5 11:2 . And when they did so in cool places, such as this summer parlour unquestionably was, they used to cover their feet, as appears from Rth 3:7 . And this may seem to be the more probable, both because the summer parlour was more proper for this use than for the former; and because this was a more likely reason of their long waiting at his door, lest they should disturb his repose. And this sense best agrees with Saul’ s case in the cave, when being asleep David could more securely cut off the lap of his garment, 1Sa 24:3 , where See Poole "1Sa 24:3" . annotations.

Poole: Jdg 3:25 - Ashamed // A key Ashamed or, confounded , not knowing what to say or think; lest they should either disturb him, or be guilty of neglect towards him. A key another...

Ashamed or, confounded , not knowing what to say or think; lest they should either disturb him, or be guilty of neglect towards him.

A key another key , it being usual in princes’ courts to have divers keys for the same door.

Poole: Jdg 3:27 - the children of Israel Doubtless he had prepared the children of Israel and by his emissaries gathered together in considerable numbers.

Doubtless he had prepared

the children of Israel and by his emissaries gathered together in considerable numbers.

Poole: Jdg 3:28 - The fords The fords where they passed over Jordan, that neither the Moabites that were got into Canaan might escape, nor any more Moabites come over Jordan to ...

The fords where they passed over Jordan, that neither the Moabites that were got into Canaan might escape, nor any more Moabites come over Jordan to their succour.

Poole: Jdg 3:30 - -- How these are to be understood, See Poole "Jud 3:11" . Instead of eighty , some copies read eight years.

How these are to be understood, See Poole "Jud 3:11" . Instead of eighty , some copies read eight years.

Poole: Jdg 3:31 - Slew six hundred men with an ox-goad Slew six hundred men with an ox-goad as Samson did a thousand with the jaw-bone of an ass; both being miraculous actions, and not at all incredible t...

Slew six hundred men with an ox-goad as Samson did a thousand with the jaw-bone of an ass; both being miraculous actions, and not at all incredible to him that believes a God, who could easily give strength both to the persons and to their weapons to effect this.

Haydock: Jdg 3:1 - With With, &c. Hebrew [and] Protestants, "And the haft also went in after the blade, and the fat closed upon the blade, so that he could not draw the dag...

With, &c. Hebrew [and] Protestants, "And the haft also went in after the blade, and the fat closed upon the blade, so that he could not draw the dagger out of his belly, and the dirt came out." By the word belly, the Jews mean all the vital parts. (Calmet) ---- The wound was so deep, that Aod did not think proper to strive long to extract his sword; and indeed, being all bloody, it would have only tended to excite suspicion. (Haydock) ---

The Chaldean agrees with the Vulgate in rendering parshedona "excrements," though it seem to be rather irregularly in construction with a masculine [], &c. If we should read peristana, "a porch," the difficulty would be avoided. (Calmet) ---

Septuagint, "( 23 ) and Aod went out into the porch, ( prostada ) and he shut the doors of the upper chamber....( 24 ) and he himself went out." (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 3:1 - Instruct // And all // He that hath been experienced in many things, multiplieth prudence Instruct. The original is translated try, ver. 4, and chap. ii. 22. --- And all. Hebrew, "as many of Israel as had not," &c. (Haydock) --- ...

Instruct. The original is translated try, ver. 4, and chap. ii. 22. ---

And all. Hebrew, "as many of Israel as had not," &c. (Haydock) ---

Those who had served under Josue, were so strongly impressed with a sense of the divine power and severity, that they never forgot them: but there was a danger lest their children should grow careless, if they were suffered to enjoy a constant state of prosperity. Virtue or power is made perfect in infirmity, 2 Corinthians xii. 9. (Calmet) ---

He that hath been experienced in many things, multiplieth prudence, Ecclesiasticus xxxiv. 10.

Haydock: Jdg 3:2 - And be And be. Hebrew, "at least, such as before knew nothing thereof." Though war be in itself an evil, the passions of men render it necessary, and God ...

And be. Hebrew, "at least, such as before knew nothing thereof." Though war be in itself an evil, the passions of men render it necessary, and God makes use of it as a scourge, to punish the wicked, and at the same time to keep all under due restraint. (Haydock) ---

Too long a peace has proved sometimes fatal to states and to the virtue of individuals. In adversity we call upon God, and adhere to him with greater fervour and constancy. The Jews were so prone to evil, that, if they were permitted to enjoy tranquility for a few years, they presently forgot themselves and the author of all their good, and even turned their backs upon the only true God. Their enemies forced them to have recourse to Him. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 3:3 - Princes // All the Chanaanites, &c., who dwelt in Libanus // Baal Hermon Princes, ( satrapas ) a Persian word. (Menochius) --- These heads of the five great cities of the Philistines, are called Seranim, (Haydock) but ...

Princes, ( satrapas ) a Persian word. (Menochius) ---

These heads of the five great cities of the Philistines, are called Seranim, (Haydock) but never kings, whether they were governors of so many petty states, united in the same form of republican or aristocratical government, or independent of each other. See Josue xiii. Three of these cities are said to have been take by Juda, (chap. i. 18,) unless the Septuagint be more accurate, as this passage would seem to insinuate. (Calmet) ---

They might have thrown off the yoke in a short time, as we before observed. These five cities were Gaza, Geth, Ascalon, Azotus, and Accaron. (Haydock) ---

All but Geth were on the Mediterranean sea. (Calmet) ---

All the Chanaanites, &c., who dwelt in Libanus, with some others, who were dispersed though the country, ver. 5. (Haydock) ---

These chiefly inhabited the environs of Sidon. ---

Baal Hermon. The idol of Baal might probably be adored on this mountain. (Menochius) ---

We find Baal-gad in the same neighbourhood, and both may mean the same city. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 3:4 - Not Not. Various reasons are assigned, on the part of God, for not exterminating these nations at once. But their being spared so long, must be imputed...

Not. Various reasons are assigned, on the part of God, for not exterminating these nations at once. But their being spared so long, must be imputed to the disobedience of the Israelites, otherwise they would surely never have been tolerated with their idol-worship in the land of promise, to contaminate, by their wicked example, the manners of God's people. If they would have redeemed their lives, they must at least have given up the land and their idols. As the Israelites proved so little zealous in destroying the latter, they were justly punished by God, in being deprived of what would have contributed to make them richer and more comfortable in this world. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 3:6 - Gods Gods. This was the fatal consequence which God had foretold, Deuteronomy vii. 4. (Haydock)

Gods. This was the fatal consequence which God had foretold, Deuteronomy vii. 4. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 3:7 - Astaroth Astaroth. Hebrew Asheroth, Septuagint, "the groves," (Menochius) of which Astaroth was the goddess, (Calmet) like Diana, chap. ii. 11. Various tr...

Astaroth. Hebrew Asheroth, Septuagint, "the groves," (Menochius) of which Astaroth was the goddess, (Calmet) like Diana, chap. ii. 11. Various trees were sacred to idols. (Menochius)

Haydock: Jdg 3:8 - Chusan // Rasathaim // Mesopotamia // Eight years Chusan. This name leads us to conclude that this prince was of Scythian extraction, a descendant of Chus: (Calmet) it signifies "black," or an Eth...

Chusan. This name leads us to conclude that this prince was of Scythian extraction, a descendant of Chus: (Calmet) it signifies "black," or an Ethiopian." (Menochius) ---

Rasathaim was perhaps the place of his nativity. As it means "of two sorts of malice," Arias thinks that the Syrian kings took this title to shew that they would punish or repress all crimes against the civil or criminal law, (Menochius) those which affected the property as well as the lives of their subjects. (Haydock) ---

Mesopotamia. In Hebrew Aram naharayim. Syria of the two rivers; so called because it lies between the Euphrates and the Tigris. It is absolutely called Syria, ver. 10. (Challoner) ---

Eight years, by manual labour and presents, testifying their submission to their oppressor, who might not perhaps live among them. (Calmet) ---

Moir's edition, by mistake, reads eighty years. The Hebrews were equally fallible, chap. iii. 30. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 3:9 - Saviour // Caleb Saviour. "We must remark, that the man by whom God grants us safety, is styled a saviour," (St. Augustine, q. 18,) though Christ is the proper and p...

Saviour. "We must remark, that the man by whom God grants us safety, is styled a saviour," (St. Augustine, q. 18,) though Christ is the proper and principal Saviour. (Worthington) ---

Caleb. Septuagint, "the younger son of Cenez, who was the brother of Caleb." (Haydock) ---

Othoniel was one of the ancients. If he could not prevent the people from falling into idolatry, he rescued them from it. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 3:10 - In him // Him In him, to instruct and enable him both to rout the enemy, and to govern the people with prudence. (Haydock) --- Chaldean, "the spirit of prophecy....

In him, to instruct and enable him both to rout the enemy, and to govern the people with prudence. (Haydock) ---

Chaldean, "the spirit of prophecy." The oracle excited him to attack Chusan. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] v. 3.) He was entrusted with an extraordinary authority, in a wonderful manner, and God gave him all those virtues which were requisite for his exalted station. (Calmet) ---

Him. Hebrew, "his hand was strong upon Chusan Rasathaim." He gained a complete victory over him, (Haydock) the particulars of which are not mentioned, though they must have been very interesting and extraordinary, as the power of Chusan was so extensive. (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 3:11 - Died Died, "forty years after Josue, according to the chronology of Usher, which we follow," (Calmet) or rather Usher translates the land began to rest "i...

Died, "forty years after Josue, according to the chronology of Usher, which we follow," (Calmet) or rather Usher translates the land began to rest "in the fortieth year" from the peace of Josue. He places the death to that leader in the year of the world 2570, and the end of Chusan's dominion 2599; so that, if we deduct 40 years from this last date, we shall come to the year 2559, the sixth of Josue's administration, when he began to divide the conquered lands. He supposes that the peace of Othoniel lasted about 62 years, when Eglon disturbed it for eighteen years. "Aod delivered Israel. After him Samgar appeared, and the land rested till the 80 th year from the peace of Othoniel." Houbigant censures this indiscriminate use of cardinal and of ordinal numbers, and the blending times of servitude with those of peace; (Haydock) and "surely this method of reckoning is very harsh, and contrary to the usual acceptation of words." (Calmet) ---

Yet it is adopted by many. (Worthington) ---

IT may suit to form a system, but can have no solid foundation. (Haydock) ---

The epoch from which Usher dates is no where so distinctly specified, as that we should suppose that the author of the Book of Judges had it in view. Moreover, by this method, we are left to guess how long each of the judges reigned, or how long the peace which they had procured, subsisted. Usher admits that they years of servitude are specified; and, why not also the years of peace, since they are expressed exactly in the same manner? If the ordinal numbers 40th, 80th, &c., were intended, b would be prefixed, as [in] Deuteronomy i. 3.; and this grammatical observation along, suffices to overturn the calculation of Usher. (Houbigant, Proleg.) ---

Salien dates from the death of Josue in 2600, and allows that 40 years elapsed from that period till the decease of Othoniel; including the years which some attribute to the ancients, and to the anarchy; (chap. xvii., &c., to the end,) and also the eight years of servitude; so that instead of a rest of 40 years, we shall find that all was in confusion the greatest part of the time. The idolatry of Israel, which shortly brought on the servitude under Eglon, commenced immediately after the conclusion of these 40 years, when Salien begins to enumerate the years of Aod's government. Thus he does from one judge to another. This system does not indeed make the text bend to uphold it, but it supposes that the sacred writer includes anarchy and servitude under the name of rest. In these matters much is to be supplied by conjecture, and hence the chronological difficulties which infidels propose, to invalidate the authority of the Scripture, can have but little weight, till the learned shall have discovered the exact disposition of former times. The first judge of Israel was of the tribe of Juda. The second was chosen from the almost ruined tribe of Benjamin, as the learned commonly place the dreadful catastrophe which befel that tribe during the anarchy which ensued, and the death of Josue and of the ancients. Aod had no share in the crime. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 3:12 - Eglon Eglon, signifies "a calf." (Calmet) --- God made use of this prince to scourge his people, with the assistance of the neighbouring nations. He too...

Eglon, signifies "a calf." (Calmet) ---

God made use of this prince to scourge his people, with the assistance of the neighbouring nations. He took Engaddi, in the plains of Jericho, and was thus enabled to keep an eye both upon his own subjects and the conquered Israelites. (Calmet) ---

Here he probably met with his untimely end. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 3:15 - Aod // Right // Presents Aod, signifies "praise," whence perhaps Josephus calls him Judes which has the same import. (Menochius) --- He was a descendant of Jemini or Be...

Aod, signifies "praise," whence perhaps Josephus calls him Judes which has the same import. (Menochius) ---

He was a descendant of Jemini or Benjamin, by his son Gera, Genesis xlvi. 1. ---

Right. Septuagint and many interpreters agree, that Aod was "Ambidexter," a quality which Plato exhorted those who were designed for war, to strive to acquire. Several of the heroes before Troy are praised on this account; and the Scripture takes particular notice of 700 citizens of Gabaa, who could use both hands alike, and could hit even a hair with a stone, chap. xx. 16. The Jews explain itter, very absurdly; Aod "had his right hand maimed or tied:" (Calmet) and Protestants render "a man left-handed." (Haydock) ---

This would be a very awkward recommendation for a warrior, though it is pretended that such are more resolute, and more difficult to encounter than others. The number of the men at Gabaa who are praised for their skill, as well as the brave men of David, (1 Paralipomenon xii. 2,) shews sufficiently that the term does not mean left-handed. But the Scripture here takes notice that Aod could use his left hand so well, because he placed his dagger, contrary to custom, on his right side, and the motions of his left hand would not be so narrowly watched. Rufin does not agree with the present text of Josephus, which indeed seems very confused saying, "that all the strength of Aod lay in his left hand." Gelenius also translates, utraque manu ex æquo promptus; (Antiquities v. 5,) so that perhaps the Greek of Josephus may have been altered. ---

Presents; that is, tribute; an odious expression, instead of which the Scripture often puts presents, 1 Kings x. 27., and 1 Paralipomenon xviii. 2. No tribute was imposed in Persia till the reign of Darius Hystaspes; the subject had to make presents to the king. (Herodotus iii. 89.) (Calmet)

Haydock: Jdg 3:16 - He made // Hand // Garment // Thigh He made, or procured, though it was formerly honourable for a person to do such things himself. (Calmet) --- Hand. Hebrew gomed, is translated b...

He made, or procured, though it was formerly honourable for a person to do such things himself. (Calmet) ---

Hand. Hebrew gomed, is translated by the Protestants, "of a cubit length," (Haydock) though the term is never used elsewhere for that measure. Septuagint have spithame, a measure of 12 fingers. ---

Garment. The sagum, as well as the Septuagint mandua, from the Hebrew mad, denote a military garment. But such a dress might have rendered Aod suspected, (Calmet) unless an uniform might then be deemed a suitable dress for an ambassador. (Haydock) ---

Thigh. The Jews wore the sword there; (Psalm xliv. 4,) and it would be more convenient on the left thigh, as the nations of Gaul and Germany had it, while the Roman cavalry wore the sword on the right; and the infantry had two swords, the long one on the left, and a shorter, about an hand's length, on the right. (Josephus, Jewish Wars iii. 3.) (Lipsius)

Haydock: Jdg 3:17 - Fat Fat. The ancient version used by St. Augustine had , "lean," which he justly took in an ironical sense. Septuagint asteios, signifies "beautiful ...

Fat. The ancient version used by St. Augustine had , "lean," which he justly took in an ironical sense. Septuagint asteios, signifies "beautiful and genteel." (Calmet) ---

Serarius explains it in the same sense as the Vulgate. (Menochius)

Haydock: Jdg 3:18 - Him Him; or according to the Hebrew, Septuagint, and Chaldean, "he sent away the men who had brought the presents." (Calmet) --- But is seems he follow...

Him; or according to the Hebrew, Septuagint, and Chaldean, "he sent away the men who had brought the presents." (Calmet) ---

But is seems he followed after them as far as Galgal, (Haydock) whence he returned, as if he had been consulting the oracle, and had orders to communicate something of importance to the king, unless we translate, "He dismissed, &c., ( 19. ) and as he was returned from the idols at Galgal, he said," &c., at the same interview. (Calmet) He would not expose his companions to danger. (Menochius)

Haydock: Jdg 3:19 - Idols // Silence Idols. Hebrew pesilim. Some take these to be only heaps of stones. Protestants, "quarries." (Haydock) --- But the Septuagint, &c., represent t...

Idols. Hebrew pesilim. Some take these to be only heaps of stones. Protestants, "quarries." (Haydock) ---

But the Septuagint, &c., represent them as "carved" idols. The same expression is used [in] Exodus xx. 4., &c. The Moabites had probably placed idols here, to profane that sacred place, which was resorted to out of devotion by the Israelites, Osee iv. 14., and Amos iv. 5. Here also the prophets inform us that the ten tribes adored and consulted idols; resembling perhaps that of Michas, chap. xvii. 4. ---

Silence to Aod, (Calmet) that none of the people might be able to divulge the secret. Hebrew, "be thou silent." (Menochius)

Haydock: Jdg 3:20 - Alone // A word // Throne Alone. Hebrew, "Aod approached unto him, and he was sitting in a summer parlour, which he had for himself, alone." It seems to have been a private ...

Alone. Hebrew, "Aod approached unto him, and he was sitting in a summer parlour, which he had for himself, alone." It seems to have been a private closet, to which he retired for greater secrecy, as his officers concluded that he was there only to ease nature. (Haydock) ---

It might be rendered, "a hall of audience." (Calmet) ---

But the place where Aod presented the tribute, was more probably of this description, and Eglon retired thence into a back parlour, and was followed by Aod, alone, ver. 24. (Haydock) ---

A word. What Aod, who was judge and chief magistrate of Israel, did on this occasion, was by a special inspiration of God: but such things are not to be imitated by private men. (Challoner; St. Augustine, q. 20.; Numbers xxv.) Worthington) ---

Hebrew, "a thing (message, &c.) from God, (Aleim) or the gods." Probably the king would imagine that he was speaking of the idols at Galgal, and being full of awe for them, would be off his guard, and rise up out of respect. See Numbers xxiii. 18., and Exodus iii. 5. (Calmet) ---

But as the word Elohim was only abusively applied to idols and to great men, Aod might say with truth, that he had a word or an errand from Elohim to the king, without minding in what sense Eglon would take the expression. See St. Augustine, q. 20., and Origen, hom. 4. Though God permitted this king to attack his people, and to scourge them for a time, he did not approve of his injustice, and now authorized the chief magistrate of Israel to revenge their wrongs. (Haydock) ---

God is the arbiter of our lives, and may order whatsoever he pleases to put us to death. But the doctrine of J. Huss, who preached, "It is lawful for every subject to kill any tyrant," was condemned in the Council of Constance. David severely punished the man wo pretended that he had slain Saul. The first Christians never entered into any revolt against those cruel and impious emperors who oppressed them, and whose title to the throne was evidently unjust. See Romans xiii. 1. Under what government are all satisfied, or of the same religion with the sovereign? Even if any should pretend that they have an order from God to kill a tyrant, they must give proof of their commission to the lawful superiors, or them must expect to be treated as fanatical impostors. (Calmet) ---

Throne; or Hebrew, "seat." The throne of state would not probably be placed in a retired chamber. (Haydock) ---

The king rose up out of respect to the deity; (Menochius) and at the same moment, Aod plunged the dagger into his bowels. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 3:24 - Door // Nature // Parlour Door. Lyranus would prefer porticum, "the porch," as the Chaldean explains the Hebrew by exedra, a portico highly ornamented with pillars and se...

Door. Lyranus would prefer porticum, "the porch," as the Chaldean explains the Hebrew by exedra, a portico highly ornamented with pillars and seats, where the princes formerly used to administer justice. Homer give a grand description of the portico of Alcinous. (Odessey) (Haydock) ---

See that of Solomon described, 3 Kings vii. 6. (Calmet) ---

The Roman Septuagint adds after prostada, what may perhaps be a second version, "and he went through those who were drawn up," of the guards. He shewed no signs of fear. (Haydock) ---

It was not necessary for him to take the key with him, as a common one was used for several chambers, and was necessary only to unloose some bands, with which the doors were fastened. The keys in the East are very large, and of a very different construction from ours. (Calmet) ---

Nature. Hebrew, "he covereth his feet." The ancients did not wear breeches: they covered themselves with great care. (Calmet) See Deuteronomy xxiii. 13. (Haydock) ---

Parlour. Hebrew, "chamber." Septuagint, "bed-chamber."

Haydock: Jdg 3:25 - Ashamed Ashamed, perceiving that their hopes had been vain, (Calmet) and not knowing what to do, (Menochius) they began to fear the worst. (Haydock)

Ashamed, perceiving that their hopes had been vain, (Calmet) and not knowing what to do, (Menochius) they began to fear the worst. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 3:26 - Confusion Confusion. Hebrew, "tarrying," as they waited a long time before they ventured to open the door.

Confusion. Hebrew, "tarrying," as they waited a long time before they ventured to open the door.

Haydock: Jdg 3:27 - Seirath Seirath seems to have been on the road from Galgal to Mount Ephraim. Some conjecture that Josephus speaks of it under the name of Syriad, (Calmet) w...

Seirath seems to have been on the road from Galgal to Mount Ephraim. Some conjecture that Josephus speaks of it under the name of Syriad, (Calmet) where he saw the inscriptions, which he asserts were left by the children of Seth before the deluge. (Haydock) ---

They might perhaps be the idols which are mentioned here.

Haydock: Jdg 3:28 - Fords Fords. That none, from the other side, might come to the assistance of the Moabites, (Menochius) who were at their prince's court, in the territory ...

Fords. That none, from the other side, might come to the assistance of the Moabites, (Menochius) who were at their prince's court, in the territory of Jericho, and that none of these might make their escape. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 3:29 - Strong Strong. Hebrew literally, "the fatness," denoting what is most excellent, Psalm xxi. 30., and lxxvii. 31. (Calmet) --- Eglon would have his chief ...

Strong. Hebrew literally, "the fatness," denoting what is most excellent, Psalm xxi. 30., and lxxvii. 31. (Calmet) ---

Eglon would have his chief nobility and most valiant soldiers round his person. (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 3:30 - Eighty Eighty. The Hebrews use the letter p to express this number; and, as it is very like their c, which stands for 20, Houbigant suspects that he fi...

Eighty. The Hebrews use the letter p to express this number; and, as it is very like their c, which stands for 20, Houbigant suspects that he first number is a mistake of the transcribers. Usher confesses that it is "extremely improbable" that Aod should have governed so long, after he had slain Eglon, as he must have been at that time, about 40 years old; and the Israelites were not often so constant for such a length of time. (Houbigant, Proleg.) ---

But this difficulty does not affect Usher, as he brings Aod forward only in the 80th year from the peace of Othoniel; and instead of allowing him 80 years of peaceful sway, he says Samgar appeared after him; but, it seems, both together did not reign a year, since in that 80th year, he commences the servitude, which Jabin brought upon Israel, from the year of the world 2679 till 2699, and peace was not restored by Barac for about 20 years! (Haydock)

Haydock: Jdg 3:31 - Samgar // Hundred // Plough-share // Defended Samgar. His reign seems to have been short, and only perhaps extended over the tribes of Juda, Simeon, and Dan, while Debbora governed in another pa...

Samgar. His reign seems to have been short, and only perhaps extended over the tribes of Juda, Simeon, and Dan, while Debbora governed in another part. Some exclude him from the list of judges. But Josephus, Origen, &c., allow his title, with most of the moderns. (Calmet) ---

The Alex.[Alexandrian?] Chronicle gives his reign of 24 years, which Salien would understand, as if he had acted under the orders of Aod, when the latter was grown too old, if the author had not said that "after the death of Aod, Samgar, his son, judged Israel 24 years," which he subtracts from the 80 years allotted to Aod. He makes Bocci succeed Abisue in the pontificate, at the same time, which Salien admits, in the year of the world 2696. ---

Hundred. Septuagint, "as far as 600," which might be at different times, when the Philistines were dispersed through the country in order to plunder. ---

Plough-share. Septuagint aratropodi. (Haydock) ---

Some translate the Hebrew, "an ox-goad." Maundrell describes those, which are used in Palestine, as eight feet long; and, at the thick end, 10 inches round, with a kind of spade, to clean the plough, while the other end is very sharp. Samgar might probably use such an instrument. From its being mentioned, we may gather that he did not engage the enemy in a pitched battle, (Calmet) but as he could find an opportunity. Thus Samson slew 1000 of the same nation with the jaw-bone of an ass, chap xv. (Haydock) ---

Defended. Hebrew and Septuagint, "saved," which shews that he was a proper judge. (Menochius) ---

It is true, he did not rescue the Israelites entirely, but he stood up in their defence. (Calmet) ---

The duration of his government is not specified, nor is it said that the land rested, because he ruled for a short time only: Josephus says not quite a year; and the roads were continually infested with the incursions of the Philistines on the south, and of the Chanaanites on the North, chap. v. 6. Samgar seems to have been a ploughman, and he seized the first weapon that came to hand. The Hungarians and Spaniards formerly defended themselves against the attacks of the Turks and Moors with their plough-shares, in memory of which the Spaniards long after went armed to plough. The most valiant Roman generals, Camillus, Curius, Cincinnatus, and Fabricius, were called from the plough to the Dictatorship; and Pliny ([Natural History?] xviii.) observes, that "countrymen make the best soldiers."

Gill: Jdg 3:1 - Now these are the nations which the Lord left to prove Israel by them // even as many of Israel as had not known all the wars of Canaan Now these are the nations which the Lord left to prove Israel by them,.... Which are later mentioned, Jdg 3:3, even as many of Israel as had not...

Now these are the nations which the Lord left to prove Israel by them,.... Which are later mentioned, Jdg 3:3,

even as many of Israel as had not known all the wars of Canaan; those that Joshua, and the people of Israel under him, had with the Canaanites, when they first entered the land and subdued it; being then not born, or so young as not to have knowledge of them, at least not able to bear arms at that time.

Gill: Jdg 3:2 - Only that the generations of the children of Israel might know and teach them war // at least such as before knew nothing thereof Only that the generations of the children of Israel might know and teach them war,.... That is, the following nations were left in the land, that the ...

Only that the generations of the children of Israel might know and teach them war,.... That is, the following nations were left in the land, that the young generations of Israel might by their wars and conflicts with them learn the art of war, and be inured to martial discipline; which, if none had been left to engage with, they had been ignorant of: besides, their fathers in Joshua's time, as Jarchi and Kimchi observe, had no need to learn the art of war, for God fought for them; they did not get possession of the land by their own arm, and by their sword, but by the power of God in a miraculous way; but now this was not to be expected, and the Canaanites were left among them to expel, that they might be trained up in the knowledge of warlike affairs, and so be also capable of teaching their children the military art; which they should make use of in obeying the command of God, by driving out the remains of the Canaanites, and not give themselves up to sloth and indolence; though some think that the meaning is, that God left these nations among them, that they might know what war was, and the sad effects of it; and the difference of fighting with their enemies alone, as other men, and the Lord fighting along with them, and for them, as he did for their fathers:

at least such as before knew nothing thereof; being either unborn, or at an age incapable of bearing arms, or learning the art of war.

Gill: Jdg 3:3 - Namely, five lords of the Philistines // and all the Canaanites // and the Sidonians // and the Hivites that dwelt in Mount Lebanon // from Mount Baalhermon // unto the entering in of Hamath Namely, five lords of the Philistines,.... The places they were lords of were Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron; see Jos 13:3; three of these, ...

Namely, five lords of the Philistines,.... The places they were lords of were Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron; see Jos 13:3; three of these, Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ekron, had been taken from them by Judah, since the death of Joshua, Jdg 1:18; but they soon recovered them again, perhaps by the help of the other two. The Philistines were a people originally of Egypt, but came from thence and settled in these parts, and were here as early as in the times of Abraham, and were very troublesome neighbours to the Israelites in later times; see Gen 10:14,

and all the Canaanites; these were a particular tribe or nation in the land so called, which inhabited by the sea, and by the coast of Jordan, Num 13:29; otherwise this is the general name for the seven nations:

and the Sidonians; the inhabitants of the famous city of Sidon, which had its name from the firstborn of Canaan, Gen 10:15,

and the Hivites that dwelt in Mount Lebanon; on the north of the land of Canaan:

from Mount Baalhermon; the eastern part of Lebanon, the same with Baalgad, where Baal was worshipped:

unto the entering in of Hamath; the boundary of the northern part of the land, which entrance led into the valley between Libanus and Antilibanus; see Num 34:8.

Gill: Jdg 3:4 - And they were to prove Israel by them // to know whether they would hearken to the commandments, of the Lord // which he commanded their fathers by the hand of Moses And they were to prove Israel by them,.... They were left in the land, as to inure them to war, and try their courage, so to prove their faithfulness ...

And they were to prove Israel by them,.... They were left in the land, as to inure them to war, and try their courage, so to prove their faithfulness to God:

to know whether they would hearken to the commandments, of the Lord,

which he commanded their fathers by the hand of Moses; even all the commandments of the Lord delivered to them by Moses, moral, civil, and ceremonial, and particularly those that concerned the destruction of the Canaanites, their altars, and their idols, Deu 7:1.

Gill: Jdg 3:5 - And the children of Israel dwelt among the Canaanites // the Hittites, and Amorites, and Perizzites, and Hivites, and Jebusites And the children of Israel dwelt among the Canaanites,.... As if they had been only sojourners with them, and not conquerors of them; and dwelt by suf...

And the children of Israel dwelt among the Canaanites,.... As if they had been only sojourners with them, and not conquerors of them; and dwelt by sufferance, and not as proprietors and owners; such were their sloth and indolence, and such the advantage the inhabitants of the land got over them through it, and through their compliances with them; and this was the case not only of one sort of them, the Canaanites, but of the rest:

the Hittites, and Amorites, and Perizzites, and Hivites, and Jebusites; who all had cities in the several parts of the land, with whom the children of Israel were mixed, and with whom they were permitted to dwell.

Gill: Jdg 3:6 - And they took their daughters to be their wives, and gave their daughters to their sons // and served their gods And they took their daughters to be their wives, and gave their daughters to their sons,.... The Israelites intermarried with the inhabitants of the l...

And they took their daughters to be their wives, and gave their daughters to their sons,.... The Israelites intermarried with the inhabitants of the land, contrary to the express command of God, Deu 7:3; whereby they confounded their families, debased their blood, and were ensnared into idolatry, as follows: perhaps to these unlawful marriages, in their first settlement in the land of Canaan, reference is had in Eze 16:3, "thy father was an Amorite and thy mother an Hittite"; an Amorite marrying a daughter of Israel, and an Israelitish man an Hittite woman:

and served their gods; this was the natural consequence of their intermarriages, which the Lord foresaw, and therefore cautioned them against them, Exo 34:15.

Gill: Jdg 3:7 - And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the Lord // and forgot the Lord their God // and served Baalim, and the groves And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the Lord,.... Both by marrying with Heathens, and worshipping their gods: and forgot the Lord t...

And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the Lord,.... Both by marrying with Heathens, and worshipping their gods:

and forgot the Lord their God; as if they had never heard of him, or known him, their Maker and Preserver, who had done so many great and good things for them:

and served Baalim, and the groves; of Baalim, see Jdg 2:11; the groves mean either idols worshipped in groves, as Jupiter was worshipped in a grove of oaks, hence the oak of Dodona; and Apollo in a grove of laurels in Daphne: there were usually groves where idol temples were built; and so in Phoenicia, or Canaan, Dido the Sidonian queen built a temple for Juno in the midst of the city, where was a grove of an agreeable shade d: so Barthius e observes, that most of the ancient gods of the Heathens used to be worshipped in groves. And groves and trees themselves were worshipped; so Tacitus says f of the Germans, that they consecrated groves and forests, and called them by the names of gods. Groves are here put in the place of Ashtaroth, Jdg 2:13; perhaps the goddesses of that name were worshipped in groves; and if Diana is meant by Astarte, Servius g says that every oak is sacred to Jupiter and every grove to Diana; and Ovid h speaks of a temple of Diana in a grove. But as they are joined with Baalim, the original of which were deified kings and heroes, the groves may be such as were consecrated to them; for, as the same writer observes i, the souls of heroes were supposed to have their abode in groves; See Gill on Exo 34:13 and See Gill on Deu 7:5. It was in this time of defection that the idolatry of Micah, and of the Danites, and the war of Benjamin about the Levite's concubine, happened, though related at the end of the book; so Josephus k places the account here.

Gill: Jdg 3:8 - Therefore the anger of the Lord was hot against Israel // and he sold them into the hand of Chushanrishathaim, king of Mesopotamia // and the children of Israel served Chushanrishathaim eight years Therefore the anger of the Lord was hot against Israel,.... Because of their idolatry; see Jdg 2:14, and he sold them into the hand of Chushanrisha...

Therefore the anger of the Lord was hot against Israel,.... Because of their idolatry; see Jdg 2:14,

and he sold them into the hand of Chushanrishathaim, king of Mesopotamia; or Aramnaharaim; that is, Syria, between the two rivers, which were Tigris and Euphrates; hence the Greek name of this place is as here called Mesopotamia. Josephus l calls him king of Assyria, and gives him the name of Chusarthus; and indeed Chushanrishathaim seems to be his whole name, though the Targum makes Rishathaim to be an epithet, and calls him Cushan, the wicked king of Syria; the word is of the dual number, and signifies two wickednesses; which, according to the mystical exposition of the Jews m, refers to two wicked things Syria did to Israel, one by Balaam the Syrian, and the other by this Cushan. Mr. Bedford n thinks it may be rendered,"Cushan, king of the two wicked kingdoms;''the Assyrian monarchy being at this time like two kingdoms, Babylon being the metropolis of the one, and Nineveh of the other; but it is question whether the monarchy was as yet in being. Hillerus o makes Cushan to be an Arab Scenite, from Hab 3:7; and Rishathaim to denote disquietudes; and it represents him as a man very turbulent, never quiet and easy, and so it seems he was; for not content with his kingdom on the other side Euphrates, he passed over that, and came into Canaan, to subject that to him, and add it to his dominions. Kimchi says that Rishathaim may be the name of a place, and some conjecture it to be the same with the Rhisina of Ptolemy p; but it seems rather a part of this king's name, who came and fought against Israel, and the Lord delivered them into his hands:

and the children of Israel served Chushanrishathaim eight years; became tributaries to him during that space of time, but when that began is not easy to say. Bishop Usher q places it in A. M. 2591, and before Christ 1413.

Gill: Jdg 3:9 - And when the children of Israel cried unto the Lord // the Lord raised up a deliverer to the children of Israel // who delivered them // even Othniel, the son of Kenaz, Caleb's younger brother And when the children of Israel cried unto the Lord,.... Towards the close of the eight years' bondage, as it may be supposed, groaning under the oppr...

And when the children of Israel cried unto the Lord,.... Towards the close of the eight years' bondage, as it may be supposed, groaning under the oppressive taxes laid upon them, and the bondage they were brought into: and

the Lord raised up a deliverer to the children of Israel; he heard their cry, and sent them a saviour, whose spirit he stirred up, and whom he qualified for this service:

who delivered them; out of the hands of the king of Mesopotamia, and freed them from his oppressions:

even Othniel, the son of Kenaz, Caleb's younger brother; the same that took Debir, and married Achsah, the daughter of Caleb, Jdg 1:12; who now very probably was a man in years.

Gill: Jdg 3:10 - And the Spirit of the Lord came upon him // and he judged Israel // and he went out to war // and the Lord delivered Chushanrishathaim king of Mesopotamia into his hand; and his hand prevailed against Chushanrishathaim And the Spirit of the Lord came upon him,.... Moved him to engage in this work of delivering Israel, inspired him with courage, and filled him with ev...

And the Spirit of the Lord came upon him,.... Moved him to engage in this work of delivering Israel, inspired him with courage, and filled him with every needful gift, qualifying him for it; the Targum interprets it the spirit of prophecy; it seems father to be the spirit of counsel and courage, of strength and fortitude of body and mind:

and he judged Israel; took upon him the office of a judge over them, and executed it; very probably the first work he set about was to reprove them for their sins, and convince them of them, and reform them from their idolatry, and restore among them the pure worship of God; and this he did first before he took up arms for them:

and he went out to war; raised an army, and went out at the head of them, to fight with their oppressor:

and the Lord delivered Chushanrishathaim king of Mesopotamia into his hand; and his hand prevailed against Chushanrishathaim; gave him the victory over him and his army, so that he fell into his hands, became his captive, and perhaps was slain by him.

Gill: Jdg 3:11 - And the land had rest forty years // and Othniel the son of Kenaz died And the land had rest forty years,.... As it should seem from the time of this deliverance; though, according to Ben Gersom and Abarbinel, the eight y...

And the land had rest forty years,.... As it should seem from the time of this deliverance; though, according to Ben Gersom and Abarbinel, the eight years' servitude are to be included in them; and Bishop Usher r reckons these forty years from the rest first settled in the land by Joshua; but the former sense seems best:

and Othniel the son of Kenaz died: not at the end of the forty years; it is not likely he should live so long, but when he died is not certain; Eusebius s says he judged Israel fifty years.

Gill: Jdg 3:12 - And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the Lord // and the Lord strengthened Eglon the king of Moab against Israel // because they had done evil in the sight of the Lord And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the Lord,.... Fell into idolatry again, which was a great evil in the sight of God, and what...

And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the Lord,.... Fell into idolatry again, which was a great evil in the sight of God, and what they were prone to fall into:

and the Lord strengthened Eglon the king of Moab against Israel; put it into his heart to invade them, and encouraged him to it, and gave him success; what kings reigned over Moab between Balak and this king we know not: it is a commonly received notion of the Jews, that Ruth was the daughter of Eglon; see Rth 1:4; and it was about this time that Elimelech with his two sons went into Moab, and when many of those things recorded in the book of Ruth were transacted:

because they had done evil in the sight of the Lord; which had greatly provoked him to anger, and was the cause of stirring up the king of Moab against them.

Gill: Jdg 3:13 - And he gathered unto him the children of Ammon and Amalek // and went and smote Israel // and possessed the city of the palm trees And he gathered unto him the children of Ammon and Amalek,.... Either the Lord gathered them to Eglon, inclined them to enter into a confederacy with ...

And he gathered unto him the children of Ammon and Amalek,.... Either the Lord gathered them to Eglon, inclined them to enter into a confederacy with him, to assist in the war against Israel; or the king of Moab got them to join with him in it, they being his neighbours, and enemies to Israel, and especially Amalek:

and went and smote Israel; first the two tribes and a half, which lay on that side Jordan Moab did, whom it is reasonable to suppose he would attack first; and having defeated them, he came over Jordan:

and possessed the city of the palm trees; Jericho, as the Targum, which was set with palm trees; see Deu 34:3; not the city itself, for that was destroyed by Joshua, and not rebuilt until the time of Ahab; but the country, about it, or, as Abarbinel thinks, a city that was near it; here Josephus says t he had his royal palace; it is probable he built a fort or garrison here, to secure the fords of Jordan, and his own retreat; as well as to keep up a communication with his own people, and prevent the tribes of the other side giving any assistance to their brethren, if able and disposed to do it.

Gill: Jdg 3:14 - So the children of Israel served Eglon king of Moab eighteen years. So the children of Israel served Eglon king of Moab eighteen years. Ten years longer than they served the king of Mesopotamia, Jdg 3:8, as a severer c...

So the children of Israel served Eglon king of Moab eighteen years. Ten years longer than they served the king of Mesopotamia, Jdg 3:8, as a severer correction of them for their relapse into idolatry.

Gill: Jdg 3:15 - But when the children of Israel cried unto the Lord // the Lord raised them up a deliverer // Ehud the son of Gera, a Benjamite, a man lefthanded // and by him the children of Israel sent a present unto Eglon the king of Moab But when the children of Israel cried unto the Lord,.... After being long oppressed, and groaning under their burdens, and brought to a sense of their...

But when the children of Israel cried unto the Lord,.... After being long oppressed, and groaning under their burdens, and brought to a sense of their sins, and humiliation for them, they asked forgiveness of God, and deliverance from their bondage; for it is very probable they were until towards the close of those years stupid and hardened, and did not consider what was the reason of their being thus dealt with:

the Lord raised them up a deliverer; another saviour, one that he made use of as an instrument of their deliverance:

Ehud the son of Gera, a Benjamite, a man lefthanded; who is described by his parentage, a son of Gera, but who his father was is not known; by his tribe a Benjamite, in which Jericho was, Eglon possessed, and so might be more oppressed than any other part; and therefore the Lord stirred up one of that tribe to be the deliverer; and by his being a lefthanded man, as several of that tribe were, Jdg 20:16; though a Benjamite signifies a son of the right hand; and he perhaps was one of those lefthanded Benjamites that fled to the rock Rimmon, as Dr. Lightfoot u conjectures, Jdg 20:47; for that affair, though there related, was before this: the Septuagint calls him an "ambidexter", one that could use both hands equally alike; but the Hebrew phrase signifies one that is "shut up in his right hand" w; who has not the true use of it, cannot exercise it as his other hand, being weak and impotent, or contracted through disuse, or some disease; or, as Josephus x expresses it, who could use his left hand best, and who also calls him a young man of a courageous mind and strong of body, and says he dwelt at Jericho, and was very familiar with Eglon, and who by his gifts and presents had endeared himself to all about the king:

and by him the children of Israel sent a present unto Eglon the king of Moab; either their yearly tribute, or rather a gift unto him, to soften him, and reconcile him to them, and make their bondage easier; or to give him access to him with more confidence and safety, though it does not seem that they knew anything of Ehud's design.

Gill: Jdg 3:16 - But Ehud made him a dagger, which had two edges, of a cubit length // and he did gird it under his raiment // upon his right thigh But Ehud made him a dagger, which had two edges, of a cubit length,.... A little sword, as Josephus calls it y, with two edges, that it might cut both...

But Ehud made him a dagger, which had two edges, of a cubit length,.... A little sword, as Josephus calls it y, with two edges, that it might cut both ways, and do the execution he designed by it, and was about half a yard long; which he could the more easily conceal, and use for his purpose:

and he did gird it under his raiment; that it might not be seen, and give occasion of suspicion; this was a military garment, the "sagum", as the Vulgate Latin version, which was coarse, and made of wool, and reached to the ankle, and was buttoned upon the shoulder, and put over the coat z; the Septuagint makes use of a word Suidas a interprets a coat of mail:

upon his right thigh; whereas a sword is more commonly girt upon the left; though some observe, from various writers, that the eastern people used to gird their swords on their right thigh; or this was done that it might be the less discernible and suspected, and chiefly as being most convenient for him, a lefthanded man, to draw it out upon occasion.

Gill: Jdg 3:17 - And he brought a present unto Eglon king of Moab // and Eglon was a very fat man And he brought a present unto Eglon king of Moab,.... Accompanied by two servants, as Josephus says b, and who doubtless bore the presents; for that t...

And he brought a present unto Eglon king of Moab,.... Accompanied by two servants, as Josephus says b, and who doubtless bore the presents; for that there were such with him that did is clear from Jdg 3:18; nor can it be thought that so great a personage as a judge in Israel should go alone and carry a present in his own hands; though it is possible, when come to the king of Moab, he might take it from his servants, and deliver it to him with his own hands:

and Eglon was a very fat man: and so the less active, and unable to decline and avoid the stroke, he might see, when about to be given him.

Gill: Jdg 3:18 - And when he had made an end to offer the present // he sent away the people that bare the present And when he had made an end to offer the present,.... Had delivered the several things contained in it, and very probably made a speech to the king in...

And when he had made an end to offer the present,.... Had delivered the several things contained in it, and very probably made a speech to the king in the name of the people of Israel from whom he brought it:

he sent away the people that bare the present; not the servants of Eglon that introduced him, as if they assisted in bringing in the present to the king; for over them he could not have so much power as to dismiss them at pleasure; but the children of Israel that came along with him, and carried the present for him: these he dismissed, not in the presence of the king of Moab, but after he had taken his leave of him, and when he had gone on some way in his return home; and this he did for the greater secrecy of his design, and that he might when he had finished it the more easily escape alone, and be without any concern for or care of the safety of others.

Gill: Jdg 3:19 - But he himself turned again from the quarries that were by Gilgal // and said // I have a secret errand unto thee, O king // who said, keep silence // and all that stood by him went out from him But he himself turned again from the quarries that were by Gilgal,...., For so far he accompanied the men that came with him. These quarries were pla...

But he himself turned again from the quarries that were by Gilgal,...., For so far he accompanied the men that came with him. These quarries were places where they dug stones and hewed them, according to the Targum, and most Jewish writers; but some render the word "engravings", and understand them of inscriptions engraved on pillars here, which remained from the times of Seth the son of Adam; of which see more on Jdg 3:26; but according to the Vulgate Latin, and other versions, graven images or idols are meant, which the king of Moab set up here in contempt of the Israelites, it being a place where the ark remained some time, and circumcision had been performed, Jos 5:3; or in order to draw them into idolatry, those idols perhaps being made of the twelve stones they had set up there, Jos 4:20; or rather in honour of his gods, to invoke their assistance when he first entered into the land, or by way of gratitude and thankfulness for the subduing of it: and this it is thought by some stirred up the spirit of Ehud, and caused him to turn back, resolving to avenge this profaneness:

and said; when he came to the palace of the king of Moab, and into his presence:

I have a secret errand unto thee, O king; which he had forgot when with him before, as he might pretend; or something new had occurred unto him to acquaint him of, and which required privacy:

who said, keep silence; that is, the king of Moab said so either to Ehud, to be silent until be had sent out his servants that were about him, that they might not hear the secret; or to a person or persons that were speaking to him, whom he bid to desist and depart, it being his pleasure to hear Ehud before them; so Ben Gersom; but the former sense rather seems best:

and all that stood by him went out from him; his servants, his courtiers that were waiting upon him, or such as were admitted into his presence, to have audience of him, and deliver their messages, or make their petitions to him.

Gill: Jdg 3:20 - And Ehud came unto him // and he was sitting in a summer parlour, which he had for himself alone // and Ehud said, I have a message from God unto thee // and he arose out of his seat And Ehud came unto him,.... Somewhat nearer him than he was before; it seems probable that Eglon retired from the presence chamber, where he received ...

And Ehud came unto him,.... Somewhat nearer him than he was before; it seems probable that Eglon retired from the presence chamber, where he received company, into his summer parlour; which was smaller and more private, and in which he had used to be alone, as follows, and whither Ehud went in unto him, as he directed him:

and he was sitting in a summer parlour, which he had for himself alone: into which he was wont to go and sit alone, for the sake of coolness and refreshment in the hot season of the year, which it seems it now was; a room this was, in which, as Kimchi and others observe, were many windows to let in air to cool and refresh; or it was in such a part of the palace that was cool, and sheltered from the heat of the sun; see Amo 3:15,

and Ehud said, I have a message from God unto thee; which was to kill him; and undoubtedly he was sent of God on this errand to him: whether it be rendered a "word" or "thing" from God, as it signifies both, it was true, and no lie; for it was the Lord that spoke to him by an impulse on his spirit, and the thing was from the Lord he was to do, for nothing less could have justified him in such an action; and therefore this instance can be no warrant for the assassination of princes; as Ehud did not this of himself, but of the Lord, so neither did he do it as a private man, but as a judge of Israel. Josephus c says, he told him that he had a dream at the order of God to declare unto him; but for this there is no warrant; however it seems pretty plain that his view in making mention of the name of God, and of Elohim, a name given to false gods as well as the true, rather than Jehovah, was to strike his mind with awe and reverence, and cause him to rise from his seat, that he might the better thrust him with his dagger; and it had the desired effect:

and he arose out of his seat; in reverence of God, from whom he expected to receive a message; this he did, though in his mind a blind ignorant idolater; in his body fat, corpulent, and unwieldy; and in his office a king, and a proud and tyrannical man. The above writer says, that, for joy at the dream he was to hear, he rose from his throne.

Gill: Jdg 3:21 - And Ehud put forth his left hand, and took the dagger from his right thigh // and thrust it into his belly And Ehud put forth his left hand, and took the dagger from his right thigh,.... Being, as before observed, a lefthanded man; Jdg 3:15, and this he cou...

And Ehud put forth his left hand, and took the dagger from his right thigh,.... Being, as before observed, a lefthanded man; Jdg 3:15, and this he could the better do, without being taken notice of by the king, who, if he saw him move his left hand, would have no suspicion of his going to draw a dagger with it, and which also was hidden under his raiment, Jdg 3:16,

and thrust it into his belly; Josephus d says into his heart; it is certain the wound was mortal, and must have been in a part on which, life depended.

Gill: Jdg 3:22 - And the haft went in, after the blade // and the fat closed upon the blade // so that he could not draw the dagger out of his belly // and the dirt came out And the haft went in, after the blade,.... The handle of the dagger, as well as the blade; so strong and violent was the thrust, he determining to do ...

And the haft went in, after the blade,.... The handle of the dagger, as well as the blade; so strong and violent was the thrust, he determining to do his business effectually:

and the fat closed upon the blade; being an excessive fat man, the wound made by the dagger closed up at once upon it, through the fat:

so that he could not draw the dagger out of his belly; being not able to take hold of the haft or handle, that having slipped in through the fat after the blade, so that he was obliged to leave it in him:

and the dirt came out; the margin of our Bibles is, "it came out at the fundament"; that is, the dagger did, the thrust being so strong and vehement; but that is not so likely, the dagger being so short, and Eglon a very fat man. The Targum is,"his food went out;''which was in his bowels; but as the wound was closed up through fat, and the dagger stuck fast in it, it could not come out that way: rather therefore this is to he understood of his excrements, and of their coming out at the usual place, it being common for persons that die a violent death, and indeed others, to purge upon it; some, as Kimchi observes, interpret it of the place where the guards were, the guard room, through which Ehud went out, but that is expressed in another word in Jdg 3:23; the Syriac and Arabic versions read, "he went out in haste", that is, Ehud.

Gill: Jdg 3:23 - Then Ehud went forth through the porch // and shut the doors of the parlour upon him, and locked them Then Ehud went forth through the porch,.... Which the Targum interprets by "exedra", a place, as Kimchi, where there were many seats, either for the p...

Then Ehud went forth through the porch,.... Which the Targum interprets by "exedra", a place, as Kimchi, where there were many seats, either for the people to sit in while waiting to have admittance into the presence of the king, or where the guards sat, and may be called the guard room; through this Ehud passed with all serenity and composure of mind imaginable, without the least show of distress and uneasiness in his countenance, being fully satisfied that what he had done was right, and according to the will of God:

and shut the doors of the parlour upon him, and locked them; joined the doors of the parlour, as the Targum, the two folds of the door, shut them close together upon Eglon within the parlour, and bolted them within, or drew the bolt on the inside, which he was able to do with a key for that purpose; of which see more on Jdg 3:25; and which it is probable he took away along with him; this must be understood as done before he went through the porch, and therefore should be rendered, "when" or "after he had shut the doors", &c. e; wherefore in the Vulgate Latin version this clause is put first.

Gill: Jdg 3:24 - When he was gone out, his servants came // and when they saw that behold the doors of the parlour were locked // they said, surely // he covereth his feet in his summer chamber When he was gone out, his servants came,.... When Ehud was gone through the porch, and out of the palace, the servants of Eglon, who had been put out,...

When he was gone out, his servants came,.... When Ehud was gone through the porch, and out of the palace, the servants of Eglon, who had been put out, came to the parlour door to reassume their former place, and finish their business with the king, or in order to wait upon him as usual:

and when they saw that behold the doors of the parlour were locked; which they supposed were done by the king himself with inside, having no suspicion of Ehud:

they said, surely, or "perhaps", as Noldius f renders it:

he covereth his feet in his summer chamber; that is, was easing nature; and, as the eastern people wore long and loose garments, when they sat down on such an occasion, their feet were covered with them; or they purposely gathered them about their feet to cover them, and so this became a modest expression for this work of nature, see 1Sa 24:3; though some think that in that place, and also in this, is meant lying down to sleep; and that Eglon's servants supposed that he had laid himself down on his couch in his summer chamber to take sleep, when it was usual to cover the feet with long garments, to hide those parts of nature which otherwise might be exposed; and it must be owned that this seems more agreeable to a summer parlour than the former, and better accounts for the servants waiting so long as they did; and Josephus g is express for it, that his servants thought he had fallen asleep. Indeed, the Jews in later times used the phrase in the first sense h, which seems to be taken from hence.

Gill: Jdg 3:25 - And they tarried until they were ashamed // and, behold, he opened not the doors of the parlour // therefore they took a key and opened them // and, behold, their lord was fallen dead on the earth And they tarried until they were ashamed,.... And knew not what to think of it, or what methods to take to be satisfied of the truth of the matter, an...

And they tarried until they were ashamed,.... And knew not what to think of it, or what methods to take to be satisfied of the truth of the matter, and what should be the meaning of the doors being kept locked so long:

and, behold, he opened not the doors of the parlour; this was what surprised them, and threw them into this confusion of mind, that they knew not what course to take for fear of incurring the king's displeasure, and yet wondered the doors were not opened for so long a time:

therefore they took a key and opened them; this is the first time we read of a key, which only signifies something to open with; and the keys of the ancients were different from those of ours; they were somewhat like a crooked sickle i, which they put in through a hole in the door, and with it could draw on or draw back a bolt, and so could lock or unlock with inside, see Son 5:4; and at this day the keys in the eastern countries are unlike ours. Chardin k says, that a lock among the eastern people is like a little harrow, which enters half way into a wooden staple, and the key is a wooden handle with points at the end of it, which are pushed into the staple, and so raise this little harrow:

and, behold, their lord was fallen dead on the earth; lay prostrate on the floor of the parlour, dead.

Gill: Jdg 3:26 - And Ehud escaped while they tarried // and passed beyond the quarries, and escaped to Seirath And Ehud escaped while they tarried,.... While the servants of the king of Moab tarried waiting for the opening of the doors of the parlour, this gave...

And Ehud escaped while they tarried,.... While the servants of the king of Moab tarried waiting for the opening of the doors of the parlour, this gave him time enough to make his escape, so as to be out of the reach of pursuers; or else the sense is, that even when they had opened the doors, and found the king dead, while they were in confusion at it, not knowing what to ascribe it to, the dagger being enclosed in the wound, and perhaps but little blood, if any, issued out, being closed up with fat, and so had no suspicion of his being killed by Ehud; but rather supposing it to be an accidental fall from his seat, and might call in the physicians to examine him, and use their skill, if there were any hopes of recovery; all which prolonged time, and facilitated the escape of Ehud:

and passed beyond the quarries, and escaped to Seirath; he got beyond the quarries, which were by Gilgal, which shows that it could not be at Jericho where the king of Moab was, as Josephus thinks, but either in his own country beyond Jordan, though no mention is made of Ehud's crossing Jordan, or however some place nearer the fords of Jordan; since Gilgal, from whence he returned, and whither he came again after he had killed the king of Moab, lay on that side of Jericho which was towards Jordan; and this Seirath he escaped to was in or near the mountain of Ephraim, as appears from Jdg 3:27,, but of it we have no account elsewhere; but it is thought by some learned men l to be the place where Seth's pillars stood, and they to be the engravings here spoken of, which we translate "quarries": the words of Josephus m are, that the posterity of Seth, who very much studied astronomy, having heard that Adam foretold the destruction of the universe at one time by fire, and at another by water, erected two pillars, one of stone, and the other of brick, on which they inscribed their inventions (in astronomy), that they might be preserved, and which remain to this day in the land of Siriad; but this account of Josephus seems to be taken from a fabulous relation of Manetho, the Egyptian, and is abundantly confuted by Dr. Stillingfleet n. Jarchi interprets this of Seirath, a thick wood or forest, the trees of which grew as thick as the hair on a man's head, and so a proper place to escape to, and hide in: it may be it was the woody part of the mount Ephraim, see Jos 17:18.

Gill: Jdg 3:27 - And it came to pass, when he was come // that be blew a trumpet in the mountain of Ephraim // and the children of Israel went down with him from the mount, and he before them And it came to pass, when he was come, That is, to Seirath, Jdg 3:26, in the tribe of Ephraim: that be blew a trumpet in the mountain of Ephraim; w...

And it came to pass, when he was come, That is, to Seirath, Jdg 3:26, in the tribe of Ephraim:

that be blew a trumpet in the mountain of Ephraim; which being an high mountain, the sound of the trumpet was heard afar off; and if Ehud's design was known to the Israelites, what he intended to do, this might be the token agreed on, should he succeed, to call them together, see Jer 31:6,

and the children of Israel went down with him from the mount, and he before them; being there assembled together, and which might be the place before appointed for their rendezvous, and where and when he took the command of them, and went before them as their general.

Gill: Jdg 3:28 - And he said unto them, follow after me // for the Lord hath delivered your enemies the Moabites into your hands // and they went down after him // and took the fords of Jordan towards Moab // and suffered not a man to pass over And he said unto them, follow after me,.... This he said to encourage them, putting himself at the head of them showing himself ready to expose his ow...

And he said unto them, follow after me,.... This he said to encourage them, putting himself at the head of them showing himself ready to expose his own life, if there was any danger:

for the Lord hath delivered your enemies the Moabites into your hands; which he concluded from the success he had had in cutting off the king of Moab which had thrown the Moabites into great confusion and distress, and from an impulse on his mind from the Lord, assuring him of this deliverance:

and they went down after him: from the mountain of Ephraim:

and took the fords of Jordan towards Moab; where the river was fordable, and there was a passage into the country of Moab, which lay on the other side Jordan; this they did to prevent the Moabites, which were in the land of Israel, going into their own land upon this alarm, and those in the land of Moab from going over to help them:

and suffered not a man to pass over; neither out of Israel into Moab, nor out of Moab into Israel.

Gill: Jdg 3:29 - And they slew of Moab at that time about ten thousand men // all lusty, and all men of valour // and there escaped not a man And they slew of Moab at that time about ten thousand men,.... Who had been sent into the land of Israel to keep it in subjection, or had settled them...

And they slew of Moab at that time about ten thousand men,.... Who had been sent into the land of Israel to keep it in subjection, or had settled themselves there for their better convenience, profit, and pleasure; it is very probable there were some of both sorts:

all lusty, and all men of valour; the word for "lusty" signifies "fat", living in ease for a long time, and in a plentiful country were grown fat; and, according to Ben Gersom, it signifies rich men, such as had acquired wealth by living in the land of Canaan; or who came over Jordan thither and settled about Jericho, because of the delightfulness of the place, and others were stout and valiant soldiers, whom the king of Moab had placed there to keep the land in subjection he had subdued, and to subdue what remained of it; but they were all destroyed:

and there escaped not a man; for there being no other way of getting into the land of Moab but at the fords of Jordan they fell into the hands of the Israelites possessed of them, as they made up unto them.

Gill: Jdg 3:30 - So Moab was subdued that day under the hand of Israel // and the land had rest fourscore years So Moab was subdued that day under the hand of Israel,.... Or the Moabites were broken, as the Targum, that is, their forces in the land of Israel; fo...

So Moab was subdued that day under the hand of Israel,.... Or the Moabites were broken, as the Targum, that is, their forces in the land of Israel; for the land of Moab itself was not subdued and brought into subjection to the Israelites; but they were so weakened by this stroke upon them, that they could not detain the Israelites under their power any longer:

and the land had rest fourscore years; eighty years, which, according to Ben Gersom, are to be reckoned from the beginning of their servitude, and that the rest properly was but sixty two years, and so both rest and servitude were eighty years, as R. Isaiah; and, according to Abarbinel, the rest was from the death of Othniel; and our Bishop Usher o reckons this eightieth year from the former rest restored to it by Othniel; but others p are of opinion that there were several judges at a time in several parts of the land, and that the land was at rest in one part when there was war in another; and so that at this time it was only the eastern part of the land that had rest, while the western parts were distressed by the Philistines, and the northern parts by Jabin king of Canaan, as in Jdg 3:31.

Gill: Jdg 3:31 - And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath // which slew of the Philistines six hundred men // with an ox goad // and he also delivered Israel And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath,.... That is, after the death of Ehud, when the people of Israel were in distress again from another quarte...

And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath,.... That is, after the death of Ehud, when the people of Israel were in distress again from another quarter, this man was raised up of God to be a judge and deliverer of them; but who he was, and who his father, and of what tribe, we nowhere else read:

which slew of the Philistines six hundred men; who invaded the land, and came in an hostile manner into it; or rather, as it seems from Jdg 5:6; they entered as a banditti of thieves and robbers, who posted themselves in the highways, and robbed travellers as they passed, so that they were obliged to leave off travelling, or go through bypaths, and not in the public road; and this man, who seems to have been called from the plough to be a judge of Israel, as some among the Romans were called from thence to be dictators and deliverers of them from the Gauls:

with an ox goad; which he had used to push on his oxen with at ploughing, cleared the country of them, and with no other weapon than this slew six hundred of them, either at certain times, or in a body together; which is no ways incredible, being strengthened and succeeded by the Lord, any more than Samson's slaying a thousand men with the jawbone of an ass, Jdg 15:15. So Lycurgus is said to put to flight the forces of Bacchus with an ox goad q which is said to be done near Carmel, a mountain in Judea, which makes it probable that this is hammered out of the sacred history; or that Shamgar and Lycurgus are the same, as Bochart conjectures r. The ox goad, as now used in those parts, is an instrument fit to do great execution with it, as Mr. Maundrell s, who saw many of them, describes it; on measuring them, he found them to be eight feet long, at the bigger end six inches in circumference, at the lesser end was a sharp prickle for driving the oxen, and at the other end a small spade, or paddle of iron, for cleansing the plough from the clay:

and he also delivered Israel, from those robbers and plunderers, and prevented their doing any further mischief in the land, and subjecting it to their power, and so may very properly be reckoned among the judges of Israel; but how long he judged is not said, perhaps his time is to be reckoned into the eighty years of rest before mentioned; or, as Abarbinel thinks, into the forty years of Deborah, the next judge; and who also observes, that their Rabbins say, Shamgar judged but one year.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Jdg 3:1 Heb “did not know the wars of Canaan.”

NET Notes: Jdg 3:2 The stated purpose for leaving the nations (to teach the subsequent generations…how to conduct holy war) seems to contradict 2:22 and 3:4, which...

NET Notes: Jdg 3:3 Or “the entrance to Hamath.”

NET Notes: Jdg 3:4 Heb “to know if they would hear the commands of the Lord which he commanded their fathers by the hand of Moses.”

NET Notes: Jdg 3:6 Or “served”; or “followed” (this term occurs in the following verse as well).

NET Notes: Jdg 3:7 The Asherahs were local manifestations of the Canaanite goddess Asherah.

NET Notes: Jdg 3:8 Or “they served Cushan-Rishathaim.”

NET Notes: Jdg 3:9 “Caleb’s younger brother” may refer to Othniel or to Kenaz (in which case Othniel is Caleb’s nephew).

NET Notes: Jdg 3:10 Heb “his hand was strong against Cushan-Rishathaim.”

NET Notes: Jdg 3:12 Heb “strengthened Eglon…against Israel.”

NET Notes: Jdg 3:13 Heb “and he gathered to him.”

NET Notes: Jdg 3:14 Or “the Israelites served Eglon.”

NET Notes: Jdg 3:15 Heb “The Israelites sent by his hand an offering to Eglon, king of Moab.”

NET Notes: Jdg 3:16 The Hebrew term גֹּמֶד (gomed) denotes a unit of linear measure, perhaps a cubit (the distance between the elbow a...

NET Notes: Jdg 3:18 Heb “the tribute payment.”

NET Notes: Jdg 3:19 Or “Hush!”

NET Notes: Jdg 3:20 Or “throne.”

NET Notes: Jdg 3:21 Heb “his”; the referent (Eglon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: Jdg 3:22 The Hebrew text has “and he went out to the [?].” The meaning of the Hebrew word פַּרְשְׁ&...

NET Notes: Jdg 3:23 Again the precise meaning of the Hebrew word, used only here in the OT, is uncertain. Since it is preceded by the verb “went out” and the ...

NET Notes: Jdg 3:24 The Hebrew expression translated “well-ventilated inner room” may refer to the upper room itself or to a bathroom attached to or within it...

NET Notes: Jdg 3:25 Heb “See, their master, fallen to the ground, dead.”

NET Notes: Jdg 3:27 Heb “now he was before them.”

NET Notes: Jdg 3:28 Or “against Moab,” that is, so as to prevent the Moabites from crossing.

NET Notes: Jdg 3:29 Heb “They struck Moab that day – about ten thousand men.”

NET Notes: Jdg 3:31 Heb “also he”; the referent (Ehud) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

Geneva Bible: Jdg 3:1 Now these [are] the nations which the LORD left, to prove Israel by them, [even] as many [of Israel] as had not known all the ( a ) wars of Canaan; (...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 3:2 Only that the generations of the children of Israel might know, to teach them war, at the least such as before knew ( b ) nothing thereof; ( b ) For ...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 3:6 And they took ( c ) their daughters to be their wives, and gave their daughters to their sons, and served their gods. ( c ) Contrary to God's command...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 3:7 And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD, and forgat the LORD their God, and served Baalim and the ( d ) groves. ( d ) Or Ashtero...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 3:10 And the ( e ) Spirit of the LORD came upon him, and he judged Israel, and went out to war: and the LORD delivered Chushanrishathaim king of Mesopotami...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 3:11 And the land had rest ( f ) forty years. And Othniel the son of Kenaz died. ( f ) That is, 32 under Joshua and 8 under Othniel.

Geneva Bible: Jdg 3:12 And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD: and the LORD ( g ) strengthened Eglon the king of Moab against Israel, because the...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 3:19 But he himself turned again from the ( h ) quarries that [were] by Gilgal, and said, I have a secret errand unto thee, O king: who said, Keep ( i ) si...

Geneva Bible: Jdg 3:30 So Moab was subdued that day under the hand of Israel. And the ( k ) land had rest fourscore years. ( k ) Meaning, the Israelites.

Geneva Bible: Jdg 3:31 And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath, which slew of the Philistines six hundred men with an ox ( l ) goad: and he also delivered Israel. ( l ) ...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Jdg 3:1-7 - --As the Israelites were a type of the church on earth, they were not to be idle and slothful. The Lord was pleased to try them by the remains of the de...

MHCC: Jdg 3:8-11 - --The first judge was Othniel: even in Joshua's time Othniel began to be famous. Soon after Israel's settlement in Canaan their purity began to be corru...

MHCC: Jdg 3:12-30 - --When Israel sins again, God raises up a new oppressor. The Israelites did ill, and the Moabites did worse; yet because God punishes the sins of his ow...

MHCC: Jdg 3:31 - --The side of the country which lay south-west, was infested by the Philistines. God raised up Shamgar to deliver them; having neither sword nor spear, ...

Matthew Henry: Jdg 3:1-7 - -- We are here told what remained of the old inhabitants of Canaan. 1. There were some of them that kept together in united bodies, unbroken (Jdg 3:3):...

Matthew Henry: Jdg 3:8-11 - -- We now come to the records of the government of the particular judges, the first of which was Othniel, in whom the story of this book is knit to tha...

Matthew Henry: Jdg 3:12-30 - -- Ehud is the next of the judges whose achievements are related in this history, and here is an account of his actions. I. When Israel sins again God ...

Matthew Henry: Jdg 3:31 - -- When it is said the land had rest eighty years, some think it meant chiefly of that part of the land which lay eastward on the banks of Jordan, wh...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 3:1-6 - -- Nations which the Lord left in Canaan : with a repetition of the reason why this was done. Jdg 3:1-2 The reason, which has already been stated in...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 3:7-11 - -- II. History of the People of Israel under the Judges - Judges 3:7-16:31 In order that we may be able to take a distinct survey of the development of...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 3:12-14 - -- In vv. 12-30 the subjugation of the Israelites by Eglon , the king of the Moabites, and their deliverance from this bondage, are circumstantially d...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 3:15 - -- But when the Israelites cried to the Lord for help, He set them free through the Benjaminite Ehud , whom He raised up as their deliverer. Ehud was...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 3:16 - -- Ehud availed himself of the opportunity to approach the king of the Moabites and put him to death, and thus to shake off the yoke of the Moabites fr...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 3:17 - -- Provided with this weapon, he brought the present to king Eglon, who - as is also mentioned as a preparation for what follows - was a very fat man.

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 3:18-20 - -- After presenting the gift, Ehud dismissed the people who had carried the present to their own homes; namely, as we learn from Jdg 3:19, after they h...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 3:21-22 - -- But when the king stood up, Ehud drew his sword from under his garment, and plunged it so deeply into his abdomen that even the hilt followed the bl...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 3:23 - -- As soon as the deed was accomplished, Ehud went out into the porch or front hall, shut the door of the room behind him ( בּעדו , not behind him...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 3:24-25 - -- When the servants of Eglon came (to enter in to their lord) after Ehud's departure and saw the door of the upper room bolted, they thought "surely (...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 3:26-28 - -- Ehud had escaped whilst the servants of Eglon were waiting, and had passed the stone quarries and reached Seirah. Seirah is a place that is never m...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 3:29 - -- Thus they smote at that time about 10,000 Moabites, all fat and powerful men, i.e., the whole army of the enemy in Jericho and on this side of the J...

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 3:30 - -- Thus Moab was subdued under the hand of Israel, and the land had rest for eighty years.

Keil-Delitzsch: Jdg 3:31 - -- After him (Ehud) was, i.e., there rose up, Shamgar the son of Anath. He smote the Philistines, who had probably invaded the land of the Israelites,...

Constable: Jdg 1:1--3:7 - --I. THE REASONS FOR ISRAEL'S APOSTASY 1:1--3:6 The first major section in the book (1:1-3:6) explains very clearl...

Constable: Jdg 3:1-6 - --3. God's purposes with Israel 3:1-6 The purposes for which God allowed the Canaanites to live am...

Constable: Jdg 3:7--17:1 - --II. THE RECORD OF ISRAEL'S APOSTASY 3:7--16:31   ...

Constable: Jdg 3:7-11 - --A. The first apostasy 3:7-11 The first of six periods of oppression by Israel's enemies began while Othn...

Constable: Jdg 3:12-30 - --1. Oppression under the Moabites and deliverance through Ehud 3:12-30 The Moabites and Ammonites...

Constable: Jdg 3:31 - --2. Oppression under the Philistines and deliverance through Shamgar 3:31 Several factors suggest...

Guzik: Jdg 3:1-31 - The First Three Judges Judges 3 - The First Three Judges A. The pagan nations left in Israel's midst. 1. (1-2) God's reason for allowing these nations to continue in Israe...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Judges (Pendahuluan Kitab) JUDGES is the title given to the next book, from its containing the history of those non-regal rulers who governed the Hebrews from the time of Joshua...

JFB: Judges (Garis Besar) THE ACTS OF JUDAH AND SIMEON. (Jdg 1:1-3) ADONI-BEZEK JUSTLY REQUITED. (Jdg. 1:4-21) SOME CANAANITES LEFT. (Jdg 1:22-26) AN ANGEL SENT TO REBUKE THE ...

TSK: Judges (Pendahuluan Kitab) The book of Judges forms an important link in the history of the Israelites. It furnishes us with a lively description of a fluctuating and unsettled...

TSK: Judges 3 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Jdg 3:1, The nations which were left to prove Israel; Jdg 3:5, By communion with them they commit idolatry; Jdg 3:8, Othniel delivered th...

Poole: Judges (Pendahuluan Kitab) BOOK OF JUDGES THE ARGUMENT THE author of this book is not certainly known, whether it was Samuel, or Ezra, or some other prophet; nor is it mate...

Poole: Judges 3 (Pendahuluan Pasal) CHAPTER 3 The nations left to prove Israel mentioned, Jud 3:1-4 . The Israelites marrying their daughters, and serving their gods, they are deliver...

MHCC: Judges (Pendahuluan Kitab) The book of Judges is the history of Israel during the government of the Judges, who were occasional deliverers, raised up by God to rescue Israel fro...

MHCC: Judges 3 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Jdg 3:1-7) The nations left to prove Israel. (Jdg 3:8-11) Othniel delivers Israel. (v. 12-30) Ehud delivers Israel from Eglon. (Jdg 3:31) Shamgar ...

Matthew Henry: Judges (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Book of Judges This is called the Hebrew Shepher Shophtim , the Book of Judges, which the Syria...

Matthew Henry: Judges 3 (Pendahuluan Pasal) In this chapter, I. A general account of Israel's enemies is premised, and of the mischief they did them (Jdg 3:1-7). II. A particular account of...

Constable: Judges (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The English title, Judges, comes to us from the Latin translation (...

Constable: Judges (Garis Besar) Outline I. The reason for Israel's apostasy 1:1-3:6 A. Hostilities between the Israelites an...

Constable: Judges Judges Bibliography Aharoni, Yohanan. Land of the Bible. Phildelphia: Westminster Press, 1962. ...

Haydock: Judges (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION. THE BOOK OF JUDGES. This Book is called Judges, because it contains the history of what passed under the government of the judge...

Gill: Judges (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO JUDGES The title of this book in the Hebrew copies is Sepher Shophetim, the Book of Judges; but the Syriac and Arabic interpreters ...

Gill: Judges 3 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO JUDGES 3 This chapter gives an account of the nations left in Canaan to prove Israel, and who became a snare unto them, Jdg 3:1; an...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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