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Teks -- Esther 1:1-22 (NET)

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Konteks
The King Throws a Lavish Party
1:1 The following events happened in the days of Ahasuerus. (I am referring to that Ahasuerus who used to rule over a hundred and twenty-seven provinces extending all the way from India to Ethiopia.) 1:2 In those days, as King Ahasuerus sat on his royal throne in Susa the citadel, 1:3 in the third year of his reign he provided a banquet for all his officials and his servants. The army of Persia and Media was present, as well as the nobles and the officials of the provinces. 1:4 He displayed the riches of his royal glory and the splendor of his majestic greatness for a lengthy period of time– a hundred and eighty days, to be exact! 1:5 When those days were completed, the king then provided a seven-day banquet for all the people who were present in Susa the citadel, for those of highest standing to the most lowly. It was held in the court located in the garden of the royal palace. 1:6 The furnishings included linen and purple curtains hung by cords of the finest linen and purple wool on silver rings, alabaster columns, gold and silver couches displayed on a floor made of valuable stones of alabaster, mother-of-pearl, and mineral stone. 1:7 Drinks were served in golden containers, all of which differed from one another. Royal wine was available in abundance at the king’s expense. 1:8 There were no restrictions on the drinking, for the king had instructed all of his supervisors that they should do as everyone so desired. 1:9 Queen Vashti also gave a banquet for the women in King Ahasuerus’ royal palace.
Queen Vashti is Removed from Her Royal Position
1:10 On the seventh day, as King Ahasuerus was feeling the effects of the wine, he ordered Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven eunuchs who attended him, 1:11 to bring Queen Vashti into the king’s presence wearing her royal high turban. He wanted to show the people and the officials her beauty, for she was very attractive. 1:12 But Queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s bidding conveyed through the eunuchs. Then the king became extremely angry, and his rage consumed him. 1:13 The king then inquired of the wise men who were discerners of the times– for it was the royal custom to confer with all those who were proficient in laws and legalities. 1:14 Those who were closest to him were Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan. These men were the seven officials of Persia and Media who saw the king on a regular basis and had the most prominent offices in the kingdom. 1:15 The king asked, “By law, what should be done to Queen Vashti in light of the fact that she has not obeyed the instructions of King Ahasuerus conveyed through the eunuchs?” 1:16 Memucan then replied to the king and the officials, “The wrong of Queen Vashti is not against the king alone, but against all the officials and all the people who are throughout all the provinces of King Ahasuerus. 1:17 For the matter concerning the queen will spread to all the women, leading them to treat their husbands with contempt, saying, ‘When King Ahasuerus gave orders to bring Queen Vashti into his presence, she would not come.’ 1:18 And this very day the noble ladies of Persia and Media who have heard the matter concerning the queen will respond in the same way to all the royal officials, and there will be more than enough contempt and anger! 1:19 If the king is so inclined, let a royal edict go forth from him, and let it be written in the laws of Persia and Media that cannot be repealed, that Vashti may not come into the presence of King Ahasuerus, and let the king convey her royalty to another who is more deserving than she. 1:20 And let the king’s decision which he will enact be disseminated throughout all his kingdom, vast though it is. Then all the women will give honor to their husbands, from the most prominent to the lowly.” 1:21 The matter seemed appropriate to the king and the officials. So the king acted on the advice of Memucan. 1:22 He sent letters throughout all the royal provinces, to each province according to its own script and to each people according to its own language, that every man should be ruling his family and should be speaking the language of his own people.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Abagtha a man who was one of king Ahasuerus' chamberlains
 · Admatha a prince of Persia under King Ahasuerus
 · Ahasuerus king of Persia after Darius
 · Bigtha a man who was one of king Ahasuerus' chamberlains
 · Biztha a man who was one of king Ahasuerus' chamberlains
 · Carkas a man who was one of king Ahasuerus' chamberlains
 · Carshena one of the seven princes of Persia under Ahasuerus
 · Ethiopia a country south of Egypt
 · Harbona a man who was one of king Ahasuerus' chamberlains
 · India a country in the region of the Indus River
 · Marsena one of the seven princes of Persia under Ahasuerus
 · Medes the inhabitants of Media, a region south and southwest of the Caspian Sea in the Zagros mountains,a people and a nation
 · Media a country on the SW coast of the Caspian Sea
 · Mehuman a man who was one of king Ahasuerus' chamberlains
 · Memucan one of the seven princes of Persia under Ahasuerus
 · Meres one of the seven princes of Persia under Ahasuerus
 · Persia citizen(s) of Persia
 · Persian citizen(s) of Persia
 · Shethar one of the seven princes of Persia under Ahasuerus
 · Susa capital city of Elam and winter home of the Persian kings (OS)
 · Tarshish son of Javan son of Japheth son of Noah,son of Bilhan, great grandson of Benjamin son of Israel,one of the seven princes of Persia under Ahasuerus,a region known for its ports friendly to the ships of Israel,A ship built strong and equiped for long range trading.
 · Vashti queen of Ahasuerus
 · Zethar a man who was one of king Ahasuerus' chamberlains


Topik/Tema Kamus: Shushan | Vashti | Medes | Servant | Persia | Memucan | Queen | Divorce | Family | Husband | Women | Wife | Chamberlain | Babylon | Feasts | Marble | PURIM; PUR | Bigtha | Abagtha | Mehuman | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Wesley: Est 1:1 - Ahasuerus Many suppose this to be Darius Hystapas, for his kingdom was thus vast, and he subdued India, as Herodotus reports: and one of his wives was called At...

Many suppose this to be Darius Hystapas, for his kingdom was thus vast, and he subdued India, as Herodotus reports: and one of his wives was called Atossa, differing little from Hadassah, which is Esther's other name, Est 2:7.

Wesley: Est 1:1 - Provinces So seven new provinces were added to those hundred and twenty mentioned, Dan 6:1.

So seven new provinces were added to those hundred and twenty mentioned, Dan 6:1.

Wesley: Est 1:2 - Sat Was settled in the peaceable possession of it.

Was settled in the peaceable possession of it.

Wesley: Est 1:2 - Shushan The chief or royal city. Shushan might be the proper name of the palace, which thence was given to the whole city. Here the kings of Persia used to ke...

The chief or royal city. Shushan might be the proper name of the palace, which thence was given to the whole city. Here the kings of Persia used to keep their courts in winter, as at Exbatana in summer.

Wesley: Est 1:4 - Many days Making every day a magnificent feast, either for all his princes, or for some of them, who might come to the feast successively, as the king ordered t...

Making every day a magnificent feast, either for all his princes, or for some of them, who might come to the feast successively, as the king ordered them to do. The Persian feasts are much celebrated in authors, for their length and luxury.

Wesley: Est 1:6 - Beds For in those eastern countries, they did not then sit at tables as we do, but rested or leaned upon beds or couches.

For in those eastern countries, they did not then sit at tables as we do, but rested or leaned upon beds or couches.

Wesley: Est 1:8 - The law According to this law which the king had now made, that none should compel another to drink more than he pleased. How does this Heathen prince shame m...

According to this law which the king had now made, that none should compel another to drink more than he pleased. How does this Heathen prince shame many, that are called Christians, who think they do not make their friends welcome, unless they make them drunk, and under pretence of sending the health round, send the sin round, and death with it!

Wesley: Est 1:9 - Women While the king entertained the men. For this was the common custom of the Persians, that men and women did not feast together.

While the king entertained the men. For this was the common custom of the Persians, that men and women did not feast together.

Wesley: Est 1:12 - Refused Being favoured in this refusal by the law of Persia, which was to keep mens wives, and especially queens, from the view of other men.

Being favoured in this refusal by the law of Persia, which was to keep mens wives, and especially queens, from the view of other men.

Wesley: Est 1:13 - The times The histories of former times, what princes have done in such cases as this was.

The histories of former times, what princes have done in such cases as this was.

Wesley: Est 1:14 - Saw Who had constant freedom of access to the king, and familiar converse with him: which is thus expressed, because the Persian kings were very seldom se...

Who had constant freedom of access to the king, and familiar converse with him: which is thus expressed, because the Persian kings were very seldom seen by their subjects.

Wesley: Est 1:14 - Sat Who were his chief counsellors and officers.

Who were his chief counsellors and officers.

Wesley: Est 1:18 - Contempt Contempt in the wives, and thereupon wrath in the husbands; and consequently strife in families.

Contempt in the wives, and thereupon wrath in the husbands; and consequently strife in families.

JFB: Est 1:1 - Ahasuerus It is now generally agreed among learned men that the Ahasuerus mentioned in this episode is the Xerxes who figures in Grecian history.

It is now generally agreed among learned men that the Ahasuerus mentioned in this episode is the Xerxes who figures in Grecian history.

JFB: Est 1:3 - made a feast unto all his princes and his servants Banquets on so grand a scale, and extending over so great a period, have been frequently provided by the luxurious monarchs of Eastern countries, both...

Banquets on so grand a scale, and extending over so great a period, have been frequently provided by the luxurious monarchs of Eastern countries, both in ancient and modern times. The early portion of this festive season, however, seems to have been dedicated to amusement, particularly an exhibition of the magnificence and treasures of the court, and it was closed by a special feast of seven days' continuance, given within the gardens of the royal palace. The ancient palace of Susa has been recently disinterred from an incumbent mass of earth and ruins; and in that palace, which is, beyond all doubt, the actual edifice referred to in this passage, there is a great hall of marble pillars. "The position of the great colonnade corresponds with the account here given. It stands on an elevation in the center of the mound, the remainder of which we may well imagine to have been occupied, after the Persian fashion, with a garden and fountains. Thus the colonnade would represent the 'court of the garden of the king's palace' with its 'pillars of marble.' I am even inclined to believe the expression, 'Shushan the palace,' applies especially to this portion of the existing ruins, in contradistinction to the citadel and the city of Shushan" [LOFTUS, Chaldaea and Susiana].

JFB: Est 1:6 - Where were white, green, and blue hangings, &c. The fashion, in the houses of the great, on festive occasions, was to decorate the chambers from the middle of the wall downward with damask or velvet...

The fashion, in the houses of the great, on festive occasions, was to decorate the chambers from the middle of the wall downward with damask or velvet hangings of variegated colors suspended on hooks, or taken down at pleasure.

JFB: Est 1:6 - the beds were of gold and silver That is, the couches on which, according to Oriental fashion, the guests reclined, and which were either formed entirely of gold and silver or inlaid ...

That is, the couches on which, according to Oriental fashion, the guests reclined, and which were either formed entirely of gold and silver or inlaid with ornaments of those costly metals, stood on an elevated floor of parti-colored marble.

JFB: Est 1:7 - they gave them drink in vessels of gold There is reason to believe from this account, as well as from Est 5:6; Est 7:2, Est 7:7-8, where the drinking of wine occupies by far the most promine...

There is reason to believe from this account, as well as from Est 5:6; Est 7:2, Est 7:7-8, where the drinking of wine occupies by far the most prominent place in the description, that this was a banquet rather than a feast.

JFB: Est 1:9 - Also Vashti the queen made a feast for the women The celebration was double; for, as according to the Oriental fashion, the sexes do not intermingle in society, the court ladies were entertained in a...

The celebration was double; for, as according to the Oriental fashion, the sexes do not intermingle in society, the court ladies were entertained in a separate apartment by the queen.

JFB: Est 1:10-12 - On the seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine As the feast days advanced, the drinking was more freely indulged in, so that the close was usually marked by great excesses of revelry.

As the feast days advanced, the drinking was more freely indulged in, so that the close was usually marked by great excesses of revelry.

JFB: Est 1:10-12 - he commanded . . . the seven chamberlains These were the eunuchs who had charge of the royal harem. The refusal of Vashti to obey an order which required her to make an indecent exposure of he...

These were the eunuchs who had charge of the royal harem. The refusal of Vashti to obey an order which required her to make an indecent exposure of herself before a company of drunken revellers, was becoming both the modesty of her sex and her rank as queen; for, according to Persian customs, the queen, even more than the wives of other men, was secluded from the public gaze. Had not the king's blood been heated with wine, or his reason overpowered by force of offended pride, he would have perceived that his own honor, as well as hers, was consulted by her dignified conduct.

JFB: Est 1:13-19 - Then the king said to the wise men These were probably the magi, without whose advice as to the proper time of doing a thing the Persian kings never did take any step whatever; and the ...

These were probably the magi, without whose advice as to the proper time of doing a thing the Persian kings never did take any step whatever; and the persons named in Est 1:14 were the "seven counsellors" (compare Ezr 7:14) who formed the state ministry. The combined wisdom of all, it seems, was enlisted to consult with the king what course should be taken after so unprecedented an occurrence as Vashti's disobedience of the royal summons. It is scarcely possible for us to imagine the astonishment produced by such a refusal in a country and a court where the will of the sovereign was absolute. The assembled grandees were petrified with horror at the daring affront. Alarm for the consequences that might ensue to each of them in his own household next seized on their minds; and the sounds of bacchanalian revelry were hushed into deep and anxious consultation what punishment to inflict on the refractory queen. But a purpose was to be served by the flattery of the king and the enslavement of all women. The counsellors were too intoxicated or obsequious to oppose the courtly advice of Memucan was unanimously resolved, with a wise regard to the public interests of the nation, that the punishment of Vashti could be nothing short of degradation from her royal dignity. The doom was accordingly pronounced and made known in all parts of the empire.

Clarke: Est 1:1 - Now it came to pass Now it came to pass - The Ahasuerus of the Romans, the Artaxerxes of the Greeks and Ardsheer of the Persians, are the same. Some think that this Aha...

Now it came to pass - The Ahasuerus of the Romans, the Artaxerxes of the Greeks and Ardsheer of the Persians, are the same. Some think that this Ahasuerus was Darius, the son of Hystaspes; but Prideaux and others maintain that he was Artaxerxes Longimanus

Clarke: Est 1:1 - Reigned from India even unto Ethiopia Reigned from India even unto Ethiopia - This is nearly the same account that is given by Xenophon. How great and glorious the kingdom of Cyrus was b...

Reigned from India even unto Ethiopia - This is nearly the same account that is given by Xenophon. How great and glorious the kingdom of Cyrus was beyond all the kingdoms of Asia, was evident from this: Ὡρισθῃ μεν πρως ἑῳ τῃ Ερυθρᾳ θαλαττῃ· προς αρκτον δε τῳ Ευξεινῳ ποντῳ· προς ἑσπεραν δε Κυπρῳ και Αιγυπτῳ· προς μεσημβριαν δε Αιθιοπιᾳ. "It was bounded on the east by the Red Sea; on the north by the Euxine Sea; on the west by Cyprus and Egypt; and on the south by Ethiopia."- Cyrop. lib. viii., p. 241, edit. Steph. 1581.

Clarke: Est 1:2 - Sat on the throne of his kingdom Sat on the throne of his kingdom - Having subdued all his enemies, and brought universal peace to his empire. See the commencement of the introducti...

Sat on the throne of his kingdom - Having subdued all his enemies, and brought universal peace to his empire. See the commencement of the introduction

Clarke: Est 1:2 - Shushan the palace Shushan the palace - The ancient city of Susa, now called Shuster by the Persians. This, with Ecbatana and Babylon, was a residence of the Persian...

Shushan the palace - The ancient city of Susa, now called Shuster by the Persians. This, with Ecbatana and Babylon, was a residence of the Persian kings. The word הבירה habbirah , which we render the palace, should be rendered the city, εν Σουσοις τῃ πολει, as in the Septuagint.

Clarke: Est 1:4 - The riches of his glorious kingdom The riches of his glorious kingdom - Luxury was the characteristic of the Eastern monarchs, and particularly of the Persians. In their feasts, which...

The riches of his glorious kingdom - Luxury was the characteristic of the Eastern monarchs, and particularly of the Persians. In their feasts, which were superb and of long continuance, they made a general exhibition of their wealth, grandeur, etc., and received the highest encomiums from their poets and flatterers. Their ostentation on such occasions passed into a proverb: hence Horace: -

Persicos odi, puer, apparatus

Displicent nexae philyra coronae

Mitte sectari, rosa quo locoru

Sera moretur

I tell thee, boy, that I detes

The grandeur of a Persian feast

Nor for me the linden’ s rin

Shall the flowery chaplet bind

Then search not where the curious ros

Beyond his season loitering grows

Francis.

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Clarke: Est 1:5 - A feast unto all the people A feast unto all the people - The first was a feast for the nobles in general; this, for the people of the city at large

A feast unto all the people - The first was a feast for the nobles in general; this, for the people of the city at large

Clarke: Est 1:5 - In the court of the garden In the court of the garden - As the company was very numerous that was to be received, no apartments in the palace could be capable of containing th...

In the court of the garden - As the company was very numerous that was to be received, no apartments in the palace could be capable of containing them; therefore the court of the garden was chosen.

Clarke: Est 1:6 - White, green, and blue hangings White, green, and blue hangings - It was customary, on such occasions, not only to hang the place about with elegant curtains of the above colors, a...

White, green, and blue hangings - It was customary, on such occasions, not only to hang the place about with elegant curtains of the above colors, as Dr. Shaw and others have remarked, but also to have a canopy of rich stuffs suspended on cords from side to side of the place in which they feasted. And such courts were ordinarily paved with different coloured marbles, or with tiles painted, as above specified. And this was the origin of the Musive or Mosaic work, well known among the Asiatics, and borrowed from them by the Greeks and the Romans

The beds of gold and silver mentioned here were the couches covered with gold and silver cloth, on which the guests reclined.

Clarke: Est 1:7 - Vessels being diverse Vessels being diverse - They had different services of plate.

Vessels being diverse - They had different services of plate.

Clarke: Est 1:8 - None did compel: for so the king had appointed None did compel: for so the king had appointed - Every person drank what he pleased; he was not obliged to take more than he had reason to think wou...

None did compel: for so the king had appointed - Every person drank what he pleased; he was not obliged to take more than he had reason to think would do him good

Among the Greeks, each guest was obliged to keep the round, or leave the company: hence the proverb Η πιθι, η απιθι ; Drink or begone. To this Horace refers, but gives more license: -

Pasco libatis dapibus; prout cuique libido est

Siccat inaequales calices conviva, solutu

Legibus insanis: seu quis capit acria forti

Pocula; seu modicis humescit aetius

Horat. Sat. lib. ii., s. vi., ver. 67

There, every guest may drink and fil

As much or little as he will

Exempted from the Bedlam rule

Of roaring prodigals and fools

Whether, in merry mood or whim

He fills his goblet to the brim

Or, better pleased to let it pass

Is cheerful with a moderate glass

Francis

At the Roman feasts there was a person chosen by the cast of dice, who was the Arbiter bibendi , and prescribed rules to the company, which all were obliged to observe. References to this custom may be seen in the same poet. Odar. lib. i., Od. iv., ver. 18: -

Non regna vini sortiere talis

And in lib. ii., Od. vii., ver. 25: -

- Quem Venus arbitrum Dicet bibendi

Mr. Herbert, in his excellent poem, The Church Porch, has five verses on this vile custom and its rule: -

Drink not the third glass, which thou canst not tam

When once it is within thee, but befor

Mayst rule it as thou list; and pour the shame

Which it would pour on thee, upon the floor

It is most just to throw that on the ground

Which would throw me there if I keep the round

He that is drunken may his mother kill

Big with his sister; he hath lost the reins

Is outlawed by himself. All kinds of il

Did with his liquor slide into his veins

The drunkard forfeits man; and doth dives

All worldly right, save what he hath by beast

Nothing too severe can be said on this destructive practice.

Clarke: Est 1:9 - Also Vashti the queen - Vashti is a mere Persian word; and signifies a beautiful or excellent woman

Made a feast for the women Also Vashti the queen - Vashti is a mere Persian word; and signifies a beautiful or excellent woman Made a feast for the women - The king, havin...

Also Vashti the queen - Vashti is a mere Persian word; and signifies a beautiful or excellent woman

Made a feast for the women - The king, having subdued all his enemies, left no competitor for the kingdom; and being thus quietly and firmly seated on the throne, made this a time of general festivity. As the women of the East never mingle with the men in public, Vashti made a feast for the Persian ladies by themselves; and while the men were in the court of the garden, the women were in the royal house.

Clarke: Est 1:10 - He commanded Mehuman He commanded Mehuman - All these are doubtless Persian names; but so disguised by passing through a Hebrew medium, that some of them can scarcely be...

He commanded Mehuman - All these are doubtless Persian names; but so disguised by passing through a Hebrew medium, that some of them can scarcely be known. Mehuman signifies a stranger or guest

We shall find other names and words in this book, the Persian etymology of which may be easily traced.

Clarke: Est 1:11 - To bring Vashti the queen To bring Vashti the queen - The Targum adds naked

To bring Vashti the queen - The Targum adds naked

Clarke: Est 1:11 - For she was fair to look on For she was fair to look on - Hence she had her name Vashti , which signifies beautiful. See Est 1:9.

For she was fair to look on - Hence she had her name Vashti , which signifies beautiful. See Est 1:9.

Clarke: Est 1:12 - Vashti refused to come Vashti refused to come - And much should she be commended for it. What woman, possessing even a common share of prudence and modesty, could consent ...

Vashti refused to come - And much should she be commended for it. What woman, possessing even a common share of prudence and modesty, could consent to expose herself to the view of such a group of drunken Bacchanalians? Her courage was equal to her modesty: she would resist the royal mandate, rather than violate the rules of chaste decorum

Her contempt of worldly grandeur, when brought in competition with what every modest woman holds dear and sacred, is worthy of observation. She well knew that this act of disobedience would cost her her crown, if not her life also: but she was regardless of both, as she conceived her virtue and honor were at stake

Her humility was greatly evidenced in this refusal. She was beautiful; and might have shown herself to great advantage, and have had a fine opportunity of gratifying her vanity, if she had any: but she refused to come

Hail, noble woman! be thou a pattern to all thy sex on every similar occasion! Surely, every thing considered, we have few women like Vashti; for some of the highest of the land will dress and deck themselves with the utmost splendor, even to the selvedge of their fortunes, to exhibit themselves at balls, plays, galas, operas, and public assemblies of all kinds, (nearly half naked), that they may be seen and admired of men, and even, to the endless reproach and broad suspicion of their honor and chastity, figure away in masquerades! Vashti must be considered at the top of her sex: -

Rara avis in terris, nigroque simillima cygno

A black swan is not half so rare a bird.

Clarke: Est 1:13 - To the wise men To the wise men - Probably the lawyers.

To the wise men - Probably the lawyers.

Clarke: Est 1:14 - And the next unto him - the seven princes And the next unto him - the seven princes - Probably, the privy counsellors of the king. Which saw the king’ s face - were at all times admitte...

And the next unto him - the seven princes - Probably, the privy counsellors of the king. Which saw the king’ s face - were at all times admitted to the royal presence.

Clarke: Est 1:16 - Vashti - hath not done wrong to the king only Vashti - hath not done wrong to the king only - This reasoning or arguing was inconsequent and false. Vashti had not generally disobeyed the king, t...

Vashti - hath not done wrong to the king only - This reasoning or arguing was inconsequent and false. Vashti had not generally disobeyed the king, therefore she could be no precedent for the general conduct of the Persian women. She disobeyed only in one particular; and this, to serve a purpose, Memucan draws into a general consequence; and the rest came to the conclusion which he drew, being either too drunk to be able to discern right from wrong, or too intent on reducing the women to a state of vassalage, to neglect the present favorable opportunity.

Clarke: Est 1:18 - The ladies of Persia The ladies of Persia - שרות saroth , the princesses; but the meaning is very well expressed by our term ladies.

The ladies of Persia - שרות saroth , the princesses; but the meaning is very well expressed by our term ladies.

Clarke: Est 1:19 - That it be not altered That it be not altered - Let it be inserted among the permanent laws, and made a part of the constitution of the empire. Perhaps the Persians affect...

That it be not altered - Let it be inserted among the permanent laws, and made a part of the constitution of the empire. Perhaps the Persians affected such a degree of wisdom in the construction of their laws, that they never could be amended, and should never be repeated. And this we may understand to be the ground of the saying, The laws of the Medes and Persians, that change not.

Clarke: Est 1:22 - That every man should bear rule in his own house That every man should bear rule in his own house - Both God’ s law and common sense taught this from the foundation of the world. And is it pos...

That every man should bear rule in his own house - Both God’ s law and common sense taught this from the foundation of the world. And is it possible that this did not obtain in the Persian empire, previously to this edict? The twentieth verse has another clause, That all wives shall give to their husbands honor, both to great and small. This also was universally understood. This law did nothing. I suppose the parade of enactment was only made to deprive honest Vashti of her crown. The Targum adds, "That each woman should speak the language of her husband."If she were even a foreigner, she should be obliged to learn and speak the language of the king. Perhaps there might be some common sense in this, as it would oblige the foreigner to devote much time to study and improvement; and, consequently, to make her a better woman, and a better wife. But there is no proof that this was a part of the decree. But there are so many additions to this book in the principal versions, that we know not what might have made a part of it originally.

Defender: Est 1:1 - Ahasuerus Ahasuerus is believed by some to be a title rather than a personal name, and most scholars agree that Ahasuerus was the Hebrew equivalent of the Greek...

Ahasuerus is believed by some to be a title rather than a personal name, and most scholars agree that Ahasuerus was the Hebrew equivalent of the Greek Xerxes, who reigned over the Persian empire during the period 486-464 b.c. Assuming this identification is correct, the events recorded in the book of Esther must have taken place in the period between the sixth and seventh chapters of Ezra, with the Artaxerxes mentioned in Ezra and Nehemiah identified then as the son of Ahasuerus."

Defender: Est 1:3 - made a feast According to the Greek historian Herodotus, the Persian emperor Xerxes - who did rule "from India even unto Ethiopia" (Est 1:1) - held a great feast a...

According to the Greek historian Herodotus, the Persian emperor Xerxes - who did rule "from India even unto Ethiopia" (Est 1:1) - held a great feast and conference with all his military leaders during the third year of his reign. This event was held to prepare for his projected naval invasion of Greece. His fleet, however, suffered a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Salamis in 480 b.c."

Defender: Est 1:5 - Shushan Shushan is the same as Susa, the winter capital of the Persian empire, about 150 miles north of the Persian Gulf. It has been excavated and well ident...

Shushan is the same as Susa, the winter capital of the Persian empire, about 150 miles north of the Persian Gulf. It has been excavated and well identified archaeologically."

Defender: Est 1:9 - Vashti Persia's queen is called Amestris in Greek writings of the time. According to many interpreters, however, Xerxes had several wives in his large harem,...

Persia's queen is called Amestris in Greek writings of the time. According to many interpreters, however, Xerxes had several wives in his large harem, and it is possible that both Amestris and Vashti were wives of Xerxes. It is even possible that Amestris was the same as Esther."

Defender: Est 1:12 - chamberlains The "chamberlains" were eunuchs in charge of the king's harem. Each woman in the harem was actually married to the king; they were more than simply co...

The "chamberlains" were eunuchs in charge of the king's harem. Each woman in the harem was actually married to the king; they were more than simply concubines. One - in this case, the beautiful Vashti - was considered the primary wife and recognized as the queen, from whom one son would inherit the kingdom. This son probably was Artaxerxes, who was the emperor under whom Ezra and Nehemiah served. Artaxerxes thus became a stepson of Esther (Xerxes died about thirteen years after Esther became queen). Vashti's refusal to display herself before a drunken crowd of government officials was an act of illegal disobedience to her husband, yet it was an act of moral courage before her Creator."

Defender: Est 1:13 - wise men These "wise men" were probably astrologers, expert practitioners of the ancient pagan art which professed ability to forecast the future by the positi...

These "wise men" were probably astrologers, expert practitioners of the ancient pagan art which professed ability to forecast the future by the positions and motions of the stars. It is believed that the great feast described in this chapter was probably in preparation for the projected invasion of Greece. It is noteworthy that the counsel of the supposed wise men who "knew the times" did not warn Ahasuerus (that is, Xerxes) against launching this project which would prove so disastrous for the Persians. They were, however, very positive about advising him to reassert male sovereignty in the home."

Defender: Est 1:19 - be not altered The Persians considered their laws to be so perfect - an opinion probably justified in most cases - that once enacted, they could be neither repealed ...

The Persians considered their laws to be so perfect - an opinion probably justified in most cases - that once enacted, they could be neither repealed nor revised. Vashti thus lost her position as queen, but was presumably still in the harem (Dan 6:13)."

TSK: Est 1:1 - Ahasuerus // from India // an hundred Ahasuerus : Prideaux has shewn satisfactorily that Ahasuerus was the Artaxerxes Longimanus of the Greeks, agreeably to the Septuagint and Josephus. Se...

Ahasuerus : Prideaux has shewn satisfactorily that Ahasuerus was the Artaxerxes Longimanus of the Greeks, agreeably to the Septuagint and Josephus. See note on Ezr 6:14. Ezr 4:6; Dan 9:1

from India : Est 8:9; Isa 18:1, Isa 37:9

an hundred : Dan 6:1

TSK: Est 1:2 - sat // Shushan sat : 2Sa 7:1; 1Ki 1:46; Dan 4:4 Shushan : Est 2:3, Est 3:15, Est 4:16, Est 9:12-15; Neh 1:1; Dan 8:2

TSK: Est 1:3 - he made // of Persia // the nobles am 3542, bc 462 he made : Est 2:18; Gen 40:20; 1Ki 3:15; Dan 5:1; Mar 6:21 of Persia : Est 1:14; Ezr 1:2; Isa 21:2; Jer 51:11; Dan 5:28, Dan 8:20 the ...

TSK: Est 1:4 - When he // the riches // excellent When he : Isa 39:2; Eze 28:5; Dan 4:30 the riches : Psa 76:1-4, Psa 145:5, Psa 145:12, Psa 145:13; Dan 2:37-44, Dan 7:9-14; Mat 4:8, Mat 6:13; Rom 9:2...

TSK: Est 1:5 - present // seven days present : Heb. found seven days : 2Ch 7:8, 2Ch 7:9, 2Ch 30:21-25

present : Heb. found

seven days : 2Ch 7:8, 2Ch 7:9, 2Ch 30:21-25

TSK: Est 1:6 - white // blue // the beds // red white : Exo 26:1, Exo 26:31, Exo 26:32, Exo 26:36, Exo 26:37 blue : or, violet, Est 8:15 the beds : These were couches, covered with gold and silver c...

white : Exo 26:1, Exo 26:31, Exo 26:32, Exo 26:36, Exo 26:37

blue : or, violet, Est 8:15

the beds : These were couches, covered with gold and silver cloth, on which the guests reclined; for the Orientals do not sit, but recline at their meals. Est 7:8; Eze 23:41; Amo 2:8, Amo 6:4

red : etc. or, of porphyre, and marble, and alabaster, and stone of blue colour

TSK: Est 1:7 - vessels of gold // royal wine // state of the king vessels of gold : 1Ki 10:21; 2Ch 9:20; Dan 5:2-4 royal wine : Heb. wine of the kingdom state of the king : Heb. hand of the king.

vessels of gold : 1Ki 10:21; 2Ch 9:20; Dan 5:2-4

royal wine : Heb. wine of the kingdom

state of the king : Heb. hand of the king.

TSK: Est 1:8 - none did compel // the officers none did compel : Every person drank what he pleased. Among the Greeks, however, each guest was obliged to keep the round, or leave the companycaps1 ...

none did compel : Every person drank what he pleased. Among the Greeks, however, each guest was obliged to keep the round, or leave the companycaps1 . hcaps0 ence the proverb Η πιθι , η απιθι , Drink, or begone. Mr. Herbert, in his poem entitled ""The Church Porch,""has severely reprobated this vile custom. In Britain, however, this demoralizing custom is now almost destroyed, and a new era of social pleasure is arising, by temperate habits, increased domestic comforts, and the spread of gospel truths. Jer 35:8, Jer 51:7; Hab 2:15, Hab 2:16

the officers : Joh 2:8

TSK: Est 1:9 - the queen the queen : Est 5:4, Est 5:8

the queen : Est 5:4, Est 5:8

TSK: Est 1:10 - the heart // Harbona // chamberlains the heart : Gen 43:34; Jdg 16:25; 1Sa 25:36, 1Sa 25:37; 2Sa 13:28; Pro 20:1; Ecc 7:2-4; Ecc 10:19; Eph 5:18, Eph 5:19 Harbona : Est 7:9, Harbonah cham...

the heart : Gen 43:34; Jdg 16:25; 1Sa 25:36, 1Sa 25:37; 2Sa 13:28; Pro 20:1; Ecc 7:2-4; Ecc 10:19; Eph 5:18, Eph 5:19

Harbona : Est 7:9, Harbonah

chamberlains : or, eunuchs, Dan 1:3-5, Dan 1:18, Dan 1:19

TSK: Est 1:11 - Vashti // fair to look on Vashti : Pro 16:9, Pro 23:29-33; Mar 6:21, Mar 6:22 fair to look on : Heb. good of countenance, 1Sa 25:3; 2Sa 14:25; Pro 31:30

Vashti : Pro 16:9, Pro 23:29-33; Mar 6:21, Mar 6:22

fair to look on : Heb. good of countenance, 1Sa 25:3; 2Sa 14:25; Pro 31:30

TSK: Est 1:12 - the queen // refused // by his chamberlains // was the king // burned the queen : This refusal of Vashti’ s, to expose herself to the view of such a group of drunken Bacchanalians, was highly praiseworthy, and becam...

the queen : This refusal of Vashti’ s, to expose herself to the view of such a group of drunken Bacchanalians, was highly praiseworthy, and became the dignity of her rank and the modesty of her sex.

refused : Gen 3:16; Eph 5:22, Eph 5:24; 1Pe 3:1

by his chamberlains : Heb. which was by the hand of his eunuchs

was the king : Pro 19:12, Pro 20:2; Dan 2:12, Dan 3:13, Dan 3:19; Nah 1:6; Rev 6:16, Rev 6:17

burned : Exo 32:19, Exo 32:22; Deu 29:20; Psa 74:1, Psa 79:5

TSK: Est 1:13 - the wise // knew the wise : Jer 10:7; Dan 2:2, Dan 2:12, Dan 2:27, Dan 4:6, Dan 4:7, Dan 5:7; Mat 2:1 knew : 1Ch 12:32; Mat 16:3

TSK: Est 1:14 - the seven // saw the seven : Ezr 7:14 saw : 2Ki 25:19; Mat 18:10; Rev 22:4

the seven : Ezr 7:14

saw : 2Ki 25:19; Mat 18:10; Rev 22:4

TSK: Est 1:15 - What shall we do What shall we do : Heb. What to do, Est 6:6

What shall we do : Heb. What to do, Est 6:6

TSK: Est 1:16 - Vashti // done wrong Vashti : This reasoning was inconsequent and false. Vashti had not generally disobeyed the king, therefore she could be no precedent for the general ...

Vashti : This reasoning was inconsequent and false. Vashti had not generally disobeyed the king, therefore she could be no precedent for the general conduct of the Persian women. She disobeyed only in one particular; and this, to serve a purpose, Memucan draws into a general consequence, and the rest came into the conclusion, being either too intoxicated to be able to discern right from wrong, or too intent on reducing women to a state of vassalage, to neglect the present favourable opportunity.

done wrong : Act 18:14, Act 25:10; 1Co 6:7, 1Co 6:8

TSK: Est 1:17 - despise despise : 2Sa 6:16; Eph 5:33

despise : 2Sa 6:16; Eph 5:33

TSK: Est 1:18 - the ladies the ladies : Saroth , the princesses, but the meaning is well expressed by our term ladies. Jdg 5:29; 1Ki 11:3

the ladies : Saroth , the princesses, but the meaning is well expressed by our term ladies. Jdg 5:29; 1Ki 11:3

TSK: Est 1:19 - it please the king // from him // it be not altered // another // that is better it please the king : Heb. it be good with the king, Est 1:21, Est 3:9, Est 8:5 from him : Heb. from before him it be not altered : Heb. it pass not aw...

it please the king : Heb. it be good with the king, Est 1:21, Est 3:9, Est 8:5

from him : Heb. from before him

it be not altered : Heb. it pass not away, Est 8:8; Dan 6:8-15, Dan 6:17; Let it be inserted among the permanent laws, and be made a part of the constitution of the empire. The Persians seem to have affected such a degree of wisdom in the construction of their laws, that they never could be amended, and should never be repealed; and this formed the ground of the saying, ""The laws of the Medes and Persians that change not."

another : Heb. her companion

that is better : 1Sa 15:28; 1Ki 3:28

TSK: Est 1:20 - throughout // all the wives throughout : Deu 17:13, Deu 21:21 all the wives : Eph 5:33; Col 3:18; 1Pe 3:1-7

throughout : Deu 17:13, Deu 21:21

all the wives : Eph 5:33; Col 3:18; 1Pe 3:1-7

TSK: Est 1:21 - pleased the king pleased the king : Heb. was good in the eyes of the king, Est 1:19, Est 2:4; Gen 41:37

pleased the king : Heb. was good in the eyes of the king, Est 1:19, Est 2:4; Gen 41:37

TSK: Est 1:22 - into every province // that every man // it should // according into every province : Est 3:12, Est 8:9; Dan 3:29, Dan 4:1 that every man : Both the law of God and common sense taught this from the foundation of th...

into every province : Est 3:12, Est 8:9; Dan 3:29, Dan 4:1

that every man : Both the law of God and common sense taught this from the foundation of the world; and this parade of enactment was only to deprive Vashti of her crown. Eph 5:22-24; 1Ti 2:12; Tit 2:4, Tit 2:5

it should : etc. Heb. one should publish it according to the language of his country, Est 3:12

according : Luk 16:8; Act 2:5-11; 1Co 14:19, 1Co 14:20

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Est 1:2 - Sat on the throne of his kingdom // The palace Sat on the throne of his kingdom i.e. either was lately advanced to it, or rather was settled in the peaceable possession of it. The palace or, th...

Sat on the throne of his kingdom i.e. either was lately advanced to it, or rather was settled in the peaceable possession of it.

The palace or, the castle ; or, the chief or royal city , as both, Jewish and Christian interpreters render it. Shushan might be the proper name of the palace, which thence was given to the whole city. Here the kings of Persia used to keep their courts chiefly in winter, as ordinarily they were in Ecbatana in summer.

Poole: Est 1:3 - The power of Persia The power of Persia i.e. the mighty men; the chief officers of state, and commanders of all his forces; whom by this splendid entertainment he endeav...

The power of Persia i.e. the mighty men; the chief officers of state, and commanders of all his forces; whom by this splendid entertainment he endeavoured to oblige and assure to himself.

Poole: Est 1:4 - -- Making every day a magnificent feast, either for all his princes, or for some of them, who might come to the feast successively, as the king ordered...

Making every day a magnificent feast, either for all his princes, or for some of them, who might come to the feast successively, as the king ordered them to do. The Persian feasts are much celebrated in authors for their length and luxury.

Poole: Est 1:5 - All the people that were present // In the court of the garden All the people that were present both such as constantly resided there, and such as were come thither upon their occasions, of whatsoever condition o...

All the people that were present both such as constantly resided there, and such as were come thither upon their occasions, of whatsoever condition or quality.

In the court of the garden: the Persian gardens were exceeding large and pleasant.

Poole: Est 1:6 - The beds The beds for in those eastern countries and ancient times they did not sit at tables, as we do, but rested or leaned upon beds; of which we have many...

The beds for in those eastern countries and ancient times they did not sit at tables, as we do, but rested or leaned upon beds; of which we have many testimonies, both in Scripture, as Est 7:8 Amo 2:8 6:4 Joh 13:23 , and in all other authors.

Poole: Est 1:8 - According to the law According to the law none did compel, i.e. according to this law which the king had now made, that none should compel another to drink more than he p...

According to the law none did compel, i.e. according to this law which the king had now made, that none should compel another to drink more than he pleased; which the Persians and other loose and heathenish nations used to do, though that practice was condemned by the wise and sober heathens, and among others by this great prince. Or, no man did compel another to drink, according to the law, i.e. as by the laws or orders of the Persians prescribed and used in their feasts they might have done, if not restrained by this law.

Poole: Est 1:9 - -- Whilst the king entertained the men; for this was the common custom of the Persians, that men and women did not feast together, but in several place...

Whilst the king entertained the men; for this was the common custom of the Persians, that men and women did not feast together, but in several places.

Poole: Est 1:10 - Chamberlains Chamberlains or eunuchs ; which were much in use and in favour in the eastern courts, and particularly with the Persian emperors, as ancient histori...

Chamberlains or eunuchs ; which were much in use and in favour in the eastern courts, and particularly with the Persian emperors, as ancient histories inform us.

Poole: Est 1:12 - Vashti refused to come Vashti refused to come being favoured in this refusal by the laws and customs of Persia, which was to keep men’ s wives, and especially queens, ...

Vashti refused to come being favoured in this refusal by the laws and customs of Persia, which was to keep men’ s wives, and especially queens, as much as might be from the view of other men.

Poole: Est 1:13 - Which knew the times // So was the king’ s manner Which knew the times either, 1. The histories of former times, what princes have done in such cases as this was. Or, 2. Things done or to be done i...

Which knew the times either,

1. The histories of former times, what princes have done in such cases as this was. Or,

2. Things done or to be done in time; what was just and fit to be done, or what was the law and judgment in these cases, as the following words explain it, and how and when things were to be done. See Poole "1Ch 12:32" . Times are oft put in Scripture and other authors for the things done in them, by a common figure called a metonymy of the adjunct.

So was the king’ s manner to wit, to consult with them in all matters of moment.

Poole: Est 1:14 - Which saw the king’ s face // Which sat the first in the kingdom Which saw the king’ s face which had constant freedom of access to the king, and familiar converse with him; which is thus expressed, because th...

Which saw the king’ s face which had constant freedom of access to the king, and familiar converse with him; which is thus expressed, because the Persian kings were very seldom seen by their subjects.

Which sat the first in the kingdom which were his chief counsellors and officers, and had the precedency from all others.

Poole: Est 1:16 - Memucan // To all the people Memucan though last named, spake first, either because the king first asked him; or because he was the chief of them all, either in dignity or in rep...

Memucan though last named, spake first, either because the king first asked him; or because he was the chief of them all, either in dignity or in reputation; or because it then was, as now it is in many places, the custom for the youngest counsellors or judges to deliver their opinion first.

To all the people by giving them an example and encouragement to contemn and disobey their husbands. It is a crime of a high nature, and therefore deserves an exemplary punishment.

Poole: Est 1:18 - Contempt Contempt in the wives, and thereupon wrath in the husbands; and consequently strife in families; which may produce great and general mischiefs.

Contempt in the wives, and thereupon wrath in the husbands; and consequently strife in families; which may produce great and general mischiefs.

Poole: Est 1:19 - If it please the king // That it be not altered If it please the king which this cunning politician knew it would do. That it be not altered which caution was necessary for his own security; for ...

If it please the king which this cunning politician knew it would do.

That it be not altered which caution was necessary for his own security; for if the queen should recover her state and the king’ s favour, he was most likely to fall into his displeasure.

Poole: Est 1:21 - The saying pleased the king and the princes The saying pleased the king and the princes partly because their own authority and interest was concerned in it; and especially by the singular provi...

The saying pleased the king and the princes partly because their own authority and interest was concerned in it; and especially by the singular providence of God, who designed to bring about his own great work by this small occasion.

Poole: Est 1:22 - -- That all sorts of persons, not men only, (who by study or travel many times understand divers languages,) but the women also, might understand it, a...

That all sorts of persons, not men only, (who by study or travel many times understand divers languages,) but the women also, might understand it, and therefore be inexcusable if they did not comply with it; for which end it was not only written in each language, for that writing might come but to few hands, but moreover it was published in the several cities and towns by such persons as used to publish the king’ s edicts. Others, that he should speak in the language of his own people , i.e. that men should not, in compliance with their wives, who were oft of other nations and languages, inure themselves to it, and bring their wives’ language into the family; but that men should use their own proper language, and cause their wives and children to use it; this being one sign of dominion, and therefore frequent after this time among the Greeks and Romans, who, together with their victorious arms, brought in their language into other countries, and in a great measure imposed it upon them.

Haydock: Est 1:1 - In // Assuerus // India // Ethiopia // Seven // Provinces In. Hebrew, "and in." In this manner the books of Scripture are usually connected. Septuagint place first the dream of Mardochai, chap. xi. 2. (C...

In. Hebrew, "and in." In this manner the books of Scripture are usually connected. Septuagint place first the dream of Mardochai, chap. xi. 2. (Calmet) ---

Assuerus. Septuagint Artaxerxes; as [in] chap xvi. 1. The former is the title of Median, the latter of the Persian, monarchs. This king reigned over both nations, and was most probably Darius Hystaspes, the third king of the Persians, (Tirinus) who subdued India, &c. (Herodotus) (Calmet) (Tirinus) ---

Some understand Cambyses, (1 Esdras iv.; Genebrard) or Xerxes (Scaliger) or Artaxerxes Longimanus, (Bellarmine; Salien) or Memnon, (Eusebius) or Ochus. (Serarius) ---

But (Calmet) the author of 3 Esdras iii. 1., and iv. 43., seems clearly declared for Hystaspes. (Tirinus) ---

Though that work be not canonical, (Du Hamel) it may claim some authority, as an ancient history. (Haydock) ---

This king gave orders for the building of the temple, 1 Esdras vi. 1, 14. ---

India. Part had been (Calmet) subject to Xerxes. (Herodotus iv. 44.) ---

Ethiopia, beyond Egypt, paid an acknowledgment. Cambyses had taken possession of this country. (Calmet) ---

Some understand a part of Arabia to be meant. (Du Hamel) ---

Seven: 120 had been regulated by Darius, the Mede, Daniel vi. 1. (Haydock) ---

The number might vary as the monarch chose. (Du Hamel) ---

Herodotus (iii. 89.) only specifies "twenty." But he speaks of large departments, to which he intimates that several others were subordinate. (Calmet) ---

Provinces. Hebrew medina, "seat of judges." (Haydock) ---

Prefecture. (Menochius)

Haydock: Est 1:2 - Captial Captial. Hebrew, "palace, (Protestants; Haydock) or castle," (Calmet) may also signify "a capital." (Montanus, &c.) --- Hystaspes founded this anc...

Captial. Hebrew, "palace, (Protestants; Haydock) or castle," (Calmet) may also signify "a capital." (Montanus, &c.) ---

Hystaspes founded this ancient royal city of Persia, (Pliny, [Natural History?] vi. 27.) or he greatly embellished it. (Calmet) (Ælian, Anim. xiii. 18.) (Tirinus) ---

He seems to have resided here almost constantly. The preceding kings (Calmet) spent the winter in this warm climate, and perhaps the spring. See 2 Esdras i. 1. They spent other parts of the year at Ecbatana and at Babylon. (Calmet)

Haydock: Est 1:3 - Reign Reign. When he was solemnly crowned, again, (Tirinus) or removed his court, (Calmet) and dedicated this new capital, with feasting, &c. (Haydock)

Reign. When he was solemnly crowned, again, (Tirinus) or removed his court, (Calmet) and dedicated this new capital, with feasting, &c. (Haydock)

Haydock: Est 1:4 - Days // Persicos odi, puer, apparatus Days, or a full half year, according to their reckoning. Nabuchodonosor, after his victory over Arphaxad, (Judith i.) feasted 120 days; Dionysius of...

Days, or a full half year, according to their reckoning. Nabuchodonosor, after his victory over Arphaxad, (Judith i.) feasted 120 days; Dionysius of Syrachuse, 90; (Aristotle) Solomon seven; (3 Kings viii. 63.) and David three; when he was recognized by all Israel, 1 Paralipomenon xii. 39. The Gaul, Ariamnes, gave a fest to all his countrymen for a whole year. (Atheneus iv. 13.) ---

The Roman emperors sometimes treated all the citizens of Rome, and Alexander did the like to 9000 of his chief officers for one day. But the magnificence of Assuerus surpasses all the rest. The Persians were famous on this account. ---

Persicos odi, puer, apparatus. (Horace i. Ode 38.) (Calmet)

Haydock: Est 1:5 - Expired // King Expired, (Feuardent) or in the last week. (Menochius) (Calmet) --- King. The Persian monarchs delighted in agriculture. Cyrus the younger, plan...

Expired, (Feuardent) or in the last week. (Menochius) (Calmet) ---

King. The Persian monarchs delighted in agriculture. Cyrus the younger, planted trees at Sardis, and never ate till he had taken some exercise of this or of a military nature. (Xenophon Memor.; Cicero Senect.)

Haydock: Est 1:6 - Were // Ivory // Beds // Variety Were. Protestants, " where were, " white, green, and blue hangings. --- Ivory. Hebrew, "silver." (Haydock) --- Beds, to lie down on at table...

Were. Protestants, " where were, " white, green, and blue hangings. ---

Ivory. Hebrew, "silver." (Haydock) ---

Beds, to lie down on at table; though sitting was formerly the fashion, Genesis xliii. 33. The other custom prevailed among the more luxurious nations, and was observed in our Saviour's time, each person reclining upon his left arm, and having his feet behind the next. (Tirinus) ---

These beds were made very low, in Persia; so that Alexander had one put under his feet, when he sat on the throne of Darius, as he was not so tall. (Curtius v. 7.) ---

Their magnificence was surprising. (Herodotus ix. 81.) (Calmet) ---

Variety, in Mosaic work. (Tirinus) ---

They lay upon sheep skins. (Chaldean) Septuagint, "and the beds (or coverlets) were transparent, with various flowers, and full-blown roses, all round." (Haydock)

Haydock: Est 1:7 - Vessels Vessels. When Lysanias had taken the camp of Mardonius, and beheld the rich vessels, he could not help expressing a surprise that people possessing ...

Vessels. When Lysanias had taken the camp of Mardonius, and beheld the rich vessels, he could not help expressing a surprise that people possessing such advantages, should come to molest the Lacedemonians, who lived so poorly. (Herodotus ix. 79.)

Haydock: Est 1:8 - Neither // Et torquere mero, quem perspexisse laborant // An sit amicitia dignus // Siccat inequales calices conviva, solutus // Legibus insanis // Would Neither. Hebrew, "and the drinking was according to the law." Greek, "was not according to the pre-established law;" (Haydock) as the usual custo...

Neither. Hebrew, "and the drinking was according to the law." Greek, "was not according to the pre-established law;" (Haydock) as the usual custom was altered, on this occasion; and thus both may be accurate. The Persians had commonly a king of the feast, whose orders all were obliged to obey in drinking. (Horace i. Ode 4.) (Ecclesiasticus xxxii. 1.) ---

This was an occasion of quarrels, (St. Jerome) and of intoxication. Agesilaus followed the example of Assuerus. Darius, and Cyrus the younger, gloried in being able to drink much wine without being deranged. (Calmet) ----- Reges dicuntur urgere culullis,

Et torquere mero, quem perspexisse laborant,

An sit amicitia dignus. ----- (Horace ad Pison.)

Among friends, these "absurd laws" wer laid aside.

Siccat inequales calices conviva, solutus

Legibus insanis. ----- (Horace ii. Sat. 6.) (Calmet)

This may suggest to Christians, that they ought not to urge any to get drunk, (St. Augustine, ser. 231. de Temp.) lest they should be condemned by the very heathens. (Worthington) ---

Would, and thus prevent disorders as much as possible. (Atheneus x. 6.)

Haydock: Est 1:9 - Vasthi // Dwell Vasthi. Septuagint Astin. (Haydock) --- Serarius suspects she was the king's sister, or daughter, as such marriages were common in Persia. (Tir...

Vasthi. Septuagint Astin. (Haydock) ---

Serarius suspects she was the king's sister, or daughter, as such marriages were common in Persia. (Tirinus) ---

The name is not very different from that of Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus, who was married to Cambyses, Smerdis, and Darius; to the latter of whom she bore four children. (Herodotus iii. 68., and vii. 3. ---

This prince had other wives, particularly Artistona, (Calmet; our Hadossa, (Haydock) or Esther) whom he espoused a virgin, and love the most. Herodotus seems to confound her with Atossa. ---

Dwell. Some Greek copies have "in her own palaces." (Usher) ---

It was proper for women to be more retired. (Menochius) ---

The men feasted in the open air. (Haydock)

Haydock: Est 1:10 - Wine // Mauman Wine. From the king's excess, and the haughtiness of Vasthi, God took occasion to advance Esther, and to deliver his people. (Calmet) --- Mauman. ...

Wine. From the king's excess, and the haughtiness of Vasthi, God took occasion to advance Esther, and to deliver his people. (Calmet) ---

Mauman. Septuagint, "Aman." (Tirinus) ---

But the names vary. The Persians seem to have had a predilection for the number seven, ver. 14. (Calmet) Greek, "the seven eunuchs, ministers (deacons) of Artaxerxes."

Haydock: Est 1:11 - Head // Beautiful Head. But without any other covering. (Chaldean) Sulpitius entertained perhaps the same idea. Stulto rege consultior, pudens, virorum oculis spe...

Head. But without any other covering. (Chaldean) Sulpitius entertained perhaps the same idea. Stulto rege consultior, pudens, virorum oculis spectaculum corporis præbere jussa, abnuit. (Haydock) ---

Some Greek copies assert, very improbably, (Calmet) that she was sent for "to be crowned queen." ---

Beautiful. "The Persian ladies were noted for beauty," (Ammian) insomuch that Alexander called them eye-sores, oculorum dolores. (Curtius) ---

Only prostitutes appeared publicly at feasts. (Macrobius vii. 1.) (St. Ambrose, de Elia. i. 15.) ---

In effect, Vasthi's refusal conformable to the laws of the country. (Josephus) (Plutarch in Themist.) ---

Her offence consisted, therefore, rather in her haughty carriage or words. (Haydock) ---

For the proposal was neither decent nor safe for the king, (Grotius) as the history of Candaules shews. (Herodotus i.) (Not. Var. in Sulpitius)

Haydock: Est 1:12 - Fury Fury. This is the usual consequences of excess. (Worthington)

Fury. This is the usual consequences of excess. (Worthington)

Haydock: Est 1:13 - According According. Hebrew, "knew the times, (for so was the king's custom with those who knew law and judgment.) And the next," &c. (Haydock) --- These w...

According. Hebrew, "knew the times, (for so was the king's custom with those who knew law and judgment.) And the next," &c. (Haydock) ---

These were the magi, more particularly versed in the constitutions of the country. The Persians commonly held their consultations over wine. (Herodotus i. 133.) ---

Septuagint, "and the king said to his friends, Thus has Astin spoken; do therefore, in this affair, law and judgment. Then came forth to him Arkesaios and Saresthaios, and Malesear, the princes of the Persians and Medes, men near the king, and who sat first after the king. (Haydock) ---

The old Vulgate places Mardochæus first. These seven counsellors were perhaps styled the king's relations," (Brisson i. p. 171.) and administered justice; as even the kings referred their causes to them. (Plut. Artax., &c.)

Haydock: Est 1:16 - Mamuchan Mamuchan. Old Vulgate, "Mardochæus." Yet the Jews say this was the infamous Aman; and one Greek copy has Bilgaios, (Calmet) and Arabo, "Mouchaios,...

Mamuchan. Old Vulgate, "Mardochæus." Yet the Jews say this was the infamous Aman; and one Greek copy has Bilgaios, (Calmet) and Arabo, "Mouchaios," chap. iii. 1., and xii. 6. He was the youngest, but spoke first, as was sometimes the case.

Haydock: Est 1:18 - Wives // Slight // Just Wives. Greek turannides, "princesses, or female tyrants." --- Slight. Septuagint, "dare to slight their husbands. Wherefore if," &c. (Haydo...

Wives. Greek turannides, "princesses, or female tyrants." ---

Slight. Septuagint, "dare to slight their husbands. Wherefore if," &c. (Haydock) ---

Just. Hebrew, "enough of contempt and indignation." This may be referred either to the king or to the women's husbands. The example will prove a source of continual quarrels. (Calmet) ---

Brentius approves the decision of this parasite; though St. Ambrose, &c., think that the queen was justified by the laws, which the king had no right to infringe, to gratify his drunken humour, ver. 10. Luther would also wrest this text in favour of adultery, p.ii. Devort. p. 177. (Worthington)

Haydock: Est 1:19 - Altered Altered. This regarded the more solemn acts, signed by the counsellors, Daniel vi. 17. (Grotius) --- Some decrees were neglected or changed, chap....

Altered. This regarded the more solemn acts, signed by the counsellors, Daniel vi. 17. (Grotius) ---

Some decrees were neglected or changed, chap. viii. 9., and 1 Esdras iv. 5, 21., and vi. 1. (Calmet)

Haydock: Est 1:21 - Counsel Counsel. It was very inconclusive; (Menochius) and even supposing the queen were guilty of some indiscretion, the punishment was too severe. (Menoc...

Counsel. It was very inconclusive; (Menochius) and even supposing the queen were guilty of some indiscretion, the punishment was too severe. (Menochius) (Grotius, v. 11) (Haydock)

Gill: Est 1:1 - Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus // this is Ahasuerus, which reigned from India even unto Ethiopia // over an hundred and twenty and seven provinces Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus,.... Who he was is not easy to say; almost all the kings of Persia are so named by one or another writer....

Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus,.... Who he was is not easy to say; almost all the kings of Persia are so named by one or another writer. He cannot be the Ahasuerus in Dan 9:1, he was Astyages, the father of Cyaxares or Darius the Mede; but this must be one who had his royal palace in Shushan, which was never the royal city of the Medes, but of the Persians only; nor does he seem to be the Ahasuerus in Ezr 4:6, who is thought to be Cambyses, the son and successor of Cyrus; since, according to the canon of Ptolemy, he reigned but eight years, whereas this Ahasuerus at least reigned twelve, Est 3:7, though indeed some account for it by his reigning in his father's lifetime; besides, Cambyses was always an enemy to the Jews, as this was not; and yet this way go many of the Jewish writers n and so a very learned man, Nicolaus Abram o; according to Bishop Usher p, this was Darius Hystaspis, who certainly was a friend to the Jewish nation; but he is rather the Artaxerxes of Ezra and Nehemiah; and so says the Midrash q. Dr. Prideaux r thinks Ahasuerus was Artaxerxes Longimanus, which is the sense of Josephus s, and who is thought by many to be the Artaxerxes in the foresaid books. Capellus t is of opinion, that Darius Ochus is meant, to which Bishop Patrick inclines; but I rather think, with Vitringa u and others w, that Xerxes is the Ahasuerus that was the husband of Esther here spoken of; so the Arabic writers x; and as he was the son and successor of Darius Hystaspis, if he is meant by Artaxerxes in the preceding books, the history of which is carried to the thirty second year of his reign, Neh 13:6 and who reigned but four years more; this book of Esther stands in right order of time to carry on the history of the Jewish affairs in the Persian monarchy; and Mr. Broughton y owns, that the name of Xerxes, in Greek, agrees with Achasuerus in Hebrew; and in Est 10:1 his name is Achashresh, which, with the Greeks, is Axeres or Xerxes z:

this is Ahasuerus, which reigned from India even unto Ethiopia; properly so called; the Ethiopians had been subdued by Cambyses the son and successor of Cyrus a, and the Indians by Darius Hystaspis the father of Xerxes b; and both, with other great nations, were retained in subjection to him c; and many of both, as well as of other nations, were with him in his expedition into Greece d:

over an hundred and twenty and seven provinces; there were now seven provinces more under his jurisdiction than were in the times of Darius the Mede, Dan 6:1.

Gill: Est 1:2 - That in those days, when the King Ahasuerus sat on the throne of his kingdom // which was in Shushan the palace That in those days, when the King Ahasuerus sat on the throne of his kingdom,.... Not only was placed upon it, but settled in it; after Xerxes had sub...

That in those days, when the King Ahasuerus sat on the throne of his kingdom,.... Not only was placed upon it, but settled in it; after Xerxes had subdued Egypt, in the second year of his reign e, and enjoyed great peace and tranquillity:

which was in Shushan the palace; that is, the throne of his kingdom was in Shushan, the royal city of the kings of Persia; of which see Gill on Neh 1:1, Dan 8:2.

Gill: Est 1:3 - In the third year of his reign he made a feast unto all his princes, and his servants // the power of Persia and Media // the nobles and princes of the provinces being with him In the third year of his reign he made a feast unto all his princes, and his servants,.... The nobles and officers in his court; on what account this ...

In the third year of his reign he made a feast unto all his princes, and his servants,.... The nobles and officers in his court; on what account this was cannot be said with certainty, whether the first day of it was his birthday, or the day of his coming to the throne, on which day Xerxes used to make a feast annually, as Herodotus relates f:

the power of Persia and Media; the mighty men therein, the potentates thereof; or the "army", the principal officers of it:

the nobles and princes of the provinces being with him. The first word Aben Ezra declares his ignorance of, whether it is Hebrew or Persian; Jarchi interprets it governors; and the persons intended by both seem to be the deputy governors of the one hundred and twenty seven provinces who were present at this feast. Xerxes, having reduced Egypt, meditated a war with Greece, to which he was pressed by Mardonius, a relation of his; upon which he summoned the chief men of his kingdom, to have their advice about it g, which perhaps was taken at this time; for it was in the third year of his reign he resolved upon the war, and began to make preparations for it; and it was usual, at banquets and feasts, that the Persians debated their most important affairs h.

Gill: Est 1:4 - When he showed the riches of his glorious kingdom // and the honour of his excellent majesty // and this he did many days, even an hundred and fourscore days When he showed the riches of his glorious kingdom,.... Xerxes was the fourth king of the Persian monarchy, and was "far richer than all" that went bef...

When he showed the riches of his glorious kingdom,.... Xerxes was the fourth king of the Persian monarchy, and was "far richer than all" that went before him, all their riches coming into his hands, Dan 11:2, and now that prophecy began to be fulfilled, "that by his strength, through his riches, he should stir up all against the realm of Grecia"; which he began to do in the third year of his reign, and for which these his nobles might be called together, as to have their advice, so to animate them to come in the more readily into the expedition, by showing them the riches he was possessed of; for to none of the kings of Persia does this largeness of riches better belong than to Xerxes:

and the honour of his excellent majesty; the grandeur he lived in, the pomp and splendour of his court; he was the most grand and magnificent of all the kings of the Medes and Persians i:

and this he did many days, even an hundred and fourscore days; to which seven more being added, as in the following verse, it made one hundred and eighty seven, the space of full six months; though some think the feast did not last so long, only seven days, and that the one hundred and eighty days were spent in preparing for it; but the Persian feasts were very long, large, and sumptuous. Dr. Frye k says, this custom of keeping an annual feast one hundred and eighty days still continues in Persia. Cheus l, a Chinese emperor, used frequently to make a feast which lasted one hundred and twenty days; though it cannot be well thought that the same individual persons here were feasted so long, but, when one company was sufficiently treated, they removed and made way for another; and so it continued successively such a number of days as here related, which was six months, or half a year; a year then in use consisting of three hundred and sixty days, as was common with the Jews, and other nations, and so the Persians m.

Gill: Est 1:5 - And when these days were ended // the king made a feast unto all the people that were present in Shushan the palace, both unto great and small // seven days in the court of the garden of the king's palace And when these days were ended,.... The one hundred and eighty, in which the nobles, princes, and great men of the kingdom were feasted: the king m...

And when these days were ended,.... The one hundred and eighty, in which the nobles, princes, and great men of the kingdom were feasted:

the king made a feast unto all the people that were present in Shushan the palace, both unto great and small; of every age, rank, state and condition of life; these were the common people, whether inhabitants of the city or country people there on business, whether natives or foreigners; according to the Targum, there were Israelites there, but not Mordecai and his family; yea, it is said in the Midrash n, that they were all Jews, and that their number was 18,500; but this is not probable; it is very likely there were some Jews among them, as there were many in the army of Xerxes, when he made his expedition into Greece, according to the poet Choerilus o; which is not to be wondered at, since there were so many of them in his dominions, and they men of valour and fidelity, and to whose nation he was so kind and favourable: and this feast was kept

seven days in the court of the garden of the king's palace; which no doubt was very large, and sufficient to hold such a number as was assembled together on this occasion, when there was not room enough for them in the palace. There is in history an account of a Persian king that supped with 15,000 men, and in the supper spent forty talents p.

Gill: Est 1:6 - Where were white, green, and blue hangings // fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings, and pillars of marble // the beds were of gold and silver // these were placed in a pavement of red, and blue, and white, and black, marble Where were white, green, and blue hangings,.... Or curtains of fine linen, as the Targum, which were of these several colours; the first letter of the...

Where were white, green, and blue hangings,.... Or curtains of fine linen, as the Targum, which were of these several colours; the first letter of the word for "white" is larger than usual, to denote the exceeding whiteness of them. The next word is "carpas", which Ben Melech observes is a dyed colour, said to be green. Pausanias q makes mention of Carpasian linen, and which may be here meant; the last word used signifies blue, sky coloured, or hyacinth:

fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings, and pillars of marble; these pillars are said, in the Targum, to be of divers colours, red, green, and shining yellow and white, on which the silver rings were fixed, and into them were put linen strings of purple colour, which fastened the hangings to them, and so made an enclosure, within which the guests sat at the feast:

the beds were of gold and silver; the couches on which they sat, or rather reclined at eating, as was the manner of the eastern nations; these, according to the Targum, were of lambs' wool, the finest, and the softest, and the posts of them were of gold, and their feet of silver. Such luxury obtained among the Romans in later times r:

these were placed in a pavement of red, and blue, and white, and black, marble; which, according to some, are the porphyrite, Parian, alabaster, and marble of various colours; the marble of the Persians is of four colours, white, black, red and black, and white and black s; but others take them to be precious stones, as Jarchi and Aben Ezra; the first is by the Targum interpreted crystal, by others the emerald, one of which Theophrastus t speaks of as four cubits long, and three broad, which might be laid in a pavement; the third is, by Bochart u, supposed to be the pearl; and in the Talmud w it is said to be of such a nature, that if placed in the middle of a dining room, will give light in it as at noonday, which seems to be what is called lychnites; to which Lucian x ascribes a like property: nor need all this seem strange, since great was the luxury of the eastern nations. Philostratus y speaks of a temple in India paved with pearls, and which he says all the Barbarians use in their temples; particularly it is said z, that the roofs of the palaces of Shushan and Ecbatana, the palaces of the kings of Persia, shone with gold and silver, ivory, and amber; no wonder then that their pavements were of very valuable and precious stones: and from hence it appears, that the "lithostrata", the word here used by the Septuagint, or tesserated pavements, were in use four hundred years before the times of Sylla, where the beginning of them is placed by Pliny a; there was a "lithostraton" in the second temple at Jerusalem, by us rendered the pavement, Joh 19:13, perhaps the same with the room Gazith, so called from its being laid with hewn stone. Aristeas b, who lived in the times of Ptolemy Philadelphus, testifies that the whole floor of the temple was a "lithostraton", or was paved with stone: it is most likely therefore that these had their original in the eastern country, and not in Greece, as Pliny c supposed.

Gill: Est 1:7 - They gave them drink in vessels of gold, the vessels being divers one from another // and royal wine in abundance, according to the state of the king They gave them drink in vessels of gold, the vessels being divers one from another,.... In the pattern and workmanship of them, though of the same met...

They gave them drink in vessels of gold, the vessels being divers one from another,.... In the pattern and workmanship of them, though of the same metal, which diversity made the festival the more grand; earthen cups, with the Persians, were reckoned very mean; when a king would disgrace a man, he obliged him to use earthen cups d. The Targum represents these vessels to be the golden vessels of the temple at Jerusalem Nebuchadnezzar carried away; which could not be, since they had been delivered by Cyrus to Zerubbabel, Ezr 1:7,

and royal wine in abundance, according to the state of the king; such as the king was able to give, the best he had, and that in great plenty; the wine the kings of Persia used to drink, as Strabo e relates, was Chalybonian wine, or wine of Helbon, as it is called, Eze 27:18; see Gill on Eze 27:18, but by the wine of the kingdom, as it may be rendered, is meant wine of the country; the wine of Schiras is reckoned the best in Persia f.

Gill: Est 1:8 - And the drinking was according to the law, none did compel // for so the king had appointed to all the officers of his house, that they should do according to every man's pleasure And the drinking was according to the law, none did compel,.... According to the law Ahasuerus gave to his officers next mentioned, which was not to o...

And the drinking was according to the law, none did compel,.... According to the law Ahasuerus gave to his officers next mentioned, which was not to oblige any man to drink more than he chose; the Targum is,`according to the custom of his body;'that is, as a man is able to bear it, so they drank: some f read it, "the drinking according to the law, let none exact"; or require it to be, according to the custom then in use in Persia; for they were degenerated from their former manners, and indulged to intemperance, as Xenophon g suggests: the law formerly was, not to carry large vessels into feasts; but now, says he, they drink so much, that they themselves must be carried out, because they cannot go upright: and so it became a law with the Greeks, at their festivals, that either a man must drink or go out h; so the master of a feast, at which Empedocles was, ordered either that he should drink, or the wine be poured on his head i; but such force or compulsion Ahasuerus forbad: and thus with the Chinese now, they force none to drink, but modestly invite them k:

for so the king had appointed to all the officers of his house, that they should do according to every man's pleasure; to let them have what wine they would, but not force them to drink more than was agreeable to them.

Gill: Est 1:9 - Also Vashti the queen made a feast for the women // in the royal house which belonged to Ahasuerus Also Vashti the queen made a feast for the women.... For it was not customary with the Persians, nor other eastern nations, to admit of women to their...

Also Vashti the queen made a feast for the women.... For it was not customary with the Persians, nor other eastern nations, to admit of women to their festivals m, but they feasted by themselves. Who Vashti was is not known with any certainty. Bishop Usher, who takes Ahasuerus to be Darius Hystaspis, thinks Vashti was Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus, whom he married. The Targumist says, she was the daughter of Evilmerodach, the son of Nebuchadnezzar. Her name seems to be the same with Vesta, a deity worshipped by the Persians, as Xenophon n, and signifies vehement fire, which was in great veneration with them; and therefore this queen is most likely to be of Persian original: she kept her feast

in the royal house which belonged to Ahasuerus; her guests not being so many, there was room enough in the king's palace for them, and where it was more decent for them to be than in the open air in the garden, and exposed to the sight of men.

Gill: Est 1:10 - On the seventh day // when the heart of the king was merry with wine // he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven chamberlains, that served in the presence of Ahasuerus the king On the seventh day,.... Of the feast, the last day of it, which the Rabbins, as Jarchi observes, say was the sabbath day, and so the Targum: when t...

On the seventh day,.... Of the feast, the last day of it, which the Rabbins, as Jarchi observes, say was the sabbath day, and so the Targum:

when the heart of the king was merry with wine; when he was intoxicated with it, and knew not well what he said or did; and the discourse at table ran upon the beauty of women, as the latter Targum; when the king asserted there were no women so beautiful as those of Babylon, and, as a proof of it, ordered his queen to be brought in:

he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven chamberlains, that served in the presence of Ahasuerus the king; or "eunuchs", as the word is sometimes rendered; and such persons were made use of in the eastern countries to, wait upon women, and so were proper to be sent on the king's errand to the queen.

Gill: Est 1:11 - To bring Vashti the queen before the king // with the crown royal // to show the people and the princes her beauty To bring Vashti the queen before the king,.... Not against her will, or by force; but they were sent to let her know it was the king's pleasure that s...

To bring Vashti the queen before the king,.... Not against her will, or by force; but they were sent to let her know it was the king's pleasure that she should come to him immediately:

with the crown royal; that is, upon her head, to make her look the more grand and majestic:

to show the people and the princes her beauty; for she was fair to look upon; which was not wisely done, neither was it comely nor safe.

Gill: Est 1:12 - But the queen refused to came at the king's commandment by his chamberlains // therefore was the king very wroth, and his anger burned in him But the queen refused to came at the king's commandment by his chamberlains,.... Even though he sent by them again, as the Targum; and so says Josephu...

But the queen refused to came at the king's commandment by his chamberlains,.... Even though he sent by them again, as the Targum; and so says Josephus o; which might not purely arise from pride in her, and contempt of him, but because she might conclude he was drunk, and knew not well what he did; and therefore had she come at his command, when he was himself and sober, he might blame her for coming, nay, use her ill for it, and especially if she was to come naked, as say the Jews p; and besides, it was contrary to the law of the Persians, as not only Josephus q, but Plutarch r observes, which suffered not women to be seen in public; and particularly did not allow their wives to be with them at feasts, only their concubines and harlots, with whom they could behave with more indecency; as for their wives, they were kept out of sight, at home s; and therefore Vashti might think it an indignity to be treated as an harlot or concubine:

therefore was the king very wroth, and his anger burned in him; which was the more fierce, as he was inflamed with wine.

Gill: Est 1:13 - Then the king said to the wise men that knew the times // for so was the king's manner towards all that knew law and judgment Then the king said to the wise men that knew the times,.... Astrologers, as Aben Ezra, that knew the fit time for doing anything; or that had knowledg...

Then the king said to the wise men that knew the times,.... Astrologers, as Aben Ezra, that knew the fit time for doing anything; or that had knowledge of ancient times, historians, well read in history, and knew things that had happened similar to this:

for so was the king's manner towards all that knew law and judgment; it was customary with him in any case of difficulty to have the opinion and advice of those that were expert in the law, and well understood right and wrong. These are called by Herodotus t the king's judges.

Gill: Est 1:14 - And the next unto him // was Carshena // Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan // the seven powers of Persia and Media // which saw the king's face // and which sat the first in the kingdom And the next unto him,.... That sat next to the king, and was the chief in dignity and authority under him: was Carshena; and so everyone in their ...

And the next unto him,.... That sat next to the king, and was the chief in dignity and authority under him:

was Carshena; and so everyone in their rank and order, as next mentioned:

Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan; who, according to the latter Targum, were of different countries; the first of Africa, the second of India, the third of Idumea, the fourth of Egypt, the fifth of Resen, Gen 10:12 which is framed out of Marsena, who is dropped, and the last of Jerusalem, said to be Daniel; though the former Targum makes him to be Haman:

the seven powers of Persia and Media; which custom of having seven counsellors with the kings of Persia arose from the seven princes that slew Smerdis the pretender, and made Darius Hystaspis king, the father of Xerxes:

which saw the king's face; were intimate and familiar with him, often in his presence; yea, might go into it when they pleased, without the ceremony of being introduced; which privilege the above persons reserved to themselves, when they placed Darius on the throne, as Herodotus relates u:

and which sat the first in the kingdom; next to the king, and were assisting to him in the administration of government, see Ezr 7:14.

Gill: Est 1:15 - What shall we do unto the Queen Vashti, according to law // because she hath not performed the commandment of the king by the chamberlains What shall we do unto the Queen Vashti, according to law,.... The king desired to know what law was provided in such a case as her's, and what to be d...

What shall we do unto the Queen Vashti, according to law,.... The king desired to know what law was provided in such a case as her's, and what to be done according to it:

because she hath not performed the commandment of the king by the chamberlains? as this was the crime, disobedience to his commands, he would have those who had knowledge of the law consider what punishment was to be inflicted on her for it, according to former laws, usages, and customs, or as reason and justice required; and it being a festival, and they heated with wine, was no objection to a consultation on this head; for it was the manner of the Persians at festivals, and when inflamed with wine, to consult and determine about matters of the greatest moment w; yea, reckoned their counsels and decrees firmer than when made when they were sober x; so the ancient Germans y.

Gill: Est 1:16 - And Memucan answered before the king and the princes // Vashti the queen hath not done wrong to the king only, but also to all the princes, and to all the people that are in all the provinces of the King Ahasuerus And Memucan answered before the king and the princes,.... Who was the last, and perhaps the least and the youngest of the counsellors; it being appoin...

And Memucan answered before the king and the princes,.... Who was the last, and perhaps the least and the youngest of the counsellors; it being appointed by the king, according to the latter Targum that when his counsellors sat, the least should give their counsel first; just as puisne judges, and the youngest peers with us, give their opinion in a case first:

Vashti the queen hath not done wrong to the king only, but also to all the princes, and to all the people that are in all the provinces of the King Ahasuerus; he means, by setting a bad example to their wives, as after explained; it is an exaggeration of her crime, and made with a design to incense the king the more against her.

Gill: Est 1:17 - For this deed of the queen shall come abroad unto all women // so that they shall despise their husbands in their eyes // when it shall be reported, the King Ahasuerus commanded Vashti the queen to be brought in before him, and she came not For this deed of the queen shall come abroad unto all women,.... It will soon be spread all over the king's dominions, and reach the ears of the wives...

For this deed of the queen shall come abroad unto all women,.... It will soon be spread all over the king's dominions, and reach the ears of the wives of all his subjects, and become their general talk everywhere:

so that they shall despise their husbands in their eyes: make light of their authority, refuse subjection to them, slight their commands, and neglect to yield obedience to them, and so not give them the honour that is due unto them:

when it shall be reported, the King Ahasuerus commanded Vashti the queen to be brought in before him, and she came not; was disobedient to his commands, refused to go along with the chamberlains sent by the king to fetch her.

Gill: Est 1:18 - Likewise shall the ladies of Persia and Media say this day unto the king's princes, which have heard of the deed of the queen // thus shall there arise too much contempt and wrath Likewise shall the ladies of Persia and Media say this day unto the king's princes, which have heard of the deed of the queen,.... From henceforward t...

Likewise shall the ladies of Persia and Media say this day unto the king's princes, which have heard of the deed of the queen,.... From henceforward they will give a like answer to their husbands, when they lay their commands upon them, as Vashti has to the king; they will tell them to their faces they will not obey their orders:

thus shall there arise too much contempt and wrath; there will be in wives a general contempt of their husbands, which will cause discord and strife, quarrels, wrath and anger; contempt on one part, wrath on the other, and contention between both.

Gill: Est 1:19 - If it please the king, let there go a royal commandment from him // and let it be written among the laws of the Persians and Medes that it be not altered // that Vashti come no more before King Ahasuerus // and let the king give her royal estate unto another that is better than she If it please the king, let there go a royal commandment from him,.... Not only a proclamation made, but a law enacted and published by royal authority...

If it please the king, let there go a royal commandment from him,.... Not only a proclamation made, but a law enacted and published by royal authority:

and let it be written among the laws of the Persians and Medes that it be not altered; for so it was, that when a law was made, and signed, and sealed, and registered among the laws of the kingdom, it remained unalterable, Dan 6:8, this precaution Memucan took for his own safety; for had the king acted upon his advice, without passing it into a law in such form, he might change his mind, and recall Vashti, who would not fail of venting her wrath upon the counsellor, and so he be in danger of losing his life for it:

that Vashti come no more before King Ahasuerus; but be entirely divorced, never to be received any more:

and let the king give her royal estate unto another that is better than she; or "to her companions" z; that was with her in the house of the women in the seraglio; one that was fairer, as the Targum, or of a better disposition than her; let her be made queen, and enjoy all the honour, and dignity, and marks of royalty Vashti did; her throne, her crown, and royal apparel, as it is interpreted in an ancient Jewish writing a.

Gill: Est 1:20 - And when the king's decree which he shall make shall be published throughout all his empire // for it is great // all the wives shall give to their husbands honour, both to great and small And when the king's decree which he shall make shall be published throughout all his empire,.... As it was proper it should, since the report of the q...

And when the king's decree which he shall make shall be published throughout all his empire,.... As it was proper it should, since the report of the queen's deed would be made everywhere:

for it is great; the empire consisting of one hundred and twenty seven provinces, Est 1:1, Aben Ezra and Abendana interpret it, "though" it is great, yet the decree should be published throughout; the latter observes, that this may respect the king's decree; and so the Targum is,"for his decree is great;''it respecting a matter of great importance, and relating to a great personage, and would have great effect on the minds of persons, when it was observed that one so great was treated in this manner: and therefore

all the wives shall give to their husbands honour, both to great and small; speaking respectfully to them, yielding a ready and cheerful obedience to all their commands; which would be done to princes and peasants, to high and low, to every rank of men.

Gill: Est 1:21 - And the saying pleased the king and the princes // and the king did according to the word of Memucan And the saying pleased the king and the princes,.... The king, and the other six princes and counsellors, approved of the proposal, and unanimously ag...

And the saying pleased the king and the princes,.... The king, and the other six princes and counsellors, approved of the proposal, and unanimously agreed to it:

and the king did according to the word of Memucan; passed a law according to his advice, and signed and sealed it, and registered it among the laws of the kingdom, not to be revoked.

Gill: Est 1:22 - For he sent letters unto all the king's provinces // into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language // that every man should bear rule in his own house // and that it should be published according to the language of every people For he sent letters unto all the king's provinces,.... The one hundred and twenty seven provinces, Est 1:1, which, according to the Targum, were writt...

For he sent letters unto all the king's provinces,.... The one hundred and twenty seven provinces, Est 1:1, which, according to the Targum, were written and sealed with his own seal; which is very probable:

into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language; that is, these letters were written in the language, and in the characters in which that language was written, used in each of the provinces to which these letters were sent, that they might be easily read and understood by all: the sum of which was:

that every man should bear rule in his own house; be prince, lord, and master there, and his commands obeyed, not only by his children and servants, but by his wife also:

and that it should be published according to the language of every people; but as this is expressed, or at least implied, in the first clause of this verse, it should rather be rendered, "and that he should speak according to the language of his people"; and so is the latter Targum; it seems as if a man, who had married a woman in another country, in complaisance to her had neglected his own native tongue, and used hers in the family, by which means he lost, or seemed to lose, his authority in it: now, to guard against this, this part of the law was made; and, according to Jarchi, the husband was to compel his wife to learn and speak his language, if she was a foreigner; to which agrees the first Targum, which paraphrases the whole thus,"that a man rule over his wife, and oblige her to speak according to the language of her husband, and the speech of his people;''and, in later times, Bahram Gaur forbid any other language, besides the Persian, to be used within his port, either in speaking or writing b.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Est 1:1 Heb “Cush” (so NIV, NCV; KJV “Ethiopia”) referring to the region of the upper Nile in Africa. India and Cush (i.e., Ethiopia) ...

NET Notes: Est 1:2 The Hebrew word בִּירָה (birah) can refer to a castle or palace or temple. Here it seems to have in mind tha...

NET Notes: Est 1:3 The size of the banquet described here, the number of its invited guests, and the length of its duration, although certainly immense by any standard, ...

NET Notes: Est 1:4 The words “to be exact!” are not in the Hebrew text but have been supplied in the translation to bring out the clarifying nuance of the ti...

NET Notes: Est 1:5 Heb “from the great and unto the small.”

NET Notes: Est 1:6 The Hebrew noun מִטָּה (mittah) refers to a reclining couch (cf. KJV “beds”) spread with covers, cloth...

NET Notes: Est 1:7 Heb “to cause to drink” (Hiphil infinitive construct of שָׁקָה, shaqah). As the etymology of the Hebre...

NET Notes: Est 1:8 Heb “according to the desire of man and man.”

NET Notes: Est 1:9 Vashti is the name of Xerxes’ queen according to the Book of Esther. But in the Greek histories of this period the queen’s name is given a...

NET Notes: Est 1:10 Heb “King Ahasuerus”; here the proper name has been replaced by the pronoun “him” in the translation for stylistic reasons. Cf...

NET Notes: Est 1:11 Heb “was good of appearance”; KJV “was fair to look on”; NAB “was lovely to behold.”

NET Notes: Est 1:12 Heb “burned in him” (so KJV).

NET Notes: Est 1:13 Heb “judgment” (so KJV); NASB, NIV “justice”; NRSV “custom.”

NET Notes: Est 1:14 Heb “were sitting first”; NAB “held first rank in the realm.”

NET Notes: Est 1:15 The location of the prepositional phrase “according to law” is somewhat unusual in the Hebrew text, but not so much so as to require emend...

NET Notes: Est 1:19 Heb “who is better than she.” The reference is apparently to worthiness of the royal position as demonstrated by compliance with the king&...

NET Notes: Est 1:20 The phrase “vast though it is” is not included in the LXX, although it is retained by almost all English versions.

NET Notes: Est 1:22 The final prepositional phrase is not included in the LXX, and this shorter reading is followed by a number of English versions (e.g., NAB, NRSV, NLT)...

Geneva Bible: Est 1:1 Now it came to pass in the days of ( a ) Ahasuerus, (this [is] Ahasuerus which reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, [over] an ( b ) hundred and sev...

Geneva Bible: Est 1:2 [That] in those days, when the king Ahasuerus ( c ) sat on the throne of his kingdom, which [was] in Shushan the palace, ( c ) That is, had rest and ...

Geneva Bible: Est 1:6 [Where were] white, green, and blue, [hangings], fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and pillars of marble: the ( d ) beds [w...

Geneva Bible: Est 1:7 And they gave [them] drink in vessels of gold, (the vessels being diverse one from another,) and royal wine in abundance, according to the ( e ) state...

Geneva Bible: Est 1:8 And the drinking [was] according to the law; none did ( f ) compel: for so the king had appointed to all the officers of his house, that they should d...

Geneva Bible: Est 1:10 On the ( g ) seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carc...

Geneva Bible: Est 1:13 Then the king said to the wise men, ( h ) which knew the times, (for so [was] the king's manner toward all that knew law and judgment: ( h ) Who had ...

Geneva Bible: Est 1:14 And the next unto him [was] Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, [and] Memucan, the seven princes of Persia and Media, which saw the ...

Geneva Bible: Est 1:16 And Memucan answered before the king and the princes, Vashti the queen hath not done ( k ) wrong to the king only, but also to all the princes, and to...

Geneva Bible: Est 1:17 For [this] ( l ) deed of the queen shall come abroad unto all women, so that they shall despise their husbands in their eyes, when it shall be reporte...

Geneva Bible: Est 1:18 [Likewise] shall the ( m ) ladies of Persia and Media say this day unto all the king's princes, which have heard of the deed of the queen. Thus [shall...

Geneva Bible: Est 1:19 If it please the king, let there go a royal commandment from him, and let it be written among the laws of the Persians and the Medes, that it be not a...

Geneva Bible: Est 1:20 And when the king's decree which he shall make shall be published throughout all his empire, (for it is ( o ) great,) all the wives shall give to thei...

Geneva Bible: Est 1:22 For he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, tha...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Est 1:1-9 - --The pride of Ahasuerus's heart rising with the grandeur of his kingdom, he made an extravagant feast. This was vain glory. Better is a dinner of herbs...

MHCC: Est 1:10-22 - --Ahasuerus's feast ended in heaviness, by his own folly. Seasons of peculiar festivity often end in vexation. Superiors should be careful not to comman...

Matthew Henry: Est 1:1-9 - -- Which of the kings of Persia this Ahasuerus was the learned are not agreed. Mordecai is said to have been one of those that were carried captive f...

Matthew Henry: Est 1:10-22 - -- We have here a damp to all the mirth of Ahasuerus's feast; it ended in heaviness, not as Job's children's feast by a wind from the wilderness, not a...

Keil-Delitzsch: Est 1:1-8 - -- The banquet. Est 1:1-3 mark a period. משׁתּה עשׂה , which belongs to ויהי , does not follow till Est 1:3, andeven then the statement c...

Keil-Delitzsch: Est 1:9-11 - -- Vashti the queen also gave a banquet to the women in the royal house(palace) which belonged to King Ahashverosh, probably in the royalapartments of ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Est 1:12 - -- The queen refused to appear at the king's command as delivered by theeunuchs, because she did not choose to stake her dignity as a queen and awife b...

Keil-Delitzsch: Est 1:13-15 - -- The king, greatly incensed at this disobedience to his behest, inquired ofhis wise men what was to be done to Queen Vashti according to law. These w...

Keil-Delitzsch: Est 1:16-18 - -- The counsel of the wise men. Est 1:16. Memucan, who was the lastmentioned in Est 1:14, comes forward as spokesman for the rest, and declaresbefore t...

Keil-Delitzsch: Est 1:19-20 - -- That Vashti come no more before king Ahasuerus; and let the king give herroyal estate unto another that is better than she. After this argument on t...

Keil-Delitzsch: Est 1:21-22 - -- The saying pleased the king and the princes, and the king carried it intoexecution. He sent letters into all his provinces to make known hiscommands...

Constable: Est 1:1-22 - --A. Vashti Deposed ch. 1 This chapter records the providential circumstances whereby Esther was able to r...

Constable: Est 1:1-9 - --1. The king's feast 1:1-9 Ahasuerus is the Hebrew name of the Persian king, Khshayarsha, whom we...

Constable: Est 1:10-22 - --2. The queen's dismissal 1:10-22 The Persian kings castrated many of the men who served the king...

Guzik: Est 1:1-22 - A Queen Is Deposed Esther 1 - A Queen Is Deposed Esther is the last of the historical books of the Bible, so its main character is named Esther - that is, Venus, the mor...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: Esther (Pendahuluan Kitab) ESTHER derives its name from the Jewess, who, having become wife of the king of Persia, employed her royal influence to effect a memorable deliverance...

JFB: Esther (Garis Besar) AHASUERUS MAKES ROYAL FEASTS. (Est. 1:1-22) ESTHER CHOSEN TO BE QUEEN. (Est. 2:1-20) MORDECAI, DISCOVERING A TREASON, IS RECORDED IN THE CHRONICLES. ...

TSK: Esther (Pendahuluan Kitab) This Book, which derives its name from the person whose history it chiefly relates, is termed in Hebrew, מגלה [Strong’s 04039] אסתר [Str...

TSK: Esther 1 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview Est 1:1, Ahasuerus makes royal feasts; Est 1:10, Vashti, sent for, refuses to come; Est 1:13, Ahasuerus, by the counsel of Memucan, puts ...

Poole: Esther 1 (Pendahuluan Pasal) BOOK of ESTHER This book was constantly received for a part of the canon of the Scripture by the people of the Jews, whose authority herein is the ...

MHCC: Esther (Pendahuluan Kitab) We find in this book, that even those Jews who were scattered in the province of the heathen, were taken care of, and were wonderfully preserved, when...

MHCC: Esther 1 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (Est 1:1-9) The royal feast of Ahasuerus. (Est 1:10-22) Vashti's refusal to appear, The king's decree.

Matthew Henry: Esther (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Book of Esther How the providence of God watched over the Jews that had returned out of captivity t...

Matthew Henry: Esther 1 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Several things in this chapter itself are very instructive and of great use; but the design of recording the story of it is to show how way was mad...

Constable: Esther (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title The title of this book comes from its principle character, Esther. ...

Constable: Esther (Garis Besar) Outline I. God's preparations 1:1-2:20 A. Vashti deposed ch. 1 1. The ki...

Constable: Esther Esther Bibliography Archer, Gleason L., Jr. A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. 1964; revised ed., Chicago:...

Haydock: Esther (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE BOOK OF ESTHER. INTRODUCTION. This Book takes its name from queen Esther; whose history is here recorded. The general opinion of almost all...

Gill: Esther (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO ESTHER This book has its name from the person who is the principal subject of it; it is by Clemens of Alexandria a called the Book ...

Gill: Esther 1 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO ESTHER 1 This chapter relates, how that Ahasuerus, a great king of Persia, made a feast, first for the grandees of his kingdom, and...

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