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Teks -- Daniel 8:1-27 (NET)

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Konteks
Daniel Has a Vision of a Goat and a Ram
8:1 In the third year of King Belshazzar’s reign, a vision appeared to me, Daniel, after the one that had appeared to me previously. 8:2 In this vision I saw myself in Susa the citadel, which is located in the province of Elam. In the vision I saw myself at the Ulai Canal. 8:3 I looked up and saw a ram with two horns standing at the canal. Its two horns were both long, but one was longer than the other. The longer one was coming up after the shorter one. 8:4 I saw that the ram was butting westward, northward, and southward. No animal was able to stand before it, and there was none who could deliver from its power. It did as it pleased and acted arrogantly. 8:5 While I was contemplating all this, a male goat was coming from the west over the surface of all the land without touching the ground. This goat had a conspicuous horn between its eyes. 8:6 It came to the two-horned ram that I had seen standing beside the canal and rushed against it with raging strength. 8:7 I saw it approaching the ram. It went into a fit of rage against the ram and struck it and broke off its two horns. The ram had no ability to resist it. The goat hurled the ram to the ground and trampled it. No one could deliver the ram from its power. 8:8 The male goat acted even more arrogantly. But no sooner had the large horn become strong than it was broken, and there arose four conspicuous horns in its place, extending toward the four winds of the sky. 8:9 From one of them came a small horn. But it grew to be very big, toward the south and the east and toward the beautiful land. 8:10 It grew so big it reached the army of heaven, and it brought about the fall of some of the army and some of the stars to the ground, where it trampled them. 8:11 It also acted arrogantly against the Prince of the army, from whom the daily sacrifice was removed and whose sanctuary was thrown down. 8:12 The army was given over, along with the daily sacrifice, in the course of his sinful rebellion. It hurled truth to the ground and enjoyed success. 8:13 Then I heard a holy one speaking. Another holy one said to the one who was speaking, “To what period of time does the vision pertain– this vision concerning the daily sacrifice and the destructive act of rebellion and the giving over of both the sanctuary and army to be trampled?” 8:14 He said to me, “To 2,300 evenings and mornings; then the sanctuary will be put right again.”
An Angel Interprets Daniel’s Vision
8:15 While I, Daniel, was watching the vision, I sought to understand it. Now one who appeared to be a man was standing before me. 8:16 Then I heard a human voice coming from between the banks of the Ulai. It called out, “Gabriel, enable this person to understand the vision.” 8:17 So he approached the place where I was standing. As he came, I felt terrified and fell flat on the ground. Then he said to me, “Understand, son of man, that the vision pertains to the time of the end.” 8:18 As he spoke with me, I fell into a trance with my face to the ground. But he touched me and stood me upright. 8:19 Then he said, “I am going to inform you about what will happen in the latter time of wrath, for the vision pertains to the appointed time of the end. 8:20 The ram that you saw with the two horns stands for the kings of Media and Persia. 8:21 The male goat is the king of Greece, and the large horn between its eyes is the first king. 8:22 The horn that was broken and in whose place there arose four others stands for four kingdoms that will arise from his nation, though they will not have his strength. 8:23 Toward the end of their rule, when rebellious acts are complete, a rash and deceitful king will arise. 8:24 His power will be great, but it will not be by his strength alone. He will cause terrible destruction. He will be successful in what he undertakes. He will destroy powerful people and the people of the holy ones. 8:25 By his treachery he will succeed through deceit. He will have an arrogant attitude, and he will destroy many who are unaware of his schemes. He will rise up against the Prince of princes, yet he will be broken apart– but not by human agency. 8:26 The vision of the evenings and mornings that was told to you is correct. But you should seal up the vision, for it refers to a time many days from now.” 8:27 I, Daniel, was exhausted and sick for days. Then I got up and again carried out the king’s business. But I was astonished at the vision, and there was no one to explain it.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Belshazzar the deputy king of Babylon after Nebuchadnezzar
 · Daniel the prophet who wrote the book of Daniel,son of David and Abigail,head of clan (Ithamar Levi) who pledged to obey God's law,prophet who wrote the book of Daniel
 · Elam son of Shem son of Noah,a country east of the Tigris and Babylon in the territory of Media,son of Shashak of Benjamin,son of Meshelemiah; a Levite gatekeeper,a man whose descendants returned from exile in Babylon; Elam I,forefather of exile returnees with Zerubbabel; Elam II,forefather of returnees headed by Jeshaiah,forefather of Shecaniah who had to put away his heathen wife,an Israelite chief who signed the covenant to obey God's law,a priest who helped Nehemiah dedicate the new wall of Jerusalem
 · Gabriel a specific angel,an angel who brought understanding to the prophet Daniel
 · Greece son of Japheth son of Noah,a nation, namely Greece (OS)
 · Media a country on the SW coast of the Caspian Sea
 · Persia citizen(s) of Persia
 · Susa capital city of Elam and winter home of the Persian kings (OS)
 · Ulai a river flowing through Susa, Persia into the Euphrates delta


Topik/Tema Kamus: Persia | SHUSHAN | Daniel | Vision | Horn | ANTICHRIST | Angel | Temple | Ulai | GOAT | RIVER | ALEXANDER, THE GREAT | BETWEEN THE TESTAMENTS | Gabriel | WATERCOURSE | ESCHATOLOGY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, I-V | Church | Jesus, The Christ | Princes and Princesses | Ram | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Calvin , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: Dan 8:1 - After that In the other vision he speaks o[ all the four monarchies; here only of the three first; this vision being a comment upon the first.

In the other vision he speaks o[ all the four monarchies; here only of the three first; this vision being a comment upon the first.

Wesley: Dan 8:2 - The river of Ulai Which ran round the city.

Which ran round the city.

Wesley: Dan 8:3 - Two horns The kingdom of Media and Persia.

The kingdom of Media and Persia.

Wesley: Dan 8:3 - And the higher The kingdom of Persia which rose last, in Cyrus, became more eminent than that of the Medes.

The kingdom of Persia which rose last, in Cyrus, became more eminent than that of the Medes.

Wesley: Dan 8:4 - West ward - Toward Babylon, Syria, Cappadocia, Asia the less, and Greece, all westward from Media and Persia.

ward - Toward Babylon, Syria, Cappadocia, Asia the less, and Greece, all westward from Media and Persia.

Wesley: Dan 8:4 - North ward - Against the Armenians, Iberians, Lydians, Colchi Caspians.

ward - Against the Armenians, Iberians, Lydians, Colchi Caspians.

Wesley: Dan 8:4 - South ward - Against Ethiopia, Arabia, Egypt.

ward - Against Ethiopia, Arabia, Egypt.

Wesley: Dan 8:5 - An he goat - The Grecian empire.

goat - The Grecian empire.

Wesley: Dan 8:5 - The whole earth The whole Persian empire.

The whole Persian empire.

Wesley: Dan 8:5 - Touched not the ground Went with incredible swiftness.

Went with incredible swiftness.

Wesley: Dan 8:5 - A horn This was Alexander the great.

This was Alexander the great.

Wesley: Dan 8:6 - The ram The king of Media and Persia.

The king of Media and Persia.

Wesley: Dan 8:8 - Was broken When Alexander was greatest, then was he broken, and that to pieces, for he, his mother, son, brother, and all his kindred were destroyed. The four wi...

When Alexander was greatest, then was he broken, and that to pieces, for he, his mother, son, brother, and all his kindred were destroyed. The four winds Antipater got Greece. Asia was possessed by Antigonus. Ptolemy got Egypt. Seleucus had Babylon and Syria. All these were variously situated; to the east, Babylon and Syria; to the south, Egypt; to the north, Asia the less; to the west, Greece.

Wesley: Dan 8:9 - A little horn This little horn was Antiochus Epiphanes.

This little horn was Antiochus Epiphanes.

Wesley: Dan 8:9 - The south Egypt where he besieged and took many places.

Egypt where he besieged and took many places.

Wesley: Dan 8:9 - The east In Syria, Babylon, Armenia.

In Syria, Babylon, Armenia.

Wesley: Dan 8:9 - The pleasant land Judea, so called because of the temple and people of God in it, and the fruitfulness of it.

Judea, so called because of the temple and people of God in it, and the fruitfulness of it.

Wesley: Dan 8:10 - The host of heaven The church of God militant, who worship the God of heaven, who are citizens of heaven, whose names are written in heaven; and among these the priests,...

The church of God militant, who worship the God of heaven, who are citizens of heaven, whose names are written in heaven; and among these the priests, and champions, who were as stars shining above the rest; these he profaned and slew cruelly.

Wesley: Dan 8:11 - The prince Not only against the high-priest, but against God himself.

Not only against the high-priest, but against God himself.

Wesley: Dan 8:11 - Was cast down He took away the use of the temple as to the holy service and sacrifices.

He took away the use of the temple as to the holy service and sacrifices.

Wesley: Dan 8:12 - By reason of transgression Both the transgression of the priests, and of the people.

Both the transgression of the priests, and of the people.

Wesley: Dan 8:13 - One saint That is, one holy angel.

That is, one holy angel.

Wesley: Dan 8:13 - How long How long shall Antiochus continue his vexations against the people and prevent the worship of God? This is, the treading down of the sanctuary, and th...

How long shall Antiochus continue his vexations against the people and prevent the worship of God? This is, the treading down of the sanctuary, and the host.

Wesley: Dan 8:14 - He That angel.

That angel.

Wesley: Dan 8:14 - Then Just so long it was, from the defection of the people, procured by Menelaus, the high-priest, to the cleansing of the sanctuary, and the re - establis...

Just so long it was, from the defection of the people, procured by Menelaus, the high-priest, to the cleansing of the sanctuary, and the re - establishment of religion among them.

Wesley: Dan 8:15 - The meaning A more clear discovery of those things.

A more clear discovery of those things.

Wesley: Dan 8:15 - The appearance of a man Probably Gabriel.

Probably Gabriel.

Wesley: Dan 8:16 - A man's voice Of him before mentioned, namely, Christ.

Of him before mentioned, namely, Christ.

Wesley: Dan 8:17 - He came near That he might speak more familiarly to him, yet Daniel could not bear the glory of it. How much less can we bear the glory of God, and how graciously ...

That he might speak more familiarly to him, yet Daniel could not bear the glory of it. How much less can we bear the glory of God, and how graciously hath the Lord dealt with us, to teach us by men, and not by angels? O son of man - He calls him son of man, to make him mind his frailty, and not to be lifted up with this great condescension of heaven.

Wesley: Dan 8:17 - At the time In God's appointed time, in the latter day, but not now in thy life - time.

In God's appointed time, in the latter day, but not now in thy life - time.

Wesley: Dan 8:18 - Toward the ground Being terrified with the splendor and grandeur both of the messenger and message.

Being terrified with the splendor and grandeur both of the messenger and message.

Wesley: Dan 8:18 - Set me upright By one touch only. The power of spirits is incomparably greater than that of the strongest of men.

By one touch only. The power of spirits is incomparably greater than that of the strongest of men.

Wesley: Dan 8:19 - The indignation God will raise up Antiochus to execute his wrath against the Jews for their sins, yet there shall be an end of that indignation.

God will raise up Antiochus to execute his wrath against the Jews for their sins, yet there shall be an end of that indignation.

Wesley: Dan 8:23 - In the latter time When they were come to the height, and beginning to decline.

When they were come to the height, and beginning to decline.

Wesley: Dan 8:23 - When the transgressors When the Jews were grown to an excess of wickedness, then God suffered Antiochus to persecute them.

When the Jews were grown to an excess of wickedness, then God suffered Antiochus to persecute them.

Wesley: Dan 8:23 - Dark sentences Full of subtilty: such all histories declare Antiochus to be.

Full of subtilty: such all histories declare Antiochus to be.

Wesley: Dan 8:24 - Not by his own power Not by any heroick deeds, but by making use of the Jewish factions, through the divine commission to punish a backsliding nation; and by means of Eume...

Not by any heroick deeds, but by making use of the Jewish factions, through the divine commission to punish a backsliding nation; and by means of Eumenes and Attalus, by whose help he got up to this height.

Wesley: Dan 8:24 - Shall destroy He shall by force, craft, and cruelty, destroy many of God's people.

He shall by force, craft, and cruelty, destroy many of God's people.

Wesley: Dan 8:25 - By peace Under colour of kindness.

Under colour of kindness.

Wesley: Dan 8:25 - Against the prince of princes He fought against God, affronting God's laws, profaning God's worship, and temple, and setting up the image and worship of Jupiter there.

He fought against God, affronting God's laws, profaning God's worship, and temple, and setting up the image and worship of Jupiter there.

Wesley: Dan 8:25 - Without hand By a disease whereof he died, 1 Macc. 6:8.

By a disease whereof he died, 1 Macc. 6:8.

Wesley: Dan 8:26 - Shut thou up Lay it up in thy heart.

Lay it up in thy heart.

Wesley: Dan 8:26 - For many days Three hundred years after this; long after Daniel's days.

Three hundred years after this; long after Daniel's days.

Wesley: Dan 8:27 - Was sick Being overwhelmed by a sense of the calamity that should befall the people of God.

Being overwhelmed by a sense of the calamity that should befall the people of God.

Wesley: Dan 8:27 - Did the king's business Having recovered strength, he minded his place, duty and trust, and concealed the whole, that they might not see it by his countenance.

Having recovered strength, he minded his place, duty and trust, and concealed the whole, that they might not see it by his countenance.

JFB: Dan 8:1 - vision A higher kind of revelation than a dream.

A higher kind of revelation than a dream.

JFB: Dan 8:1 - after that . . . at the first That in Dan 7:1.

That in Dan 7:1.

JFB: Dan 8:2 - Shushan Susa. Though then comparatively insignificant, it was destined to be the capital of Persia after Cyrus' time. Therefore Daniel is transported into it,...

Susa. Though then comparatively insignificant, it was destined to be the capital of Persia after Cyrus' time. Therefore Daniel is transported into it, as being the capital of the kingdom signified by the two-horned ram (Neh 1:1; Est 1:2-5).

JFB: Dan 8:2 - Elam West of Persia proper, east of Babylonia, south of Media. Daniel was not present there personally, but in vision.

West of Persia proper, east of Babylonia, south of Media. Daniel was not present there personally, but in vision.

JFB: Dan 8:2 - Ulai Called in PLINY Euloeus; by the Greeks, Choaspes. Now Kerah, or Karasu. So in Dan 10:4 he receives a vision near another river, the Hiddekel. So Ezeki...

Called in PLINY Euloeus; by the Greeks, Choaspes. Now Kerah, or Karasu. So in Dan 10:4 he receives a vision near another river, the Hiddekel. So Ezekiel (Eze 1:1) at the Chebar. Perhaps because synagogues used to be built near rivers, as before praying they washed their hands in the water [ROSENMULLER], (Psa 137:1).

JFB: Dan 8:3 - two horns The "two" ought not to be in italics, as if it were not in the original; for it is expressed by the Hebrew dual. "Horn" in the East is the symbol of p...

The "two" ought not to be in italics, as if it were not in the original; for it is expressed by the Hebrew dual. "Horn" in the East is the symbol of power and royalty.

JFB: Dan 8:3 - one . . . higher than . . . other . . . the higher came up last Persia, which was of little note till Cyrus' time, became then ascendant over Media, the more ancient kingdom. Darius was sixty-two years old (Dan 5:3...

Persia, which was of little note till Cyrus' time, became then ascendant over Media, the more ancient kingdom. Darius was sixty-two years old (Dan 5:31) when he began to reign; during his short reign of two years, being a weak king (Dan 6:1-3), the government was almost entirely in Cyrus' hands. Hence HERODOTUS does not mention Darius; but XENOPHON does under the name of Cyaxares II. The "ram" here corresponds to the "bear" (Dan 7:5), symbolizing clumsy firmness. The king of Persia wore a jewelled ram's head of gold instead of a diadem, such as are seen on the pillars at Persepolis. Also the Hebrew for "ram" springs from the same root as "Elam," or Persia [NEWTON]. The "one horn higher than the other" answers to the bear "raising itself on one side" (compare Note, see on Dan 7:5).

JFB: Dan 8:4 - ram pushing westward Persia conquered westward Babylon, Mesopotamia, Syria, Asia Minor.

Persia conquered westward Babylon, Mesopotamia, Syria, Asia Minor.

JFB: Dan 8:4 - northward Colchis, Armenia, Iberia, and the dwellers on the Caspian Sea.

Colchis, Armenia, Iberia, and the dwellers on the Caspian Sea.

JFB: Dan 8:4 - southward Judea, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya; also India, under Darius. He does not say eastward, for the Persians themselves came from the east (Isa 46:11).

Judea, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya; also India, under Darius. He does not say eastward, for the Persians themselves came from the east (Isa 46:11).

JFB: Dan 8:4 - did according to his will (Dan 11:3, Dan 11:16; compare Dan 5:19).

(Dan 11:3, Dan 11:16; compare Dan 5:19).

JFB: Dan 8:5 - he-goat Græco-Macedonia.

Græco-Macedonia.

JFB: Dan 8:5 - notable horn Alexander. "Touched not . . . ground," implies the incredible swiftness of his conquests; he overran the world in less than twelve years. The he-goat ...

Alexander. "Touched not . . . ground," implies the incredible swiftness of his conquests; he overran the world in less than twelve years. The he-goat answers to the leopard (Dan 7:6). Caranus, the first king of Macedonia, was said to have been led by goats to Edessa, which he made the seat of his kingdom, and called Æge, that is, "goat-city."

JFB: Dan 8:6 - standing before the river Ulai. It was at the "river" Granicus that Alexander fought his first victorious battle against Darius, 334 B.C.

Ulai. It was at the "river" Granicus that Alexander fought his first victorious battle against Darius, 334 B.C.

JFB: Dan 8:7 - moved with choler Alexander represented the concentrated wrath of Greece against Persia for the Persian invasions of Greece; also for the Persian cruelties to Greeks, a...

Alexander represented the concentrated wrath of Greece against Persia for the Persian invasions of Greece; also for the Persian cruelties to Greeks, and Darius' attempts to seduce Alexander's soldiers to treachery [NEWTON].

JFB: Dan 8:7 - stamped upon him In 331 B.C. he defeated Darius Codomanus, and in 330 burned Persepolis and completed the conquest of Persia.

In 331 B.C. he defeated Darius Codomanus, and in 330 burned Persepolis and completed the conquest of Persia.

JFB: Dan 8:7 - none . . . could deliver Not the immense hosts of Persia could save it from the small army of Alexander (Psa 33:16).

Not the immense hosts of Persia could save it from the small army of Alexander (Psa 33:16).

JFB: Dan 8:8 - when he was strong . . . great horn was broken The empire was in full strength at Alexander's death by fever at Babylon, and seemed then least likely to fall. Yet it was then "broken." His natural ...

The empire was in full strength at Alexander's death by fever at Babylon, and seemed then least likely to fall. Yet it was then "broken." His natural brother, Philip Aridoeus, and his two sons, Alexander Ægus and Hercules, in fifteen months were murdered.

JFB: Dan 8:8 - four . . . toward . . . four winds Seleucus, in the east, obtained Syria, Babylonia, Media, &c.; Cassander, in the west, Macedon Thessaly, Greece; PTOLEMY, in the south, Egypt, Cyprus, ...

Seleucus, in the east, obtained Syria, Babylonia, Media, &c.; Cassander, in the west, Macedon Thessaly, Greece; PTOLEMY, in the south, Egypt, Cyprus, &c.; Lysimachus, in the north, Thrace, Cappadocia, and the north parts of Asia Minor.

JFB: Dan 8:9 - little horn Not to be confounded with the little horn of the fourth kingdom in Dan 7:8. The little horn in Dan 7:8 comes as an eleventh horn after ten preceding h...

Not to be confounded with the little horn of the fourth kingdom in Dan 7:8. The little horn in Dan 7:8 comes as an eleventh horn after ten preceding horns. In Dan 8:9 it is not an independent fifth horn, after the four previous ones, but it arises out of one of the four existing horns. This horn is explained (Dan 8:23) to be "a king of fierce countenance," &c. Antiochus Epiphanes is meant. Greece with all its refinement produces the first, that is, the Old Testament Antichrist. Antiochus had an extraordinarly love of art, which expressed itself in grand temples. He wished to substitute Zeus Olympius for Jehovah at Jerusalem. Thus first heathen civilization from below, and revealed religion from above, came into collision. Identifying himself with Jupiter, his aim was to make his own worship universal (compare Dan 8:25 with Dan 11:36); so mad was he in this that he was called Epimanes (maniac) instead of Epiphanes. None of the previous world rulers, Nebuchadnezzar (Dan 4:31-34), Darius (Dan 6:27-28), Cyrus (Ezr 1:2-4), Artaxerxes Longimanus (Ezr 7:12), had systematically opposed the Jews' religious worship. Hence the need of prophecy to prepare them for Antiochus. The struggle of the Maccabees was a fruit of Daniel's prophecy (1 Maccabees 2:59). He is the forerunner of the final Antichrist, standing in the same relation to the first advent of Christ that Antichrist does to His second coming. The sins in Israel which gave rise to the Greek Antichrist were that some Jews adopted Hellenic customs (compare Dan 11:30, Dan 11:32), erecting theaters, and regarding all religions alike, sacrificing to Jehovah, but at the same time sending money for sacrifices to Hercules. Such shall be the state of the world when ripe for Antichrist. At Dan 8:9 and Dan 8:23 the description passes from the literal Antiochus to features which, though partially attributed to him, hold good in their fullest sense only of his antitype, the New Testament Antichrist. The Mohammedan Antichrist may also be included; answering to the Euphratean (Turk) horsemen (Rev 9:14-21), loosed "an hour, a day, a month, a year" (391 years, in the year-day theory), to scourge corrupted, idolatrous Christianity. In A.D. 637 the Saracen Moslem mosque of Omar was founded on the site of the temple, "treading under foot the sanctuary" (Dan 8:11-13); and there it still remains.The first conquest of the Turks over Christians was in A.D. 1281; and 391 years after they reached their zenith of power and began to decline, Sobieski defeating them at Vienna. Mohammed II, called "the conqueror," reigned A.D. 1451-1481, in which period Constantinople fell 391 years after brings us to our own day, in which Turkey's fall is imminent.

JFB: Dan 8:9 - waxed . . . great, toward . . . south (Dan 11:25). Antiochus fought against PTOLEMY Philometer and Egypt, that is, the south.

(Dan 11:25). Antiochus fought against PTOLEMY Philometer and Egypt, that is, the south.

JFB: Dan 8:9 - toward the east He fought against those who attempted a change of government in Persia.

He fought against those who attempted a change of government in Persia.

JFB: Dan 8:9 - toward the pleasant land Judea, "the glorious land" (Dan 11:16, Dan 11:41, Dan 11:45; compare Psa 48:2; Eze 20:6, Eze 20:15). Its chief pleasantness consists in its being God'...

Judea, "the glorious land" (Dan 11:16, Dan 11:41, Dan 11:45; compare Psa 48:2; Eze 20:6, Eze 20:15). Its chief pleasantness consists in its being God's chosen land (Psa 132:13; Jer 3:19). Into it Antiochus made his inroad after his return from Egypt.

JFB: Dan 8:10 - great, even to . . . host of heaven Explained in Dan 8:24, "the mighty and holy people," that is, the Jews (Dan 7:21) and their priests (compare Isa 24:21). The Levites' service is calle...

Explained in Dan 8:24, "the mighty and holy people," that is, the Jews (Dan 7:21) and their priests (compare Isa 24:21). The Levites' service is called "a warfare" (Num 8:24-25, Margin). Great civil and religious powers are symbolized by "stars" (Mat 24:29). See 1 Maccabees 1:25, &c.; 1 Maccabees 2:35, &c.; 1 Maccabees 5:2, 12, 13. TREGELLES refers "stars" to those Jews whose portion from God is heavenly glory (Dan 12:3), being believers in Him who is above at God's right hand: not the blinded Jews.

JFB: Dan 8:10 - cast . . . stars to the ground So Babel, as type of Antichrist, is described (Isa 14:13-14), "I will exalt my throne above the stars of God." Compare Rev 12:4; 2 Maccabees 9:10, as ...

So Babel, as type of Antichrist, is described (Isa 14:13-14), "I will exalt my throne above the stars of God." Compare Rev 12:4; 2 Maccabees 9:10, as to Antiochus.

JFB: Dan 8:11 - to the prince of the host That is, God Himself, the Lord of Sabaoth, the hosts in heaven and earth, stars, angels, and earthly ministers. So Dan 8:25, "he shall stand up agains...

That is, God Himself, the Lord of Sabaoth, the hosts in heaven and earth, stars, angels, and earthly ministers. So Dan 8:25, "he shall stand up against the Prince of princes"; "against the God of gods" (Dan 11:36; compare Dan 7:8). He not only opposes God's ancient people, but also God Himself.

JFB: Dan 8:11 - daily sacrifice Offered morning and evening (Exo 29:38-39).

Offered morning and evening (Exo 29:38-39).

JFB: Dan 8:11 - taken away By Antiochus (1 Maccabees 1:20-50).

By Antiochus (1 Maccabees 1:20-50).

JFB: Dan 8:11 - sanctuary . . . cast down Though robbed of its treasures, it was not strictly cast down" by Antiochus. So that a fuller accomplishment is future. Antiochus took away the daily ...

Though robbed of its treasures, it was not strictly cast down" by Antiochus. So that a fuller accomplishment is future. Antiochus took away the daily sacrifice for a few years; the Romans, for many ages, and "cast down" the temple; and Antichrist, in connection with Rome, the fourth kingdom, shall do so again after the Jews in their own land, still unbelieving, shall have rebuilt the temple, and restored the Mosaic ritual: God giving them up to him "by reason of transgression" (Dan 8:12), that is, not owning the worship so rendered [TREGELLES]; and then the opposition of the horn to the "truth" is especially mentioned.

JFB: Dan 8:12 - an host Rather, "the host was given up to him," that is, the holy people were given into his hands. So in Dan 8:10 "the host" is used; and again in Dan 8:13, ...

Rather, "the host was given up to him," that is, the holy people were given into his hands. So in Dan 8:10 "the host" is used; and again in Dan 8:13, where also "give" is used as here for "giving up" for destruction (compare Dan 11:6) [MAURER].

JFB: Dan 8:12 - against . . . daily sacrifice Rather (the host was given up for him to tread upon), "together with the daily sacrifice" (compare Dan 8:13).

Rather (the host was given up for him to tread upon), "together with the daily sacrifice" (compare Dan 8:13).

JFB: Dan 8:12 - by reason of transgression 1 Maccabees 1:11-16 traces all the calamities suffered under Antiochus to the transgression of certain Jews who introduced heathen customs into Jerusa...

1 Maccabees 1:11-16 traces all the calamities suffered under Antiochus to the transgression of certain Jews who introduced heathen customs into Jerusalem just before. But transgression was not at the full (Dan 8:23) under Antiochus; for Onias the high priest administered the laws in godliness at the time (2 Maccabees 3:1). Therefore the "transgression" must refer to that of the Jews hereafter restored to Palestine in unbelief.

JFB: Dan 8:12 - the truth The worship of the true God. Isa 59:14, "Truth is fallen in the street."

The worship of the true God. Isa 59:14, "Truth is fallen in the street."

JFB: Dan 8:12 - practised, and prospered Whatever he undertook succeeded (Dan 8:4; Dan 11:28, Dan 11:36).

Whatever he undertook succeeded (Dan 8:4; Dan 11:28, Dan 11:36).

JFB: Dan 8:13 - that certain saint Daniel did not know the names of these two holy angels, but saw only that one was speaking to the other.

Daniel did not know the names of these two holy angels, but saw only that one was speaking to the other.

JFB: Dan 8:13 - How long shall be the vision concerning . . . daily sacrifice How long shall the daily sacrifice be suspended?

How long shall the daily sacrifice be suspended?

JFB: Dan 8:13 - transgression of desolation Literally, "making desolate," that is, Antiochus desolating profanation of the temple (Dan 11:31; Dan 12:11). Compare as to Rome and the last Antichri...

Literally, "making desolate," that is, Antiochus desolating profanation of the temple (Dan 11:31; Dan 12:11). Compare as to Rome and the last Antichrist, Mat 24:15.

JFB: Dan 8:14 - unto me The answer is to Daniel, not to the inquirer, for the latter had asked in Daniel's name; as vice versa the saint or angel (Job 15:15; Psa 89:6-7) spea...

The answer is to Daniel, not to the inquirer, for the latter had asked in Daniel's name; as vice versa the saint or angel (Job 15:15; Psa 89:6-7) speaks of the vision granted to Daniel, as if it had been granted to himself. For holy men are in Scripture represented as having attendant angels, with whom they are in a way identified in interests. If the conversation had been limited to the angels, it could have been of no use to us. But God conveys it to prophetical men, for our good, through the ministry of angels.

JFB: Dan 8:14 - two thousand . . . three hundred days Literally, "mornings and evenings," specified in connection with the morning and evening sacrifice. Compare Gen 1:5. Six years and a hundred ten days....

Literally, "mornings and evenings," specified in connection with the morning and evening sacrifice. Compare Gen 1:5. Six years and a hundred ten days. This includes not only the three and a half years during which the daily sacrifice was forbidden by Antiochus [JOSEPHUS, Wars of the Jews, 1:1.1], but the whole series of events whereby it was practically interrupted: beginning with the "little horn waxing great toward the pleasant land," and "casting down some of the host" (Dan 8:9-10); namely, when in 171 B.C., or the month Sivan in the year 142 of the era of the Seleucidæ, the sacrifices began to be neglected, owing to the high priest Jason introducing at Jerusalem Grecian customs and amusements, the palæstra and gymnasium; ending with the death of Antiochus, 165 B.C., or the month Shebath, in the year 148 of the Seleucid era. Compare 1 Maccabees 1:11-15; 2 Maccabees 4:9, &c. The reason for the greater minuteness of historical facts and dates, given in Daniel's prophecies, than in those of the New Testament, is that Israel, not having yet the clear views which Christians have of immortality and the heavenly inheritance, could only be directed to the earthly future: for it was on earth the looked-for Messiah was to appear, and the sum and subject of Old Testament prophecy was the kingdom of God upon earth. The minuteness of the revelation of Israel's earthly destiny was to compensate for the absence, in the Old Testament, of views of heavenly glory. Thus, in Dan 9:24-27, the times of Messiah are foretold to the very year; in Dan 8:14 the times of Antiochus, even to the day; and in Dan. 11:5-20 the Syro-Egyptian struggles in most minute detail. TREGELLES thinks the twenty-three hundred "days" answer to the week of years (Dan 9:27), during which the destroying prince (Dan 9:26) makes a covenant, which he breaks in the midst of the week (namely, at the end of three and a half years). The seven years exceed the twenty-three hundred days by considerably more than a half year. This period of the seven years' excess above the twenty-three hundred days may be allotted to the preparations needed for setting up the temple-worship, with Antichrist's permission to the restored Jews, according to his "covenant" with them; and the twenty-three hundred days may date from the actual setting up of the worship. But, says AUBERLEN, the more accurate to a day the dates as to Antiochus are given, the less should we say the 1290, or 1335 days (Dan 12:11-12) correspond to the half week (roughly), and the twenty-three hundred to the whole. The event, however, may, in the case of Antichrist, show a correspondence between the days here given and Dan 9:27, such as is not yet discernible. The term of twenty-three hundred days cannot refer twenty-three hundred years of the treading down of Christianity by Mohammedanism, as this would leave the greater portion of the time yet future; whereas, Mohammedanism is fast waning. If the twenty-three hundred days mean years, dating from Alexander's conquests, 334 B.C. to 323, we should arrive at about the close of the sixth thousand years of the world, just as the 1260 years (Dan 7:25) from Justinian's decree arrive at the same terminus. The Jews' tradition represents the seventh thousand as the millennium. CUMMING remarks, 480 B.C. is the date of the waning of the Persian empire before Greece; deducting 480 from 2300, we have 1820; and in 1821, Turkey, the successor of the Greek empire, began to wane, and Greece became a separate kingdom. See on Dan 12:11.

JFB: Dan 8:14 - cleansed Literally, "justified," vindicated from profanation. Judas Maccabeus celebrated the feast of dedication after the cleansing, on the twenty-fifth of th...

Literally, "justified," vindicated from profanation. Judas Maccabeus celebrated the feast of dedication after the cleansing, on the twenty-fifth of the ninth month, Kisleu (1 Maccabees 4:51-58; 2 Maccabees 10:1-7; Joh 10:22). As to the antitypical dedication of the new temple, see Eze. 43:1-27, &c.; also Amo 9:11-12.

JFB: Dan 8:16 - Gabriel Meaning, "the strength of God."

Meaning, "the strength of God."

JFB: Dan 8:17 - the time of the end So Dan 8:19; Dan 11:35-36, Dan 11:40. The event being to take place at "the time of the end" makes it likely that the Antichrist ultimately referred t...

So Dan 8:19; Dan 11:35-36, Dan 11:40. The event being to take place at "the time of the end" makes it likely that the Antichrist ultimately referred to (besides the immediate reference to Antiochus) in this chapter, and the one in Dan 7:8, are one and the same. The objection that the one in the seventh chapter springs out of the ten divisions of the Roman earth, the fourth kingdom, the one in the eighth chapter and the eleventh chapter from one of the four divisions of the third kingdom, Greece, is answered thus: The four divisions of the Grecian empire, having become parts of the Roman empire, shall at the end form four of its ten final divisions [TREGELLES]. However, the origin from one of the four parts of the third kingdom may be limited to Antiochus, the immediate subject of the eighth and eleventh chapter, while the ulterior typical reference of these chapters (namely, Antichrist) may belong to one of the ten Roman divisions, not necessarily one formerly of the four of the third kingdom. The event will tell. "Time of the end" may apply to the time of Antiochus. For it is the prophetic phrase for the time of fulfilment, seen always at the end of the prophetic horizon (Gen 49:1; Num 24:14).

JFB: Dan 8:19 - the last end of the indignation God's displeasure against the Jews for their sins. For their comfort they are told, the calamities about to come are not to be for ever. The "time" is...

God's displeasure against the Jews for their sins. For their comfort they are told, the calamities about to come are not to be for ever. The "time" is limited (Dan 9:27; Dan 11:27, Dan 11:35-36; Dan 12:7; Hab 2:3).

JFB: Dan 8:21 - the first king Philip was king of Macedon before Alexander, but the latter was the first who, as a generalissimo of Greece, subdued the Persian empire.

Philip was king of Macedon before Alexander, but the latter was the first who, as a generalissimo of Greece, subdued the Persian empire.

JFB: Dan 8:22 - not in his power Not with the power which Alexander possessed [MAURER]. An empire united, as under Alexander, is more powerful than one divided, as under the four Diad...

Not with the power which Alexander possessed [MAURER]. An empire united, as under Alexander, is more powerful than one divided, as under the four Diadochi.

JFB: Dan 8:23 - transgressors are come to the full This does not hold good of the times of Antiochus, but of the closing times of the Christian era. Compare Luk 18:8, and 2Ti 3:1-9, as to the wickednes...

This does not hold good of the times of Antiochus, but of the closing times of the Christian era. Compare Luk 18:8, and 2Ti 3:1-9, as to the wickedness of the world in general just before Christ's second coming. Israel's guilt, too, shall then be at the full, when they who rejected Christ shall receive Antichrist; fulfilling Jesus words, "I am come in My Father's name, and ye receive Me not; if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive" (compare Gen 15:16; Mat 23:32; 1Th 2:16).

JFB: Dan 8:23 - of fierce countenance (Deu 28:50); one who will spare neither old nor young.

(Deu 28:50); one who will spare neither old nor young.

JFB: Dan 8:23 - understanding dark sentences Rather, "artifices" [GESENIUS]. Antiochus made himself master of Egypt and Jerusalem successively by craft (1 Maccabees 1:30, &c.; 2 Maccabees 5:24, &...

Rather, "artifices" [GESENIUS]. Antiochus made himself master of Egypt and Jerusalem successively by craft (1 Maccabees 1:30, &c.; 2 Maccabees 5:24, &c.).

JFB: Dan 8:24 - not by his own power Which in the beginning was "little" (Dan 8:9; Dan 7:8); but by gaining over others through craft, the once little horn became "mighty" (compare Dan 8:...

Which in the beginning was "little" (Dan 8:9; Dan 7:8); but by gaining over others through craft, the once little horn became "mighty" (compare Dan 8:25; Dan 11:23). To be fully realized by Antichrist. He shall act by the power of Satan, who shall then be permitted to work through him in unrestricted license, such as he has not now (Rev 13:2); hence the ten kingdoms shall give the beast their power (2Th 2:9-12; Rev 17:13).

JFB: Dan 8:24 - prosper and practise Prosper in all that he attempts (Dan 8:12).

Prosper in all that he attempts (Dan 8:12).

JFB: Dan 8:24 - holy people His persecutions are especially directed against the Jews.

His persecutions are especially directed against the Jews.

JFB: Dan 8:25 - by peace By pretending "peace" and friendship; in the midst of security [GESENIUS], suddenly striking his blow (compare Note, see on Jer 15:8). "A spoiler at n...

By pretending "peace" and friendship; in the midst of security [GESENIUS], suddenly striking his blow (compare Note, see on Jer 15:8). "A spoiler at noon-day."

JFB: Dan 8:25 - also . . . against the Prince of princes Not merely against the Jews (Dan 8:11; Dan 11:36).

Not merely against the Jews (Dan 8:11; Dan 11:36).

JFB: Dan 8:25 - broken without hand By God's special visitation. The stone "cut out of the mountain without hands," that is, Christ is to smite the world power image on his feet (Dan 2:3...

By God's special visitation. The stone "cut out of the mountain without hands," that is, Christ is to smite the world power image on his feet (Dan 2:34), that is, in its last development (compare Dan 7:11). Antiochus horrible death by worms and ulcers, when on his way to Judea, intending to take vengeance for the defeat of his armies by the Maccabees, was a primary fulfilment, foreshadowing God's judgment on the last enemy of the Jewish Church.

JFB: Dan 8:26 - shut . . . up . . . vision Implying the vision was not to be understood for the present. In Rev 22:10 it is said, "Seal not the vision, for the time is at hand." What in Daniel'...

Implying the vision was not to be understood for the present. In Rev 22:10 it is said, "Seal not the vision, for the time is at hand." What in Daniel's time was hidden was more fully explained in Revelation, and as the time draws nearer, it will be clearer still.

JFB: Dan 8:26 - it shall be for many days It refers to remote times (Eze 12:27).

It refers to remote times (Eze 12:27).

JFB: Dan 8:27 - I . . . was sick Through grief at the calamities coming on my people and the Church of God (compare Psa 102:14).

Through grief at the calamities coming on my people and the Church of God (compare Psa 102:14).

JFB: Dan 8:27 - afterward I . . . did the king's business He who holds nearest communion with heaven can best discharge the duties of common life.

He who holds nearest communion with heaven can best discharge the duties of common life.

JFB: Dan 8:27 - none understood it He had heard of kings, but knew not their names; He foresaw the events, but not the time when they were to take place; thereupon he could only feel "a...

He had heard of kings, but knew not their names; He foresaw the events, but not the time when they were to take place; thereupon he could only feel "astonished," and leave all with the omniscient God [JEROME].

The world powers here recede from view; Israel, and the salvation by Messiah promised to it, are the subject of revelation. Israel had naturally expected salvation at the end of the captivity. Daniel is therefore told, that, after the seventy years of the captivity, seventy times seven must elapse, and that even then Messiah would not come in glory as the Jews might through misunderstanding expect from the earlier prophets, but by dying would put away sin. This ninth chapter (Messianic prophecy) stands between the two visions of the Old Testament Antichrist, to comfort "the wise." In the interval between Antiochus and Christ, no further revelation was needed; therefore, as in the first part of the book, so in the second, Christ and Antichrist in connection are the theme.

Clarke: Dan 8:1 - In the third year of the reign of - Belshazzar In the third year of the reign of - Belshazzar - We now come once more to the Hebrew, the Chaldee part of the book being finished. As the Chaldeans ...

In the third year of the reign of - Belshazzar - We now come once more to the Hebrew, the Chaldee part of the book being finished. As the Chaldeans had a particular interest both in the history and prophecies from Dan 2:4 to the end of chap. 7, the whole is written in Chaldee, but as the prophecies which remain concern times posterior to the Chaldean monarchy, and principally relate to the Church and people of God generally, they are written in the Hebrew language, this being the tongue in which God chose to reveal all his counsels given under the Old Testament relative to the New.

Clarke: Dan 8:2 - I saw in a vision I saw in a vision - Daniel was at this time in Shushan, which appears to have been a strong place, where the kings of Persia had their summer reside...

I saw in a vision - Daniel was at this time in Shushan, which appears to have been a strong place, where the kings of Persia had their summer residence. It was the capital of the province of Elam or the Elymais; which province was most probably added to the Chaldean territories by Nebuchadnezzar; see Jer 49:34, Jer 49:35. Here was Daniel’ s ordinary residence; and though here at this time, he, in vision, saw himself on the banks of the river Ulai. This is the same as the river Euleus, which divided Shushan or Susiana from Elymais.

Clarke: Dan 8:3 - A ram which had two horns A ram which had two horns - In the former vision there were four beasts, pointing out four empires; in this we have but two, as only two empires are...

A ram which had two horns - In the former vision there were four beasts, pointing out four empires; in this we have but two, as only two empires are concerned here, viz., the Grecian and the Persian. The Babylonish empire is not mentioned; its fate was before decided, and it was now at its close

By the ram, the empire of the Medes and Persians was pointed out, as explained by the angel Gabriel, Dan 8:20; and particularly Cyrus, who was the founder of that empire. Cyrus was the son of Cambyses, king of Persia; and grandson of Astyages, king of Media, by his daughter Mandane, who had been given in marriage to Cambyses. Cyrus marrying Roxana, the daughter and only child of his uncle Cyaxares, called in Scripture Ahasuerus, succeeded to both crowns, and thus united Media and Persia. A ram was the symbol of the Persians; and a ram’ s head with two horns, one higher than the other, appears as such in different parts of the ruins of Persepolis. See the plates of these ruins in the supplement to the seventh volume of the ancient part of the Universal History

This ram had two horns; that is, two kingdoms, viz., Media and Persia; but one was higher than the other; and the higher came up last. Media, signified by the shorter horn, was the more ancient of the two kingdoms. Persia, the higher horn, had come up but lately, and was of little historic or political consequence till the time of Cyrus; but in the reigns of this prince and his immediate successors, Persia attained a political consequence greatly superior to that possessed at any time by the kingdom of Media; therefore, it is said to have been the higher, and to have come up last.

Clarke: Dan 8:4 - I saw the ram pushing westward I saw the ram pushing westward - The Persians, who are signified by the ram, as well as their founder Cyrus, pushed their conquests west, north and ...

I saw the ram pushing westward - The Persians, who are signified by the ram, as well as their founder Cyrus, pushed their conquests west, north and south. The principal theater of their wars, says Calmet, was against the Scythians, northward; against the Greeks, westward; and against the Egyptians, southward

Clarke: Dan 8:4 - He did according to his will He did according to his will - There was no other nation at that time that could stay the progress of the Persian arms.

He did according to his will - There was no other nation at that time that could stay the progress of the Persian arms.

Clarke: Dan 8:5 - Behold, a he-goat Behold, a he-goat - This was Alexander the Great; and a goat was a very proper symbol of the Grecian or Macedonian people. Bp. Newton very properly ...

Behold, a he-goat - This was Alexander the Great; and a goat was a very proper symbol of the Grecian or Macedonian people. Bp. Newton very properly observes that, two hundred years before the time of Daniel, they were called Aegeadae, the goats’ people; the origin of which name is said to be as follows: Caranus, their first king, going with a multitude of Greeks to seek a new habitation in Macedonia, was advised by an oracle to take the goats for his guides; and afterwards, seeing a herd of goats flying from a violent storm, he followed them to Edessa, and there fixed the seat of his empire, and made the goats his ensigns or standards; and called the place Aege or Aegea, the goats’ town; and the people Aegeadae, the goats’ people; names which are derived from αιξ, αιγος, a goat. The city Aege or Aegea, was the usual burying-place of the Macedonian kings; and, in reference to this origin, Alexander called his son by Roxana, Alexander Aegus, Alexander the goat. All this shows the very great propriety of the symbol here used

Clarke: Dan 8:5 - Came from the west Came from the west - Europe lies westward of Asia

Came from the west - Europe lies westward of Asia

Clarke: Dan 8:5 - On the face of the whole earth On the face of the whole earth - Carrying every thing before him

On the face of the whole earth - Carrying every thing before him

Clarke: Dan 8:5 - Touched not the ground Touched not the ground - Seemed to fly from conquest to conquest. By the time Alexander was thirty years of age he had conquered all Asia: and, beca...

Touched not the ground - Seemed to fly from conquest to conquest. By the time Alexander was thirty years of age he had conquered all Asia: and, because of the rapidity of his conquests, he is represented as a leopard with four wings, in the preceding vision

Clarke: Dan 8:5 - A notable horn between his eyes A notable horn between his eyes - This, says the angel, is the first king, Dan 8:21, that is, the first kingdom of the Greeks in Asia, which was ere...

A notable horn between his eyes - This, says the angel, is the first king, Dan 8:21, that is, the first kingdom of the Greeks in Asia, which was erected by Alexander; and continued some years in his brother Philip Aridaeus, and in his two young sons, Alexander Aegus and Hercules. See Newton.

Clarke: Dan 8:6 - And he came to the ram And he came to the ram - This and the following verse give an account of the overthrow of the Persian empire by Alexander

And he came to the ram - This and the following verse give an account of the overthrow of the Persian empire by Alexander

Clarke: Dan 8:6 - And ran unto him in the fury of his power And ran unto him in the fury of his power - The conflicts between the Greeks and the Persians were excessively severe. Alexander first vanquished th...

And ran unto him in the fury of his power - The conflicts between the Greeks and the Persians were excessively severe. Alexander first vanquished the generals of Darius, at the river Granicus, in Phrygia; he next attacked and totally routed Darius, at the straits of Issus, in Cilicia; and afterwards at the plains of Arbela, in Assyria. One can hardly read these words, says Bp. Newton, "the ram - which I had seen standing by the river, ran unto him in the fury of his power,"without having the image of Darius’ army standing and guarding the river Granicus and of Alexander on the other side, with his forces plunging in swimming across the stream, and rushing on the enemy, with all the fire and fury that can be conceived.

Clarke: Dan 8:7 - And brake his two horns And brake his two horns - Subdued Persia and Media; sacked and burnt the royal city of Persepolis, the capital of the Persian empire, and, even in i...

And brake his two horns - Subdued Persia and Media; sacked and burnt the royal city of Persepolis, the capital of the Persian empire, and, even in its ruins, one of the wonders of the world to the present day. This he did because "he was moved with choler"against Darius, who had endeavored to draw off his captains with bribes, and had labored to induce some of his friends to assassinate him. Alexander, finding this, would listen to no proposals of peace; and was determined never to rest till he had destroyed Darius and his whole empire. In Media, Darius was seized and made prisoner by some of his own treacherous subjects, and afterwards basely murdered

Clarke: Dan 8:7 - There was no power in the ram to stand before him There was no power in the ram to stand before him - Alexander’ s victories over the Persians were as easy as they were rapid and decisive

There was no power in the ram to stand before him - Alexander’ s victories over the Persians were as easy as they were rapid and decisive

Clarke: Dan 8:7 - He cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him He cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him - Totally destroyed the family, and overturned the whole monarchy.

He cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him - Totally destroyed the family, and overturned the whole monarchy.

Clarke: Dan 8:8 - The he-goat waxed very strong The he-goat waxed very strong - He had subdued nearly the whole of the then known world

The he-goat waxed very strong - He had subdued nearly the whole of the then known world

Clarke: Dan 8:8 - The great horn was broken The great horn was broken - Alexander died in the height of his conquests, when he was but about thirty-three years of age. His natural brother, Phi...

The great horn was broken - Alexander died in the height of his conquests, when he was but about thirty-three years of age. His natural brother, Philip Aridaeus, and his two sons, Alexander Aegus and Hercules, kept up the show and name of the Macedonian kingdom for a time; but they were all murdered within fifteen years; and thus the great horn, the Macedonian kingdom, was broken, Alexander’ s family being now cut off

Clarke: Dan 8:8 - And for it came up four notable ones And for it came up four notable ones - The regal family being all dead, the governors of provinces usurped the title of kings; and Antigonus, one of...

And for it came up four notable ones - The regal family being all dead, the governors of provinces usurped the title of kings; and Antigonus, one of them, being slain at the battle of Ipsus, they were reduced to four, as we have already seen

1.    Seleucus, who had Syria and Babylon, from whom came the Seleucidae, famous in history

2.    Lysimachus, who had Asia Minor

3.    Ptolemy, son of Lagus, who had Egypt, from whom sprang the Lagidae. And

4.    Cassander, who had Greece and the neighboring countries. These held dominion towards the four winds of heaven

Cassander had the western parts, Lysimachus had the northern regions, Ptolemy possessed the southern countries, and Seleucus had the eastern provinces.

Clarke: Dan 8:9 - Out of one of them came forth a little horn Out of one of them came forth a little horn - Some think that Antiochus Epiphanes is meant; but Bp. Newton contends that it is the Roman government ...

Out of one of them came forth a little horn - Some think that Antiochus Epiphanes is meant; but Bp. Newton contends that it is the Roman government that is intended; and although very great at its zenith, yet very little in its rising

Clarke: Dan 8:9 - Waxed - great toward the south Waxed - great toward the south - The Romans made Egypt a province of their empire, and it continued such for some centuries

Waxed - great toward the south - The Romans made Egypt a province of their empire, and it continued such for some centuries

Clarke: Dan 8:9 - Toward the east Toward the east - They conquered Syria, and made it a province

Toward the east - They conquered Syria, and made it a province

Clarke: Dan 8:9 - Toward the pleasant land Toward the pleasant land - Judea, so called Psa 106:24; Jer 3:19; Dan 11:16, Dan 11:41. It is well known that they took Judea, and made it a provinc...

Toward the pleasant land - Judea, so called Psa 106:24; Jer 3:19; Dan 11:16, Dan 11:41. It is well known that they took Judea, and made it a province; and afterwards burnt the city and the temple, and scattered the Jews over the face of the earth.

Clarke: Dan 8:10 - The host of heaven The host of heaven - The Jewish hierarchy. The stars, the priests and Levites. The powers or host of heaven are probably intended by our Lord, Mat 2...

The host of heaven - The Jewish hierarchy. The stars, the priests and Levites. The powers or host of heaven are probably intended by our Lord, Mat 24:29, to signify the whole Jewish hierarchy.

Clarke: Dan 8:11 - Even to the prince of the host Even to the prince of the host - They seemed, in this case, to fight against God himself

Even to the prince of the host - They seemed, in this case, to fight against God himself

Clarke: Dan 8:11 - The daily sacrifice was taken away The daily sacrifice was taken away - By the destruction of the city and temple; and has never been restored from that day until now.

The daily sacrifice was taken away - By the destruction of the city and temple; and has never been restored from that day until now.

Clarke: Dan 8:12 - And a host was given him And a host was given him - That is, power; or perhaps the host of heaven - the priesthood - the whole sacrificial system, by reason of transgression...

And a host was given him - That is, power; or perhaps the host of heaven - the priesthood - the whole sacrificial system, by reason of transgression. They had filled up the measure of their iniquities, in rejecting the Lord that bought them; and the daily sacrifice, being no longer of use, was given up with the rest to destruction

Clarke: Dan 8:12 - Cast down the truth Cast down the truth - Probably the whole Jewish ritual and religion

Cast down the truth - Probably the whole Jewish ritual and religion

Clarke: Dan 8:12 - Practiced, and prospered Practiced, and prospered - Prosperity or success followed all their acts.

Practiced, and prospered - Prosperity or success followed all their acts.

Clarke: Dan 8:13 - One saint speaking, and another saint said One saint speaking, and another saint said - One angel asked another how long the sanctuary was to be trodden down?

One saint speaking, and another saint said - One angel asked another how long the sanctuary was to be trodden down?

Clarke: Dan 8:14 - Unto two thousand and three hundred days Unto two thousand and three hundred days - Though literally it be two thousand three hundred evenings and mornings. Yet I think the prophetic day sh...

Unto two thousand and three hundred days - Though literally it be two thousand three hundred evenings and mornings. Yet I think the prophetic day should be understood here, as in other parts of this prophet, and must signify so many years. If we date these years from the vision of the he-goat, (Alexander’ s invading Asia), this was A.M. 3670, b.c. 334; and two thousand three hundred years from that time will reach to a.d. 1966, or one hundred and forty-one years from the present a.d. 1825. This will bring it near to the time mentioned Dan 7:25 (note), where see the note.

Clarke: Dan 8:15 - As the appearance of a man As the appearance of a man - Supposed to be the Messiah.

As the appearance of a man - Supposed to be the Messiah.

Clarke: Dan 8:17 - At the time of the end shall be the vision At the time of the end shall be the vision - Or, as Houbigant, "The vision shall have an end at the proper time."

At the time of the end shall be the vision - Or, as Houbigant, "The vision shall have an end at the proper time."

Clarke: Dan 8:20 - The ram which thou sagest The ram which thou sagest - See this explained under the vision itself, Dan 8:3 (note), etc.

The ram which thou sagest - See this explained under the vision itself, Dan 8:3 (note), etc.

Clarke: Dan 8:22 - But not in his power But not in his power - The four kingdoms which shall arise out of the Macedonian empire shall not be of Alexander’ s power or family, nor have ...

But not in his power - The four kingdoms which shall arise out of the Macedonian empire shall not be of Alexander’ s power or family, nor have his strength and dignity.

Clarke: Dan 8:23 - When the transgressors are come to the full When the transgressors are come to the full - When the utmost degradation has taken place, by the buying and selling of the high priesthood; for Oni...

When the transgressors are come to the full - When the utmost degradation has taken place, by the buying and selling of the high priesthood; for Onias was ejected for a sum of money, to make room for wicked Jason; and Jason again was supplanted for a greater sum by a worse man, if possible, than himself, Menelaus; and the golden vessels of the temple were sold to pay for this sacrilegious purchase. Thus transgressions were come to the full, before the Romans had commission to destroy Jerusalem and its temple, etc

Clarke: Dan 8:23 - A king of fierce countenance A king of fierce countenance - The Roman government, as before; for king is often taken for kingdom or empire

A king of fierce countenance - The Roman government, as before; for king is often taken for kingdom or empire

Clarke: Dan 8:23 - Understanding dark sentences Understanding dark sentences - Very learned and skillful in all things relating to government and its intrigues. The learning of Rome is proverbial ...

Understanding dark sentences - Very learned and skillful in all things relating to government and its intrigues. The learning of Rome is proverbial to the present time.

Clarke: Dan 8:24 - But not by his own power But not by his own power - The strength of the other kingdoms consisted in themselves; but the Roman empire, as a horn or kingdom of the goat, was n...

But not by his own power - The strength of the other kingdoms consisted in themselves; but the Roman empire, as a horn or kingdom of the goat, was not mighty by its own power - was not strong by virtue of the goat, but drew its nourishment and strength from Rome and Italy. There grew the trunk and body of the tree; though the branches extended over Greece, Asia, Syria, and Egypt. - Bp. Newton

Clarke: Dan 8:24 - Shall destroy wonderfully Shall destroy wonderfully - In the taking of Jerusalem by the Romans ninety-seven thousand Jews were made captives, and eleven hundred thousand were...

Shall destroy wonderfully - In the taking of Jerusalem by the Romans ninety-seven thousand Jews were made captives, and eleven hundred thousand were slain. So they destroyed this once mighty and holy people!

Clarke: Dan 8:26 - He shall cause craft to prosper He shall cause craft to prosper - They subdued as many by their diplomatic skill and political intrigues as they did by the sword

He shall cause craft to prosper - They subdued as many by their diplomatic skill and political intrigues as they did by the sword

Clarke: Dan 8:26 - He shall also stand up against the Prince of princes He shall also stand up against the Prince of princes - Against Christ, for it was by the Roman authority that he was condemned to death and crucifie...

He shall also stand up against the Prince of princes - Against Christ, for it was by the Roman authority that he was condemned to death and crucified; and their persecutions had nearly destroyed the Christian religion; but the house was founded on a rock

Clarke: Dan 8:26 - But he shall be broken without hand But he shall be broken without hand - The tide was turned by the invisible hand of God; and thus heathen Rome was overcome, and converted to Christi...

But he shall be broken without hand - The tide was turned by the invisible hand of God; and thus heathen Rome was overcome, and converted to Christianity.

Clarke: Dan 8:26 - The vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true The vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true - That mentioned in Dan 8:14

The vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true - That mentioned in Dan 8:14

Clarke: Dan 8:26 - For it shall be for many days For it shall be for many days - Not less than two thousand three hundred years!

For it shall be for many days - Not less than two thousand three hundred years!

Clarke: Dan 8:27 - Daniel fainted Daniel fainted - To foresee the desolations that were coming on the land, the city, the temple, and the people

Daniel fainted - To foresee the desolations that were coming on the land, the city, the temple, and the people

Clarke: Dan 8:27 - Did the king’ s business Did the king’ s business - Transacted the affairs of state that belonged to my department, after having been sick for certain days through the ...

Did the king’ s business - Transacted the affairs of state that belonged to my department, after having been sick for certain days through the effects of this vision. He had a pious and feeling heart; and he was distressed for the desolations that were coming upon his people.

Calvin: Dan 8:1 - NO PHRASE Here Daniel relates another vision, differing from the former as a part from the whole. For God wished to show him first what various changes should ...

Here Daniel relates another vision, differing from the former as a part from the whole. For God wished to show him first what various changes should happen before Christ’s advent. The second redemption was the beginning of a new life, since God then not only restored afresh his own Church, but as it were created a new people; and hence the departure from Babylon and the return to their country are called the second birth of the Church. But as God at that time afforded then only a taste of true and solid redemption, whenever the prophets treat of that deliverance, they extended their thoughts and their prophecies as far as the coming of Christ. God therefore, with great propriety, shows the Four Monarchies to His Prophet, lest the faithful should grow weary in beholding the world so often convulsed, and all but changing its figure and nature. Thus they would be subject to the most distressing cares, become a laughing stock to their enemies, and ever remain contemptible and mean, without the power to help themselves, under these constant innovations. The faithful, then, were forewarned concerning these Four Monarchies, lest they should suppose themselves rejected by God and deprived altogether of his care. But now God wished to show only one part to his Prophet. As the destruction of the Babylonian empire was at hand, and the second kingdom was approaching, this dominion also should speedily come to its close, and then God’s people should be reduced to the utmost extremity. And the chief object of this vision is to prepare the faithful to bear patiently the horrible tyranny of Antiochus, of which the Prophet treats in this chapter. Now, therefore, we understand the meaning of this prophet, where God speaks of only two Monarchies, for the kingdom of the Chaldees was soon to be abolished: he treats first of the Persian kingdom; and next, adds that of Macedon, but omits all others, and descends directly to Antiochus, king of Syria. He then declares the prevalence of the most wretched confusion in the Church; for the sanctuary should be deprived of its dignity, and the elect people everywhere slain, without sparing even innocent blood. We shall see also why the faithful were informed beforehand of these grievous and oppressive calamities, to induce them to look up to God when oppressed by such extreme darkness. And at this day this prophecy is useful to us, lest our courage should fail us in the extreme calamity of the Church, because a perpetual representation of the Church is depicted for us under that calamitous and mournful state. Although God often spares our infirmities, yet the Church is never free from many distresses, and unless we are prepared to undergo all contests, we shall never stand firm in the faith. This is the scope and explanation of the prophecy. I will defer the rest.

Calvin: Dan 8:2 - NO PHRASE Without any doubt, the Prophet here recognized a new empire as about to arise, which could not happen without Babylon being reduced to slavery. Hence...

Without any doubt, the Prophet here recognized a new empire as about to arise, which could not happen without Babylon being reduced to slavery. Hence it would tend in. no slight degree to alleviate the cares of the pious, and to mitigate their sorrows, when they saw what they had previously thought incredible, namely, the approaching destruction of that horrible tyranny under which they had been so, cruelly oppressed. And if the liberty of returning to their country was not immediately granted to the people, it would be no small consolation to behold God’s judgment against the Chaldeans as foretold by the prophets. We must now examine the Prophet’s language. I have seen in a vision, says he. This word חזון , chezon, a “vision,” is added to show us that the ram of which mention is made was not seen by the eyes of the body. Hence this was a heavenly oracle, and ought to have raised the beholder above all human sensations, to enable him to discern from lofty watch-tower what was hidden from the rest of mankind. He did not see then what ordinary men might behold, but God showed in a vision things which no mortal senses could apprehend. He next adds, The vision was shewn to me, Daniel, and I happened, says he, when I saw it, to be in Shushan Some think Daniel to be then dwelling in Persia, bug this view is by no means probable; for who could persuade the holy Prophet of God, who had been led captive with the rest and was attached to the king of Babylon, to depart as if he had been entirely his own master, and to go into Persia when the Persians were then open enemies? This is not at all likely; and I wonder what can induce men to adopt this comment, so contrary to all reason. For we need not dispute about a matter by no means obscure if we weigh the Prophet’s words, as he removes all doubt by saying he was in Shushan when he saw, that is, when he was caught up by the prophetic spirit beyond himself and above the world. The Prophet does not say he dwelt in Shushan, or in the neighborhood, but he was there in the vision only. The next verse, too, sufficiently shews him to have then been in Chaldean in the third year, he says, of the reign of King Belshazzar. By naming the king, he clearly expresses that he then dwelt under his power and dominion. It is clearly to be gathered from these words, without the slightest doubt, that the Prophet then dwelt in Chaldea. And perhaps Babylon had been already besieged, as we saw before. He says he was in the palace at Shushan I know not how I ought to translate this word, הבירה , hebireh, as I see no reason for preferring the meaning “palace” to that of” citadel.” We are sure of the nobility and celebrity of the citadel which was afterwards the head of the East, for all nations and tribes received from thence their laws, rights, and judgments. At the same time, I think this citadel was not then built, for its empire over the Persian territory was not firmly established till the successors of Cyrus. We may perhaps distinguish Shushan from Persia at large, yet as it is usually treated as a part of that kingdom, I will not urge the distinction. The country is, however, far milder and more fertile than Persia, as it receives its name from being flowery and abounding in roses. Thus the Prophet says he was there in a vision.

He afterwards repeats this I saw in a vision, and behold I was near the river Ulai The Latin writers mention a river Eulaeus, and as there is a great similitude between the words, I have no hesitation in understanding Daniel’s language of the Eulaeus. The repetition is not superfluous. It adds certainty to the prophecy, because Daniel affirms it; not to have been any vanishing specter, as a vision might be suspected to be, but clearly and certainly a divine revelation, as he will afterwards relate. He says, too, he raised his eyes upwards This attentive attitude has the same meaning, as experience informs us how often men are deceived by wandering in erroneous imaginations. But Daniel here bears witness to his raising his eyes upwards, because he, knew himself to be, divinely called upon to discern future events.

Calvin: Dan 8:3 - NO PHRASE He next subjoins, And behold a ram, stood at the bank of the river, and it had horns He now compares the empire of Persia and Media to a ram. It ou...

He next subjoins, And behold a ram, stood at the bank of the river, and it had horns He now compares the empire of Persia and Media to a ram. It ought not to seem absurd that God proposed to his servant various similitude’s, because his duty was to teach a rude people in various ways; and[ we know this vision to have been presented before the Prophet, not for his private instruction only, but for the common advantage of the whole people. I do not think we need scrupulously inquire why the Persian kings are called rams. I know of no valid reason, unless perhaps to institute a comparison between them and Alexander of Macedon and his successors. If so, when God, under the image of a ram, exhibits to his Prophet the Persian Empire, he does not illustrate its nature absolutely, but only by comparison with that of Alexander. ‘We are well aware of the opposition between these two empires. The Persian monarchy is called “a ram,” with reference to the Macedonian, which, as we shall afterwards see, bears the name of “he-goat” with respect to its antagonism. And we may gather the best reason for this comparison in the humble origin of the kings of Persia. With great propriety, then, Cyrus, the first ruler of this empire, is here depicted for us under the form or image of a ram. His “horn” produced a concussion through the whole earth, when no one expected anything to spring from a region by no means abounding in anything noble. And as to Alexander, he is called a “he-goat,” with respect to the “ram,” as being far more nimble, and yet more obscure in his origin. For what was Macedon but a mere corner of Greece? But I do not propose to run the parallel between these points; it is sufficient that God wishes to show to his Prophet and to the whole Church, how among the Persians, unknown as they were, and despised by their neighbors, a king should arise to consume the Median power, as we shall soon see, and also to overthrow the Babylonian monarchy. Behold, therefore, says he, a ram stood before the river, or at the bank of the river, since Cyrus subdued both the Medes and his grandfather, as historians inform us. Cyrus then rushed forth from his own mountains and stood at the bank of the river He also says, He had two horns. Here the Prophet puts two horns for two empires, and not by any means for two persons. For although Cyrus married the daughter of Cyaxares his uncle, yet we know the Persian empire to have lasted a long time, and to have supplied historians with a long catalogue of kings. As Cyrus had so many successors, by the two horns God doubtless showed his Prophet those two empires of the Medes and Persians united under one sovereignty. Therefore, when the ram appeared to the Prophet, it represented both kingdoms under one emblem.

The context confirms this by saying, The two horns were lofty, one higher than the other, and this was raised backwards The two horns were lofty; for, though the Persian territory was not rich, and the people rustic and living in woods, spending an austere life and despising all luxuries, yet the nation was always warlike. Wherefore the Prophet says this horn was higher than the other, meaning, than the empire of the Medes. Now Cyrus surpassed his father-in-law Darius in fame, authority, and rank, and still he always permitted Darius to enjoy the royal majesty to the end of his life. As he was an old man, Cyrus might easily concede to him the highest one without any loss to himself. With respect then to the following period, Cyrus was clearly pre-eminent, as he was certainly superior to Darius, whom Xenophon calls Cyaxares. For this reason, then, this horn was higher. But meanwhile the Prophet shews how gradually Cyrus was raised on high. The horn rose backwards; that is, “afterwards” — meaning, although the horn of the Median kingdom was more illustrious and conspicuous, yet the horn which rose afterwards obscured the brightness and glory of the former one. This agrees with the narratives of profane history: for every reader of those narratives will find nothing recorded by Daniel which was not fulfilled by the event. Let us go on: —

Calvin: Dan 8:4 - He struck the west, and the north, and the south, so that no beasts could stand before him The Prophet, now shortly sketches the great success which should attend this double kingdom. He says, The ram struck all the nations towards the wes...

The Prophet, now shortly sketches the great success which should attend this double kingdom. He says, The ram struck all the nations towards the west, and north, and south. The Persian and Median territory lay to the east of Babylon and Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor, and Greece. This, without doubt, is extended to all the successors of Cyrus, who are recorded as having convulsed the whole world. Cyrus himself was shortly afterwards cruelly and basely slain, according to many historians, although Xenophon affirms that he died in his bed. But I have before warned you not to put your trust in that writer, although most excellent, since, under the image of that king, he wished to set before us an example of perfect manliness; and hence he brings him forward as discoursing on his deathbed, and exhorting his sons to kingly virtues. Whichever is the true account, Cyrus was clearly overtaken in the midst of his career. In this way God wished to chastise his insatiable cupidity, a vice in which he resembled Alexander. As to his successors, they excited such commotion in the whole world as to stir up heaven and earth. Xerxes alone said he could bind the sea with fetters! and we know the greatness of the army which he commanded; and this passage treats not only of one king, but of all those of Persia. As they obtained a dominion so far and wide, their ambition and pride always inflamed them, and there was no end to their warfare till they had subdued the distant boundaries of the world. We are acquainted too with their numerous attempts to destroy the liberty of Greece. All this the Prophet embraces in but few words. God also wished to give his Prophet a short glance into futurity, as far as such knowledge could be useful. I saw, then, says he, a ram, namely, a beast which possessed a double horn, representing the Medes and Persians united in the same sovereignty.

He struck the west, and the north, and the south, so that no beasts could stand before him As the Persian kingdom is here depicted under the, image of a ram, all kings and people are called “beasts.” Thus, no beast stood before him, and no one could deliver out of his hand It is well known, indeed, how Xerxes and others failed in their attacks, and how many wars the Monarchs of Persia attempted in which they were conquered by the Greeks; but still their conquerors were in no better condition, as they were compelled to seek peace like suppliants. So great became the power of the Persians, that they inspired all nations with fear. For this reason the Prophet says, he did according to his pleasure, not implying the complete success of these Monarchs according to their utmost wishes, for their desires were often frustrated, as we have already narrated on the testimony of historical evidence. Still they were always formidable, not only to their neighbors who submitted to their yoke, but to the most distant nations, as they crossed the sea and descended from Asia upon Greece. In the last word, he expresses this fact, — the ram became mighty. For the Persian king became the greatest of all Monarchs in the world, and it is sufficiently notorious that no one could add to his dignity and strength. It follows: —

Calvin: Dan 8:5 - But he did not touch the ground, Here another change is shown to the Prophet, namely, Alexander’s coming to the east and acquiring. for himself the mighty sway of the Persians, as ...

Here another change is shown to the Prophet, namely, Alexander’s coming to the east and acquiring. for himself the mighty sway of the Persians, as afterwards happened. With the view, then, of procuring confidence for his prediction, he says, he was attentive He doubtless dwells upon the reverence with which he received the vision to exhort us to the pursuit of piety, and also to modesty and attention. The Prophet, therefore, was not carried away in imagination by a dream which could be called in question; he knew this vision to have been set before him by God, and acknowledged his duty to receive it with modesty and humility. Wherefore, I was attentive, and behold a he-goat came forth from the west, says he. The situation of Macedon with respect to Persia must be noticed. As the Greeks were situated to the west, of Persia, the Prophet says, the he-goat came from the west, and went over the surface of the whole earth These words signify the very extensive dominion of Alexander, aid. the terror of surrounding nations. His arrival in Asia with a very insignificant army is well known. He thought 30,000 men sufficient, after he had been created their general by the States of Greece. Hence, the passage is to be understood not of numbers, but of the terror inspired on all sides; for, although he advanced with but a moderate force, yet he terrified the whole earth.

But he did not touch the ground, says he. This refers to his swiftness, for he rather flew than traveled either on foot or by sea, so incredible was his speed in this expedition. For if any one had galloped through regions completely at peace, he could not have passed through Asia more speedily. Hence a he-goat was shewn to the Prophet who did not touch the ground, that is, who was borne along with a rapid impulse, like that of lightning itself. And the goat had a horn, says he, between its eyes a remarkable horn. We know how much glory Alexander acquired for himself in a short time, and yet he did not undertake the war in his own name, or on his own responsibility, but he used every artifice to obtain from the Grecian States the office of general-in-chief against the Persians, as perpetual enemies. We are well acquainted with the hostility of the Persians to the Greeks, who, though often compelled to retreat with great disgrace, and infamy, and loss of troops, still kept renewing the war, as they had abundance of men and of pecuniary resources. When Alexander was created general of the whole of Greece, he had a remarkable horn between his eyes; that is, he took care to have his title of general made known to increase his personal superiority. Besides, it was sufficiently prominent to constitute him alone general of the whole army, while all things were carried on according to his will, as he had undertaken the war. This, then, is the reason why the Prophet says, the horn was visible between the eyes of the goat It follows, It came to the ram, which had two horns; that is, it came against the king of the Medes and Persians. Cyrus also had seized on Babylon, and had subdued many kings, but two horns are assigned to the ram, since the Persian kings had united the Medes in alliance to themselves. Hence one he-goat with his horn, came against the ram which had two horns, and ran against it in the ardor of its bravery Thus the perseverance of Alexander is denoted, as he hastened so as to surpass all expectation by the speed of his arrival. For Darius continued in security, although he had collected a large army, but Alexander rushed forwards in the boldness of his strength, and surrounded the enemy by his celerity. It follows: —

Calvin: Dan 8:7 - NO PHRASE Here God shews to his Prophet the victory of Alexander, by which he subdued almost the whole east. Although he encountered many nations in battle, an...

Here God shews to his Prophet the victory of Alexander, by which he subdued almost the whole east. Although he encountered many nations in battle, and especially the Indians, yet the name of the Persian empire was so celebrated in the world, that the dignity of others never approached it. Alexander, therefore, by conquering Darius, acquired nearly the whole east. God showed his Prophet the easiness of his victory under this figure. I looked, says he, when he approached the land Darius was fortified by both the distance of his stations and the strength of his fortifications; for many of his cities were impregnable, according to the common opinion of mankind. It was incredible, then, that the he-goat should approach the ram, surrounded as he was on all sides by such strong and such powerful garrisons. But the Prophet says he; approached the ram, and then, he exasperated himself against him This applies to Alexander’s furious assaults. We are well acquainted with the keenness of his talents and the superiority of his valor; yet, such was his unbridled audacity, that his promptness approached rather to rashness than to regal bravery. For he often threw himself with a blind impulse against his foes, and it was not his fault if the Macedonian name was not destroyed ten times over. As, then, he rushed on with such violent fury, we are not surprised when the Prophet says he was exasperated of his own accord. And he struck the ram, says he. He conquered Darius in two battles, when the power of the Persian sway throughout Asia Minor was completely ruined. We are all familiar with the results of these hazardous battles, shewing the whole stress of the war to have rested on that engagement in which Darius was first conquered; for when he says, The ram had no strength to stand; and although he had collected an immense multitude, yet that preparation was available for nothing but: empty pomp. For Darius was resplendent with gold, and silver, and gems, and he rather made a show of these, luxuries in warfare, than displayed manly and vigorous strength. The ram, then, had no power to stand before the he goat. Hence, he threw him prostrate on the earth, and trod him down; and no one was able to deliver out of his hand. Darius, indeed, was slain by his attendants, but Alexander trod down all his glory, and the dignity of the Persian Empire, under which all the people of the east trembled. We are aware also of the pride with which he abused his victory, until under the influence of harlots and debauchees, as some report, he tumultuously set fire to that most celebrated citadel of Susa in the drunken fit. As he so indignantly trampled under foot the glory of the Persian monarchy, we see how aptly the events fulfilled the prophecy, in the manner recorded by all profane historians.

Calvin: Dan 8:8 - NO PHRASE This prophecy relates to the death of Alexander. We have explained how, under the image of a he-goat, the Macedonian empire is set before us, having ...

This prophecy relates to the death of Alexander. We have explained how, under the image of a he-goat, the Macedonian empire is set before us, having its beginning in the person of Alexander, but by no means ending there, as the monarchy was divided into four parts. The angel said, or at least Daniel records his words, that he-goat increased to an immense magnitude, because he wandered as it were in sport through almost the whole east, and at the same time subdued it; but when it was in its strength, says he, its great horn was broken By the great horn, he means the monarchy which was solely m Alexander’s power during his life, as he, was the first and last monarch of his race. And in consequence of his generals, who had obtained dominion in the four quarters of the world, becoming kings, as we shall soon see, the word “he-goat” is not restricted to his person, but is extended to his successors. He Himself is called “the great horn.” Hence, when the he-goat was in his strength, the great horn was broken For Alexander had arrived at the height of prosperity when he died. Whether he perished by disease or by poison is unknown, since historians report; a great suspicion of foul-play. The angel does not notice his age, which was thirty-three years at his death, while he seemed to have been born for subduing the whole world, although he was so suddenly snatched away. But the angel regards those continued successes, since Alexander almost by a look subdued the whole land, as we have stated before, and hurried on rashly from place to place. Hence he perpetually gained fresh victories, though at the constant hazard of his life, as he had far more audacity than skill. When he was in his strength, says he; meaning, after having subjugated the whole east. He had returned from India, and had determined to re-cross the sea, and to reduce Greece under his power; for the States had rebelled against him, and the Athenians had already collected a great army; but all the eastern States of Asia had been rendered subservient to Alexander when he died. The angel refers to this by the breaking of the great horn.

He afterwards adds, In his place four conspicuous horns sprang up For he uses the noun חזות chezeveth, notable,” as in yesterday’s Lecture. 51 There were, therefore, four kingdoms which excelled, and each of them was celebrated and placed aloft. Nor is this superfluous, since we know how many became kings, who had enlisted in the service of Alexander with reputation and dignity. Perdiccas was the first, and all thought him to have been favored with special honor by Alexander When asked whom he wished for a successor, he replied, according to the greatness or pride of his spirit, “The person whom he considered most worthy of empire.” He had a son by Roxana the daughter of Darius, as well as another son; then Aridmus his brother approached; yet he deemed no one worthy of the honor of being his successor, as if the world contained no equal to himself. His answer, then, was a proof of his pride. But when he was unable to speak, he took a ring from his hand and gave it to Perdieeas. Hence all conjectured that he had the preference in Alexander’s judgment, and he obtained the supreme authority. After this, Eumenes was slain, who had served under him. Although he was an ally, he was judged as an enemy, and betrayed by his men; Lysimachus being slain on the other side. Fifteen generals were put to death. And as so many succeeded to the place of Alexander and exercised the royal authority, the angel correctly expresses how four conspicuous horns sprang up in the place of one great one For after various conflicts and many fluctuations for fifteen years or thereabouts, Alexander’s monarchy was at length divided into four parts. Cassander, the son of Antipater, obtained the kingdom of Macedon, after slaying Olympias, the mother of Alexander, his sister, his sons, and his wife Rexaria. This was a horrible slaughter, and if ever God offered a visible spectacle to the world, whereby he openly denounced the shedding of human blood, surely a memorable proof of this existed in the whole of Alexander’s race! Not a single one survived for twenty years after his death. Though his mother had grown old, she was not permitted to descend naturally to the grave, but was murdered. His wife, and son, and brother, and all his relations, shared her fate. And that slaughter was even yet more cruel, as no single leader spared the life of his companions, but each either openly attacked or craftily assailed his friend and confederate! But omitting details, four kingdoms were at last left after such remarkable devastation’s. For Cassander, the son of Antipater, obtained Macedon and some part of Thrace, together with the cities of Greece. Seleucus became master in Syria; Antigonus in Asia Minor, joining Phrygia, Paphlagonia, and all other Asiatic regions, after five or six generals were slain. Ptolemy became prefect of Egypt. This makes four horns, which the angel calls “conspicuous,” for on the testimony of history, all the other principalities vanished away. Alexander’s generals had divided among themselves many large and fertile provinces, but at length they were summed up in these four heads. He says, by the four winds of heaven, that is, of the atmosphere. Now the kingdom of Macedon was very far distant from Syria; Asia was in the midst, and Egypt lay to the south. Thus, the he-goat, as we saw before, reigned throughout the four quarters of the globe; since Egypt, as we have said, was situated towards the south; but the kingdom of Persia, which was possessed by Seleucus, was towards the east and united with Syria; the kingdom of Asia was to the north, and that of Macedon to the west, as we formerly saw the he-goat setting out from the west. It now follows, —

Calvin: Dan 8:9 - NO PHRASE Now God shews his Prophet what peculiarly concerned the welfare of his Church. For it was of very great importance to warn the Jews of the calamities...

Now God shews his Prophet what peculiarly concerned the welfare of his Church. For it was of very great importance to warn the Jews of the calamities which were about to oppress them. There is nothing which more torments the minds of men than their becoming bewildered in false imaginations, and thinking the world the sport of chance, while they never ponder over the providence of God nor reflect upon his judgments. Hence, with this design, God wished to teach the Prophet and all the pious the nature of their future afflictions, since they would thus understand how events never happened by chance, but all these scourges proceeded from God; for the same God both determines and executes his decrees, as he also predicts future events. For if nothing had been predicted, the pious would have glided gently downwards to despair in consequence of their heavy afflictions. We know also how magnificently the prophets extol the grace of God when they promise return and deliverance. Isaiah, too, has elsewhere spoken to this effect: Not in haste nor in tumult shall ye go forth, but with a standard displayed. Again, The wealth of all the nations shall flow towards you; kings shall come, and submit, and bow the knee to thee. (Isa 52:10; Isa 55:12; Isa 55:6.) The Jews were permitted to return to their own land; but we know how cruelly they were harassed by all their neighbors, so that they did not dwell in that corner of the world without the greatest difficulties. The building of both the city and the Temple was hindered by many enemies, till at length they became tributary to the kings of Syria. Antiochus, indeed, who is here alluded to, advanced with cruel tyranny against the people of God. If this had not been predicted, they would have thought themselves deceived by the splendid promises concerning their return. But when they perceived everything occurring according as they had been opportunely forewarned, this became no slight solace in the midst of their woes; they could then determine at once how completely it was in the power of God to relieve them from so many and such oppressive evils. With what intention, then, had God predicted all these things to his Prophet Daniel? clearly that the Jews might look forward to a happy result, and not give way to despair under events so full of anxiety and confusion. This, then, was the utility of the prophecy, with reference to that particular period.

When the Prophet says, Out of one of those four horns a little horn arose, Antiochus Epiphanes is most distinctly pointed out. The title Epiphanes entails “illustrious,” as, after the capture of his father, he was detained as a hostage at Rome, and then escaped from custody. Historians inform us of his possessing a servile disposition, and being much addicted to gross flattery. As he had nothing royal or heroic in his feelings, but was simply remarkable for cunning, the Prophet is justified in calling him the little horn He was far more powerful than his neighbors; but the horn is called little, not in comparison with the kingdoms of either Egypt, or Asia, or Macedon, but because no one supposed he would ever be king and succeed his father. He was the eldest of many brothers, and singularly servile and cunning, without a single trait worthy of future royalty. Thus he was the little horn who escaped secretly and fraudulently from custody, as, we have already mentioned, and returned. to his native country, which he afterwards governed.

He now adds, This horn was very mighty towards the south, and the east, and “the desire ”’ for unless he had been checked by the Romans, he would have obtained possession of Egypt. There is a remarkable and celebrated story of Pompilius, who, was sent to him to command him to abstain from Egypt at the, bidding of the senate. After he had delivered his message, Antiochus demanded time for deliberation, but Pompilius drew a circle with the staff which he held in his hand, and forbade him to move his foot until he gave him an answer. Though he claimed Egypt as his own by right of conquest, yet he dared not openly to deny the Romans their request; at first he pretended to be merely the guardian of his nephew, but he certainly seized upon the kingdom in his own name. However, he dared not oppose the Romans, but by changing his ground wished to dismiss Pompilius. They had been mutual acquaintances, and a great familiarity had arisen between them while he was a hostage at Rome; hence he offered to salute Pompilius at the interview, but he rejected him disdainfully, and, as I have said, drew a line around him, saying, “Before you go out of this circle answer me; do not delude me by asking time to consult with your councilors; answer at once, otherwise I know how to treat thee.” He was compelled to relinquish Egypt, although he had formerly refused to do so. The language of the Prophet, then, was not in vain, The small horn became mighty towards the south, that is, towards Egypt, and the east; for he extended his kingdom as far as Ptolemais. In the third place, he uses the word glory; that is, Judea, the sanctuary of God, which he had chosen as his dwelling, and desired his name to be invoked. Thus this small horn extended itself to the glory, or the land of glory or desire. There is nothing doubtful in the sense, though the interpretation scarcely agrees with the words. It afterwards follows: —

Calvin: Dan 8:10 - NO PHRASE Here Daniel continues the vision which he had received. We have already shewn he object of the Almighty to be the preparation of the faithful to bear...

Here Daniel continues the vision which he had received. We have already shewn he object of the Almighty to be the preparation of the faithful to bear serious calamities, because nothing new or unexpected should happen to them. Now, Daniel’s dwelling upon this point is not surprising, for it becomes his duty to inform the faithful of the heavy calamities which were at hand, and thus to mould them to patience and equity. Thus he says, The horn became magnificent, even to the army of the heavens. Without the slightest doubt this figure marks the elect people of God. Although the Church often lies prostrate in the world, and is trodden under foot and buried, yet it is always precious before God. Hence the Prophet adorns the Church with this remarkable praise, not to obtain for it any honor before men, but because God has separated it from the world, and provided a sure inheritance in heaven. Although the sons of God are pilgrims on earth, and have scarcely any dwelling-place here, becoming like castaways before men, yet they are nevertheless citizens of heaven. The usefulness of this teaching to us is apparent, by its inducing us to bear it patiently whenever we are often thrown prostrate on the ground, and whenever tyrants and the despiser’s of God look down upon us with scorn. Meanwhile our seat is laid up in heaven, and God numbers us among the stars, although, as Paul says, we are as dung and the offscouring of all things. (1Co 4:13.) In fine, God here shews his Prophet, as in a mirror, the estimation in which he holds his Church, however contemptible it is on earth. That horn, then, was magnified before the army of the heavens, and cast down some of that army upon the earth, and trod them out of the stars Exactly as if he proclaimed the loosening of the reins from the tyrant, permitting him to treat the Church with contempt, to tread it under foot;, and to draw down the stars from heaven, just as if God never appeared for its protection. For when God permits us to be safe and secure in his hand, and pronounces it impossible to prevail against his help, while tyrants harass and oppress us by their lust, it is like drawing down stars from heaven. God therefore, while he takes us under his guardianship, does not offer us. any succor, but dissembles as if he wished to betray us to our enemies. Nothing therefore is superfluous in these expressions of the Prophet — The stars were trodden down and the heavenly army thrown down to earth He now adds —

Calvin: Dan 8:11 - From him, Daniel announces something still more atrocious here, namely, the exaltation of the little horn against God. Some take “the prince of the army” f...

Daniel announces something still more atrocious here, namely, the exaltation of the little horn against God. Some take “the prince of the army” for the high priest, as princes are sometimes called כוהנים , kuhnim, as well as שרים , serim; but that is too forced. The true sense of the passage imputes such arrogance and folly to Antiochus as to urge him to declare war with the stars of heaven, implying not only his opposition to God’s Church, which is separate from the world, but also his daring defiance of God himself and his resistance to his power. He not only exercised his cruelty against the faithful, but profaned the temple itself, and endeavored to extinguish all piety, and to abolish the worship of God throughout Judea, as we shall explain more fully in other passages. As, therefore, Antiochus not only raged against men, but used his utmost endeavors to overthrow religion, Daniel relates how that horn was raised up even against the prince of the army God is deservedly entitled to this appellation, because he defends his Church, and cherishes it under his wings. This expression ought to be explained not only of God’s glory and empire, but also of his paternal favor towards us, as he deigns to manifest his care for us as if he were our Prince.

From him, says he, was the perpetual sacrifice utterly snatched away, and the place of his sanctuary cast down These words are horrible in their import; God was thus spoiled of his rights, since he had chosen but a single corner in the world for his special worship. What heathen, then, would not despise this forbearance of God, in permitting himself to be deprived of his legitimate honor by that sordid tyrant? As we have already stated, Antiochus had neither greatness of mind nor warlike courage, being skillful only in cunning and in the basest acts of flattery. Besides, granting him to have comprised a hundred Alexanders in his own person, what can be the Almighty’s design in allowing his temple to be polluted, and all true sacrifices to cease throughout the world? One corner alone, as we have lately mentioned, was left where God wished to be worshipped, and now Antiochus seizes upon the temple, and profanes and defiles it with the utmost possible indignity, thus leaving no single place sacred to the Almighty. For this reason I have asserted the prophecy to appear very harsh. The Prophet now increases the indignity when he speaks of the perpetual sacrifice For God had often borne witness to his temple being his perpetual “rest,” or “station,” or “seat;” yet he is now ejected from this spot, as if exiled from the earth entirely. The temple could not exist without sacrifices, for the whole worship under the law was a kind of appendage to the temple. As God had promised the sacrifice should be perpetual and eternal, who would not assert, when Antiochus destroyed it, either all the promises to have been deceptive, or all authority to have departed from God, who failed to defend his right against that impious tyrant. Surely this must have been a distressing calamity, overwhelming all the faithful! And when even at this moment we read the prophecy, all our senses are horrified by its perusal. No wonder, then, that God forewarned his servant of such sorrowful events, and such incredible evils, to admonish his whole Church in due season, and to arm them against the severest temptations, which might otherwise strike down even the most courageous. The sacrifice, then, says he, was snatched away from God himself, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down or dissipated. It afterwards follows: —

Calvin: Dan 8:12 - NO PHRASE The Prophet mitigates the asperity which he now records. It seems absurd for God to allow such license to Antiochus, that his temple should be spoile...

The Prophet mitigates the asperity which he now records. It seems absurd for God to allow such license to Antiochus, that his temple should be spoiled and all sacrifices and all worship exterminated. It is difficult to reconcile this, for the opinion will naturally creep in, — possibly God is constrained and deprived of power to subdue his foes. The, Prophet therefore clearly states here how the license for vexing and oppressing’ the Church would never have been granted to Antiochus without God’s permission. Time, therefore, shall be given him, says he. By the words, time shall be given. he refers to the will of God, meaning, the pious shall have no cause for desponding while they see all things disturbed and confused in every direction, as God will rule all these perplexities by his secret judgment. Time, then, shall be given, implying, Antiochus can do nothing by his unbridled and furious audacity, unless divinely permitted and previously limited. צבא tzeba, signifies both “army” and “time,” but the latter meaning is the most suitable here; for when it is translated “an army shall be given him,” the sense appears forced. I more willingly embrace the sense of time being allowed; that is, God will try the patience of his Church for a certain definite time, and will then bring their troubles to an end. We, know it to be impossible to sustain the spirits of the faithful, otherwise that by their expectation of a favorable termination, and by the hope of their emerging from the abyss of sorrow. This, then, is the reason why God shews his Prophet by a vision the temporary duration of the sway of Antiochus. A period, then, shall be appointed to him over the perpetual sacrifice; meaning, whatever he may intend, he shall not abolish the worship of God. For, however he may exert himself, God will not permit the sacrifices to perish utterly and forever; he will restore them in his own time, as we shall afterwards see, and when we come to the close, we shall find the context flowing on in accordance with this meaning — a time shall be given him over the continual sacrifice.

He afterwards adds בפשע , beph-sheng, “in wickedness,” or “in sin.” I prefer the simple translation “in sin” to “by sin,” although different senses are elicited according to the different views of interpreters. It is better to leave it to every one’s free choice, and thus simply to translate “in wickedness” or “sin.” Some refer it to Antiochus, because he wickedly polluted God’s temple, and abolished the sacrifices. This sense is probable, but I will add others, and then say which of them I like best. Some understand “in sin” of the priests, because, through the perfidy of Jason, Antiochus entered the city, spoiled the temple, and introduced those abominations which exterminated all piety and divine worship. (2Ma 4:7.) As Jason desired to snatch the priesthood from his brother Onias, he opened the gates to Antiochus; then a great slaughter followed, in which all the adherents of Onias were cruelly slain. Afterwards Menelaus expelled Jason again by similar perfidy. Some translate “by means of wickedness,” as these priests induced Antiochus to exercise cruelty in the holy city, and to violate the temple itself. Others approach nearer the real sense, by supposing the sacrifices to have ceased through wickedness, because they were adulterated by the priests. But this appears to me too restricted. In my judgment, I rather hold towards the view of those who take “wickedness” as a cause arid origin, thereby teaching the Jews how justly they were punished for their sins. I have already explained how properly the vision was limited as to time, and controlled by God’s permission and secret counsel. The cause is here expressed; for it might still be objected, “How happens it that God submits himself and his sacred name to the ridicule of the impious, and even deserts his own people? What does he intend by this?” The Prophet, therefore, assigns this cause — the Jews must feel the profanation of the temple, the sad devastation. of the whole city and their horrible slaughter, to be the reward due to their sins. A time, therefore, shall be assigned over the perpetual sacrifice in sin; that is, on account of sin. We here see how God on the one hand moderates the weight of the evils which pressed upon the Jews, and shews them some kindness, lest sorrow, anxiety, and despair should consume the wretched people; on the other hand, he humbles them and admonishes them to confess their sins, and then he urges them to apply their minds to repentance, by stating their own sins to be the cause of their afflictions. He thus shews how the source of all their evils was in the Jews themselves, while God’s anger was provoked by their vices. It is necessary to stop here till tomorrow.

Calvin: Dan 8:13 - An angel then, said to the wonderful one Here he expresses more clearly, what I formerly said, unfolding God’s intention of consoling and soothing the sorrows of the pious lest they should...

Here he expresses more clearly, what I formerly said, unfolding God’s intention of consoling and soothing the sorrows of the pious lest they should sink under the severity of their trials, at the sight of an impious tyrant domineering in the sanctuary of God. Besides, the spot which God had promised should be his perpetual dwelling-place, was exposed to impious superstitions, for the idol of Jupiter Olympius was erected there, the history of the Maccabees informs us. (2Ma 1:57; 2Ma 6:2.) God therefore wished to uphold his servants, lest too severe a temptation should overwhelm them, and lest trial in so many forms should cause them to yield and become deficient in piety through want of courage. But while Daniel is stupefied through astonishment, God provides for his infirmity by means of an angel. Daniel himself, without doubt, inquired concerning the vision as we shall see he did afterwards; but here God desired to meet him, as he saw the holy man so overcome by fear as scarcely to dare to make any inquiry. God, therefore, here affords no common proof of his paternal goodness and indulgence, in interposing and sending his angel to make inquiries in the Prophet’s name. He says, then, he heard a holy one, meaning an angel. For, although God deigns to call the faithful while dwelling in the world by this honorable title, yet the superior purity of angels is familiar to us, as they are altogether free from the lusts of the flesh. But we, alas! are detained in this prison-house, we are bound down in slavery to sin, and are polluted by much corruption. The holiness of angels, however, is far greater than that of mortals, and thus this attribute of “holiness” is properly applied to them. When Daniel was caught up by the prophetic spirit, he was separated from the society of men, and was admitted to that of angels.

An angel then, said to the wonderful one The Hebrews often use this expression when they mean “whoever it may be” — ploni almoni and apply it to places as well as persons. They use it also of any place unknown to them or concealed from them. They treat the noun as compounded of two words, and many interpret it of any one unknown, but I think the word to be more emphatic than this. 62 Daniel here brings forward an angel speaking, and adds dignity to his description by calling him “holy.” Without doubt, then, the person of whom the angel asked the question was his superior; it is not likely that he would be called “a certain one,” while the angel is termed a holy one. Reason, then, requires the expression to be applied to some angel whose glory was incomprehensible, or at least far superior to ordinary ones; for, as Daniel calls one angel “holy,” so he would have called the rest, as we shall afterwards see. When treating, however, of a distinct being, he uses the word פלמוני , palmoni, and its etymology guides us to its sense, as meaning something mysterious and incomprehensible. Then, who does not see that Christ is denoted, who is the chief of angels and far superior to them all? In the ninth chapter of Isaiah, (Isa 9:6,) he is called פלא pela, “wonderful.” The word in the text is a compound one, as we have said, but as פלא pela, signifies “hidden” in Hebrew, as Christ is so called, and as in Jud 3:1, God claims this name as peculiarly his own, all these points agree well together. The sense then is, an angel comes to Christ for the sake of Daniel and of the whole Church, and seeks from him as from the supreme teacher and master, the meaning of the declarations which we have just heard. We need not feel surprise at angels inquiring into eternity, as if it were unknown to them. It is the property of Deity alone to know all things, while the knowledge of angels is necessarily limited. Paul teaches us to wonder at the Church being collected out of profane and strange people; this was a mystery hidden from angels themselves, before God really showed himself the father of the whole world. (Eph 3:10.) Hence, there is no absurdity in supposing angels to inquire into mysteries, as ignorance is not necessarily deserving of blame, and as God has not raised his creatures for his own level. It is his peculiar province to know all things, and to have everything under his eye. The angel desires to understand this mystery, not so much for his own sake as on account of the whole Church; for we know them to be our ministers, according to the clear testimony of the Apostle. (Heb 1:14.) As they keep watch over us so carefully, it does not surprise us to find the angel inquiring so anxiously concerning this vision, and thus benefiting the whole Church by the hand of Daniel.

Meanwhile, we must notice, how Christ is the chief of angels and also their instructor, because he is the eternal Wisdom of God. Angels, therefore, must draw all the light of their intelligence from that single fountain. Thus angels draw us to Christ by their example, and induce us to devote ourselves to him through the persuasion that this is the supreme and only wisdom. If we are his disciples, being obedient, humble, and teachable, we shall desire to know only what he will make manifest to us. But the angel asks. What is the meaning of the vision of the perpetual sacrifice, and of the sin? that is, what, is the object of the vision concerning the abrogation of the perpetual sacrifice, and concerning the sin which lays waste? As to the second point, we explained yesterday the various opinions of interpreters, some twisting it to Antiochus, who impiously dared to violate God’s temple, and others to the priests. But we said the people were intended, lest many, as they are accustomed, should blame the Almighty for so heavily afflicting the Church. But God wished to bear witness to the origin of this devastation from the sins of the people. It is just as if the angel had said, How long will the sacrifices cease? How long will this vengeance, by which God will chastise the wickedness of his people, endure? For the sin is called devastating, through being the cause of that calamity. It is afterwards added, how long will the sanctuary and the army be trodden, down? that is, how long will the worship of God, and true piety, and the people itself, be trodden down under this cruel tyranny of Antiochus? But this question has far more efficacy, than if the Prophet had said, as we saw yesterday, that the punishment should be uniform and temporal. It was now necessary to explain what had already been stated more clearly. Thus this question was interposed with the view of rendering Daniel more attentive, and of stirring up the people by this narrative to the pursuit of learning. For it is no common event when angels approach Christ for our sakes, and inquire into the events which concern the state and safety of the Church. As, therefore, angels discharge this duty, we must be worse than stony, if we are not urged to eagerness and carefulness in the pursuit of divine knowledge. We see, then, why this passage concerning the angel is interposed.

Calvin: Dan 8:14 - NO PHRASE The phrase, And he said to me, now follows. This ought to be referred not to the angel inquiring, but to the Wonderful One. Whence we, rather gathe...

The phrase, And he said to me, now follows. This ought to be referred not to the angel inquiring, but to the Wonderful One. Whence we, rather gather the great anxiety of the angel concerning the interpretation of the prophecy, not for his own sake, but for the common benefit of the pious. Respecting this Wonderful One, though I am persuaded he was the Son of God, yet whoever he was, he certainly does not reject the angel’s request. Why then does he address Daniel rather than the angel? Because the angel was not seeking his own benefit, but took up the cause of the whole Church, as we have Shawn how angels are occupied in our salvation. Thus also we see how the angel notices the Prophet’s astonishment, when he was almost dead, and had not thought of inquiring for himself, or at least did not dare to break forth at once; for he afterwards recovered himself, and was raised up by the angel’s hand, as we shall soon perceive. The Wonderful One said to me — that is, the incomprehensible or the mysterious one said to me for two thousand three hundred evenings and mornings, then the sanctuary shall be justified Here the Hebrews are mutually at variance whether they ought to understand the number of years or of months; but it is surprising to perceive how grossly they are deluded in so plain a matter. The expression, to evening and morning, is not doubtful, since Christ, clearly means two thousand three hundred days; for what else can the phrase, morning and evening, signify? It cannot be used of either years or months. Evidently we ought to understand natural days here, consisting of twenty-four hours each. Those who receive it of years and months are wretchedly mistaken, and even ridiculous in their calculations. For some begin to calculate the, time from Samuel, they next descend to the reign of Saul, and next to that of David; and thus they foolishly trifle, through not understanding the intention of Christ, who wished his Church to be forewarned of the coming empires and slaughters, with the view of rendering the faithful invincible, however sorely they may be oppressed on all sides. Christ therefore wished to hold up a light to direct all the elect through the approaching darkness under the tyranny of Antiochus, and to assure them that in the very depths of it they would not be deserted by the favor of God. Hope would thus elevate their minds and all their senses unto the promised termination. To what purpose, then, do those interpreters speak of the reigns of Saul and David? We see this to be altogether foreign and adverse to the mind of Christ, and to the use of this prophecy. No less absurd is the guess of those who prate about months. Their refutation would occupy three or four hours, and would be a waste of time, utterly profitless. It is sufficient to gather this simple meaning from the words — Christ does not speak here of years or months, but of days. We must now seek the true interpretation of the passage from the whole context. We have shewn how impossible it is to explain this prophecy otherwise than by Antiochus: the event itself proves this to be its meaning. Blind indeed must be those who do not hold this principle — the small horn sprang from one of those remarkable and illustrious persons who came forth in place of one very large horn. Boys even know this by reading the accredited history of those times. As Christ here alluded to the tyranny of Antiochus, we must observe how his words accord with the facts. Christ numbers 2300 days for the pollution of the sanctuary, and this period comprehends six years and about four months. We know the Jews to have used lunar years as well as months. They afterwards used interealary periods, since twelve lunar months did not correspond with the sun’s course. The same custom prevailed among both Greeks and Romans. Julius Caesar first arranged for us the solar year, and supplied the defect by intercalary days, so that the months might accord with the sun’s course. But however that was, these days, as I have said, fill up six years and three months and a half. Now, if we compare the testimony of history, and especially of the book of Maccabees, with this prophecy, we shall find that miserable race oppressed for six years under the tyranny of Antiochus. The idol of Olympian Jove did not remain in the temple for six continuous years, but the commencement of the pollution occurred at the first attack, as if he would insult the very face of God. No wonder then if Daniel understood this vision of six years and about a third, because Antiochus then insulted the worship of God and the Law; and when he poured forth innocent blood promiscuously, no one dared openly to resist him. As, therefore, religion was then laid prostrate on the ground, until the cleansing of the temple, we see how very clearly the prophecy and the history agree, as far as this narrative is concerned. Again, it is clear the purifying of the temple could not have been at the end of the sixth current year, but in the month כסלו , keslu, answering to October or November, as leaned men prudently decide, it was profaned. For this month among the Jews begins sometimes in the middle of October, and sometimes at the end, according to the course of the moon; for we said the months and years were lunar. In the month Keslu the temple was polluted; in the month אדר Ader, about three months afterwards, near its close, the Maccabees purged it. (1Ma 4:36.) Thus the history confirms in every way what Daniel had predicted many ages previously — nay, nearly three hundred years before it came to pass. For this occurred a hundred and fifty years after the death of Alexander. Some time also had already elapsed, as there were eight or ten kings of Persia between the deaths of Cyrus and Darius. I do not remember any but the chief events just now, and it ought it to be sufficient for us to perceive how Daniel’s predictions were fulfilled in their own season, as historians clearly narrate. Without the slightest doubt, Christ predicted the profanation of the temple, and this would depress the spirits of the pious as if God had betrayed them, had abandoned all care of his temple, and had given up his election and his covenant entirely. Christ therefore wished to support the spirit of the faithful by this prediction, thereby informing them how fully they deserved these future evils, in consequence of their provoking God’s wrath; and yet their punishment should be temporary, because the very God who announced its approach promised at the same time a prosperous issue.

Respecting the phrase, the sanctuary shall be justified, some translate it — “Then the sanctuary shall be expiated;” but I prefer retaining the proper sense of the word. We know how usually the Hebrews use the word “justify” when they speak of rights. When their own rights are restored to those who have been deprived of them — when a slave has been blessed with his liberty — when he who has been unjustly oppressed obtains his cause, the Hebrews use this word “justified.” As God’s sanctuary was subject to infamy by’ the image of Olympian Jove being exhibited there, all respect for it had passed away; for we know how the glory of the temple sprang from the worship of God. As the temple had been defiled by so great disgrace, it was then justified, when God established his own sacrifices again, and restored his pure worship as prescribed by the Law. The sanctuary, therefore, shall be justified; that is, vindicated from that disgrace to which for a time it had been subject. It follows: —

Calvin: Dan 8:15 - NO PHRASE Daniel again confirms his original statement. But before he descends to the interpretation, he makes a preface concerning the faithfulness and certai...

Daniel again confirms his original statement. But before he descends to the interpretation, he makes a preface concerning the faithfulness and certainty of the oracle, lest the Church should hesitate to embrace his utterance as really proceeding from God. In doing this, he uses no artifice as rhetoricians do; but God wished to stir up both him and all the pious to meditate upon this prophecy, the knowledge of which was then so peculiarly necessary and useful. He says, therefore, when he sought the understanding of this vision, there appeared to him a form like that of a man Now God had anticipated this desire of the Prophet, by the answer which the angel received from Christ, who in reply had partly explained the sense of this vision. Now Daniel, finding himself anticipated by God who did not wait for his inquiry, gathers courage, and trusting in God’s readiness to furnish an answer, he wishes to learn the matter more clearly; not that he was altogether ignorant of the subject, but he did not yet perceive with sufficient clearness what was useful to himself and the whole Church. We see then, how the answer of Christ only afforded him a taste of the vision, and only urged him forwards towards the full comprehension of it. Many are immediately satisfied with but moderate information, and as soon as they understand a portion of any subject, they reject every addition, and many too often settle down at the first elements, and their obstinacy prevents that complete knowledge which is necessary. Daniel therefore shews himself to be far distant from such fastidiousness, as he was rendered more attentive by hearing from Christ’ lips the rea1 object of the vision. When I was attentive 1 sought to understand it, says he, behold! there stood before my face (or near it) like the aspect of a man We ought probably to interpret this passage of Christ, who is now called like a man, as formerly. (Dan 7:13.) For he had not yet put on our flesh, so as to be properly entitled to the name of a man; but he was here like a man, because he wished to allow the holy fathers a taste from which they might understand his future coming as Mediator, when he should put on human nature as God manifest in flesh:. (1Ti 3:16.) Thus Daniel speaks suitably as before when he says, Christ appeared to him under the aspect of a man But this adds to the same purpose, —

Calvin: Dan 8:16 - Gabriel, He does not use the particle implying fitness, but says he heard the voice of a man, because he treats no longer of either a man or a figure, but of ...

He does not use the particle implying fitness, but says he heard the voice of a man, because he treats no longer of either a man or a figure, but of a voice. It is sufficient to say at once, he was like a man, not really so, but only under the image and appearance of one. Christ therefore appeared as a man, and is called one, since Scripture often records how angels often appeared under the form of men, and are called indiscriminately, either angels or men. (Jud 8:3, etc.) So in this place Daniel relates the appearance of a. man, or the aspect of one, improperly indeed, but without any danger of mistake; for he afterwards admonishes the faithful, how this person was not clothed with the substance of flesh, but had only a human form and aspect. I heard then a human voice in the midst of the river We gather from this that the same person is here intended of whom mention was lately made, because he commands the angel; whence this can be referred to Christ alone.

Gabriel, says he, teach him. We observe the speaker from the midst of the river here commanding Gabriel, as if superior to him. For Gabriel as the name of an angel, is sufficiently known from other passages of Scripture; (Luk 1:19;) and its etymology, “The strength of God,” is very suitable to this meaning. Without ally doubt, the angel here receives his commands from Christ. Thus, we see the supreme power and authority represented under the form and aspect of a man, as well as obedience portrayed in Gabriel, who discharges the duty enjoined upon him. From this Christ’s divinity is inferred, as he could not issue orders to angels, without either having special authority, or being God himself. But when the phrase “like a man” is used, we are taught his manifest superiority to man. And what does this imply? not angelic nature but divine. Christ by thus presenting himself under a human form, shews, by a kind of foreshadowing, how he would become a man, when the fullness of time arrived. Then he would really manifest himself as the head of the Church, and the guardian of the salvation of the pious. For he proves himself to have power over all angels, when he orders Gabriel to discharge the office of the Prophet’s instructor. We will put off the remainder.

Calvin: Dan 8:17 - NO PHRASE I will not repeat what I have already explained. I will proceed with what I had commenced, namely, the Prophet’s need of instruction, because he co...

I will not repeat what I have already explained. I will proceed with what I had commenced, namely, the Prophet’s need of instruction, because he could not understand the vision without an interpreter; wherefore the angel was ordered to explain his revelation of God more fully. But, before he narrates this, he says, he was frightened at the approach of the angel. Without doubt, this reverence was always present to his mind. Whenever he perceived himself called or taught by God, he was doubtless struck with fear; but here some special feeling is expressed, as God desired to influence his mind to set us an example, and to render us more attentive. Here Daniel explains his own mind to us, commending the magnitude and importance of the vision, lest we should read with carelessness what he will afterwards relate, and not treat the occasion with sufficient seriousness. For God used the angel as his servant to explain his intention to the Prophet; at the same time he inwardly touched his mind by his Spirit to show us the way, and thus he would not only train us to docility, but also to fear. He says, then, he was frightened and fell down This, as I have said, was usual with the Prophet, as it ought to be with all the pious. Paul also, in celebrating the effect and power of prophecy, says, if any unbelievers should enter into the assembly and hear a prophet speaking in God’s name, he would prostrate himself, says he, upon his face. (1Co 14:25.) If this happened to unbelievers, how great will be our troubles, unless we receive most reverently and humbly, what we know to have been uttered by the mouth of God? Meanwhile, we should remember what I have lately touched upon, — the importance of the present oracle as here commended to us by the Prophet; for he fell upon his face through his fright, as he will repeat in the next verse.

Nor is the following exhortation superfluous; understated, says he, O son of Adam It would be of little use to us to be moved and excited for a time, unless our minds were afterwards composed for hearing. For many are touched by fear when God appears to them; that is, when he compels them to feel the force and power of his sway; but they continue in their stupidity, and thus their fright is rendered profitless. But Daniel here makes a difference between himself and the profane, who are only astonished and by no means prepared for obedience. At the same time, he relates how his own excitement was effected by the assistance of the angel. The fear, then, of which we have lately made mention, was preparation for docility; but; this terror would have been useless by itself, unless it had been added, that he might understand We ought to understand how piety does not consist merely in acknowledging the fear of God, but obedience is also required, preparing us to receive with tranquil and composed feelings whatever we shall be taught. We ought diligently to observe this order.

It now follows: Because there shall be an end of the vision at a fixed time. Some join לעת-קף legneth-ketz, making the sense “at the end of the time,” קף ketz, in this sense being in the genitive case by way of an epithet, as the Hebrews commonly use it. They elicit this sense — the vision shall be for a prefixed time. But others prefer — the end of the vision shall be for a time. I think this latter sense is better, as the former seems to me forced. On the whole, it is not of much consequence, yet as that form of expression is the easier, namely, the end or fulfillment of the vision should be at a definite time, I had rather follow that interpretation. The angel asserts, then, that this was no vain speculation, but a cause joined with its effect, which should have its completion at a stated period. There shall be an end, then, of the vision in its time; meaning, what you now behold shall neither vanish away nor be destroyed, but its end shall happen when the time shall arrive which God has determined. קף , ketz, is often taken in this sense. Hence there shall be an end of the vision,; that is, the vision shall be completed when the fitting time shall arrive. We ought to bear in mind this exhortation of the angel, because unless we are certainly persuaded of the fixedness of anything when God speaks, we shall not be ready to receive whatever he pronounces. But when we are convinced of this saying, God never separates his hand from his mouth — meaning, he is never unlike himself, but his power follows up his word, and thus he fulfills whatever he declares; this becomes a sure and firm foundation for our faith. This admonition of the angel ought to be extended generally to the whole of Scripture, since God does not throw words into the air, according to the common phrase. For nothing happens rashly, but as soon as he speaks, his truth, the matter itself and its necessary effect, are all consistent. It follows: —

Calvin: Dan 8:18 - NO PHRASE The Prophet repeats what he had said, namely, how he had been frightened by the magnitude of this vision; meanwhile, he was raised up by the angel, l...

The Prophet repeats what he had said, namely, how he had been frightened by the magnitude of this vision; meanwhile, he was raised up by the angel, lest he should remain in that state of stupor. Yet these two clauses must be noticed: Daniel was astonished at the outset, for he could not otherwise be sufficiently composed to listen to the angel’s voice; but at the same time another clause is added, stating, the angel set him upright in his place. Whenever God addresses us, we must necessarily be subject to fear and dread, to produce humility, and to render us docile and obedient. Fears the true preparation for obedience; but, as we formerly said, another feeling ought to follow; namely, as God has previously prostrated and cast us down, he will also raise us up, thereby preparing us for listening; and this disposition cannot arise except our minds are sedate and composed. The Prophet then expresses both these states of mind here. This, as I have said, is common to all the pious; but a peculiarity is noticed here, lest the readers of the vision should become torpid, and receive it carelessly; for they ought to collect all their senses, conscious of their inability to understand it, unless the fear of God should precede, and thus form the mind for obedience. While he was speaking with me, therefore, I fell into a swoon with my face upon the ground; that is, I lay astonished, and he touched me. I have already stated the opinion of others, that the angel approached him, but it is only tolerable. He now adds: —

Calvin: Dan 8:19 - NO PHRASE Those who read the noun קף ketz, “ end, ” in the genitive case in Dan 8:17, understand in this place the word “vision” again, as if th...

Those who read the noun קף ketz, end, ” in the genitive case in Dan 8:17, understand in this place the word “vision” again, as if the Prophet had said, “At the time of the end there shall be a vision.” But as מועד , meveged, or moed, signifies a “time fixed and settled beforehand,” there is nothing superfluous in that method of speech; then ketz, as I have said, is properly taken for the effect itself, and it would be harsh and far-fetched to say “at the time of the end there shall be a vision,” in the, sense of the filling up of the vision. For this word expresses all which such interpreters wish it to imply. Besides, all are agreed as to the matter itself, since the angel bears witness to his being the interpreter chosen by God, who explains futurity to the Prophet. Behold, therefore, says he, I will explain to thee He here acquires confidence for himself from his office, as he had accepted the commands divinely laid upon him. And we should remark this also, since our faith will never rest or become firm unless the authority on which it is founded be fixed. As then the angel declares himself to be executing an office divinely enjoined upon him, ought we to put confidence in men who conduct themselves with rashness, and, though they assume authority in God’s name, yet have no certain and lawful calling? We may learn, then, how neither angels nor men ought to be held in such honor as to induce us to receive whatever they bring forward, unless the Almighty has appointed them to be his ministers and interpreters.

He then says, I will announce to thee what shall happen even at the end of the wrath. Without doubt, the angel asserts by this phrase the suddenness of God’s wrath. We are aware how instantaneously on the return of the people their enemies attacked them in Judea, and never ceased to inflict upon them numberless troubles. Wherefore, as soon as the Jews had returned from exile, God began to exercise them in various ways, and not without sufficient reason. Every one privately studied his own interests, but without any regard for the temple and any desire for the worship of God, and thus they were given up to avarice and caprice. They also defrauded God himself in tithes and offerings, as is evident from the prophets Malachi and Haggai. (Hag 1:12; Mal 3:8.) From that period God began to punish them, but deferred his vengeance till the time of Antiochus. The angel, therefore, calls the end of the vengeance that severer punishment which God inflicted after the people had abused his forbearance. Therefore I will teach thee, or lay before time, what shall happen at the close of the vengeance, because, says he, it shall be the time of the end. He here repeats what he had said concerning the effect of the prophecy, meaning, the fulfillment should take place at its own appointed season. We must; now notice the noun moed, because it is here opposed to our fervor and intemperance. Haste in desiring anything leads, as they say, to delay; for as soon as God bears witness to anything, we wish it to be fulfilled at the very first moment, and if he suspend its execution only a very few days, we not only wonder but cry out with vexation. God, therefore, here admonishes us by his angel that he has a settled time, and thus we are to learn to put a bridle on ourselves, and not to be rash and unseasonably hasty, according to our usual habit. We ought, then, to remember the explanation given, and perceive how the effect of the vision is shewn here, and thus it will obtain from us its just reverence. It follows: —

Calvin: Dan 8:20 - That great, horn, We have previously given a brief explanation of all these subjects. But here the angel removes all doubt, lest we should still anxiously inquire the ...

We have previously given a brief explanation of all these subjects. But here the angel removes all doubt, lest we should still anxiously inquire the meaning of the ram which Daniel saw, and of the he-goat which followed and prostrated the ram. The angel, therefore, here pronounces the ram to represent two kingdoms, which coalesced in one. Cyrus, as we have said, granted it for a time to his father-in-law Cyaxares, but yet; drew the whole power to himself, and the Persians began to extend their sway over all the realms of the East. But God in this vision had respect to the beginning of that monarchy. When, however, the Persians and Medes, were united, then the ram bore two horns; then the he-goat succeeded, and he threw down the ram, as we have already seen. In that he-goat there was first one great horn and then four small ones. The angel then answers concerning the he-goat representing the kingdom of the Greeks. There is not the slightest doubt here, since Alexander seized upon the whole East, and thus the Persian monarchy was utterly destroyed. In the he-goat, therefore, the kingdom of Greece or Macedon was displayed, but the horns will mark something special.

That great, horn, says Daniel, was the first king, namely, Alexander; afterwards four smaller horns arose in his place. We have already explained these. For when much blood had been shed, and the greater part of the leaders had been slain, and after the followers of Alexander had mutually attacked and. destroyed each other, those who remained divided his dominions among themselves. Cassander the son of Antipater obtained Macedon; Seleueus, Syria; Ptolemy, Egypt; and Antigonus his own fourth share. In this way the smaller horns succeeded Alexander, according to the clear testimony of profane history. From the frequency with which God sets this prophecy before us, we gather his intention of giving us a conspicuous sign of his majesty. For how could Daniel conjecture future events for so long a period before they happened? He does not pronounce mere enigmas, but; narrates things exactly as if they were already fulfilled. At the present time Epicureans despise the Scriptures and laugh at our simplicity, as if we were too ridiculous. But they rather display their own prodigious madness, and blindness, by not acknowledging the prediction of Daniel to be divine. Nay, from this prophecy alone we may prove with certainty the unity of God. If any one was inclined to deny that first principle, and utterly reject the doctrine of his divinity, he might be convinced by this single prophecy. Not only is this subject treated here, but Daniel points with his finger to the God of Israel as the only one in whose hand and will are all things, and from whom nothing either escapes or is concealed. From this prophecy alone the authority of Scripture is established by proofs perfectly sure and undoubted, as the Prophet treats with perfect clearness events at the time unknown, and which no mortal could ever have divined.

First of all he says, The ram which, thou sawest, having two horns, means the kings of the Medes and Persians This had not then occurred, for that ram had not yet risen and seized upon Babylon, as we have stated already. Thus Daniel was raised up as it were to heaven, and observed from that watch-tower things hidden from the minds of men. He afterwards adds, The he-goat is the king of Greece. Philip, the father of Alexander, although a strenuous and a most skillful warrior, who surpassed all the kings of Macedon for cleverness, yet, superior as he was, never dared to cross over the sea. It, was sufficient for him if he could strengthen his power in Greece, and render himself formidable against his neighbors in Asia Minor. But he never dared to attack the power of Persia, or even to harass them, and much less to overcome the whole East. Alexander, inflamed rather by rashness and pride than by good judgment, thought nothing would prove difficult to him. But when Daniel saw this vision, who ever would have thought of any king of Greece invading that most powerful monarchy, and not only seizing upon the whole of Asia, but obtaining sway in Egypt, Syria, and other regions? Although Asia Minor was an extensive region, and well known to be divided into many rich and fertile provinces, yet it was but a small addition to his immense empire. Nay, when Nineveh was conquered by Babylon, and the Chaldeans became masters of Assyria, this also was an addition to the Persian monarchy. We are familiar with the amazing riches of the Medes, and yet they were entirely absorbed. Darius drew with him 800,000 men, and quite buried the earth under his army. Alexander met him at the head of 30,000. What comparison was there between them! When Xerxes 73 came to Greece he brought with him 800,000 men, and threatened to put fetters upon the sea; yet Daniel speaks of his incredible event just as if it had already taken place, and were matter of history. These points must be diligently noticed that the Scriptures may inspire us with the confidence which they deserve.

Calvin: Dan 8:21 - NO PHRASE By the word “Javan” the Hebrews designate not only the Greeks but the: Macedonians, and the whole of that tract which is divided by the Hellespon...

By the word “Javan” the Hebrews designate not only the Greeks but the: Macedonians, and the whole of that tract which is divided by the Hellespont, from Asia Minor as far as Illyricmn. Therefore the meaning is — the king of Greece.

Calvin: Dan 8:22 - The great horn, The great horn, says he, which was between his eyes was the first king, and when it was broken, four others sprang up. Alexander, as we have mention...

The great horn, says he, which was between his eyes was the first king, and when it was broken, four others sprang up. Alexander, as we have mentioned, perished in the flower of his age, and was scarcely’ thirty years old when he died, through the influence of either poison or disease. Which of the two is uncertain, although great suspicion of fraud attaches to the manner of his death; and whichever way it happened, that horn was broken. In his place there arose four horns, which sprang up, say’s he, from that nation. Here we must notice this, since I very much wonder what has come into some persons’ minds, to cause them to translate it “from the nations” and yet these are persons skilled in the Hebrew language. First, they show great ignorance by changing the number, and next, they do not comprehend the intention of the angel. For he confirms what he formerly said concerning the unity of the kingdom and its division into four parts, and he assigns the reason here. They shall spring, says he, from a nation, meaning the Greeks, and all from a single origin. For by what right did Polemy obtain the empire? solely by being one of Alexander’s generals. At the beginning, he dared not use the royal name, nor wear the diadem, but only after a lapse of time. The same is true of Selcucus, and Antigonus, and Cassander. We see, then, how correctly the kingdom of the Greeks is represented to us under the figure of a single beast, although it was immediately dispersed and torn into four parts. The kingdoms, then, which sprang from the nation meaning; Greece, shall stand, but not in full strength The copula is here taken in the sense of “but; the four kingdom shall stand, but not by his strength, for Alexander had touched upon the Indian sea, and enjoyed the tranquil possession of his empire throughout the whole east, having filled all men with the fear of his industry, valor, and speed. Hence, the;angel states the four horns to be so small, that not one of them should be equal to the first king.

Calvin: Dan 8:23 - And at the end of their reign, when the wicked shall be at their height, one king shall stand And at the end of their reign, when the wicked shall be at their height, one king shall stand By saying at the end of their kingdom, he does not mean ...

And at the end of their reign, when the wicked shall be at their height, one king shall stand By saying at the end of their kingdom, he does not mean to imply the destruction of the four kingdoms had ceased. The successors of Antiochus were not directly cast down from their sway, and Syria was not reduced into a province till about eighty or a hundred years after Antiochus the Great had been completely conquered. He again left heirs, who, without doubt, succeeded to the throne, as we shall see more clearly in the eleventh chapter. But this point is certain — Perseus was the last king of Macedon, and the Ptolemies continued to the times of Julius Caesar and Augustus, and we are well aware how completely Cleopatra was conquered and ruined by Antony. As women succeeded to the throne, we could not place the destruction of the Macedonian empire under Antiochus Epiphanes. But the angel means, at the end of their kingdom, when they had really come to the close of their reigns, and their final ruin was at hand. For when Antiochus Epiphanes returned to his country, he seemed to have re-established his power though it very soon afterwards began to die away. Similar circumstances also happened to Egypt and to Macedon, for the reign of all their kings was precarious, and although not directly overthrown, yet they depended on the Romans, and thus their royal majesty was but fleeting. At the end, therefore, of their kingdom, that is, when they arrived at the height, and their fall led them on to ruin, then, says he, when the wicked were consummated or perfected. Some apply this to the professed and outward enemies of the Church, but I rather approve of another opinion, which supposes the angel to be speaking of the impious, who provoked God’s wrath, till it became necessary for grievous and severe penalties to be inflicted on the people, to whom God had so magnificently promised a happy and a tranquil state. This, however, was no common temptation, after the prophets had treated so fully of the happy and prosperous state of the people after their return from captivity, to behold the horrible dispersion, and to witness these tyrants making their assault not only upon men, but upon the temple of God itself. Wherefore the angel, as before, fortifies the Prophet and all the rest of the pious against this kind of trial, and shews how God had not changed his counsels in afflicting his Church, to which he had promised tranquillity, but had been grievously provoked by the sins of the people. He then shews the urgent necessity which had compelled God to exercise this severity. When, therefore, the impious had come to their height, that is, when they had arrived at the highest pitch, and their intolerable obstinacy had become desperate. We perceive how the angel here meets the trial, and instructs the pious beforehand, unfolding to them the inviolability of God’s word, while the people’s impiety compelled him to treat, them severely, although he had determined to display liberality in every way. Then, he says, a king shall stand with a fierce countenance But the rest tomorrow.

Calvin: Dan 8:24 - NO PHRASE After the angel had explained the Grecian monarchy, he records the future origin of a king who should be hard of face Without the slightest doubt, ...

After the angel had explained the Grecian monarchy, he records the future origin of a king who should be hard of face Without the slightest doubt, he implies the iniquity of Antiochus by this phrase. He was notoriously destitute of any nobleness of mind, and remarkable for low cunning, and to this disposition was added an impudence which faltered at nothing. This is the sense in which I take the words hard of face The following phrase asserts his cunning, when it says, he shall be skilled in enigmas This is equivalent to saying, he should excel in cunning, and should not be easily deceived. By these two epithets he does not compliment, but rather defames Antiochus Epiphanes, by representing him as hardened as the wicked usually are, without the slightest particle of either reason, or equity, or shame. He next blames his craftiness and deceit, by stating he should be skilled in enigmas He afterwards adds, his power shall be strengthened, and yet not by his own might Some are of opinion that Antiochus Epiphanes is here compared to Alexander, as the angel had previously stated the inferiority of the four kings to the first; for they were prefigured by four small horns. For the most powerful of them all did not reign over a fifth part of the dominions which Alexander had acquired for himself by violence and war. Others, again, explain this passage as if the power of Antiochus would be great, but still very unlike that of Alexander, and far inferior to it, according to the sense, not in his, i.e., Alexander’s, strength,. Many, however, refer this to Antiochus, although they do not agree among themselves. Some, again, want a kind of correction, as if the angel implied that the power of Antiochus should be great, but not quite openly so. Hence his valor shall be strengthened, not meaning by “valor” that heroic spirit with which kings are usually endowed, nor any increase in magnanimity; nor yet that Antiochus should imitate such monarchs as these, but his strength should lie concealed. He should creep on by clandestine acts, and not contend in open battle according to the practice of those who excel in courage; he should secretly try many schemes, and thus stealthily extend his empire. This makes a tolerable sense. Others, again, think this ought to be referred to God, since the strength of Antiochus was not the result of his own industry or valor, but of the judgment of God, who armed him with it, because he wished to use him as a scourge to execute his punishments on the Jews. His fortitude, therefore, shall be strengthened, yet not by his own valor, as this entirely depended on the just designs and vengeance of God. Although this last sense is more profitable, and contains much useful instruction, yet I fear it is distorted. And thus the last clause is either a correction of the preceding words, meaning” because he should not increase with ingenuous earnestness,” or else, the angel is still comparing his strength with the power of Alexander. His power, therefore, shall be strengthened, and yet not bear comparison with Alexander’s; or, his power shall be strengthened, but not by habits of war nor by open magnanimity, but he shall grow great by fraudulent and clandestine arts; because he was on the one hand most impious, and on the other, of a servile disposition, as we have formerly said.

It follows, He shall make wonderful havoc, and shall prosper, and shall proceed, that is, shall execute, and shall destroy the strong, and the people of the saints. By עצומים , gnetzumim, I understand not only the Jews, but also other neighboring nations; as if the angel had said, Antiochus shall be conqueror wherever he shall extend his arms, until at length he shall subdue Judea, and miserably afflict the people of God. Wherefore, he shall strike or destroy the brave, and the people of the saints, that is, the holy people, as we saw before. And according to his understanding shall his craftiness prosper in his hand The conjunction “and may be here superfluous; in this sense the passage is usually received, thus reading it on in one context; according to his understanding he shall prosper, although there is the conjunction “and” in the way, but this is frequently superfluous in Hebrew. It means, deceit shall prosper in his hand Here the angel confirms the former assertion respecting the servile cunning of Antiochus, as he did not act with ingenuous manliness, but with his audacity and hardihood he united malicious arts and craftiness unworthy of a king. Craft, therefore, shall prosper in his hand, and that too, as far as he understands it. Some suppose the sharpness of Antiochus to be noticed here, as if the angel had said, Craftiness shall prosper in his hand, in consequence of his possessing superior ability and penetration. But the passage may be suitably explained in this way, — Antiochus shall act prosperously according to his mental perception, and shall be so assisted by’ his craftiness, as to obtain whatever he shall grasp at.

Calvin: Dan 8:25 - NO PHRASE It follows next; He shall magnify himself in his heart, or he shall raise himself, and bear himself magnificently; although this expression implies...

It follows next; He shall magnify himself in his heart, or he shall raise himself, and bear himself magnificently; although this expression implies boasting and pride, and is taken in a disadvantageous sense. He shall be insolent, therefore, in his heart. The angel seems to distinguish here between the scheming and penetration of Antiochus, and his pride of heart; for, although he should obtain great: victories, and should subdue many nations according to his desires, yet he would oppress the Jews, and then, should be magnified in heart; that is, should be puffed up with greater pride than before, on account of those continuous successes. And in peace he shall destroy many, or the brave; for the word רבים rabbim, signifies either. Some translate, on account of his prosperity, because the Lord wished to relax the reins, so that no one should hinder the course of his victories. On account, then, of that success, he shall destroy many. Profane men, indeed, who understand nothing of God’s providence, have said that folly and chance prevail more in war than skill or arms; but the success of generals does not spring from either chance or fortune, but as God pleases to conduct the affairs of the world in various ways, so in some eases the evil and unskillful warriors succeed, while others make many fruitless efforts and trials, although they are superior in counsel, and are provided with the very best ornaments. But I rather incline to another sense which interpreters do not mention; namely, Antiochus should destroy and lay waste many nations without any trouble, with the greatest ease, and as it were in sport. Wherefore the Prophet signifies, or the angel who addresses the Prophet., that Antiochus should be the conqueror of many nations, not only because he should be endowed with great cunning, and should carry on the war more by treachery than by open violence, but as it is reported of Timotheus the Athenian general: He will take cities and lands, and subject them to himself, through fortune spreading her net for him while he is indulging in sleep. The angel, therefore, seems to point out this listlessness, by predicting much devastation by the hand of Antiochus in apparent ease and calmness. Others expound it thus, — nations shall be laid waste by that robber which have given him no occasion for attack, because they have never stirred up any hostility against him; but when they attempt to cultivate peace, he wearies them without the slightest pretext. But this interpretation seems to be forced.

He afterwards adds, And against the Prince Of Princes he shall stand, or rise up, and he shall be destroyed without hand, or shall be ruined. The ו , vau, is put adversatively; yet he shall be destroyed without hand. This was far more galling to the Prophet, and to the whole people, for the angel to predict the contests of Antiochus, not only with mortals, but with God himself. Some understand שר-שרים , sar-sarim, of the high priest, but this is too confined and spiritless. I have not the least doubt that God is here meant by the Prince of Princes Wherefore the complete sense is, — Antiochus should be not only bold, and cruel, and proud towards men, but this madness and full should proceed so far as to lead him to attack and resist God. This is the full sense. But a consolation is soon added, when the angel says, he should be destroyed without hand It would, indeed, have been almost intolerable for the Jews to hear only of the insolence of Antiochus in contending against God, unless this correction had been added — the end of the contest must be the self-destruction of Antiochus by his own impiety. He shall be destroyed then. But how? without hand, says he. For after subduing so many nations, and after obtaining whatever he wished, what more could be hoped for as far as man is concerned? Who would dare to rise up against him? Clearly enough, if the kings of Syria had been content with their own boundaries, they need not have feared any one, for no enemy would have molested them; but they provoked the Romans to attack them, and when they wished to invade Egypt, they did not prosper in their attempts. Whichever be the meaning, the angel here announces the sufficiency of the divine power without any human aid, for the destruction and overthrow of Antiochus. Some think this prophet refers to Antichrist, thus they pass by Antiochus altogether, and describe to us the appearance of Antichrist, as if the angel had shewn to Daniel what should happen after the second renovation of the Church. The first restoration took place when liberty was restored to the people, and they returned from exile to their native land, and the second occurred at the advent of Christ. These interpreters suppose this passage to unfold that devastation of the Church which should take place after the coming of Christ, and the promulgation of the gospel. But as we have previously seen, this is not a suitable meaning, and I am surprised that men versed in the Scriptures should so pour forth clouds upon clear light. For, as we said yesterday, nothing can be clearer, or more perspicuous, or even more familiar, than this prophecy. And what is the tendency of ascribing so violently to Antichrist what even mere children clearly see to be spoken of Antiochus, except to deprive Scripture of all its authority? Others speak more modestly and more considerately, when they suppose the angel to treat of Antiochus for the purpose of depicting in his person the figure of Antichrist. But I do not think this reasoning sufficiently sound. I desire the sacred oracles to be treated so reverently, that no one may introduce any variety according to the will of man, but simply hold what is positively certain. It would please me better to see any one wishing to adapt this prophecy to the present use of the Church, and to apply to Antichrist by analogy what is said of Antiochus. We know that whatever happened to the Church of old, belongs also to us, because we have fallen upon the fullness of times.

No doubt the Holy Spirit wished to teach us how to bear our cross by making use of this example, but as I have already said, it seems to me far too frivolous to search for allegories. We should be content with true simplicity, and transfer to ourselves whatever occurred to the ancient people. (1Co 10:11.) With how much reason does the Apostle say there should be false teachers in the kingdom of Christ, as there were formerly false prophets! (2Pe 2:1.) So we must determine, that the devil, who was a murderer from the beginning, will always find those whom he will stir up and impel to persecute the Church. The devil contends at this very day, not only by fallacious doctrines, and impious errors, and impostures, but also by cruel tyranny, as he inflames many impious men to madness, and thus harasses the sons of God. As the Jews ought not to quail under the calamities which oppressed them, through Daniel’s predictions concerning Antiochus, so the same doctrine ought in these days to fortify us, lest the novelty of our calamities should appall us, when the Church is oppressed by heavy burdens, and tyrants rage and storm, with fire and sword. (Rom 8:28 :) For the fathers experienced similar trials, to whom Christ had not then pointed out the way of life, and who did not comprehend so clearly as we do our duty to be conformed to the only-begotten Son of God, because he is the first-born in the Church; he is our head and we are his members. This. was not so fully unfolded to those holy men, who still endured under so many afflictions, when they might suppose the Church completely buried, as it is certainly surprising that they did not yield a hundred times over to so many and such dreadful calamities. Therefore this doctrine will be best accommodated to our instruction, if we are convinced of the justice of our condition not being better than that of the fathers. What, therefore, happened to them? These wicked ones should be destroyed, namely, the Jews:, who professed themselves to be the elect people of God, and the holy family of Abraham, and in numberless ways had obstinately provoked God’s wrath; thus the Church was miserably harassed. Antiochus, especially, like a sweeping tempest, reduced all things to ruin, till the people felt themselves utterly undone, and to all human appearance were without the slightest hope. As God punished so severely the wickedness of his ancient people, it does not surprise us when we feel his present chastisements, as in these days the land is full of sinfulness, and we do not cease perpetually and purposely to provoke God’s wrath. (1Th 3:3.) Lastly, to avoid the penalty due to our sins, let us consider the end of our calling, the subjection of our whole life to the cross. This is the warfare to which our heavenly Father destines us. As this is our lot, we ought to look into this mirror, and there behold the perpetual condition of the

Church. It is therefore no matter of surprise, if, instead of one Antiochus, God should raise up many who are hardened and invincible in their obstinacy, and in their cruelty make many attempts with clandestine arts, and plot for the destruction of the Church. If the fathers experienced this, it does not surprise us, if we in these days undergo similar sufferings. This, I say, is a useful analogy, and does not distort the simple sense of Scripture. Now, let us go on, —

Calvin: Dan 8:26 - NO PHRASE The angel again confirms the assertion that no part of this vision was shewn to the Prophet in vain, because not even the slightest portion of it sho...

The angel again confirms the assertion that no part of this vision was shewn to the Prophet in vain, because not even the slightest portion of it should fail of its effect. The necessity of this method of confirming our faith is notorious, because, although the events may be well known to us, yet we cannot acquiesce in God’s word, unless he should testify so repeatedly to the truth of his assertions, and sanction by such repetition whatever appears to us ambiguous. When it becomes perfectly obvious that the angel discourses upon obscure events, and such as were utterly incredible at the time, it does not surprise us when he announces again, that the Prophet had seen nothing which God would not accomplish. This vision, therefore, says he, is truth. He calls it “the vision of the evening and morning,” because while the angel was treating of the six years and almost a half, he used this form of speech. And we said this was purposely expressed, lest any one should extend it to years or months, as some did; as if the angel had said, — Behold! by calculating single days up to six years and about a half, the completion of this prophecy when the Temple shall be cleansed, shall be accurately discovered. Again it is asserted, that the vision is certain, because God had computed day by day the time of the profanation of the Temple until the period of its cleansing. Do thou, therefore, says he, seal or close the vision, because it is for many days It may surprise us why God should wish what he had explained to his servant to remain concealed. For Daniel was not instructed in futurity for his own private advantage, but for the common usefulness of the whole people. It seems, therefore, contrary to his office to be commanded to close up the vision, and to keep it. in complete obscurity. But the angel means, if the greater part of the people should reject this prophecy, this formed no reason why Daniel should hesitate. Be thou, therefore, the guardian of this prophecy, as if God had deposited a treasure in the hands of his servant, and had said, “Pay no regard to any who despise this prophecy; many may deride thee, and others think thou art narrating fables, and very few will have confidence in thee but do not relax on this account, but faithfully guard this treasure,” since it is for many days; that is, although its effect is not immediately apparent, because God will suspend for some time the punishments of which entreats, and will not restore the Temple all at once, nor wrest His people immediately out of the hand of the tyrant. In consequence, then, of his deferring his judgments as well as his pity for many days, do thou close up this visions, that is, keep it to thyself, as if thou art alone. Thus God does not simply command his Prophet to be silent, or to conceal what he had learnt, but rather confirms him in his consistency, lest he should estimate this prophecy according to the ordinary opinions of his countrymen. And at the same time he shews, that though the Jews did not pay attention to what Daniel announced to them, yet nothing whatever should be in vain. It follows, —

Calvin: Dan 8:27 - NO PHRASE Again, Daniel shews himself to have been so touched with the secret instinct of God, that he knew for certain this vision to have been divinely prese...

Again, Daniel shews himself to have been so touched with the secret instinct of God, that he knew for certain this vision to have been divinely presented to him. For God wished so to affect his servant, that he might embrace with greater reverence what he both heard and saw. I have already referred to our want; of attention in listening to God’s word as it deserves, unless some kind of fear precedes it which may rouse our minds by some means from their torpor; but this prophecy had a special intention. In an ordinary case, God did not humble his servant; but by the disease which is here mentioned, he wishes to show how this prediction related to some event of serious magnitude. Daniel, therefore, states himself to have been astonished, as if suffering under some defect, and afflicted by disease This disease did not happen to the Prophet naturally, but it fell upon him in consequence, of his being suddenly terrified. And he afterwards shews this, by saying, no one understood the prediction. Here, then, he admonishes all the pious, neither to hear nor read this, narrative with carelessness, but to summon up their utmost attention, and to perceive that God here shews them things of the greatest importance, and which vitally concern their salvation. This forms a reason why Daniel ought to suffer dejection and to be afflicted by disease. He next says, he returned to the king’s business, meaning his ordinary occupation. We infer from this expression, the grievous error of those who think him to have been in Persia at this period, because he could not return to his duties, unless to were present in the king’s palace. But why is this added? To assure us that the Prophet was not drawn off from the duties which the king had assigned to him, although God had chosen him to perform the peculiar office of Prophet and teacher of his Church. This is a rare instance, and ought not to be drawn into a precedent, according to the usual phrase. Which of us, for instance, would be sufficient for those duties of political government assigned to Daniel, and also for those incumbent upon a pastor and teacher? But God made use of his servant Daniel in an extraordinary way, because he had many reasons for wishing him occupied in the king’s palace. We have previously seen how God’s glory was illustrated by his position, for Daniel admonished Belshazzar of his approaching death, when his enemies had already partially captured the city. And the utility of this was proved by Cyrus and Darius sparing the Jews. As long as the Chaldeans held the supreme power, Daniel was of no slight benefit to those miserable exiles; for even if he lived under cruel tyrants, yet he had some authority remaining, and this enabled him to alleviate many of the sufferings of his nation. God, therefore, was consulting the advantage of the whole people, when he desired Daniel to proceed in the course of his usual duties. Besides this, he wished to confer upon him the extraordinary gift of prophecy, an endowment, as I have said, peculiar to Daniel. It now follows, —

Defender: Dan 8:1 - In the third year At this point in his book, Daniel returns again to using the Hebrew language rather than Aramaic, presumably because by this time (the third year of B...

At this point in his book, Daniel returns again to using the Hebrew language rather than Aramaic, presumably because by this time (the third year of Belshazzar), his influence with the leaders of Babylon had become minimal and he was writing mainly for his own people of Judah. However, his later experience in the lion's den during the reign of Darius, as recorded in chapter 6, was again written in Aramaic, probably as a testimony to Darius and his Persian nobles, as well as to the Babylonians remaining in the city. The Persians were probably fluent in the language of the Chaldeans. It is noteworthy that Daniel's visions as recorded in chapters 7, 8 and 9, and probably those in chapters 10, 11 and Dan 12:1-13 as well, were given and recorded before the history account in chapter 6."

Defender: Dan 8:2 - Shushan Daniel was translated in his vision to the capital of Persia even before the Persians had conquered Babylon. Furthermore, his vision then prophesied t...

Daniel was translated in his vision to the capital of Persia even before the Persians had conquered Babylon. Furthermore, his vision then prophesied the eventual defeat of Persia by Greece, as well as the still more distant break-up of the Grecian empire. It is not surprising that those who deny supernatural divine inspiration must try to assign the book of Daniel to a later period."

Defender: Dan 8:3 - two horns The ram is Medo-Persia, with the higher horn representing Persia and the lower Media (Dan 8:20)."

The ram is Medo-Persia, with the higher horn representing Persia and the lower Media (Dan 8:20)."

Defender: Dan 8:4 - no beasts might stand When this was written, Babylonia was still dominant, but the Medo-Persians were rising, and Daniel saw that, eventually, not even Babylon could stand ...

When this was written, Babylonia was still dominant, but the Medo-Persians were rising, and Daniel saw that, eventually, not even Babylon could stand against them."

Defender: Dan 8:5 - he goat This "he-goat" represents the Greek empire (Dan 8:21), which Daniel prophesied would eventually conquer the Medo-Persian empire, just as he had prophe...

This "he-goat" represents the Greek empire (Dan 8:21), which Daniel prophesied would eventually conquer the Medo-Persian empire, just as he had prophesied the latter would conquer the Babylonian empire. These events came to pass as predicted, and the fact that the ram is Medo-Persia and the goat is Greece provides further indication that the bear and leopard in chapter 7 were not these two kingdoms, as many take them to be, but rather two great kingdoms of the end-times.

Defender: Dan 8:5 - notable horn This "notable horn" on the goat is said to be the "first king" of the future conquering Greek empire (Dan 8:21) - none other than the famous Alexander...

This "notable horn" on the goat is said to be the "first king" of the future conquering Greek empire (Dan 8:21) - none other than the famous Alexander the Great, whose conquests were so swift that it seemed like his legions "touched not the ground" as they advanced."

Defender: Dan 8:8 - great horn was broken Alexander, fully as arrogant as Nebuchadnezzar had been, boasted of his exploits and complained that there were no more worlds to conquer, then soon d...

Alexander, fully as arrogant as Nebuchadnezzar had been, boasted of his exploits and complained that there were no more worlds to conquer, then soon died as a dissolute young man.

Defender: Dan 8:8 - four notable ones This unlikely prophecy was fulfilled when Alexander's four generals divided up his kingdom after his death. Ptolemy took over the southern parts of hi...

This unlikely prophecy was fulfilled when Alexander's four generals divided up his kingdom after his death. Ptolemy took over the southern parts of his empire, Lysimachus the northern, Cassander the western, and Seleucus the eastern."

Defender: Dan 8:9 - little horn This "little horn" is evidently the same as the "little horn" of Dan 7:8, the Beast of the end-times, also known as the antichrist. He cannot be (as s...

This "little horn" is evidently the same as the "little horn" of Dan 7:8, the Beast of the end-times, also known as the antichrist. He cannot be (as some expositors believe) Antiochus Epiphanes, one of the Syrian kings in the dynasty established by Seleucus. Although he did manifest the character of an antichrist, Antiochus did not become as great as "the host of heaven" (Dan 8:10) or do the other things described in Dan 8:10-14 and Dan 8:22-25. When Gabriel interpreted the vision to Daniel, he said specifically that it was "the time of the end" (Dan 8:17)."

Defender: Dan 8:10 - waxed great This person, said specifically to come forth out of one of the four divisions of Alexander's empire, must be possessed and energized by Satan himself,...

This person, said specifically to come forth out of one of the four divisions of Alexander's empire, must be possessed and energized by Satan himself, for in no other way could he be said to wax as great as "the host of heaven," a term used throughout the Bible only for either stars or angels or both. In the New Testament, he is called "that man of sin ... the son of perdition" (2Th 2:3), and it is clear that when men worship him as he demands, they actually are worshiping Satan (Rev 13:4)."

Defender: Dan 8:11 - the daily sacrifice The statements of this passage can only be literally applied to Satan, who brought down many of the angelic "stars" with him when he "magnified himsel...

The statements of this passage can only be literally applied to Satan, who brought down many of the angelic "stars" with him when he "magnified himself" against God. Further, he will (through his possessed "son") take away the daily sacrifice in the restored temple during the tribulation period (Dan 9:27; Dan 11:31; Mat 24:15)."

Defender: Dan 8:14 - two thousand and three hundred days According to the interchange between the two "saints" (Dan 8:13), who were evidently two holy angels, the sanctuary, which was desolated by the replac...

According to the interchange between the two "saints" (Dan 8:13), who were evidently two holy angels, the sanctuary, which was desolated by the replacement of the daily sacrifice by the image of the beast (Dan 9:27; Dan 11:31; Dan 12:11) will be purged and cleansed 2300 days later. But also see Dan 12:11, Dan 12:12. There are many other things that must happen in the seven year period at the climax of history."

Defender: Dan 8:23 - dark sentences This dark king, learned in occultism and lying wonders, possessed and controlled by the devil, will arise "in the latter time." There have been many a...

This dark king, learned in occultism and lying wonders, possessed and controlled by the devil, will arise "in the latter time." There have been many antichrists, but the great antichrist has not yet arisen."

Defender: Dan 8:24 - destroy the mighty and holy people He will not only stop Jewish sacrifices but will attempt genocide on the entire chosen people."

He will not only stop Jewish sacrifices but will attempt genocide on the entire chosen people."

Defender: Dan 8:25 - shall be broken When He finally confronts Christ, he will quickly be "broken without hand," simply by "the breath of his lips" (Isa 11:4)."

When He finally confronts Christ, he will quickly be "broken without hand," simply by "the breath of his lips" (Isa 11:4)."

TSK: Dan 8:1 - the third // me Daniel Cir, am 3451, bc 553 the third : Dan 7:1 me Daniel : Dan 8:15, Dan 7:15, Dan 7:28, Dan 9:2, Dan 10:2, Dan 10:7, Dan 11:4

Cir, am 3451, bc 553

the third : Dan 7:1

me Daniel : Dan 8:15, Dan 7:15, Dan 7:28, Dan 9:2, Dan 10:2, Dan 10:7, Dan 11:4

TSK: Dan 8:2 - I saw in // Shushan // province // Ulai I saw in : Dan 8:3, Dan 7:2, Dan 7:15; Num 12:6; Heb 1:1 Shushan : Neh 1:1; Est 1:2, Est 2:8, Est 3:15, Est 7:6, Est 8:15, Est 9:11, Est 9:15 province...

TSK: Dan 8:3 - I lifted // a ram // one // the other I lifted : Dan 10:5; Num 24:2; Jos 5:13; 1Ch 21:16; Zec 1:18, Zec 2:1, Zec 5:1, Zec 5:5, Zec 5:9, Zec 6:1 a ram : The Medo-Persian empire, of which a ...

I lifted : Dan 10:5; Num 24:2; Jos 5:13; 1Ch 21:16; Zec 1:18, Zec 2:1, Zec 5:1, Zec 5:5, Zec 5:9, Zec 6:1

a ram : The Medo-Persian empire, of which a ram was the ensign; and a ram’ s head with horns, one higher than the other, is still to be seen on the ruins of Persepolis. Dan 8:20, Dan 2:39, Dan 7:5

one : Media was the more ancient kingdom; but Persia, after Cyrus, was the most considerable. Dan 5:31, Dan 6:28; Ezr 1:2, Ezr 4:5; Est 1:3; Isa 13:17, Isa 21:2, Isa 44:28; Jer 51:11

the other : Heb. the second

TSK: Dan 8:4 - pushing // neither // but pushing : Dan 5:30, Dan 7:5, Dan 11:2; Isa 45:1-5; Jer. 50:1-51:64 neither : Dan 8:7; Job 10:7; Psa 7:2, Psa 50:22; Mic 5:8 but : Dan 5:19, Dan 11:3, ...

TSK: Dan 8:5 - an he goat // touched not the ground an he goat : Dan 8:21, Dan 2:32, Dan 2:39, Dan 7:6 touched not the ground : or, none touched him in the earth, a notable horn. Heb. an horn of sight....

an he goat : Dan 8:21, Dan 2:32, Dan 2:39, Dan 7:6

touched not the ground : or, none touched him in the earth, a notable horn. Heb. an horn of sight. Alexander the Great. Dan 8:8, Dan 8:21, Dan 11:3

TSK: Dan 8:6 - to the to the : Dan 8:3

to the : Dan 8:3

TSK: Dan 8:7 - moved // and there was no // but // there was none moved : Dan 11:11 and there was no : Lev 26:37; Jos 8:20 but : Dan 7:7 there was none : Dan 8:4

moved : Dan 11:11

and there was no : Lev 26:37; Jos 8:20

but : Dan 7:7

there was none : Dan 8:4

TSK: Dan 8:8 - waxed // when // the great // toward waxed : Deu 31:20; Est 9:4; Jer 5:27; Eze 16:7 when : Dan 4:31, Dan 5:20; 2Ch 26:16; Psa 82:6, Psa 82:7; Eze 28:9 the great : Dan 8:22, Dan 7:6, Dan 1...

TSK: Dan 8:9 - came // the pleasant came : Dan 8:23, Dan 8:24, Dan 7:8, Dan 7:20-26, Dan 11:21, 25-45 the pleasant : Dan 11:16, Dan 11:41, Dan 11:45; Psa 48:2, Psa 105:24; Jer 3:19; Eze ...

TSK: Dan 8:10 - to the host // and stamped to the host : or, against the host, Dan 8:24, Dan 8:25, Dan 11:28, Dan 11:30,Dan 11:33-36; Isa 14:13; Rev 12:4 and stamped : Dan 8:7, Dan 7:7

to the host : or, against the host, Dan 8:24, Dan 8:25, Dan 11:28, Dan 11:30,Dan 11:33-36; Isa 14:13; Rev 12:4

and stamped : Dan 8:7, Dan 7:7

TSK: Dan 8:11 - he magnified // to // the prince // by him // the daily // and the place he magnified : Dan 8:25, Dan 5:23, Dan 7:25, Dan 11:36; 2Ki 19:22, 2Ki 19:23; 2Ch 32:15-22; Isa 37:23, Isa 37:29; Jer 48:26, Jer 48:42; 2Th 2:4; Rev 1...

TSK: Dan 8:12 - an host was given him against the daily sacrifice // and it cast // and it practiced an host was given him against the daily sacrifice : or, the host was given over for the transgression against the daily sacrifice. Dan 11:31-35; Rev 1...

an host was given him against the daily sacrifice : or, the host was given over for the transgression against the daily sacrifice. Dan 11:31-35; Rev 13:7

and it cast : Psa 119:43, Psa 119:142; Isa 59:14; 2Th 2:10-12

and it practiced : Dan 8:4, Dan 11:28, Dan 11:36; 1Sa 23:9; Job 12:6; Jer 12:1; Rev 13:11-17

TSK: Dan 8:13 - one saint // that certain saint // How // the vision // and the // of desolation // to be one saint : Dan 4:13, Dan 7:16, Dan 12:5, Dan 12:6; Deu 33:2; Zec 1:9-12, Zec 1:19, Zec 2:3, Zec 2:4, Zec 14:5; 1Th 3:13; 1Pe 1:12; Jud 1:14 that cert...

one saint : Dan 4:13, Dan 7:16, Dan 12:5, Dan 12:6; Deu 33:2; Zec 1:9-12, Zec 1:19, Zec 2:3, Zec 2:4, Zec 14:5; 1Th 3:13; 1Pe 1:12; Jud 1:14

that certain saint : or, the numberer of secrets, or, the wonderful numberer, Heb. Palmoni, Jdg 13:18 *marg. Isa 9:6; Mat 11:27; Luk 10:22; Joh 1:18

How : Dan 12:6; Psa 74:9, Psa 79:5; Isa 6:11; Rev 6:10

the vision : Dan 8:11, Dan 8:12

and the : Dan 9:27, Dan 11:31, Dan 12:11; Mat 24:15; Mar 13:14; Luk 21:20

of desolation : or, making desolate

to be : Dan 7:23; Isa 63:18; Luk 21:24; Heb 10:29; Rev 11:2

TSK: Dan 8:14 - Unto // two thousand // days // then // cleansed Unto : Dan 7:25, Dan 12:7, Dan 12:11; Rev 11:2, Rev 11:3, Rev 12:14, Rev 13:5 two thousand : That is, 2,300 years, which reckoned from the time Alexan...

Unto : Dan 7:25, Dan 12:7, Dan 12:11; Rev 11:2, Rev 11:3, Rev 12:14, Rev 13:5

two thousand : That is, 2,300 years, which reckoned from the time Alexander invaded Asia, bc 334, will be ad 1966.

days : Heb. evening, morning, Dan 8:26; Gen 1:5

then : Isa 1:27; Rom 11:26, Rom 11:27; Rev 11:15

cleansed : Heb. justified, Isa 45:25; Gal 3:8

TSK: Dan 8:15 - I Daniel // sought // as I Daniel : Dan 7:28 sought : Dan 7:16-19, Dan 12:8; Mat 13:36, Mat 24:15; Mar 4:12, Mar 13:14; 1Pe 1:10,1Pe 1:11; Rev 13:18 as : Dan 10:5, Dan 10:16; ...

TSK: Dan 8:16 - I heard // between // Gabriel // make I heard : Dan 10:11, Dan 10:12; Act 9:7, Act 10:13; Rev 1:12 between : Dan 8:2, Dan 12:5-7 Gabriel : Dan 9:21; Luk 1:19, Luk 1:26 make : Dan 9:22, Dan...

TSK: Dan 8:17 - I was // Understand // O son // at I was : Dan 10:7, Dan 10:8, Dan 10:16; Gen 17:3; Eze 1:28; Mat 17:8; Mar 9:4, Mar 9:5; Rev 1:17, Rev 19:9, Rev 19:10; Rev 22:8 Understand : Dan 8:15, ...

TSK: Dan 8:18 - I was // he touched // set me upright I was : Dan 8:17, Dan 8:27, Dan 10:8, Dan 10:9; Luk 9:32, Luk 22:45 he touched : Dan 10:10,Dan 10:16, Dan 10:18; Gen 15:12; Job 4:13; Eze 2:2; Zec 4:1...

I was : Dan 8:17, Dan 8:27, Dan 10:8, Dan 10:9; Luk 9:32, Luk 22:45

he touched : Dan 10:10,Dan 10:16, Dan 10:18; Gen 15:12; Job 4:13; Eze 2:2; Zec 4:1; Act 26:6

set me upright : Heb. made me stand upon my standing

TSK: Dan 8:19 - I will // the last I will : Dan 8:15-17; Rev 1:1 the last : Dan 8:17, Dan 8:23, Dan 9:26, Dan 9:27, Dan 11:27, Dan 11:35, Dan 11:36, Dan 12:7, Dan 12:8; Hab 2:3; Rev 10:...

TSK: Dan 8:20 - -- Dan 8:3, Dan 11:1, Dan 11:2

TSK: Dan 8:21 - the rough // the great the rough : Dan 8:5-7, Dan 10:20 the great : Dan 8:8, Dan 11:3

the rough : Dan 8:5-7, Dan 10:20

the great : Dan 8:8, Dan 11:3

TSK: Dan 8:22 - being broken being broken : After Alexander’ s death, in the prime of life and in the height of his conquests, his brother and two sons were all murdered; and...

being broken : After Alexander’ s death, in the prime of life and in the height of his conquests, his brother and two sons were all murdered; and the kingdom was divided among four of his generals.

Four GeneralsPortion of Kingdom
1. SeleucusSyria and Babylon
2. LysimachusAsia Minor
3. PtolemyEgypt
4. CassanderGreece
whereas : Dan 8:3, Dan 11:4

TSK: Dan 8:23 - in the // when // come // a king // and understanding // shall stand in the : Dan 10:14; Num 24:24; Eze 38:8, Eze 38:16; 1Ti 4:1 when : Gen 15:16; Mat 23:32; 1Th 2:16 come : Heb. accomplished a king : The Roman empire, ...

in the : Dan 10:14; Num 24:24; Eze 38:8, Eze 38:16; 1Ti 4:1

when : Gen 15:16; Mat 23:32; 1Th 2:16

come : Heb. accomplished

a king : The Roman empire, which reduced Judea to a province, burnt the city and temple, and scattered the Jews to the four winds of heaven. Dan 8:9-12, Dan 7:8, Dan 7:11, Dan 7:20,Dan 7:25; Deu 28:50

and understanding : Dan 8:25, Dan 11:21, Dan 11:24; 2Th 2:9-11; Rev 13:11-14, Rev 19:20

shall stand : Dan 8:6

TSK: Dan 8:24 - but // shall prosper // shall destroy // holy people but : Rev 13:3-9, Rev 17:12, Rev 17:13, Rev 17:17 shall prosper : Dan 8:12, Dan 11:36 shall destroy : Dan 8:10,Dan 8:12, Dan 7:25, Dan 11:31-36; Rev 1...

but : Rev 13:3-9, Rev 17:12, Rev 17:13, Rev 17:17

shall prosper : Dan 8:12, Dan 11:36

shall destroy : Dan 8:10,Dan 8:12, Dan 7:25, Dan 11:31-36; Rev 13:10, Rev 16:6, Rev 17:6, Rev 19:2

holy people : Heb. people of the holy ones

TSK: Dan 8:25 - through // magnify // peace // stand // but through : Dan 8:23, Dan 8:24, Dan 7:8, Dan 11:21-25, Dan 11:32, Dan 11:33 magnify : Dan 8:11, Dan 11:36, Dan 11:37; Jer 48:26 peace : or, prosperity, ...

TSK: Dan 8:26 - the vision of // wherefore // for the vision of : Dan 8:11-15, Dan 10:1 wherefore : Dan 12:4, Dan 12:9; Eze 12:27; Rev 10:4, Rev 22:10 for : It is now 2,387 years since Daniel had this...

the vision of : Dan 8:11-15, Dan 10:1

wherefore : Dan 12:4, Dan 12:9; Eze 12:27; Rev 10:4, Rev 22:10

for : It is now 2,387 years since Daniel had this vision; and the utter desolation of the sanctuary had continued 1,764 years; and no doubt the end of 2,300 years is not far distant. Dan 10:1, Dan 10:14; Isa 24:22; Hos 3:3, Hos 3:4

TSK: Dan 8:27 - fainted // and did // but fainted : Dan 8:7, Dan 7:28, Dan 10:8, Dan 10:16; Hab 3:16 and did : Dan 8:2, Dan 2:48, Dan 2:49, Dan 5:14, Dan 6:2, Dan 6:3; 1Sa 3:15 but : Dan 8:15-...

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: Dan 8:2 - I was at Shushan // The river of Ulai I was at Shushan in his mind and thoughts, not bodily, and was by the river Ulai: some think he was locally there, being sent thither in embassy by C...

I was at Shushan in his mind and thoughts, not bodily, and was by the river Ulai: some think he was locally there, being sent thither in embassy by Cyrus; but Daniel was now at Babylon, when it was besieged and taken, Da 5 ; he was only there in spirit, as the prophet Ezekiel saith he was in Jerusalem, Eze 8:3 . Now Daniel had this vision at Shushan, because their deliverance was to come by Cyrus the Persian or Elamite, for Elam is Persia. This city was called Shushan, i.e. a lily, for the pleasantness of it: such names they give also their cities in China.

The river of Ulai a river whose waters were so wholesome that they were carried far, and the king drank of no other.

Poole: Dan 8:3 - Which had two horns // bear // The two horns were high // One was higher than the other Which had two horns by which is meant the kingdom of the Medes and Persians, as it is in Dan 8:20 , where it is so interpreted. Before he was called ...

Which had two horns by which is meant the kingdom of the Medes and Persians, as it is in Dan 8:20 , where it is so interpreted. Before he was called a

bear and here a

ram both noting the same thing, though by different expressions. A ram because he is a fighting creature, pushing.

The two horns were high i.e. they were very powerful.

One was higher than the other i.e. the Median, that it came up last; but afterward the Persian was much superior in magnificence and fame, which was verified in Cyrus; who had an incredible heap, even fifty millions of talents. See Curtius and Strabo.

Poole: Dan 8:4 - Westward // Northward // Southward // No beasts might stand before him // He did according to his will, and became great Westward i.e. towards Babylon, Syria, Cappadocia. Asia the Less, and Greece, all westward from Media and Persia; for the Persians under Darius and Xe...

Westward i.e. towards Babylon, Syria, Cappadocia. Asia the Less, and Greece, all westward from Media and Persia; for the Persians under Darius and Xerxes made war against Greece.

Northward i.e. against the Armenians, Iberians, Lydians, Colchi, Cusptans.

Southward i.e. against Ethiopia, Arabia, Egypt, which Cambyses invaded.

No beasts might stand before him they prospered and conquered all, as did Cyrus.

He did according to his will, and became great he prevailed against all that opposed, and did what he would without control, and became the greatest king of the earth then.

Poole: Dan 8:5 - An he-goat An he-goat Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia and all Greece, called a he-goat because the Greeks were called

An he-goat Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia and all Greece, called a he-goat because the Greeks were called

Poole: Dan 8:6 - The ram that had two horns The ram that had two horns i.e. the king of Media and Persia, and joined battle presently and furiously, Jehu like.

The ram that had two horns i.e. the king of Media and Persia, and joined battle presently and furiously, Jehu like.

Poole: Dan 8:7 - Brake his two horns // Cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him Brake his two horns: Artaxerxes Mnemon, by aiding Cyrus against him and then Darius Codomanus; these are the two horns, or the Medes and Persians. C...

Brake his two horns: Artaxerxes Mnemon, by aiding Cyrus against him and then Darius Codomanus; these are the two horns, or the Medes and Persians.

Cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him he overthrew him utterly, that he could never rise again. This was at the Granicus, Issus, and Arbela.

Poole: Dan 8:8 - The he-goat waxed very great // The great horn was broken // For it came up four notable ones The he-goat waxed very great by conquering all the Eastern empire and power, even to India. The great horn was broken: this was the mighty power of...

The he-goat waxed very great by conquering all the Eastern empire and power, even to India.

The great horn was broken: this was the mighty power of the Lord of hosts, who is higher than the highest, and stronger than the strongest, though they seem invincible. Verily every man at his best estate is altogether vanity. Selah . When Alexander the Great was greatest, in his youth, not thirtythree years old; when he called himself the son of Jupiter; when he was swoln with victories and successes; then was he broken, and that to pieces, for he, his mother, son, brother, and all his kindred were destroyed. So weak are the greatest to bear prosperity long! for this wonder of men, by pride, luxury, and passion, prepared himself for ruin; he that wept because he had not another world to conquer, and wanted breathing room in this, how soon was he tumbled into a grave of six feet!

For it came up four notable ones:

1. Antipater got Greece.

2. Asia was possessed by Antigonus.

3. Ptolemy got Egypt.

4. Seleucus had Babylon and Syria. All these were variously situated: to the east, Babylon and Syria; to the south, Egypt; to the north, Asia the Less; to the west, Greece.

Poole: Dan 8:9 - A little horn // Toward the south // Toward the east // Toward the pleasant land // the glory of all lands A little horn the little horn was Antiochus Epiphanes, he arose out of the Seleucidae of Syria; called a little horn, 1. Because he was much less th...

A little horn the little horn was Antiochus Epiphanes, he arose out of the Seleucidae of Syria; called a little horn,

1. Because he was much less than Alexander, called a notable horn; Dan 8:5 .

2. Little, because he was the youngest of his brethren.

3. He was held a prisoner and pledge at Rome, whence he escaped.

4. Little, because he had nothing at first of greatness and heroic nobleness in him, also of low fortune.

Toward the south i.e. Egypt, where he besieged and took many places from Philometer, till the Romans stopped him.

Toward the east i.e. in Syria, Babylon, Armenia.

Toward the pleasant land Judea, so called because of the temple and people of God in it, and the fruitfulness of it, Eze 20:6 ,

the glory of all lands . So Dan 9:15 Psa 48:2,3, Jer 3:19 Dan 11:16,41,45 .

Poole: Dan 8:10 - Even to the host of heaven Even to the host of heaven i.e. the church of God militant, who worship the God of heaven, who are citizens of heaven, whose names are written in hea...

Even to the host of heaven i.e. the church of God militant, who worship the God of heaven, who are citizens of heaven, whose names are written in heaven; and among these chiefly the priests, and nobles, and champions, who were as stars shining above the rest; these he profaned and slew cruelly.

Poole: Dan 8:11 - Even to the prince of the host // By him the daily sacrifice was taken away // The place of his sanctuary was cast down Even to the prince of the host not only against the high priest Onias, whom he put from his priesthood, and sold the high priesthood, /APC 2Mac 4 , ...

Even to the prince of the host not only against the high priest Onias, whom he put from his priesthood, and sold the high priesthood, /APC 2Mac 4 , but against God himself, which showed his daring insolence, and God’ s patience and permission, for the sins of his people.

By him the daily sacrifice was taken away for he so persecuted the people of God, that he forced them to omit the worship of God.

The place of his sanctuary was cast down he took away the use of the temple as to the holy service and sacrifices, commanding that it should not be called the temple of God, but of Jupiter Olympus, whose image he set up in it, and gave the priesthood to wicked men, as Jason and Menelaus.

Poole: Dan 8:12 - By reason of transgression // It cast down the truth By reason of transgression i.e. either the transgression of the priests, for Jason perfidiously took away the priesthood from his brother Onias, and ...

By reason of transgression i.e. either the transgression of the priests, for Jason perfidiously took away the priesthood from his brother Onias, and afterwards Menelaus did the like by him. Or else for the sin of the people about the worship of God. Or else Antiochus wickedly and in contempt of God put soldiers into the city to hinder or break up the meetings of God’ s people about his worship, /APC 1Mac 1:47 .

It cast down the truth i.e. the law of God, called the law of truth, Mal 2:6 , which Antiochus cut in pieces and burnt, /APC 1Mac 1:59 . This was his practice, and it succeeded for a time as he desired.

Poole: Dan 8:13 - Palmoni // numberer or revealer of secrets // treading down of the sanctuary and the host By the first saint is meant a holy angel, by the other is meant Jesus Christ, Palmoni , a numberer or revealer of secrets a wonderful revealer,...

By the first

saint is meant a holy angel, by the other is meant Jesus Christ,

Palmoni , a

numberer or revealer of secrets a wonderful revealer, Isa 9:6 . Of him the angel asks this secret concerning the calamity of the church, how long it would last, for Daniel’ s sake and his people. For the Lord Christ is the Teacher of his people, the Wisdom of God, and hath all this in his power by office, and as he stands in relation to his church, and for them.

The Lord knows his suffering people are much concerned about the time of their sufferings, because there is an appointed time for it, and the Lord doth sometimes reveal it, as we see here, unto his considering ones, Dan 8:5 , and praying saints, Da 9 ; they cry out in their agonies, How long, O Lord? and it is an addition to their sorrow that no man knoweth how long, Psa 74:9 . How long shall Antiochus continue his tyrannical vexations against the people of God, and the worship of God? This is the

treading down of the sanctuary and the host

Poole: Dan 8:14 - He said unto me He said unto me i.e. that angel unnamed. Why did he speak to Daniel, and not to the angel that asked him? Because Daniel, and the church to which he ...

He said unto me i.e. that angel unnamed. Why did he speak to Daniel, and not to the angel that asked him? Because Daniel, and the church to which he related and was to communicate the answer, was most concerned in it, and the angel that asked the question did it upon their account. Unto two thousand and three hundred days: this seems to many learned men a very difficult place, i.e. where to begin and where to end these days.

1. Some explain it thus: A year contains three hundred and sixty-five days; then two thousand three hundred make six years, three months, and eighteen days, reckoning in two days of the leap years gained from the supernumerary hours and minutes. Now this time begins at the first entrance of Antiochus into Judea, when he profaned the priesthood; and takes in also his second coming in, when he interdicted their worship, set up an idol in the temple, and interrupted the daily sacrifice.

2. Others count the two thousand three hundred days from the people’ s revolt, which was procured by Menelaus, which began in the year 141 of the reign of the Seleucidae, /APC 1Mac 1 ; but Antiochus did not act his impieties till the next year after, viz. 142, in the 6th month and the 6th day; from whence if we reckon to the 25th day of the 9th month of the year 148, there will fall out precisely six years, three months, and eighteen days.

3. Others reckon a little otherwise, from the beginning of Antiochus’ s profanations to his death; from 143 to 148, taking in both years to the number. For though Judas Maccabeus recovered the city and cleansed the temple in 148, yet Antiochus was not dead till 149, till when the work was not finished.

4. Others make it to, begin in the year of the Seleneidea 145, and to end anne 151, two years after Antiochus’ s death, for the abomination of desolation was set up in the month Chisleu, /APC 1Mac 1:57 , for not till two years after Antiochus’ s death was Nicanor overthrown with all his army. Thus Jacob Capell, and L’ Empereur.

5. Others reckon not days, but sacrifices, (at two every day,) and restrain the time to fewer years, out of Maccabees. Josephus .

Poole: Dan 8:15 - As the appearance of a man Having obtained the favour of knowing something, he longed for a more clear discovery of those things; and he had his desire granted. As the appear...

Having obtained the favour of knowing something, he longed for a more clear discovery of those things; and he had his desire granted.

As the appearance of a man either the angel Gabriel or Michael, who appeared often in the shape of men, and are the messengers of God in the great things concerning his church, Heb 1:14 ; others will have this angel to be Christ.

Poole: Dan 8:16 - A man’ s voice // To understand the vision A man’ s voice i.e. of him but now before mentioned, namely, Christ. To understand the vision i.e. by declaring it more plainly to him: this s...

A man’ s voice i.e. of him but now before mentioned, namely, Christ.

To understand the vision i.e. by declaring it more plainly to him: this shows Christ to be God, in commanding and sending his angel. Gabriel signifies the strength of God.

Poole: Dan 8:17 - He came near // O son of man // At the time of the end He came near that he might speak more familiarly to him, yet Daniel could not bear the glory of it, Mat 17:6 . How much less can we bear the glory of...

He came near that he might speak more familiarly to him, yet Daniel could not bear the glory of it, Mat 17:6 . How much less can we bear the glory of God! and how graciously hath the Lord dealt with us to teach us by men, and not by angels! and how vain are they who aspire to a converse with angels here on earth!

O son of man: he calls him son of man, to make him mind his frailty, and not to be lifted up with visions, and this great condescension and familiarity of Heaven with him.

At the time of the end i.e. in God’ s appointed time, i.e. in the latter generations, but not now in thy lifetime, but about four hundred years hence. See Dan 8:26 .

Poole: Dan 8:18 - In a deep sleep on my face toward the ground In a deep sleep on my face toward the ground being terrified and astonished with the splendour and grandeur both of the messenger and message; by the...

In a deep sleep on my face toward the ground being terrified and astonished with the splendour and grandeur both of the messenger and message; by the sight and by the voice. Set me upright, by one touch only. The power of spirits is incomparably greater than the strongest of men. Carnal, and flesh and blood, in Scripture signifies weak, 2Co 10:3,4 .

Poole: Dan 8:19 - In the last end of the indignation // indignation // At the time appointed the end shall be In the last end of the indignation i.e. that God will raise up Antiochus to execute his wrath against the Jews for their sins, and that yet there sha...

In the last end of the indignation i.e. that God will raise up Antiochus to execute his wrath against the Jews for their sins, and that yet there shall be an end of that

indignation God will have the end of his intention, and the end of his execution, in all his severe providences relating to his people.

At the time appointed the end shall be: this he saith to make us wait patiently. He that believeth will not make haste.

Poole: Dan 8:20 - -- Or the kingdom, Dan 7:17 .

Or the kingdom, Dan 7:17 .

Poole: Dan 8:21 - The king of Grecia // The first king The king of Grecia of Javan, or Ion, or Joan, which properly is Asia the Less, which was inhabited by Javan, Gen 10:2 , but spread over all Greece, a...

The king of Grecia of Javan, or Ion, or Joan, which properly is Asia the Less, which was inhabited by Javan, Gen 10:2 , but spread over all Greece, and all spake Greek, and the sea was thence called the Ionian Sea, See more in Bochart.

The first king i.e. Alexander the Great; called the Great from his great power, success, and possessions; and the

first king i.e. in Asia, and by his exploits and victories over the Persian monarchy; for else there were other kings of Greece before him, but none of them in the sense aforesaid.

Poole: Dan 8:22 - Being broken // Four stood up for it // Not in his power Being broken i.e. by death, which breaks the horn of all pride and earthly glory. Four stood up for it i.e. four kingdoms of the nations of the Gre...

Being broken i.e. by death, which breaks the horn of all pride and earthly glory.

Four stood up for it i.e. four kingdoms of the nations of the Greeks.

Not in his power that is, not in his majesty and magnificence, but inferior to him.

Poole: Dan 8:23 - In the latter time of their kingdom // When the transgressors are come to the full // Of fierce countenance // Understanding dark sentences In the latter time of their kingdom i.e. when they were come to the height, and beginning to decline. It notes that time when the Romans began to sei...

In the latter time of their kingdom i.e. when they were come to the height, and beginning to decline. It notes that time when the Romans began to seize part of the Grecian kingdom, by Emilius Probus, who subdued Perseus king of Macedonia, and thereby brought all Greece under the Roman jurisdiction; which was one hundred and sixty-six years before Christ was born, that very year Antiochus set up the abomination of desolation.

When the transgressors are come to the full when the Jews were grown to an excess of wickedness, and called for punishment, then God suffered Antiochus to persecute them.

Of fierce countenance such was he: the word is translated impudent, inhuman, for the countenance is the discoverer of the mind and manners oftentimes.

Understanding dark sentences full of all subtlety, another Julian, to lay snares, and fetch over the inconstant and backsliding Jews: such a one all histories declare this Antiochus to be.

Poole: Dan 8:24 - Not by his own power // The holy people Not by his own power not by any heroic deeds, or truly regal qualities, but by making use of the Jewish factions, and also through the Divine permiss...

Not by his own power not by any heroic deeds, or truly regal qualities, but by making use of the Jewish factions, and also through the Divine permission, and commission given him to punish a backsliding, degenerate nation; lastly, by the help of Eumenes and Attalus, by whose means and help he got up to this height; who being kings, suspected the Roman power, and raised him to be a kind of cheek to them.

The holy people he shall by force, craft, and cruelty destroy many of God’ s people, from the highest to the meanest ranks of them.

Poole: Dan 8:25 - He shall cause craft to prosper in his hand // He shall magnify himself in his heart // By peace shall destroy many // He shall also stand up against the Prince of princes He shall cause craft to prosper in his hand he shall contrive many devices, and most of them shall take; he shall be a great master of those kinds of...

He shall cause craft to prosper in his hand he shall contrive many devices, and most of them shall take; he shall be a great master of those kinds of artifices: all to circumvent and destroy, as beasts and birds of prey have a kind of craft to compass and then devour their prey.

He shall magnify himself in his heart shall take a pride in his wicked devices and tricks.

By peace shall destroy many under colour of kindness, and promising peace and amity, shall lull men asleep, so as to fear nothing from him.

He shall also stand up against the Prince of princes: all this you find verified of him in the Maccabees and Josephus. He fought against God in removing the high priest, affronting God’ s laws, profaning God’ s worship, name, and temple, and setting up the image and worship of Jupiter there. He shall be broken without hand, by a disease whereof he died, /APC 1Mac 6:8 2Mac 9:5 .

Poole: Dan 8:26 - The vision is true The vision is true i.e. of the two thousand three hundred days before, Dan 8:14 . This exposition of it is true, plain, and certain. and therefore to...

The vision is true i.e. of the two thousand three hundred days before, Dan 8:14 . This exposition of it is true, plain, and certain. and therefore to be believed and seriously minded. Shut thou up the vision; lay it up in thy heart, keep it secret, reveal it to none till it be fulfilled. He doth not mean that it should be concealed from the people of God that were wise in heart, for they were concerned in it, and therefore it was revealed to Daniel; but he would not have it revealed to the Chaldeans and profane heathens, and therefore it was written in Hebrew, and not in Chaldee. It was to be fulfilled in after-times, and therefore to be safely laid up, and wisely to be thought on and improved. Therefore it is added,

for it shall be for many days three hundred years after this, in the time of the Seleucidae; long after Daniel’ s days and that generation. See Rev 22:10 .

Poole: Dan 8:27 - Was sick certain days Was sick certain days greatly afflicted, to consider the sad calamity that should befall the poor people of God. This he did in compassion and sympat...

Was sick certain days greatly afflicted, to consider the sad calamity that should befall the poor people of God. This he did in compassion and sympathy with his people, upon whom these sufferings should fall.

2. Under the dreadful apprehensions of God’ s wrath, provoked by his people’ s sins, which made it an act of justice in God to punish them thus severely.

3. That Daniel should not be lifted up with this vision and revelation.

4. That hereby Daniel might be in a due frame of humiliation and posture for prayer.

5. To show the powerful operations and impressions of the mind upon the bodies of men by the passions chiefly of fear and grief, causing often faintings, and consternation, which appear most in thoughtful, good men, whereof are many instances in Scripture, Hab 3:16 Rom 9:1-3 . Having digested his grief, and recovered strength, he minded his place, duty, and trust, and concealed the whole, that they might not see it by his countenance; though he had deep thoughts of heart about it.

Haydock: Dan 8:1 - Beginning Beginning. This vision was to explain what he had seen Chap. vii. respecting the four monarchies. The conflict of the Persians with Alexander, afte...

Beginning. This vision was to explain what he had seen Chap. vii. respecting the four monarchies. The conflict of the Persians with Alexander, after two hundred years and twenty years, is here described. (Worthington)

Haydock: Dan 8:2 - Castle // Gate Castle; some read "city." Here the kings had a palace; and Hystaspes, &c. generally resided in it. Nabuchodonosor seems to have subdued Elam. Cyru...

Castle; some read "city." Here the kings had a palace; and Hystaspes, &c. generally resided in it. Nabuchodonosor seems to have subdued Elam. Cyrus had it for his share; but Darius, the Mede, appears from Eschylus to have plundered Susa again. Daniel probably spent the latter part of his life in this city. (Calmet) ---

Gate, or "stagnant water;" ( paludem. ver. 3. Haydock) though most understand the river Euleus, on the side of Susiana. The prophets often sought retired places. (Chap. x. 4.; Ezechiel i. l.) (Calmet)

Haydock: Dan 8:3 - A ram // Higher // Afterward A ram. The empire of the Medes and Persians. (Challoner) (Worthington) --- Cyrus, the founder, was allied to both. --- Higher, denoting the Persi...

A ram. The empire of the Medes and Persians. (Challoner) (Worthington) ---

Cyrus, the founder, was allied to both. ---

Higher, denoting the Persians; or Hystaspes, and his posterity, the second branch of the royal family, which reigned to the end: whereas Cambyses was the only one of the race of Cyrus who succeeded to the throne. Others think that he alludes to Codomannus, whom Alexander certainly attacked. ---

Afterward is not in Hebrew. St. Jerome supposed that another ram was designated, but it is the same.

Haydock: Dan 8:4 - South South. Codomannus reigned in peace for two years, when he was invaded. But his predecessors had made war chiefly in Greece, Scythia, and Egypt. Th...

South. Codomannus reigned in peace for two years, when he was invaded. But his predecessors had made war chiefly in Greece, Scythia, and Egypt. The stupendous preparations of Xerxes against Greece only accelerated the fall of his own kingdom, by irritating the two nations. (Calmet)

Haydock: Dan 8:5 - A he-goat // He touched not the ground // A notable horn A he-goat. The empire of the Greeks, or Macedonians. --- He touched not the ground. He conquered all before him with so much rapidity, that he se...

A he-goat. The empire of the Greeks, or Macedonians. ---

He touched not the ground. He conquered all before him with so much rapidity, that he seemed rather to fly than to walk upon the earth. ---

A notable horn. Alexander the great. (Challoner) ---

He succeeded his father when only twenty years old, and the next year was chosen generalissimo of the Greeks against Persia, which he invaded at the head of 30,000 foot and 4,000 horses, having only seventy talents of silver and provisions for one month. With this he attacked the most flourishing empire, and conquered it in less than four years' time, when Darius was slain in the year 3674 [326 B.C.]. Alexander survived only six years and ten months, yet subdued so many nations that it is almost incredible that he should have travelled over them. He is the belly of brass and the leopard, Chap. ii. 39. and vii. 6. (Calmet) ---

He died in the midst of his prosperity, (Haydock) when not quite thirty-three years old, (Worthington) and left no heirs to succeed him. This conqueror would be painted with two horns, to intimate that he was the son of Jupiter Ammon. (Calmet)

Haydock: Dan 8:7 - Hand Hand. He routed all the forces of his enemy (Haydock) at the Granicus, at Issus; and at Gaugamela, (Calmet) or Arbela, Darius escaped, but was slain...

Hand. He routed all the forces of his enemy (Haydock) at the Granicus, at Issus; and at Gaugamela, (Calmet) or Arbela, Darius escaped, but was slain by his own servants. (Haydock) ---

The clemency of the conqueror towards the fallen royal family is not here specified. (Calmet)

Haydock: Dan 8:8 - Broken // Four Broken, by death. Usher, in the year 3681 [319 B.C.] --- Four. Seleucus, Antigonus, Philip, and Ptolemeus, the successors of Alexander, who divid...

Broken, by death. Usher, in the year 3681 [319 B.C.] ---

Four. Seleucus, Antigonus, Philip, and Ptolemeus, the successors of Alexander, who divided his empire among them. (Challoner) ---

Other generals held out for some time. Philip was only a nominal king; Antipater governed Macedon and Greece. Syria, Asia, and Egypt, formed three other kingdoms. All four marked out by the four heads of the leopard. (Chap. vii. 6.) But the prophet is intent upon Syria and Egypt, which had most to do with the Jews. (Calmet)

Haydock: Dan 8:9 - A little horn A little horn. Antiochus Epiphanes, a descendant of Seleucus. He grew against the south and the east, by his victories over the kings of Egypt and ...

A little horn. Antiochus Epiphanes, a descendant of Seleucus. He grew against the south and the east, by his victories over the kings of Egypt and Armenia; and against the strength, that is, against Jerusalem and the people of God. (Challoner) ---

He persecuted God's people, and set up the idol of Jupiter Olympius in the very temple. (Worthington)

Haydock: Dan 8:10 - Even unto Even unto, or against the strength of heaven. So are here called the army of the Jews, the people of God, (Challoner) and particularly the teachers....

Even unto, or against the strength of heaven. So are here called the army of the Jews, the people of God, (Challoner) and particularly the teachers. Many priests gave way to idolatry. (1 Machabees i. 48. and 2 Machabees iv. 14.) (Calmet)

Haydock: Dan 8:11 - Strength Strength; the God of armies, (Haydock) over whom Epiphanes seemed to triumph.

Strength; the God of armies, (Haydock) over whom Epiphanes seemed to triumph.

Haydock: Dan 8:12 - Strength // Ground Strength. Hebrew: "the army was delivered up to him, for the," &c. While several contended for the high priesthood, and imitated the manners of the...

Strength. Hebrew: "the army was delivered up to him, for the," &c. While several contended for the high priesthood, and imitated the manners of the Greeks, the sacrifices were neglected, and then Antiochus prevailed. (2 Machabees iv. 7.) ---

Ground. The ambitious pontiffs, as well as the king and his officers, kept not their promises. Onias, the lawful high priest, being displaced, went to seek redress at Antioch, in the asylum at Daphne. Andronicus prevailed on him to come out by treacherous promises, and slew him; whereupon even Epiphanes wept, and ordered the murderer to be punished. (2 Machabees iv. 32.) The following year he entered Jerusalem, and committed horrible profanations.

Haydock: Dan 8:13 - Another Another. We do not inquire how the angels explained themselves, or whether they instruct each other. This conversation was for the prophet's inform...

Another. We do not inquire how the angels explained themselves, or whether they instruct each other. This conversation was for the prophet's information. (Calmet) ---

One angel asked the other a question about futurity. (Worthington)

Haydock: Dan 8:14 - Days Days. That is, six years and almost four months; which was the whole time from the beginning of the persecution of Antiochus till his death. (Challo...

Days. That is, six years and almost four months; which was the whole time from the beginning of the persecution of Antiochus till his death. (Challoner) ---

He began A. [in the year] 143, and died A. [in the year] 149, according to the era of Seleucus. (Haydock) ---

The temple was purified in the mean time. (1 Machabees i. 21. and vi. 16.) (Worthington) ---

Full days are specified. Sacrifice entirely ceased for three years, in the year 145. (Chap. vii. 25.) Sym. [Symmachus?] has 2,400, others 2,200, as quoted by St. Jerome. We know not whether the solar year of 365 days, or the lunar of 354, be meant.

Ver 16. Between, in an island formed by the river. It was the Son of God, (Calmet) or St. Michael, (St. Jerome) directing Gabriel to explain the vision.

Haydock: Dan 8:17 - Man // Of the end Man. So Ezechiel is usually styled, to shew that the human nature is different from that of angels, and would be greatly honoured by Jesus Christ, w...

Man. So Ezechiel is usually styled, to shew that the human nature is different from that of angels, and would be greatly honoured by Jesus Christ, who takes this appellation. (Worthington) ---

Of the end, or determined. This shall take place, (Calmet) but the period is distinct. (Grotius ver. 26.)

Haydock: Dan 8:19 - Malediction Malediction. Hebrew: "wrath" against the people of God, and their enemies. (Calmet)

Malediction. Hebrew: "wrath" against the people of God, and their enemies. (Calmet)

Haydock: Dan 8:21 - Is Is. Hebrew: " are the kings," (Haydock) including all. (ver. 3.)

Is. Hebrew: " are the kings," (Haydock) including all. (ver. 3.)

Haydock: Dan 8:22 - Nation Nation, yet not his children. (ver. 8.)

Nation, yet not his children. (ver. 8.)

Haydock: Dan 8:23 - Shameless // Sentences Shameless. Hebrew: "hard," cruel, and impudent, as Epiphanes was. (1 Machabees i. 2.) Marcellinus styles him "wrathful and savage." --- Sentences,...

Shameless. Hebrew: "hard," cruel, and impudent, as Epiphanes was. (1 Machabees i. 2.) Marcellinus styles him "wrathful and savage." ---

Sentences, making use of artifice to seize the estates of his nephew Philometor, and to oppress the Jews. (2 Machabees v. 24.) (Calmet) ---

The history speaks of Antiochus: antichrist is also meant, as Chap. xii. and Matthew xxiv. (Worthington)

Haydock: Dan 8:24 - By By. Hebrew: "not to his (Alexander's) strength." (ver. 22.) Epiphanes conquered Egypt and the Jews: but the former had an infant king, and the latt...

By. Hebrew: "not to his (Alexander's) strength." (ver. 22.) Epiphanes conquered Egypt and the Jews: but the former had an infant king, and the latter were unprovided. He shewed more cunning than prowess.

Haydock: Dan 8:25 - Prince // Hand Prince: God. --- Hand of man. He confessed that he was justly punished. (1 Machabees vi. 10.) Greek: "He shall raise himself by the ruin of many,...

Prince: God. ---

Hand of man. He confessed that he was justly punished. (1 Machabees vi. 10.) Greek: "He shall raise himself by the ruin of many, (Theod. and some manuscripts add, and shall rise up against the prince of princes ) and he shall break them like eggs with his hand."

Haydock: Dan 8:26 - Morning // Seal Morning of this day, or of what shall happen in certain full days. (ver. 14.) --- Seal. When the predictions were to take place, soon they were da...

Morning of this day, or of what shall happen in certain full days. (ver. 14.) ---

Seal. When the predictions were to take place, soon they were dated and published. (Calmet) ---

This will remain obscure till after the event. (St. Jerome) ---

What regarded the temple, happened in 300 years' time. But it alludes also to antichrist. (St. Gregory, Mor. xxx. 12.) (Worthington)

Haydock: Dan 8:27 - Business // It Business, at Susa. Nabuchodonosor had given him the province of Babylon. --- It. All prophecies have a degree of obscurity before they be accompl...

Business, at Susa. Nabuchodonosor had given him the province of Babylon. ---

It. All prophecies have a degree of obscurity before they be accomplished. Hebrew may intimate that none could tell the cause of his anxiety. (Calmet)

Gill: Dan 8:1 - In the third year of the reign of King Belshazzar // A vision appeared unto me, even to me Daniel In the third year of the reign of King Belshazzar,.... Which some say t was the last year of his reign; but, according to Ptolemy's canon, he reigned ...

In the third year of the reign of King Belshazzar,.... Which some say t was the last year of his reign; but, according to Ptolemy's canon, he reigned seventeen years; and so says Josephus u; however, this, as well as the preceding vision, were seen before what happened recorded in the "fifth" and "sixth" chapters. The following vision was seen by Daniel, according to Bishop Usher w and Dean Prideaux x in the year of the world 3451 A.M., and 553 B.C. Mr. Bedford y places it in 552 B.C.; and Mr. Whiston z, very wrongly, in 537 B.C., two years after the death of Belshazzar. The prophet having, in the preceding chapters, related what concerned the Chaldeans, he wrote in the Chaldee language; but now, henceforward, writing of things which concerned the Jews more especially, and the church and people of God in later times, he writes in the Hebrew tongue.

A vision appeared unto me, even to me Daniel; and not another; which is said for the certainty of it; whether it was seen by him waking, or in a dream, as the former vision, is not certain; it seems rather as if he was awake at first, though he afterwards fell prostrate to the ground, and into a deep sleep; yet the Syriac version takes it to be a dream, and so renders the first clause of the next verse: "after that which appeared to me at the first"; at the beginning of Belshazzar's reign, in the first year of it, recorded in the preceding chapter; which was concerning the four monarchies in general, and particularly concerning the fourth or Roman monarchy, of which a large account is given; and the Chaldean monarchy being near at an end, here the two monarchies between, namely, the Persian and Grecian, are in this vision described.

Gill: Dan 8:2 - And I saw in a vision // and it came to pass, when I saw, that I was at Shushan in the palace, which is in the province of Elam // And I saw in a vision, and I was by the river Ulai And I saw in a vision,.... The following things: and it came to pass, when I saw, that I was at Shushan in the palace, which is in the province of ...

And I saw in a vision,.... The following things:

and it came to pass, when I saw, that I was at Shushan in the palace, which is in the province of Elam; not in reality, but so it seemed to him in the vision; as Ezekiel, when in Babylon, seemed in the visions of God to be at Jerusalem, Eze 8:3. This city Shushan, or Susa, as it is called by other writers, and signifies a "lily", was so called from the plenty of lilies that grew about it, or because of the pleasantness of it; it was the metropolis of the country Susiana, which had its name from it, and was afterwards the royal seat of the kings of Persia. This was first made so by Cyrus; for Strabo a says, that he and the Persians having overcome the Medes, observing that their own country was situated in the extreme parts, and Susa more inward, and nearer to other nations, being, as he says, between Persia and Babylon, set his royal palace in it; approving both the nearness of the country, and the dignity of the city. Here the kings of Persia laid up their treasures, even prodigious large ones; hence Aristagoras told Cleomenes, that if he could take that city, he would vie, and might contend, with Jupiter for riches b; for hither Cyrus carried whatever money he had in Persia, even forty thousand talents, some say fifty c. Alexander d, when he took this city, found a vast quantity of riches in it. It is called here a palace; and so it is spoken of by Herodotus e, Diodorus Siculus f, Pausanius g, Pliny h, and others, as a royal city, where were the residence and palace of the kings of Persia; but the royal palace was not in it at this time; the kings of Babylon had their palace and kept their court at Babylon, where Daniel was; but in vision it seemed to him that he was in Shushan, and which was represented to him as a palace, as it would be, and as the metropolis of the kingdom of Persia, which he had a view of in its future flourishing condition, and as destroyed by Alexander; for, as before observed, it was Cyrus that first made it a royal city; whereas this vision was in the third year of Belshazzar, king of Babylon. Some versions render it, a "tower" or "castle"; and so several writers, as Strabo i Plutarch k and Pliny l, speak of the tower or castle in it. Diodorus Siculus m says, when Antigonus took the tower of Susa, he found in it a golden vine, and a great quantity of other works, to the value of fifteen thousand talents; and out of crowns, and other gifts and spoils, he made up five thousand more. And Polybius n relates, that though Molon took the city, yet could not take the fortress, and was obliged to raise the siege, so strong it was. It must be a mistake of Pliny o that this city was built by Darius Hystaspes; he could only mean it was rebuilt, or rather enlarged, by him, since it was in being long before his time, and even a royal city in the times of Cyrus. Strabo p says it was built by Tithon the father of Merenon, was in compass a fifteen miles, of an oblong figure, and the tower was called after his father's name Mernnonia; and Shushan itself is called, by Herodotus q, Susa Memnonia. At this day, with the common people, it goes by the name of Tuster r. The east gate of the mountain of the house, which led to the temple at Jerusalem, was called Shushan. Some say s there was a building over this gate, on which the palace of Shushan was portrayed, from whence it had its name. The reason of this portrait is differently given; the Jewish commentators on the Misnah t commonly say that this was ordered by the kings of Persia, that the people of Israel might stand in awe of them, and not rebel against them. Their famous lexicographer u says, that this was done, that the Israelites, when they saw it, might remember their captivity in it. But a chronologer w of theirs gives this as the reason, that the children of the captivity made this figure, that they might remember the miracle of Purim, which was made in Shushan; and this, he says, is a good interpretation of it. This city was in the province of Elam; that is, Persia, as it is also called, Isa 21:6 for Josephus x says the Persians had their original from the Elamites, or Elameans; and Pliny y observes, that Elymais joined to Persia; and the country of Susiane, so called from Susa its chief city, was, according to Strabo z and Ptolemy (a1), a part of Persia: and here Daniel in vision thought himself to be; and a very suitable place for him to have this vision in, which so much concerned the affairs of Persia.

And I saw in a vision, and I was by the river Ulai; that is, in vision; it seemed to the prophet that he was upon the banks of the river Ulai; the same with the Eulaeus of Strabo (b1), Pliny (c1), Ptolemy (d1), and others, which ran by, and surrounded, the city of Shushan, or Susa; the water of which was so light, as Strabo (e1) observes, that it was had in great request, and the kings of Persia would drink of no other, and carried it with them wherever they went. Herodotus (f1) and Curtius (g1) make mention of the river Choaspes, as running by Susa, and say the same things of its water; from whence it might be concluded it was one and the same river, called by different names; though Strabo takes notice of them together, as if they were distinct; yet he, from Polycletus (h1), makes them, with Tigris, to disembogue into the same lake, and from thence into the sea. The river which runs by Shushan, now called Souster, according to Monsieur Thevenot (i1), is Caron, and comes from the hills about it, and is thought to be the Choaspes of the ancients; near to which, as he was told, is a hill that now goes by the name of Choasp; so that, upon the whole, they seem to be one and the same river (k1). Josephus says (l1), that Daniel had this vision in the plain of Susa, the metropolis of Persia, as he went out with his friends, that is, out of the city: and the Vulgate Latin version renders it, "by the gate Ulai"; a gate of the city of Shushan so called: and so Saadiah Gaon interprets it a gate; but the former sense is best.

Gill: Dan 8:3 - Then I lifted up mine eyes // and saw, and, behold // there stood before the river // a ram, which had two horns // and the two horns were high // but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last Then I lifted up mine eyes,.... To see what was to be seen in this place, where he in the vision was brought; he lifted up the eyes of his understandi...

Then I lifted up mine eyes,.... To see what was to be seen in this place, where he in the vision was brought; he lifted up the eyes of his understanding, being enlightened by the vision of prophecy, and the eyes of his body, to which objects of corporeal things formed in the fancy were represented:

and saw, and, behold; he saw something wonderful in a visionary way, and which struck his mind, and raised his attention:

there stood before the river; the river Ulai, near Shushan, the palace, the seat of the kings of Persia, to the east:

a ram, which had two horns; a symbol of the kingdom of the Medes and Persians, signified by the two horns, Dan 8:20, an emblem of power and dominion, and sometimes used to signify kings and kingdoms; see Dan 7:24 and these as united in one monarchy, under one monarch, Cyrus, and continued in his successors unto the times of Alexander; and therefore called "a ram", or "one ram" m, as in the original; and which in sound has some likeness to Elam or Persia: and this kingdom or monarchy may be signified by it, partly because of its strength and power, and partly because of its riches, as some think, as well as because it is a fighting creature; and it may be chiefly because this monarchy was mild, and kind, and gentle to the Jewish nation: and it is very remarkable, that, according to Ammianus Marcellinus n, the ram was the royal ensign of the Persians; whose kings used to wear for a diadem something made of gold, in the shape of a ram's head, set with little stones:

and the two horns were high; grew straight up on high, and so were different from the usual horns of a ram, which are crooked; denoting the great power, authority, wealth, and riches, these two kingdoms rose up unto:

but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last; I think the words might be rendered better, "and the first was higher than the second, but it ascended, or grew up, higher at last" o; the kingdom of the Medes was the first kingdom, and it was at first superior to the kingdom of Persia; but afterwards the kingdom of Persia became greater than that, under Cyrus and his successors: and Sir John Chardin says p, that rams' heads, with horns one higher than another, are still to be seen in the ruins of Persepolis.

Gill: Dan 8:4 - I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward // So that no beast might stand before him // neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand // but he did according to his will, and became great I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward,.... That is, with his horns, as rams do; these kingdoms using all their power and streng...

I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward,.... That is, with his horns, as rams do; these kingdoms using all their power and strength, wealth and riches, in fighting with and subduing nations, and pushing on their conquests in all parts here mentioned; to the west, Babylon, Syria, Asia, and part of Greece; to the north, Iberia, Albania, Armenia, Scythia, Colchis, and the inhabitants of the Caspian sea; and to the south, Arabia, Ethiopia, Egypt, and India; all which places were conquered by Cyrus and his successors. No mention is made of the east, because this ram stood in the east, facing the west; and at the right and left were the north and south; and so Cyrus is said to come from the east, Isa 46:11.

So that no beast might stand before him: no, not the first beast, the Babylonian monarchy, which; fell into the hands of Cyrus; nor any other king or kingdom he and his successors fought against:

neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; or power; Croesus, the rich king of Lydia, and other allies of the king of Babylon, assisted him against Cyrus, and endeavoured to prevent his falling into his hands, but all in vain:

but he did according to his will, and became great; none being able to oppose him, he carried his arms where he pleased, and imposed what tribute he thought fit, and obliged them to do whatever was his will; and so became great in power and dignity, in riches and wealth: this monarchy was very large and extensive, and very rich and wealthy, in the times of Cyrus and his successors; and especially in the times of Darius, the last monarch of it, conquered by Alexander, who is described as follows:

Gill: Dan 8:5 - And as I was considering // behold, an he goat came from the west // On the face of the whole earth // And touched not the ground // And the goat had a notable horn between his eyes And as I was considering,.... The ram, and the strange things done by him; wondering that a creature of so little strength, comparatively with other b...

And as I was considering,.... The ram, and the strange things done by him; wondering that a creature of so little strength, comparatively with other beasts, should be able to do such exploits: and thinking with himself what should be the meaning of all this, and what would be the issue of it,

behold, an he goat came from the west; which is interpreted of the king or kingdom of Grecia, which lay to the west of Persia; and a kingdom may be said to do what one of its kings did; particularly Alexander, king of Macedon, in Greece, who, with the Grecian army under him, marched from thence to fight the king of Persia; and which might be signified by a "he goat", because of its strength, its comeliness in walking, and its being the guide and leader of the flock: and also it is remarkable, that the arms of Macedon, or the ensigns carried before their armies, were a goat, ever since the days of Caranus; who following a flock of goats, was directed to Edessa, a city of Macedon, and took it; and from this circumstance of the goats called it Aegeas, and the people Aegeades, which signifies "goats"; and put the goat in his arms q.

On the face of the whole earth; all that lay between Greece and Persia, all Asia; yea, all the whole world, at least as Alexander thought, who wept because there was not another world to conquer: hence Juvenal says r, "unus Pelloeo juveni non sufficit orbis"; one world was not enough for this young man.

And touched not the ground; as he went; he seemed rather to fly in the air than to walk upon the earth; with such swiftness did Alexander run over the world, and make his conquests: in six or eight years time he conquered the kingdom of the Medes and Persians, Babylon, Egypt, and all the neighbouring nations; and afar off, Greece, Thrace, Illyricum, and even the greatest part of the then known world: hence the third or Grecian monarchy under him is said to be like a leopard, with four wings of a fowl on its back s; see Gill on Dan 7:6 he conquered countries as soon almost as another could have travelled over them; in his marches he was swift and indefatigable. Aelianus t reports, that he marched, clad in armour, thrice four hundred, that is, twelve hundred furlongs, upon a stretch; and, before his army could take any rest, fought his enemies, and conquered them. Some render the words, "whom no man touched in the earth" u; that is, none could oppose, resist, and stop him; he bore down and carried all before him; there was no coming at him, so as to touch him, or hurt him; he was so swift in his motions, and so powerful in his army.

And the goat had a notable horn between his eyes; or, "a horn of vision": which in Dan 8:21 is interpreted of the first king of Greece, that is, when it became a monarchy; who was Alexander the great; and very properly called a "horn", being possessed of great power and authority; and a notable one, very remarkable and famous, as he has been in all ages since: "a horn of vision" w as it may be rendered; a very visible and conspicuous one, to be seen afar off, and which attracted the eyes of all unto it: its situation was "between the eyes of the goat", denoting his sagacity, wisdom, prudence, craft, and cunning; being attended and surrounded with his father Philip's wise counsellors as Parmenio, Philotas, Clitus, and others. It is remarkable that by the Arabs Alexander is called Dulcarnaim, or Dhilcarnain; that is, one having two horns x: the reason of which was, he affected to be the son of Jupiter Hammon, and therefore at feasts and public entertainments would put on the purple and horns of Hammon: hence, as Clemens of Alexandria observes y, he is by the statuaries represented as horned, or wearing horns; but then, as Arnobius z and others take notice, Hammon is made by the painters and statuaries to have ram's horns; whereas it seems more likely that Alexander's were goat's horns, since the goat was in the arms of Macedon; and so Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, who mimicked Alexander in his armour, is said to have goat's horns on his helmet, upon the top of his crest a; and to such ensigns is the allusion here.

Gill: Dan 8:6 - And he came to the ram that had two horns // which I had seen standing before the river // and ran unto him in the fury of his power And he came to the ram that had two horns,.... Alexander being chosen and made by the states of Greece captain general of all Greece against the Persi...

And he came to the ram that had two horns,.... Alexander being chosen and made by the states of Greece captain general of all Greece against the Persians, marched from thence with his army, passed the Hellespont, and entered into the kingdom of the Medes and Persians, signified by the ram with two horns, and came up to Darius Codomannus, possessed of this large monarchy, and at the head of a numerous army:

which I had seen standing before the river; the river Ulai, near to Shushan, the royal seat of the kings of Persia; here Darius stood in his royal majesty and dignity, as the defender of his empire, and unconcerned at the attempt of Alexander, having nothing to fear, as he thought, from such a puny adversary:

and ran unto him in the fury of his power; or, "heat of his power" b; which denotes the haste Alexander made with his army into Asia; his eager desire, and the fervour of his mind to engage with the Persians: the historian says, that he passed the Hellespont into Asia, "incredibli ardore mentis accensus"; fired with an incredible ardour of mind: and a little after, having conquered the rebels of Pisidia, he marched against Darius, "summo mentis ardore"; with the greatest ardour of mind, and with no less alacrity c; which exactly agrees with the sacred text. The running of the he goat to the ram in a hostile way is described in allusion to the manner of those creatures when they fight with one another, or attack an enemy.

Gill: Dan 8:7 - And I saw him come close unto the ram // and he was moved with choler against him // and smote the ram // and brake his two horns // and there was no power in the ram to stand before him // but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him // and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand And I saw him come close unto the ram,.... Though the distance between Greece and Persia was very great, and many rivers and mountains in the way, whi...

And I saw him come close unto the ram,.... Though the distance between Greece and Persia was very great, and many rivers and mountains in the way, which seemed impassable; Alexander got over them all, and came up to Darius, and fought several battles with him, and entirely defeated him, though greatly inferior in number to him, as follows:

and he was moved with choler against him; exceedingly embittered against him; exasperated and provoked to the last degree, by the proud and scornful message he sent him; calling himself king of kings, and akin to the gods, and Alexander his servant; ordering his nobles to take Philip's madding stripling, as he called him in contempt, and whip him with children's rods, and clothe him in purple, and deliver him bound to him; then sink his ships with the mariners, and transport all his soldiers to the further part of the Red sea d:

and smote the ram; in three battles, in each of which the Persians were smitten and routed by the Grecians: first at the river Granicus, where Alexander with thirty thousand foot, and five thousand horse, met the Persians, though more than five times his number, being, as Justin e says, six hundred thousand, and got the victory over them; here twenty thousand of the Persian footmen, and two hundred and fifty of their horse, were slain, and not more than thirty nine of the Macedonians killed f: Plutarch g says, it was reported that the Persians lost twenty thousand footmen, and two thousand five hundred horse; and from Aristobulus he says, that the Macedonians lost only thirty four men, of which twelve were footmen: and Diodorus Siculus h relates that the Persians lost more than ten thousand footmen, and not less than two thousand horse, and more than twenty thousand were taken: according to Justin i, of Alexander's army there only fell nine footmen, and a hundred and twenty horsemen: others say, that, of the Macedonians, twenty five men of Alexander's own troop fell in the first attack, about sixty other of the horsemen were killed, and thirty of the footmen k; so different are the accounts of the slain in this battle; however, the victory appears to be very great, whereby Sardis, with all Darius's rich furniture, fell into the hands of Alexander, and all the provinces of the lesser Asia submitted to him. The next battle was fought at Issus its Cilicia, where Darius had an army, according to Plutarch l, consisting of six hundred thousand men; according to Justin m, four hundred thousand footmen, and a hundred thousand horsemen, which was routed by Alexander; when a hundred thousand of the Persian footmen, and ten thousand of their horsemen, were slain; and only, on Alexander's side, five hundred and four of the footmen wounded, thirty two wanting, and a hundred and fifty of the horsemen killed n: here also the accounts vary; Plutarch o says above a hundred and ten thousand of the Persians were slain: according to Diodorus Siculus p, there fell of them a hundred and twenty thousand footmen, and not less than ten thousand horsemen; and of the Macedonians three hundred footmen, and about a hundred and fifty horsemen: according to Arrian q, the Persians lost ten thousand horsemen, and ninety thousand footmen: according to Justin r, sixty one thousand footmen, and ten thousand horsemen, were slain, and forty thousand taken; and of the Macedonians there fell one hundred and thirty footmen, and one hundred and fifty horsemen; but, be it as it will, the victory was exceeding great, whereby the camp of Darius, his mother, wife, and children, and all his riches at Damascus, fell into the hands of Alexander, with all Syria. The third and last battle was fought near Arbela, or rather at Gaugamela in Assyria, when Alexander with fifty thousand men beat Darius with an army of eleven hundred thousand men; Plutarch s says ten hundred thousand; forty thousand of which were slain, and of the Macedonians only three hundred or less were wanting t; according to Arrian u thirty thousand were slain; but Diodorus Siculus w says ninety thousand: this was the decisive battle; after this Babylon and Persepolis were taken by Alexander, and he became master of the whole empire, which is intended in the next clause:

and brake his two horns; conquered the Medes and Persians, the two kingdoms united in one monarchy, but now destroyed; another monarchy, the Grecian, took its place:

and there was no power in the ram to stand before him there was no strength in tim whole empire sufficient to resist, oppose, and stop him; though vast armies were collected together, these were soon broken and routed, and Darius at the head of them was forced to fly and make his escape in the best manner he could;

but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: not Darius personally, for he was slain by Bessus, one of his own captains; but the Persian empire, it ceased to be, and was no longer in the hands of the Persians, but was taken from them by Alexander; and all the glory and majesty of it were defaced and despised; the famous city and palace of Persepolis were burnt in a drunken fit, at the instigation of Thais the harlot:

and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand; not his armies, nor his generals, nor his allies, nor his offers to Alexander of his daughter in marriage, and part of his kingdom; all were in vain, and to no purpose; he and his whole empire fell into the conqueror's hands, and there was no remedy against it. Josephus x says, that when Alexander was in his way to Jerusalem, Jaddus, the high priest, met and accompanied him into the city and temple, and showed him this prophecy of Daniel, that some one of the Grecians should abolish the empire of the Persians; and, thinking himself to be intended, was greatly pleased. Gorionides y says the high priest, whom he calls Ananias, said to Alexander, on showing him the prophecy, thou art this he goat, and Darius is the ram; and thou shall trample him to the ground, and take the kingdom out of his hand; and he greatly strengthened the heart of the king.

Gill: Dan 8:8 - Therefore the he goat waxed very great // and when he was strong, the great horn was broken // and for it // came up four notable ones // toward the four winds of heaven Therefore the he goat waxed very great,.... The Grecian monarchy, under Alexander, became very powerful, and was very extensive; he not only conquered...

Therefore the he goat waxed very great,.... The Grecian monarchy, under Alexander, became very powerful, and was very extensive; he not only conquered the Persian empire, but also the Indies, yea, the whole world, as he imagined; and indeed he did bring into subjection to him the greatest part of the then known world; and he was very great in his own esteem, at least reckoned himself lord of the world, called himself the son of Jupiter Ammon, and affected to be worshipped as a god:

and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; when the Grecian monarchy was established, and became very powerful, and reached to the greatest part of the earth, then Alexander the first king of it, a great horn, and powerful monarch, died, or was broken; not as the two horns of the ram, by the power of the enemy; not by violence, but by intemperance, in a drunken fit, or, as was suspected, by poison; and that when he was in the height of his glory, swelled with his victories; and that in the prime of his days, when in his full strength, being in the "thirty third" year of his age:

and for it, or in the room and stead of it z,

came up four notable ones; or, "four horns of vision" a; very famous and conspicuous, like that in Dan 8:5, which were the four kingdoms into which the empire was divided some time after Alexander's death, and the four kings that were over them: the kingdoms were those of Egypt, Greece, Asia, and Syria. Ptolemy was king of Egypt, to which belonged Lybia, Palestine, Arabia, and Caelesyria. Cassander was king of Macedonia and Greece. Lysimachus was king of Asia, to which belonged Thrace, Bithynia, and other places; and Seleucus was king of Syria, and of the eastern countries: these are the four heads of the leopard, or third beast, which signifies the Grecian monarchy, Dan 7:6 and these were

toward the four winds of heaven; east, west, north, and south: Egypt, with its appendages, lay to the south; Asia, and what belonged to that, to the north; Macedonia and Greece to the west; and Syria to the east: and thus was the Grecian empire divided into four kingdoms, among the successors of Alexander: there were some partitions of it before this into provinces among governors, under the brother and son of Alexander; but after the battle of Ipsus, in which Antigonus, one of Alexander's captains, and a very principal, active, and ambitious man, was slain, and his army routed; the four confederate princes against him, above named, divided by consent the empire between them into separate kingdoms, and became really, and not in title only, kings of them b; which is what is here prophesied of.

Gill: Dan 8:9 - And out of one of them came forth a little horn // which waxed exceeding great toward the south // and toward the east // and toward the pleasant land And out of one of them came forth a little horn,.... Meaning not the kingdom of Titus Vespasian, as Jarchi; nor the kingdom of the Turks, as Saadiah; ...

And out of one of them came forth a little horn,.... Meaning not the kingdom of Titus Vespasian, as Jarchi; nor the kingdom of the Turks, as Saadiah; but the kingdom of Antiochia, as Aben Ezra and Jacchiades; or rather Antiochus Epiphanes, who sprung from the kingdom of the Seleucidae in Syria, or from Seleucus king of Syria, one of the four horns before mentioned: this is that sinful root said to come out from thence, in the Apocrypha:

"And there came out of them a wicked root Antiochus surnamed Epiphanes, son of Antiochus the king, who had been an hostage at Rome, and he reigned in the hundred and thirty and seventh year of the kingdom of the Greeks.'' (1 Maccabees 1:10)

called "a horn", because he had some power and authority, and which he usurped and increased in; though but a "little" one in comparison of Alexander the great horn; or at his beginning, being an hostage at Rome; from whence he got away by stealth, and seized the kingdom of Syria, which belonged to his elder brother's son, whom he dispossessed of it; and by mean, artful, and deceitful methods, got it into his hands, who had no right unto it, nor any princely qualities for it:

which waxed exceeding great toward the south; towards Egypt, which lay south of Syria; into which Antiochus entered, and fought against Ptolemy Philometer, king of it, took many cities, and besieged Alexandria; and in all probability would have subdued the whole country, had not the Romans c restrained him, by sending their ambassador Popilius to him, who obliged him to desist and depart;

"17 Wherefore he entered into Egypt with a great multitude, with chariots, and elephants, and horsemen, and a great navy, 18 And made war against Ptolemee king of Egypt: but Ptolemee was afraid of him, and fled; and many were wounded to death. 19 Thus they got the strong cities in the land of Egypt and he took the spoils thereof. 20 And after that Antiochus had smitten Egypt, he returned again in the hundred forty and third year, and went up against Israel and Jerusalem with a great multitude,'' (1 Maccabees 1)

and toward the east; towards Armenia and Persia, the Atropatii in Media, and the countries beyond the Euphrates, whom he made tributary to him; in the Apocrypha:

"Wherefore, being greatly perplexed in his mind, he determined to go into Persia, there to take the tributes of the countries, and to gather much money.'' (1 Maccabees 3:31)

"1 About that time king Antiochus travelling through the high countries heard say, that Elymais in the country of Persia was a city greatly renowned for riches, silver, and gold; 2 And that there was in it a very rich temple, wherein were coverings of gold, and breastplates, and shields, which Alexander, son of Philip, the Macedonian king, who reigned first among the Grecians, had left there.'' (1 Maccabees 6)

and toward the pleasant land; the land of Judea, so called because of its delightful situation, and great fruitfulness; and because God chose it above all others for his habitation; where his word, and worship, and ordinances, were observed and enjoyed; and where the Messiah should be born and dwell; into this Antiochus led his army, and greatly afflicted and distressed it; he made himself master of most places in Galilee and Judea. The Arabic version reads "toward the west"; no mention is made of the north, because there he himself reigned; Syria being north to Egypt, as that was south to Syria; hence afterwards the king of Egypt is called the king of the south, and the king of Syria the king of the north.

Gill: Dan 8:10 - And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven // and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped them And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven,.... The people of the Jews, the army of the living God, the church militant, among whom were many of t...

And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven,.... The people of the Jews, the army of the living God, the church militant, among whom were many of the citizens of heaven, whose names are written there; such was the insolence of this king, as to molest and disturb them:

and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped them; some of the common people he persecuted and destroyed, or prevailed upon them, either by threats or flatteries, to relinquish their religion; and even some of the "stars", the lights of the people, the priests and Levites, that ministered unto them; or the princes, and elders of the people, whom he slew, as Jacchiades interprets it; or removed from their posts so that they could not do their office; or they turned apostates; and those that did not he barbarously put to death, and insulted over them, and used them in a very contemptuous manner, as old Eleazar, the mother and her seven sons; see 2 Maccabees chapter 7.

Gill: Dan 8:11 - Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince host // and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away // and the place of his sanctuary was cast down Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince host,.... Either the high priest Onias, whom he disposed of his office, and put Jason a wicked man into i...

Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince host,.... Either the high priest Onias, whom he disposed of his office, and put Jason a wicked man into it; or Judas Maccabeus, the prince of the Jewish nation; or rather, as Jacchiades, God himself, the Lord God of Israel, the King, Prince, Governor, and defender of them, whom Antiochus blasphemed; whose worship he puts stop to; and whose temple he profaned, and ill used his people; all which was against God himself, and is a proof of the pride and insolence of this king:

and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away; the lambs in the morning and evening were forbid to be sacrificed; or they could not be offered, because the altar was pulled down, or profaned; and so all other sacrifices were made to cease, as well as this, which is put for all: or, "from him" d, the prince, "the daily sacrifice was taken away"; either from the priest, who used to offer it; or from God, to whom it was offered:

and the place of his sanctuary was cast down: not that the temple was destroyed by him, but it was profaned and rendered useless; the worship of God was not carried on in it, but the image of Jupiter was set up in it, and it was devoted to the service of an idol; yea, the altar was pulled down, and all the vessels and ornaments of the temple were taken away and destroyed; in the Apocrypha:

"And the table of the shewbread, and the pouring vessels, and the vials, and the censers of gold, and the veil, and the crown, and the golden ornaments that were before the temple, all which he pulled off.'' (1 Maccabees 1:22)

"Now Jerusalem lay void as a wilderness, there was none of her children that went in or out: the sanctuary also was trodden down, and aliens kept the strong hold; the heathen had their habitation in that place; and joy was taken from Jacob, and the pipe with the harp ceased.'' (1 Maccabees 3:45)

"And lo, the heathen are assembled together against us to destroy us: what things they imagine against us, thou knowest.'' (1 Maccabees 3:52)

Gill: Dan 8:12 - And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression // and it cast down the truth to the ground // and it practised, and prospered And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression,.... Which some interpret of a garrison of soldiers placed by Antioch...

And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression,.... Which some interpret of a garrison of soldiers placed by Antiochus, through his sin and wickedness, to hinder the oblation of the daily sacrifice, as Grotius: others, of a host of apostates among the Jews, who advised Antiochus against the daily sacrifice, and to kill swine, and offer them on the altar, as Jacchiades; or rather it may be rendered, "and the host was given over", or "delivered", i.e. to the enemy, "because of the transgression against the daily sacrifice" e; that is, because of the transgression of the priests or the people, in neglecting the daily sacrifice, the host or people of the Jews were delivered up into the hands of Antiochus; or they were delivered up, together with the daily sacrifice, for their sins f. The word צבא is by Jarchi and Ben Melech interpreted a set time, a fixed time which shall have an end; and Calvin inclines to this sense, that though the daily sacrifice would be taken away, because of the transgression of the people, yet it was only for a certain time, and would be restored again when that time was up; and so is spoken for the comfort of the Lord's people:

and it cast down the truth to the ground: that is, the little horn Antiochus, or his host and army; he did all that in him lay to extirpate and abolish true religion and godliness; he cut in pieces the copies of the book of the law, and burnt them, called the law of truth in Mal 2:6, as Jacchiades observes, and put to death the professors of the truth; and showed all the contempt of true doctrine and worship he was capable of; see the Apocrypha:

"57 And whosoever was found with any the book of the testament, or if any committed to the law, the king's commandment was, that they should put him to death. 58 Thus did they by their authority unto the Israelites every month, to as many as were found in the cities. 59 Now the five and twentieth day of the month they did sacrifice upon the idol altar, which was upon the altar of God. 60 At which time according to the commandment they put to death certain women, that had caused their children to be circumcised.'' (1 Maccabees 1)

and it practised, and prospered; he did what he pleased, and he succeeded in his attempts for a while, there being none to oppose him.

Gill: Dan 8:13 - Then I heard one saint speaking // and another saint said unto that certain saint that spake // how long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden underfoot Then I heard one saint speaking,.... An angel, either a created angel, pure and holy in his nature, as Gabriel; or the uncreated Angel Jesus Christ, t...

Then I heard one saint speaking,.... An angel, either a created angel, pure and holy in his nature, as Gabriel; or the uncreated Angel Jesus Christ, the Word of God; what he was speaking of is not said; perhaps Daniel did not hear what he said, though he heard him speaking, or perceived that he spake; yet did not understand what he said, or what was the subject of his discourse; very probably it was something relative to the vision now seen:

and another saint said unto that certain saint that spake; another angel said to him that spake, whose name is unknown, only called such an one, or Palmoni, which some render "the wonderful numberer"; or, "the numberer of secrets", or "that has all secrets numbered" g; and apply it to Christ, whose name is "Pele", wonderful; the eternal Word of God, that is in the bosom of the Father, and knows all secrets, and the number of times and seasons, how long they will last; what created angels know not, he does; and therefore they apply to him for instruction and knowledge in hidden things:

how long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden underfoot? that is, how long will this vision last? or when will this prophecy be at an end, and have its full and final accomplishment? how long will the sacrifice be taken away, or made to cease? how long will that transgression, that abomination, making the temple desolate, the image of Jupiter Olympius set up by Antiochus, continue in it? how long shall it be given to him, or he be permitted to tread under foot, and use in the most contemptuous manner, the temple of the Lord, and his people?

Gill: Dan 8:14 - And he said unto me // unto two thousand and three hundred days // and then shall the sanctuary be cleansed And he said unto me,.... That is, "Palmoni", the wonderful person, to whom the angel put the above question, gave the answer to it; not unto the angel...

And he said unto me,.... That is, "Palmoni", the wonderful person, to whom the angel put the above question, gave the answer to it; not unto the angel that asked it, but unto Daniel that stood by; knowing that it was for his and his people's sake the question was asked, and therefore gave the answer to him, as follows:

unto two thousand and three hundred days; or so many "mornings" and "evenings" h; which shows that not so many years, as Jacchiades, and others, are meant; but natural days, consisting of twenty four hours, and which make six years, three months, and eighteen days; and reckoning from the fifteenth day of the month Cisleu, in the year 145 of the Selucidae, in which Antiochus set up the abomination of desolation upon the altar, in the Apocrypha:

"Now the five and twentieth day of the month they did sacrifice upon the idol altar, which was upon the altar of God.'' (1 Maccabees 1:59)

to the victory obtained over Nicanor by Judas, on the thirteenth day of the month Adar, Anno 151, are just 2300 days; which day the Jews kept as an annual feast, in commemoration of that victory; and from that time enjoyed peace and rest from war i: this way goes L'Empereur after Capellus; but others begin from the defection of the people from the pure religion by Menelaus, Anno 141; though Antiochus did not enter on his impieties till the following year; and, reckoning from the sixth day of the sixth month in that year, to the twenty fifth day of Cisleu in the year 148, when the Jews offered the daily sacrifice on the new altar of burnt offerings, in the Apocrypha:

"Now on the five and twentieth day of the ninth month, which is called the month Casleu, in the hundred forty and eighth year, they rose up betimes in the morning, 53 And offered sacrifice according to the law upon the new altar of burnt offerings, which they had made. '' (1 Maccabees 4:52)

were just six years, three months, and eighteen days: and so it follows,

and then shall the sanctuary be cleansed; as it was by Judas Maccabeus at the time above mentioned; when he purified the holy places, sanctified the courts, rebuilt the altar, renewed the vessels of the sanctuary, and put all in their proper places; in the Apocrypha:

"41 Then Judas appointed certain men to fight against those that were in the fortress, until he had cleansed the sanctuary. 42 So he chose priests of blameless conversation, such as had pleasure in the law: 43 Who cleansed the sanctuary, and bare out the defiled stones into an unclean place. 44 And when as they consulted what to do with the altar of burnt offerings, which was profaned; 45 They thought it best to pull it down, lest it should be a reproach to them, because the heathen had defiled it: wherefore they pulled it down, 46 And laid up the stones in the mountain of the temple in a convenient place, until there should come a prophet to shew what should be done with them. 47 Then they took whole stones according to the law, and built a new altar according to the former; 48 And made up the sanctuary, and the things that were within the temple, and hallowed the courts. 49 They made also new holy vessels, and into the temple they brought the candlestick, and the altar of burnt offerings, and of incense, and the table. 50 And upon the altar they burned incense, and the lamps that were upon the candlestick they lighted, that they might give light in the temple. 51 Furthermore they set the loaves upon the table, and spread out the veils, and finished all the works which they had begun to make.'' (1 Maccabees 4)

Indeed, as Antiochus was a type of antichrist, and his persecution of that desolation made by antichrist in the church; these 2300 days may be considered as so many years, which will bring it down to the end of the sixth Millennium, or thereabout; when it may be hoped there will be a new face of things upon the sanctuary and church of God, and a cleansing of it from all corruption in doctrine, discipline, worship, and conversation.

Gill: Dan 8:15 - And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel, had seen the vision // and I sought for the meaning // then, behold, there stood before me as the appearance of a man // over against And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel, had seen the vision,.... The whole of the preceding vision, concerning the ram, he goat, and little horn, ...

And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel, had seen the vision,.... The whole of the preceding vision, concerning the ram, he goat, and little horn, and what were done by them; the prophet not only affirms he saw this vision, but repeats the affirmation, expressing his own name, partly for the sake of emphasis, and partly for the greater confirmation of his words; wherefore it was a most impudent thing Porphyry to say, that the true Daniel never saw this vision; but what is here related was written after Antiochus's reign, and falsely ascribed to him. It being so clear a prophecy concerning Alexander, and the destruction of the Persian empire by him, this acute spiteful Heathen had no other way of evading the evidence of it in favour of true religion but by this false and lying assertion:

and I sought for the meaning; that is, of the vision; for a more perfect, clear, and explicit meaning of it; something he had learnt concerning the latter part of it, relating to the desolation of the temple, and the continuance of it, from what passed between the two saints or angels; but he was desirous of knowing more; which he either signified by making application to the angel that stood near him; or rather by secret ejaculations in prayer to God; and he, who is afterwards described as a man, though the eternal God that knows all things, knew the secret desires of his soul, and immediately took care they should be answered:

then, behold, there stood before me as the appearance of a man: not really a man, but in form and appearance; not Gabriel, or any created angel in human form, in which angels sometimes appeared but the eternal Son of God, who was to be incarnate, and was often seen in the form of a man before his incarnation; in like manner he was now seen by Daniel, right

over against k whom he stood; this is the same with the speaking saint, or Paimoni the wonderful One, in Dan 8:13. Jacchiades says, this is the holy blessed God; as it is indeed the Immanuel, God that was to be manifested in the flesh.

Gill: Dan 8:16 - And I heard a man's voice between the banks of Ulai // which called, and said, Gabriel // make this man to understand the vision And I heard a man's voice between the banks of Ulai,.... Near to which Daniel was, Dan 8:2 and it seemed to him as if the appearance of the man was in...

And I heard a man's voice between the banks of Ulai,.... Near to which Daniel was, Dan 8:2 and it seemed to him as if the appearance of the man was in the midst of the river, between the banks of it, from whence the voice came; or between the arms of it, it bending and winding about; or rather between Shushan and the river; or between the prophet and that: this voice was the voice of the person that appeared as a man in the preceding verse:

which called, and said, Gabriel; the voice was loud, audible, and commanding; even to an angel, one of great note, Gabriel, the man of God, the mighty one; and shows, that the person that made this appearance, and spoke in this authoritative way, was the Lord, and head of angels, even of all principalities and power, at whose beck and command they are:

make this man to understand the vision; the above vision of the ram, he goat, and little horn; give him a full explanation of it; tell him what the several figures mean, represented in it; that he may have a clear understanding of all things contained in it; the saints and people of God are sometimes instructed by angels, and particularly the prophets of old were; and which was more common in the times of the former dispensation than now; for God has not put in subjection to angels the world to come, or the Gospel dispensation, Heb 2:5.

Gill: Dan 8:17 - So he came near where I stood // and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face // but he said unto me, understand, O son of man // for at the time of the end shall be the vision So he came near where I stood,.... The angel immediately obeyed the divine Person in human form, and came near the prophet, in order to instruct him, ...

So he came near where I stood,.... The angel immediately obeyed the divine Person in human form, and came near the prophet, in order to instruct him, and carry on a familiar conversation with him:

and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face; not being able to bear the glory that attended him; and especially when he considered him as the messenger of a divine Person sent to instruct him, and being conscious of his own frailty and weakness:

but he said unto me, understand, O son of man: give attention in order to understand the vision, which the angel, by a divine command, was about to give him the full meaning of; and which he could not so well attend unto in his present circumstance and posture; and therefore suggests he should shake off his fear, and stand on his feet, and listen to what he was about to say: he calls him "son of man", a title only given to him and Ezekiel; and so may be considered as a mark of honour and respect, as being one greatly beloved and honoured by the Lord; or to express his tender regard to him, and accommodating himself to him, considering he was a frail mortal man; or to put him in mind that he should so consider himself, though now among angels, and favoured with revelations of secrets, that so he might not be exalted with them above measure:

for at the time of the end shall be the vision; or rather, "for a time is the end of the vision" l; there is a set, fixed, and determined time, when the vision shall end, and have its full accomplishment; namely, when the 2300 days are expired.

Gill: Dan 8:18 - Now as he was speaking with me // I was in a deep sleep on my face toward the ground // but he touched me, and set me upright Now as he was speaking with me,.... Addressing him in the above manner: I was in a deep sleep on my face toward the ground; through fear he fell pr...

Now as he was speaking with me,.... Addressing him in the above manner:

I was in a deep sleep on my face toward the ground; through fear he fell prostrate to the ground, and swooned away, which issued in a deep sleep; and so was unfit to attend to the explanation of the vision the angel was sent to give him; and which was not through indifference to it, or neglect of it; but through human weakness, his nature not being able to bear up under such circumstances, which struck him with such fear and dread:

but he touched me, and set me upright; he jogged him out of his sleep, and took him, and raised him up, and set him on his feet; or, "on his standing" m; which Ben Melech explains, as he "was standing at first"; and so in a better posture to attend to what was about to be revealed unto him.

Gill: Dan 8:19 - And he said, behold, I will make thee know // what shall be in the last end of the indignation And he said, behold, I will make thee know,.... Or, "make known unto thee" n; what he knew not, even things future: particularly what shall be in t...

And he said, behold, I will make thee know,.... Or, "make known unto thee" n; what he knew not, even things future: particularly

what shall be in the last end of the indignation; the indignation of God against the people of Israel, in the sore affliction and persecution of them by Antiochus, which he suffered to be; here the angel suggests that that should not remain always, but should have an end; and he would inform the prophet what should be at the close; or rather, as Noldius o renders it, "what shall be unto the last end of the indignation"; all that should come to pass from the beginning of the Persian monarchy, signified by the "ram", quite through the Grecian monarchy, designed by the "he goat", unto the end of the persecution by Antiochus; for, certain it is, the angel informed the prophet of more things than what concerned the last part and, closing scene of these sorrowful times; even of all the above said things, which intervened between the setting up of the Persian monarchy, and the sufferings of the Jews in the times of Antiochus; and so Aben Ezra interprets it, here

"is declared the wrath of God upon Israel in the days of wicked Greece, and in the days of Antiochus, until the Hasmonaeans cleansed the temple:''

for at the time appointed the end shall be; the end of that indignation or affliction, and so of this vision or prophecy: there was a time appointed by God for the fulfilment of the whole; and when that time was come all would be accomplished; the indignation would cease, and the persecution be at an end.

Gill: Dan 8:20 - The ram which thou sawest having two horns // are the kings of Media and Persia The ram which thou sawest having two horns,.... Here begins the particular explanation of the above vision, and of the first thing which the prophet s...

The ram which thou sawest having two horns,.... Here begins the particular explanation of the above vision, and of the first thing which the prophet saw in it, a ram with two horns: which two horns, he says,

are the kings of Media and Persia; Darius the first king was a Mede, and Cyrus, that succeeded him, or rather reigned with him, was a Persian: or rather the ram with two horns signifies the two kingdoms of the Medes and Persians united in one monarchy, of which the ram was an emblem; See Gill on Dan 8:3 for Darius and Cyrus were dead many years before the time of Alexander; and therefore could not personally be the two horns of the ram broken by him; nor is it to be understood of the kings of two different families, as the one of. Cyrus, and the other of Darius Hystaspes, in whose successors the Persian monarchy continued till destroyed by Alexander, as Theodoret.

Gill: Dan 8:21 - And the rough goat is the king of Grecia // and the great host that is between his eyes is the first king And the rough goat is the king of Grecia,.... Including all the kings of it, from Alexander to the end of the Grecian monarchy; or rather the kingdom ...

And the rough goat is the king of Grecia,.... Including all the kings of it, from Alexander to the end of the Grecian monarchy; or rather the kingdom of Greece, which began in him, and continued until it was destroyed by the Romans: this was signified by the rough or hairy goat, especially when Alexander was at the head of it, for his strength and prowess, his swiftness in his marches over rocks and mountains, his majesty and grandeur, and also his lust and uncleanness; See Gill on Dan 8:5,

and the great host that is between his eyes is the first king; this is Alexander, who, though he was not the first king of Macedon, his father Philip, and others, were kings before him; yet was the first king of the Grecian monarchy, which took place on the Persian monarchy being destroyed by him.

Gill: Dan 8:22 - Now that being broken // whereas four stood up for it // four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation // but not in his power Now that being broken,.... That is, the great horn Alexander, the first king of the Grecian monarchy; whose death, either by drunkenness, or by poison...

Now that being broken,.... That is, the great horn Alexander, the first king of the Grecian monarchy; whose death, either by drunkenness, or by poison, is here expressed by being "broken". The sense is, he being dead, or upon his death,

whereas four stood up for it; four horns rose up in the room and stead of the great one broken; see Dan 8:8 these signified that

four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation; which were the kingdoms of Egypt, Asia, Macedonia, and Syria, into which the Grecian monarchy was divided after the death of Alexander; and the first kings of them were all of the Grecian or Macedonian nation, and not Egyptians, Armenians, Syrians, &c.:

but not in his power; they did not rise and stand up in the power and strength, in the grandeur and magnificence, of Alexander; they were not equal, but greatly inferior to him, though they were notable horns, or famous kingdoms, as in Dan 8:8. Saadiah interprets it, not of his seed or offspring; these were not his sons that were the heads of these kingdoms; but his captains or generals.

Gill: Dan 8:23 - And in the latter time of their kingdom // when the transgressors are come to the full // a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up And in the latter time of their kingdom,.... Toward the close of the kingdom of the four kings that divided Alexander's kingdom; for though they were ...

And in the latter time of their kingdom,.... Toward the close of the kingdom of the four kings that divided Alexander's kingdom; for though they were four distinct kings, and had four separate kingdoms, yet these all belonged to one kingdom or monarchy, the Grecian empire; and when that was decreasing, and coming into the hands of the Romans, there rose up, stood, and flourished awhile, King Antiochus, afterwards described, who began to reign in the hundred and thirty seventh year of the Seleucidae,

"And there came out of them a wicked root Antiochus surnamed Epiphanes, son of Antiochus the king, who had been an hostage at Rome, and he reigned in the hundred and thirty and seventh year of the kingdom of the Greeks.'' (1 Maccabees 1:10)

and 166 B.C., and the same year that he set up the abomination of desolation in the temple at Jerusalem, as Mr. Mede p has observed, Aemilius the Roman consul conquered Perseus king of Macedon, whereby all Greece came into the hands of the Romans; so that this king may be truly said to arise and stand in the latter part of the Grecian empire, when that was declining, and the Roman empire was taking place:

when the transgressors are come to the full; many among the Jews, who apostatized from their religion, turned Heathens, even some of the priests, when their number was completed, and they had filled up the measure of their iniquities; in the Apocrypha:

"In those days went there out of Israel wicked men, who persuaded many, saying, Let us go and make a covenant with the heathen that are round about us: for since we departed from them we have had much sorrow. &c.'' (1 Maccabees 1:11)

a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up; meaning Antiochus; as is generally agreed, both by Jewish and Christian interpreters, and to whom these characters agree: he was "hard of face" q, as it may be rendered; an impudent brasen faced man, who had no shame nor fear in him; regarded neither God nor man; committed the most atrocious crimes in the most public manner; and particularly was daring and impudent in his blasphemy against God and the true religion; and it may also signify that he was cruel, barbarous, and inhuman, especially to the Jews, as his persecution of them abundantly proves: and his "understanding dark sentences", or "riddles" r, which he could both propose and answer, shows him to be sagacious and cunning, well versed in wicked craft and policy; he had the art of inveigling and deceiving men; it was by deceit and cunning he got the kingdom from his nephew; and, by the wicked art of persuasion he was master of, he seduced many of the Jews to relinquish their religion, and embrace Heathenism; and so well skilled he was in wicked politics, that he could cover his own designs, and penetrate into the secrets of others; according to Jacchiades, he was skilful in the art of magic and astrology. This is the little horn that was to rise out of one of the four horns or kingdoms; as Antiochus did from that of Seleucus, and stood and reigned more than twelve years.

Gill: Dan 8:24 - And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power // but not in his power // and he shall destroy wonderfully // and shall prosper and practise // and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power,.... He should possess a large kingdom, and that should be increased by conquests: but not ...

And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power,.... He should possess a large kingdom, and that should be increased by conquests:

but not in his power s, the power of Alexander; he should not arrive to that greatness he did, as in Dan 8:22 so Jacchiades: or, "in his own power" t; for it was not so much by his own courage and valour, by any heroic actions of Antiochus, he became so great, as by craft and deceit: through sedition he procured the death of his father and eider brother; and by fraud got the kingdom from his nephew; and through the perfidy of Menelaus and Jason, the high priests of the Jews, and other apostates, he obtained what dominion he had over the Jews; and it was by the assistance of Eumenes king of Pergamos, and his brother Attalus, that he kept the kingdom he had usurped, who stood by him, in order to check the growing power of the Romans; and more especially it was by a power given him from above, or by the permission and providence of God, who suffered him to be so great, and to prevail particularly over the Jews; because of their sins, as Aben Ezra and Saadiah observe, to chastise them for them: so his antitype, antichrist, became great and powerful, through craft and policy, and by the help of the ten kings that gave their kingdoms to him:

and he shall destroy wonderfully; or beyond all credit, countries, cities, towns, and their inhabitants; he slew fourscore thousand Jews in three days' time, bound forty thousand, and sold as many,

"And there were destroyed within the space of three whole days fourscore thousand, whereof forty thousand were slain in the conflict; and no fewer sold than slain.'' (2 Maccabees 5:14)

or, "he shall destroy wonderful things" u; the temple, and the wonderful things of worth and value in it, so Saadiah and Jacchiades; he took away the vessels of the temple, the golden lamps, the ark, and table of gold, &c.:

and shall prosper and practise; for a while do what he pleased, none being able to oppose and hinder him; see Dan 8:12.

and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people; by the "mighty" may be meant the Egyptians, Parthians, and other nations he made war with; and by the "holy people" the Jews, who were sanctified and separated from other people by the Lord, to be a peculiar people; among whom were his holy temple, his holy priests, his holy word, ordinances, and worship; multitudes of these he destroyed, as before observed. Jacchiades interprets this of the sons of Aaron, the holy priests of the Lord, whom he slew.

Gill: Dan 8:25 - And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand // and he shall magnify himself in his heart // and by peace shall destroy many // he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes // but he shall be broken without hand And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand,.... His schemes were laid in such deep policy, and he managed so artfully and...

And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand,.... His schemes were laid in such deep policy, and he managed so artfully and craftily in the execution of them, that he commonly succeeded; as in getting the kingdom of Syria from his nephew; and, under a pretence of peace and friendship, and to defend Philometer king of Egypt, a minor, and by large promises to the nobles of the land, made himself master of it; and by deceitful methods he prevailed in Judea; see Dan 11:21,

and he shall magnify himself in his heart; swell with pride, on account of success, through his policy, craft, and cunning, and think himself above all mortals, and equal to God himself; yea, as his antitype antichrist, exalt himself above all that is called God; fancy that he could command the seas, weigh the mountains in scales, and reach heaven itself, in the Apocrypha:

"And thus he that a little afore thought he might command the waves of the sea, (so proud was he beyond the condition of man) and weigh the high mountains in a balance, was now cast on the ground, and carried in an horselitter, shewing forth unto all the manifest power of God.'' (2 Maccabees 9:8)

and by peace shall destroy many; under a pretence of peace enter into countries and destroy the inhabitants of them, as in Egypt and Judea; or, by leagues and treaties of peace, outwitting those he made peace with; so some political princes do themselves more service, and their enemies more hurt, by treaties than by battles: or "in peace" w; when at peace with them, or while they are in peace and tranquillity; coming upon them unexpectedly at an unawares, when they did not so much as dream of war:

he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; not the high priest, as Grotius; nor Michael, as Aben Ezra; but God himself, as Saadiah and Jacchiades; who is King of kings, and Lord of lords, the only Pontentate, to whom all the princes above and below are subject; him Antiochus stood up against, when he profaned his temple at Jerusalem, forbid his worship, persecuted and destroyed his people, and set up the image of Jupiter in his house:

but he shall be broken without hand; alluding to his being a horn; it is expressive of his death, and the manner of it; that he should not die by the hand of an enemy in battle, nor be assassinated by the hand of a ruffian, but be cut off by the immediate hand of God. Jacchiades says, that by the providence of God he fell ill of a bad disease, and at the cry of one of his elephants his chariot was overturned, and he fell on the ground, and his bones were broken. Of his death, and the manner of it, in the Apocrypha:

"Now when the king heard these words, he was astonished and sore moved: whereupon he laid him down upon his bed, and fell sick for grief, because it had not befallen him as he looked for.'' (1 Maccabees 6:8)

"But the Lord Almighty, the God of Israel, smote him with an incurable and invisible plague: or as soon as he had spoken these words, a pain of the bowels that was remediless came upon him, and sore torments of the inner parts;'' (2 Maccabees 9:5)

"So that the worms rose up out of the body of this wicked man, and whiles he lived in sorrow and pain, his flesh fell away, and the filthiness of his smell was noisome to all his army.'' (2 Maccabees 9:9)

which was much like that of Herod's, Act 12:23, being stricken with a violent disorder in his bowels: his body covered with worms; his flesh flaked off, and emitted such a stench, as was intolerable to his army. Aben Ezra says, he fell from the roof of a house, and was broken, and died.

Gill: Dan 8:26 - And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true // wherefore shut thou up the vision // for it shall be for many days And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true,.... That is, of the 2300 evenings and mornings, or natural days; unto which time...

And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true,.... That is, of the 2300 evenings and mornings, or natural days; unto which time the daily sacrifice was to cease, and the sanctuary and host trodden under foot; and then the sanctuary would be cleansed. This account is "true", and not only to be believed, but is clear and plain, and to be literally understood of so many days, of such a term of time exactly, having no obscurity in it:

wherefore shut thou up the vision; the whole vision of the ram and he goat, and the little horn: the meaning is, that he should keep it to himself, and conceal it from men; not from his own people, for whose sake it was given, but from the Chaldeans, whose destruction was near; and who would be succeeded by the Persians, who might be disgusted with this prophecy, should they see it, it foretelling the destruction of their empire: or this order was given to suggest to Daniel that the fulfilment of it would be deferred some time, during which it would not be so easy to be understood as when it was near accomplishing and accomplished; and then prophecy and facts might be compared together:

for it shall be for many days; it were three hundred years, or more, from the reign of Belshazzar to the death of Antiochus, in which this vision ends.

Gill: Dan 8:27 - And I Daniel fainted and was sick certain days // afterwards I rose up // and did the king's business // and I was astonished at the vision // but none understood it And I Daniel fainted and was sick certain days,.... Or, "then I Daniel fainted" x; after he had seen the vision, and had thought upon it, and consider...

And I Daniel fainted and was sick certain days,.... Or, "then I Daniel fainted" x; after he had seen the vision, and had thought upon it, and considered the afflictions that were to come upon the people of God, and the condition the temple, and the worship of it, would be in; these so affected his mind, that he not only fainted away, and was struck with a kind of stupor and amazement, but had a fit of illness upon him, which continued some days; such a nearness and sympathy there are between the soul and body:

afterwards I rose up; from the bed in which he had laid some days ill:

and did the king's business; by which it appears, that, upon the death of Nebuchadnezzar, Daniel was as yet continued in the service of the king of Babylon, though perhaps not in the same posts as before, and was not a favourite at court, and so much known as he had been; and also that he was not in reality at Shushan, when he had this vision, but at Babylon:

and I was astonished at the vision; at the things contained in it, which were of so much importance, respecting the kingdoms of the earth, especially the Persian and Grecian empires, and the state of his own people the Jews:

but none understood it: to whom he showed it; none but himself, who was made to understand it by the angel, Dan 8:16.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: Dan 8:1 Heb “in the beginning.” This refers to the vision described in chapter seven.

NET Notes: Dan 8:2 The term אוּבַל (’uval = “stream, river”) is a relatively rare word in biblical Hebrew, found on...

NET Notes: Dan 8:3 Heb “high” (also “higher” later in this verse).

NET Notes: Dan 8:4 In the Hiphil the Hebrew verb גָּדַל (gadal, “to make great; to magnify”) can have either a positive o...

NET Notes: Dan 8:5 Heb “a horn of vision” [or “conspicuousness”], i.e., “a conspicuous horn,” one easily seen.

NET Notes: Dan 8:6 Heb “the wrath of its strength.”

NET Notes: Dan 8:7 The goat of Daniel’s vision represents Greece; the large horn represents Alexander the Great. The ram stands for Media-Persia. Alexander’s...

NET Notes: Dan 8:8 Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavensR...

NET Notes: Dan 8:9 The expression the beautiful land (Heb. הַצֶּבִי [hatsÿvi] = “the beauty”) is a crypt...

NET Notes: Dan 8:10 In prescientific Israelite thinking the stars were associated with the angelic members of God’s heavenly assembly. See Judg 5:20; Job 38:7; Isa ...

NET Notes: Dan 8:11 Here the sanctuary is a reference to the temple of God in Jerusalem.

NET Notes: Dan 8:12 Heb “it acted and prospered.”

NET Notes: Dan 8:13 The holy one referred to here is presumably an angel. Cf. 4:13[10], 23 [20].

NET Notes: Dan 8:14 Heb “will be vindicated” or “will be justified.” This is the only occurrence of this verb in the Niphal in the OT. English ver...

NET Notes: Dan 8:16 The only angels whose names are given in the OT are Gabriel (Dan 8:16; 9:21; cf. Luke 1:19, 26) and Michael (Dan 10:13, 21; 12:1; cf. Jude 9; Rev 12:7...

NET Notes: Dan 8:17 Or “human one.”

NET Notes: Dan 8:18 Heb “on my standing.”

NET Notes: Dan 8:19 The Hebrew text does not actually state the referent (the vision Daniel saw in vv. 8-12; cf. also v. 13), which has been specified in the translation ...

NET Notes: Dan 8:21 Heb “Javan.”

NET Notes: Dan 8:22 Heb “the broken one.” The word “horn” has been supplied in the translation to clarify the referent.

NET Notes: Dan 8:23 Heb “stand” or “stand up.”

NET Notes: Dan 8:24 See the corresponding Aramaic expression in 7:27. If the “holy ones” are angels, then this probably refers to the angels as protectors of ...

NET Notes: Dan 8:25 Heb “with nothingness of hand.”

NET Notes: Dan 8:26 Heb “truth.”

NET Notes: Dan 8:27 The Hebrew word here is נִהְיֵיתִי (nihyetiy). Its meaning is not entirely clear. Hebrew &...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:1 In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar a vision appeared unto me, [even unto] me Daniel, ( a ) after that which appeared unto me at the fir...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:2 And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that I [was] at Shushan [in] the palace, which [is] in the province ( b ) of Elam; and I saw i...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:3 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a ( c ) ram which had [two] horns: and the [two] horns [were] high; but...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:4 I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; so that no ( e ) beasts might stand before him, neither [was there any] that could deliv...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:5 And as I was considering, behold, ( f ) an he goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the goat [had] a...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:7 And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and ( h ) smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no po...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:8 Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great ( i ) horn was broken; and for it came up four ( k ) notable ones toward the...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:9 And out of one of them came forth a ( l ) little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the ( m ) south, and toward the ( n ) east, and toward the ...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:10 And it waxed great, [even] to the ( p ) host of heaven; and it cast down [some] of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them. ( ...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:11 Yea, he magnified [himself] even to the ( q ) prince of the host, and by him the ( r ) daily [sacrifice] was taken away, and the place of his sanctuar...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:12 And ( s ) an host was given [him] against the daily [sacrifice] by reason of transgression, and it ( t ) cast down the truth to the ground; and it pra...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:13 Then I heard one ( u ) saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain [saint] which spake, How long [shall be] the vision [concerning] the d...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:14 And ( z ) he said unto me, Unto ( a ) two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed. ( z ) Christ answered me for the com...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:15 And it came to pass, when I, [even] I Daniel, had seen the vision, and sought for the meaning, then, behold, there stood before me ( b ) as the appear...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:16 And I heard a man's voice between [the banks of] Ulai, which called, and said, Gabriel, ( c ) make this [man] to understand the vision. ( c ) This po...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:17 So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for ( d ) at the ...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:19 And he said, Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the last ( e ) end of the indignation: for at the time appointed the end [shall be]. ( e ...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:22 Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up ( f ) out of the nation, but not ( g ) in his power. ( f ) That is,...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:23 And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of ( h ) fierce countenance, and understanding dark sente...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:24 And his power shall be mighty, but not ( i ) by his own power: and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall destroy th...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:25 And through his ( l ) policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify [himself] in his heart, and by ( m ) peace shall d...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:26 And the vision of the ( p ) evening and the morning which was told [is] true: wherefore shut thou up the vision; for it [shall be] for many days. ( p...

Geneva Bible: Dan 8:27 And I Daniel fainted, and was sick ( q ) [certain] days; afterward I rose up, and did the king's business; and I was astonished at the vision, but non...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: Dan 8:1-14 - --God gives Daniel a foresight of the destruction of other kingdoms, which in their day were as powerful as that of Babylon. Could we foresee the change...

MHCC: Dan 8:15-27 - --The eternal Son of God stood before the prophet in the appearance of a man, and directed the angel Gabriel to explain the vision. Daniel's fainting an...

Matthew Henry: Dan 8:1-14 - -- Here is, I. The date of this vision, Dan 8:1. It was in the third year of the reign of Belshazzar, which proved to be his last year, as many recko...

Matthew Henry: Dan 8:15-27 - -- Here we have, I. Daniel's earnest desire to have this vision explained to him (Dan 8:15): I sought the meaning. Note, Those that rightly know the ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Dan 8:1-7 - -- The Vision Dan 8:1, Dan 8:2 contain the historical introduction to this new revelation. This was given to Daniel in the third year of the reign of ...

Keil-Delitzsch: Dan 8:8 - -- The transformation of the Javanic kingdom. - By the kingdom of the ram the he-goat became very great, powerful ( הגדּיל as in Dan 8:4). But th...

Keil-Delitzsch: Dan 8:9-12 - -- The interpretation of the vision. Dan 8:9 Without following the development of the four horns further, the prophecy passes over to the little ho...

Keil-Delitzsch: Dan 8:13-14 - -- In Dan 8:13 תּת ( to give ) is more closely defined by מרמס ( something trodden under foot ); but in these passages in Ezekiel above referre...