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Teks -- Ephesians 2:1-22 (NET)

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Konteks
New Life Individually
2:1 And although you were dead in your transgressions and sins, 2:2 in which you formerly lived according to this world’s present path, according to the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the ruler of the spirit that is now energizing the sons of disobedience, 2:3 among whom all of us also formerly lived out our lives in the cravings of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and the mind, and were by nature children of wrath even as the rest2:4 But God, being rich in mercy, because of his great love with which he loved us, 2:5 even though we were dead in transgressions, made us alive together with Christ– by grace you are saved!– 2:6 and he raised us up with him and seated us with him in the heavenly realms in Christ Jesus, 2:7 to demonstrate in the coming ages the surpassing wealth of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus. 2:8 For by grace you are saved through faith, and this is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God; 2:9 it is not from works, so that no one can boast. 2:10 For we are his workmanship, having been created in Christ Jesus for good works that God prepared beforehand so we may do them.
New Life Corporately
2:11 Therefore remember that formerly you, the Gentiles in the flesh– who are called “uncircumcision” by the so-called “circumcision” that is performed on the body by human hands2:12 that you were at that time without the Messiah, alienated from the citizenship of Israel and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2:13 But now in Christ Jesus you who used to be far away have been brought near by the blood of Christ. 2:14 For he is our peace, the one who made both groups into one and who destroyed the middle wall of partition, the hostility, 2:15 when he nullified in his flesh the law of commandments in decrees. He did this to create in himself one new man out of two, thus making peace, 2:16 and to reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, by which the hostility has been killed. 2:17 And he came and preached peace to you who were far off and peace to those who were near, 2:18 so that through him we both have access in one Spirit to the Father. 2:19 So then you are no longer foreigners and noncitizens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of God’s household, 2:20 because you have been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the cornerstone. 2:21 In him the whole building, being joined together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord, 2:22 in whom you also are being built together into a dwelling place of God in the Spirit.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Gentile a non-Jewish person
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel


Topik/Tema Kamus: Atonement | Church | Salvation | Righteous | EPHESIANS, EPISTLE TO THE | Regeneration | God | Fellowship | Jesus, The Christ | Death | Ephesians, Epistle to | PAUL, THE APOSTLE, 6 | Peace | Wicked | MAN; NEW | LOVE | Depravity of Mankind | Hope | Stones | JUSTIFICATION | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Robertson , Vincent , Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Barclay , Constable , College

Lainnya
Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: Eph 2:1 - And you did he quicken And you did he quicken ( kai humās ). The verb for did he quicken does not occur till Eph 2:5 and then with hēmās (us) instead of humās ...

And you did he quicken ( kai humās ).

The verb for did he quicken does not occur till Eph 2:5 and then with hēmās (us) instead of humās (you). There is a like ellipsis or anacoluthon in Col 1:21, Col 1:22, only there is no change from humās to hēmās .

Robertson: Eph 2:1 - When ye were dead When ye were dead ( ontas nekrous ). Present active participle referring to their former state. Spiritually dead.

When ye were dead ( ontas nekrous ).

Present active participle referring to their former state. Spiritually dead.

Robertson: Eph 2:1 - Trespasses and sins Trespasses and sins ( paraptōmasin kai hamartiais ). Both words (locative case) though only one in Eph 2:5.

Trespasses and sins ( paraptōmasin kai hamartiais ).

Both words (locative case) though only one in Eph 2:5.

Robertson: Eph 2:2 - According to the course of this world According to the course of this world ( kata ton aiōna tou kosmou toutou ). Curious combinations of aiōn (a period of time), kosmos (the worl...

According to the course of this world ( kata ton aiōna tou kosmou toutou ).

Curious combinations of aiōn (a period of time), kosmos (the world in that period). See note on 1Co 1:20 for "this age"and 1Co 3:9 for "this world."

Robertson: Eph 2:2 - The prince of the power of the air The prince of the power of the air ( ton archonta tēs exousias tou aeros ). Aēr was used by the ancients for the lower and denser atmosphere an...

The prince of the power of the air ( ton archonta tēs exousias tou aeros ).

Aēr was used by the ancients for the lower and denser atmosphere and aithēr for the higher and rarer. Satan is here pictured as ruler of the demons and other agencies of evil. Jesus called him "the prince of this world"(ho archōn tou kosmou toutou , Joh 16:11).

Robertson: Eph 2:2 - That now worketh That now worketh ( tou nun energountos ). Those who deny the existence of a personal devil cannot successfully deny the vicious tendencies, the crime...

That now worketh ( tou nun energountos ).

Those who deny the existence of a personal devil cannot successfully deny the vicious tendencies, the crime waves, in modern men. The power of the devil in the lives of men does explain the evil at work "in the sons of disobedience"(en tois huiois tēs apethias ). In Eph 5:6 also. A Hebrew idiom found in the papyri like "sons of light"(1Th 5:5).

Robertson: Eph 2:3 - We also all We also all ( kai hēmeis pantes ). We Jews.

We also all ( kai hēmeis pantes ).

We Jews.

Robertson: Eph 2:3 - Once lived Once lived ( anestraphēmen pote ). Second aorist passive indicative of anastrephō , old verb, to turn back and forth, to live (2Co 1:12). Cf. pot...

Once lived ( anestraphēmen pote ).

Second aorist passive indicative of anastrephō , old verb, to turn back and forth, to live (2Co 1:12). Cf. pote periepatēsate , of the Gentiles in Eph 2:2.

Robertson: Eph 2:3 - The desires The desires ( ta thelēmata ). Late and rare word except in lxx and N.T., from thelō , to will, to wish. Plural here "the wishes,""the wills"of th...

The desires ( ta thelēmata ).

Late and rare word except in lxx and N.T., from thelō , to will, to wish. Plural here "the wishes,""the wills"of the flesh like tais epithumiais tēs sarkos just before. Gentiles had no monopoly of such sinful impulses.

Robertson: Eph 2:3 - Of the mind Of the mind ( tōn dianoiōn ). Plural again, "of the thoughts or purposes."

Of the mind ( tōn dianoiōn ).

Plural again, "of the thoughts or purposes."

Robertson: Eph 2:3 - Were by nature children of wrath Were by nature children of wrath ( ēmetha tekna phusei orgēs ). This is the proper order of these words which have been the occasion of much cont...

Were by nature children of wrath ( ēmetha tekna phusei orgēs ).

This is the proper order of these words which have been the occasion of much controversy. There is no article with tekna . Paul is insisting that Jews as well as Gentiles ("even as the rest") are the objects of God’ s wrath (orgēs ) because of their lives of sin. See Romans 2:1-3:20 for the full discussion of this to Jews unpalatable truth. The use of phusei (associative instrumental case of manner) is but the application of Paul’ s use of "all"(pantes ) as shown also in Rom 3:20; Rom 5:12. See phusei of Gentiles in Rom 2:14. The implication of original sin is here, but not in the form that God’ s wrath rests upon little children before they have committed acts of sin. The salvation of children dying before the age of responsibility is clearly involved in Rom 5:13.

Robertson: Eph 2:4 - But God But God ( ho de theos ). Change in the structure of the sentence here, resuming Eph 2:1 after the break.

But God ( ho de theos ).

Change in the structure of the sentence here, resuming Eph 2:1 after the break.

Robertson: Eph 2:4 - Being rich in mercy Being rich in mercy ( plousios ōn en eleei ). More than eleēmōn (being merciful).

Being rich in mercy ( plousios ōn en eleei ).

More than eleēmōn (being merciful).

Robertson: Eph 2:4 - Wherewith Wherewith ( hēn ). Cognate accusative with ēgapēsen (loved).

Wherewith ( hēn ).

Cognate accusative with ēgapēsen (loved).

Robertson: Eph 2:5 - Even when we were dead Even when we were dead ( kai ontas hēmās nekrous ). Repeats the beginning of Eph 2:1, but he changes humās (you Gentiles) to hēmās (us ...

Even when we were dead ( kai ontas hēmās nekrous ).

Repeats the beginning of Eph 2:1, but he changes humās (you Gentiles) to hēmās (us Jews).

Robertson: Eph 2:5 - Quickened us together with Christ Quickened us together with Christ ( sunezōopoiēsen tōi Christōi ). First aorist active indicative of the double compound verb sunzōopoieō...

Quickened us together with Christ ( sunezōopoiēsen tōi Christōi ).

First aorist active indicative of the double compound verb sunzōopoieō as in Col 2:13 which see. Associative instrumental case in Christōi . Literal resurrection in the case of Jesus, spiritual in our case as pictured in baptism.

Robertson: Eph 2:5 - By grace have ye been saved By grace have ye been saved ( chariti este sesōsmenoi ). Instrumental case of chariti and perfect passive periphrastic indicative of sōzō . P...

By grace have ye been saved ( chariti este sesōsmenoi ).

Instrumental case of chariti and perfect passive periphrastic indicative of sōzō . Parenthetical clause interjected in the sentence. All of grace because we were dead.

Robertson: Eph 2:6 - In Christ Jesus In Christ Jesus ( en Christōi Iēsou ). All the preceding turns on this phrase. See note on Col 3:1 for the word sunēgeiren .

In Christ Jesus ( en Christōi Iēsou ).

All the preceding turns on this phrase. See note on Col 3:1 for the word sunēgeiren .

Robertson: Eph 2:6 - Made to sit with him Made to sit with him ( sunekathisen ). First aorist active indicative of sunkathizō , old causative verb, but in N.T. only here and Luk 22:55.

Made to sit with him ( sunekathisen ).

First aorist active indicative of sunkathizō , old causative verb, but in N.T. only here and Luk 22:55.

Robertson: Eph 2:7 - That he might shew That he might shew ( hina endeixētai ). Final clause with hina and first aorist middle subjunctive of endeiknumi . See note on Eph 1:8 for "riche...

That he might shew ( hina endeixētai ).

Final clause with hina and first aorist middle subjunctive of endeiknumi . See note on Eph 1:8 for "riches of grace"and note on Eph 1:19 for "exceeding"(huperballon ).

Robertson: Eph 2:7 - In kindness toward us In kindness toward us ( en chrēstotēti Ephesians' hēmās ). See Rom 2:7 for this word from chrēstos and that from chraomai , here God̵...

In kindness toward us ( en chrēstotēti Ephesians' hēmās ).

See Rom 2:7 for this word from chrēstos and that from chraomai , here God’ s benignity toward us.

Robertson: Eph 2:8 - For by grace For by grace ( tēi gar chariti ). Explanatory reason. "By the grace"already mentioned in Eph 2:5 and so with the article.

For by grace ( tēi gar chariti ).

Explanatory reason. "By the grace"already mentioned in Eph 2:5 and so with the article.

Robertson: Eph 2:8 - Through faith Through faith ( dia pisteōs ). This phrase he adds in repeating what he said in Eph 2:5 to make it plainer. "Grace"is God’ s part, "faith"ours...

Through faith ( dia pisteōs ).

This phrase he adds in repeating what he said in Eph 2:5 to make it plainer. "Grace"is God’ s part, "faith"ours.

Robertson: Eph 2:8 - And that And that ( kai touto ). Neuter, not feminine tautē , and so refers not to pistis (feminine) or to charis (feminine also), but to the act of bei...

And that ( kai touto ).

Neuter, not feminine tautē , and so refers not to pistis (feminine) or to charis (feminine also), but to the act of being saved by grace conditioned on faith on our part. Paul shows that salvation does not have its source (ex humōn , out of you) in men, but from God. Besides, it is God’ s gift (dōron ) and not the result of our work.

Robertson: Eph 2:9 - That no man should glory That no man should glory ( hina mē tis kauchēsētai ). Negative final clause (hina mē ) with first aorist middle subjunctive of kauchaomai . ...

That no man should glory ( hina mē tis kauchēsētai ).

Negative final clause (hina mē ) with first aorist middle subjunctive of kauchaomai . It is all of God’ s grace.

Robertson: Eph 2:10 - Workmanship Workmanship ( poiēma ). Old word from poieō with the ending ̇mat meaning result. In N.T. only here and Rev 1:20.

Workmanship ( poiēma ).

Old word from poieō with the ending ̇mat meaning result. In N.T. only here and Rev 1:20.

Robertson: Eph 2:10 - Created Created ( ktisthentes ). First aorist passive participle of ktizō , not the original creation as in Col 1:16; Eph 3:9, but the moral and spiritual ...

Created ( ktisthentes ).

First aorist passive participle of ktizō , not the original creation as in Col 1:16; Eph 3:9, but the moral and spiritual renewal in Christ, the new birth, as in Eph 2:15; Eph 4:24.

Robertson: Eph 2:10 - For good works For good works ( epi ergois agathois ). Probably the true dative of purpose here with epi (Robertson, Grammar , p. 605). Purpose of the new creati...

For good works ( epi ergois agathois ).

Probably the true dative of purpose here with epi (Robertson, Grammar , p. 605). Purpose of the new creation in Christ.

Robertson: Eph 2:10 - Which Which ( hois ). Attraction of the relative ha (accusative after proētoimasen ) to case of the antecedent ergois .

Which ( hois ).

Attraction of the relative ha (accusative after proētoimasen ) to case of the antecedent ergois .

Robertson: Eph 2:10 - Afore prepared Afore prepared ( proētoimasen ). First aorist active indicative of proētoimazō , old verb to make ready beforehand. In N.T. only here and Rom 9...

Afore prepared ( proētoimasen ).

First aorist active indicative of proētoimazō , old verb to make ready beforehand. In N.T. only here and Rom 9:23. Good works by us were included in the eternal foreordination by God.

Robertson: Eph 2:10 - That we should walk in them That we should walk in them ( hina en autois peripatēsōmen ). Expexegetic final clause explanatory of the election to good works.

That we should walk in them ( hina en autois peripatēsōmen ).

Expexegetic final clause explanatory of the election to good works.

Robertson: Eph 2:11 - Wherefore Wherefore ( dio ). This conjunction applies to the Gentile Christians the arguments in Eph 2:1-10.

Wherefore ( dio ).

This conjunction applies to the Gentile Christians the arguments in Eph 2:1-10.

Robertson: Eph 2:11 - That aforetime ye That aforetime ye ( hoti pote humeis ). No verb is expressed, but in Eph 2:12 Paul repeats hoti en tōi kairōi ekeinōi (for pote ) "that at t...

That aforetime ye ( hoti pote humeis ).

No verb is expressed, but in Eph 2:12 Paul repeats hoti en tōi kairōi ekeinōi (for pote ) "that at that time"and inserts ēte (ye were).

Robertson: Eph 2:11 - Uncircumcision Uncircumcision ( akrobustia ) , circumcision (peritomēs ). The abstract words are used to describe Gentiles and Jews as in Gal 5:6; Rom 2:27.

Uncircumcision ( akrobustia )

, circumcision (peritomēs ). The abstract words are used to describe Gentiles and Jews as in Gal 5:6; Rom 2:27.

Robertson: Eph 2:11 - Made by hands Made by hands ( cheiropoiētou ). Agreeing with peritomēs . Verbal (Mar 14:58) from cheiropoieō like acheiropoiētos in Col 2:11.

Made by hands ( cheiropoiētou ).

Agreeing with peritomēs . Verbal (Mar 14:58) from cheiropoieō like acheiropoiētos in Col 2:11.

Robertson: Eph 2:12 - Separate from Christ Separate from Christ ( chōris Christou ). Ablative case with adverbial preposition chōris , describing their former condition as heathen.

Separate from Christ ( chōris Christou ).

Ablative case with adverbial preposition chōris , describing their former condition as heathen.

Robertson: Eph 2:12 - Alienated from the commonwealth of Israel Alienated from the commonwealth of Israel ( apēllotriōmenoi tēs politeias tou Israēl ). Perfect passive participle of apallotrioō , for whi...

Alienated from the commonwealth of Israel ( apēllotriōmenoi tēs politeias tou Israēl ).

Perfect passive participle of apallotrioō , for which see note on Col 1:21. Here followed by ablative case politeias , old word from politeuō , to be a citizen (Phi 1:27) from politēs and that from polis (city). Only twice in N.T., here as commonwealth (the spiritual Israel or Kingdom of God) and Act 22:28 as citizenship.

Robertson: Eph 2:12 - Strangers from the covenants of the promise Strangers from the covenants of the promise ( xenoi tōn diathēkōn tēs epaggelias ). For xenos (Latin hospes ), as stranger see Mat 25:35,...

Strangers from the covenants of the promise ( xenoi tōn diathēkōn tēs epaggelias ).

For xenos (Latin hospes ), as stranger see Mat 25:35, Mat 25:38, and Mat 25:43.; as guest-friend see note on Rom 16:23. Here it is followed by the ablative case diathēkōn .

Robertson: Eph 2:12 - Having no hope Having no hope ( elpida mē echontes ). No hope of any kind. In Gal 4:8 ouk (strong negative) occurs with eidotes theon , but here mē gives a ...

Having no hope ( elpida mē echontes ).

No hope of any kind. In Gal 4:8 ouk (strong negative) occurs with eidotes theon , but here mē gives a more subjective picture (1Th 4:5).

Robertson: Eph 2:12 - Without God Without God ( atheoi ). Old Greek word, not in lxx, only here in N.T. Atheists in the original sense of being without God and also in the sense of ho...

Without God ( atheoi ).

Old Greek word, not in lxx, only here in N.T. Atheists in the original sense of being without God and also in the sense of hostility to God from failure to worship him. See Paul’ s words in Rom 1:18-32. "In the world"(en tōi kosmōi ) goes with both phrases. It is a terrible picture that Paul gives, but a true one.

Robertson: Eph 2:13 - But now But now ( nuni de ). Strong contrast, as opposed to "at that time."

But now ( nuni de ).

Strong contrast, as opposed to "at that time."

Robertson: Eph 2:13 - Afar off Afar off ( makran ). Adverb (accusative feminine adjective with hodon understood). From the politeia and its hope in God.

Afar off ( makran ).

Adverb (accusative feminine adjective with hodon understood). From the politeia and its hope in God.

Robertson: Eph 2:13 - Are made nigh Are made nigh ( egenēthēte eggus ). First aorist passive indicative of ginomai , a sort of timeless aorist. Nigh to the commonwealth of Israel in...

Are made nigh ( egenēthēte eggus ).

First aorist passive indicative of ginomai , a sort of timeless aorist. Nigh to the commonwealth of Israel in Christ.

Robertson: Eph 2:13 - In the blood of Christ In the blood of Christ ( en tōi haimati tou Christou ). Not a perfunctory addition, but essential (Eph 1:7), particularly in view of the Gnostic de...

In the blood of Christ ( en tōi haimati tou Christou ).

Not a perfunctory addition, but essential (Eph 1:7), particularly in view of the Gnostic denial of Christ’ s real humanity.

Robertson: Eph 2:14 - For he is our peace For he is our peace ( autos gar estin hē eirēnē hēmōn ). He himself, not just what he did (necessary as that was and is). He is our peace w...

For he is our peace ( autos gar estin hē eirēnē hēmōn ).

He himself, not just what he did (necessary as that was and is). He is our peace with God and so with each other (Jews and Gentiles).

Robertson: Eph 2:14 - Both one Both one ( ta amphotera hen ). "The both"(Jew and Gentile). Jesus had said "other sheep I have which are not of this fold"(Joh 10:16).

Both one ( ta amphotera hen ).

"The both"(Jew and Gentile). Jesus had said "other sheep I have which are not of this fold"(Joh 10:16).

Robertson: Eph 2:14 - One One ( hen ) is neuter singular (oneness, unity, identity) as in Gal 3:28. Race and national distinctions vanish in Christ. If all men were really in ...

One ( hen )

is neuter singular (oneness, unity, identity) as in Gal 3:28. Race and national distinctions vanish in Christ. If all men were really in Christ, war would disappear.

Robertson: Eph 2:14 - Brake down the middle wall of partition Brake down the middle wall of partition ( to mesotoichon tou phragmou lusas ). "Having loosened (first aorist active participle of luō , see note o...

Brake down the middle wall of partition ( to mesotoichon tou phragmou lusas ).

"Having loosened (first aorist active participle of luō , see note on Joh 2:19) the middle-wall (late word, only here in N.T., and very rare anywhere, one in papyri, and one inscription) of partition (phragmou , old word, fence, from phrassō , to fence or hedge, as in Mat 21:33)."In the temple courts a partition wall divided the court of the Gentiles from the court of Israel with an inscription forbidding a Gentile from going further (Josephus, Ant. VIII. 3, 2). See the uproar when Paul was accused of taking Trophimus beyond this wall (Act 21:28).

Robertson: Eph 2:15 - Having abolished Having abolished ( katargēsas ). First aorist active participle of katargeō , to make null and void.

Having abolished ( katargēsas ).

First aorist active participle of katargeō , to make null and void.

Robertson: Eph 2:15 - The enmity The enmity ( tēn echthran ). But it is very doubtful if tēn echthran (old word from echthros , hostile, Luk 23:12) is the object of katargēsa...

The enmity ( tēn echthran ).

But it is very doubtful if tēn echthran (old word from echthros , hostile, Luk 23:12) is the object of katargēsas . It looks as if it is in apposition with to mesotoichon and so the further object of lusas . The enmity between Jew and Gentile was the middle wall of partition. And then it must be decided whether "in his flesh"(en tēi sarki autou ) should be taken with lusas and refer especially to the Cross (Col 1:22) or be taken with katargēsas . Either makes sense, but better sense with lusas . Certainly "the law of commandments in ordinances (ton nomon tōn entolōn en dogmasin ) is governed by katargēsas .

Robertson: Eph 2:15 - That he might create That he might create ( hina ktisēi ). Final clause with first aorist active subjunctive of ktizō .

That he might create ( hina ktisēi ).

Final clause with first aorist active subjunctive of ktizō .

Robertson: Eph 2:15 - The twain The twain ( tous duo ). The two men (masculine here, neuter in Eph 2:14), Jew and Gentile.

The twain ( tous duo ).

The two men (masculine here, neuter in Eph 2:14), Jew and Gentile.

Robertson: Eph 2:15 - One new man One new man ( eis hena kainon anthrōpon ). Into one fresh man (Col 3:9-11) "in himself"(en hautōi ). Thus alone is it possible.

One new man ( eis hena kainon anthrōpon ).

Into one fresh man (Col 3:9-11) "in himself"(en hautōi ). Thus alone is it possible.

Robertson: Eph 2:15 - Making peace Making peace ( poiōn eirēnēn ). Thus alone can it be done. Christ is the peace-maker between men, nations, races, classes.

Making peace ( poiōn eirēnēn ).

Thus alone can it be done. Christ is the peace-maker between men, nations, races, classes.

Robertson: Eph 2:16 - And might reconcile And might reconcile ( kai apokatallaxēi ). Final clause with hina understood of first aorist active subjunctive of apokatallassō for which se...

And might reconcile ( kai apokatallaxēi ).

Final clause with hina understood of first aorist active subjunctive of apokatallassō for which see note on Col 1:20, Col 1:22.

Robertson: Eph 2:16 - Them both Them both ( tous amphoterous ). "The both,""the two"(tous duo ), Jew and Gentile.

Them both ( tous amphoterous ).

"The both,""the two"(tous duo ), Jew and Gentile.

Robertson: Eph 2:16 - In one body In one body ( en heni sōmati ). The "one new man"of Eph 2:15 of which Christ is Head (Eph 1:23), the spiritual church. Paul piles up metaphors to e...

In one body ( en heni sōmati ).

The "one new man"of Eph 2:15 of which Christ is Head (Eph 1:23), the spiritual church. Paul piles up metaphors to express his idea of the Kingdom of God with Christ as King (the church, the body, the commonwealth of Israel, oneness, one new man in Christ, fellow-citizens, the family of God, the temple of God).

Robertson: Eph 2:16 - Thereby Thereby ( en autōi ). On the Cross where he slew the enmity (repeated here) between Jew and Gentile.

Thereby ( en autōi ).

On the Cross where he slew the enmity (repeated here) between Jew and Gentile.

Robertson: Eph 2:17 - Preached peace Preached peace ( euēggelisato eirēnēn ). First aorist middle of euaggelizō . "He gospelized peace"to both Jew and Gentile, "to the far off on...

Preached peace ( euēggelisato eirēnēn ).

First aorist middle of euaggelizō . "He gospelized peace"to both Jew and Gentile, "to the far off ones"(tois makran ) and "to the nigh ones"(tois eggus ). By the Cross and after the Cross Christ could preach that message.

Robertson: Eph 2:18 - Through him Through him ( di' autou ). Christ.

Through him ( di' autou ).

Christ.

Robertson: Eph 2:18 - We both We both ( hoi amphoteroi ). "We the both"(Jew and Gentile).

We both ( hoi amphoteroi ).

"We the both"(Jew and Gentile).

Robertson: Eph 2:18 - Our access Our access ( tēn prosagōgēn ). The approach, the introduction as in Rom 5:2.

Our access ( tēn prosagōgēn ).

The approach, the introduction as in Rom 5:2.

Robertson: Eph 2:18 - In one Spirit In one Spirit ( en heni pneumati ). The Holy Spirit.

In one Spirit ( en heni pneumati ).

The Holy Spirit.

Robertson: Eph 2:18 - Unto the Father Unto the Father ( pros ton patera ). So the Trinity as in Eph 1:13. The Three Persons all share in the work of redemption.

Unto the Father ( pros ton patera ).

So the Trinity as in Eph 1:13. The Three Persons all share in the work of redemption.

Robertson: Eph 2:19 - So then So then ( ara oun ). Two inferential particles (accordingly therefore).

So then ( ara oun ).

Two inferential particles (accordingly therefore).

Robertson: Eph 2:19 - No more No more ( ouketi ). No longer.

No more ( ouketi ).

No longer.

Robertson: Eph 2:19 - Sojourners Sojourners ( paroikoi ). Old word for dweller by (near by, but not in). So Act 7:6, Act 7:29; 1Pe 2:11 (only other N.T. examples). Dwellers just outs...

Sojourners ( paroikoi ).

Old word for dweller by (near by, but not in). So Act 7:6, Act 7:29; 1Pe 2:11 (only other N.T. examples). Dwellers just outside the house or family of God.

Robertson: Eph 2:19 - Fellow-citizens Fellow-citizens ( sunpolitai , old, but rare word, here only in N.T.) , members now of the politeia of Israel (Eph 2:12), the opposite of xenoi kai ...

Fellow-citizens ( sunpolitai , old, but rare word, here only in N.T.)

, members now of the politeia of Israel (Eph 2:12), the opposite of xenoi kai paroikoi .

Robertson: Eph 2:19 - Of the household of God Of the household of God ( oikeioi tou theou ). Old word from oikos (house, household), but in N.T. only here, Gal 6:10; 1Ti 5:8. Gentiles now in th...

Of the household of God ( oikeioi tou theou ).

Old word from oikos (house, household), but in N.T. only here, Gal 6:10; 1Ti 5:8. Gentiles now in the family of God (Rom 8:29).

Robertson: Eph 2:20 - Being built upon Being built upon ( epoikodomēthentes ). First aorist passive participle of epoikodomeō , for which double compound verb see note on 1Co 3:10; 2Co...

Being built upon ( epoikodomēthentes ).

First aorist passive participle of epoikodomeō , for which double compound verb see note on 1Co 3:10; 2Co 2:17.

Robertson: Eph 2:20 - The foundation The foundation ( epi tōi themeliōi ). Repetition of epi with the locative case. See note on 1Co 3:11 for this word.

The foundation ( epi tōi themeliōi ).

Repetition of epi with the locative case. See note on 1Co 3:11 for this word.

Robertson: Eph 2:20 - Of the apostles and prophets Of the apostles and prophets ( ton apostolōn kai prophētōn ). Genitive of apposition with themeliōi , consisting in. If one is surprised that...

Of the apostles and prophets ( ton apostolōn kai prophētōn ).

Genitive of apposition with themeliōi , consisting in. If one is surprised that Paul should refer so to the apostles, he being one himself, Peter does the same thing (2Pe 3:2). Paul repeats this language in Eph 3:5.

Robertson: Eph 2:20 - Christ Jesus himself being the chief corner stone Christ Jesus himself being the chief corner stone ( ontōs akrogōnianiou autou Christou Iēsou ). Genitive absolute. The compound akrogōniaios ...

Christ Jesus himself being the chief corner stone ( ontōs akrogōnianiou autou Christou Iēsou ).

Genitive absolute. The compound akrogōniaios occurs only in the lxx (first in Isa 28:16) and in the N.T. (here, 1Pe 2:6). Lithos (stone) is understood. Jesus had spoken of himself as the stone, rejected by the Jewish builders (experts), but chosen of God as the head of the corner (Mat 21:42), eis kephalēn gōnias . "The akrogōniaios here is the primary foundation-stone at the angle of the structure by which the architect fixes a standard for the bearings of the walls and cross-walls throughout"(W. W. Lloyd).

Robertson: Eph 2:21 - Each several building Each several building ( pāsa oikodomē ). So without article Aleph B D G K L. Oikodomē is a late word from oikos and demō , to build for b...

Each several building ( pāsa oikodomē ).

So without article Aleph B D G K L. Oikodomē is a late word from oikos and demō , to build for building up (edification) as in Eph 4:29, then for the building itself as here (Mar 13:1.). Ordinary Greek idiom here calls for "every building,"not for "all the building"(Robertson, Grammar , p. 772), though it is not perfectly clear what that means. Each believer is called a naos theou (1Co 3:16). One may note the plural in Mar 13:1 (oikodomai ) of the various parts of the temple. Perhaps that is the idea here without precise definition of each oikodomē . But there are examples of pās without the article where "all"is the idea as in pāsēs ktiseōs (all creation) in Col 1:15.

Robertson: Eph 2:21 - Fitly framed together Fitly framed together ( sunarmologoumenē ). Double compound from sun and harmologos (binding, harmos , joint and legō ), apparently made by ...

Fitly framed together ( sunarmologoumenē ).

Double compound from sun and harmologos (binding, harmos , joint and legō ), apparently made by Paul and in N.T. only here and Eph 4:16. Architectural metaphor.

Robertson: Eph 2:21 - Into a holy temple Into a holy temple ( eis naon hagion ). The whole structure with all the oikodomai . Another metaphor for the Kingdom of God with which compare Peter...

Into a holy temple ( eis naon hagion ).

The whole structure with all the oikodomai . Another metaphor for the Kingdom of God with which compare Peter’ s "spiritual house"(oikos pneumatikos ) in which each is a living stone being built in (1Pe 2:5).

Robertson: Eph 2:22 - Ye also are builded together Ye also are builded together ( kai humeis sunoikodomeisthe ). Ye Gentiles also. Present passive indicative (continuous process) of common old verb su...

Ye also are builded together ( kai humeis sunoikodomeisthe ).

Ye Gentiles also. Present passive indicative (continuous process) of common old verb sunoikodomeō , to build together with others or out of varied materials as here. Only here in N.T. In 1Pe 2:5 Peter uses oikodomeisthe for the same process.

Robertson: Eph 2:22 - For a habitation For a habitation ( eis katoikētērion ). Late word (lxx), in N.T. only here and Rev 18:2. From katoikeō , to dwell, as Eph 3:17. Possibly each o...

For a habitation ( eis katoikētērion ).

Late word (lxx), in N.T. only here and Rev 18:2. From katoikeō , to dwell, as Eph 3:17. Possibly each of us is meant here to be the "habitation of God in the Spirit"and all together growing (auxei ) "into a holy temple in the Lord,"a noble conception of the brotherhood in Christ.

Vincent: Eph 2:1 - And you And you Taking up the closing thought of the preceding chapter, the magnitude of God's power toward believers as exhibited in Christ's resurrecti...

And you

Taking up the closing thought of the preceding chapter, the magnitude of God's power toward believers as exhibited in Christ's resurrection. He now shows that the same power is applied to his readers. Hence the connection is: " When He raised Him from the dead, etc., and you did He quicken, even as He quickened Christ." The structure of the passage is broken. Paul having prominently in mind the thought God quickened you as He did Christ , begins with you also . Then the connection is interrupted by Eph 2:2, Eph 2:3, which describe their previous condition. Then Eph 2:1 is taken up in Eph 2:4, by but God , God introducing a new sentence.

Vincent: Eph 2:1 - Who were dead Who were dead ( ὄντας νεκροὺς ) Better, Rev., when ye were dead , thus giving the sense of the continued state in the pa...

Who were dead ( ὄντας νεκροὺς )

Better, Rev., when ye were dead , thus giving the sense of the continued state in the past expressed by the participle being .

Vincent: Eph 2:1 - Trespasses - sins Trespasses - sins ( παραπτώμασιν - ἁμαρτίαις ) See on Mat 1:21; see on Mat 6:14. Trespasses , special acts. Sins ,...

Trespasses - sins ( παραπτώμασιν - ἁμαρτίαις )

See on Mat 1:21; see on Mat 6:14. Trespasses , special acts. Sins , all forms and phases of sin: more general.

Vincent: Eph 2:2 - Course Course ( αἰῶνα ) Lit., age . See on Joh 1:9.

Course ( αἰῶνα )

Lit., age . See on Joh 1:9.

Vincent: Eph 2:2 - Power Power ( ἐξουσίας ) Collective, the whole empire of evil spirits.

Power ( ἐξουσίας )

Collective, the whole empire of evil spirits.

Vincent: Eph 2:2 - The air The air According to Paul's usage, in the simple physical sense. See Act 22:23; 1Co 9:26; 1Th 4:17; Rev 16:17. The air is regarded as the region ...

The air

According to Paul's usage, in the simple physical sense. See Act 22:23; 1Co 9:26; 1Th 4:17; Rev 16:17. The air is regarded as the region of the demons' might.

Vincent: Eph 2:2 - The spirit The spirit See on 1Co 2:12. The term designates the power over which Satan rules, on the side of its operation in men's hearts.

The spirit

See on 1Co 2:12. The term designates the power over which Satan rules, on the side of its operation in men's hearts.

Vincent: Eph 2:2 - Now Now With an implied reference to its former working in his readers. Compare once , Eph 2:3

Now

With an implied reference to its former working in his readers. Compare once , Eph 2:3

Vincent: Eph 2:2 - Children of disobedience Children of disobedience ( υἱοῖς τῆς ἀπειθείας ) Compare Eph 5:6. A Hebraistic expression. Compare son of perditi...

Children of disobedience ( υἱοῖς τῆς ἀπειθείας )

Compare Eph 5:6. A Hebraistic expression. Compare son of perdition , Joh 17:12; children of obedience , 1Pe 1:14; children of cursing , 2Pe 2:14. Rev., correctly, sons of disobedience: belonging to disobedience as sons to a parent.

Vincent: Eph 2:3 - Had our conversation Had our conversation ( ἀνεστράφημεν ) See on the kindred noun conversation , 1Pe 1:15. Rev., more simply, lived .

Had our conversation ( ἀνεστράφημεν )

See on the kindred noun conversation , 1Pe 1:15. Rev., more simply, lived .

Vincent: Eph 2:3 - Fulfilling Fulfilling ( ποιοῦντες ) Rev., doing . The verb implies carrying out or accomplishing , so that the A.V. is more nearly correct....

Fulfilling ( ποιοῦντες )

Rev., doing . The verb implies carrying out or accomplishing , so that the A.V. is more nearly correct. See on Rom 7:15; see on Joh 3:21.

Vincent: Eph 2:3 - Desires Desires ( θελήματα ) Lit., willings . See on Col 3:12.

Desires ( θελήματα )

Lit., willings . See on Col 3:12.

Vincent: Eph 2:3 - Mind Mind ( διανοιῶν ) More strictly, thoughts . See on Mar 12:30; see on Luk 1:51.

Mind ( διανοιῶν )

More strictly, thoughts . See on Mar 12:30; see on Luk 1:51.

Vincent: Eph 2:3 - By nature children of wrath By nature children of wrath See on Eph 2:2. Children (τέκνα ) emphasizes the connection by birth ; see on Joh 1:12. Wrath (ὀργη...

By nature children of wrath

See on Eph 2:2. Children (τέκνα ) emphasizes the connection by birth ; see on Joh 1:12. Wrath (ὀργῆς ) is God's holy hatred of sin; His essential, necessary antagonism to everything evil, Rom 1:18. By nature (φύσει ) accords with children , implying what; is innate. That man is born with a sinful nature, and that God and sin are essentially antagonistic, are conceded on all hands: but that unconscious human beings come into the world under the blaze of God's indignation, hardly consists with Christ's assertion that to little children belongs the kingdom of heaven. It is true that there is a birth-principle of evil, which, if suffered to develop, will bring upon itself the wrath of God. Whether Paul means more than this I do not know.

Vincent: Eph 2:3 - Others Others ( οἱ λοιποί ) Rev., correctly, the rest .

Others ( οἱ λοιποί )

Rev., correctly, the rest .

Vincent: Eph 2:4 - But God But God Resuming Eph 2:1.

But God

Resuming Eph 2:1.

Vincent: Eph 2:4 - For His great love For His great love ( διά ) For the sake of , in order to satisfy His love.

For His great love ( διά )

For the sake of , in order to satisfy His love.

Vincent: Eph 2:4 - Quickened us together Quickened us together Spiritually. Compare Col 2:13; Rom 6:11-14; Rom 8:10, Rom 8:11 " What God wrought in Christ He wrought, ipso facto , in ...

Quickened us together

Spiritually. Compare Col 2:13; Rom 6:11-14; Rom 8:10, Rom 8:11 " What God wrought in Christ He wrought, ipso facto , in all who are united with Him" (Ellicott).

Vincent: Eph 2:6 - Raised us up Raised us up Compare Rom 6:5.

Raised us up

Compare Rom 6:5.

Vincent: Eph 2:6 - Made us sit together Made us sit together ( συνεκάθισεν ) Compare set Him , Eph 1:20. Together is ambiguous. Render with Him , as Rev. " Even now...

Made us sit together ( συνεκάθισεν )

Compare set Him , Eph 1:20. Together is ambiguous. Render with Him , as Rev. " Even now we sit there in Him, and shall sit with Him in the end" (Andrews, cited by Ellicott). Compare Rom 8:30; Rev 3:21. Meyer renders hath given us joint seat .

Vincent: Eph 2:6 - In Christ Jesus In Christ Jesus Connect with raised up , made us sit , and in heavenly places . Resurrection , enthronement , heaven , all are in...

In Christ Jesus

Connect with raised up , made us sit , and in heavenly places . Resurrection , enthronement , heaven , all are in Christ.

Vincent: Eph 2:7 - The ages to come The ages to come ( τοῖς αἰῶσιν τοῖς ἐπερχομένοις ) Lit., the ages , those which are coming on ....

The ages to come ( τοῖς αἰῶσιν τοῖς ἐπερχομένοις )

Lit., the ages , those which are coming on . Which are successively arriving until Christ's second coming.

Vincent: Eph 2:7 - He might show He might show ( ἐνδείξηται ) The middle voice denotes for His own glory . See on Col 1:6.

He might show ( ἐνδείξηται )

The middle voice denotes for His own glory . See on Col 1:6.

Vincent: Eph 2:7 - In kindness In kindness ( ἐν χρηστότητι ) See on easy , Mat 11:30. The grace of God is to be displayed in His actual benefits.

In kindness ( ἐν χρηστότητι )

See on easy , Mat 11:30. The grace of God is to be displayed in His actual benefits.

Vincent: Eph 2:8 - For by grace, etc For by grace, etc. This may truly be called exceeding riches of grace, for ye are saved by grace. Grace has the article, the grace of G...

For by grace, etc.

This may truly be called exceeding riches of grace, for ye are saved by grace. Grace has the article, the grace of God, in Eph 2:5, Eph 2:7.

Vincent: Eph 2:8 - And that And that Not faith , but the salvation .

And that

Not faith , but the salvation .

Vincent: Eph 2:8 - Of God Of God Emphatic. Of God is it the gift.

Of God

Emphatic. Of God is it the gift.

Vincent: Eph 2:10 - For we are His workmanship For we are His workmanship A reason why no man should glory. If we are God's workmanship, our salvation cannot be of ourselves. His is emph...

For we are His workmanship

A reason why no man should glory. If we are God's workmanship, our salvation cannot be of ourselves. His is emphatic. His workmanship are we.

Vincent: Eph 2:10 - Created Created ( κτισθέντες ) See on Joh 1:3. The verb originally means to make habitable , to people . Hence to found . God is c...

Created ( κτισθέντες )

See on Joh 1:3. The verb originally means to make habitable , to people . Hence to found . God is called κτίστης creator , 1Pe 4:19, and ὁ κτίσας he that created , Rom 1:25. Compare Rev 4:11. Κτίσις is used of the whole sum of created things, Mar 10:6; Rom 8:22.

Vincent: Eph 2:10 - Afore prepared Afore prepared ( προητοίμασεν ) Rev, more correctly, prepared . Made ready beforehand. God prearranged a sphere of moral action fo...

Afore prepared ( προητοίμασεν )

Rev, more correctly, prepared . Made ready beforehand. God prearranged a sphere of moral action for us to walk in. Not only are works the necessary outcome of faith, but the character and direction of the works are made ready by God.

Vincent: Eph 2:10 - That we should walk That we should walk In order that ; to the end that .

That we should walk

In order that ; to the end that .

Vincent: Eph 2:11 - Uncircumcision - circumcision Uncircumcision - circumcision Abstract for concrete terms, the uncircumcised and circumcised.

Uncircumcision - circumcision

Abstract for concrete terms, the uncircumcised and circumcised.

Vincent: Eph 2:11 - Which is called Which is called Notice the irony, giving back the called of the circumcised.

Which is called

Notice the irony, giving back the called of the circumcised.

Vincent: Eph 2:12 - Being aliens Being aliens ( ἀπηλλοτριωμένοι ) Rev., better, giving the force of the verb, alienated . As they had once been otherwise. Pau...

Being aliens ( ἀπηλλοτριωμένοι )

Rev., better, giving the force of the verb, alienated . As they had once been otherwise. Paul speaks ideally of a spiritual commonwealth in which Jew and Gentile were together at peace with God, and of which the commonwealth of Israel is a type.

Vincent: Eph 2:12 - Israel Israel Selecting the most honorable title to describe the Jew. See on Act 3:12. The reference is to the spiritual rather than to the national dis...

Israel

Selecting the most honorable title to describe the Jew. See on Act 3:12. The reference is to the spiritual rather than to the national distinction. In being separated from Christ, they were separated from that commonwealth in which, according to the promise, Christ would have been to them, as to the faithful Israelites, the object of their faith and the ground of their salvation.

Vincent: Eph 2:12 - Covenants Covenants The several renewals of God's covenant with the patriarchs.

Covenants

The several renewals of God's covenant with the patriarchs.

Vincent: Eph 2:12 - Of promise Of promise ( τῆς ἐπαγγελίας ) Better, the promise. The messianic promise, which was the basis of all the covenants.

Of promise ( τῆς ἐπαγγελίας )

Better, the promise. The messianic promise, which was the basis of all the covenants.

Vincent: Eph 2:12 - Without God Without God ( ἄθεοι ) God-forsaken. It might also mean godless or impious . The gentile gods were no gods.

Without God ( ἄθεοι )

God-forsaken. It might also mean godless or impious . The gentile gods were no gods.

Vincent: Eph 2:13 - Now in Christ Jesus Now in Christ Jesus Now , in contrast with at that time . In Christ Jesus , in contrast with alienated from , etc. Jesus is added...

Now in Christ Jesus

Now , in contrast with at that time . In Christ Jesus , in contrast with alienated from , etc. Jesus is added because the Christ who was the subject of promise, the Messiah , has come into the world under that personal name. The phrase includes the promised Messiah and the actual Savior.

Vincent: Eph 2:14 - Our peace Our peace ( ἡ εἰρήνη ἡμῶν ) Christ is similarly described in abstract terms in 1Co 1:30; wisdom , righteousness , sanctif...

Our peace ( ἡ εἰρήνη ἡμῶν )

Christ is similarly described in abstract terms in 1Co 1:30; wisdom , righteousness , sanctification , redemption . So Col 1:27, hope of glory . Christ is thus not merely our peace-maker , but our very peace itself.

Vincent: Eph 2:14 - Both Both ( τὰ ἀμφότερα ) Lit., the both. The neuter gender shows that Jews and Gentiles are conceived by the writer merely as two f...

Both ( τὰ ἀμφότερα )

Lit., the both. The neuter gender shows that Jews and Gentiles are conceived by the writer merely as two facts. The masculine is used in Eph 2:15, Eph 2:16.

Vincent: Eph 2:14 - Hath broken down Hath broken down ( λύσας ) Lit, loosened or dissolved . Rev., giving the force of the aorist tense, brake down . The participle has ...

Hath broken down ( λύσας )

Lit, loosened or dissolved . Rev., giving the force of the aorist tense, brake down . The participle has an explanatory force, in that He brake down .

Vincent: Eph 2:14 - The middle-wall of partition The middle-wall of partition ( τὸ μεσότοιχον τοῦ φραγμοῦ ) Lit., the middle wall of the fence or hed...

The middle-wall of partition ( τὸ μεσότοιχον τοῦ φραγμοῦ )

Lit., the middle wall of the fence or hedge . The wall which pertained to the fence; the fact of separation being emphasized in wall , and the instrument of separation in fence . The hedge was the whole Mosaic economy which separated Jew from Gentile. Some suppose a reference to the stone screen which bounded the court of the Gentiles in the temple.

Vincent: Eph 2:15 - Having abolished in His flesh the enmity Having abolished in His flesh the enmity ( τὴν ἔχθραν ἐν τῇ σαρκὶ αὐτοῦ καταργήσας ) The en...

Having abolished in His flesh the enmity ( τὴν ἔχθραν ἐν τῇ σαρκὶ αὐτοῦ καταργήσας )

The enmity immediately follows the middle wall of partition , and should be rendered in apposition with and as defining it, and as dependent on brake down , not on abolished: the middle wall which was the enmity. It is used abstractly, as peace in Eph 2:14. The enmity was the result and working of the law regarded as a separative system; as it separated Jew from Gentile, and both from God. See Rom 3:20; Rom 4:15; Rom 5:20; Rom 7:7-11. For abolished , see on cumbereth , Luk 13:7, and make without effect , see on Rom 3:3.

Vincent: Eph 2:15 - The law of commandments contained in ordinances The law of commandments contained in ordinances ( τὸν νόμον τῶν ἐντολῶν ἐν δόγμασιν ) The law , etc....

The law of commandments contained in ordinances ( τὸν νόμον τῶν ἐντολῶν ἐν δόγμασιν )

The law , etc., depends in construction on having abolished , and is not in apposition with the enmity , as A.V. The middle wall of partition, the enmity, was dissolved by the abolition of the law of commandments. Construe in His flesh with having abolished . Law is general, and its contents are defined by commandments , special injunctions , which injunctions in turn were formulated in definite decrees . Render the entire passage: brake down the middle-wall of partition , even the enmity , by abolishing in His flesh the law of commandments contained in ordinances .

Vincent: Eph 2:15 - For to make For to make ( ἵνα κτίσῃ ) Rev., that He might create . See on created , Eph 2:10. The work was to be a new creation on ...

For to make ( ἵνα κτίσῃ )

Rev., that He might create . See on created , Eph 2:10. The work was to be a new creation on a new foundation .

Vincent: Eph 2:15 - In Himself In Himself As the medium of reconciliation.

In Himself

As the medium of reconciliation.

Vincent: Eph 2:15 - Of the twain one new man Of the twain one new man ( τοὺς δύο εἰς ἕνα καινὸν ἄνθρωπον ). The Greek is livelier: make the tw...

Of the twain one new man ( τοὺς δύο εἰς ἕνα καινὸν ἄνθρωπον ).

The Greek is livelier: make the two into one new man . Καινὸν new , emphasizes the new quality ; not newness in point of time. See on Mat 26:29.

Vincent: Eph 2:16 - Might reconcile Might reconcile ( ἀποκαταλλάξῃ ) Only here and Col 1:20, Col 1:21. See on Col 1:20. The new man precedes the reconciling in Pau...

Might reconcile ( ἀποκαταλλάξῃ )

Only here and Col 1:20, Col 1:21. See on Col 1:20. The new man precedes the reconciling in Paul's statement, though, as a fact, the order is the reverse. The verb contains a hint of restoration to a primal unity. See on Eph 2:12.

Vincent: Eph 2:16 - Thereby Thereby ( ἐν αὐτῷ ) Or upon it - the cross.

Thereby ( ἐν αὐτῷ )

Or upon it - the cross.

Vincent: Eph 2:17 - You which were afar off You which were afar off Gentiles.

You which were afar off

Gentiles.

Vincent: Eph 2:17 - Them that were nigh Them that were nigh Jews. See on Rom 3:30. As children of the messianic covenant. See on Eph 2:12. Compare Isa 57:9, where the Septuagint reads, ...

Them that were nigh

Jews. See on Rom 3:30. As children of the messianic covenant. See on Eph 2:12. Compare Isa 57:9, where the Septuagint reads, peace upon peace to those who are far and to those who are near .

Vincent: Eph 2:18 - Access Access ( προσαγωγὴν ) See on Rom 5:2. Notice the three persons of the Godhead: through Him (Christ); one Spirit , the Father .

Access ( προσαγωγὴν )

See on Rom 5:2. Notice the three persons of the Godhead: through Him (Christ); one Spirit , the Father .

Vincent: Eph 2:19 - Foreigners Foreigners ( πάροικοι ) See on Luk 24:18. Rev., better, sojourners . Without rights of citizenship.

Foreigners ( πάροικοι )

See on Luk 24:18. Rev., better, sojourners . Without rights of citizenship.

Vincent: Eph 2:20 - Of the apostles and prophets Of the apostles and prophets The foundation laid by them. Prophets are New-Testament prophets. See Eph 3:5; Eph 4:11. See on 1Co 12:10.

Of the apostles and prophets

The foundation laid by them. Prophets are New-Testament prophets. See Eph 3:5; Eph 4:11. See on 1Co 12:10.

Vincent: Eph 2:20 - Chief corner-stone Chief corner-stone ( ἀκρογωνίαου ) Only here and 1Pe 2:6.

Chief corner-stone ( ἀκρογωνίαου )

Only here and 1Pe 2:6.

Vincent: Eph 2:21 - All the building All the building ( πᾶσα οικοδομὴ ) Lit., every building. Rev., each several building . But the reference is evidently to o...

All the building ( πᾶσα οικοδομὴ )

Lit., every building. Rev., each several building . But the reference is evidently to one building, and the rendering of A.V. should be retained though the article is wanting.

Vincent: Eph 2:21 - Fitly framed together Fitly framed together ( συναρμολογουμένη ) The present participle indicates the framing as in progress.

Fitly framed together ( συναρμολογουμένη )

The present participle indicates the framing as in progress.

Vincent: Eph 2:21 - Temple Temple ( ναὸν ) Sanctuary. See on Mat 4:5. The more sacred portion of the structure is chosen for the figure.

Temple ( ναὸν )

Sanctuary. See on Mat 4:5. The more sacred portion of the structure is chosen for the figure.

Vincent: Eph 2:22 - Are builded together Are builded together ( συνοικοδομεῖσθε ) As component parts of the one building. The reference is to individual Christians, not ...

Are builded together ( συνοικοδομεῖσθε )

As component parts of the one building. The reference is to individual Christians, not to communities.

Vincent: Eph 2:22 - Habitation Habitation ( κατοικητήριον ) Answering to temple . Only here and Rev 18:2. Indicating a permanent dwelling. See on dwell , Luk...

Habitation ( κατοικητήριον )

Answering to temple . Only here and Rev 18:2. Indicating a permanent dwelling. See on dwell , Luk 11:26; see on Act 2:5; see on Mar 5:3. In marked contrast with sojourners , Eph 2:19.

Vincent: Eph 2:22 - Through the Spirit Through the Spirit ( ἐν ) Better, as Rev., in . In the fellowship of the indwelling Spirit.

Through the Spirit ( ἐν )

Better, as Rev., in . In the fellowship of the indwelling Spirit.

Wesley: Eph 2:1 - And he hath quickened you In Eph 1:19-20, St. Paul spoke of God's working in them by the same almighty power whereby he raised Christ from the dead. On the mention of this he, ...

In Eph 1:19-20, St. Paul spoke of God's working in them by the same almighty power whereby he raised Christ from the dead. On the mention of this he, in the fulness of his heart, runs into a flow of thought concerning the glory of Christ's exaltation in the three following verses. He here resumes the thread of his discourse.

Wesley: Eph 2:1 - Who were dead Not only diseased, but dead; absolutely void of all spiritual life; and as incapable of quickening yourselves, as persons literally dead.

Not only diseased, but dead; absolutely void of all spiritual life; and as incapable of quickening yourselves, as persons literally dead.

Wesley: Eph 2:1 - In trespasses and sins Sins seem to be spoken chiefly of the gentiles, who knew not God; trespasses, of the Jews, who had his law, and yet regarded it not, Eph 2:5. The latt...

Sins seem to be spoken chiefly of the gentiles, who knew not God; trespasses, of the Jews, who had his law, and yet regarded it not, Eph 2:5. The latter herein obeyed the flesh; the former, the prince of the power of the air.

Wesley: Eph 2:2 - According to the course of this world The word translated course properly means a long series of times, wherein one corrupt age follows another.

The word translated course properly means a long series of times, wherein one corrupt age follows another.

Wesley: Eph 2:2 - According to the prince of the power of the air The effect of which power all may perceive, though all do not understand the cause of it: a power unspeakably penetrating and widely diffused; but yet...

The effect of which power all may perceive, though all do not understand the cause of it: a power unspeakably penetrating and widely diffused; but yet, as to its baneful influences, beneath the orb of believers. The evil spirits are united under one head, the seat of whose dominion is in the air. Here he sometimes raises storms, sometimes makes visionary representations, and is continually roving to and fro.

Wesley: Eph 2:2 - The spirit that now worketh With mighty power; and so he did, and doth in all ages.

With mighty power; and so he did, and doth in all ages.

Wesley: Eph 2:2 - In the sons of disobedience In all who do not believe and obey the gospel.

In all who do not believe and obey the gospel.

Wesley: Eph 2:3 - Among whom we Jews. Also, formerly had our conversation: doing the will of the flesh - In gross, brutal sins.

Jews. Also, formerly had our conversation: doing the will of the flesh - In gross, brutal sins.

Wesley: Eph 2:3 - And of the mind By spiritual, diabolical wickedness. In the former clause, flesh denotes the whole evil nature; in the latter, the body opposed to the soul.

By spiritual, diabolical wickedness. In the former clause, flesh denotes the whole evil nature; in the latter, the body opposed to the soul.

Wesley: Eph 2:3 - And were by nature That is, in our natural state.

That is, in our natural state.

Wesley: Eph 2:3 - Children of wrath Having the wrath of God abiding on us, even as the gentiles. This expression, by nature, occurs also, Gal 4:8; Rom 2:14; and thrice in Rom 11:24. But ...

Having the wrath of God abiding on us, even as the gentiles. This expression, by nature, occurs also, Gal 4:8; Rom 2:14; and thrice in Rom 11:24. But in none of these places does it signify, by custom, or practice, or customary practice, as a late writer affirms. Nor can it mean so here For this would make the apostle guilty of gross tautology, their customary sinning having been expressed already, in the former part of the verse. But all these passages agree in expressing what belongs to the nature of the persons spoken of.

Wesley: Eph 2:4 - -- Mercy removes misery: love confers salvation.

Mercy removes misery: love confers salvation.

Wesley: Eph 2:5 - He hath quickened us together with Christ In conformity to him, and by virtue of our union with him.

In conformity to him, and by virtue of our union with him.

Wesley: Eph 2:5 - By grace ye are saved Grace is both the beginning and end. The apostle speaks indifferently either in the first or second person; the Jews and gentiles being in the same ci...

Grace is both the beginning and end. The apostle speaks indifferently either in the first or second person; the Jews and gentiles being in the same circumstance, both by nature and by grace. This text lays the axe to the very root of spiritual pride, and all glorying in ourselves. Therefore St. Paul, foreseeing the backwardness of mankind to receive it, yet knowing the absolute necessity of its being received, again asserts the very same truth, Eph 2:8, in the very same words.

Wesley: Eph 2:6 - And hath raised us up together Both Jews and gentiles already in spirit; and ere long our bodies too will be raised.

Both Jews and gentiles already in spirit; and ere long our bodies too will be raised.

Wesley: Eph 2:6 - And made us all sit together in heavenly places This is spoken by way of anticipation. Believers are not yet possessed of their seats in heaven; but each of them has a place prepared for him.

This is spoken by way of anticipation. Believers are not yet possessed of their seats in heaven; but each of them has a place prepared for him.

Wesley: Eph 2:7 - The ages to come That is, all succeeding ages.

That is, all succeeding ages.

Wesley: Eph 2:8 - By grace ye are saved through faith Grace, without any respect to human worthiness, confers the glorious gift. Faith, with an empty hand, and without any pretence to personal desert, rec...

Grace, without any respect to human worthiness, confers the glorious gift. Faith, with an empty hand, and without any pretence to personal desert, receives the heavenly blessing.

Wesley: Eph 2:8 - And this is not of yourselves This refers to the whole preceding clause, That ye are saved through faith, is the gift of God.

This refers to the whole preceding clause, That ye are saved through faith, is the gift of God.

Wesley: Eph 2:9 - Not by works Neither this faith nor this salvation is owing to any works you ever did, will, or can do.

Neither this faith nor this salvation is owing to any works you ever did, will, or can do.

Wesley: Eph 2:10 - For we are his workmanship Which proves both that salvation is by faith, and that faith is the gift of God.

Which proves both that salvation is by faith, and that faith is the gift of God.

Wesley: Eph 2:10 - Created unto good works That afterwards we might give ourselves to them.

That afterwards we might give ourselves to them.

Wesley: Eph 2:10 - Which God had before preprepared The occasions of them: so we must still ascribe the whole to God.

The occasions of them: so we must still ascribe the whole to God.

Wesley: Eph 2:10 - That we might walk in them Though not be justified by them.

Though not be justified by them.

Wesley: Eph 2:11 - Wherefore remember Such a remembrance strengthens faith, and increases gratitude.

Such a remembrance strengthens faith, and increases gratitude.

Wesley: Eph 2:11 - That ye being formerly gentiles in the flesh Neither circumcised in body nor in spirit.

Neither circumcised in body nor in spirit.

Wesley: Eph 2:11 - Who were accordingly called the uncircumcision By way of reproach.

By way of reproach.

Wesley: Eph 2:11 - By that which is called the circumcision By those who call themselves the circumcised, and think this a proof that they are the people of God; and who indeed have that outward circumcision wh...

By those who call themselves the circumcised, and think this a proof that they are the people of God; and who indeed have that outward circumcision which is performed by hands in the flesh.

Wesley: Eph 2:12 - Were at that time without Christ Having no faith in, or knowledge of, him.

Having no faith in, or knowledge of, him.

Wesley: Eph 2:12 - Being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel Both as to their temporal privileges and spiritual blessings.

Both as to their temporal privileges and spiritual blessings.

Wesley: Eph 2:12 - And strangers to the covenants of promise The great promise in both the Jewish and Christian covenant was the Messiah.

The great promise in both the Jewish and Christian covenant was the Messiah.

Wesley: Eph 2:12 - Having no hope Because they had no promise whereon to ground their hope.

Because they had no promise whereon to ground their hope.

Wesley: Eph 2:12 - And being without God Wholly ignorant of the true God, and so in effect atheists. Such in truth are, more or less, all men, in all ages, till they know God by the teaching ...

Wholly ignorant of the true God, and so in effect atheists. Such in truth are, more or less, all men, in all ages, till they know God by the teaching of his own Spirit.

Wesley: Eph 2:12 - In the world The wide, vain world, wherein ye wandered up and down, unholy and unhappy.

The wide, vain world, wherein ye wandered up and down, unholy and unhappy.

Wesley: Eph 2:13 - Far off From God and his people.

From God and his people.

Wesley: Eph 2:13 - Nigh Intimately united to both.

Intimately united to both.

Wesley: Eph 2:14 - For he is our peace Not only as he purchased it, but as he is the very bond and centre of union.

Not only as he purchased it, but as he is the very bond and centre of union.

Wesley: Eph 2:14 - He who hath made both Jews and gentiles, one church. The apostle describes, The conjunction of the gentiles with Israel, Eph 2:14-15. And, The conjunction of both with God,...

Jews and gentiles, one church. The apostle describes, The conjunction of the gentiles with Israel, Eph 2:14-15. And, The conjunction of both with God, Eph 2:15-18. Each description is subdivided into two parts. And the former part of the one, concerning abolishing the enmity, answers the former part of the other; the latter part of the one, concerning the evangelical decrees, the latter part of the other.

Wesley: Eph 2:14 - And hath broken down the middle wall of partition Alluding to that wall of old, which separated the court of Israel from the court of the gentiles. Such a wall was the ceremonial law, which Christ had...

Alluding to that wall of old, which separated the court of Israel from the court of the gentiles. Such a wall was the ceremonial law, which Christ had now taken away.

Wesley: Eph 2:15 - Having abolished by his suffering in the flesh the cause of enmity between the Jews and gentiles, even the law of ceremonial commandments, through his decrees Which offer mercy to all; see Col 2:14.

Which offer mercy to all; see Col 2:14.

Wesley: Eph 2:15 - That he might form the two Jew and gentile.

Jew and gentile.

Wesley: Eph 2:15 - Into one new man one mystical body.

one mystical body.

Wesley: Eph 2:16 - In one body One church.

One church.

Wesley: Eph 2:16 - Having slain By his own death on the cross.

By his own death on the cross.

Wesley: Eph 2:16 - The enmity Which had been between sinners and God.

Which had been between sinners and God.

Wesley: Eph 2:17 - And he came After his resurrection.

After his resurrection.

Wesley: Eph 2:17 - And preached peace By his ministers and his Spirit.

By his ministers and his Spirit.

Wesley: Eph 2:17 - To you Gentiles.

Gentiles.

Wesley: Eph 2:17 - That were afar off At the utmost distance from God.

At the utmost distance from God.

Wesley: Eph 2:17 - And to them that were nigh To the Jews, who were comparatively nigh, being his visible church.

To the Jews, who were comparatively nigh, being his visible church.

Wesley: Eph 2:18 - For through him, we both Jews and gentiles.

Jews and gentiles.

Wesley: Eph 2:18 - Have access Liberty of approaching, by the guidance and aid of one Spirit to God as our Father. Christ, the Spirit, and the Father, the three - one God, stand fre...

Liberty of approaching, by the guidance and aid of one Spirit to God as our Father. Christ, the Spirit, and the Father, the three - one God, stand frequently in the same order.

Wesley: Eph 2:19 - -- Therefore ye are no longer strangers, but citizens of the heavenly Jerusalem; no longer foreigners, but received into the very family of God.

Therefore ye are no longer strangers, but citizens of the heavenly Jerusalem; no longer foreigners, but received into the very family of God.

Wesley: Eph 2:20 - And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets As the foundation sustains the building, so the word of God, declared by the apostles and prophets, sustains the faith of all believers.

As the foundation sustains the building, so the word of God, declared by the apostles and prophets, sustains the faith of all believers.

Wesley: Eph 2:20 - God laid the foundation by them; but Christ himself is the chief corner stone of the foundation. Elsewhere he is termed the foundation itself, 1Co 3:11.

stone of the foundation. Elsewhere he is termed the foundation itself, 1Co 3:11.

Wesley: Eph 2:21 - On whom all the building fitly framed together The whole fabric of the universal church rises up like a great pile of living materials.

The whole fabric of the universal church rises up like a great pile of living materials.

Wesley: Eph 2:21 - Into an holy temple in the Lord Dedicated to Christ, and inhabited by him, in which he displays his presence, and is worshipped and glorified. What is the temple of Diana of the Ephe...

Dedicated to Christ, and inhabited by him, in which he displays his presence, and is worshipped and glorified. What is the temple of Diana of the Ephesians, whom ye formerly worshipped, to this?

JFB: Eph 2:1 - And you "You also," among those who have experienced His mighty power in enabling them to believe (Eph 1:19-23).

"You also," among those who have experienced His mighty power in enabling them to believe (Eph 1:19-23).

JFB: Eph 2:1 - hath he quickened Supplied from the Greek (Eph 2:5).

Supplied from the Greek (Eph 2:5).

JFB: Eph 2:1 - dead Spiritually. (Col 2:13). A living corpse: without the gracious presence of God's Spirit in the soul, and so unable to think, will, or do aught that is...

Spiritually. (Col 2:13). A living corpse: without the gracious presence of God's Spirit in the soul, and so unable to think, will, or do aught that is holy.

JFB: Eph 2:1 - in trespasses . . . sins In them, as the element in which the unbeliever is, and through which he is dead to the true life. Sin is the death of the soul. Isa 9:2; Joh 5:25, "d...

In them, as the element in which the unbeliever is, and through which he is dead to the true life. Sin is the death of the soul. Isa 9:2; Joh 5:25, "dead" (spiritually), 1Ti 5:6. "Alienated from the life of God" (Eph 4:18). Translate, as Greek, "in your trespasses," &c. "Trespass" in Greek, expresses a FALL or LAPSE, such as the transgression of Adam whereby he fell. "Sin." (Greek, "hamartia") implies innate corruption and ALIENATION from God (literally, erring of the mind from the rule of truth), exhibited in acts of sin (Greek, "hamartemata"). BENGEL, refers "trespasses" to the Jews who had the law, and yet revolted from it; "sins," to the Gentiles who know not God.

JFB: Eph 2:2 - the course of this world The career (literally, "the age," compare Gal 1:4), or present system of this world (1Co 2:6, 1Co 2:12; 1Co 3:18-19, as opposed to "the world to come"...

The career (literally, "the age," compare Gal 1:4), or present system of this world (1Co 2:6, 1Co 2:12; 1Co 3:18-19, as opposed to "the world to come"): alien from God, and lying in the wicked one (1Jo 5:19). "The age" (which is something more external and ethical) regulates "the world" (which is something more external).

JFB: Eph 2:2 - the prince of the power of the air The unseen God who lies underneath guiding "the course of this world" (2Co 4:4); ranging through the air around us: compare Mar 4:4, "fowls of the air...

The unseen God who lies underneath guiding "the course of this world" (2Co 4:4); ranging through the air around us: compare Mar 4:4, "fowls of the air" (Greek, "heaven") that is, (Eph 2:15), "Satan" and his demons. Compare Eph 6:12; Joh 12:31. Christ's ascension seems to have cast Satan out of heaven (Rev 12:5, Rev 12:9-10, Rev 12:12-13), where he had been heretofore the accuser of the brethren (Job 1:6-11). No longer able to accuse in heaven those justified by Christ, the ascended Saviour (Rom 8:33-34), he assails them on earth with all trials and temptations; and "we live in an atmosphere poisonous and impregnated with deadly elements. But a mighty purification of the air will be effected by Christ's coming" [AUBERLEN], for Satan shall be bound (Rev 12:12-13, Rev 12:15, Rev 12:17; Rev 20:2-3). "The power" is here used collectively for the "powers of the air"; in apposition with which "powers" stand the "spirits," comprehended in the singular, "the spirit," taken also collectively: the aggregate of the "seducing spirits" (1Ti 4:1) which "work now (still; not merely, as in your case, 'in time past') in the sons of disobedience" (a Hebraism: men who are not merely by accident disobedient, but who are essentially sons of disobedience itself: compare Mat 3:7), and of which Satan is here declared to be "the prince." The Greek does not allow "the spirit" to refer to Satan, "the prince" himself, but to "the powers of the air" of which he is prince. The powers of the air are the embodiment of that evil "spirit" which is the ruling principle of unbelievers, especially the heathen (Act 26:18), as opposed to the spirit of the children of God (Luk 4:33). The potency of that "spirit" is shown in the "disobedience" of the former. Compare Deu 32:20, "children in whom is no faith" (Isa 30:9; Isa 57:4). They disobey the Gospel both in faith and practice (2Th 1:8; 2Co 2:12).

JFB: Eph 2:3 - also we That is, we also. Paul here joins himself in the same category with them, passing from the second person (Eph 2:1-2) to the first person here.

That is, we also. Paul here joins himself in the same category with them, passing from the second person (Eph 2:1-2) to the first person here.

JFB: Eph 2:3 - all Jews and Gentiles.

Jews and Gentiles.

JFB: Eph 2:3 - our conversation "our way of life" (2Co 1:12; 1Pe 1:18). This expression implies an outwardly more decorous course, than the open "walk" in gross sins on the part of t...

"our way of life" (2Co 1:12; 1Pe 1:18). This expression implies an outwardly more decorous course, than the open "walk" in gross sins on the part of the majority of Ephesians in times past, the Gentile portion of whom may be specially referred to in Eph 2:2. Paul and his Jewish countrymen, though outwardly more seemly than the Gentiles (Act 26:4-5, Act 26:18), had been essentially like them in living to the unrenewed flesh, without the Spirit of God.

JFB: Eph 2:3 - fulfilling Greek, doing.

Greek, doing.

JFB: Eph 2:3 - mind Greek, "our thoughts." Mental suggestions and purposes (independent of God), as distinguished from the blind impulses of "the flesh."

Greek, "our thoughts." Mental suggestions and purposes (independent of God), as distinguished from the blind impulses of "the flesh."

JFB: Eph 2:3 - and were by nature He intentionally breaks off the construction, substituting "and we were" for "and being," to mark emphatically his and their past state by nature, as ...

He intentionally breaks off the construction, substituting "and we were" for "and being," to mark emphatically his and their past state by nature, as contrasted with their present state by grace. Not merely is it, we had our way of life fulfilling our fleshly desires, and so being children of wrath; but we were by nature originally "children of wrath," and so consequently had our way of life fulfilling our fleshly desires. "Nature," in Greek, implies that which has grown in us as the peculiarity of our being, growing with our growth, and strengthening with our strength, as distinguished from that which has been wrought on us by mere external influences: what is inherent, not acquired (Job 14:4; Psa 51:5). An incidental proof of the doctrine of original sin.

JFB: Eph 2:3 - children of wrath Not merely "sons," as in the Greek, "sons of disobedience" (Eph 2:2), but "children" by generation; not merely by adoption, as "sons" might be. The Gr...

Not merely "sons," as in the Greek, "sons of disobedience" (Eph 2:2), but "children" by generation; not merely by adoption, as "sons" might be. The Greek order more emphatically marks this innate corruption: "Those who in their (very) nature are children of wrath"; Eph 2:5, "grace" is opposed to "nature" here; and salvation (implied in Eph 2:5, Eph 2:8, "saved") to "wrath." Compare Article IX, Church of England Common Prayer Book. "Original sin (birth-sin), standeth not in the following of Adam, but is the fault and corruption of the nature of every man, naturally engendered of Adam [Christ was supernaturally conceived by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin], whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and is of his own nature inclined to evil; and therefore, in every person born into this world, it deserveth God's wrath and damnation." Paul shows that even the Jews, who boasted of their birth from Abraham, were by natural birth equally children of wrath as the Gentiles, whom the Jews despised on account of their birth from idolaters (Rom 3:9; Rom 5:12-14). "Wrath abideth" on all who disobey the Gospel in faith and practice (Joh 3:36). The phrase, "children of wrath," is a Hebraism, that is, objects of God's wrath from childhood, in our natural state, as being born in the sin which God hates. So "son of death" (2Sa 12:5, Margin); "son of perdition" (Joh 17:12; 2Th 2:3).

JFB: Eph 2:3 - as others Greek, "as the rest" of mankind are (1Th 4:13).

Greek, "as the rest" of mankind are (1Th 4:13).

JFB: Eph 2:4 - God, who is rich Greek "(as) being rich in mercy."

Greek "(as) being rich in mercy."

JFB: Eph 2:4 - for That is, "because of His great love." This was the special ground of God's saving us; as "rich in mercy" (compare Eph 2:7; Eph 1:7; Rom 2:4; Rom 10:12...

That is, "because of His great love." This was the special ground of God's saving us; as "rich in mercy" (compare Eph 2:7; Eph 1:7; Rom 2:4; Rom 10:12) was the general ground. "Mercy takes away misery; love confers salvation" [BENGEL].

JFB: Eph 2:5 - dead in sins The best reading is in the Greek, "dead in our (literally, 'the') trespasses."

The best reading is in the Greek, "dead in our (literally, 'the') trespasses."

JFB: Eph 2:5 - quickened "vivified" spiritually, and consequences hereafter, corporally. There must be a spiritual resurrection of the soul before there can be a comfortable r...

"vivified" spiritually, and consequences hereafter, corporally. There must be a spiritual resurrection of the soul before there can be a comfortable resurrection of the body [PEARSON] (Joh 11:25-26; Rom 8:11).

JFB: Eph 2:5 - together with Christ The Head being seated at God's right hand, the body also sits there with Him [CHRYSOSTOM]. We are already seated there IN Him ("in Christ Jesus," Eph ...

The Head being seated at God's right hand, the body also sits there with Him [CHRYSOSTOM]. We are already seated there IN Him ("in Christ Jesus," Eph 2:6), and hereafter shall be seated by Him; IN Him already as in our Head, which is the ground of our hope; by Him hereafter, as by the conferring cause, when hope shall be swallowed up in fruition [PEARSON]. What God wrought in Christ, He wrought (by the very fact) in all united to Christ, and one with Him.

JFB: Eph 2:5 - by grace ye are saved Greek, "Ye are in a saved state." Not merely "ye are being saved," but ye "are passed from death unto life" (Joh 5:24). Salvation is to the Christian ...

Greek, "Ye are in a saved state." Not merely "ye are being saved," but ye "are passed from death unto life" (Joh 5:24). Salvation is to the Christian not a thing to be waited for hereafter, but already realized (1Jo 3:14). The parenthetic introduction of this clause here (compare Eph 2:8) is a burst of Paul's feeling, and in order to make the Ephesians feel that grace from first to last is the sole source of salvation; hence, too, he says "ye," not "we."

JFB: Eph 2:6 - raised us up together With Christ. The "raising up" presupposes previous quickening of Jesus in the tomb, and of us in the grave of our sins.

With Christ. The "raising up" presupposes previous quickening of Jesus in the tomb, and of us in the grave of our sins.

JFB: Eph 2:6 - made us sit together With Christ, namely, in His ascension. Believers are bodily in heaven in point of right, and virtually so in spirit, and have each their own place ass...

With Christ, namely, in His ascension. Believers are bodily in heaven in point of right, and virtually so in spirit, and have each their own place assigned there, which in due time they shall take possession of (Phi 3:20-21). He does not say, "on the right hand of God"; a prerogative reserved to Christ peculiarly; though they shall share His throne (Rev 3:21).

JFB: Eph 2:6 - in Christ Jesus Our union with Him is the ground of our present spiritual, and future bodily, resurrection and ascension. "Christ Jesus" is the phrase mostly used in ...

Our union with Him is the ground of our present spiritual, and future bodily, resurrection and ascension. "Christ Jesus" is the phrase mostly used in this Epistle, in which the office of the Christ, the Anointed Prophet, Priest and King, is the prominent thought; when the Person is prominent, "Jesus Christ" is the phrase used.

JFB: Eph 2:7 - -- Greek, "That He might show forth (middle reflexive voice; for His own glory, Eph 1:6, Eph 1:12-14) in the ages which are coming on," that is, the bles...

Greek, "That He might show forth (middle reflexive voice; for His own glory, Eph 1:6, Eph 1:12-14) in the ages which are coming on," that is, the blessed ages of the Gospel which supersede "the age (Greek, for 'course') of this world" (Eph 2:2), and the past "ages" from which the mystery was hidden (Col 1:26-27). These good ages, though beginning with the first preaching of the Gospel, and thenceforth continually succeeding one another, are not consummated till the Lord's coming again (compare Eph 1:21; Heb 6:5). The words, "coming on," do not exclude the time then present, but imply simply the ages following upon Christ's "raising them up together" spiritually (Eph 2:6).

JFB: Eph 2:7 - kindness "benignity."

"benignity."

JFB: Eph 2:7 - through Christ Rather, as Greek, "in Christ"; the same expression as is so often repeated, to mark that all our blessings center "IN HIM."

Rather, as Greek, "in Christ"; the same expression as is so often repeated, to mark that all our blessings center "IN HIM."

JFB: Eph 2:8 - For Illustrating "the exceeding riches of His grace in kindness." Translate as in Eph 2:5, "Ye are in a saved state."

Illustrating "the exceeding riches of His grace in kindness." Translate as in Eph 2:5, "Ye are in a saved state."

JFB: Eph 2:8 - through faith The effect of the power of Christ's resurrection (Eph 1:19-20; Phi 3:10) whereby we are "raised together" with Him (Eph 2:6; Col 2:12). Some of the ol...

The effect of the power of Christ's resurrection (Eph 1:19-20; Phi 3:10) whereby we are "raised together" with Him (Eph 2:6; Col 2:12). Some of the oldest manuscripts read, "through your (literally, 'the') faith." The instrument or mean of salvation on the part of the person saved; Christ alone is the meritorious agent.

JFB: Eph 2:8 - and that Namely, the act of believing, or "faith." "Of yourselves" stands in opposition to, "it is the gift of God" (Phi 1:29). "That which I have said, 'throu...

Namely, the act of believing, or "faith." "Of yourselves" stands in opposition to, "it is the gift of God" (Phi 1:29). "That which I have said, 'through faith,' I do not wish to be understood so as if I excepted faith itself from grace" [ESTIUS]. "God justifies the believing man, not for the worthiness of his belief, but for the worthiness of Him in whom he believes" [HOOKER]. The initiation, as well as the increase, of faith, is from the Spirit of God, not only by an external proposal of the word, but by internal illumination in the soul [PEARSON]. Yet "faith" cometh by the means which man must avail himself of, namely, "hearing the word of God" (Rom 10:17), and prayer (Luk 11:13), though the blessing is wholly of God (1Co 3:6-7).

JFB: Eph 2:9 - Not of works This clause stands in contrast to "by grace," as is confirmed by Rom 4:4-5; Rom 11:6.

This clause stands in contrast to "by grace," as is confirmed by Rom 4:4-5; Rom 11:6.

JFB: Eph 2:9 - lest Rather, as Greek, "that no man should boast" (Rom 3:27; Rom 4:2).

Rather, as Greek, "that no man should boast" (Rom 3:27; Rom 4:2).

JFB: Eph 2:10 - workmanship Literally, "a thing of His making"; "handiwork." Here the spiritual creation, not the physical, is referred to (Eph 2:8-9).

Literally, "a thing of His making"; "handiwork." Here the spiritual creation, not the physical, is referred to (Eph 2:8-9).

JFB: Eph 2:10 - created Having been created (Eph 4:24; Psa 102:18; Isa 43:21; 2Co 5:5, 2Co 5:17).

Having been created (Eph 4:24; Psa 102:18; Isa 43:21; 2Co 5:5, 2Co 5:17).

JFB: Eph 2:10 - unto good works "for good works." "Good works" cannot be performed until we are new "created unto" them. Paul never calls the works of the law "good works." We are no...

"for good works." "Good works" cannot be performed until we are new "created unto" them. Paul never calls the works of the law "good works." We are not saved by, but created unto, good works.

JFB: Eph 2:10 - before ordained Greek, "before made ready" (compare Joh 5:36). God marks out for each in His purposes beforehand, the particular good works, and the time and way whic...

Greek, "before made ready" (compare Joh 5:36). God marks out for each in His purposes beforehand, the particular good works, and the time and way which tie sees best. God both makes ready by His providence the opportunities for the works, and makes us ready for their performance (Joh 15:16; 2Ti 2:21).

JFB: Eph 2:10 - that we should walk in them Not "be saved" by them. Works do not justify, but the justified man works (Gal 5:22-25).

Not "be saved" by them. Works do not justify, but the justified man works (Gal 5:22-25).

JFB: Eph 2:11 - -- The Greek order in the oldest manuscripts is, "That in time past (literally, once) ye," &c. Such remembrance sharpens gratitude and strengthens faith ...

The Greek order in the oldest manuscripts is, "That in time past (literally, once) ye," &c. Such remembrance sharpens gratitude and strengthens faith (Eph 2:19) [BENGEL].

JFB: Eph 2:11 - Gentiles in the flesh That is, Gentiles in respect to circumcision.

That is, Gentiles in respect to circumcision.

JFB: Eph 2:11 - called Uncircumcision The Gentiles were called (in contempt), and were, the Uncircumcision; the Jews were called, but were not truly, the Circumcision [ELLICOTT].

The Gentiles were called (in contempt), and were, the Uncircumcision; the Jews were called, but were not truly, the Circumcision [ELLICOTT].

JFB: Eph 2:11 - in the flesh made by hands As opposed to the true "circumcision of the heart in the Spirit, and not the letter" (Rom 2:29), "made without the hands in putting off the body of th...

As opposed to the true "circumcision of the heart in the Spirit, and not the letter" (Rom 2:29), "made without the hands in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ" (Col 2:11).

JFB: Eph 2:12 - without Christ Greek, "separate from Christ"; having no part in Him; far from Him. A different Greek word (aneu) would be required to express, "Christ was not presen...

Greek, "separate from Christ"; having no part in Him; far from Him. A different Greek word (aneu) would be required to express, "Christ was not present with you" [TITTMANN].

JFB: Eph 2:12 - aliens Greek, "alienated from," not merely "separated from." The Israelites were cut off from the commonwealth of God, but it was as being self-righteous, in...

Greek, "alienated from," not merely "separated from." The Israelites were cut off from the commonwealth of God, but it was as being self-righteous, indolent, and unworthy, not as aliens and strangers [CHRYSOSTOM]. The expression, "alienated from," takes it for granted that the Gentiles, before they had apostatized from the primitive truth, had been sharers in light and life (compare Eph 4:18, Eph 4:23). The hope of redemption through the Messiah, on their subsequent apostasy, was embodied into a definite "commonwealth" or polity, namely, that "of Israel," from which the Gentiles were alienated. Contrast Eph 2:13; Eph 3:6; Eph 4:4-5, with Psa 147:20.

JFB: Eph 2:12 - covenants of promise Rather, ". . . of the promise," namely, "to thee and thy seed will I give this land" (Rom 9:4; Gal 3:16). The plural implies the several renewals of t...

Rather, ". . . of the promise," namely, "to thee and thy seed will I give this land" (Rom 9:4; Gal 3:16). The plural implies the several renewals of the covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and with the whole people at Sinai [ALFORD]. "The promise" is singular, to signify that the covenant, in reality, and substantially, is one and the same at all times, but only different in its accidents and external circumstances (compare Heb 1:1, "at sundry times and in divers manners").

JFB: Eph 2:12 - having no . . . hope Beyond this life (1Co 15:19). The CONJECTURES of heathen philosophers as to a future life were at best vague and utterly unsatisfactory. They had no d...

Beyond this life (1Co 15:19). The CONJECTURES of heathen philosophers as to a future life were at best vague and utterly unsatisfactory. They had no divine "promise," and therefore no sure ground of "hope." Epicurus and Aristotle did not believe in it at all. The Platonists believed the soul passed through perpetual changes, now happy, and then again miserable; the Stoics, that it existed no longer than till the time of the general burning up of all things.

JFB: Eph 2:12 - without God Greek, "atheists," that is, they had not "God" in the sense we use the word, the Eternal Being who made and governs all things (compare Act 14:15, "Tu...

Greek, "atheists," that is, they had not "God" in the sense we use the word, the Eternal Being who made and governs all things (compare Act 14:15, "Turn from these vanities unto the living God who made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things therein"), whereas the Jews had distinct ideas of God and immortality. Compare also Gal 4:8, "Ye knew not God . . . ye did service unto them which are no gods" (1Th 4:5). So also pantheists are atheists, for an impersonal God is NO GOD, and an ideal immortality no immortality [THOLUCK].

JFB: Eph 2:12 - in the world In contrast to belonging to "the commonwealth of Israel." Having their portion and their all in this godless vain world (Psa 17:14), from which Christ...

In contrast to belonging to "the commonwealth of Israel." Having their portion and their all in this godless vain world (Psa 17:14), from which Christ delivers His people (Joh 15:19; Joh 17:14; Gal 1:4).

JFB: Eph 2:13 - now In contrast to "at that time" (Eph 2:12).

In contrast to "at that time" (Eph 2:12).

JFB: Eph 2:13 - in Christ Jesus "Jesus" is here added, whereas the expression before (Eph 2:12) had been merely "Christ," to mark that they know Christ as the personal Saviour, "Jesu...

"Jesus" is here added, whereas the expression before (Eph 2:12) had been merely "Christ," to mark that they know Christ as the personal Saviour, "Jesus."

JFB: Eph 2:13 - sometimes Greek, "aforetime."

Greek, "aforetime."

JFB: Eph 2:13 - far off The Jewish description of the Gentiles. Far off from God and from the people of God (Eph 2:17; Isa 57:19; Act 2:39).

The Jewish description of the Gentiles. Far off from God and from the people of God (Eph 2:17; Isa 57:19; Act 2:39).

JFB: Eph 2:13 - are Greek, "have been."

Greek, "have been."

JFB: Eph 2:13 - by Greek, "in." Thus "the blood of Christ" is made the seal of a covenant IN which their nearness to God consists. In Eph 1:7, where the blood is more di...

Greek, "in." Thus "the blood of Christ" is made the seal of a covenant IN which their nearness to God consists. In Eph 1:7, where the blood is more directly spoken of as the instrument, it is "through His blood" [ALFORD].

JFB: Eph 2:14 - he Greek, "Himself" alone, pre-eminently, and none else. Emphatical.

Greek, "Himself" alone, pre-eminently, and none else. Emphatical.

JFB: Eph 2:14 - our peace Not merely "Peacemaker," but "Himself" the price of our (Jews' and Gentiles' alike) peace with God, and so the bond of union between "both" in God. He...

Not merely "Peacemaker," but "Himself" the price of our (Jews' and Gentiles' alike) peace with God, and so the bond of union between "both" in God. He took both into Himself, and reconciled them, united, to God, by His assuming our nature and our penal and legal liabilities (Eph 2:15; Isa 9:5-6; Isa 53:5; Mic 5:5; Col 1:20). His title, "Shiloh," means the same (Gen 49:10).

JFB: Eph 2:14 - the middle wall of partition Greek, ". . . of the partition" or "fence"; the middle wall which parted Jew and Gentile. There was a balustrade of stone which separated the court of...

Greek, ". . . of the partition" or "fence"; the middle wall which parted Jew and Gentile. There was a balustrade of stone which separated the court of the Gentiles from the holy place, which it was death for a Gentile to pass. But this, though incidentally alluded to, was but a symbol of the partition itself, namely, "the enmity" between "both" and God (Eph 2:15), the real cause of separation from God, and so the mediate cause of their separation from one another. Hence there was a twofold wall of partition, one the inner wall, severing the Jewish people from entrance to the holy part of the temple where the priests officiated, the other the outer wall, separating the Gentile proselytes from access to the court of the Jews (compare Eze 44:7; Act 21:28). Thus this twofold wall represented the Sinaitic law, which both severed all men, even the Jews, from access to God (through sin, which is the violation of the law), and also separated the Gentiles from the Jews. As the term "wall" implies the strength of the partition, so "fence" implies that it was easily removed by God when the due time came.

JFB: Eph 2:15 - -- Rather, make "enmity" an apposition to "the middle wall of partition"; "Hath broken down the middle wall of partition (not merely as English Version, ...

Rather, make "enmity" an apposition to "the middle wall of partition"; "Hath broken down the middle wall of partition (not merely as English Version, 'between us,' but also between all men and God), to wit, the enmity (Rom 8:7) by His flesh" (compare Eph 2:16; Rom 8:3).

JFB: Eph 2:15 - the law of commandments contained in Greek, "the law of the commandments (consisting) in ordinances." This law was "the partition" or "fence," which embodied the expression of the "enmity...

Greek, "the law of the commandments (consisting) in ordinances." This law was "the partition" or "fence," which embodied the expression of the "enmity" (the "wrath" of God against our sin, and our enmity to Him, Eph 2:3) (Rom 4:15; Rom 5:20; Rom 7:10-11; Rom 8:7). Christ has in, or by, His crucified flesh, abolished it, so far as its condemning and enmity-creating power is concerned (Col 2:14), substituting for it the law of love, which is the everlasting spirit of the law, and which flows from the realization in the soul of His love in His death for us. Translate what follows, "that He might make the two (Jews and Gentiles) into one new man." Not that He might merely reconcile the two to each other, but incorporate the two, reconciled in Him to God, into one new man; the old man to which both belonged, the enemy of God, having been slain in His flesh on the cross. Observe, too, ONE new man; we are all in God's sight but one in Christ, as we are but one in Adam [ALFORD].

JFB: Eph 2:15 - making peace Primarily between all and God, secondarily between Jews and Gentiles; He being "our peace." This "peace-making" precedes its publication (Eph 2:17).

Primarily between all and God, secondarily between Jews and Gentiles; He being "our peace." This "peace-making" precedes its publication (Eph 2:17).

JFB: Eph 2:16 - -- Translate, "might altogether reconcile them both in one body (the Church, Col 3:15) unto God through His cross." The Greek for "reconcile" (apocatalax...

Translate, "might altogether reconcile them both in one body (the Church, Col 3:15) unto God through His cross." The Greek for "reconcile" (apocatalaxe), found only here and in Col 1:20, expresses not only a return to favor with one (catallage), but so to lay aside enmity that complete amity follows; to pass from enmity to complete reconciliation [TITTMANN].

JFB: Eph 2:16 - slain the enmity Namely, that had been between man and God; and so that between Jew and Gentile which had resulted from it. By His being slain, He slew it (compare Heb...

Namely, that had been between man and God; and so that between Jew and Gentile which had resulted from it. By His being slain, He slew it (compare Heb 2:14).

JFB: Eph 2:16 - thereby Greek, "therein"; "in" or "by the cross," that is, His crucifixion (Col 2:15).

Greek, "therein"; "in" or "by the cross," that is, His crucifixion (Col 2:15).

JFB: Eph 2:17 - -- Translate, "He came and announced glad tidings of peace." "He came" of His own free love, and "announced peace" with His own mouth to the apostles (Lu...

Translate, "He came and announced glad tidings of peace." "He came" of His own free love, and "announced peace" with His own mouth to the apostles (Luk 24:36; Joh 20:19, Joh 20:21, Joh 20:26); and by them to others, through His Spirit present in His Church (Joh 14:18). Act 26:23 is strictly parallel; after His resurrection "He showed light to the people ('them that were nigh') and to the Gentiles ('you that were afar off')," by His Spirit in His ministers (compare 1Pe 3:19).

JFB: Eph 2:17 - and to them The oldest manuscripts insert "peace" again: "And peace to them." The repetition implies the joy with which both alike would dwell again and again upo...

The oldest manuscripts insert "peace" again: "And peace to them." The repetition implies the joy with which both alike would dwell again and again upon the welcome word "peace." So Isa 57:19.

JFB: Eph 2:18 - -- Translate, "For it is through Him (Joh 14:6; Heb 10:19) that we have our access (Eph 3:12; Rom 5:2), both of us, in (that is, united in, that is, "by,...

Translate, "For it is through Him (Joh 14:6; Heb 10:19) that we have our access (Eph 3:12; Rom 5:2), both of us, in (that is, united in, that is, "by," 1Co 12:13, Greek) one Spirit to the Father," namely, as our common Father, reconciled to both alike; whence flows the removal of all separation between Jew and Gentile. The oneness of "the Spirit," through which we both have our access, is necessarily followed by oneness of the body, the Church (Eph 2:16). The distinctness of persons in the Divine Trinity appears in this verse. It is also fatal to the theory of sacerdotal priests in the Gospel through whom alone the people can approach God. All alike, people and ministers, can draw nigh to God through Christ, their ever living Priest.

JFB: Eph 2:19 - Now, therefore Rather, "So then" [ALFORD].

Rather, "So then" [ALFORD].

JFB: Eph 2:19 - foreigners Rather, "sojourners"; opposed to "members of the household," as "strangers" is to "fellow citizens." Phi 3:19-20, "conversation," Greek, "citizenship....

Rather, "sojourners"; opposed to "members of the household," as "strangers" is to "fellow citizens." Phi 3:19-20, "conversation," Greek, "citizenship."

JFB: Eph 2:19 - but The oldest manuscripts add, "are."

The oldest manuscripts add, "are."

JFB: Eph 2:19 - with the saints "the commonwealth of (spiritual) Israel" (Eph 2:12).

"the commonwealth of (spiritual) Israel" (Eph 2:12).

JFB: Eph 2:19 - of God THE FATHER; as JESUS CHRIST appears in Eph 2:20, and THE SPIRIT in Eph 2:22.

THE FATHER; as JESUS CHRIST appears in Eph 2:20, and THE SPIRIT in Eph 2:22.

JFB: Eph 2:20 - -- Translate as Greek, "Built up upon," &c. (participle; having been built up upon; omit, therefore, "and are"). Compare 1Co 3:11-12. The same image in E...

Translate as Greek, "Built up upon," &c. (participle; having been built up upon; omit, therefore, "and are"). Compare 1Co 3:11-12. The same image in Eph 3:18, recurs in his address to the Ephesian elders (Act 20:32), and in his Epistle to Timothy at Ephesus (1Ti 3:15; 2Ti 2:19), naturally suggested by the splendid architecture of Diana's temple; the glory of the Christian temple is eternal and real, not mere idolatrous gaud. The image of a building is appropriate also to the Jew-Christians; as the temple at Jerusalem was the stronghold of Judaism; as Diana's temple, of paganism.

JFB: Eph 2:20 - foundation of the apostles, &c. That is, upon their ministry and living example (compare Mat 16:18). Christ Himself, the only true Foundation, was the grand subject of their ministry...

That is, upon their ministry and living example (compare Mat 16:18). Christ Himself, the only true Foundation, was the grand subject of their ministry, and spring of their life. As one with Him and His fellow workers, they, too, in a secondary sense, are called "foundations" (Rev 21:14). The "prophets" are joined with them closely; for the expression is here not "foundations of the apostles and the prophets," but "foundations of the apostles and prophets." For the doctrine of both was essentially one (1Pe 1:10-11; Rev 19:10). The apostles take the precedency (Luk 10:24). Thus he appropriately shows regard to the claims of the Jews and Gentiles: "the prophets" representing the old Jewish dispensation, "the apostles" the new. The "prophets" of the new also are included. BENGEL and ALFORD refer the meaning solely to these (Eph 3:5; Eph 4:11). These passages imply, I think, that the New Testament prophets are not excluded; but the apostle's plain reference to Psa 118:22, "the head stone of the corner," proves that the Old Testament prophets are a prominent thought. David is called a "prophet" in Act 2:30. Compare also Isa 28:16; another prophet present to the mind of Paul, which prophecy leans on the earlier one of Jacob (Gen 49:24). The sense of the context, too, suits this: Ye were once aliens from the commonwealth of Israel (in the time of her Old Testament prophets), but now ye are members of the true Israel, built upon the foundation of her New Testament apostles and Old Testament prophets. Paul continually identifies his teaching with that of Israel's old prophets (Act 26:22; Act 28:23). The costly foundation-stones of the temple (1Ki 5:17) typified the same truth (compare Jer 51:26). The same stone is at once the corner-stone and the foundation-stone on which the whole building rests. Paul supposes a stone or rock so large and so fashioned as to be both at once; supporting the whole as the foundation, and in part rising up at the extremities, so as to admit of the side walls meeting in it, and being united in it as the corner-stone [ZANCHIUS]. As the corner-stone, it is conspicuous, as was Christ (1Pe 2:6), and coming in men's way may be stumbled over, as the Jews did at Christ (Mat 21:42; 1Pe 2:7).

JFB: Eph 2:21 - In whom As holding together the whole.

As holding together the whole.

JFB: Eph 2:21 - fitly framed So as exactly to fit together.

So as exactly to fit together.

JFB: Eph 2:21 - groweth "is growing" continually. Here an additional thought is added to the image; the Church has the growth of a living organism, not the mere increase of a...

"is growing" continually. Here an additional thought is added to the image; the Church has the growth of a living organism, not the mere increase of a building. Compare 1Pe 2:5; "lively stones . . . built up a spiritual house." Compare Eph 4:16; Zec 6:12, "The Branch shall build the temple of the Lord," where similarly the growth of a branch, and the building of a temple, are joined.

JFB: Eph 2:21 - holy As being the "habitation of God" (Eph 2:22). So "in the Lord" (Christ) answers to "through the Spirit" (Eph 2:22; compare Eph 3:16-17). "Christ is the...

As being the "habitation of God" (Eph 2:22). So "in the Lord" (Christ) answers to "through the Spirit" (Eph 2:22; compare Eph 3:16-17). "Christ is the inclusive Head of all the building, the element in which it has its being and now its growth" [ALFORD].

JFB: Eph 2:22 - are builded together Translate, "are being builded together."

Translate, "are being builded together."

JFB: Eph 2:22 - through Greek, "in the Spirit." God, by His Spirit in believers, has them for His habitation (1Co 3:16-17; 1Co 6:19; 2Co 6:16).

Greek, "in the Spirit." God, by His Spirit in believers, has them for His habitation (1Co 3:16-17; 1Co 6:19; 2Co 6:16).

Clarke: Eph 2:1 - And you hath he quickened And you hath he quickened - This chapter should not have been separated from the preceding, with which it is most intimately connected. As Christ fi...

And you hath he quickened - This chapter should not have been separated from the preceding, with which it is most intimately connected. As Christ fills the whole body of Christian believers with his fullness, (Eph 1:23), so had he dealt with the converted Ephesians, who before were dead in trespasses, and dead in sins. Death is often used by all writers, and in all nations, to express a state of extreme misery. The Ephesians, by trespassing and sinning, had brought themselves into a state of deplorable wretchedness, as had all the heathen nations; and having thus sinned against God, they were condemned by him, and might be considered as dead in law - incapable of performing any legal act, and always liable to the punishment of death, which they had deserved, and which was ready to be inflicted upon them

Trespasses, παραπτωμασι, may signify the slightest deviation from the line and rule of moral equity, as well as any flagrant offense; for these are equally transgressions, as long as the sacred line that separates between vice and virtue is passed over

Sins, ἁμαρτιαις, may probably mean here habitual transgression; sinning knowingly and daringly.

Clarke: Eph 2:2 - Wherein in time past ye walked Wherein in time past ye walked - There is much force in these expressions; the Ephesians had not sinned casually, or now and then, but continually; ...

Wherein in time past ye walked - There is much force in these expressions; the Ephesians had not sinned casually, or now and then, but continually; it was their continual employment; they walked in trespasses and sins: and this was not a solitary case, all the nations of the earth acted in the same way; it was the course of this world, κατα τον αιωνα του κοσμου τουτου, according to the life, mode of living, or successive ages of this world. The word αιων, the literal meaning of which is constant duration, is often applied to things which have a complete course, as the Jewish dispensation, a particular government, and the term of human life; so, here, the whole of life is a tissue of sin, from the cradle to the grave; every human soul, unsaved by Jesus Christ, continues to transgress. And the nominally Christian world is in the same state to the present day. Age after age passes on in this way and the living lay it not to heart

Clarke: Eph 2:2 - The prince of the power of the air The prince of the power of the air - As the former clause may have particular respect to the Jewish people, who are frequently denominated עולם...

The prince of the power of the air - As the former clause may have particular respect to the Jewish people, who are frequently denominated עולם הזה olam hazzeh , this world, this latter clause may especially refer to the Gentiles, who were most manifestly under the power of the devil, as almost every object of their worship was a demon, to whom the worst of passions and practices were attributed, and whose conduct his votaries took care to copy

Satan is termed prince of the power of the air, because the air is supposed to be a region in which malicious spirits dwell, all of whom are under the direction and influence of Satan, their chief

Clarke: Eph 2:2 - The spirit that now worketh The spirit that now worketh - Του νυν ενεργουντος The operations of the prince of the aerial powers are not confined to that regi...

The spirit that now worketh - Του νυν ενεργουντος The operations of the prince of the aerial powers are not confined to that region; he has another sphere of action, viz. the wicked heart of man, and in this he works with energy. He seldom inspires indifference to religion; the subjects in whom he works are either determinate opposers of true religion, or they are systematic and energetic transgressors of God’ s laws

Clarke: Eph 2:2 - Children of disobedience Children of disobedience - Perhaps a Hebraism for disobedient children; but, taken as it stands here, it is a strong expression, in which disobedien...

Children of disobedience - Perhaps a Hebraism for disobedient children; but, taken as it stands here, it is a strong expression, in which disobedience, ἡ απειθεια, appears to be personified, and wicked men exhibited as her children; the prince of the power of the air being their father, while disobedience is their mother. Thus they are emphatically, what our Lord calls them, Mat 13:38, children of the wicked one; for they show themselves to be of their father the devil, because they will do his works, Joh 8:44. Some think that by children of disobedience the apostle means particularly the disobedient, unbelieving, refractory, and persecuting Jews; but I rather think he speaks this generally, and refers to the Jews in the following verse.

Clarke: Eph 2:3 - Among whom also we all had our conversation Among whom also we all had our conversation - We Jews, as well as you Gentiles, have lived in transgressions and sins; ανεστραφημεν, th...

Among whom also we all had our conversation - We Jews, as well as you Gentiles, have lived in transgressions and sins; ανεστραφημεν, this was the course of our life; we lived in sin, walked in sin, it was woven through our whole constitution, it tinged every temper, polluted every faculty, and perverted every transaction of life. The lusts - the evil, irregular, and corrupt affections of the heart, showed themselves in the perversion of the mind as well as in our general conduct. The mind was darkened by the lusts of the flesh, and both conjoined to produce acts of unrighteousness. It was not the will of God that was done by us, but the will of the flesh and of the mind

Clarke: Eph 2:3 - And were by nature the children of wrath And were by nature the children of wrath - For the import of the phrase, by nature, φυσει, see the note on Gal 2:15, and Rom 2:14 (note). To w...

And were by nature the children of wrath - For the import of the phrase, by nature, φυσει, see the note on Gal 2:15, and Rom 2:14 (note). To what is said on those passages, I may add, from Dr. Macknight: - "Nature often signifies one’ s birth and education, Gal 2:15 : We, who are Jews By Nature. Also, men’ s natural reason and conscience, Rom 2:14 : The Gentiles who have not the law, do By Nature the things contained in the law, etc. Also, the general sense and practice of mankind, 1Co 11:14 : Doth not even Nature itself teach you, that if a man have long hair, etc. Also, the original constitution of any thing, Gal 4:8 : Who are not gods By Nature, Also, a disposition formed by custom and habit; thus Demetrius Phalereus said of the Lacedemonians: φυσει εβραχυλογουν Λακωνες· The Lacedemonians had naturally a concise mode of speaking. Hence our word laconic; a short speech, or much sense conveyed in a few words."The words in the text have often been quoted to prove the doctrine of original sin, but, though that doctrine be an awful truth, it is not, in my opinion, intended here; it is rather found in the preceding words, the lusts of the flesh, and the desires of the flesh and of the mind. The apostle appears to speak of sinful habits; and as we say Habit is a second nature, and as these persons acted from their originally corrupt nature - from the lusts of the flesh and of the mind, they thus became, by their vicious habits, or second nature, children of wrath - persons exposed to perdition, because of the impurity of their hearts and the wickedness of their lives. Here we see that the fallen, apostate nature produces the fruits of unrighteousness. The bad tree produces bad fruit

Children of wrath is the same as son of perdition, son of death, etc.; i.e. persons exposed to God’ s displeasure, because of their sins.

Clarke: Eph 2:4 - But God, who is rich in mercy But God, who is rich in mercy - As they were corrupt in their nature, and sinful in their practice, they could possess no merit, nor have any claim ...

But God, who is rich in mercy - As they were corrupt in their nature, and sinful in their practice, they could possess no merit, nor have any claim upon God; and it required much mercy to remove so much misery, and to pardon such transgressions

Clarke: Eph 2:4 - His great love His great love - God’ s infinite love is the groundwork of our salvation; in reference to us that love assumes the form of mercy, and that merc...

His great love - God’ s infinite love is the groundwork of our salvation; in reference to us that love assumes the form of mercy, and that mercy provides the Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ. And therefore the apostle adds, Eph 2:5 : By grace ye are saved - it is by God’ s free mercy in Christ that ye are brought into this state of salvation. See on Eph 2:8 (note).

Clarke: Eph 2:5 - Even when we were dead in sins Even when we were dead in sins - Dead in our souls; dead towards God; dead in law; and exposed to death eternal

Even when we were dead in sins - Dead in our souls; dead towards God; dead in law; and exposed to death eternal

Clarke: Eph 2:5 - Hath quickened us together with Christ Hath quickened us together with Christ - God has given us as complete a resurrection from the death of sin to a life of righteousness, as the body o...

Hath quickened us together with Christ - God has given us as complete a resurrection from the death of sin to a life of righteousness, as the body of Christ has had from the grave. And as this quickening, or making alive, was most gratuitous on God’ s part, the apostle, with great propriety, says; By grace ye are saved.

Clarke: Eph 2:6 - And hath raised us up together in Christ And hath raised us up together in Christ - Or rather, by Christ; his resurrection being the proof that he had made the full atonement, and that we m...

And hath raised us up together in Christ - Or rather, by Christ; his resurrection being the proof that he had made the full atonement, and that we might be justified by his blood. Believing, therefore, the record which God gave of his Son, we received this atonement, and were raised from a death of sin to a life of righteousness; and now we sit in heavenly places - we have a right to the kingdom of God, anticipate this glory, and are indescribably happy in the possession of this salvation, and in our fellowship with Christ Jesus.

Clarke: Eph 2:7 - That in the ages to come That in the ages to come - God has produced us an example, and one which shall be on record through all generations, that he quickens dead souls; th...

That in the ages to come - God has produced us an example, and one which shall be on record through all generations, that he quickens dead souls; that he forgives the sins of the most sinful, when they repent and believe in Christ Jesus. So that what God has done for the sinners at Ephesus will serve as an encouragement to all ages of the world; and on this evidence every preacher of the Gospel may boldly proclaim that Christ saves unto the uttermost all that come unto God through him. And thus the exceeding riches of his grace will appear in the provision he has made for the salvation of both Jews and Gentiles

This observation of the apostle is of great use and importance; because we are authorized to state, in all the successive ages of the world, that he who saved the sinners at Ephesus is ever ready to save all who, like them, repent of their sins, and believe in Christ Jesus.

Clarke: Eph 2:8 - For by grace are ye saved, through faith For by grace are ye saved, through faith - As ye are now brought into a state of salvation, your sins being all blotted out, and you made partakers ...

For by grace are ye saved, through faith - As ye are now brought into a state of salvation, your sins being all blotted out, and you made partakers of the Holy Spirit; and, having a hope full of immortality, you must not attribute this to any works or merit of yours; for when this Gospel reached you, you were all found dead in trespasses and dead in sins; therefore it was God’ s free mercy to you, manifested through Christ, in whom ye were commanded to believe; and, having believed by the power of the Holy Spirit, ye received, and were sealed by, the Holy Spirit of promise; so that this salvation is in no sense of yourselves, but is the free gift of God; and not of any kind of works; so that no man can boast as having wrought out his own salvation, or even contributed any thing towards it. By grace arc ye saved, through faith in Christ. This is a true doctrine, and continues to be essential to the salvation of man to the end of the world

But whether are we to understand, faith or salvation as being the gift of God? This question is answered by the Greek text: τῃ γαρ χαριτι εστε σεσωσμενοι δια της πιστεως· και τουτο ουκ εξ ὑμων· Θεου το δωρον, ουκ εξ εργων· ἱνα μη τις καυχησηται· "By this grace ye are saved through faith; and This ( τουτο, this salvation) not of you; it is the gift of God, not of works: so that no one can boast.""The relative τουτο, this, which is in the neuter gender, cannot stand for πιστις, faith, which is the feminine; but it has the whole sentence that goes before for its antecedent."But it may be asked: Is not faith the gift of God? Yes, as to the grace by which it is produced; but the grace or power to believe, and the act of believing, are two different things. Without the grace or power to believe no man ever did or can believe; but with that power the act of faith is a man’ s own. God never believes for any man, no more than he repents for him: the penitent, through this grace enabling him, believes for himself: nor does he believe necessarily, or impulsively when he has that power; the power to believe may be present long before it is exercised, else, why the solemn warnings with which we meet every where in the word of God, and threatenings against those who do not believe? Is not this a proof that such persons have the power but do not use it? They believe not, and therefore are not established. This, therefore, is the true state of the case: God gives the power, man uses the power thus given, and brings glory to God: without the power no man can believe; with it, any man may.

Clarke: Eph 2:10 - For we are his workmanship For we are his workmanship - So far is this salvation from being our own work, or granted for our own works’ sake, that we are ourselves not o...

For we are his workmanship - So far is this salvation from being our own work, or granted for our own works’ sake, that we are ourselves not only the creatures of God, but our new creation was produced by his power; for we are created in Christ Jesus unto good works. He has saved us that we may show forth the virtues of Him who called us from darkness into his marvelous light. For though we are not saved for our good works, yet we are saved that we may perform good works, to the glory of God and the benefit of man

Clarke: Eph 2:10 - Which God hath before ordained Which God hath before ordained - Οἱς προητοιμασες· For which God before prepared us, that we might walk in them. For being saved...

Which God hath before ordained - Οἱς προητοιμασες· For which God before prepared us, that we might walk in them. For being saved from sin we are made partakers of the Spirit of holiness; and it is natural to that Spirit to lead to the practice of holiness; and he who is not holy in his life is not saved by the grace of Christ. The before ordaining, or rather preparing, must refer to the time when God began the new creation in their hearts; for from the first inspiration of God upon the soul it begins to love holiness; and obedience to the will of God is the very element in which a holy or regenerated soul lives.

Clarke: Eph 2:11 - Wherefore remember Wherefore remember - That ye may ever see and feel your obligations to live a pure and holy life, and be unfeignedly thankful to God for your salvat...

Wherefore remember - That ye may ever see and feel your obligations to live a pure and holy life, and be unfeignedly thankful to God for your salvation, remember that ye were once heathens in the flesh - without the pure doctrine, and under the influence of your corrupt nature; such as by the Jew’ s (who gloried, in consequence of their circumcision, to be in covenant with God) were called uncircumcision; i.e. persons out of the Divine covenant, and having no right or title to any blessing of God.

Clarke: Eph 2:12 - That at that time ye were without Christ That at that time ye were without Christ - Not only were not Christians, but had no knowledge of the Christ or Messiah, and no title to the blessing...

That at that time ye were without Christ - Not only were not Christians, but had no knowledge of the Christ or Messiah, and no title to the blessings which were to proceed from him

Clarke: Eph 2:12 - Aliens from the commonwealth of Israel Aliens from the commonwealth of Israel - Ye were by your birth, idolatry, etc., alienated from the commonwealth of Israel - from the civil and relig...

Aliens from the commonwealth of Israel - Ye were by your birth, idolatry, etc., alienated from the commonwealth of Israel - from the civil and religious privileges of the Jewish people

Clarke: Eph 2:12 - Strangers from the covenants of promise Strangers from the covenants of promise - Having no part in the promise of the covenant made with Abraham, whether considered as relating to his nat...

Strangers from the covenants of promise - Having no part in the promise of the covenant made with Abraham, whether considered as relating to his natural or spiritual seed; and no part in that of the covenant made at Horeb with the Israelites, when a holy law was given them, and God condescended to dwell among them, and to lead them to the promised land

Clarke: Eph 2:12 - Having no hope Having no hope - Either of the pardon of sin or of the resurrection of the body, nor indeed of the immortality of the soul. Of all these things the ...

Having no hope - Either of the pardon of sin or of the resurrection of the body, nor indeed of the immortality of the soul. Of all these things the Gentiles had no rational or well-grounded hope

Clarke: Eph 2:12 - Without God in the world Without God in the world - They had gods many, and lords many; but in no Gentile nation was the true God known: nor indeed had they any correct noti...

Without God in the world - They had gods many, and lords many; but in no Gentile nation was the true God known: nor indeed had they any correct notion of the Divine nature. Their idols were by nature no gods - they could neither do evil nor good, and therefore they were properly without God, having no true object of worship, and no source of comfort. He who has neither God nor Christ is in a most deplorable state; he has neither a God to worship, nor a Christ to justify him. And this is the state of every man who is living without the grace and Spirit of Christ. All such, whatever they may profess, are no better than practical atheists.

Clarke: Eph 2:13 - Ye who sometimes were far off Ye who sometimes were far off - To be far off, and to be near, are sayings much in use among the Jews; and among them, to be near signifies 1. ...

Ye who sometimes were far off - To be far off, and to be near, are sayings much in use among the Jews; and among them, to be near signifies

1.    To be in the approbation or favor of God; and to be far off signifies to be under his displeasure. So a wicked Jew might be said to be far off from God when he was exposed to his displeasure; and a holy man, or a genuine penitent, might be said to be nigh to God, because such persons are in his favor

2.    Every person who offered a sacrifice to God was considered as having access to him by the blood of that sacrifice: hence the priests, whose office it was to offer sacrifices, were considered as being nigh to God; and all who brought gifts to the altar were considered as approaching the Almighty

3.    Being far off, signified the state of the Gentiles as contradistinguished from the Jews, who were nigh. And these expressions were used in reference to the tabernacle, God’ s dwelling-place among the Israelites, and the sacrifices there offered. All those who had access to this tabernacle, or were nigh to it or encamped about it, were said to be nigh to God; those who had no access to it were said to be far off

Hence the latter phrase is used to distinguish the Gentiles from the Jewish people; and this appears to be the meaning of the prophet, Isa 57:19 : I create the fruit of the lips; Peace, peace to him that is far off, and to him that is near, saith the Lord; i.e. I give cause of praise and rejoicing to the Gentile as well as to the Jew. And to this scripture, and to this thing, the apostle seems here to allude. You Gentiles, who were unacquainted with God, and were even without God in the world, are brought to an acquaintance with him; and are now, through Christ Jesus, brought into the favor and fellowship of God. And as the Jews of old approached God by the blood of their sacrifices, so you approach him by the blood of Christ.

Clarke: Eph 2:14 - For he is our peace For he is our peace - Jesus Christ has died for both Jews and Gentiles, and has become a peace-offering, שלום shalom , to reconcile both to God...

For he is our peace - Jesus Christ has died for both Jews and Gentiles, and has become a peace-offering, שלום shalom , to reconcile both to God and to each other

Clarke: Eph 2:14 - Who hath made both one Who hath made both one - Formed one Church out of the believers of both people

Who hath made both one - Formed one Church out of the believers of both people

Clarke: Eph 2:14 - The middle wall of partition The middle wall of partition - By abolishing the law of Jewish ordinances, he has removed that which kept the two parties, not only in a state of se...

The middle wall of partition - By abolishing the law of Jewish ordinances, he has removed that which kept the two parties, not only in a state of separation, but also at variance

This expression, the middle wall, can refer only to that most marked distinction which the Jewish laws and customs made between them and all other nations whatsoever

Some think it refers to their ancient manner of living among the Gentiles, as they always endeavored to live in some place by themselves, and to have a river or a wall between them and their heathen neighbors. Indeed, wherever they went, their own rites, ordinances, and customs were a sufficient separation between them and others; and as Jesus Christ abolished those customs, admitting all into his Church, both Jews and Gentiles, by repentance and faith, he may be said to have broken down the middle wall of partition. When, at the death of Christ, the veil of the temple was rent from the top to the bottom, it was an emblem that the way to the holiest was laid open, and that the people at large, both Jews and Gentiles, were to have access to the holiest by the blood of Jesus

Some think there is an allusion here to the wall called chel, which separated the court of Israel from the court of the Gentiles; but this was not broken down till the temple itself was destroyed: and to this transaction the apostle cannot be supposed to allude, as it did not take place till long after the writing of this epistle.

Clarke: Eph 2:15 - Having abolished in his flesh Having abolished in his flesh - By his incarnation and death he not only made an atonement for sin, but he appointed the doctrine of reconciliation ...

Having abolished in his flesh - By his incarnation and death he not only made an atonement for sin, but he appointed the doctrine of reconciliation to God, and of love to each other, to be preached in all nations; and thus glory was brought to God in the highest, and on earth, peace and good will were diffused among men

The enmity of which the apostle speaks was reciprocal among the Jews and Gentiles. The former detested the Gentiles, and could hardly allow them the denomination of men; the latter had the Jews in the most sovereign contempt, because of the peculiarity of their religious rites and ceremonies, which were different from those of all the other nations of the earth

Clarke: Eph 2:15 - The law of commandments The law of commandments - Contained in, or rather concerning, ordinances; which law was made merely for the purpose of keeping the Jews a distinct p...

The law of commandments - Contained in, or rather concerning, ordinances; which law was made merely for the purpose of keeping the Jews a distinct people, and pointing out the Son of God till he should come. When, therefore, the end of its institution was answered, it was no longer necessary; and Christ by his death abolished it

Clarke: Eph 2:15 - To make in himself To make in himself - To make one Church out of both people, which should be considered the body of which Jesus Christ is the head. Thus he makes one...

To make in himself - To make one Church out of both people, which should be considered the body of which Jesus Christ is the head. Thus he makes one new man - one new Church; and thus he makes and establishes peace. I think the apostle still alludes to the peace-offering, שלום shalom , among the Jews. They have a saying, Sephra, fol. 121: Whosoever offers a peace-offering sacrifice, brings peace to the world. Such a peace-offering was the death of Christ, and by it peace is restored to the earth.

Clarke: Eph 2:16 - That he might reconcile both - in one body That he might reconcile both - in one body - That the Jews and Gentiles, believing on the Lord Jesus, might lay aside all their causes of contention...

That he might reconcile both - in one body - That the Jews and Gentiles, believing on the Lord Jesus, might lay aside all their causes of contention, and become one spiritual body, or society of men, influenced by the Spirit, and acting according to the precepts of the Gospel

Clarke: Eph 2:16 - Having slain the enmity thereby Having slain the enmity thereby - Having, by his death upon the cross, made reconciliation between God and man, and by his Spirit in their hearts re...

Having slain the enmity thereby - Having, by his death upon the cross, made reconciliation between God and man, and by his Spirit in their hearts removed the enmity of their fallen, sinful nature. Dr. Macknight thinks that abolishing the enmity is spoken of the removal of the hatred which the Jews and Gentiles mutually bore to each other, because of the difference of their respective religious worship; and that slaying the enmity refers to the removal of evil lusts and affections from the heart of man, by the power of Divine grace. This is nearly the sense given above.

Clarke: Eph 2:17 - And came and preached peace And came and preached peace - Proclaimed the readiness of God to forgive and save both Jews and Gentiles. See the note on Eph 2:13.

And came and preached peace - Proclaimed the readiness of God to forgive and save both Jews and Gentiles. See the note on Eph 2:13.

Clarke: Eph 2:18 - For through him For through him - Christ Jesus, we both - Jews and Gentiles, have access by one Spirit - through the influence of the Holy Ghost, unto the Father - ...

For through him - Christ Jesus, we both - Jews and Gentiles, have access by one Spirit - through the influence of the Holy Ghost, unto the Father - God Almighty. This text is a plain proof of the holy Trinity. Jews and Gentiles are to be presented unto God the Father; the Spirit of God works in their hearts, and prepares them for this presentation; and Jesus Christ himself introduces them. No soul can have access to God but by Jesus Christ, and he introduces none but such as receive his Holy Spirit. All who receive that Spirit are equally dear to him; and, whatever their names be among men, they are known in heaven as children of God, and heirs of eternal glory.

Clarke: Eph 2:19 - Ye are no more strangers Ye are no more strangers - In this chapter the Church of God is compared to a city, which, has a variety of privileges, rights, etc., founded on reg...

Ye are no more strangers - In this chapter the Church of God is compared to a city, which, has a variety of privileges, rights, etc., founded on regular charters and grants. The Gentiles, having believed in Christ, are all incorporated with the believing Jews in this holy city. Formerly, when any of them came to Jerusalem, being ξενοι, strangers, they had no kind of rights whatever; nor could they, as mere heathens, settle among them. Again, if any of them, convinced of the errors of the Gentiles, acknowledged the God of Israel, but did not receive circumcision, he might dwell in the land, but he had no right to the blessings of the covenant; such might be called παροικοι, sojourners - persons who have no property in the land, and may only rent a house for the time being

Clarke: Eph 2:19 - Fellow citizens with the saints Fellow citizens with the saints - Called to the enjoyment of equal privileges with the Jews themselves, who, by profession, were a holy people; who ...

Fellow citizens with the saints - Called to the enjoyment of equal privileges with the Jews themselves, who, by profession, were a holy people; who were bound to be holy, and therefore are often called saints, or holy persons, when both their hearts and conduct were far from being right in the sight of God. But the saints spoken of here are the converted or Christianized Jews

Clarke: Eph 2:19 - Of the household of God Of the household of God - The house of God is the temple; the temple was a type of the Christian Church; this is now become God’ s house; all g...

Of the household of God - The house of God is the temple; the temple was a type of the Christian Church; this is now become God’ s house; all genuine believers are considered as being οικειοι, domestics, of this house, the children and servants of God Almighty, having all equal rights, privileges, and advantages; as all, through one Spirit, by the sacred head of the family, had equal access to God, and each might receive as much grace and as much glory as his soul could possibly contain.

Clarke: Eph 2:20 - And are built upon the foundation And are built upon the foundation - Following the same metaphor, comparing the Church of Christ to a city, and to the temple, the believing Ephesian...

And are built upon the foundation - Following the same metaphor, comparing the Church of Christ to a city, and to the temple, the believing Ephesians are represented as parts of that building; the living stones out of which it is principally formed, 1Pe 2:4, 1Pe 2:5, having for foundation - the ground plan, specification, and principle on which it was builded, the doctrine taught by the prophets in the Old Testament, and the apostles in the New. Jesus Christ being that corner stone, or ακρογωνιαιος, the chief angle or foundation corner stone, the connecting medium by which both Jews and Gentiles were united in the same building. Elsewhere Jesus Christ is termed the foundation stone. Behold I lay in Zion a foundation stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, Isa 28:16; but the meaning is the same in all the places where these terms, foundation and corner stone, occur; for in laying the foundation of a building, a large stone is generally placed at one of the angles or corners, which serves to form a part of the two walls which meet in that angle. When, therefore, the apostle says that Jesus Christ is the chief corner stone, it means such a foundation stone as that above mentioned.

Clarke: Eph 2:21 - In whom In whom - By which foundation corner stone, Christ Jesus, all the building, composed of converted Jews and Gentiles, fitly framed together, συν...

In whom - By which foundation corner stone, Christ Jesus, all the building, composed of converted Jews and Gentiles, fitly framed together, συναρμολογουμενη, properly jointed and connected together, groweth unto a holy temple - is continually increasing, as new converts from Judaism or heathenism flock into it. It is not a finished building, but will continue to increase, and be more and more perfect, till the day of judgment.

Clarke: Eph 2:22 - In whom ye also are builded In whom ye also are builded - The apostle now applies the metaphor to the purpose for which he produced it, retaining however some of the figurative...

In whom ye also are builded - The apostle now applies the metaphor to the purpose for which he produced it, retaining however some of the figurative expressions. As the stones in a temple are all properly placed so as to form a complete house, and be a habitation for the Deity that is worshipped there, so ye are all, both believing Jews and Gentiles, prepared by the doctrine of the prophets and apostles, under the influence of the Spirit of Christ, to become a habitation of God, a Church in which God shall be worthily worshipped, and in which he can continually dwell

1.    Many suppose that the apostle in the preceding chapter alludes to the splendor of the temple of Diana at Ephesus, which was reputed one of the wonders of the world. But to me this opinion does not seem sufficiently founded. I believe he has the Jewish temple continually in view; for that temple, above all in the universe, could alone be said to be a habitation of God. Both in the tabernacle and temple God dwelt between the cherubim; there was the symbol of his presence, and there was the worship performed which himself had prescribed. After the model of this was the spiritual temple, the Christian Church, constructed; and God was to dwell in the one, as he had dwelt in the other. This simile, drawn from the temple at Jerusalem, was alone worthy of the apostle’ s design; to have alluded to the temple of Diana would have disgraced his subject. And as many at Ephesus were Jews, and well acquainted with the temple at Jerusalem, they would both feel and venerate the apostle’ s simile, and be led to look for the indwelling of God; that which distinguished the Jewish temple from all others on the face of the earth

2.    The Church of God is very properly said to be a most noble and wonderful work, and truly worthy of God himself

There is nothing, says one, so august as this Church, seeing it is the temple of God

Nothing so worthy of reverence, seeing God dwells in it

Nothing so ancient, since the patriarchs and prophets labored in building it

Nothing so solid, since Jesus Christ is the foundation of it

Nothing more closely united and indivisible, since he is the corner stone

Nothing so lofty, since it reaches as high as heaven, and to the bosom of God himself

Nothing so regular and well proportioned, since the Holy Spirit is the architect

Nothing more beautiful, or adorned with greater variety, since it consists of Jews and Gentiles, of every age, country, sex, and condition: the mightiest potentates, the most renowned lawgivers, the most profound philosophers, the most eminent scholars, besides all those of whom the world was not worthy, have formed a part of this building

Nothing more spacious, since it is spread over the whole earth, and takes in all who have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb

Nothing so inviolable, since it is consecrated to Jehovah

Nothing so Divine, since it is a living building, animated and inhabited by the Holy Ghost

Nothing so beneficent, seeing it gives shelter to the poor, the wretched, and distressed, of every nation, and kindred, and tongue

    It is the place in which God does his marvelous works; the theater of his justice, mercy, goodness, and truth; where he is to be sought, where he is to be found, and in which alone he is to he retained

    As we have one only God, and one only Savior and Mediator between God and man, and one only inspiring Spirit; so there is but one Church, in which this ineffable Jehovah performs his work of salvation. That Church, however scattered and divided throughout the world, is but one building, founded on the Old and New Testaments; having but one sacrifice, the Lord Jesus, the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world

3.    Of this glorious Church every Christian soul is an epitome; for as God dwells in the Church at large, so he dwells in every believer in particular: each is a habitation of God through the Spirit. In vain are all pretensions among sects and parties to the privileges of the Church of Christ, if they have not the doctrine and life of Christ. Traditions and legends are not apostolic doctrines, and showy ceremonies are not the life of God in the soul of man

4.    Religion has no need of human ornaments or trappings; it shines by its own light, and is refulgent with its own glory. Where it is not in life and power, men have endeavored to produce a specious image, dressed and ornamented with their own hands. Into this God never breathed, therefore it can do no good to man, and only imposes on the ignorant and credulous by a vain show of lifeless pomp and splendor. This phantom, called true religion and the Church by its votaries, is in heaven denominated vain superstition; the speechless symbol of departed piety.

Calvin: Eph 2:1 - And you who were dead 1.And you who were dead This is anἐπεξεργασία of the former statements, that is, an exposition accompanied by an illustration. 118 To b...

1.And you who were dead This is anἐπεξεργασία of the former statements, that is, an exposition accompanied by an illustration. 118 To bring home more effectually to the Ephesians the general doctrine of Divine grace, he reminds them of their former condition. This application consists of two parts. “Ye were formerly lost; but now God, by his grace, has rescued you from destruction.” And here we must observe, that, in laboring to give an impressive view of both of these parts, the apostle makes a break in the style by (ὑπερβατὸν) a transposition. There is some perplexity in the language; but, if we attend carefully to what the apostle says about those two parts, the meaning is clear. As to the first, he says that they were dead; and states, at the same time, the cause of the death — trespasses and sins. 119 He does not mean simply that they were in danger of death; but he declares that it was a real and present death under which they labored. As spiritual death is nothing else than the alienation of the soul from God, we are all born as dead men, and we live as dead men, until we are made partakers of the life of Christ, — agreeably to the words of our Lord,

“The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall live.” (Joh 5:25)

The Papists, who are eager to seize every opportunity of undervaluing the grace of God, say, that while we are out of Christ, we are half dead. But we are not at liberty to set aside the declarations of our Lord and of the Apostle Paul, that, while we remain in Adam, we are entirely devoid of life; and that regeneration is a new life of the soul, by which it rises from the dead. Some kind of life, I acknowledge, does remain in us, while we are still at a distance from Christ; for unbelief does not altogether destroy the outward senses, or the will, or the other faculties of the soul. But what has this to do with the kingdom of God? What has it to do with a happy life, so long as every sentiment of the mind, and every act of the will, is death? Let this, then, be held as a fixed principle, that the union of our soul with God is the true and only life; and that out of Christ we are altogether dead, because sin, the cause of death, reigns in us.

Calvin: Eph 2:2 - In which for some time ye walked // According to the prince of the power of the air 2.In which for some time ye walked From the effects or fruits, he draws a proof that sin formerly reigned in them; for, until sin displays itself in ...

2.In which for some time ye walked From the effects or fruits, he draws a proof that sin formerly reigned in them; for, until sin displays itself in outward acts, men are not sufficiently aware of its power. When he adds, according to the course of this world, 120 he intimates that the death which he had mentioned rages in the nature of man, and is a universal disease. He does not mean that course of the world which God has ordained, nor the elements, such as the heaven, and earth, and air, — but the depravity with which we are all infected; so that sin is not peculiar to a few, but pervades the whole world.

According to the prince of the power of the air He now proceeds farther, and explains the cause of our corruption to be the dominion which the devil exercises over us. A more severe condemnation of mankind could not have been pronounced. What does he leave to us, when he declares us to be the slaves of Satan, and subject to his will, so long as we live out of the kingdom of Christ? Our condition, therefore, though many treat it with ridicule, or, at least, with little disapprobation, may well excite our horror. Where is now the free-will, the guidance of reason, the moral virtue, about which Papists babble to much? What will they find that is pure or holy under the tyranny of the devil? On this subject, indeed, they are extremely cautious, and denounce this doctrine of Paul as a grievous heresy. I maintain, on the contrary, that there is no obscurity in the apostle’s language; and that all men who live according to the world, that is, according to the inclinations of their flesh, are here declared to fight under the reign of Satan.

In accordance with the practice of the inspired writers, the Devil is mentioned in the singular number. As the children of God have one head, so have the wicked; for each of the classes forms a distinct body. By assigning to him the dominion over all wicked beings, ungodliness is represented as an unbroken mass. As to his attributing to the devil power over the air, that will be considered when we come to the sixth chapter. At present, we shall merely advert to the strange absurdity of the Manicheans, in endeavoring to prove from this passage the existence of two principles, as if Satan could do anything without the Divine permission. Paul does not allow him the highest authority, which belongs to the will of God alone, but merely a tyranny which God permits him to exercise. What is Satan but God’s executioner to punish man’s ingratitude? This is implied in Paul’s language, when he represents the success of Satan as confined to unbelievers; for the children of God are thus exempted from his power. If this be true, it follows that Satan does nothing but under the control of a superior: and that he is not (αὐτοκράτωρ) an unlimited monarch.

We may now draw from it also this inference, that ungodly men have no excuse in being driven by Satan to commit all sorts of crimes. Whence comes it that they are subject to his tyranny, but because they are rebels against God? If none are the slaves of Satan, but those who have renounced the service, and refuse to yield to the authority, of God, let them blame themselves, for having so cruel a master.

By the children of disobedience, according to a Hebrew idiom, are meant obstinate persons. Unbelief is always accompanied by disobedience; so that it is the source — the mother of all stubbornness.

Calvin: Eph 2:3 - Among whom also we all had our conversation // Fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind // And were by nature 3.Among whom also we all had our conversation Lest it should be supposed that what he had now said was a slanderous reproach against the former chara...

3.Among whom also we all had our conversation Lest it should be supposed that what he had now said was a slanderous reproach against the former character of the Ephesians, or that Jewish pride had led him to treat the Gentiles as an inferior race, he associates himself and his countrymen along with them in the general accusation. This is not done in hypocrisy, but in a sincere ascription of glory to God. It may excite wonder, indeed, that he should speak of himself as having walked “in the lusts of the flesh,” while, on other occasions, he boasts that his life had been throughout irreproachable.

“Touching the righteousness which is in the law, blameless.” (Phi 3:6.)

And again,

“Ye are witnesses, and God also, how holily, and justly, and unblamably, we behaved ourselves among you that believe.”
(1Th 2:10)

I reply, the statement applies to all who have not been regenerated by the Spirit of Christ. However praiseworthy, in appearance, the life of some may be, because their lusts do not break out in the sight of men, there is nothing pure or holy which does not proceed from the fountain of all purity.

Fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind To fulfill these desires, is to live according to the guidance of our natural disposition and of our mind. The flesh means here the disposition, or, what is called, the inclination of the nature; and the next expression (τῶν διανοιῶν) means what proceeds from the mind. Now, the mind includes reason, such as it exists in men by nature; so that lusts do not refer exclusively to the lower appetites, or what is called the sensual part of man, but extend to the whole.

And were by nature 121 children of wrath. All men without exception, whether Jews or Gentiles, (Gal 2:15,) are here pronounced to be guilty, until they are redeemed by Christ; so that out of Christ there is no righteousness, no salvation, and, in short, no excellence. Children of wrath are those who are lost, and who deserve eternal death. Wrath means the judgment of God; so that the children of wrath are those who are condemned before God. Such, the apostle tells us, had been the Jews, — such had been all the excellent men that were now in the Church; and they were so by nature, that is, from their very commencement, and from their mother’s womb.

This is a remarkable passage, in opposition to the views of the Pelagians, and of all who deny original sin. What dwells naturally in all is certainly original; but Paul declares that we are all naturally liable to condemnation; therefore sin dwells naturally in us, for God does not condemn the innocent. Pelagians were wont to object, that sin spread from Adam to the whole human race, not by descent, but by imitation. But Paul affirms that we are born with sin, as serpents bring their venom from the womb. Others who think that it is not in reality sin, are not less at variance with Paul’s language; for where condemnation is, there must unquestionably be sin. It is not with blameless men, but with sin, that God is offended. Nor is it wonderful that the depravity which we inherit from our parents is reckoned as sin before God; for the seeds of sin, before they have been openly displayed, are perceived and condemned.

But one question here arises. Why does Paul represent the Jews, equally with others, as subject to wrath and curse, while they were the blessed seed? I answer, they have a common nature. Jews differ from Gentiles in nothing but this, that, through the grace of the promise, God delivers them from destruction; but that is a remedy which came after the disease. Another question is, since God is the Author of nature, how comes it that no blame attaches to God, if we are lost by nature? I answer, there is a twofold nature: the one was produced by God, and the other is the corruption of it. This condemnation therefore which Paul mentions does not proceed from God, but from a depraved nature: for we are not born such as Adam was at first created, we are not

“wholly a right seed, but are turned into the degenerate”
(Jer 2:21)

offspring of a degenerate and sinful man.

Calvin: Eph 2:4 - But God, who is rich in mercy 4.But God, who is rich in mercy 122 Now follows the second member of the sentence, the substance of which is, that God had delivered the Ephesians fr...

4.But God, who is rich in mercy 122 Now follows the second member of the sentence, the substance of which is, that God had delivered the Ephesians from the destruction to which they were formerly liable; but the words which he employs are different. God, who is rich in mercy, hath quickened you together with Christ. The meaning is, that, there is no other life than that which is breathed into us by Christ: so that we begin to live only when we are ingrafted into him, and enjoy the same life with himself. This enables us to see what the apostle formerly meant by death, for that death and this resurrection are brought into contrast. To be made partakers of the life of the Son of God, — to be quickened by one Spirit, is an inestimable privilege.

On this ground he praises the mercy of God, meaning by its riches, that it had been poured out in a singularly large and abundant manner. The whole of our salvation is here ascribed to the mercy of God. But he presently adds, for his great love wherewith he loved us. 123 This is a still more express declaration, that all was owing to undeserved goodness; for he declares that God was moved by this single consideration. “Herein,” says John, “is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us. — We love him because he first loved us.” (1Jo 4:10.)

Calvin: Eph 2:5 - Even when we were dead in sin 5.Even when we were dead in sin These words have the same emphasis as similar expressions in another Epistle. “For when we were yet without stren...

5.Even when we were dead in sin These words have the same emphasis as similar expressions in another Epistle.

“For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died, for the ungodly. — But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.”
(Rom 5:6.)

Whether the words, by grace ye are saved, have been inserted by another hand, I know not; but, as they are perfectly agreeable to the context, I am quite willing to receive them as written by Paul. They show us that he always feels as if he had not sufficiently proclaimed the riches of Divine grace, and accordingly expresses, by a variety of terms, the same truth, that everything connected with our salvation ought to be ascribed to God as its author. And certainly he who duly weighs the ingratitude of men will not complain that this parenthesis is superfluous.

Calvin: Eph 2:6 - And hath raised us up together 6.And hath raised us up together The resurrection and sitting in heaven, which are here mentioned, are not yet seen by mortal eyes. Yet, as if those ...

6.And hath raised us up together The resurrection and sitting in heaven, which are here mentioned, are not yet seen by mortal eyes. Yet, as if those blessings were presently in our possession, he states that we have received them; and illustrates the change which has taken place in our condition, when we were led from Adam to Christ. It is as if we had been brought from the deepest hell to heaven itself. And certainly, although, as respects ourselves, our salvation is still the object of hope, yet in Christ we already possess a blessed immortality and glory; and therefore, he adds, in Christ Jesus. Hitherto it does not appear in the members, but only in the head; yet, in consequence of the secret union, it belongs truly to the members. Some render it, through Christ; but, for the reason which has been mentioned, it is better to retain the usual rendering, in Christ. We are thus furnished with the richest consolation. Of everything which we now want, we have a sure pledge and foretaste in the person of Christ.

Calvin: Eph 2:7 - That in the ages to come // The riches of his grace in his kindness 7.That in the ages to come The final and true cause — the glory of God — is again mentioned, that the Ephesians, by making it the subject of earn...

7.That in the ages to come The final and true cause — the glory of God — is again mentioned, that the Ephesians, by making it the subject of earnest study, might be more fully assured of their salvation. He likewise adds, that it was the design of God to hallow, in all ages, the remembrance of so great goodness. This exhibits still more strongly the hateful character of those by whom the free calling of the Gentiles was attacked; for they were endeavoring instantly to crush that scheme which was destined to be remembered through all ages. But we, too, are instructed by it, that the mercy of God, who was pleased to admit our fathers into the number of his own people, deserves to be held in everlasting remembrance. The calling of the Gentiles is an astonishing work of divine goodness, which ought to be handed down by parents to children, and to their children’s children, that it may never be forgotten or unacknowledged by the sons of men.

The riches of his grace in his kindness The love of God to us in Christ is here proved, or again declared, to have had its origin in mercy. That he might shew, says he, the exceeding riches of his grace. How? In his kindness towards us, as the tree is known by its fruit. Not only, therefore, does he declare, that the love of God was free, but likewise that God displayed in it the riches, — the extraordinary pre-eminent riches of his grace. It deserves notice, also, that the name of Christ is repeated; for no grace, no love, must be expected by us from God, except through his mediation.

Calvin: Eph 2:8 - For by grace are ye saved 8.For by grace are ye saved This is an inference from the former statements. Having treated of election and of effectual calling, he arrives at this ...

8.For by grace are ye saved This is an inference from the former statements. Having treated of election and of effectual calling, he arrives at this general conclusion, that they had obtained salvation by faith alone. First, he asserts, that the salvation of the Ephesians was entirely the work, the gracious work of God. But then they had obtained this grace by faith. On one side, we must look at God; and, on the other, at man. God declares, that he owes us nothing; so that salvation is not a reward or recompense, but unmixed grace. The next question is, in what way do men receive that salvation which is offered to them by the hand of God? The answer is, by faith; and hence he concludes that nothing connected with it is our own. If, on the part of God, it is grace alone, and if we bring nothing but faith, which strips us of all commendation, it follows that salvation does not come from us.

Ought we not then to be silent about free-will, and good intentions, and fancied preparations, and merits, and satisfactions? There is none of these which does not claim a share of praise in the salvation of men; so that the praise of grace would not, as Paul shews, remain undiminished. When, on the part of man, the act of receiving salvation is made to consist in faith alone, all other means, on which men are accustomed to rely, are discarded. Faith, then, brings a man empty to God, that he may be filled with the blessings of Christ. And so he adds, not of yourselves; that claiming nothing for themselves, they may acknowledge God alone as the author of their salvation.

Calvin: Eph 2:9 - Not of works 9.Not of works Instead of what he had said, that their salvation is of grace, he now affirms, that “it is the gift of God.” 124 Instead of what h...

9.Not of works Instead of what he had said, that their salvation is of grace, he now affirms, that “it is the gift of God.” 124 Instead of what he had said, Not of yourselves, he now says, Not of works. Hence we see, that the apostle leaves nothing to men in procuring salvation. In these three phrases, — not of yourselves, it is the gift of God, not of works, — he embraces the substance of his long argument in the Epistles to the Romans and to the Galatians, that righteousness comes to us from the mercy of God alone, — is offered to us in Christ by the gospel, — and is received by faith alone, without the merit of works.

This passage affords an easy refutation of the idle cavil by which Papists attempt to evade the argument, that we are justified without works. Paul, they tell us, is speaking about ceremonies. But the present question is not confined to one class of works. Nothing can be more clear than this. The whole righteousness of man, which consists in works, — nay, the whole man, and everything that he can call his own, is set aside. We must attend to the contrast between God and man, — between grace and works. Why should God be contrasted with man, if the controversy related to nothing more than ceremonies?

Papists themselves are compelled to own that Paul ascribes to the grace of God the whole glory of our salvation, but endeavor to do away with this admission by another contrivance. This mode of expression, they tell us, is employed, because God bestows the first grace. It is really foolish to imagine that they can succeed in this way, since Paul excludes man and his utmost ability, — not only from the commencement, but throughout, — from the whole work of obtaining salvation.

But it is still more absurd to overlook the apostle’s inference, lest any man should boast. Some room must always remain for man’s boasting, so long as, independently of grace, merits are of any avail. Paul’s doctrine is overthrown, unless the whole praise is rendered to God alone and to his mercy. And here we must advert to a very common error in the interpretation of this passage. Many persons restrict the word gift to faith alone. But Paul is only repeating in other words the former sentiment. His meaning is, not that faith is the gift of God, but that salvation is given to us by God, or, that we obtain it by the gift of God.

Calvin: Eph 2:10 - For we are his work // Created to good works // Which God hath prepared 10.For we are his work By setting aside the contrary supposition, he proves his statement, that by grace we are saved, — that we have no remainin...

10.For we are his work By setting aside the contrary supposition, he proves his statement, that by grace we are saved, — that we have no remaining works by which we can merit salvation; for all the good works which we possess are the fruit of regeneration. Hence it follows, that works themselves are a part of grace.

When he says, that “we are the work of God,” this does not refer to ordinary creation, by which we are made men. We are declared to be new creatures, because, not by our own power, but by the Spirit of Christ, we have been formed to righteousness. This applies to none but believers. As the descendants of Adam, they were wicked and depraved; but by the grace of Christ, they are spiritually renewed, and become new men. Everything in us, therefore, that is good, is the supernatural gift of God. The context explains his meaning. We are his work, because we have been created, — not in Adam, but in Christ Jesus, — not to every kind of life, but to good works.

What remains now for free-will, if all the good works which proceed from us are acknowledged to have been the gifts of the Spirit of God? Let godly readers weigh carefully the apostle’s words. He does not say that we are assisted by God. He does not say that the will is prepared, and is then left to run by its own strength. He does not say that the power of choosing aright is bestowed upon us, and that we are afterwards left to make our own choice. Such is the idle talk in which those persons who do their utmost to undervalue the grace of God are accustomed to indulge. But the apostle affirms that we are God’s work, and that everything good in us is his creation; by which he means that the whole man is formed by his hand to be good. It is not the mere power of choosing aright, or some indescribable kind of preparation, or even assistance, but the right will itself, which is his workmanship; otherwise Paul’s argument would have no force. He means to prove that man does not in any way procure salvation for himself, but obtains it as a free gift from God. The proof is, that man is nothing but by divine grace. Whoever, then, makes the very smallest claim for man, apart from the grace of God, allows him, to that extent, ability to procure salvation.

Created to good works They err widely from Paul’s intention, who torture this passage for the purpose of injuring the righteousness of faith. Ashamed to affirm in plain terms, and aware that they could gain nothing by affirming, that we are not justified by faith, they shelter themselves under this kind of subterfuge. “We are justified by faith, because faith, by which we receive the grace of God, is the commencement of righteousness; but we are made righteous by regeneration, because, being renewed by the Spirit of God, we walk in good works.” In this manner they make faith the door by which we enter into righteousness, but imagine that we obtain it by our works, or, at least, they define righteousness to be that uprightness by which a man is formed anew to a holy life. I care not how old this error may be; but they err egregiously who endeavor to support it by this passage.

We must look to Paul’s design. He intends to shew that we have brought nothing to God, by which he might be laid under obligations to us; and he shews that even the good works which we perform have come from God. Hence it follows, that we are nothing, except through the pure exercise of his kindness. Those men, on the other hand, infer that the half of our justification arises from works. But what has this to do with Paul’s intention, or with the subject which he handles? It is one thing to inquire in what righteousness consists, and another thing to follow up the doctrine, that it is not from ourselves, by this argument, that we have no right to claim good works as our own, but have been formed by the Spirit of God, through the grace of Christ, to all that is good. When Paul lays down the cause of justification, he dwells chiefly on this point, that our consciences will never enjoy peace till they rely on the propitiation for sins. Nothing of this sort is even alluded to in the present instance. His whole object is to prove, that,

“by the grace of God, we are all that we are.”
(1Co 15:10)

Which God hath prepared Beware of applying this, as the Pelagians do, to the instruction of the law; as if Paul’s meaning were, that God commands what is just, and lays down a proper rule of life. Instead of this, he follows up the doctrine which he had begun to illustrate, that salvation does not proceed from ourselves. He says, that, before we were born, the good works were prepared by God; meaning, that in our own strength we are not able to lead a holy life, but only so far as we are formed and adapted by the hand of God. Now, if the grace of God came before our performances, all ground of boasting has been taken away. Let us carefully observe the word prepared. On the simple ground of the order of events, Paul rests the proof that, with respect to good works, God owes us nothing. How so? Because they were drawn out of his treasures, in which they had long before been laid up; for whom he called, them he justifies and regenerates.

Calvin: Eph 2:11 - Wherefore remember // Gentiles in the flesh 11.Wherefore remember The apostle never once loses sight of his subject, marks it out clearly, and pursues it with increasing earnestness. He again e...

11.Wherefore remember The apostle never once loses sight of his subject, marks it out clearly, and pursues it with increasing earnestness. He again exhorts the Ephesians to remember what their character had been before they were called. This consideration was fitted to convince them that they had no reason to be proud. He afterwards points out the method of reconciliation, that they might rest with perfect satisfaction on Christ alone, and not imagine that other aids were necessary. The first clause may be thus summed up: “Remember that, when ye were uncircumcised, ye were aliens from Christ, from the hope of salvation, and from the Church and kingdom of God; so that ye had no friendly intercourse with God.” The second may run thus: “But now ingrafted into Christ, ye are at the same time reconciled to God.” What is implied in both parts of the description, and what effect the remembrance of it was fitted to produce on their minds, has been already considered.

Gentiles in the flesh. He first mentions that they had wanted the marks of God’s people. Circumcision was a token by which the people of God were marked out and distinguished from other men: Uncircumcision was the mark of a profane person. Since, therefore, God usually connects his grace with the sacraments, their want of the sacraments is taken as an evidence that neither were they partakers of his grace. The argument, indeed, does not hold universally, though it does hold as to God’s ordinary dispensations. Hence we find the following language:

“And the Lord God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever: therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. So he drove out the man.”
(Gen 3:22)

Though he had devoured the whole tree, he would not, by merely eating it, have recovered the possession of life; but, by taking away the sign, the Lord took from him also life itself. Uncircumcision is thus held out to the Ephesians as a mark of pollution. By taking from the Ephesians the token of sanctification, he deprives them also of the thing signified.

Some are of opinion, that all these observations are intended to throw contempt on outward circumcision; but this is a mistake. At the same time, I acknowledge, that the qualifying clause, the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands, points out a twofold circumcision. The Jews were thus taught that they should no longer indulge in foolish boasting about the literal circumcision. The Ephesians, on the other hand, were instructed to abstain from all scruples on their own account, since the most important privilege—nay, the whole truth expressed by the outward sign—was in their possession. He calls it, Uncircumcision in the flesh, because they bore the mark of their pollution; but, at the same time, he suggests that their uncircumcision was no hinderance to their being spiritually circumcised by Christ.

The words may likewise be read in one clause, Circumcision in the flesh made by hands, or in two clauses: Circumcision in the flesh, meaning that it was carnal; made by hands, meaning that it was done by the hand of man. This kind of circumcision is contrasted with that of the Spirit, or of the heart, (Rom 2:29,) which is also called the circumcision of Christ. (Col 2:11)

===By that which is called. === Circumcision may be viewed here either as a collective noun for the Jews themselves, or literally for the thing itself; and then the meaning would be, that the Gentiles were called Uncircumcision, because they wanted the sacred symbol, that is, by way of distinction. This latter sense is countenanced by the qualifying phrase; but the substance of the argument is little affected.

Calvin: Eph 2:12 - That at that time ye were without Christ // And without God in the world 12.That at that time ye were without Christ He now declares that the Ephesians had been excluded, not only from the outward badge, but from everythin...

12.That at that time ye were without Christ He now declares that the Ephesians had been excluded, not only from the outward badge, but from everything necessary to the salvation and happiness of men. As Christ is the foundation of hope and of all the promises, he mentions, first of all, that they were without Christ. But for him that is without Christ, there remains nothing but destruction. On Him the commonwealth of Israel was founded; and in whom, but in Himself, could the people of God be collected into one holy society?

A similar observation might be made as to the tables of the promise On one great promise made to Abraham all the others hang, and without it they lose all their value:

“In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed.”
(Gen 22:18.)

Hence our apostle says elsewhere,

“All the promises of God in him are yea, and in him Amen.”
(2Co 1:20.)

Take away the covenant of salvation, and there remains no hope. I have translatedτῶν διαθηκῶν by the tables, or, in ordinary legal phrase, the instruments. By solemn ritual did God sanction His covenant with Abraham and his posterity, that he would be their God for ever and ever. (Gen 15:9.) Tables of this covenant were ratified by the hand of Moses, and intrusted, as a peculiar treasure, to the people of Israel, to whom, and not to the Gentiles, “pertain the covenants.” (Rom 9:4.)

And without God in the world But at no period were the Ephesians, or any other Gentiles, destitute of all religion. Why, then, are they styled (ἄθεοι) Atheists? for (ἄθεος) an Atheist, strictly speaking, is one who does not believe, and who absolutely ridicules, the being of a God. That appellation, certainly, is not usually given to superstitious persons, but to those who have no feeling of religion, and who desire to see it utterly destroyed. I answer, Paul was right in giving them this name, for he treated all the notions entertained respecting false gods as nothing; and with the utmost propriety do godly persons regard all idols as “nothing in the world.” (1Co 8:4.) Those who do not worship the true God, whatever may be the variety of their worship, or the multitude of laborious ceremonies which they perform, are without God: they adore what they know not. (Act 17:23.) Let it be carefully observed, that the Ephesians are not charged with (ἀθεϊσμὸς) Atheism, in the same degree as Diagoras, and others of the same stamp, who were subjected to that reproach. Persons who imagined themselves to be very religious are charged with that crime; for an idol is a forgery, an imposition, not a Divinity.

From what has been said, the conclusion will be easily drawn, that out of Christ there are none but idols. Those who were formerly declared to be without Christ, are now declared to be without God; 125 as John says,

“Whosoever hath not the Son, hath not the Father,”
(1Jo 2:23;)

and again,

“Whosoever transgresseth, and abideth not in the doctrine of Christ, hath not God.”
(2Jo 1:9.)

Let us know, therefore, that all who do not keep this way wander from the true God. We shall next be asked, Did God never reveal himself to any of the Gentiles? I answer, no manifestation of God without Christ was ever made among the Gentiles, any more than among the Jews. It is not to one age only, or to one nation, that the saying of our Lord applies,

“I am the way;” for he adds, “no man cometh
unto the Father but by me.” (Joh 14:6.)

Calvin: Eph 2:13 - But now in Christ Jesus 13.But now in Christ Jesus We must either supply the verb, now that ye have been received in Christ Jesus, or connect the word now with the concl...

13.But now in Christ Jesus We must either supply the verb, now that ye have been received in Christ Jesus, or connect the word now with the conclusion of the verse, now through the blood of Christ, — which will be a still clearer exposition. In either case, the meaning is, that the Ephesians, who were far off from God and from salvation, had been reconciled to God through Christ, and made nigh by his blood; for the blood of Christ has taken away the enmity which existed between them and God, and from being enemies hath made them sons.

Calvin: Eph 2:14 - For he is our peace // Who hath made both one // And breaking down the middle wall of partition 14.For he is our peace He now includes Jews in the privilege of reconciliation, and shows that, through one Messiah, all are united to God. This cons...

14.For he is our peace He now includes Jews in the privilege of reconciliation, and shows that, through one Messiah, all are united to God. This consideration was fitted to repress the false confidence of the Jews, who, despising the grace of Christ, boasted that they were the holy people, and chosen inheritance, of God. If Christ is our peace, all who are out of him must be at variance with God. What a beautiful title is this which Christ possesses, — the peace between God and men! Let no one who dwells in Christ entertain a doubt that he is reconciled to God.

Who hath made both one This distinction was necessary. 126 All intercourse with the Gentiles was held to be inconsistent with their own superior claims. 127 To subdue this pride, he tells them that they and the Gentiles have been united into one body. Put all these things together, and you will frame the following syllogism: If the Jews wish to enjoy peace with God, they must have Christ as their Mediator. But Christ will not be their peace in any other way than by making them one body with the Gentiles. Therefore, unless the Jews admit the Gentiles to fellowship with them, they have no friendship with God.

And breaking down the middle wall of partition To understand this passage, two things must be observed. The Jews were separated, for a certain time, from the Gentiles, by the appointment of God; and ceremonial observances were the open and avowed symbols of that separation. Passing by the Gentiles, God had chosen the Jews to be a peculiar people to himself. A wide distinction was thus made, when the one class were “fellow-citizens and of the household” (Eph 2:19) of the Church, and the other were foreigners. This is stated in the Song of Moses:

“When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel: for the Lord’s portion is his people, Jacob is the lot of his inheritance.” (Deu 32:8)

Bounds were thus fixed by God to separate one people from the rest; and hence arose the enmity which is here mentioned. A separation is thus made. The Gentiles are set aside. God is pleased to choose and sanctify the Jewish people, by freeing them from the ordinary pollution of mankind. Ceremonial observances were afterwards added, which, like walls, enclosed the inheritance of God, prevented it from being open to all or mixed with other possessions, and thus excluded the Gentiles from the kingdom of God.

But now, the apostle, says, the enmity is removed, and the wall is broken down. By extending the privilege of adoption beyond the limits of Judea, Christ has now made us all to be brethren. And so is fulfilled the prophecy,

“God shall enlarge Japheth,
and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem.” (Gen 9:27)

Calvin: Eph 2:15 - Having abolished in his flesh the enmity // Even the law of commandments contained in ordinances // That he might make in himself 15.Having abolished in his flesh the enmity The meaning of Paul’s words is now clear. The middle wall of partition hindered Christ from forming J...

15.Having abolished in his flesh the enmity The meaning of Paul’s words is now clear. The middle wall of partition hindered Christ from forming Jews and Gentiles into one body, and therefore the wall has been broken down. The reason why it is broken down is now added — to abolish the enmity, by the flesh of Christ. The Son of God, by assuming a nature common to all, has formed in his own body a perfect unity.

Even the law of commandments contained in ordinances What had been metaphorically understood by the word wall is now more plainly expressed. The ceremonies, by which the distinction was declared, have been abolished through Christ. What were circumcision, sacrifices, washings, and abstaining from certain kinds of food, but symbols of sanctification, reminding the Jews that their lot was different from that of other nations; just as the white and the red cross distinguish the French of the present day from the inhabitants of Burgundy. Paul declares not only that the Gentiles are equally with the Jews admitted to the fellowship of grace, so that they no longer differ from each other, but that the mark of difference has been taken away; for ceremonies have been abolished. If two contending nations were brought under the dominion of one prince, he would not only desire that they should live in harmony, but would remove the badges and marks of their former enmity. When an obligation is discharged, the handwriting is destroyed, — a metaphor which Paul employs on this very subject in another Epistle. 128 (Col 2:14.)

Some interpreters, 129 — though, in my opinion, erroneously, — connect the words, in ordinances, with abolished, making the ordinances to be the act of abolishing the ceremonies. This is Paul’s ordinary phrase for describing the ceremonial law, in which the Lord not only enjoined upon the Jews a simple rule of life, but also bound them by various statutes. It is evident, too, that Paul is here treating exclusively of the ceremonial law; for the moral law is not a wall of partition separating us from the Jews, but lays down instructions in which the Jews were not less deeply concerned than ourselves. This passage affords the means of refuting an erroneous view held by some, that circumcision and all the ancient rites, though they are not binding on the Gentiles, are in force at the present day upon the Jews. On this principle there would still be a middle wall of partition between us, which is proved to be false.

That he might make in himself. When the apostle says, in himself, he turns away the Ephesians from viewing the diversity of men, and bids them look for unity nowhere but in Christ. To whatever extent the two might differ in their former condition, in Christ they are become one man. But he emphatically adds, one new man, intimating (what he explains at greater length on another occasion) that

“neither circumcision, nor uncircumcision, availeth anything,” (Gal 6:15,)

but that “a new creature” holds the first and the last place. The principle which cements them is spiritual regeneration. If then we are all renewed by Christ, let the Jews no longer congratulate themselves on their ancient condition, but let them be ready to admit that, both in themselves and in others, Christ is all.

Calvin: Eph 2:16 - And that he might reconcile both // By the cross 16.And that he might reconcile both The reconciliation between ourselves which has now been described is not the only advantage which we derive from ...

16.And that he might reconcile both The reconciliation between ourselves which has now been described is not the only advantage which we derive from Christ. We have been brought back into favor with God. The Jews are thus led to consider that they have not less need of a Mediator than the Gentiles. Without this, neither the Law, nor ceremonies, nor their descent from Abraham, nor all their dazzling prerogatives, would be of any avail. We are all sinners; and forgiveness of sins cannot be obtained but through the grace of Christ. He adds, in one body, to inform the Jews, that to cultivate union with the Gentiles will be well-pleasing in the sight of God.

By the cross The word cross is added, to point out the propitiatory sacrifice. Sin is the cause of enmity between God and us; and, until it is removed, we shall not be restored to the Divine favor. It has been blotted out by the death of Christ, in which he offered himself to the Father as an expiatory victim. There is another reason, indeed, why the cross is mentioned here, as it is through the cross that all ceremonies have been abolished. Accordingly, he adds, slaying the enmity thereby. These words, which unquestionably relate to the cross, may admit of two senses, — either that Christ, by his death, has turned away from us the Father’s anger, or that, having redeemed both Jews and Gentiles, he has brought them back into one flock. The latter appears to be the more probable interpretation, as it agrees with a former clause, abolishing in his flesh the enmity. (Eph 2:15.)

Calvin: Eph 2:17 - And came and preached peace // And preached peace; 17.And came and preached peace All that Christ had done towards effecting a reconciliation would have been of no service, if it had not been proclaim...

17.And came and preached peace All that Christ had done towards effecting a reconciliation would have been of no service, if it had not been proclaimed by the gospel; and therefore he adds, that the fruit of this peace has now been offered both to Jews and to Gentiles. Hence it follows, that to save Gentiles as well as Jews was the design of our Savior’s coming, as the preaching of the gospel, which is addressed indiscriminately to both, makes abundantly manifest. The same order is followed in the second Epistle to the Corinthians.

“He hath committed to us the word of reconciliation. Now, then, we are ambassadors for Christ. For he hath made him to be sin for us who knew no sin.” (2Co 5:18.)

Salvation through the death of Christ is first announced, and a description is afterwards given of the manner in which Christ communicates to us himself and the benefit of his death. But here Paul dwells chiefly on this circumstance, that Gentiles are united with Jews in the Kingdom of God. Having already represented Christ as a Savior common to both, he now speaks of them as companions in the gospel. The Jews, though they possessed the law, needed the gospel also; and God had bestowed upon the Gentiles equal grace. Those therefore whom

“God hath joined together, let no man put asunder.”
(Mat 19:6.)

No reference to distance of place is conveyed by the words afar off and nigh. The Jews, in respect of the covenant, were nigh to God. The Gentiles, so long as they had no promise of salvation, were afar off — were banished from the kingdom of God.

And preached peace; not indeed by his own lips, but by the apostles. It was necessary that Christ should rise from the dead, before the Gentiles were called to the fellowship of grace. Hence that saying of our Lord,

“I am not sent but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”
(Mat 15:24.)

The apostles were forbidden, while he was still in the world, to carry their first embassy to the Gentiles.

“Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans, enter ye not. But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.” (Mat 10:5,)

His apostles were afterwards employed as trumpets for proclaiming the gospel to the Gentiles. What they did, not only in his name, and by his command, but as it were in his own person, is justly ascribed to none other than himself. We too speak as if Christ himself exhorted you by us. (2Co 5:20) The faith of the gospel would be weak indeed, were we to look no higher than to men. Its whole authority is derived from viewing men as God’s instruments, and hearing Christ speak to us by their mouth. Observe here, the gospel is the message of peace, by which God declares himself to be reconciled to us, and makes known his paternal love. Take away the gospel, and war and enmity continue to subsist between God and men; and, on the other hand, the native tendency of the gospel is, to give peace and calmness to the conscience, which would otherwise be tormented by distressing alarm.

Calvin: Eph 2:18 - For through him we both have access 18.For through him we both have access This is an argument from the fact, that we are permitted to draw near to God. But it may be viewed also as an ...

18.For through him we both have access This is an argument from the fact, that we are permitted to draw near to God. But it may be viewed also as an announcement of peace; for wicked men, lulled into a profound sleep, sometimes deceive themselves by false notions of peace, but are never at rest, except when they have learned to forget the Divine judgment, and to keep themselves at the greatest possible distance from God. It was necessary, therefore, to explain the true nature of evangelical peace, which is widely different from a stupefied conscience, from false confidence, from proud boasting, from ignorance of our own wretchedness. It is a settled composure, which leads us not to dread, but to desire and seek, the face of God. Now, it is Christ who opens the door to us, yea, who is himself the door. (Joh 10:9.) As this is a double door thrown open for the admission both of Jews and Gentiles, we are led to view God as exhibiting to both his fatherly kindness. He adds, by one Spirit; who leads and guides us to Christ, and “by whom we cry, Abba, Father,” (Rom 8:15,) for hence arises the boldness of approach. Jews had various means of drawing near to God; now all have but one way, to be led by the Spirit of God.

Calvin: Eph 2:19 - Now therefore ye are no more strangers 19.Now therefore ye are no more strangers The Ephesians are now exclusively addressed. They were formerly strangers from the covenants of promise, ...

19.Now therefore ye are no more strangers The Ephesians are now exclusively addressed. They were formerly strangers from the covenants of promise, but their condition was now changed. They were foreigners, but God had made them citizens of his church. The high value of that honor which God had been pleased to bestow upon them, is expressed in a variety of language. They are first called fellow-citizens with the saints, — next, of the household of God, — and lastly, stones properly fitted into the building of the temple of the Lord. The first appellation is taken from the comparison of the church to a state, which occurs very frequently in Scripture. Those who were formerly profane, and utterly unworthy to associate with godly persons, have been raised to distinguished honor in being admitted to be members of the same community with Abraham, — with all the holy patriarchs, and prophets, and kings, — nay, with the angels themselves. To be of the household of God, which is the second comparison, suggests equally exalted views of their present condition. God has admitted them into his own family; for the church is God’s house.

Calvin: Eph 2:20 - And are built // Foundation, // Jesus Christ, himself is the chief corner-stone 20.And are built. The third comparison illustrates the manner in which the Ephesians, and all other Christians are admitted to the honor of being fe...

20.And are built. The third comparison illustrates the manner in which the Ephesians, and all other Christians are admitted to the honor of being fellow-citizens with the saints and of the household of God. They are built on the foundation, — they are founded on the doctrine, of the apostles and prophets. We are thus enabled to distinguish between a true and a false church. This is of the greatest importance; for the tendency to error is always strong, and the consequences of mistake are dangerous in the extreme. No churches boast more loudly of the name than those which bear a false and empty title; as may be seen in our own times. To guard us against mistake, the mark of a true church is pointed out.

Foundation, in this passage, unquestionably means doctrine; for no mention is made of patriarchs or pious kings, but only of those who held the office of teachers, and whom God had appointed to superintend the edification of his church. It is laid down by Paul, that the faith of the church ought to be founded on this doctrine. What opinion, then, must we form of those who rest entirely on the contrivances of men, and yet accuse us of revolt, because we embrace the pure doctrine of God? But the manner in which it is founded deserves inquiry; for, in the strict sense of the term, Christ is the only foundation. He alone supports the whole church. He alone is the rule and standard of faith. But Christ is actually the foundation on which the church is built by the preaching of doctrine; and, on this account, the prophets and apostles are called builders. (1Co 3:10.) Nothing else, Paul tells us, was ever intended by the prophets and apostles, than to found a church on Christ.

We shall find this to be true, if we begin with Moses; for “Christ is the end of the law,” (Rom 10:4,) and the sum of the gospel. Let us remember, therefore, that if we wish to be reckoned among believers, we must place our reliance on no other: if we wish to make sure progress in the knowledge of the Scriptures, to him our whole attention must be directed. The same lesson is taught, when we consult the word of God as contained in the writings of the prophets and apostles. To shew us how we ought to combine them, their harmony is pointed out; for they have a common foundation, and labor jointly in building the temple of God. Though the apostles have become our teachers, the instruction of the prophets has not been rendered superfluous; but one and the same object is promoted by both.

I have been led to make this remark by the conduct of the Marcionites in ancient times, who expunged the word prophets from this passage; and by that of certain fanatics in the present day, who, following their footsteps, exclaim loudly that we have nothing to do with the law and the prophets, because the gospel has put an end to their authority. The Holy Spirit everywhere declares, that he has spoken to us by the mouth of the prophets, and demands that we shall listen to him in their writings. This is of no small consequence for maintaining the authority of our faith. All the servants of God, from first to last, are so perfectly agreed, that their harmony is in itself a clear demonstration that it is one God who speaks in them all. The commencement of our religion must be traced to the creation of the world. In vain do Papists, Mahometans, and other sects, boast of their antiquity, while they are mere counterfeits of the true, the pure religion.

Jesus Christ, himself is the chief corner-stone 130 Those who transfer this honor to Peter, and maintain that on him the church is founded, are so void of shame, as to attempt to justify their error by quoting this passage. They hold out that Christ is called the chief corner-stone, by comparison with others; and that there are many stones on which the church is founded. But this difficulty is easily solved. Various metaphors are employed by the apostles according to the diversity of circumstances, but still with the same meaning. In writing to the Corinthians, Paul lays down an incontestable proposition, that “no other foundation can be laid.” (1Co 3:11.) He does not therefore mean, that Christ is merely a corner, or a part of the foundation; for then he would contradict himself. What then? He means that Jews and Gentiles were two separate walls, but are formed into one spiritual building. Christ is placed in the middle of the corner for the purpose of uniting both, and this is the force of the metaphor. What is immediately added shews sufficiently that he is very far from limiting Christ to any one part of the building.

Calvin: Eph 2:21 - In whom all the building groweth // Groweth unto an holy temple 21.In whom all the building groweth If this be true, what will become of Peter? When Paul, in writing to the Corinthians, speaks of Christ as a “Fo...

21.In whom all the building groweth If this be true, what will become of Peter? When Paul, in writing to the Corinthians, speaks of Christ as a “Foundation,” he does not mean that the church is begun by him and completed by others, but draws a distinction arising out of a comparison of his own labors with those of other men. It had been his duty to found the church at Corinth, and to leave to his successors the completion of the building.

“According to the grace of God which is given to me, as a wise master-builder, I have laid the foundation, and another buildeth on it.” (1Co 3:10.)

With respect to the present passage, he conveys the instruction, that all who are fitly framed together in Christ are the temple of the Lord. There is first required a fitting together, that believers may embrace and accommodate themselves to each other by mutual intercourse; otherwise there would not be a building, but a confused mass. The chief part of the symmetry consists in unity of faith. Next follows progress, or increase. Those who are not united in faith and love, so as to grow in the Lord, belong to a profane building, which has nothing in common with the temple of the Lord.

Groweth unto an holy temple Individual believers are at other times called “temples of the Holy Ghost,” (1Co 6:19; 2Co 6:16,) but here all are said to constitute one temple. In both cases the metaphor is just and appropriate. When God dwells in each of us, it is his will that we should embrace all in holy unity, and that thus he should form one temple out of many. Each person, when viewed separately, is a temple, but, when joined to others, becomes a stone of a temple; and this view is given for the sake of recommending the unity of the church.

Calvin: Eph 2:22 - In whom ye also are builded together, // Through the Spirit 22.In whom ye also are builded together, or in whom also Be Ye Builded together. The termination of the Greek verb, συνοικοδομεῖσθ...

22.In whom ye also are builded together, or in whom also Be Ye Builded together. The termination of the Greek verb, συνοικοδομεῖσθε, like that of the Latin, cooedificamini, does not enable us to determine whether it is in the imperative or indicative mood. The context will admit either, but I prefer the latter sense. It is, I think, an exhortation to the Ephesians to grow more and more in the faith of Christ, after having been once founded in it, and thus to form a part of that new temple of God, the building of which through the gospel was then in progress in every part of the world.

Through the Spirit This is again repeated for two reasons: first, to remind them that all human exertions are of no avail without the operation of the Spirit; and secondly, to point out the superiority of the spiritual building to all Jewish and outward services.

Defender: Eph 2:1 - And The connective "and" ties this statement to the previous verses. That is, as Christ was raised and exalted, so we also are spiritually raised in Chris...

The connective "and" ties this statement to the previous verses. That is, as Christ was raised and exalted, so we also are spiritually raised in Christ and given new life in Him.

Defender: Eph 2:1 - trespasses and sins Every man and every woman, regardless of wealth, education or family background, are sinners by nature and practice and therefore are spiritually dead...

Every man and every woman, regardless of wealth, education or family background, are sinners by nature and practice and therefore are spiritually dead, facing God's future judgment."

Defender: Eph 2:2 - power of the air The "prince of the power of the air" is Satan, ruling a vast multitude of fallen angels, "spiritual wickedness in high places" that is, 'heavenly plac...

The "prince of the power of the air" is Satan, ruling a vast multitude of fallen angels, "spiritual wickedness in high places" that is, 'heavenly places', opposing God and His people (Eph 6:12)."

Defender: Eph 2:3 - conversation "Conversation" is an archaic English expression for "way of life." Note that "we all" are born to this self-centered life style and need desperately t...

"Conversation" is an archaic English expression for "way of life." Note that "we all" are born to this self-centered life style and need desperately to be saved and given a new nature.

Defender: Eph 2:3 - children of wrath In our natural state we are called both "children of disobedience" (Eph 2:2) and "children of wrath." We are also called "children of this world" (Luk...

In our natural state we are called both "children of disobedience" (Eph 2:2) and "children of wrath." We are also called "children of this world" (Luk 16:8) and even "children of the wicked one" (Mat 13:38) and "children of the devil" (1Jo 3:10). This is why Jesus told even such an outwardly righteous and religious man as Nicodemus: "Ye must be born again" (Joh 3:7). "Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God" (Joh 3:3)."

Defender: Eph 2:6 - together In Christ we all are "quickened" (Eph 2:5), "raised us up," and "made sit" together. These great truths are so certain to be accomplished that they ar...

In Christ we all are "quickened" (Eph 2:5), "raised us up," and "made sit" together. These great truths are so certain to be accomplished that they are expressed in the past tense."

Defender: Eph 2:8 - that This classic gospel verse stresses that even the faith through which we receive God's salvation is the free gift of God. We have nothing of which to b...

This classic gospel verse stresses that even the faith through which we receive God's salvation is the free gift of God. We have nothing of which to boast (Eph 2:9)."

Defender: Eph 2:10 - workmanship Poiema, here translated "workmanship," is translated "things that are made," these being the only two occurrences of this Greek word from which we get...

Poiema, here translated "workmanship," is translated "things that are made," these being the only two occurrences of this Greek word from which we get our English word "poem" (see note on Rom 1:20). Thus, both the created world and the redeemed world are great divine "poems" written by the Creator.

Defender: Eph 2:10 - created As a "new creature" (2Co 5:17), our new nature is specially "created" by God to live a life characterized by "good works" instead of by "the desires o...

As a "new creature" (2Co 5:17), our new nature is specially "created" by God to live a life characterized by "good works" instead of by "the desires of the flesh and of the mind" (Eph 2:3)."

Defender: Eph 2:12 - without God "Without God" is the Greek atheos (equivalent to "atheist"). This is the only place in the New Testament where this word is used."

"Without God" is the Greek atheos (equivalent to "atheist"). This is the only place in the New Testament where this word is used."

Defender: Eph 2:14 - our peace The Lord Jesus Christ Himself is "our peace." He is "The Prince of Peace" (Isa 9:6), "the God of peace" (Heb 13:20), "King of peace" (Heb 7:2), and "a...

The Lord Jesus Christ Himself is "our peace." He is "The Prince of Peace" (Isa 9:6), "the God of peace" (Heb 13:20), "King of peace" (Heb 7:2), and "author of ... peace" (1Co 14:33). In the context of this passage, He has provided through His blood (Eph 2:13) the means of making peace between Jew and Gentile, with both together as members of His own mystical body, the "new man" of Eph 2:15 and the "one body" of Eph 2:16. This great body is also the theme of such passages as Eph 1:22, Eph 1:23; 1Co 12:12, 1Co 12:13; and Col 3:10, Col 3:11."

Defender: Eph 2:17 - preached peace This "[preaching] of peace" - not only peace between Jew and Gentile but also individual peace with God through the forgiveness of sins - had long bee...

This "[preaching] of peace" - not only peace between Jew and Gentile but also individual peace with God through the forgiveness of sins - had long been in God's plan. The promised Messiah was "anointed" to "preach good tidings unto the meek" first among the Jews, but then also to "declare my glory among the Gentiles" (Isa 61:1; Isa 66:19). Jesus not only confirmed that He had come in fulfillment of this prophecy to "preach the gospel to the poor" (Luk 4:18) but also reminded the Jews that He had "other sheep" which were "not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold; and one shepherd" (Joh 10:16). Later He commissioned His disciples to "be witnesses unto me ... unto the uttermost part of the earth" (Act 1:8). Then, through Paul and others, He had been "preached unto the Gentiles" and "believed on in the world" (1Ti 3:16)."

Defender: Eph 2:18 - Father Note the activity of all three persons of the Godhead in reference both to salvation and prayer. We have access to the Father only through faith in th...

Note the activity of all three persons of the Godhead in reference both to salvation and prayer. We have access to the Father only through faith in the Son and by the implementing work of the Holy Spirit. Note also the work of the Trinity: in redemption and forgiveness (Heb 9:14); the presence of the Trinity in our baptismal testimony (Mat 28:19); in our experience of regeneration (Gal 4:6); in our assurance and fellowship (2Co 13:14); in witnessing (Joh 15:26); and in teaching (Joh 14:26)."

Defender: Eph 2:19 - household We are of "the household of faith" (Gal 6:10), and therefore of "the household of God" - members of His family, whether Jew or Gentile. Then, as Eph 2...

We are of "the household of faith" (Gal 6:10), and therefore of "the household of God" - members of His family, whether Jew or Gentile. Then, as Eph 2:20-22 goes on to reveal, this living household is also becoming a living house, and we shall "dwell in the house of the Lord for ever" (Psa 23:6)."

Defender: Eph 2:20 - foundation of the apostles The "foundation of the apostles and prophets," upon which the great house must be built, clearly refers to the Scriptures which were written under div...

The "foundation of the apostles and prophets," upon which the great house must be built, clearly refers to the Scriptures which were written under divine inspiration (Eph 3:3-5). The New Testament was given "by revelation" (Eph 3:3), "revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit" (Eph 3:5). This revelation was first preached verbally to the early churches but then amplified, expounded and codified in writing - writings which soon came to be recognized as the "canon," the measuring rule, of New Testament Scripture. Once this "foundation" was laid, when the Scriptures were finally completed through the last living apostle and prophet, then the superstructure of this "holy temple in the Lord" (Eph 2:21) could be erected, stone by stone, as we all are being "built together for an habitation of God through the Spirit" (Eph 2:22). It is especially important to remember that the foundation is already complete. Nothing further can be added to the inspired Scriptures. The last apostle, John, strongly emphasized this in his final words (Rev 22:18, Rev 22:19). Thus any later "prophets," professing to have some new revelation from God, are thereby branded "false prophets" (Mat 24:24).

Defender: Eph 2:20 - chief corner stone The Lord Jesus Christ is the chief corner stone around and upon which the foundation itself has been built. He as Son of God is also the "rock" upon w...

The Lord Jesus Christ is the chief corner stone around and upon which the foundation itself has been built. He as Son of God is also the "rock" upon which the church is built (Mat 16:18). Furthermore, "other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ" (1Co 3:11); He must be the foundation of each redeemed life. Note related Scriptures: Psa 118:22; Isa 28:16; Mat 7:24, Mat 7:25; 1Pe 2:3-8; and Rev 21:14-21."

TSK: Eph 2:1 - you // dead you : Eph 2:5, Eph 2:6, Eph 1:19, Eph 1:20; Joh 5:25, Joh 10:10, Joh 11:25, Joh 11:26, Joh 14:6; Rom 8:2; 1Co 15:45; Col 2:13, Col 3:1-4 dead : Eph 2:...

TSK: Eph 2:2 - in time // walked according // the prince // of the air // the spirit // the children in time : Eph 2:3, Eph 4:22; Job 31:7; Act 19:35; 1Co 6:11; Col 1:21, Col 3:7; 1Pe 4:3; 1Jo 5:19 walked according : Psa 17:14; Jer 23:10; Luk 16:8; Jo...

TSK: Eph 2:3 - we // in times // in the // fulfilling // desires // by // children // even we : Isa 53:6, Isa 64:6, Isa 64:7; Dan 9:5-9; Rom 3:9-19; 1Co 6:9-11; Gal 2:15, Gal 2:16, Gal 3:22; Tit 3:3; 1Pe 4:3; 1Jo 1:8-10 in times : Eph 4:17-1...

TSK: Eph 2:4 - who // his who : Eph 2:7, Eph 1:7, Eph 3:8; Exo 33:19, Exo 34:6, Exo 34:7; Neh 9:17; Psa 51:1, Psa 86:5, Psa 86:15, Psa 103:8-11; Psa 145:8; Isa 55:6-8; Dan 9:9;...

TSK: Eph 2:5 - dead // quickened // grace ye dead : Eph 2:1; Rom 5:6, Rom 5:8, Rom 5:10 quickened : Eph 2:1, Eph 5:14; Joh 5:21, Joh 6:63; Rom 8:2 grace ye : Gr. whose grace ye, Eph 2:8; Act 15:1...

TSK: Eph 2:6 - hath // sit // in hath : Eph 1:19, Eph 1:20; Rom 6:4, Rom 6:5; Col 1:18, Col 2:12, Col 2:13, Col 3:1-3 sit : Mat 26:29; Luk 12:37, Luk 22:29, Luk 22:30; Joh 12:26, Joh ...

TSK: Eph 2:7 - in the // show // in his in the : Eph 3:5, Eph 3:21; Psa 41:13, Psa 106:48; Isa 60:15; 1Ti 1:17 show : Eph 2:4; 2Th 1:12; 1Ti 1:16; 1Pe 1:12; Rev 5:9-14 in his : Tit 3:4

TSK: Eph 2:8 - by // through // that by : Eph 2:5; Rom 3:24; 2Th 1:9 through : Mar 16:16; Luk 7:50; Joh 3:14-18, Joh 3:36, Joh 5:24, Joh 6:27-29, Joh 6:35, Joh 6:40; Act 13:39; Act 15:7-9...

TSK: Eph 2:9 - -- Rom 3:20,Rom 3:27, Rom 3:28, Rom 4:2, Rom 9:11, Rom 9:16, Rom 11:6; 1Co 1:29-31; 2Ti 1:9; Tit 3:3-5

TSK: Eph 2:10 - we are // created // good // which // ordained // walk we are : Deu 32:6; Psa 100:3, Psa 138:8; Isa 19:25, Isa 29:23, Isa 43:21, Isa 44:21, Isa 60:21, Isa 61:3; Jer 31:33, Jer 32:39, Jer 32:40; Joh 3:3-6, ...

TSK: Eph 2:11 - remember // Gentiles // Uncircumcision // made remember : Eph 5:8; Deu 5:15, Deu 8:2, Deu 9:7, Deu 15:15, Deu 16:12; Isa 51:1, Isa 51:2; Eze 16:61-63, Eze 20:43; Eze 36:31; 1Co 6:11, 1Co 12:2; Gal ...

TSK: Eph 2:12 - without // aliens // the covenants // having // without without : Joh 10:16, Joh 15:5; Col 1:21 aliens : Eph 4:18; Ezr 4:3; Isa 61:5; Eze 13:9; Heb 11:34 the covenants : Gen 15:18, Gen 17:7-9; Exo 24:3-11; ...

TSK: Eph 2:13 - in // were // are in : Rom 8:1; 1Co 1:30; 2Co 5:17; Gal 3:28 were : Eph 2:12, Eph 2:17, Eph 2:19-22, Eph 3:5-8; Psa 22:7, Psa 73:27; Isa 11:10, Isa 24:15, Isa 24:16, Is...

TSK: Eph 2:14 - our // both // the middle our : Isa 9:6, Isa 9:7; Eze 34:24, Eze 34:25; Mic 5:5; Zec 6:13; Luk 1:79, Luk 2:14; Joh 16:33; Act 10:36; Rom 5:1; Col 1:20; Heb 7:2, Heb 13:20 both ...

TSK: Eph 2:15 - in his // the law // one in his : Col 1:22; Heb 10:19-22 the law : Gal 3:10; Col 2:14, Col 2:20; Heb 7:16, Heb 8:13, Heb 9:9, Heb 9:10,Heb 9:23, Heb 10:1-10 one : Eph 4:16; 2C...

TSK: Eph 2:16 - reconcile // having // thereby reconcile : Rom 5:10; 2Co 5:18-21; Col 1:21-22 having : Eph 2:15; Rom 6:6, Rom 8:3, Rom 8:7; Gal 2:20; Col 2:14; 1Pe 4:1, 1Pe 4:2 thereby : or, in him...

reconcile : Rom 5:10; 2Co 5:18-21; Col 1:21-22

having : Eph 2:15; Rom 6:6, Rom 8:3, Rom 8:7; Gal 2:20; Col 2:14; 1Pe 4:1, 1Pe 4:2

thereby : or, in himself

TSK: Eph 2:17 - and preached // that and preached : Psa 85:10; Isa 27:5, Isa 52:7, Isa 57:19-21; Zec 9:10; Mat 10:13; Luk 2:14; Luk 15:5, Luk 15:6; Act 2:39, Act 10:36; Rom 5:1; 2Co 5:20 ...

TSK: Eph 2:18 - through // by // the through : Eph 3:12; Joh 10:7, Joh 10:9, Joh 14:6; Rom 5:2; Heb 4:15, Heb 4:16, Heb 7:19, Heb 10:19, Heb 10:20; 1Pe 1:21; 1Pe 3:18; 1Jo 2:1, 1Jo 2:2 by...

TSK: Eph 2:19 - strangers // but // household strangers : Eph 2:12 but : Eph 3:6; Gal 3:26-28, Gal 4:26-31; Phi 3:20 *Gr: Heb 12:22-24; Rev 21:12-26 household : Eph 3:15; Mat 10:25; Gal 6:10; 1Jo ...

TSK: Eph 2:20 - built // the foundation // Jesus built : Eph 4:12; 1Pe 2:4, 1Pe 2:5 the foundation : Eph 4:11-13; Isa 28:16; Mat 16:18; 1Co 3:9-11, 1Co 12:28; Gal 2:9; Rev 21:14 Jesus : Psa 118:22; I...

TSK: Eph 2:21 - all // fitly // an all : Eph 4:13-16; Ezek. 40:1-42:20; 1Co 3:9; Heb 3:3, Heb 3:4 fitly : Exod. 26:1-37; 1Ki 6:7 an : Psa 93:5; Eze 42:12; 1Co 3:17; 2Co 6:16

all : Eph 4:13-16; Ezek. 40:1-42:20; 1Co 3:9; Heb 3:3, Heb 3:4

fitly : Exod. 26:1-37; 1Ki 6:7

an : Psa 93:5; Eze 42:12; 1Co 3:17; 2Co 6:16

TSK: Eph 2:22 - an an : Joh 14:17-23, Joh 17:21-23; Rom 8:9-11; 1Co 3:16, 1Co 6:19; 1Pe 2:4, 1Pe 2:5; 1Jo 3:24, 1Jo 4:13, 1Jo 4:16

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Poole: Eph 2:1 - And you hath he quickened // Who were dead // In trespasses and sins Eph 2:1-3 Paul setteth before the Ephesians their former corrupt heathen state, Eph 2:4-7 and God’ s rich mercy in their deliverance. Eph 2...

Eph 2:1-3 Paul setteth before the Ephesians their former

corrupt heathen state,

Eph 2:4-7 and God’ s rich mercy in their deliverance.

Eph 2:8-10 We are saved by grace, not of works, yet so as to be

created in Christ unto good works.

Eph 2:11-18 They who were once strangers, and far from God, are

now brought near by Christ’ s blood; who having

abolished the ritual law, the ground of distinction

between Jew and Gentile, hath united both in one

body, and gained them equal access to the Father.

Eph 2:19-22 So that the Gentiles are henceforth equally privileged

with the Jews, and together with them constitute a holy

temple for the habitation of God’ s Spirit.

And you hath he quickened his verb quickened is not in the Greek, but the defect of it may be supplied from Eph 1:19 , thus: The greatness of his power to us-ward, and to you that were dead in trespasses and sins; the remaining part of that chapter being included in a parenthesis, which, though long, yet is not unusual. Or rather, as our translators and others do, from Eph 2:5 of this chapter, where we have the word quickened. It imports a restoring of spiritual life by the infusion of a vital principle, (in the work of regeneration), whereby men are enabled to walk with God in newness of life.

Who were dead piritually, not naturally; i.e. destitute of a principle of spiritual life, and so of any ability for, or disposedness to, the operations and motions of such a life.

In trespasses and sins: he preposition in is wanting in the Greek by an ellipsis, but the expression is full, Col 2:13 ; this dative case therefore is to be taken in the sense of the ablative. By these words he means either all sorts of sins, habitual and actual, less or greater; or rather, promiscuously and indifferently, the same thing several ways. expressed. Sin is the cause of spiritual death; where sin reigns, there is a privation of spiritual life.

Poole: Eph 2:2 - Wherein in time past ye walked // According to the course of this world // according to the course // According to the prince // Of the power // Of the air // The spirit that now // Worketh in // The children of disobedience Wherein in time past ye walked conversed in a continual course of life. They were alive to sin, when dead in sin; or by sin dead to spiritual goo...

Wherein in time past ye walked conversed in a continual course of life. They were alive to sin, when dead in sin; or by sin dead to spiritual good.

According to the course of this world either according to the age of the world that then was, or men then in the world, or according to the custom and mode, the shape and fashion, of the world. The same word here translated course is rendered world, Rom 12:2 :

Be not conformed (configured or fashioned) to this world, i.e. to the ways and manners of it. So here,

according to the course is, according to the ways of men in the world, both in manners and religion.

According to the prince the devil, or, as Mat 12:24,26 , the prince of devils.

Of the power ; power for powers, as they are called, Eph 6:12 : those devils, or powers of darkness, are marshalled under him as their prince, who sets up a kingdom to himself in opposition to Christ.

Of the air that are in the air, this lower region, (by God’ s permission), that they may be ready and at hand to tempt men, and do mischief in the world. Or, that work so many effects in the air, raise storms and tempests, &c., as in the case of Job and his children.

The spirit that now even at this time, since the coming of the gospel, still continues to work.

Worketh in effectually works in; rules, and governs, and acts them, 2Ti 2:26 .

The children of disobedience by a Hebraism; they that are addicted to disobedience, i.e. obstinate sinners.

Poole: Eph 2:3 - Among whom also we all // Had our conversation // In the lusts of our flesh // Fulfilling the desires of the flesh // And of the mind // And were by nature // The children of wrath Among whom also we all we apostles and believers of the Jews. Either Paul by a coenosis reckons himself among them, though not guilty with them; or...

Among whom also we all we apostles and believers of the Jews. Either Paul by a coenosis reckons himself among them, though not guilty with them; or rather, though he were not an idolater as the Ephesians, yet he had been a blasphemer, and a persecutor, 1Ti 1:13 ; and though he were blameless as to the righteousness of the law, Phi 3:6 , yet that was only as to his outward conversation, and still he might fulfil the desires of a fleshly mind.

Had our conversation walked in the same way after the course of the world, &c.

In the lusts of our flesh : flesh is here taken more generally for depraved natures, the whole principle of corruption in man.

Fulfilling the desires of the flesh the inferior and sensitive faculties of the soul, as appears by the opposition of the flesh to the mind.

And of the mind the superior and rational powers, to denote the depravation of the whole man even in his best part, and which seems to have rectitude left in it: to the former belongs the filthiness of the flesh, to the latter that of the spirit, 2Co 7:1 : see Rom 8:7 Gal 5:19-21 .

And were by nature not merely by custom or imitation, but by nature as now constituted since the fall.

The children of wrath by a Hebraism, for obnoxious to wrath; as sons of death, 1Sa 26:16 , for worthy of or liable to death.

Poole: Eph 2:4 - Rich in mercy // For his great love // Wherewith he loved us Rich in mercy abundant. Riches of mercy here, as riches of grace, Eph 1:7 ; see Psa 51:1 86:5 . For his great love the fountain from whence his mer...

Rich in mercy abundant. Riches of mercy here, as riches of grace, Eph 1:7 ; see Psa 51:1 86:5 .

For his great love the fountain from whence his mercies vouchsafed to us proceed; riches of mercy from great love: God shows mercy to us miserable creatures in time, because he loved us from eternity, viz. with a love of good will.

Wherewith he loved us both Jews and Gentiles; there being the same original cause of the salvation of both.

Poole: Eph 2:5 - Hath quickened us // Together with Christ // (By grace are ye saved) Hath quickened us hath raised us up from the death of sin to the life of righteousness, not only in our justification, in which God frees us from our...

Hath quickened us hath raised us up from the death of sin to the life of righteousness, not only in our justification, in which God frees us from our obnoxiousness to eternal death, and gives us a right to eternal life, who before were dead in law, (though this may be included), but especially in our regeneration, by the infusion of a vital principle.

Together with Christ either:

1. God, in quickening Christ, hath also quickened us; Christ’ s quickening, or receiving his life after death, being not only the type and exemplar of our spiritual enlivening or regeneration, but the cause of it, inasmuch as we are quickened, as meritoriously by his death, so effectively by his life: Christ, as having died and risen again, exerciseth that power the Father gave him of quickening whom he will, Joh 5:21 . Or:

2. In Christ as our Head virtually, and by the power of his resurrection actually. Or:

3. By the same power whereby he raised up Christ from the dead, Eph 1:20 . See the like expression, Col 2:13 .

(By grace are ye saved) some read the words without a parenthesis, supplying by whose, and so refer them to Christ, quickened us together with Christ, by whose grace ye are saved but if the parenthesis stand, yet here seems to be a connection with the foregoing words, at least a reason of the apostle’ s bringing in these; for having mentioned God’ s great love, Eph 2:4 , as the cause of their spiritual enlivening here, which is the beginning of their salvation, he infers from thence that the whole of their salvation is of grace, i.e. alike free, and as much out of God’ s great love, as the beginning of it, viz. their quickening, is.

Poole: Eph 2:6 - And hath raised us up together // And made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus And hath raised us up together either this may be understood of a further degree of spiritual life in the progress of sanctification vouchsafed to be...

And hath raised us up together either this may be understood of a further degree of spiritual life in the progress of sanctification vouchsafed to believers in this world; or rather, of the resurrection of the body, which is said to be raised together with Christ, because it is to be raised by the same power that raised him up, and by virtue of his resurrection, in which we have fellowship with him, as being united to him.

And made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus as our Head, and representative. Our spiritual enlivening Eph 2:5we have not only fundamentally in Christ when restored to life, but actually begun in ourselves in our effectual calling; but the resurrection of our bodies, and our sitting in heaven, we have not as yet actually fulfilled in ourselves, yet have it in Christ our Head, who rose for us and we in him, and sits in heaven for us, and we in him may be said to sit there too, by reason of our union with him, and being members of him.

Poole: Eph 2:7 - That in the ages to come // He might show, &c // the exceeding riches of his grace // Through Christ Jesus That in the ages to come in all succeeding generations while the world continues. He might show, &c. as in an instance or specimen, 1Ti 1:16 : q.d....

That in the ages to come in all succeeding generations while the world continues.

He might show, &c. as in an instance or specimen, 1Ti 1:16 : q.d. God’ s kindness to us believers in this age, since Christ’ s coming, is such an instance of

the exceeding riches of his grace as may be an encouragement to future generations to embrace the same Christ in whom we have believed.

Through Christ Jesus by and through whom God conveys all saving benefits to us.

Poole: Eph 2:8 - For by grace // Objection // Answer // Through faith // And that not of yourselves // It is the gift of God // God For by grace the free favour of God, as Eph 2:5 , are ye, even ye Ephesians, Gentiles, who had not such promises made to you as the Jews had, Eph ...

For by grace the free favour of God, as Eph 2:5 , are ye, even ye Ephesians, Gentiles, who had not such promises made to you as the Jews had, Eph 2:12 ,

saved from first to last, from your calling, Eph 2:5 , to your glorification, Eph 2:6 .

Objection. How are believers said to be saved, when they are not yet glorified?

Answer.

1. Because Christ their Head is glorified.

2. Because their salvation, begun in their effectual calling, shall be as certainly accomplished in them as it is begun in them, and perfected in their Head, Christ.

Through faith by which ye lay hold on the grace offered you in the gospel. Faith is not considered here as a work done by us, but as an instrument or means applying the grace and salvation tendered to us.

And that not of yourselves not for your own worth, nor by your own strength.

It is the gift of God that ye are saved is the gift of God, and therefore free and purely by grace.

God is opposed to self: gift relates not merely to faith immediately preceding, but to the whole sentence.

Poole: Eph 2:9 - Not of works // Lest any man should boast Not of works any works whatever, and not only works of the ceremonial law: for if they only were excluded, the opposition between God and man, grace ...

Not of works any works whatever, and not only works of the ceremonial law: for if they only were excluded, the opposition between God and man, grace and works, were not right, which yet we find so often elsewhere; see Rom 11:6men might not be saved by works of the ceremonial law, and yet still be saved by works, and of themselves.

Lest any man should boast glory in their own works or worth, as men are apt to do when they think they have any thing of their own which contributes to their salvation see Rom 3:27 4:2 .

Poole: Eph 2:10 - For we // Created in Christ Jesus // Unto good works // Which God hath before ordained // That we should walk in them For we we believers, both Jews and Gentiles, are his workmanship; not only as men, but especially as saints, which is the proper meaning here. The Is...

For we we believers, both Jews and Gentiles, are his workmanship; not only as men, but especially as saints, which is the proper meaning here. The Israelitish people formerly were God’ s work, Deu 32:6 Isa 43:21 44:21 ; so are believers under the gospel, being new creatures, Gal 6:15 . The apostle confirms what he said before, that by grace we are saved, and not of works, in that we are God’ s workmanship, and are formed by him ere we can do any good work; and his forming us in our regeneration is a part of the salvation mentioned Eph 2:8 .

Created in Christ Jesus who, as our Head, enlivens us, as members united to him by faith. As the first creation was by Christ as the Second Person in the Trinity, Joh 1:3 , so the second creation is by the same Christ as Mediator, the Lord and Head of the new creation, in whom we live, and move, and have our new being, and not in ourselves, 2Co 5:17 .

Unto good works: as the immediate end for which we are new-created. We receive our new being that we may bring forth new works, and have a carriage suitable to our new principle.

Which God hath before ordained or rather, as the margin, prepared, i.e. prepared and fitted us for them, by enlightening our minds to know his will, disposing and inclining our wills, purging our affections, &c.

That we should walk in them i.e. that we should glorify God in a holy conversation, agreeable to that Divine nature, whereof we are made partakers in our new creation.

Poole: Eph 2:11 - In the flesh // Who are called Uncircumcision // By that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands In the flesh either: 1. Carnal, unregenerate, as Rom 8:8,9 . Or rather: 2. Uncircumcised in the flesh, as well as in heart, Eze 44:7 ; such as neit...

In the flesh either:

1. Carnal, unregenerate, as Rom 8:8,9 . Or rather:

2. Uncircumcised in the flesh, as well as in heart, Eze 44:7 ; such as neither had the grace signified, nor the sign representing it.

Who are called Uncircumcision by way of reproach; to be uncircumcised being the badge of them that were not Israelites, and so were not in the number of God’ s people.

By that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands i.e. by those that are circumcised; the abstract here, as in the former clause, being put for the concrete. He means the carnal Jews, who had the circumcision of the flesh which was made with hands, but not that of the heart, Rom 2:29 , made without hands, Col 2:11 .

Poole: Eph 2:12 - That at that time ye were without Christ // Being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel // And strangers from the covenants of promise // Having no hope // And without God // In the world That at that time ye were without Christ i.e. without knowledge of him, or interest in him. This is the foundation of all other miseries, as Christ i...

That at that time ye were without Christ i.e. without knowledge of him, or interest in him. This is the foundation of all other miseries, as Christ is the foundation of all saving good, and therefore the apostle begins with this.

Being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel the church of God, confined formerly to the Israelites: their church and state was the same body, and God the founder of and lawgiver to them in both respects.

And strangers from the covenants of promise those covenants in which the great promise of Christ and salvation by him was made. The covenants were several, as that with Abraham, and that by Moses, and differ in some accidents, but the promise in them was one and the same, which was the substance of each.

Having no hope viz. beyond this life; as they could not but be who were without Christ, and without the promises.

And without God not without some general knowledge of a God, but without any saving knowledge of him, as not knowing him in Christ: or they lived as without God, neglecting him, and being neglected by him, and suffered to walk in their own ways.

In the world which is the congregation of the wicked, and is here opposed to the church.

Poole: Eph 2:13 - But now in Christ Jesus // in Christ // Ye who sometimes were far off // And made nigh // By the blood of Christ But now in Christ Jesus either in the kingdom of Christ, or gospel administration, Gal 5:6 ; or, ye being in Christ, united to him by the Spirit and ...

But now in Christ Jesus either in the kingdom of Christ, or gospel administration, Gal 5:6 ; or, ye being in Christ, united to him by the Spirit and faith. Being

in Christ here, is opposed to being in the world, Eph 1:12 .

Ye who sometimes were far off far from God, from his church, from his promises, &c., having no communion with him by his Spirit. He means a spiritual distance, yet seems to allude to Isa 49:1,12 ; those Gentiles there mentioned being estranged from God in their hearts, as well as removed from his people in place.

And made nigh brought into a state of communion with God and his people, and participation of their privileges, and right to the promises.

By the blood of Christ the merit of his death expiating sin, (which caused this distance), and so making way for their approach to God, and enjoyment of gospel blessings.

Poole: Eph 2:14 - For he is our peace // our peace // Who hath made both one // And hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us For he is our peace i.e. Peace-maker, or Mediator of peace, both between God and man, and between Jew and Gentile. He is called our peace as elsewh...

For he is our peace i.e. Peace-maker, or Mediator of peace, both between God and man, and between Jew and Gentile. He is called

our peace as elsewhere our righteousness, redemption, salvation. God is said to reconcile us, 2Co 5:19 , but Christ only to be our peace.

Who hath made both one i.e. one body, or one people, or one new man, Eph 3:15 .

And hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us having taken away the ceremonial law, which was as a wall of separation between Jew and Gentile, as appears in the next verse. It seems to be an allusion to that wall of the temple which parted between the court of the people into which the Jews came, and the outmost court, that of the Gentiles, who, when they came to worship, might not come into the other court, and were excluded by this wall.

Poole: Eph 2:15 - Having abolished // In his flesh // The enmity // Even the law of commandments contained in ordinances // the law of commandments // ordinances // For to make // In himself // Of twain // One new man // So making peace Having abolished abrogated, taken away the power of binding men. In his flesh not the flesh of sacrificed beasts but his own flesh: before he menti...

Having abolished abrogated, taken away the power of binding men.

In his flesh not the flesh of sacrificed beasts but his own flesh: before he mentioned his blood, and now his flesh, to imply the whole sacrifice of Christ, comprehending his flesh as well as blood. The ceremonies had their accomplishment in Christ, and so their abolishment by him.

The enmity by a metonymy he so calls the ceremonies, which were the cause and the sign of enmity between Jew and Gentile: the Jews hated the Gentiles as uncircumcised, and the Gentiles despised the Jews for being circumcised.

Even the law of commandments contained in ordinances: either, by

the law of commandments the apostle means the law of ceremonial rites, and by the word which we render

ordinances he means doctrine, and then (the word contained not being in the Greek) the sense is, that Christ, by his doctrine or commandments, abolished those ceremonial rites: the word commandments seems thus to be used, Deu 16:12 1Ki 2:3 Eze 18:21 . Or else (which yet comes to the same) the word rendered ordinances signifies such ordinances as depended upon the sole will of the lawgiver; and is, Col 2:14 , taken for ceremonial ones, and so is to be taken here. This the apostle seems to add, to show what part of the law was abrogated by Christ, viz. nothing of the moral law, but only the ceremonial.

For to make or create, or form, in opposition to abolish.

In himself by union with himself, as the Head, in which the several members agree.

Of twain two bodies, or two people, Jews and Gentiles.

One new man i.e. new body, or new (viz. Christian) people. As the body of a commonwealth is one civil person, so the body of the church is in a like sense one person.

So making peace between Jew and Gentile, having taken away those ceremonial laws, which were the cause of the difference between them.

Poole: Eph 2:16 - And that he might reconcile both unto God // In one body // By the cross // Having slain the enmity thereby And that he might reconcile both unto God another end of Christ’ s abolishing the ceremonial law, viz. that he might reconcile both Jew and Gent...

And that he might reconcile both unto God another end of Christ’ s abolishing the ceremonial law, viz. that he might reconcile both Jew and Gentile (all the elect together) unto God: and in this respect especially he is our peace.

In one body either both people united as one mystical body, or rather this one body here, is the body of Christ offered up to God as the means of reconciliation, Col 1:22 .

By the cross i.e. by the sacrifice of himself upon the cross.

Having slain the enmity thereby the enmity between God and man, by the expiation of sin, the cause of it. Of this enmity the ceremonial law was a witness, Col 2:14 , as well as a sign of that between Jew and Gentile.

Poole: Eph 2:17 - And came // And preached peace to you which were afar off // And to them that were nigh And came partly in his own person, as to the Jews, and partly by his apostles, whom he appointed to preach the gospel to the Gentiles: so 2Co 13:3 . ...

And came partly in his own person, as to the Jews, and partly by his apostles, whom he appointed to preach the gospel to the Gentiles: so 2Co 13:3 .

And preached peace to you which were afar off far from the knowledge of the truth, from Christ, and salvation by him, as Eph 3:13 .

And to them that were nigh nigh in comparison of the Gentiles, nigh by the knowledge of God and his law, and the promises of the Messiah: see Isa 57:19 .

Poole: Eph 2:18 - For through him // we both have access // by one Spirit unto the Father For through him as our Mediator and Peace-maker, who hath reconciled us to God, we both have access are admitted or introduced, by one Spirit unto...

For through him as our Mediator and Peace-maker, who hath reconciled us to God,

we both have access are admitted or introduced,

by one Spirit unto the Father by the Holy Ghost, who is our Guide to lead us to the Father, as Christ is the way by which we go to him, Joh 14:6 . As there is but one Mediator through whom both Jews and Gentiles come to God, so but one and the same Spirit, Eph 4:4 .

Poole: Eph 2:19 - Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners // And of the household of God Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners such are they that may dwell in a city, but are not free of it. He means the same as Eph 3:12 ,...

Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners such are they that may dwell in a city, but are not free of it. He means the same as Eph 3:12 , they were not now aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, &c. But fellow citizens with the saints; members of the same spiritual society or corporation with other saints, patriarchs, prophets, &c. The church of God is compared to a city, of which every saint is a member or free-man, Phi 3:20 .

And of the household of God: the church is here compared to a house, as 1Ti 3:15 . They are said to be of the household that belong to it, but especially the children. Among men, servants are counted domestics; but with God, none but his children.

Poole: Eph 2:20 - And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets // Foundation // apostles and prophets // Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone // Objection // Answer And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets the foundation which the apostles and prophets laid by their preaching, viz. Christ, w...

And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets the foundation which the apostles and prophets laid by their preaching, viz. Christ, whom they held forth as the only Mediator between God and man, the only Saviour and head of the church: see 1Co 3:11 .

Foundation in the singular number, to imply the unity of their doctrine centring in Christ:

apostles and prophets whose office was to preach, not kings and patriarchs.

Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone as both supporting the building by his strength, and uniting the several parts of it, Jew and Gentile: see Mat 21:42 Psa 118:22 . They that are of chief authority are called the corners of a people, as sustaining the greatest burden, 1Sa 14:38 Isa 19:13 .

Objection. If Christ be the corner-stone, how is he the foundation?

Answer. The same thing may have different denominations in different respects; Christ is called a foundation, 1Co 3:11 , a corner-stone, 1Pe 2:6 , a temple, Joh 2:19 , a door, Joh 10:7 , a builder, Mat 16:18 ; so here again a corner-stone, and yet laid for a foundation, Isa 28:16 .

Poole: Eph 2:21 - In whom // All the building // Fitly framed together // Groweth // Unto an holy temple // In the Lord // groweth In whom or upon whom, viz. Christ the foundation. All the building whatsoever is built on Christ the foundation, and so all particular believers, a...

In whom or upon whom, viz. Christ the foundation.

All the building whatsoever is built on Christ the foundation, and so all particular believers, as the several parts of the building.

Fitly framed together joined and united both to Christ the foundation by faith, and to each other by love.

Groweth either:

1. Ariseth; the building goeth on till it comes to be a temple. Or:

2. It notes the stones or materials of the house to be living ones, receiving life from Christ, 1Pe 2:5 . Growth supposeth life. The verb is in the present tense, to signify that the builders are still at work, and this temple not yet finished.

Unto an holy temple in allusion to the temple at Jerusalem; whereas the holy of holies was a type of heaven, so the temple itself was a type of the church, both as it was the place of God’ s presence, and of his worship.

In the Lord: either this must be joined to

groweth and then it is a pleonasm, the antecedent being here repeated, though the relative had been expressed, and it implies the growth of believers (the materials of this spiritual building) to be from Christ; or it may be joined with holy, and then it signifies that they have their holiness from Christ; or it may be read, holy to the Lord, and then it expresses the nature of this temple, that it is undefiled, consecrated to the Lord, and meet for him.

Poole: Eph 2:22 - An habitation of God // Through the Spirit // an habitation of God // builded An habitation of God a temple where God may dwell. Not only the whole collection of believers is called the temple of God, but particular churches an...

An habitation of God a temple where God may dwell. Not only the whole collection of believers is called the temple of God, but particular churches and particular saints are so called, because of God’ s dwelling in them by his Spirit: see 1Co 3:16,17 6:19 .

Through the Spirit: this may relate either to the words immediately going before,

an habitation of God and then the meaning is, an habitation or temple in which God dwells by his Spirit; or to the verb

builded and then they import the building of them into a temple to be the operation of the Spirit, working that faith and love in them whereby they are united to Christ the foundation, and to the several parts of the building.

PBC: Eph 2:1 - and you hath He quickened Eph 2:1 describes man by nature as " dead in trespasses and in sins." The image of death suggests that the unregenerate man, like a dead corpse, is u...

Eph 2:1 describes man by nature as " dead in trespasses and in sins." The image of death suggests that the unregenerate man, like a dead corpse, is unresponsive to stimuli. Is the gospel a kind of external stimuli? Isn’t it an appeal to man’s mind? Until the sinner is given new life, consequently he will remain unresponsive to the gospel. 1Co 1:18 says, " For the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness, but unto us which are saved, it is the power of God."

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" and you hath He quickened"

God created life, spiritual life, where it did not exist a moment before. The energizing power and work came from God, not from the sinner. In Eph 2:10 Paul described this work as a creation, as dramatic and powerful as God’s energizing power which created the physical universe in six days. To create, as God knows it, means to form or make out of nothing. Such was God’s power and grace in your salvation from that horrible condition of sin.    275

PBC: Eph 2:3 - -- I know that throughout the scriptures the elect, people of God, are always spoken of as sheep and never goats, they are spoken of as heifers (cows), i...

I know that throughout the scriptures the elect, people of God, are always spoken of as sheep and never goats, they are spoken of as heifers (cows), in the sense of a " backsliding heifer." It is interesting that the Lord, the Lamb of God, is typed as two goats on the day of atonement. And if in atonement He, the lamb, was made to be us, what does that make us? It is my understanding (Okay?) that even though the elect have been secure in the mind and purpose of God in covenant sense before the foundation of the world (sheep by election), by nature we are even as others. By the phrase " even as others," I understand, exactly as others. I do not understand that unregenerate elect know any more of God or about God than the non-elect do or ever will. But, in regeneration the elect are taught some basic knowledge. {Tit 2:11-14} In that knowledge that child knows to cry for protection, food, and comfort. As that child grows it is subject to more responsibility and is taught of them and the how to by the words of it’s Father, by and through the gospel of Jesus Christ. Identity is established by this knowledge, not relationship. Fellowship is gained, not sonship. Means are used? Yes, but get them in the right place. Not to regenerate, but for the regenerate. The child of God does not become more and more a child of God by means. Nor does he become more and more alive. Such thought is foolishness. I hear terms of " true children of God" or " false children of God." No such animal, you either are or you are not. " True Christians" and " False Christians?" You either are or you are not! " False professors?" No, they are truly professors, but what they profess may be false. All Christians are elect, regenerate, children of God. All regenerate are elect children of God. Not all elect, regenerate children of God are Christians. And not all Christians are Christians all the time. All means (gospel, faith, obedience, etc.) is to assist the child of God to be more active, lively, not alive!

The discussion of sheep and goats has divided and troubled many for years. It should not! God’s elect, regenerate, children have a new nature, not a rebuilt, restored, revived old nature. They are what they covenantly were purposed to be in the inner man and will be totally bodily in eternity. But, until that day of conformation, sheep have the ability still to act on the old nature. I have helped raise a couple of sheep from lambs to slaughter and I will tell you that they act just like goats more than you want to know. Now, you make of that what you will. But, I think the harmony of scripture will support the basis.

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PBC: Eph 2:6 - -- See WebbSr: RAISED UP-THEN SEEK

See WebbSr: RAISED UP-THEN SEEK

PBC: Eph 2:8 - For by grace are ye saved // ye // saved // through faith // through faith, and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God. // faith // and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God // it is the gift of God // gift " For by grace are ye saved" John Gill says in part concerning Eph 2:8 " For by grace are ye saved..." This is to be understood, not of temporal sal...

" For by grace are ye saved"

John Gill says in part concerning Eph 2:8 " For by grace are ye saved..." This is to be understood, not of temporal salvation, nor of preservation in Christ, nor of providential salvation, in order to vocation, and much less of being put in a way of salvation, or only in a salvable state; but of spiritual salvation, and that actual.  1

To all this I say a BIG AMEN.  2

Born again people will hunger to do all the works that accompany salvation (believe, repent, be baptized, etc.); however, we most emphatically believe that these are the evidences of a gracious state and not the cause of a gracious state. Salvation is by grace and not of works, lest any man should boast!  527

" ye"

" ye" -(whoever that has been shown the exceeding riches of his grace in His kindness toward us through Christ Jesus in regeneration and being raised up to set together with Christ Jesus) " saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:" -the faith that is under consideration is the religious principles[i] that we hold to. If someone asked you what is your faith you could answer " Christian" or you could be more specific and say " Baptist" or even more specific, " Primitive Baptist."  6

" saved"

IMO, the context is strongest evidence that the salvation includes the eternal dimension. Eph 2:8 is not in a vacuum; it starts with the word " for" which connects it with the concept of salvation established in the preceding verses. In the scripture salvation is usually simply called " salvation." Paul (and others) evidently felt no need to use explicit adjectives to describe salvation as we do today. Of course Paul wasn’t confronted with some of the carefully woven errors that have become common among professing christians today. Notwithstanding, I believe the best and strongest arguments are made from explanations grounded directly in the context rather than imposing specially adapted adjectives.  8

" through faith"

Eph 2:8-9 -" For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast." Verse 8 has three entities -Grace, Salvation and Faith, with two neutral pronouns -" That" and " It" and both have as their antecedent all three -Grace, Salvation and Faith. Next, these three are not of works by man. This " THROUGH FAITH" is the same as is found in Ro 3:25 -This is God’s Faith in His Son’s Obedience to the Father’s Will. This is passive on " man’s part."  14

This " faith" is first " born of God" 1Jo 5:4 [a], that is, created by God in the soul at regeneration. But John takes a further step and claims that this " faith" must be informed by the gospel, move toward Christ and embrace Him in confident trust.  69

Let us contrast the terms BY FAITH with THROUGH FAITH? Ro 3:30. -There is a difference. It is very interesting. Ro 10:17 teaches that there is a TIMELY GOSPEL FAITH, but it is only a reflection of the preceding measure of faith God deals- Ro 12:3 which the unregenerated does not have- 2Th 3:2. Finally, faith begins within a person at the point of Regeneration and is called a Fruit of the Spirit- Ga 5:22-23  22

Since God gives faith to us as a gift then it is our faith. In scriptures that have the words " faith of Christ" or " faith of God" the " of" means that Christ or God is the originator of that faith.  7

Why is it " through faith?" -that it might be by grace. Anything else would have been a work:  21

Ro 4:16 Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace; to the end the promise might be sure to all the seed; not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham; who is the father of us all.  19

Faith is of God -no doubt, love is of God -no doubt, and grace is of God, but that is simply saying that whatever grace that I have is of/from God. Whatever love that I have is of/from God and what ever faith I have is of/from God, even the faith once delivered to the saints. That is the religious principle that I believe is contained in God’s written and preached word.  20

The gift of faith enables the newborn soul to function in the spiritual realm, an ability he did not have prior to his quickening. {Joh 3:3} {Joh 3:5} {1Co 2:14} It also gives the individual the ability to believe, or, if you please, " ears to hear." {Re 2:7,11; Pr 20:12; Mt 11:15} The gospel is, subsequently, addressed to the regenerate, {Ac 2:39; 13:16,26} for the unregenerate cannot believe. {Joh 8:43; 10:26; Ro 3:10-18}    15

" through faith, and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God."

Next, Gill says= Salvation is through faith, not as a cause or condition of salvation, or as what adds anything to the blessing itself; but it is the way, or means, or instrument, which God has appointed, for the receiving and enjoying it, that so it might appear to be all of grace; and this faith is not the produce of man’s free-will and power, but it is the free gift of God; and therefore salvation through it is consistent with salvation by grace. To all this I say a BIG AMEN.  13

" faith" touto

It is God’s faith implanted in the being of every regenerated heir of the Covenant of Grace. As His faith is an inherent part of His attributes, His nature, His being, so also it is a attribute of the nature of every one of His born again children. For the life they receive in the new birth is Divine life bearing the same characteristics and attributes of God their Father. Nor does this view militate against the idea conveyed by the greek wording, for this life—and the faith intrinsic to it is indeed a gift—the gift of eternal life.   12

No attribute of God finds a perfect match in any mortal. His ways are above our ways. His ways are sublime perfection. The difference between His ways and our ways is incalculable. Were the whole extent of the known universe to be calculated, the difference between His ways and our ways would fill it and then go on beyond what we know, for we know not even the full extent of the heavens.   12

Ro 11:33 O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!  12

Isa 55:8 For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith the LORD.   12

Isa 55:9 For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts.  12

By God’s faith, I mean a complete trust and confidence. God had complete trust and confidence in the Son with which He covenanted and knew that the keeping of the covenant was just as sure as done. Christ had complete trust and confidence that His Father would accept His perfect sacrifice and would raise Him again from the dead and He saw of the travail of His soul and was satisfied that His sacrifice would accomplish that which He died for, the redemption of His people. This is prophesied in Isa 53:1-12 and there is a sense in which He shall yet be satisfied in the fullfillment of His works in His people, i.e. regeneration, glorification, etc. To satisfy God’s justice and his requirement for justice because of His holiness, God could not just be gracious and merciful in saving people, He had to also require justice. We are saved by grace through God’s faith in the sacrifice of His Son to satisfy His justice in forgiving our sins that Christ paid for. The term faith of God, faith of the operation of God, and faith of Christ are biblical terms and are not being introduced by me. See Col 2:12 and Ga 2:16 for examples. Eph 2:7 uses the expression, " through Christ Jesus." The previous verses use the expressions, " with Christ" and " in Christ" as well. Therefore, I have usually interpreted the expression, " through faith" to be associated with the previous expressions focusing on Christ, not our work or exercise of faith. The expression, " through faith" in Eph 2:8 could be interpreted similarly as, " through God’s faith or complete trust in the finished work of His Son and our Saviour." This is a definition of what I mean by my expressions of God’s faith. It is also true, that our faith originates from God and is ultimately His to give us as a gift that accompanies salvation. 26

The expression, " God’s faith" means " God’s faithfulness."  3

God could not give that which He does not possess. This very attribute of God’s faith is freely given in His act of regenerating His loved ones. Then, through God’s eyes, the newly born saint of God is inventoried as being in possession of this same attribute of God’s faith—Christ in you, the Hope of glory. {Col 1:27}   4

Please consider the following texts clearly setting forth the premise that God has faith- Ro 3:3 -faith of God; Re 1:5 -Jesus Christ who is the FAITHFUL witness. He is FULL OF FAITH; Re 3:14 -" The Amen, the faithful and true witness." Again, FULL of faith. Re 19:11 -called " Faithful and True." FULL of faith again. Ro 3:25 -Who was it herein that had FAITH in His Blood, but none other that God Himself. It seems that an extension of definition would embrace that of COMPLETE confidence and trust, rather than limiting the definition to only that of " partial" knowledge.    5

I have always thought of faith as that which we are given or posess until we are given perfect knowledge. Since God has complete knowledge, it is hard for me to think of him as having faith. I know that there are diferent usages of the word faith in the Bible, but I just can’t find a definition that would make " faith" and " perfect knowledge" dwell, as it were, in the same house. I have always heard it preached that when we get to heaven we will not need faith any longer, the reason being that faith will be turned into perfect knowledge. Brethren, please show me how that an " all knowing" God could have faith.  9

" and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God" -Faith is not an attribute of God. He who KNOWS all things has no need of faith. Therefore it is the believer’s faith under consideration. The believer does not have that faith in and of himself. It is given to him/her as a gift of God.  10

I guess I look at the subject matter of that faith in Eph 2:8 a little differently than some do. This is how I attempt to explain the faith as Paul uses it within the context of Eph 2:5-10: The subject of faith has varied uses in different contexts of Scripture. Faith given in regeneration {e.g., Eph 2:8} is an intrinsic faith—a faith that is inborn in one at the time of the new birth. It is by this intrinsic faith that one is made to know God. Before the new birth, one does not have faith in any Scriptural sense. {2Th 3:2} Imparted intrinsic faith is that which is given by God to every one who is regenerated and at the very time of his/her regeneration. {Ro 12:3} This intrinsic faith is a responsive faith, one that reciprocally responds to God at the very point of receiving the effectual call in the new birth. This faith is received by God’s child involuntarily, i.e., without the works and efforts of the creature. Regeneration is the effectual call of God {2Ti 1:9} to the covenant object of God’s love, a calling out of a death state in sin to a life in Christ Jesus. The God-given intrinsic faith in the new-born creature is that innate faith that responds by answering God to His holy call in regeneration. In a life-speaking Voice, God calls, and the faith then given in the soul answers. This is performed by the renewed soul’s responding faith, delivering the message back to God that " Divine life and knowledge of Thee is immediately received." In a word, this faith responds involuntarily on the part of the creature by the Spirit of God’s Son in our hearts crying Abba, Father. {Ga 4:6} This ethereal faith is the instantaneous and perpetual testimony in the soul that the Divine Call of God is in fact effectual. The " renewed" soul, {Tit 3:5} established by grace via regeneration in an object of God’s love, thus responds through innate faith (below the level of intellectual cognizance) because the elect has been made willing in the day of God’s power. {Ps 110:3} It is thus that this ‘responding’ faith functions below the level of a regenerate’s consciousness. This intrinsic faith is given in the instantaneous and immediate act of the Spirit’s imparting eternal life to the object of God’s love. Every elect of God, the infant and the adult alike, when born again, is in possession of this particular faith. Thus, salvation comes vitally to the object of God’s love in regeneration by grace through faith. {Eph 2:8} The soul is immediately taught to know God through this intrinsic faith. This salvation—this grace through faith—is eternally unconditional on the part of the recipient, unlike that of Gospel (evangelical) faith. Gospel faith (which is an aspect of faith outside the context of Eph 2:8} Gospel faith is a " timely," " daily," and " now" manifestation of temporal salvation. Only a remnant out of the entire circle of God’s elect people will receive and manifest the ‘operations’ of this Gospel, evangelical faith during this " time" world.   11

" it is the gift of God"

The phrase " it is the gift of God" applies to the whole package—grace, saved, and faith.  16

" gift"

The word " gift" in Eph 2:8 is translated from the Greek dwron -SGreek: 1435. doron- whose emphasis is " a sacrifice -gift, offering." This is the same word used in Heb 8:3-4; 9:9 to speak of the sacrifices and offerings made by the priests under the Law. It is also applied in this same sense in numerous other scriptures. Perish the thought that our faith is given us as an offer or that it is an offering from almighty God to us! However, praises be to God that an acceptable sacrifice was made through the blood of the Lamb and that was acceptable in every way. As is stated in Ro 3:25, " Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation (translated mercy seat-J.N.) through faith in his blood..." Now that’s a faith to hook your salvation on. Compare this " gift" to the forms of " gift" used in Ro 5:1-21. These carry as their primary focus of meaning " bestowment," " endowment," " miraculous faculty -free gift."  17

[i] Then, would it not seem that it is my Christian, Baptist, or Primitive Baptist beliefs that is the faith in Eph 2:8 whereby grace saves me?   18

PBC: Eph 2:9 - not of works " not of works" Jas 2:18 indicates that we show our faith by our works. That is not contrary to faith being " not of works" for there is a great dif...

" not of works"

Jas 2:18 indicates that we show our faith by our works. That is not contrary to faith being " not of works" for there is a great difference between showing our faith by our works (a tree is known by it’s fruits) and laying claim to our works being the means of our obtaining faith. This is the very reason that the Jews did not attain unto the righteousness of God " ... because they sought it not by faith, but as it were by the works of the law." {Ro 9:32}

A text that will help us understand that faith can not be a work is found in Ro 4:4-5 " Now to him that worketh is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of debt. But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness." If the reward were of works then it would not be of grace. This is saying that if a person does not work but believes on Him that justifies the ungodly that his faith is counted for righteousness. If faith were a work then it would have to be reckoned that salvation was a debt that God owed. The word " but" indicates a contrast. Therefore believing is not a work.  318

PBC: Eph 2:19 - -- See Philpot: FELLOW CITIZENS WITH THE SAINTS, AND OF THE HOUSEHOLD OF GOD

See Philpot: FELLOW CITIZENS WITH THE SAINTS, AND OF THE HOUSEHOLD OF GOD

Haydock: Eph 2:1 - God hath quickened you, or restored you to life He enlivened you, when you were dead. These words, he enlivened or restored to life, are necessary to express the literal sense and construction, a...

He enlivened you, when you were dead. These words, he enlivened or restored to life, are necessary to express the literal sense and construction, as appears from the following fifth verse. by what is here translated offences, are commonly understood trespasses less grievous than by the word sins. (Witham) ---

God hath quickened you, or restored you to life; these words, expressed in ver. 5, are understood in this: in some editions they are expressed. (Bible de Vence)

Haydock: Eph 2:2 - According to the course of this world // Secundum sæculum mundi hujus According to the course of this world, (i.e. the customs of this wicked corrupt world) according to the prince of the power of this air, of the spir...

According to the course of this world, (i.e. the customs of this wicked corrupt world) according to the prince of the power of this air, of the spirit, &c. meaning the devils, who are permitted to exercise their power upon the earth, or in the air. See John xii. 10.; xiv. 30.; xvi. 11. (Witham) ---

Secundum sæculum mundi hujus: according to the custom of this world. You were dead to the eyes of God, but you live in the eyes of the world: and how do you live? according to the maxims of the world, in idolatry, in crime, in corruption of manners. Corrumpi et corrumpere sæculum est. (Tacitus) (Calmet)

Haydock: Eph 2:3 - Among whom // Were by nature // Even as the rest Among whom, &c. St. Jerome (p. 3) refers it to trespasses or sins. --- Were by nature; not by nature according to the state of man's first cre...

Among whom, &c. St. Jerome (p. 3) refers it to trespasses or sins. ---

Were by nature; not by nature according to the state of man's first creation in paradise, but by nature infected with original sin by the fall of our first parents. ---

Even as the rest; that is, all mankind. (Witham)

Haydock: Eph 2:4 - But God....hath raised up together But God....hath raised up together, both Gentiles and Jews, to life in Christ, remitting our sins by faith in him, and by the grace of our merciful...

But God....hath raised up together, both Gentiles and Jews, to life in Christ, remitting our sins by faith in him, and by the grace of our merciful Redeemer, by his pure mercy, not by any works of ours, nor merely by the works of the former law. ---

Hath made us in a condition to sit together in heavenly places, to be hereafter crowned in heaven. (Witham)

Haydock: Eph 2:5 - Quickened us together in Christ Quickened us together in Christ. Faith, baptism, and grace, are pledges of our future resurrection and glorification in heaven. Our present convers...

Quickened us together in Christ. Faith, baptism, and grace, are pledges of our future resurrection and glorification in heaven. Our present conversion is also a kind of resurrection. The time is come, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear shall live. (St. Augustine upon St. John, No. 7.)

Haydock: Eph 2:8 - -- Faith is the beginning, foundation, and the root of justification, and the first of all other virtues, without which it is impossible to please God. (...

Faith is the beginning, foundation, and the root of justification, and the first of all other virtues, without which it is impossible to please God. (Bristow)

Haydock: Eph 2:9 - Not of works Not of works, as of our own growth, or from ourselves: but as from the grace of God. (Challoner)

Not of works, as of our own growth, or from ourselves: but as from the grace of God. (Challoner)

Haydock: Eph 2:10 - Fir we are his workmanship Fir we are his workmanship, not only as to our body and soul, but by a new creation in Christ Jesus, with a new heart by his grace. (Witham) --- St....

Fir we are his workmanship, not only as to our body and soul, but by a new creation in Christ Jesus, with a new heart by his grace. (Witham) ---

St. Paul now compares our conversion to creation, to shew that we had been called and justified without preceding merit. In the same manner as the things which God has drawn out of nothing, cannot glory as if they had contributed any thing to their existence. (St. Jerome, hic [on this place].)

Haydock: Eph 2:11-12 - Be mindful Be mindful that as for you, who are Gentiles, who were called an uncircumcised people by the circumcised Jews, that you were without Christ, with...

Be mindful that as for you, who are Gentiles, who were called an uncircumcised people by the circumcised Jews, that you were without Christ, without the hopes or expectation of the Messias, alienated from the conversation of those who were God's elect people, and from the promises particularly made to them, that the Messias should be of their race: without God in this world, i.e. without the knowledge and the worship of God. But now by Christ, by believing in him, you who seemed to be far off, are made near by his blood, (ver. 13) by him who died for all; for he hath brought peace to all men, breaking down by his incarnation and death that wall of partition, that enmity betwixt the Jews and Gentiles, making them but one; abolishing that former law, of so many ordinances, [1] precepts, and ceremonies, by decrees, (which may signify by his divine decrees; or rather, as St. Jerome expounds it by the Greek, abolishing the old law and its precepts by the precepts and doctrine of the new law) that he might reconcile to God both the Jews and Gentiles, that now they might be one mystical body, to wit, the Church of Christ, of which he is the head. Remember then that you are no longer strangers and foreigners, as you wer when the Jews were the only elect people of God: now, by faith and hope, you are fellow-citizens with the saints and with all the elect people of God: you are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, (ver. 20) who, by their prophecies concerning the Messias, and by their teaching and preaching of the gospel, are as it were subordinate foundation-stones under Christ, the chief founder and the chief corner-stone of his Church; in whom you also (Christians, at Ephesus, and all the faithful) are built up together, (ver. 22) as parts of a spiritual edifice or temple, where God inhabits. (Witham)

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Legem mandatorum decretis evacuans, Greek: ton nomon ton entolon dogmasi (dogmatibus) katargesas; i.e. says St. Jerome, (p. 344) præcepta legalia Evangelicis dogmatibus commutavit. See St. John Chrysostom, p. 879. Lat. edit. in Savil. p. 787.

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Haydock: Eph 2:14 - -- Christ destroyed the enmity which, like a wall of separation, stood between Jew and Gentile, and united them into one people. He did this in his fles...

Christ destroyed the enmity which, like a wall of separation, stood between Jew and Gentile, and united them into one people. He did this in his flesh, by his own blood, or the sacrifice he made of his flesh on the cross. (Calmet)

Haydock: Eph 2:19 - -- You are no longer strangers with regard to God and his holy alliance. You are no longer travellers and vagabonds, without a God, as you were before y...

You are no longer strangers with regard to God and his holy alliance. You are no longer travellers and vagabonds, without a God, as you were before your conversion; not knowing to whom you belonged, nor finding in paganism either solid foundation or truth, neither hopes for this nor consolation for future life. But now you are become citizens of the same city as the saints, and domestics of the house of God. (Calmet)

Haydock: Eph 2:20 - -- The Church is in this place said to be built upon the apostles and prophets; why not then upon St. Peter?

The Church is in this place said to be built upon the apostles and prophets; why not then upon St. Peter?

Gill: Eph 2:1 - And you hath he quickened // hath he quickened // who were dead in trespasses and sins And you hath he quickened,.... The design of the apostle in this and some following verses, is to show the exceeding sinfulness of sin, and to set for...

And you hath he quickened,.... The design of the apostle in this and some following verses, is to show the exceeding sinfulness of sin, and to set forth the sad estate and condition of man by nature, and to magnify the riches of the grace of God, and represent the exceeding greatness of his power in conversion: the phrase

hath he quickened, is not in the original text, but is supplied from Eph 2:5, where it will be met with and explained: here those who are quickened with Christ, and by the power and grace of God, are described in their natural and unregenerate estate,

who were dead in trespasses and sins; not only dead in Adam, in whom they sinned, being their federal head and representative; and in a legal sense, the sentence of condemnation and death having passed upon them; but in a moral sense, through original sin, and their own actual transgressions: which death lies in a separation from God, Father, Son, and Spirit, such are without God, and are alienated from the life of God, and they are without Christ, who is the author and giver of life, and they are sensual, not having the Spirit, who is the spirit of life; and in a deformation of the image of God, such are dead as to their understandings, wills, and affections, with respect to spiritual things, and as to their capacity to do any thing that is spiritually good; and in a loss of original righteousness; and in a privation of the sense of sin and misery; and in a servitude to sin, Satan, and the world: hence it appears, that man must be in himself unacceptable to God, infectious and hurtful to his fellow creatures, and incapable of helping himself: so it was usual with the Jews to call a wicked and ignorant man, a dead man; they say i,

"there is no death like that of those that transgress the words of the law, who are called, מתים, "dead men", and therefore the Scripture says, "turn and live".''

And again k,

"no man is called a living man, but he who is in the way of truth in this world.----And a wicked man who does not go in the way of truth, is called, מת, "a dead man".''

And once more l.

"whoever is without wisdom, lo, he is כמת, "as a dead man";''

See Gill on 1Ti 5:6. The Alexandrian and Claromontane copies, and one of Stephens's, and the Vulgate Latin version, read, "dead in your trespasses and sins"; and the Syriac version, "dead in your sins and in your trespasses"; and the Ethiopic version only, "dead in your sins".

Gill: Eph 2:2 - Wherein in time past ye walked // according to the course of this world // according to the prince of the power of the air Wherein in time past ye walked,.... Sins and transgressions are a road or path, in which all unconverted sinners walk; and this path is a dark, crooke...

Wherein in time past ye walked,.... Sins and transgressions are a road or path, in which all unconverted sinners walk; and this path is a dark, crooked, and broad one, which leads to destruction and death, and yet is their own way, which they choose, approve of, and delight to walk in; and walking in it denotes a continued series of sinning, an obstinate persisting in it, a progress in iniquity, and pleasure therein: and the time of walking in this path, being said to be in time past, shows that the elect of. God before conversion, walk in the same road that others do; and that conversion is a turning out of this way; and that when persons are converted, the course of their walking is altered, which before was

according to the course of this world meaning this world, in distinction from the world to come, or the present age, in which the apostle lived, and designs the men of it; and the course of it is their custom, manner, and way of life; to which God's elect, during their state of unregeneracy, conform, both with respect to conversation and religious worship: great is the force that prevailing customs have over men; it is one branch of redemption by Christ, to deliver men from this present evil world, and to free them from a vain conversation in it; and it is only the grace of God that effectually teaches to deny the lusts of it; and it is only owing to the prevalent intercession and power of Christ, that even converted persons are kept from the evil of it:

according to the prince of the power of the air: which is not to be understood of any supposed power the devil has over the air, by divine permission, to raise winds, but of a posse, or body of devils, who have their residence in the air; for it was not only the notion of the Jews m, that there are noxious and accusing spirits, who fly about באויר, "in the air", and that there is no space between the earth and the firmament free, and that the whole is full of a multitude of them; but also it was the opinion of the Chaldeans n, and of Pythagoras o, and Plato p, that the air is full of demons: now there is a prince who is at the head of these, called Beelzebub, the prince of devils, or the lord of a fly, for the devils under him are as so many flies in the air, Mat 12:24 and by the Jews called q, רבהון דרוחיא, "the prince of spirits"; and is here styled, the Spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience; by which spirit is meant, not the lesser devils that are under the prince, nor the spirit of the world which comes from him, and is not of God; but Satan himself, who is a spirit, and an evil, and an unclean one; and who operates powerfully in unbelievers, for they are meant by children of disobedience, or unbelief; just as בני מהימנותא, "children of faith" r, in the Jewish dialect, designs believers; and over these Satan has great influence, especially the reprobate part of them; whose minds he blinds, and whose hearts he fills, and puts it into them to do the worst of crimes; and indeed, he has great power over the elect themselves, while in unbelief, and leads them captive at his will; and these may be said in their unregeneracy to walk after him, when they imitate him, and do his lusts, and comply with what he suggests, dictates to them, or tempts them to.

Gill: Eph 2:3 - Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past // in the lusts of our flesh // fulfilling the desires of the flesh, and of the mind // and were by nature children of wrath // even as others Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past,.... What the apostle says of the Gentile Ephesians before conversion, he says of himself an...

Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past,.... What the apostle says of the Gentile Ephesians before conversion, he says of himself and other Jews; and this he does, partly to show that it was not from ill will, or with a design to upbraid the Gentiles, that he said what he did; and partly to beat down the pride of the Jews, who thought themselves better than the sinners of the Gentiles; as well as to magnify the grace of God in the conversion of them both: the sense is, that the apostle and other Jews in the time of their unregeneracy, had their conversation according to the customs of the world, and to the prince of the air, and among unbelievers, as well as the Gentiles; and that they were equally sinners, and lived a like sinful course of life:

in the lusts of our flesh; by "flesh" is meant, the corruption of nature; so called, because it is propagated by natural generation; and is opposed to the Spirit, or principle of grace; and has for its object fleshly things; and discovers itself mostly in the body, the flesh; and it makes persons carnal or fleshly: and this is called "our", because it belongs to human nature, and is inherent in it, and inseparable from it in this life: and the "lusts" of it, are the inward motions of it, in a contrariety to the law and will of God; and are various, and are sometimes called fleshly and worldly lusts, and the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life: and persons may be said to have their conversations in these, when these are the ground of their conversation, when they are solicitous about them, and make provision for the fulfilling of them, and constantly employ themselves in obedience to them, as follows:

fulfilling the desires of the flesh, and of the mind: or the wills of them; what they incline to, will, and crave after: various are the degrees of sin, and its several motions; and universal is the corruption of human nature; not only the body, and the several members of it, are defiled with sin, and disposed to it, but all the powers and faculties of the soul; even the more noble and governing ones, the mind, understanding, and will, as well as the affections; and great is the power and influence which lust has over them:

and were by nature children of wrath, even as others: by which is meant, not only that they were wrathful persons, living in malice, hateful, and hating one another; but that they were deserving of the wrath of God, which comes upon the children of disobedience, among whom they had their conversation; and which is revealed from heaven against such sins as they were guilty of, though they were not appointed to it: and they were such "by nature"; really, and not in opinion, and by and from their first birth: so a Jewish commentator s on these words, "thy first father hath sinned", Isa 43:27 has this note;

"how canst thou say thou hast not sinned? and behold thy first father hath sinned, and he is the first man, for man מוטבע בחטא, "is naturally in sin";''

or by nature a sinner, or sin is naturally impressed in him; and hence being by nature a sinner, he is by nature deserving of the wrath of God, as were the persons spoken of:

even as others; as the rest of the world, Jews as well as Gentiles; and Gentiles are especially designed, in distinction from the Jews, the apostle is speaking of; and who are particularly called in the Jewish dialect אחרים, "others"; See Gill on Luk 18:11.

Gill: Eph 2:4 - But God, who is rich in mercy // for his great love wherewith he loved us But God, who is rich in mercy,.... Mercy is a perfection of the divine nature, and is essential to God; and may be considered with respect to the obje...

But God, who is rich in mercy,.... Mercy is a perfection of the divine nature, and is essential to God; and may be considered with respect to the objects of it, either as general, extending to all men in a providential way; or as special, reaching only to some in a way of grace; for though mercy is his nature, yet the display and exertion of it towards any object, is the act of his will; and special mercy, with all the blessings and benefits of it, is only exhibited in Christ Jesus: and God is said to be "rich" in it, because he is free and liberal in dispensing it, and the effects of it; and that to a large number of persons, in great abundance and variety, by various ways, and in divers instances; as in the covenant of grace, in the mission of Christ, in redemption by him, in regeneration, in pardon of sin, and in eternal salvation; and yet it is inexhaustible and perpetual; and this sets forth the excellency and glory of it:

for his great love wherewith he loved us; the love of God to his chosen people is very great, if it be considered who it is that has loved them, God and not man; who is an infinite, unchangeable, and sovereign Being; and his love is like himself, for God is love; it has heights and depths, and lengths and breadths immeasurable; it admits of no variation nor alteration; and is altogether free, arising from himself, and not from any motives and conditions in men: and if the persons themselves are considered, who are the objects of it, men, sinful men, unworthy of the divine notice and regard; and that these are loved personally, particularly, and distinctly, and not others; nakedly, and not theirs, or for any thing in them, or done by them, and that notwithstanding their manifold sins and transgressions: to which may be added, that this love is represented as a past act; and indeed it is from everlasting, and is antecedent to their being quickened, and was when they were dead in trespasses and sins; and is the source and spring of the blessing next mentioned: so the divine love is often called in the Cabalistic writings of the Jews t, אהבה רבה, "great love".

Gill: Eph 2:5 - Even when we were dead in sins // Hath quickened us together with Christ // by grace ye are saved Even when we were dead in sins,.... See Gill on Eph 2:1. Hath quickened us together with Christ: which may be understood either of regeneration, wh...

Even when we were dead in sins,.... See Gill on Eph 2:1.

Hath quickened us together with Christ: which may be understood either of regeneration, when a soul that is dead in a moral or spiritual sense, is quickened and made alive; a principle of life is infused, and acts of life are put forth; such have their spiritual senses, and these in exercise; they can feel the load and weight of sin; see their lost state and condition, the odiousness of sin, and the beauty of a Saviour, the insufficiency of their own righteousness, and the fulness and suitableness of Christ's; breathe after divine and spiritual things; speak in prayer to God, and the language of Canaan to fellow Christians; move towards Christ, exercise grace on him, act for him, and walk on in him: and this life they have not from themselves, for previous to it they are dead, and in this quickening work are entirely passive; nor can regenerate persons quicken themselves, when in dead and lifeless frames, and much less unregenerate sinners; but this is God's act, the act of God the Father; though not exclusive of the Son, who quickens whom he will; nor of the Spirit, who is the Spirit of life from Christ; and it is an instance of the exceeding greatness, both of his power and love; and this may be said to be done with Christ, because he is the procuring and meritorious cause of it, by his death and resurrection from the dead; and is the author and efficient cause of it; and he is the matter of it, it is not so much the quickened persons that live, as Christ that lives in them, and it is the same life he himself lives; and because he lives, they shall live also; it is in him as in the fountain, and in them as in the stream: or else this may be understood of justification; men are dead in a legal sense, and on account of sin, are under the sentence of death; though they naturally think themselves alive, and in a good state; but when the Spirit of God comes, he strikes dead all their hopes of life by a covenant of works; not merely by letting in the terrors of the law upon the conscience, but by showing the spirituality of it, and the exceeding sinfulness of sin; and how incapable they are of satisfying the law, for the transgressions of it; and then he works faith in them, whereby they revive and live; they see pardon and righteousness in Christ, and pray for the one, and plead the other; and also lay hold and live upon the righteousness of Christ, when the Spirit seals up the pardon of their sins to them, and passes the sentence of justification on them, and so they reckon themselves alive unto God; and this is the justification of life, the Scripture speaks of; and this is in consequence of their being quickened with Christ, at the time of his resurrection; for when he rose from the dead, they rose with him; when he was justified, they were justified in him; and in this sense when he was quickened, they were quickened with him:

by grace ye are saved: the Claromontane copy and the Vulgate Latin version read, "by whose grace"; and the Arabic and Ethiopic versions, "by his grace"; either by the grace of him that quickens, or by the grace of Christ with whom they were quickened; the Syriac version renders it, "by his grace he hath redeemed us"; which seems to refer to the redeeming grace of Christ; and so the Ethiopic version, "and hath delivered us by his grace"; and there is a change of the person into "us", which seems more agreeable to what goes before, and follows after; See Gill on Eph 2:8.

Gill: Eph 2:6 - And hath raised us up together // and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus And hath raised us up together,.... Which refers either to a spiritual resurrection, to a resurrection from a death in sin, to a spiritual life; and w...

And hath raised us up together,.... Which refers either to a spiritual resurrection, to a resurrection from a death in sin, to a spiritual life; and which is the effect of almighty power, and of rich grace and mercy; and in which Christ is concerned: he is the efficient cause of it, he raises the dead in this sense, and quickens whom he will; and his resurrection is the virtual cause of it; and also the exemplar, between which there is a great likeness; both bear the same name; both are a declaration of sonship; and both the first step to glory in Christ and in his people; and both are instances of the exceeding greatness of God's power: or it may refer to a corporeal resurrection, said to be already, because it is in faith and hope, and because of the certainty of it; and to be together with Christ, because of the conformity of it to his resurrection, and to the influence of which it is owing; and chiefly because that when Christ rose from the dead, all his people rose in him, and with him, as their head and representative, he being the firstfruits of them that slept; so called, in allusion to the firstfruits of the harvest under the law, which represented and sanctified the whole:

and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus: Christ is entered into heaven as the forerunner, to take possession of it for his people, in their name; and to prepare mansions of glory for them, and in these they sit; which imports honour, pleasure, rest from labour and weariness, and safety and security: and what adds to the happiness of this is, that it is together with all the saints, and with Christ himself; and in these they are made to sit already; which is so said, because of the certainty of it, for the same glory Christ has, they shall have; and because of their right to such a blessing; and chiefly because Christ their head is set down therein, who sustains their persons, bears their names on his heart, and represents them.

Gill: Eph 2:7 - That in the ages to come // he might show the exceeding riches of his grace // in his kindness towards us through Christ Jesus That in the ages to come,.... This is the end of God's permitting sin, in which men are morally dead; and of his suffering them to go on in sin, in a ...

That in the ages to come,.... This is the end of God's permitting sin, in which men are morally dead; and of his suffering them to go on in sin, in a state of unregeneracy; and of his quickening them with Christ, and raising them up, and causing them to sit together with him: namely, that

he might show the exceeding riches of his grace: riches being added to grace, denote the valuableness of it, as well as its plenty and abundance; and also the freeness and liberality of God in giving it; and likewise the enriching nature of it: and these riches are exceeding; they exceed the riches of this world, in the immenseness of them, being unsearchable; and in the inexhaustibleness of them, for though such large treasures have been expended upon such numbers of persons, yet there is still the same quantity; and in the duration of them, they last forever; and in the profit and satisfaction they yield, when other riches fade away, are not profitable nor satisfying; and they exceed the conception, knowledge, and comprehension of men; and intend the utmost stretch of the grace of God: and which are evidently and remarkably displayed,

in his kindness towards us through Christ Jesus; in providing him as a Saviour for his people; in the mission of him into this world; in not sparing, but giving him up as a sacrifice to justice for their sins; and blessing them with all spiritual blessings in him: all which God designed to show forth, in the ages to come; meaning either the ages following to the end of time, in distinction from the ages that were past: hence it appears, that the world was not expected to be immediately at an end; and that the writings of the New Testament were to be continued, and the Gospel preached unto the end of time, in which the riches of divine grace are held forth to view; and that these ages to come, are seasons and days of grace; for a day of grace will never be over, as long as the Gospel of grace is preached; and that the instances of grace through Christ, and in the times of the apostles, are encouraging to men in ages succeeding; and that the same grace that was displayed then, is shown forth in these: or else the world to come is meant, which will take place at the end of this; and may lead us to observe, that there will be ages in the other world; and that God has not only prepared a great deal of grace and glory for his people, but he has appointed ages enough for them to enjoy it in; and that their riches lie in another world, and are in some measure hid; and that these are the produce of the grace of God; and that the exceeding riches of that will be then manifested, when it will also appear that God's giving grace to men, is not only with a view to his own glory, but is an act of kindness to them; and that eternal happiness will be heartily and freely bestowed upon them, and that through Jesus Christ their Lord: the Syriac version renders it, "that unto ages to come he might show", &c. that is, to men in ages to come; the sense is much the same.

Gill: Eph 2:8 - For by grace are ye saved // through faith, and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God For by grace are ye saved,.... This is to be understood, not of temporal salvation, nor of preservation in Christ, nor of providential salvation in or...

For by grace are ye saved,.... This is to be understood, not of temporal salvation, nor of preservation in Christ, nor of providential salvation in order to calling, and much less of being put in a way of salvation, or only in a salvable state; but of spiritual salvation, and that actual; for salvation was not only resolved upon, contrived and secured in the covenant of grace, for the persons here spoken to, but it was actually obtained and wrought out for them by Christ, and was actually applied unto them by the Spirit; and even as to the full enjoyment of it, they had it in faith and hope; and because of the certainty of it, they are said to be already saved; and besides, were representatively possessed of it in Christ their head: those interested in this salvation, are not all mankind, but particular persons; and such who were by nature children of wrath, and sinners of the Gentiles; and it is a salvation from sin, Satan, the law, its curse and condemnation, and from eternal death, and wrath to come; and includes all the blessings of grace and glory; and is entirely owing to free grace: for by grace is not meant the Gospel, nor gifts of grace, nor grace infused; but the free favour of God, to which salvation in all its branches is ascribed; as election, redemption, justification, pardon, adoption, regeneration, and eternal glory: the Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic versions read, "by his grace", and so some copies; and it may refer to the grace of all the three Persons; for men are saved by the grace of the Father, who drew the plan of salvation, appointed men to it, made a covenant with his Son, in which it is provided and secured, and sent him into the world to obtain it; and by the grace of the Son, who engaged as a surety to effect it, assumed human nature, obeyed and suffered in it for that purpose, and has procured it; and by the grace of the Spirit, who makes men sensible of their need of it, brings it near, sets it before them, and applies it to them, and gives them faith and hope in it: hence it follows,

through faith, and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; salvation is through faith, not as a cause or condition of salvation, or as what adds anything to the blessing itself; but it is the way, or means, or instrument, which God has appointed, for the receiving and enjoying it, that so it might appear to be all of grace; and this faith is not the produce of man's free will and power, but it is the free gift of God; and therefore salvation through it is consistent with salvation by grace; since that itself is of grace, lies entirely in receiving grace and gives all the glory to the grace of God: the sense of this last clause may be, that salvation is not of ourselves; it is not of our desiring nor of our deserving, nor of our performing, but is of the free grace of God: though faith is elsewhere represented as the gift of God, Joh 6:65 and it is called the special gift of faith, in the Apocrypha:

"And blessed is the eunuch, which with his hands hath wrought no iniquity, nor imagined wicked things against God: for unto him shall be given the "special gift of faith", and an inheritance in the temple of the Lord more acceptable to his mind.'' (Wisdom 3:14)

----- (I asked the following question from a Greek and Hebrew professor:

"In this verse, to what does the word "that" refer to? Adam Clarke, Wesley & company say that it is neuter plural and "Faith" is feminine hence it cannot refer to faith, (Such an admission would destroy their theological system.) However "Grace" is also feminine as is "Salvation".''

His reply was:

"Here you ask a wonderful theological/exegetical question to which I can only give an opinion, and not a definitive answer. The problem is that there is NO precise referent. Grace is feminine. Faith is feminine. And even Salvation (as a noun) is feminine. Yet it must be one of these three at least, and maybe more than one, or all three in conjunction. Since all three come from God and not from man, the latter might seem the more likely. However, it is a tautology to say salvation and grace are "nor of yourselves," and in that case it certainly looks more like the passage is really pointing out that man cannot even take credit for his own act of faith, but that faith was itself created by God and implanted in us that we might believe (i.e. the normal Calvinistic position). In which regard the whole theological issue of "regeneration preceding faith" comes into play. So, that is basically my opinion, though others obviously disagree strenuously, but from an exegetical standpoint, the other positions have to explain away the matter of the tautology.''

Whether you accept the reply or not, it is sufficient to show that the Greek is not as definitive in this verse as some scholars would have you believe. Editor)

Gill: Eph 2:9 - Not of works // lest any man should boast Not of works,.... Of any kind, moral or ceremonial, before or after conversion, done without faith or in it, nor of these in any sense; works are neit...

Not of works,.... Of any kind, moral or ceremonial, before or after conversion, done without faith or in it, nor of these in any sense; works are neither the moving causes, nor the procuring causes, nor the helping causes, nor "causa sine qua non", or conditions of salvation; the best works that are done by men, are not done of themselves, but by the grace of God, and therefore can never merit at his hand: and salvation is put upon such a foot,

lest any man should boast; of his works before God, and unto men; wherefore he has denied works any place in justification and salvation, in order to exclude all boasting in man; and has fixed it in a way of grace, and has chosen and called poor sinful worthless creatures to enjoy it, that whoever glories, may glory in the Lord.

Gill: Eph 2:10 - For we are his workmanship // created in Christ Jesus unto good works // which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them For we are his workmanship,.... Not as men only, but as Christians; not as creatures merely, but as new creatures; the work of grace upon the soul see...

For we are his workmanship,.... Not as men only, but as Christians; not as creatures merely, but as new creatures; the work of grace upon the soul seems chiefly designed, which like a poem, as the word may be rendered, is a very curious work; the king's daughter is all glorious within, for this is an internal work, and is a good and excellent one; it is not indeed perfected at once, but is gradually carried on, till the finishing stroke is given to it by that hand which begun it; the author of it is God, it is not man's work; nor is it the work of ministers, no, nor of angels, but it is God's work: sometimes it is ascribed to the Spirit, who regenerates and sanctifies; and sometimes to the Son of God, who quickens whom he will; and sometimes to the Father, who reveals his Son, and draws men to him, and who seems to be meant here: the subjects of this divine operation, are the persons described in Eph 2:1 and include both Jews and Gentiles; and express the distinguishing grace of God, that they and not others, and who were by nature children of wrath as others, should be his workmanship: and this is mentioned to show, that salvation can not be by any works of men, since all their works are either wrought for them, or in them, by God; salvation is a work wrought for them without them; and sanctification is a work wrought in them by God, of his good pleasure; and all their good works are fruits of his grace, as follows:

created in Christ Jesus unto good works; the work of grace is a creation, or a creature, a new creature; not a new vamp of old Adam's principles, but; an infusion of new ones, and is a work of almighty power; and such who have it wrought in them, are said to be created in Christ; because as soon as a man becomes a new creature, he is openly and visibly in Christ; and by these new principles of grace which are created in him, he is fit and ready, and in a capacity to perform good works; the new man formed in him, is formed for righteousness and true holiness; the internal principle of grace both excites unto, and qualifies for, the performance of righteous and holy actions:

which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them, or has "before prepared"; for the preparation of good works to be performed by saints, and the preparation of them for the performance of them; are both from the Lord; God has appointed good works to be done by his people and in his word he has declared what they are he would have done; and it is his will not only that they should do them, but continue to do them; not only that they should do a single act or more, but walk in them; their conversation and course of life should be one continued series of good works; but the intention is not that they should be saved by them, but that they should walk in them; and this being the pre-ordination of God, as it shows that predestination is not according to good works, since good works are the fruits and effects of it, so likewise that it is no licentious doctrine; seeing it provides for the performance of good works, as well as secures grace and glory.

Gill: Eph 2:11 - Wherefore remember, that ye be in time past Gentiles in the flesh // who are called uncircumcision by that which is called circumcision in the flesh made by hands Wherefore remember, that ye be in time past Gentiles in the flesh,.... This, with what follows in the next verse, the apostle puts the converted Ephes...

Wherefore remember, that ye be in time past Gentiles in the flesh,.... This, with what follows in the next verse, the apostle puts the converted Ephesians in mind of, in order to magnify the grace of God in their conversion; and to humble them in a view of their former state and condition; and to teach them that they could never be saved by any works of theirs: particularly he would have them call to mind, that they were in "time past Gentiles"; which does not so much regard the nation and country they were of, for in that sense they were Gentiles still; but their state and condition; they had been very blind and ignorant, were Gentiles that knew not God; they had been very wicked and profligate sinners of the Gentiles; and they had been "Gentiles in the flesh": not according to the flesh, or by birth, for so they were then; but in the time of their unregeneracy they were carnal, and minded the things of the flesh, walked after it, and fulfilled the lusts, and did the works of it; particular respect seems to be had to their uncircumcision in the flesh, to which circumcision in the flesh is opposed in the next clause:

who are called uncircumcision by that which is called circumcision in the flesh made by hands; that is, they were by way of reproach and contempt called uncircumcised persons; than whom none were more abominable to the Jews, and hated by them, who were called circumcised persons from that circumcision which is outward, in the flesh, in a particular part of the body; and which is done by the hands of a man, who was called מוהל, "the circumciser"; which any one might be, except a Gentile u; an Israelite adult and skilful was preferred; yet these were not circumcised persons with that circumcision that is inward, and is of the heart, in the Spirit, and is made without the hands of men, and by the Spirit and power of God.

Gill: Eph 2:12 - That at that time ye were without Christ // being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel // strangers to the covenants of promise // having no hope of the promise // and without God in the world That at that time ye were without Christ,.... Or separate from him: they were chosen in him and were preserved in him, and were redeemed by him before...

That at that time ye were without Christ,.... Or separate from him: they were chosen in him and were preserved in him, and were redeemed by him before; but they were without any knowledge of him, faith in him, love to him, communion with him, or subjection to him, his Gospel, government, laws, and ordinances; and particularly they were without any promises of him, or prophecies concerning him, which were peculiar to the Jews; hence the Messiah is called משיחא דישראל, "the Christ of Israel" w, and who as he was promised, so he was sent only to the lost sheep of the house, of Israel: hence it follows,

being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel; both from their civil and church state; the Gentiles might not dwell among them, nor have any dealings with them in things civil, unless they conformed to certain laws; nor might the Jews go into any, nor eat or converse with any, that were uncircumcised; so great an alienation and distance were there between these two people; and much less might they eat the passover and join with them in religious worship; the word for "commonwealth" here used, Harpocratian says x, is commonly used by Greek writers for a "democracy" though the original constitution of the Israelites was properly a "theocracy":

strangers to the covenants of promise; to the covenant of circumcision given to Abraham; and to the covenant at Mount Sinai, made with Israel; and to the dispensation of the covenant of grace to that people, sometimes called the first covenant and the old covenant, and which peculiarly belonged to them, Rom 9:4 one copy reads, "strangers to the promises of the covenant"; which is natural enough; the Vulgate Latin version joins the word "promise" to the next clause, and reads,

having no hope of the promise of the promised Messiah: "having no hope"; of the Messiah and salvation by him, of the resurrection of the dead, of a future state, and of eternal life; none that is sure and steadfast, that is purifying, and makes not ashamed; or which is a good hope through grace, is the gift of God, the fruit of his love, and the effect of his power; and this is to be in a miserable condition: Philo, the Jew y, observes, that

"the Chaldeans call a man Enos, as if he only was truly a man that expects good things, and supports himself with good hopes; and adds, hence it is manifest that one without hope is not reckoned a man, but a beast in an human form; since he is destitute of hope, which is the property of the human soul;''

and without God in the world; without the knowledge of God in Christ; without the image of God, which was defaced by sin; without the grace and fear of God; and without communion with him, and the worship of him; and while they were so they were in the world, among the men of it, and were a part of it, not being yet called out of it: the word signifies "atheists": so some of the Gentiles were in "theory", as they all were in practice; and they were by the Jews reckoned no other than "atheists"; it is a common saying with them z that

"he that dwells without the land (of Israel) is like one שאין לו אלוה, "who has no God":''

Gill: Eph 2:13 - But now in Christ Jesus // ye who sometimes were far off // are made nigh by the blood of Christ But now in Christ Jesus,.... Being openly and visibly in Christ, created in him, and become believers in him; as they were before secretly in him, as ...

But now in Christ Jesus,.... Being openly and visibly in Christ, created in him, and become believers in him; as they were before secretly in him, as chosen and blessed in him before the foundation of the world:

ye who sometimes were far off; who in their state of unregeneracy were afar off from God, and from his law, and from any spiritual knowledge of him and fellowship with him; and from Jesus Christ, and from the knowledge of his righteousness, and the way of salvation by him; and from the Spirit, and any acquaintance with the things of the Spirit, and from minding them, and from walking after him; and from the saints and people of God, and from any love to them, and communion with them; and from any solid hopes of happiness, or real peace and comfort; which distance was owing both to Adam's sin and to their own transgressions: it is an observation of a Jewish writer a on Gen 3:9 "where art thou?" he (God) knew where he was, but he said so to show him that he was מרוחפ, "afar off from" God by his sin: see Isa 59:2, and yet

are made nigh by the blood of Christ: so as to have nearness of access to and communion with God, Father, Son, and Spirit, and the saints, in virtue of the blood of Christ; which gives boldness and speaks peace; by which their persons are justified, the pardon of their sins is procured, reconciliation is made, and their garments are washed, and made white; and so they draw nigh with confidence by the faith of him.

Gill: Eph 2:14 - For he is our peace // who hath made both one // and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us For he is our peace,.... The author of peace between Jew and Gentile: there was a great enmity of the Jew against the Gentile, and of the Gentile agai...

For he is our peace,.... The author of peace between Jew and Gentile: there was a great enmity of the Jew against the Gentile, and of the Gentile against the Jew; and chiefly on account of circumcision, the one being without it, and the other insisting on it, and branding one another with nicknames on account of it; but Christ has made peace between them by abrogating the ceremonial law, which was the occasion of the difference, and by sending the Gospel of peace to them both, by converting some of each, and by granting the like privileges to them all, as may be observed in the following verses: and Christ is the author of peace between God and his people; there is naturally in man an enmity to God; sin has separated chief friends; nor can man make his peace with God; what he does, or can do, will not do it; and what will, he cannot do; Christ is the only fit and proper person for this work, being a middle person between both, and is only able to effect it, being God as well as man; and so could draw nigh to God, and treat with him about terms of peace, and agree to them, and perform them; and which he has brought about by his blood, his sufferings and death; and which is made on honourable terms, by a full satisfaction to the law and justice of God; and so is a lasting one, and attended with a train of blessings: moreover, Christ is the donor of peace, of external peace in his churches, and of internal peace of conscience, and of eternal peace in heaven: this is one of the names of the Messiah with the Jews b;

"says R. Jose the Galilean, even the name of the Messiah is called שלום, "peace"; as it is said, Isa 9:6 "the everlasting Father, the Prince of peace";''

see Mic 5:5 where it is said, "and this man shall be the peace"; which the Jewish c writers understand of the Messiah:

who hath made both one; Jews and Gentiles, one people, one body, one church; he united them together, and caused them to agree in one, and made them to be of one mind and judgment by the above methods; as well as he gathered them together in one, in one head, himself, who represented them all:

and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us; the ceremonial law, which was made up of many hard and intolerable commands, and distinguished, and divided, and kept up a division between Jews and Gentiles: so the Jews call the law a wall, "if she be a wall", Son 8:9 זו תורה, "this is the law", say they d: and hence we read of חומת התורה, "the wall of the law" e; and sometimes the phrase, a "partition wall", is used for a division or disagreement; so R. Benjamin says f, that between the Karaites and Rabbanites, who were the disciples of the wise men, there was מחיצה, "a middle wall of partition"; a great difference and distance; and such there was between the Jew and Gentile, by reason of the ceremonial law; but Christ removed it, and made up the difference: the allusion seems to be to the wall which divided the court of Israel from the court of the Gentiles, in the temple, and which kept them at a distance in worship.

Gill: Eph 2:15 - Having abolished in his flesh the enmity // even the law of commandments contained in ordinances // for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace Having abolished in his flesh the enmity,.... The ceremonial law, as appears by what follows, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances;...

Having abolished in his flesh the enmity,.... The ceremonial law, as appears by what follows,

even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; which consisted of many precepts, and carnal ordinances; and is so called because it was an indication of God's hatred of sin, by requiring sacrifice for it; and because it was an occasion of stirring up the enmity of the natural man, it being a burden and a weariness to the flesh, by reason of its many and troublesome rites; and because it was the cause of enmity between Jew and Gentile: the Jews say g, that Sinai, the mount on which the law was given, signifies "hatred"; and that it is so called because from it descended שנאה, "hatred" or "enmity" to the nations of the world: now this Christ abolished, "in his flesh", or by it; not by his incarnation, but by the sacrifice of his flesh, or human nature, and that as in union with his divine nature; but not until he had fulfilled it in himself, which was one end of his coming into the world; and then he abolished it, so as that it ought not to be, and so as that it is not, and of no use and service; and that because it was faulty and deficient, weak and unprofitable, as well as intolerable; and because there was a change in the priesthood; and because it was contrary to a spirit of liberty, the great blessing of the Gospel; and that there might be a reconciliation and a coalition between Jew and Gentile, as follows:

for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace; which explains what is meant before by making both one; and expresses the strictness of the union between Jew and Gentile, they became as one man; and points at the manner in which they became so strictly united; and that is by being made new men, or new creatures, by having a work of grace upon their souls, and so baptized into one body, and made to drink of one and the same Spirit; the foundation of which union is in himself; for Jew and Gentile, male and female, bond and free, are all one in Christ Jesus; he is the cornerstone in which they all meet, and the head to which the whole body is joined.

Gill: Eph 2:16 - And that he might reconcile both unto God // in one body by the cross // having slain the enmity thereby And that he might reconcile both unto God,.... This is another end of the abrogation of the ceremonial law: the Jews had run up a long score against t...

And that he might reconcile both unto God,.... This is another end of the abrogation of the ceremonial law: the Jews had run up a long score against the ceremonial law, as well as against the moral law; and Christ by fulfilling it for them, and thereby abrogating it, reconciled them; and the Gentiles could not be reconciled together with them, without the abrogation of it: and this reconciliation of them is made to God, who was the person offended; and who yet first set on foot a reconciliation, in which his glory is greatly concerned; and reconciliation with others depends upon reconciliation with him: and this is made

in one body by the cross; by which "body" is meant, the human body of Christ, which the Father prepared for him, and he assumed, and that in order to make reconciliation for his people; and is said to be "one" body, because it was in one and the same body, which he reconciled both Jews and Gentiles unto God, and in or by one sacrifice of that body; reconciliation being so effectually made by it that there is no need of a reiteration: or the sense is, he reconciled them into "one body"; into one mystical body, the church, of which he is head; and this he did "by the cross", that is, by his blood shed on the cross, or by his suffering the death of the cross; which shows that reconciliation is made in a way of satisfaction to the law and justice of God, by Christ's bearing the penalty of the law, and suffering the strokes of justice on the cross; and expresses the efficacy of his blood and sacrifice, and the greatness of his condescension and love:

having slain the enmity thereby; the ceremonial law, as before; and the slaying it is the same with abolishing it; unless the enmity between God and man is meant, which was slain by removing the cause of it, sin; and which laid a foundation for the slaying of it in the hearts of his people in regeneration, when sin is made odious to them, and they are reconciled to God's way of salvation; hence being slain in both senses, peace with God can never be broken.

Gill: Eph 2:17 - And came and preached peace to you which were afar off // and to them that were nigh And came and preached peace to you which were afar off,.... Which is to be understood not of Christ's coming in the flesh; for when he came in the fle...

And came and preached peace to you which were afar off,.... Which is to be understood not of Christ's coming in the flesh; for when he came in the flesh, he came only to the Jews that were nigh, and preached the Gospel in his own personal ministry to them, and not to the Gentiles, who are the persons afar off; Eph 2:12 but of his coming by his Spirit in the ministry of his apostles, to whom he gave a commission after he had made peace and reconciliation by the blood of his cross, to go into all the world and preach the Gospel to the Gentiles in the furthest parts of the earth; and on whom he bestowed gifts, qualifying them for such service, and succeeded them in it by his power and grace: and the subject of their ministry was peace, Christ who is our peace, and peace made by his blood, and the Gospel of peace, which declares both these; and it is the means of making persons of peaceable dispositions; its doctrines and promises, when powerfully applied, give peace to distressed minds, and quiet to doubting saints; and it shows the way to eternal peace:

and to them that were nigh; to the Jews, to whom the Gospel of peace was preached in the first place, not only by Christ and his apostles, before his death; but by his apostles after his resurrection, and after the commission was given to preach it to the Gentiles; though they are mentioned last, because the apostle was speaking to Gentiles; and this also verifies what Christ says, the first shall be last, and the last first: the Alexandrian copy, some others, and the Vulgate Latin and Ethiopic versions, read "peace", in this clause, as in the former; the apostle seems to have respect to Isa 57:19 a like description and distinction of Jews and Gentiles may be observed in the writings of the Jews h; so they say,

"the Israelites are near unto the holy King, and the rest of the nations are far from him.''

Gill: Eph 2:18 - For through him we both have an access // by one Spirit unto the Father For through him we both have an access, That is, both Jews and Gentiles; the Arabic version reads, "we both factions": being made one, and reconciled ...

For through him we both have an access, That is, both Jews and Gentiles; the Arabic version reads, "we both factions": being made one, and reconciled unto God, and having the Gospel of peace preached to both, they have through Christ freedom of access and boldness in it:

by one Spirit unto the Father: they may come to God as the Father of spirits, and of mercies, who has made their souls or spirits, and bestowed his mercies on them in great abundance; and as the Father of Christ, and as their God and Father in Christ: and the rather they should consider him in this relation to them, in order to command in them a reverence and fear of him; to secure a freedom and liberty in their approach to him; and to encourage an holy boldness, and a fiducial confidence in him; and to teach them submission to his will: and their access to him is "through" Christ, who has made peace for them, and atonement for their sins; who has satisfied law and justice, and brought in an everlasting righteousness for them; so that there is nothing lies in their way to hinder them; and besides, he takes them as it were by the hand, and leads them into the presence of his Father, and presents their petitions for them, on whose account they have both audience and acceptance with God: and this access is also "by one Spirit"; the "Holy Spirit", as the Ethiopic version reads; and who is necessary in access to God, as a spirit of adoption, to enable and encourage souls to go to God as a father; and as a spirit of