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Teks -- 2 Kings 3:1-27 (NET)

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Konteks
Moab Fights with Israel
3:1 In the eighteenth year of King Jehoshaphat’s reign over Judah, Ahab’s son Jehoram became king over Israel in Samaria; he ruled for twelve years. 3:2 He did evil in the sight of the Lord, but not to the same degree as his father and mother. He did remove the sacred pillar of Baal that his father had made. 3:3 Yet he persisted in the sins of Jeroboam son of Nebat, who encouraged Israel to sin; he did not turn from them. 3:4 Now King Mesha of Moab was a sheep breeder. He would send as tribute to the king of Israel 100,000 male lambs and the wool of 100,000 rams. 3:5 When Ahab died, the king of Moab rebelled against the king of Israel. 3:6 At that time King Jehoram left Samaria and assembled all Israel for war. 3:7 He sent this message to King Jehoshaphat of Judah: “The king of Moab has rebelled against me. Will you fight with me against Moab?” Jehoshaphat replied, “I will join you in the campaign; my army and horses are at your disposal.” 3:8 He then asked, “Which invasion route are we going to take?” Jehoram answered, “By the road through the Desert of Edom.” 3:9 So the kings of Israel, Judah, and Edom set out together. They wandered around on the road for seven days and finally ran out of water for the men and animals they had with them. 3:10 The king of Israel said, “Oh no! Certainly the Lord has summoned these three kings so that he can hand them over to the king of Moab!” 3:11 Jehoshaphat asked, “Is there no prophet of the Lord here that we might seek the Lord’s direction?” One of the servants of the king of Israel answered, “Elisha son of Shapat is here; he used to be Elijah’s servant.” 3:12 Jehoshaphat said, “The Lord speaks through him.” So the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom went down to visit him. 3:13 Elisha said to the king of Israel, “Why are you here? Go to your father’s prophets or your mother’s prophets!” The king of Israel replied to him, “No, for the Lord is the one who summoned these three kings so that he can hand them over to Moab.” 3:14 Elisha said, “As certainly as the Lord who rules over all lives (whom I serve), if I did not respect King Jehoshaphat of Judah, I would not pay attention to you or acknowledge you. 3:15 But now, get me a musician.” When the musician played, the Lord energized him, 3:16 and he said, “This is what the Lord says, ‘Make many cisterns in this valley,’ 3:17 for this is what the Lord says, ‘You will not feel any wind or see any rain, but this valley will be full of water and you and your cattle and animals will drink.’ 3:18 This is an easy task for the Lord; he will also hand Moab over to you. 3:19 You will defeat every fortified city and every important city. You must chop down every productive tree, stop up all the springs, and cover all the cultivated land with stones.” 3:20 Sure enough, the next morning, at the time of the morning sacrifice, water came flowing down from Edom and filled the land. 3:21 Now all Moab had heard that the kings were attacking, so everyone old enough to fight was mustered and placed at the border. 3:22 When they got up early the next morning, the sun was shining on the water. To the Moabites, who were some distance away, the water looked red like blood. 3:23 The Moabites said, “It’s blood! The kings are totally destroyed! They have struck one another down! Now, Moab, seize the plunder!” 3:24 When they approached the Israelite camp, the Israelites rose up and struck down the Moabites, who then ran from them. The Israelites thoroughly defeated Moab. 3:25 They tore down the cities and each man threw a stone into every cultivated field until they were covered. They stopped up every spring and chopped down every productive tree. Only Kir Hareseth was left intact, but the slingers surrounded it and attacked it. 3:26 When the king of Moab realized he was losing the battle, he and 700 swordsmen tried to break through and attack the king of Edom, but they failed. 3:27 So he took his firstborn son, who was to succeed him as king, and offered him up as a burnt sacrifice on the wall. There was an outburst of divine anger against Israel, so they broke off the attack and returned to their homeland.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Ahab son and successor of Omri, king of Israel,son of Kolaiah; a false prophet in the time of King Zedekiah
 · Baal a pagan god,a title of a pagan god,a town in the Negeb on the border of Simeon and Judah,son of Reaiah son of Micah; a descendant of Reuben,the forth son of Jeiel, the Benjamite
 · Edom resident(s) of the region of Edom
 · Elijah a prophet from the 9th century B.C.,a prophet from Tishbe in Gilead to Israel in King Ahab's time,son of Jeroham of Benjamin,a priest of the Harim clan who put away his heathen wife,a layman of the Bani Elam clan who put away his heathen wife
 · Elisha a son of Shaphat; a prophet of the 9th century B.C. who succeeded the prophet Elijah,son of Shaphat of Abel-Meholah; successor of the prophet Elijah
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Israelite a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jehoram a son of Jehoshaphat; the father of Uzziah; an ancestor of Jesus.,son of Toi or Tou, king of Hamath,son and successor of King Jehoshaphat of Judah,second son and second successor of King Ahab of Israel,son of Jeshaiah; a Levitical chief treasurer whose descendants returned from exile
 · Jehoshaphat the son and successor of king Asa of Judah; the father of Jehoram; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Ahilud; a recorder for King Solomon,an officer over collecting food supplies for King Solomon from Issachar; son of Paruah,son of Asa; King of Judah,son of Nimshi; father of King Jehu of Israel,a situation ("valley") of being judged (OS)
 · Jeroboam son of Nebat; first king of Israel after it split away from Judah; Jeroboam I,son and successor of Joash/Jehoash, King of Israel; Jeroboam II
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Kir-Hareseth a town of Moab 20 km east of the southern end of the Dead Sea
 · Kir-hareseth a town of Moab 20 km east of the southern end of the Dead Sea
 · Mesha the region occupied by the Arabian clan of Joktan,a man of Benjamin; son of Shaharaim and Hodesh,king of Moab in the time of Ahab
 · Moab resident(s) of the country of Moab
 · Moabite a female descendant of Moab
 · Nebat a man of Ephraim; father of king Jeroboam
 · Samaria residents of the district of Samaria
 · Shaphat son of Hori of Simeon; the spy sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan,father of the prophet Elisha,son of Shemaiah, a descendant of Hananiah, Zerubbabel and David,a chief of the tribe of Gad,son of Adlai; David's chief shepherd over the valley herds


Topik/Tema Kamus: Elisha | Jehoshaphat | Mesha | DEAD SEA, THE | Israel | Zoar | Colour | Armies | MOABITE STONE | Moabites | JEHORAM | Kir-haraseth | Water | CHEMOSH | JEHORAM; JORAM | ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF | Jezebel | Ahaziah | Idolatry | Sheep | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: 2Ki 3:3 - The sins The worship of the calves: which all the kings of Israel kept up as a wall of partition between their subjects and those of Judah. So that altho' he h...

The worship of the calves: which all the kings of Israel kept up as a wall of partition between their subjects and those of Judah. So that altho' he had a little religion, yet he had not enough to over - rule this policy.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:4 - A sheep master - A man of great wealth (which in those times and places consisted much in cattle) which enabled and emboldened him to rebel against his sovere...

master - A man of great wealth (which in those times and places consisted much in cattle) which enabled and emboldened him to rebel against his sovereign.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:7 - He said He joins with him in this war; because the war was just in itself, and convenient for Jehoshaphat, both in the general, that revolters should be chast...

He joins with him in this war; because the war was just in itself, and convenient for Jehoshaphat, both in the general, that revolters should be chastised: lest the examples should pass into his dominions, and the Edomites be encouraged to revolt from him, as they did from his son; and in particular, that the Moabites should be humbled, who had invaded his land before this time, 2Ch 20:1, and might do so again if they were not brought low; for which a fair opportunity now offered.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:9 - King of Edom That is, the vice - roy under Jehosaphat, 1Ki 22:47, here called king: because that word is sometimes used for any prince or chief ruler.

That is, the vice - roy under Jehosaphat, 1Ki 22:47, here called king: because that word is sometimes used for any prince or chief ruler.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:9 - Seven days Because they made a great army, which could move but slowly; and they fetched a greater compass than was usual, for some advantage which they expected...

Because they made a great army, which could move but slowly; and they fetched a greater compass than was usual, for some advantage which they expected by it.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:9 - No water A frequent want in those parts; and now, it seems, increased by the extraordinary heat and dryness of the season.

A frequent want in those parts; and now, it seems, increased by the extraordinary heat and dryness of the season.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:11 - Is there not, &c. _This he should have asked before, when they first undertook the expedition, as he did in a like case, 1Ki 22:5, and for that neglect he now suffers; ...

_This he should have asked before, when they first undertook the expedition, as he did in a like case, 1Ki 22:5, and for that neglect he now suffers; but better late than never: his affliction brings him to the remembrance of his former sin, and present duty.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:11 - Poured water Who was his servant; this being one office of a servant: and this office was the more necessary among the Israelites, because of the frequent washings...

Who was his servant; this being one office of a servant: and this office was the more necessary among the Israelites, because of the frequent washings which their law required. Probably it was by a special direction from God, that Elisha followed them, unasked, unobserved. Thus does God prevent us with the blessings of his goodness; and provide for those who provide not for themselves.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:12 - The word, &c. _He is a true prophet. Which Jehoshaphat might easily understand, because being a good man, many would be ready to inform him of.

_He is a true prophet. Which Jehoshaphat might easily understand, because being a good man, many would be ready to inform him of.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:12 - Went To his tent; which was either in the camp, or not far from it: they did not send for him, but went to him, that by giving him this honour, they might ...

To his tent; which was either in the camp, or not far from it: they did not send for him, but went to him, that by giving him this honour, they might engage him to give them his utmost assistance.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:13 - What have I, &c. _I desire to have no discourse with thee.

_I desire to have no discourse with thee.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:13 - Get thee To the calves, which thou after thy father's example dost worship; and to the Baals which thy mother yet worshippeth by thy permission; let these idol...

To the calves, which thou after thy father's example dost worship; and to the Baals which thy mother yet worshippeth by thy permission; let these idols whom thou worshippest in thy prosperity, now help thee in thy distress.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:14 - Jehoshaphat Whom I reverence and love for his piety. It is good being with those who have God's favour, and the love of his people. Wicked men often fare the bett...

Whom I reverence and love for his piety. It is good being with those who have God's favour, and the love of his people. Wicked men often fare the better, for the friendship and society of good men.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:15 - Minstrel One that can sing and play upon a musical instrument. This he requires, that his mind which had been disturbed at the sight of wicked Jehoram, might b...

One that can sing and play upon a musical instrument. This he requires, that his mind which had been disturbed at the sight of wicked Jehoram, might be composed, and that he might be excited to more fervent prayer whereby he was prepared to receive the prophetic inspiration. Those that desire communion with God must keep their spirits quiet and serene. All hurry of spirit, and all turbulent passions, make us unfit for divine visitations.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:15 - The hand, &c. The spirit of prophecy, so called, to note that it was no natural nor acquired virtue inherent in him; but a singular gift of God, given to whom and w...

The spirit of prophecy, so called, to note that it was no natural nor acquired virtue inherent in him; but a singular gift of God, given to whom and when he pleased.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:19 - Ye shall smite And if this command seem severe, it must be considered, that the Moabites were a very wicked people, perfidious, cruel, implacable enemies to God's pe...

And if this command seem severe, it must be considered, that the Moabites were a very wicked people, perfidious, cruel, implacable enemies to God's people upon all occasions, and now in a state of rebellion.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:20 - The meal-offering That is, the morning sacrifice: which doubtless was attended with the solemn prayers of God's people. At this time Elisha joined his prayers with the ...

That is, the morning sacrifice: which doubtless was attended with the solemn prayers of God's people. At this time Elisha joined his prayers with the prayers of God's people, especially those at Jerusalem. And this time God chose to answer their prayers, and to work this miracle, that thereby he might determine the controversy between the Israelites and the Jews, about the place and manner of worship, and give a publick testimony from heaven for the Jews, and against the Israelites. God that commands all the waters both above and beneath the firmament, sent them abundance of water on a sudden.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:21 - The border Of their country, to defend the passage.

Of their country, to defend the passage.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:25 - Kir haraseth - This was the royal city of the Moabites, into which the remnant of the Moabites were gathered, where also their king was with them.

haraseth - This was the royal city of the Moabites, into which the remnant of the Moabites were gathered, where also their king was with them.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:25 - The stones The walls and buildings of this city only were left; their whole country being destroyed.

The walls and buildings of this city only were left; their whole country being destroyed.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:25 - The slingers Such as slung great stones against the walls to break them down, according to the manner of those times. Made breaches in the walls, by which they mig...

Such as slung great stones against the walls to break them down, according to the manner of those times. Made breaches in the walls, by which they might enter the city, and take it.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:26 - To break thro' That he might make an escape: which he chose to do on the king of Edom's quarter; because he thought his was the weakest side.

That he might make an escape: which he chose to do on the king of Edom's quarter; because he thought his was the weakest side.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:27 - His son Or rather, his own son: whom he sacrificed; partly, to obtain the favour of his god, according to the manner of the Phoenicians and other people in pu...

Or rather, his own son: whom he sacrificed; partly, to obtain the favour of his god, according to the manner of the Phoenicians and other people in publick calamities; and partly, to oblige the Israelites to quit the siege out of compassion; or, as despairing to conquer (at least without greater loss of men than it was worth) him who was resolved to defend the city to the utmost extremity.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:27 - On the wall That the besiegers might see it, and be moved by it.

That the besiegers might see it, and be moved by it.

Wesley: 2Ki 3:27 - There was, &c. Or, great trouble or repentance upon Israel, the Israelitish king and people (who was the first cause of the war, and had brought the rest into confed...

Or, great trouble or repentance upon Israel, the Israelitish king and people (who was the first cause of the war, and had brought the rest into confederacy with him) were greatly grieved for this barbarous action, and resolved to prosecute the war no farther.

JFB: 2Ki 3:1-2 - Jehoram the son of Ahab began to reign over Israel in Samaria the eighteenth year of Jehoshaphat (compare 1Ki 22:51). To reconcile the statements in the two passages, we must suppose that Ahaziah, having reigned during the seventeenth and the grea...

(compare 1Ki 22:51). To reconcile the statements in the two passages, we must suppose that Ahaziah, having reigned during the seventeenth and the greater part of the eighteenth year of Jehoshaphat, was succeeded by his brother Joram or Jehoram, in the end of that eighteenth year, or else that Ahaziah, having reigned two years in conjunction with his father, died at the end of that period when Jehoram ascended the throne. His policy was as hostile as that of his predecessors to the true religion; but he made some changes. Whatever was his motive for this alteration--whether dread of the many alarming judgments the patronage of idolatry had brought upon his father; or whether it was made as a small concession to the feelings of Jehoshaphat, his ally, he abolished idolatry in its gross form and restored the symbolic worship of God, which the kings of Israel, from the time of Jeroboam, had set up as a partition wall between their subjects and those of Judah.

JFB: 2Ki 3:4-6 - Mesha king of Moab, &c. As his dominions embraced an extensive pasture country, he paid, as annual tribute, the wool of a hundred thousand lambs and a hundred thousand rams. ...

As his dominions embraced an extensive pasture country, he paid, as annual tribute, the wool of a hundred thousand lambs and a hundred thousand rams. It is still common in the East to pay custom and taxes in the fruits or natural produce of the land.

JFB: 2Ki 3:5 - king of Moab rebelled This is a repetition of 2Ki 1:1, in order to introduce an account of the confederate expedition for crushing this revolt, which had been allowed to co...

This is a repetition of 2Ki 1:1, in order to introduce an account of the confederate expedition for crushing this revolt, which had been allowed to continue unchecked during the short reign of Ahaziah.

JFB: 2Ki 3:6 - King Jehoram . . . numbered Israel Made a levy from his own subjects, and at the same time sought an alliance with Jehoshaphat, which, as on the former occasion with Ahab, was readily p...

Made a levy from his own subjects, and at the same time sought an alliance with Jehoshaphat, which, as on the former occasion with Ahab, was readily promised (1Ki 22:4).

JFB: 2Ki 3:8-12 - Which way shall we go up? And he answered, The way through the wilderness of Edom This was a long and circuitous route, by the southern bend of the Dead Sea. Jehoshaphat however preferred it, partly because the part of the Moabite t...

This was a long and circuitous route, by the southern bend of the Dead Sea. Jehoshaphat however preferred it, partly because the part of the Moabite territory at which they would arrive, was the most defenseless; and partly because he would thereby enlist, in the expedition, the forces of the king of Edom. But, in penetrating the deep, rocky valley of Ahsy, which forms the boundary between Edom and Moab, the confederate army was reduced, both man and beast, to the greatest extremities for want of water. They were disappointed by finding the wady of this valley, the brook Zered (Deu 2:13-18) [ROBINSON], dry. Jehoram was in despair. But the pious mind of Jehoshaphat inquired for a prophet of the Lord; and, on being informed that Elisha was at hand, the three kings "went down to him"; that is, to his tent, which was either in the camp, or close by it. He had been directed thither by the Spirit of God for this special purpose. They went to him, not only as a mark of respect, but to supplicate for his assistance.

JFB: 2Ki 3:11 - which poured water on the hands of Elijah That is, was his servant--this being one of the common offices of a servant. The phrase is used here as synonymous with "a true and eminent prophet," ...

That is, was his servant--this being one of the common offices of a servant. The phrase is used here as synonymous with "a true and eminent prophet," who will reveal God's will to us.

JFB: 2Ki 3:13-14 - What have I to do with thee? &c. Wishing to produce a deep spirit of humility and contrition, Elisha gave a stern repulse to the king of Israel, accompanied by a sarcastic sneer, in b...

Wishing to produce a deep spirit of humility and contrition, Elisha gave a stern repulse to the king of Israel, accompanied by a sarcastic sneer, in bidding him go and consult Baal and his soothsayers. But the distressed condition, especially the imploring language, of the royal suppliants, who acknowledged the hand of the Lord in this distress, drew from the prophet the solemn assurance, that solely out of respect to Jehoshaphat, the Lord's true servant, did he take any interest in Jehoram.

JFB: 2Ki 3:15 - bring me a minstrel The effect of music in soothing the mind is much regarded in the East; and it appears that the ancient prophets, before entering their work, commonly ...

The effect of music in soothing the mind is much regarded in the East; and it appears that the ancient prophets, before entering their work, commonly resorted to it, as a preparative, by praise and prayer, to their receiving the prophetic afflatus.

JFB: 2Ki 3:15 - the hand of the Lord A phrase significantly implying that the gift of prophecy was not a natural or inherent gift, but conferred by the power and grace of God.

A phrase significantly implying that the gift of prophecy was not a natural or inherent gift, but conferred by the power and grace of God.

JFB: 2Ki 3:16 - Make this valley full of ditches Capable of holding water.

Capable of holding water.

JFB: 2Ki 3:17 - Ye shall not see wind It is common in the East to speak of seeing wind, from the clouds of straw, dust, or sand, that are often whirled into the air, after a long drought.

It is common in the East to speak of seeing wind, from the clouds of straw, dust, or sand, that are often whirled into the air, after a long drought.

JFB: 2Ki 3:20-24 - when the meat offering was offered That is, at the time of the morning sacrifice, accompanied, doubtless, with solemn prayers; and these led, it may be, by Elisha on this occasion, as o...

That is, at the time of the morning sacrifice, accompanied, doubtless, with solemn prayers; and these led, it may be, by Elisha on this occasion, as on a similar one by Elijah (1Ki 18:36).

JFB: 2Ki 3:20-24 - behold, there came water by the way of Edom Far from the Israelitish camp, in the eastern mountains of Edom, a great fall of rain, a kind of cloudburst, took place, by which the wady was at once...

Far from the Israelitish camp, in the eastern mountains of Edom, a great fall of rain, a kind of cloudburst, took place, by which the wady was at once filled, but they saw neither the wind nor the rains. The divine interposition was shown by introducing the laws of nature to the determined end in the predetermined way [KEIL]. It brought not only aid to the Israelitish army in their distress, by a plentiful supply of water, but destruction on the Moabites, who, perceiving the water, under the refulgent rays of the morning sun, red like blood, concluded the confederate kings had quarrelled and deluged the field with their mutual slaughter; so that, rushing to their camp in full expectation of great spoil, they were met by the Israelites, who, prepared for battle, fought and pursued them. Their country was laid waste in the way, which has always been considered the greatest desolation in the East (2Ki 3:24).

JFB: 2Ki 3:25 - Kir-haraseth (now Kerak)--Castle of Moab--then, probably, the only fortress in the land.

(now Kerak)--Castle of Moab--then, probably, the only fortress in the land.

JFB: 2Ki 3:27 - took his eldest son that should have reigned in his stead, and offered him for a burnt offering, &c. By this deed of horror, to which the allied army drove the king of Moab, a divine judgment came upon Israel; that is, the besiegers feared the anger o...

By this deed of horror, to which the allied army drove the king of Moab, a divine judgment came upon Israel; that is, the besiegers feared the anger of God, which they had incurred by giving occasion to the human sacrifice forbidden in the law (Lev 18:21; Lev 20:3), and hastily raised the siege.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:2 - He put away the image of Baal He put away the image of Baal - He abolished his worship; but he continued that of the calves at Dan and Beth-el.

He put away the image of Baal - He abolished his worship; but he continued that of the calves at Dan and Beth-el.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:4 - Was a sheepmaster Was a sheepmaster - The original is נקד naked , of which the Septuagint could make nothing, and therefore retained the Hebrew word νωκηδ :...

Was a sheepmaster - The original is נקד naked , of which the Septuagint could make nothing, and therefore retained the Hebrew word νωκηδ : but the Chaldee has מרי גיתי marey githey , "a sheepmaster;"Aquila has ποιμνιοτροφος ; and Symmachus, τρεφων βοσκηματα ; all to the same sense. The original signifies one who marks or brands, probably from the marking of sheep. He fed many sheep, etc., and had them all marked in a particular way, in order to ascertain his property

Clarke: 2Ki 3:4 - A hundred thousand lambs A hundred thousand lambs - The Chaldee and Arabic have a hundred thousand fat oxen.

A hundred thousand lambs - The Chaldee and Arabic have a hundred thousand fat oxen.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:7 - My people as thy people My people as thy people - We find that Jehoshaphat maintained the same friendly intercourse with the son, as he did with the father. See 1Ki 22:4.

My people as thy people - We find that Jehoshaphat maintained the same friendly intercourse with the son, as he did with the father. See 1Ki 22:4.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:8 - Through the wilderness of Edom Through the wilderness of Edom - Because he expected the king of Edom to join them, as we find he did; for, being tributary to Judah, he was obliged...

Through the wilderness of Edom - Because he expected the king of Edom to join them, as we find he did; for, being tributary to Judah, he was obliged to do it.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:9 - A compass of seven days’ journey A compass of seven days’ journey - By taking a circuitous route, to go round the southern part of the Dead Sea, they probably intended to surp...

A compass of seven days’ journey - By taking a circuitous route, to go round the southern part of the Dead Sea, they probably intended to surprise the Moabites; but it appears their journey was ill planned, as they at last got into a country in which it was impossible to obtain water, and they were brought in consequence to the utmost extremity.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:10 - The Lord hath called these three kings together The Lord hath called these three kings together - That is, This is a Divine judgment; God has judicially blinded us, and permitted us to take this j...

The Lord hath called these three kings together - That is, This is a Divine judgment; God has judicially blinded us, and permitted us to take this journey to our destruction.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:11 - Is there not here a prophet of the Lord Is there not here a prophet of the Lord - The kings of Judah still acknowledged the true God, and him only

Is there not here a prophet of the Lord - The kings of Judah still acknowledged the true God, and him only

Clarke: 2Ki 3:11 - Poured water on the hands of Elijah Poured water on the hands of Elijah - That is, was his constant and confidential servant.

Poured water on the hands of Elijah - That is, was his constant and confidential servant.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:12 - The word of the Lord is with him The word of the Lord is with him - He has the gift of prophecy.

The word of the Lord is with him - He has the gift of prophecy.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:13 - Get thee to the prophets of thy father Get thee to the prophets of thy father - This was a just, but cutting reproof

Get thee to the prophets of thy father - This was a just, but cutting reproof

Clarke: 2Ki 3:13 - Nay Nay - The Chaldee adds here, I beseech thee, do not call the sins of this impiety to remembrance, but ask mercy for us; because the Lord hath called...

Nay - The Chaldee adds here, I beseech thee, do not call the sins of this impiety to remembrance, but ask mercy for us; because the Lord hath called, etc. The Arabic has, I beseech thee, do not mention of our transgressions, but use kindness towards us. It is very likely that some such words were spoken on the occasion; but these are the only versions which make this addition.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:14 - Were it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat Were it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat - He worshipped the true God; Jehoram was an idolater.

Were it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat - He worshipped the true God; Jehoram was an idolater.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:15 - Bring me a minstrel Bring me a minstrel - A person who played on the harp. The rabbins, and many Christians, suppose that Elisha’ s mind was considerably irritated...

Bring me a minstrel - A person who played on the harp. The rabbins, and many Christians, suppose that Elisha’ s mind was considerably irritated and grieved by the bad behavior of the young men at Beth-el, and their tragical end, and by the presence of the idolatrous king of Israel; and therefore called for Divine psalmody, that it might calm his spirits, and render him more susceptible of the prophetic influence. To be able to discern the voice of God, and the operation of his hand, it is necessary that the mind be calm, and the passions all in harmony, under the direction of reason; that reason may be under the influence of the Divine Spirit

Clarke: 2Ki 3:15 - The hand of the Lord came upon him The hand of the Lord came upon him - The playing of the harper had the desired effect; his mind was calmed, and the power of God descended upon him....

The hand of the Lord came upon him - The playing of the harper had the desired effect; his mind was calmed, and the power of God descended upon him. This effect of music was generally acknowledged in every civilized nation. Cicero, in his Tusculan Questions, lib. iv., says, that "the Pythagoreans were accustomed to calm their minds, and soothe their passions, by singing and playing upon the harp." Pythagoraei mentes suas a cogitationum intentione cantu fidibusque ad tranquillitatem traducebant . I have spoken elsewhere of the heathen priests who endeavored to imitate the true prophets, and were as actually filled with the devil as the others were with the true God. The former were thrown into violent agitations and contortions by the influence of the demons which possessed them, while the latter were in a state of the utmost serenity and composure.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:16 - Make this valley full of ditches Make this valley full of ditches - The word נחל nachal may be translated brook, as it is by the Vulgate and Septuagint. There probably was a r...

Make this valley full of ditches - The word נחל nachal may be translated brook, as it is by the Vulgate and Septuagint. There probably was a river here, but it was now dry; and the prophet desires that they would enlarge the channel, and cut out various canals from it, and reservoirs, where water might be collected for the refreshment of the army and of the cattle; and these were to be made so wide that the reflection of the sun’ s rays from this water might be the means of confounding and destroying the Moabites.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:17 - Ye shall not see wind Ye shall not see wind - There shall be no wind to collect vapours, and there shall be no showers, and yet the whole bed of this river, and all the n...

Ye shall not see wind - There shall be no wind to collect vapours, and there shall be no showers, and yet the whole bed of this river, and all the new made canals, shall be filled with water.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:19 - Shall fell every good tree Shall fell every good tree - Every tree by which your enemies may serve themselves for fortifications, etc. But surely fruit trees are not intended ...

Shall fell every good tree - Every tree by which your enemies may serve themselves for fortifications, etc. But surely fruit trees are not intended here; for this was positively against the law of God, Deu 20:19, Deu 20:20 : "When thou shalt besiege a city - thou shalt not destroy the trees thereof - for the tree of the field is man’ s life - only the trees which thou knowest that they be not trees for meat, thou shalt destroy and cut them down.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:19 - Stop all wells of water Stop all wells of water - In those hot countries this would lead sooner than any thing else to reduce an enemy

Stop all wells of water - In those hot countries this would lead sooner than any thing else to reduce an enemy

Clarke: 2Ki 3:19 - Mar every good piece of land with stones Mar every good piece of land with stones - Such a multitude of men, each throwing a stone on a good field as they passed, would completely destroy i...

Mar every good piece of land with stones - Such a multitude of men, each throwing a stone on a good field as they passed, would completely destroy it.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:20 - When the meat-offering was offered When the meat-offering was offered - This was the first of all offerings, and was generally made at sun-rising

When the meat-offering was offered - This was the first of all offerings, and was generally made at sun-rising

Clarke: 2Ki 3:20 - There came water There came water - This supply was altogether miraculous, for there was neither wind nor rain, nor any other natural means by which it could be supp...

There came water - This supply was altogether miraculous, for there was neither wind nor rain, nor any other natural means by which it could be supplied.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:22 - Saw the water on the other side as red as blood Saw the water on the other side as red as blood - This might have been an optical deception; I have seen the like sight when there was no reason to ...

Saw the water on the other side as red as blood - This might have been an optical deception; I have seen the like sight when there was no reason to suspect supernatural agency. The Moabites had never seen that valley full of water, and therefore did not suspect that their eyes deceived them, but took it for the blood of the confederate hosts, who they thought might have fallen into confusion in the darkness of night and destroyed each other, as the Midianites had formerly done, Jdg 7:22, and the Philistines lately, 1Sa 14:20.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:23 - Therefore, Moab, to the spoil Therefore, Moab, to the spoil - Thus they came on in a disorderly manner, and fell an easy prey to their enemies.

Therefore, Moab, to the spoil - Thus they came on in a disorderly manner, and fell an easy prey to their enemies.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:25 - On every good piece of land On every good piece of land - On all cultivated ground, and especially fields that were sown

On every good piece of land - On all cultivated ground, and especially fields that were sown

Clarke: 2Ki 3:25 - Only in Kir-haraseth Only in Kir-haraseth - This was the royal city of the Moabites, and, as we learn from Scripture, exceedingly strong; (see Isa 16:7, Isa 16:11); so t...

Only in Kir-haraseth - This was the royal city of the Moabites, and, as we learn from Scripture, exceedingly strong; (see Isa 16:7, Isa 16:11); so that it is probable the confederate armies could not easily reduce it. The slingers, we are informed, went about the wall, and smote all the men that appeared on it, while no doubt the besieging army was employed in sapping the foundations.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:26 - Seven hundred men Seven hundred men - These were no doubt the choice of all his troops, and being afraid of being hemmed up and perhaps taken by his enemies, whom he ...

Seven hundred men - These were no doubt the choice of all his troops, and being afraid of being hemmed up and perhaps taken by his enemies, whom he found on the eve of gaining possession of the city, he made a desperate sortie in order to regain the open country; and supposing that the quarter of the Edomites was weakest, or less carefully guarded, he endeavored to make his impression there; but they were so warmly received by the king of Edom that they failed in the attempt, and were driven back into the city. Hence he was led to that desperate act mentioned in the following verse.

Clarke: 2Ki 3:27 - Took his eldest son Took his eldest son - The rabbins account for this horrible sacrifice in the following way: - When the king of Moab found himself so harassed, and t...

Took his eldest son - The rabbins account for this horrible sacrifice in the following way: -

When the king of Moab found himself so harassed, and the royal city on the point of being taken, he called a council of his servants, and asked them how it was these Israelites could perform such prodigies, and that such miracles were wrought for them? His servants answered, that it was owing to their progenitor Abraham, who, having an only son, was commanded by Jehovah to offer him in sacrifice. Abraham instantly obeyed, and offered his only son for a burnt-offering; and the Israelites being his descendants, through his merits the holy blessed God wrought such miracles in their behalf. The king of Moab answered, I also have an only son, and I will go and offer him to my God. Then he offered him for a burnt-offering upon the wall

Clarke: 2Ki 3:27 - Upon the wall Upon the wall - על החמה al hachamah . Rab. Sol. Jarchi says that the letter ו vau is wanting in this word, as it should be written חו...

Upon the wall - על החמה al hachamah . Rab. Sol. Jarchi says that the letter ו vau is wanting in this word, as it should be written חומה chomah , to signify a wall; but חמה chammah signifies the sun, and this was the god of the king of Moab: "And he offered his first-born son for a burnt-offering unto the sun."This is not very solid

Clarke: 2Ki 3:27 - There was great indignation There was great indignation - The Lord was displeased with them for driving things to such an extremity: or the surrounding nations held them in abo...

There was great indignation - The Lord was displeased with them for driving things to such an extremity: or the surrounding nations held them in abomination on the account; and they were so terrified themselves at this most horrid sacrifice, that they immediately raised the siege and departed. In cases of great extremity it was customary in various heathen nations to offer human sacrifices, or to devote to the infernal gods the most precious or excellent thing or person they possessed. This was frequent among the Phoenicians, Romans, and Greeks; and it was the natural fruit of a religious system which had for the objects of its worship cruel and merciless divinities. How different the Christian system! "Wilt thou that we shall bring down fire from heaven and destroy them? Ye know not what manner of spirits ye are of; the Son of man is not come to destroy men’ s lives, but to save them."

Defender: 2Ki 3:5 - king of Moab rebelled The famous Moabite Stone, one of the most important archaeological discoveries, mentions this event."

The famous Moabite Stone, one of the most important archaeological discoveries, mentions this event."

Defender: 2Ki 3:27 - his eldest son There has been some uncertainty by the scribes as to whether Mesha, the king of Moab (2Ki 3:4, 2Ki 3:26) sacrificed his own son in an attempt to persu...

There has been some uncertainty by the scribes as to whether Mesha, the king of Moab (2Ki 3:4, 2Ki 3:26) sacrificed his own son in an attempt to persuade his god (Chemosh) to intervene against Israel, or had somehow captured the son of the king of Edom and sacrificed him, as an act of vengeance against Edom for siding with Israel. In either case, the semi-pagan Israelites were so disturbed by this development, which had evidently infuriated both the Moabites and Edomites against them, that they simply abandoned the campaign against Moab and went home."

TSK: 2Ki 3:1 - Jehoram Jehoram : 2Ki 1:17, 2Ki 8:16, Joram, 1Ki 22:51

Jehoram : 2Ki 1:17, 2Ki 8:16, Joram, 1Ki 22:51

TSK: 2Ki 3:2 - wrought // but not // and like // image // Baal 1Sa 15:19; 1Ki 16:19 wrought : 2Ki 6:31, 2Ki 6:32, 2Ki 21:6, 2Ki 21:20 but not : 1Ki 16:33, 1Ki 21:20, 1Ki 21:25 and like : 2Ki 9:22, 2Ki 9:34; 1Ki 21...

TSK: 2Ki 3:3 - he cleaved // which made // he departed 1Ki 12:28-33 he cleaved : 2Ki 10:20-31 which made : 1Ki 14:16, 1Ki 15:26, 1Ki 15:34, 1Ki 16:31 he departed : 2Ki 13:2, 2Ki 13:6, 2Ki 13:11, 2Ki 14:24,...

TSK: 2Ki 3:4 - a sheepmaster // rendered // lambs a sheepmaster : Gen 13:2, Gen 26:13, Gen 26:14; 2Ch 26:10; Job 1:3, Job 42:12 rendered : 2Sa 8:2; 1Ch 18:2; Psa 60:8, Psa 108:9, Psa 108:10 lambs : Is...

TSK: 2Ki 3:5 - -- 2Ki 1:1, 2Ki 8:20; 2Ch 21:8-10

TSK: 2Ki 3:6 - numbered am 3109, bc 895 numbered : 1Sa 11:8, 1Sa 15:4; 2Sam. 24:1-25; 1Ki 20:27

am 3109, bc 895

numbered : 1Sa 11:8, 1Sa 15:4; 2Sam. 24:1-25; 1Ki 20:27

TSK: 2Ki 3:7 - wilt thou go wilt thou go : 1Ki 22:4, 1Ki 22:32, 1Ki 22:33; 2Ch 18:3, 2Ch 18:29-32, 2Ch 19:2, 2Ch 21:4-7, 2Ch 22:3, 2Ch 22:4, 2Ch 22:10-12

TSK: 2Ki 3:8 - the wilderness of Edom the wilderness of Edom : The wilderness of Edom was probably the same as that of Zin or Kadesh, through which the children of Israel passed; extending...

the wilderness of Edom : The wilderness of Edom was probably the same as that of Zin or Kadesh, through which the children of Israel passed; extending southward from the Dead Sea, to the eastern branch of the Red Sea. See note on Num 13:21. Num 21:4; Mal 1:2, Mal 1:3

TSK: 2Ki 3:9 - Edom // no water // that followed them Edom : 1Ki 22:27 no water : Exo 15:22, Exo 17:1; Num 20:2, Num 20:4, Num 21:5, Num 33:14 that followed them : Heb. at their feet, Exo 11:8 *marg. Jdg ...

Edom : 1Ki 22:27

no water : Exo 15:22, Exo 17:1; Num 20:2, Num 20:4, Num 21:5, Num 33:14

that followed them : Heb. at their feet, Exo 11:8 *marg. Jdg 4:10

TSK: 2Ki 3:10 - the Lord the Lord : 2Ki 6:33; Gen 4:13; Psa 78:34-36; Pro 19:3; Isa 8:21, Isa 51:20

TSK: 2Ki 3:11 - Is there not here // that we may // poured water Is there not here : 1Ki 22:7; Psa 74:9; Amo 3:7 that we may : 2Ki 3:1, 2Ki 3:3; Jos 9:14; Jdg 20:8-11, Jdg 20:18, Jdg 20:23, Jdg 20:26-28; 1Ch 10:13, ...

Is there not here : 1Ki 22:7; Psa 74:9; Amo 3:7

that we may : 2Ki 3:1, 2Ki 3:3; Jos 9:14; Jdg 20:8-11, Jdg 20:18, Jdg 20:23, Jdg 20:26-28; 1Ch 10:13, 1Ch 14:10, 1Ch 14:14, 1Ch 15:13

poured water : That is, was his constant and confidential servant. Mr. Hanway, speaking of a Persian supper, says, ""Supper being now brought in, a servant presented a basin of water, and a napkin hung over his shoulders; he went to every one in the company, and poured water on their hands to wash.""Gen 18:4; Jos 1:1; 1Ki 19:21; Luk 22:26, Luk 22:27; Joh 13:4, Joh 13:5, Joh 13:13, Joh 13:14; 1Ti 5:10; Phi 2:22

TSK: 2Ki 3:12 - The word // Israel The word : 2Ki 2:14, 2Ki 2:15, 2Ki 2:21, 2Ki 2:24; 1Sa 3:19-21 Israel : 2Ki 2:25, 2Ki 5:8, 2Ki 5:9, 2Ki 5:15; Isa 49:23, Isa 60:14; Rev 3:9

TSK: 2Ki 3:13 - What // get // the prophets // Nay What : Eze 14:3-5; Mat 8:29; Joh 2:4; 2Co 5:16, 2Co 6:15 get : Jdg 10:14; Rth 1:15; Pro 1:28; Jer 2:27, Jer 2:28 the prophets : 1Ki 18:19, 1Ki 22:6, 1...

TSK: 2Ki 3:14 - As the Lord // I regard // I would not look As the Lord : 2Ki 5:16; 1Ki 17:1, 1Ki 18:15 I regard : 2Ch 17:3-9, 2Ch 19:3, 2Ch 19:4; Psa 15:4 I would not look : 1Sa 15:26-31; 1Ki 14:5-18, 1Ki 21:2...

TSK: 2Ki 3:15 - bring me // the hand bring me : This was evidently intended to soothe and tranquillize the prophet’ s mind, which had been agitated and discomposed with holy indignat...

bring me : This was evidently intended to soothe and tranquillize the prophet’ s mind, which had been agitated and discomposed with holy indignation by the presence of the idolatrous king, and the recollection of his abomination. The soothing influence of music is generally acknowledged in every civilized nation. 1Sa 10:5, 1Sa 16:23, 1Sa 18:10; 1Ch 25:2, 1Ch 25:3; Eph 5:18, Eph 5:19

the hand : 1Ki 18:46; Eze 1:3, Eze 3:14, Eze 3:22, Eze 8:1; Act 11:21

TSK: 2Ki 3:16 - Make this valley Make this valley : 2Ki 4:3; Num 2:18, Num 2:16-18

Make this valley : 2Ki 4:3; Num 2:18, Num 2:16-18

TSK: 2Ki 3:17 - Ye shall not // that ye may Ye shall not : 1Ki 18:36-39; Psa 84:6, Psa 107:35; Isa 41:17, Isa 41:18, Isa 43:19, Isa 43:20, Isa 48:21 that ye may : Exo 17:6; Num 20:8-11

TSK: 2Ki 3:18 - And this // a light // he will And this : 1Ki 3:13; Jer 32:17, Jer 32:27; Luk 1:37; Eph 3:20 a light : 2Ki 20:10; 1Ki 16:31; Isa 7:13, Isa 49:6; Eze 8:17 he will : 1Ki 20:13, 1Ki 20...

TSK: 2Ki 3:19 - And ye // fell // mar And ye : 2Ki 13:17; Num 24:17; Jdg 6:16; 1Sa 15:3, 1Sa 23:2 fell : Deu 20:19, Deu 20:20 mar : Heb. grieve, 2Ki 3:25

And ye : 2Ki 13:17; Num 24:17; Jdg 6:16; 1Sa 15:3, 1Sa 23:2

fell : Deu 20:19, Deu 20:20

mar : Heb. grieve, 2Ki 3:25

TSK: 2Ki 3:20 - when the meat // there came water // filled when the meat : Exo 29:39, Exo 29:40; 1Ki 18:36; Dan 9:21 there came water : This supply was altogether miraculous; for there was neither wind nor rai...

when the meat : Exo 29:39, Exo 29:40; 1Ki 18:36; Dan 9:21

there came water : This supply was altogether miraculous; for there was neither wind nor rain, nor any other natural means to furnish it.

filled : Psa 78:15, Psa 78:16, Psa 78:20; Isa 35:6, Isa 35:7

TSK: 2Ki 3:21 - gathered // put on armour gathered : Heb. were cried together put on armour : Heb. gird himself with a girdle. 1Ki 20:11; Eph 6:14

gathered : Heb. were cried together

put on armour : Heb. gird himself with a girdle. 1Ki 20:11; Eph 6:14

TSK: 2Ki 3:23 - This is blood // slain // now therefore This is blood : 2Ki 6:18-20, 2Ki 7:6 slain : Heb. destroyed now therefore : Exo 15:9; Jdg 5:30; 2Ch 20:25; Isa 10:14

This is blood : 2Ki 6:18-20, 2Ki 7:6

slain : Heb. destroyed

now therefore : Exo 15:9; Jdg 5:30; 2Ch 20:25; Isa 10:14

TSK: 2Ki 3:24 - smote the // went forward smote the : Jos 8:20-22; Jdg 20:40-46; 1Th 5:3, 1Th 5:4 went forward : or, smote in it even

smote the : Jos 8:20-22; Jdg 20:40-46; 1Th 5:3, 1Th 5:4

went forward : or, smote in it even

TSK: 2Ki 3:25 - beat down // stopped // and felled // only in // Kirharaseth beat down : 2Ki 3:19; Jdg 9:45; 2Sa 8:2; Isa 37:26, Isa 37:27 stopped : Gen 26:15, Gen 26:18; 2Ch 32:4 and felled : Deu 20:19, Deu 20:20 only in : etc...

beat down : 2Ki 3:19; Jdg 9:45; 2Sa 8:2; Isa 37:26, Isa 37:27

stopped : Gen 26:15, Gen 26:18; 2Ch 32:4

and felled : Deu 20:19, Deu 20:20

only in : etc. Heb. until he left the stones thereof in Kir-haraseth

Kirharaseth : Supposed to be the same as Ar, or Areopolis, the capital of Moab. Deu 2:9; Isa 16:7, Isa 16:11; Jer 48:31, Jer 48:36, Kir-heres

TSK: 2Ki 3:26 - unto the king of Edom unto the king of Edom : 2Ki 3:9; Amo 2:1

unto the king of Edom : 2Ki 3:9; Amo 2:1

TSK: 2Ki 3:27 - offered him // they departed offered him : In cases of great extremity, it was customary in various heathen nations, to offer human sacrifices, and even their own children. This ...

offered him : In cases of great extremity, it was customary in various heathen nations, to offer human sacrifices, and even their own children. This was frequent among the Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Scythians, Gauls, Africans, and others; and was the natural fruit of a religious system, which had for the objects of its worship cruel and merciless divinities. The king of Moab, in this case, sacrificed his son to obtain the favour of Chemosh his god, who, being a devil, delighted in blood and murder, and the destruction of mankind. The dearer anything was to them, the more acceptable those idolaters thought the sacrifice, and therefore burnt their children in the fire to their honour. Gen 22:2, Gen 22:13; Deu 12:31; Jdg 11:31, Jdg 11:39; Psa 106:37, Psa 106:38; Eze 16:20; Mic 6:7

they departed : 1Sa 14:36-46; 1Ki 20:13, 1Ki 20:28, 1Ki 20:43

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: 2Ki 3:1 - The eighteenth year of Jehoshaphat // Quest // Answ The eighteenth year of Jehoshaphat Quest. How can this be true, when Ahaziah, Jehoram’ s predecessor, who reigned two years, began his reign...

The eighteenth year of Jehoshaphat

Quest. How can this be true, when Ahaziah, Jehoram’ s predecessor, who reigned two years, began his reign in Jehoshaphat’ s seventeenth year, 1Ki 22:51 ?

Answ Either Ahaziah reigned the greatest part of two years, to wit, of the seventeenth and eighteenth years of Jehoshaphat, (parts of years being oft called years in the computation of times, both in Scripture and other authors,) and Jehoram began his reign towards the end of his eighteenth year; or Ahaziah reigned part of this two years with his father, and the rest after him.

Poole: 2Ki 3:2 - He put away the image of Baal He put away the image of Baal not from any principle of conscience (for that would have reached the calves also); but either because he was startled ...

He put away the image of Baal not from any principle of conscience (for that would have reached the calves also); but either because he was startled at the dreadful judgments of God inflicted upon his father and brother for Baal worship; or because he needed God’ s help to subdue the Moabites, which he knew Baal could not do; or to gratify Jehoshaphat, whose help he meant to crave, which he knew he should never obtain without this; and for this reason, it seems, Jezebel was willing to connive at it, as a trick of state.

Poole: 2Ki 3:3 - The sins of Jeroboam The sins of Jeroboam i.e. the worship of the calves; which all the kings of Israel kept up as a wall of partition between their subjects and those of...

The sins of Jeroboam i.e. the worship of the calves; which all the kings of Israel kept up as a wall of partition between their subjects and those of Judah. Thus he shows that his religion was overruled by his interest and policy.

Poole: 2Ki 3:4 - A sheep-master A sheep-master a man of great wealth, (which in those times and places consisted much in cattle,) which enabled and emboldened him to rebel against h...

A sheep-master a man of great wealth, (which in those times and places consisted much in cattle,) which enabled and emboldened him to rebel against his sovereign lord.

Poole: 2Ki 3:5 - -- See of this 2Ki 1:1 . It is here repeated to make way for the following story. Ahaziah did not attempt the recovery of Moab, either because he was a...

See of this 2Ki 1:1 . It is here repeated to make way for the following story. Ahaziah did not attempt the recovery of Moab, either because he was a man of a low spirit and courage; or because his sickness, or the shortness of his reign, gave not opportunity for it.

Poole: 2Ki 3:6 - Out of Samaria // All Israel Out of Samaria to some place appointed for the rendezvous of his people. All Israel to wit, such as were fit for war.

Out of Samaria to some place appointed for the rendezvous of his people.

All Israel to wit, such as were fit for war.

Poole: 2Ki 3:7 - -- Of which see on 1Ki 22:4 . He joins with him in this war, partly because the war was very just in itself, and convenient for Jehoshaphat, both in th...

Of which see on 1Ki 22:4 . He joins with him in this war, partly because the war was very just in itself, and convenient for Jehoshaphat, both in the general, that rebels and revolters should be chastised and suppressed, lest the example should pass into his dominions, and the Edomites should be hereby encouraged to revolt from him, as they did from his son; and in particular, that the Moabites should be humbled, who had with others invaded his land before this time, 2Ch 20:1 , and might do so again if they were not brought low, for which a fair opportunity was now offered to him; and partly because Jehoram had reformed some things, and Jehoshaphat hoped by this means to engage him to proceed further in that work.

Poole: 2Ki 3:8 - He said // Through the wilderness of Edom He said either Jehoshaphat; or rather, Jehoram; for the following answer may seem to be Jehoshaphat’ s. Through the wilderness of Edom which t...

He said either Jehoshaphat; or rather, Jehoram; for the following answer may seem to be Jehoshaphat’ s.

Through the wilderness of Edom which though it was much the longer way, yet they thought it best; partly to secure the king or viceroy of Edom, of whom they might have some suspicion, from that passage, 2Ch 20:22 , and to carry both him and his soldiers along with them into the war, both to get their assistance, and to prevent them from, making a war of diversion against Judah, whilst Jehoshaphat was engaged against Moab; and partly that they might invade Moab on their weakest side, and where they least expected them. God also thus disposed their hearts to make way for the following miracle.

Poole: 2Ki 3:9 - The king of Edom // They fetched a compass // There was no water The king of Edom i.e. the viceroy under Jehoshaphat, 1Ki 22:47 , here called king ; either because he was so called and accounted by his own people,...

The king of Edom i.e. the viceroy under Jehoshaphat, 1Ki 22:47 , here called king ; either because he was so called and accounted by his own people, or because that word is sometimes used for any prince or chief ruler. See Deu 33:5 Jud 18:1 21:25 1Ki 20:1 .

They fetched a compass because they made a great army, which could move but slowly; and they fetched a greater compass than was usual, for some advantage which they expected by it.

There was no water a frequent want in those hot and desert parts; and now, as it seems, increased by the extraordinary heat and dryness of the season.

Poole: 2Ki 3:10 - -- So he chargeth his calamity upon God; and not upon himself, whose sins were the true and proper causes of it.

So he chargeth his calamity upon God; and not upon himself, whose sins were the true and proper causes of it.

Poole: 2Ki 3:11 - Is there not here a prophet? // Which poured water on the hands of Elijah Is there not here a prophet? this he should have asked before, when they first undertook the expedition, as he did in a like case, 1Ki 22:5 , and for...

Is there not here a prophet? this he should have asked before, when they first undertook the expedition, as he did in a like case, 1Ki 22:5 , and for that neglect he now suffers; but better late than never. His affliction brings him to the remembrance of his former sin and present duty.

Which poured water on the hands of Elijah i.e. who was his servant; this being one office of a servant; and this office was the more necessary among the Israelites, because of the frequent washings which their law required.

Poole: 2Ki 3:12 - The word of the Lord is with him // Down to him The word of the Lord is with him we may inquire the mind of God by him, for he is a true prophet; which Jehoshaphat might easily understand, because ...

The word of the Lord is with him we may inquire the mind of God by him, for he is a true prophet; which Jehoshaphat might easily understand, because being a good man, and a great favourer of the Lord’ s prophets, he would diligently inquire, and many persons would be ready to inform him, of all things of that nature, and, amongst others, of Elijah’ s calling of Elisha by casting his prophetical mantle over him, 1Ki 19:19 , and of Elijah’ s translation and Elisha’ s substitution in his place, and of the proof of it, 2Ki 2:8,14 .

Down to him to his tent; which was either in the camp, or not far from it; for he went along with the army by the impulse of God’ s Spirit for this very occasion. They did not send for him, but went to him, that by giving him this honour they might more effectually engage him to give them his utmost assistance; and because they had heard that he was a man of a rugged temper and carriage, who therefore was to be sweetened, and so disposed to pity and relieve them.

Poole: 2Ki 3:13 - What have I to do with thee? // To the prophets of thy father, and to the prophets of thy mother // Nay // These three kings What have I to do with thee? I desire to have no discourse nor converse with thee. To the prophets of thy father, and to the prophets of thy mother ...

What have I to do with thee? I desire to have no discourse nor converse with thee.

To the prophets of thy father, and to the prophets of thy mother i.e. to the calves, which thou after thy father’ s example dost worship; and to the Baals which thy mother yet Worshippeth by thy permission, and to which thy heart is yet inclined, though thou hast destroyed one of his images for politic reasons. Let these idols whom thou worshippest in thy prosperity now help thee in thy distress.

Nay I renounce those false prophets and Baals, and will seek to none but God for help.

These three kings: if thou hast no respect for me, yet pity this innocent king of Edom, and good Jehoshaphat, who are involved in the same danger with myself.

Poole: 2Ki 3:14 - Jehoshaphat the king of Judah Jehoshaphat the king of Judah whom I reverence and love for his virtue and piety.

Jehoshaphat the king of Judah whom I reverence and love for his virtue and piety.

Poole: 2Ki 3:15 - A minstrel // The hand of the Lord A minstrel one that can sing and play upon a musical instrument. This he requires, that his mind, which had been disturbed and inflamed with holy ang...

A minstrel one that can sing and play upon a musical instrument. This he requires, that his mind, which had been disturbed and inflamed with holy anger at the sight of wicked Jehoram, might be composed, and cheered, and united within itself, and that he might be excited to the more fervent prayer to God, and joyfully praising him; whereby he was prepared to receive the prophetical inspiration. For although prophecy be the gift of God, yet men might do something either to hinder or further the reception of it; for which cause Paul bids Christians study to get the gift of prophecy, 1Co 14:1 . And for this very end the colleges of the prophets were erected, wherein the sons of the prophets did use divers means to procure this gift, which also they did sometimes receive, as we see 2Ki 2:3,5 ; and, amongst other means, they used instruments of music to exhilarate their spirits, &c., 1Sa 10:5 . Of the great power of music upon the affections, See Poole "1Sa 16:16" .

The hand of the Lord i.e. the Spirit of prophecy; so called, to note that it was not from Elisha’ s temper of body or mind; that it was no natural nor acquired virtue inherent in him; but a singular gift of God, given to whom and when he pleased. This phrase is used also Eze 1:3 3:14,22 8:1 .

Poole: 2Ki 3:16 - -- Which may receive the water, and hold it for the use of men and beasts.

Which may receive the water, and hold it for the use of men and beasts.

Poole: 2Ki 3:17 - Ye shall not see wind Ye shall not see wind any of those winds which commonly produce rain. And seeing is here put for perceiving or feeling, one sense for another, or f...

Ye shall not see wind any of those winds which commonly produce rain. And seeing is here put for perceiving or feeling, one sense for another, or for all, as Gen 42:1 : compare Act 7:12 Exo 20:18 , and elsewhere.

Poole: 2Ki 3:18 - -- This is but a small favour in comparison of what he intends to you for Jehoshaphat’ s sake. He will give you more than you ask or expect. For t...

This is but a small favour in comparison of what he intends to you for Jehoshaphat’ s sake. He will give you more than you ask or expect. For they were so weakened and discouraged with the great drought, that they had no hopes of proceeding in the offensive war, and thought it sufficient, if it were possible, to defend themselves from the Moabites, 2Ki 3:13 .

Poole: 2Ki 3:19 - -- This is either, first, A command; and then the last clause is an exception from that law, Deu 20:19 , which being delivered by a prophet, might be o...

This is either, first, A command; and then the last clause is an exception from that law, Deu 20:19 , which being delivered by a prophet, might be obeyed. And if this command seem severe, it must be considered that the Moabites were a very wicked people, perfidious, cruel, implacable enemies to God’ s people upon all occasions, and now in a state of rebellion. Or rather, secondly, A prediction of their success, that they should have so full and complete a victory, that they should be able to do all which is here expressed.

Poole: 2Ki 3:20 - When the meat-offering was offered // There came water // By the way of Edom When the meat-offering was offered i.e. the morning sacrifice; of which Exo 29:39,40 , which doubtless was attended with the solemn prayers of God...

When the meat-offering was offered i.e. the morning sacrifice; of which Exo 29:39,40 , which doubtless was attended with the solemn prayers of God’ s people, as the evening sacrifice unquestionably was, Act 3:1 , there being the same reason for substance for both times. At this time Elisha joined his prayers with the prayers of God’ s people, especially those at Jerusalem, as Elijah had done at a like time, 1Ki 18:29 ; and this time God chose to answer his and their prayers, and to work this miracle, that thereby he might determine the controversy between the Israelites and the Jews, about the place and manner of worship, and give a public testimony from heaven for the Jews, and against the Israelites.

There came water miraculously produced out of some rock or vein of the earth.

By the way of Edom from those parts which were towards Edom.

Poole: 2Ki 3:21 - To put on armour // In the border To put on armour Heb. to gird on a girdle , i.e. a military girdle, to which the sword was fastened, 2Sa 20:8 1Ki 2:5 . In the border or, in that ...

To put on armour Heb. to gird on a girdle , i.e. a military girdle, to which the sword was fastened, 2Sa 20:8 1Ki 2:5 .

In the border or, in that border, to wit, of their country, which was towards Edom, which way they understood the kings came. Here they stood probably to defend the passages into their country.

Poole: 2Ki 3:22 - -- Because of the morning sun, which meeting with the vapours that arose from the earth, and shining through them upon the water, gave it a reddish tin...

Because of the morning sun, which meeting with the vapours that arose from the earth, and shining through them upon the water, gave it a reddish tincture. God also so ordered things, that their senses and fancies were disturbed, or the air so disposed, that it might seem of this colour. And they might more easily mistake this for blood, because they knew that that ground was generally dry, and without any trenches or streams of water, now especially in this dry season, there being no noise of wind and rain, 2Ki 3:17 . And they might justly think that the three kings being divided in their religion and interests, and discontented for want of water, might fall into dissensions, and heats, and mutual slaughters, of which they had a late example, 2Ch 20:22,23 .

Poole: 2Ki 3:23 - -- They were so highly confident, that they send no scouts, but march thither with their whole army, and that in great disorder; wherein there was also...

They were so highly confident, that they send no scouts, but march thither with their whole army, and that in great disorder; wherein there was also a Divine hand, strengthening them in their mistakes, and hardening them to their destruction.

Poole: 2Ki 3:24 - -- They pursued them to their own country, and entered it with and after them; the passes, which before the Moabites defended, being now open for them....

They pursued them to their own country, and entered it with and after them; the passes, which before the Moabites defended, being now open for them.

Poole: 2Ki 3:25 - Cast every man his stone // Kir-haraseth // The stones thereof // The slingers // Smote it Cast every man his stone: the stones which haply had been with great care and pains picked out of the land, and laid in heaps after the manner, they ...

Cast every man his stone: the stones which haply had been with great care and pains picked out of the land, and laid in heaps after the manner, they dispersed again, and slew the people, who should have cleansed them again.

Kir-haraseth was the royal and strongest city of the Moabites, Isa 16:7,11 , into which the remnant of the Moabites were gathered, where also their king was with them.

The stones thereof: the walls and buildings of this city only were left; other cities, and in a manner their whole country, being utterly destroyed.

The slingers either, first, such as slung small stones against those that stood upon the wall to defend it; or rather, secondly, Such as slung great stones against the walls to break them down, according to the manner of those times.

Smote it i.e. made breaches in the walls, by which they might enter into the city, and take it.

Poole: 2Ki 3:26 - -- That being unable to defend the city longer, he might make an escape; which he chose to do on the king of Edom’ s quarter, because he thought e...

That being unable to defend the city longer, he might make an escape; which he chose to do on the king of Edom’ s quarter, because he thought either that his was the weakest side, or that he would more willingly suffer him to escape, because he was not so hearty in the war as the rest, but only forced to it, and he might hereafter have some occasion of the king of Moab to join with him, as before he had, 2Ch 20:22 .

Poole: 2Ki 3:27 - His eldest son // that should have reigned in his stead // Offered him for a burnt-offering upon the wall // Great indignation against Israel His eldest son either, first, The king of Edom’ s son; whom in this eruption he took, and then sacrificed. Compare Amo 2:1 . But, first, That pl...

His eldest son either, first, The king of Edom’ s son; whom in this eruption he took, and then sacrificed. Compare Amo 2:1 . But, first, That place speaks of the king , not of the king’ s son ; and of the burning of his bones, not of the offering of a living man for a burnt-offering. Secondly, This would not have made the besiegers to raise their siege, but to have followed it more warmly to revenge so barbarous an action. Thirdly, The following clause,

that should have reigned in his stead agrees not so well to the Edomites, whose king was only Jehoshaphat’ s viceroy, and therefore his son had no right to succeed him; as it doth to the Moabites, whose king was revolted from Israel, and intended to keep that kingdom to himself and children. Or rather, secondly, his own son; whom he sacrificed, partly to obtain the favour of his god, according to the manner of the Phoenicians and other people in grievous and public calamities; whereof we have manifest testimonies, both in Scripture, as Psa 106:37 Eze 20:31 , and in heathen authors, as Porphyrius, Plutarch, and others; and partly to oblige the Israelites to quit the siege out of compassion, or as despairing to conquer (at least without greater loss of men than it was worth) him who was resolved to defend himself and city to the utmost extremity.

Offered him for a burnt-offering upon the wall that the besiegers might see it, and be moved by it.

Great indignation against Israel or, great trouble or repentance upon Israel ; i.e. the Israelitish king and people (who was the first cause of the war, and had brought the rest into confederacy with him) were greatly afflicted and grieved for this barbarous action, and resolved to prosecute the war no further, and so withdrew their forces, as also did their allies, and returned to their several homes; which they were the more willing to do, because the kingdom and country of Moab were so ruinated, both as to their men, and cities or villages, and lands, that they were all secure of any great annoyance from him.

Haydock: 2Ki 3:1 - Brick walls // Remained // Slingers Brick walls. It was the proper name of the city of the Moabites. In Hebrew, Kir-Charaseth. (Challoner) --- Isaias xv., and xvi. 7. It was also...

Brick walls. It was the proper name of the city of the Moabites. In Hebrew, Kir-Charaseth. (Challoner) ---

Isaias xv., and xvi. 7. It was also called Ar, or Arcopolis. ---

Remained. Hebrew adds, "with the stones unmolested." They laid siege to it. (Haydock) ---

Slingers. Grotius would understand those who attended the machines designed to throw stones, &c. But the slingers kept off the enemy, while others undermined the walls. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 3:1 - Achab Achab. Joram succeeded his brother, chap. i. 17.

Achab. Joram succeeded his brother, chap. i. 17.

Haydock: 2Ki 3:2 - Baal Baal. This happened after his victory over Moab, ver. 13. (Calmet) --- Salien thinks rather that Josaphat refused to assist him, except he would ...

Baal. This happened after his victory over Moab, ver. 13. (Calmet) ---

Salien thinks rather that Josaphat refused to assist him, except he would destroy what had been lately introduced by his parents, as the league with Achab had been blamed. See 2 Paralipomenon xix. 2. The golden calves were of an older standing, and could not be so easily taken from the people. (Menochius) ---

Joram was not so wicked as might have been expected. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 3:4 - Nourished // Sheep // Fleeces Nourished. Hebrew noked, a term which the Septuagint leave untranslated, means literally, "marked" with some colour by the master. Aut pecori sign...

Nourished. Hebrew noked, a term which the Septuagint leave untranslated, means literally, "marked" with some colour by the master. Aut pecori signum, aut numeros impressit acervo. (Georg. i.)

Sheep, Symmachus, "large cattle." ---

Fleeces; is it commonly supposed every year. This mode of tribute was more usual than paying money. The Moabites were chiefly employed in feeding sheep and cattle; so that it is not wonderful that they should have such great numbers. Dejotarus is represented not only as "a noble Tetrarch, but also as a diligent husbandman and herdsman," pecuarius: (Cicero) which last is the idea which some attach to Mesa.

Haydock: 2Ki 3:7 - -- He entered cordially into this war, as he perceived that if Moab succeeded, Edom would follow the same plan. (Menochius)

He entered cordially into this war, as he perceived that if Moab succeeded, Edom would follow the same plan. (Menochius)

Haydock: 2Ki 3:8 - Edom Edom though more circuitous (Calmet) than to cross over the Jordan at Galgal, as the enemy might this be taken unawares, (Menochius) and fresh recrui...

Edom though more circuitous (Calmet) than to cross over the Jordan at Galgal, as the enemy might this be taken unawares, (Menochius) and fresh recruits might be procured from the tributary king of Edom, ver. 9. (Haydock) Yet the want of water made this road more dangerous.

Haydock: 2Ki 3:11 - Elias Elias, a proverbial expression to denote that he waited upon him, though the prophet's rough manner of living would require but little attendance. S...

Elias, a proverbial expression to denote that he waited upon him, though the prophet's rough manner of living would require but little attendance. So John the Baptist speaks of untying our Saviour's shoes, Matthew iii. (Calmet) ---

Providence had sent Eliseus to attend the army (Haydock) contrary to his custom. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 3:12 - With him // Him With him. I am content. (Haydock) --- Others read with an interrogation, as if the reputation of Eliseus was not yet established. (Menochius) ---...

With him. I am content. (Haydock) ---

Others read with an interrogation, as if the reputation of Eliseus was not yet established. (Menochius) ---

Him; they go to his tent. No one ever supported the character of God's envoy, or shewed his authority over the most haughty, better than Eliseus. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 3:13 - Mother Mother, whom thou supportest. This is not an order, but a sarcasm (Haydock) which the king deserved. (Calmet) --- Christ said to Judas, what thou...

Mother, whom thou supportest. This is not an order, but a sarcasm (Haydock) which the king deserved. (Calmet) ---

Christ said to Judas, what thou dost, do quickly, John xiii. 27. (Haydock) ---

With what liberty does the prophet speak to an impious king! shewing himself worthy to succeed Elias, and actuated by the like zeal for God.

Haydock: 2Ki 3:14 - Reverence Reverence, ( erubescerem ) "blush at," may imply a degree of censure at Josaphat's being again found in such bad company, ver. 2. (Haydock) --- Heb...

Reverence, ( erubescerem ) "blush at," may imply a degree of censure at Josaphat's being again found in such bad company, ver. 2. (Haydock) ---

Hebrew, "If I did not receive (Calmet) or regard the face." (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 3:15 - Minstrel // Upon him Minstrel. The priests and Levites, who officiated in the temple, accompanied the army. Eliseus wants no profane music, (Calmet) but, by this reques...

Minstrel. The priests and Levites, who officiated in the temple, accompanied the army. Eliseus wants no profane music, (Calmet) but, by this request, shews his respect for the true religion, (Haydock) and by sounding forth the divine praises, in some of David's psalms, wishes to obtain of God the favour which was desired. (Theodoret) (Menochius) ---

He had felt some emotion at the sight of Joram, and was sensible that God required a calm. (Calmet) ---

He dwells not in a violent wind, &c., 3 Kings xix 11. (Haydock) ---

The surprising effects of ancient music to calm the passions are well attested, 1 Kings xvi. 17. By this means St. Francis was raised to the contemplation of heavenly things; and St. Augustine says of himself: "How I wept when I heard thy hymns and canticles, being greatly moved at the delightful harmony of thy church:" suavesonantis Ecclesiæ tuæ vocibus commotus acriter. (Conf. ix. 6. de C. xiv. 24.) ---

Upon him, so that he experienced that enthusiasm which shewed that he was actuated by the divine spirit, to speak with all the authority requisite. The pagans strove to imitate the true prophets, but the difference was very evident; no less than the spirit with which they were filled; the former were agitated in a furious manner; the latter were composed and majestic. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 3:16 - Ditches Ditches. It was then quite dry; the water which should come in the night, would both refresh the army, and bring on the ruin of the Moabites.

Ditches. It was then quite dry; the water which should come in the night, would both refresh the army, and bring on the ruin of the Moabites.

Haydock: 2Ki 3:19 - Tree // Stones Tree. This was an exception from the general law; (Deuteronomy xx. 19.; Calmet) or it might only regard the land of Chanaan, which the Hebrews shoul...

Tree. This was an exception from the general law; (Deuteronomy xx. 19.; Calmet) or it might only regard the land of Chanaan, which the Hebrews should occupy. (Menochius) (Worthington) ---

Stones, which had been gathered off into heaps, Isaias v. 1. Persius calls a field thus cleared, Exossatus ager; (Calmet) as if the bones were taken out. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 3:20 - Offered // Water Offered, at sun-rise, Exodus xxix. 38. --- Water, produced miraculously, without any rain being seen; (ver. 17.; Calmet) though it might fall at a ...

Offered, at sun-rise, Exodus xxix. 38. ---

Water, produced miraculously, without any rain being seen; (ver. 17.; Calmet) though it might fall at a distance in Idumea. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 3:21 - Upon them Upon them. Hebrew, "and upward," both soldiers and those who were usually exempt from service.

Upon them. Hebrew, "and upward," both soldiers and those who were usually exempt from service.

Haydock: 2Ki 3:22 - Blood Blood. The clouds have frequently a reddish colour at sun-rise, which would be reflected in the waters: the sand might also be red. As the Moabites...

Blood. The clouds have frequently a reddish colour at sun-rise, which would be reflected in the waters: the sand might also be red. As the Moabites knew that no water could be expected there at that season of the year, and as some examples had occurred of people turning their arms one against another in the night, (Judges vii. 11., and 1 Kings xiv. 20.) they concluded that what they saw was blood. (Calmet) ---

God had also destined them for slaughter, (Abulensis, q. 21.) and suffered their imagination and judgment to be deluded. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 3:24 - Moab Moab. Hebrew adds, "even in the country."

Moab. Hebrew adds, "even in the country."

Haydock: 2Ki 3:26 - Edom Edom, hoping that he would favour their escape, or because that part seemed the weakest.

Edom, hoping that he would favour their escape, or because that part seemed the weakest.

Haydock: 2Ki 3:27 - Wall // Indignation Wall, to Chamos, the idol of Moab; (Menochius) or to Moloc, to appease the wrath of the gods. Horrible blindness! The pagans believed, that the mos...

Wall, to Chamos, the idol of Moab; (Menochius) or to Moloc, to appease the wrath of the gods. Horrible blindness! The pagans believed, that the most precious thing ought to be sacrificed in very imminent dangers. (Philo Biblius, following Eusebius, præp. iv. 16.) ---

The Phœnicians offered such victims to Saturn. Many devoted themselves to death for the safety of the Roman republic; and some were ready to do so, to preserve the lives of Caligula and Nero, before they had given proof of their evil dispositions. (Seutonius xiv.) ---

It s thought that Sennacherib intended to treat his two sons in this manner, if they had not prevented him. (Abulensis, in 4 Kings xix. 37.) ---

Some imagine that Mesa sacrificed his son to the God of Israel, in imitation of Abraham; (Josephus; Grotius) others, that he slew the son of the king of Edom, out of revenge. (Kimchi, in Amos ii. 1.) ---

The Hebrew is ambiguous. (Amama) ---

But interpreters generally believe, that the heir of Mesa fell a victim (Calmet) to his father's mistaken zeal, or to his desire to make the enemy retire, when they saw him reduced to such a state of desperation. It had, at least, this effect. (Haydock) ---

Indignation, at such a cruel action. (Menochius) ---

Septuagint, "there was great repentance" and sorrow. The text may also imply, that God was displeased at Israel for pushing the king to such an extremity; or, they became an object of horror to the surrounding nations. (Calmet) ---

The first explanation seems the best; as the Israelites thought the king had been sufficiently punished, and therefore retired. They had no reason to suspect that he would have given way to such madness, nor were they to blame for it. (Haydock)

Gill: 2Ki 3:1 - Now Jehoram the son of Ahab began to reign over Israel in Samaria the eighteenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah Now Jehoram the son of Ahab began to reign over Israel in Samaria the eighteenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah,.... So that the two years of the r...

Now Jehoram the son of Ahab began to reign over Israel in Samaria the eighteenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah,.... So that the two years of the reign of his brother Ahaziah were not complete, only part of the seventeenth and part of the eighteenth of Jehoshaphat, since he began to reign in his seventeenth year, at the beginning of that, and died towards the close of the eighteenth, when Jehoram succeeded him, see 1Ki 22:51, and reigned twelve years.

Gill: 2Ki 3:2 - And he wrought evil in the sight of the Lord // but not like his father, and like his mother // for he put away the image of Baal that his father had made And he wrought evil in the sight of the Lord,.... Was guilty of idolatry: but not like his father, and like his mother; his father Ahab, and his mo...

And he wrought evil in the sight of the Lord,.... Was guilty of idolatry:

but not like his father, and like his mother; his father Ahab, and his mother Jezebel:

for he put away the image of Baal that his father had made; he did not destroy it, only removed it from the temple of Baal where it was set, that it might not be worshipped, at least publicly, see 1Ki 16:31 this he did, either moved to it by his own conscience, observing the sudden deaths of his father and brother, which he might suppose was for their idolatry; or in order to obtain success in his war with Moab he was entering into; or being instigated by Jehoshaphat to do it, or otherwise he might refuse to join him.

Gill: 2Ki 3:3 - Nevertheless he cleaved unto the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, which made Israel to sin // he departed not therefrom Nevertheless he cleaved unto the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, which made Israel to sin,.... He closely adhered to the worship of the calves set ...

Nevertheless he cleaved unto the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, which made Israel to sin,.... He closely adhered to the worship of the calves set up by him:

he departed not therefrom: that being a piece of state policy, to keep up the division of the two kingdoms.

Gill: 2Ki 3:4 - And Mesha king of Moab was a sheep master // and rendered unto the king of Israel // an hundred thousand lambs, and an hundred thousand rams, with the wool And Mesha king of Moab was a sheep master,.... With which his country abounded; he kept great numbers of them, and shepherds to take care of them; he ...

And Mesha king of Moab was a sheep master,.... With which his country abounded; he kept great numbers of them, and shepherds to take care of them; he traded in them, and got great riches by them; his substance chiefly consisted in them:

and rendered unto the king of Israel: either as a present, or as an annual tribute:

an hundred thousand lambs, and an hundred thousand rams, with the wool; that is, upon them, unshorn, and so the more valuable; and it was usual for tributary nations to pay their tribute to those to whom they were subject in such commodities which they most abounded with; so the Cappadocians, as Strabo c relates, used to pay, as a tribute to the Persians, every year, 1500 horses and 2000 mules, and five myriads of sheep, or 50,000; and formerly, Pliny d says, the only tribute was from the pastures.

Gill: 2Ki 3:5 - But it came to pass, when Ahab was dead, that the king of Moab rebelled against the king of Israel. But it came to pass, when Ahab was dead, that the king of Moab rebelled against the king of Israel. Who then was Ahaziah; but either through the pusil...

But it came to pass, when Ahab was dead, that the king of Moab rebelled against the king of Israel. Who then was Ahaziah; but either through the pusillanimity of his temper, or the sickness that attended him, or the shortness of his reign, he took no steps to the reduction of him, or to oblige him to pay his tribute, which he neglected to do, and is meant by his rebellion.

Gill: 2Ki 3:6 - And King Jehoram went out of Samaria the same time // and numbered all Israel And King Jehoram went out of Samaria the same time, As soon as he came to the throne: and numbered all Israel; who were fit to bear arms, got them...

And King Jehoram went out of Samaria the same time, As soon as he came to the throne:

and numbered all Israel; who were fit to bear arms, got them together at some certain place, and mustered them, and prepared for a war with Moab, to reduce them.

Gill: 2Ki 3:7 - And he went and sent to Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, saying, the king of Moab hath rebelled against me // wilt thou go up with me against Moab to battle? and he said, I will go up // I am as thou art, my people as thy people, and my horses as thy horses And he went and sent to Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, saying, the king of Moab hath rebelled against me,.... By refusing to pay him tribute: wilt ...

And he went and sent to Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, saying, the king of Moab hath rebelled against me,.... By refusing to pay him tribute:

wilt thou go up with me against Moab to battle? and he said, I will go up; which he agreed to, partly to encourage in the reformation of religion which he had begun, and partly to chastise the Moabites for their invasion of his country, 2Ch 20:1.

I am as thou art, my people as thy people, and my horses as thy horses; the same answer he returned to Ahab; see Gill on 1Ki 22:4.

Gill: 2Ki 3:8 - And he said, which way shall we go up // and he answered, the way through the wilderness of Edom And he said, which way shall we go up.... That is, Jehoram said so to Jehoshaphat, consulting with him which was the best way to take to the land of M...

And he said, which way shall we go up.... That is, Jehoram said so to Jehoshaphat, consulting with him which was the best way to take to the land of Moab, whether the shortest way, over Jordan; or some other:

and he answered, the way through the wilderness of Edom; which bordered upon it, and the same through which the Israelites passed; for Kadesh was on the extreme border of Edom, whither they came, Num 20:1 and this Jehoshaphat proposed, partly that they might come upon Moab unawares, and attack them where they were weakest, and not on their guard; and partly, to take the king of Edom with them, who was no other than Jehoshaphat's deputy, and so be assisting to them, and prevent him from revolting, which otherwise he might take this opportunity of doing.

Gill: 2Ki 3:9 - So the king of Israel went, and the king of Judah // and the king of Edom // and they fetched a compass of seven days journey // and there was no water for the host, and for the cattle that followed them So the king of Israel went, and the king of Judah,.... The way of the wilderness of Edom, proposed by the latter: and the king of Edom; whom they t...

So the king of Israel went, and the king of Judah,.... The way of the wilderness of Edom, proposed by the latter:

and the king of Edom; whom they took with them in their way, who was not properly a king, but a viceroy or deputy, see 1Ki 22:47.

and they fetched a compass of seven days journey; they went round the Dead Sea, and through the wilderness of Edom, and so to the borders of Moab:

and there was no water for the host, and for the cattle that followed them; neither for the soldiers in the army, nor the cattle that drew the carriages, being in a wilderness.

Gill: 2Ki 3:10 - And the king of Israel said, alas! // that the Lord hath called these three kings together, to deliver them into the hands of Moab And the king of Israel said, alas!.... Lamenting their sad case, as being desperate; and the rather he was the more concerned, as he was the principal...

And the king of Israel said, alas!.... Lamenting their sad case, as being desperate; and the rather he was the more concerned, as he was the principal who had drawn the other kings into this affair, though he throws it upon the Lord and his providence:

that the Lord hath called these three kings together, to deliver them into the hands of Moab; into whose hands they must inevitably fall, if they could have no water to refresh them; since they would be so weak as not to be able to stand a battle with them, and be dispersed here and there in search of water, and so fall into their hands. Extreme thirst is intolerable. It is reported e of Lysimachus, that he delivered himself and his army into the hands of the enemy for a draught of water. Leo Africanus f relates, that in the desert of Azaoad stand two marble pillars, testifying that a rich merchant bought of a carrier of wares a cup of water at the price of 10,000 ducats; but there not being water sufficient neither for the one nor the other, they were both died with thirst.

Gill: 2Ki 3:11 - But Jehoshaphat said, is there not here a prophet of the Lord, that we may inquire of the Lord by him // and one of the king of Israel's servants answered and said // here is Elisha the son of Shaphat, which poured water on the hands of Elijah But Jehoshaphat said, is there not here a prophet of the Lord, that we may inquire of the Lord by him?.... This the good king should have done before ...

But Jehoshaphat said, is there not here a prophet of the Lord, that we may inquire of the Lord by him?.... This the good king should have done before be set out, but had neglected it; however, it was not too late:

and one of the king of Israel's servants answered and said; who might be one that feared the Lord, and was intimate with Elisha, or however had knowledge of him, as appears by what follows:

here is Elisha the son of Shaphat, which poured water on the hands of Elijah; or ministered to him, as the Targum; was his menial servant, waited on him, and assisted him when he washed his hands g; some Jewish writers understand it of his pouring water on the hand of Elijah at Carmel, when the altar and trench were filled with it, and when a miracle was wrought, as they fancy, and the fingers of Elijah became as fountains of water.

Gill: 2Ki 3:12 - And Jehoshaphat said, the word of the Lord is with him // so the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom went down to him And Jehoshaphat said, the word of the Lord is with him,.... To give them an answer, which he concluded from his being a servant and disciple of Elijah...

And Jehoshaphat said, the word of the Lord is with him,.... To give them an answer, which he concluded from his being a servant and disciple of Elijah, whom he succeeded in his office, and of whom he had, doubtless, heard; and from his following the camp, and being in it, which he easily imagined was not to fight, but to assist by his advice and counsel, and by his prophecies, as there might be occasion for them:

so the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom went down to him; descended from their chariots, and went to the tent in the camp where he was; they did not send for him to come to them, but, in honour of him, went to him themselves.

Gill: 2Ki 3:13 - And Elisha said unto the king of Israel, what have I to do with thee // get thee to the prophets of thy father, and to the prophets of thy mother // and the king of Israel said unto him, nay // for the Lord hath called these three kings together, to deliver them into the hand of Moab And Elisha said unto the king of Israel, what have I to do with thee?.... An idolater; I can hold no discourse nor have any conversation with thee, no...

And Elisha said unto the king of Israel, what have I to do with thee?.... An idolater; I can hold no discourse nor have any conversation with thee, nor give thee any advice or assistance:

get thee to the prophets of thy father, and to the prophets of thy mother; the prophets of Baal, and of the groves:

and the king of Israel said unto him, nay; meaning, he would not apply to them, who he was sensible could give him no relief, only to the Lord God, from whom this affliction was, and therefore begs he would pray to him to have mercy on them; so the Targum,"I beseech thee remember not the sins of that wickedness, pray for mercy for us:"

for the Lord hath called these three kings together, to deliver them into the hand of Moab; signifying, that he should not perish alone, but the other two kings with him, who had no connection with the prophets of his father and mother in their idolatry, and therefore hoped for their sakes mercy would be shown.

Gill: 2Ki 3:14 - Elisha said, as the Lord of hosts liveth, before whom I stand // surely, were it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat the king of Judah // I would not look toward thee, nor see thee Elisha said, as the Lord of hosts liveth, before whom I stand,.... Whose minster and prophet he was, to whom he prayed, and whose service he was ready...

Elisha said, as the Lord of hosts liveth, before whom I stand,.... Whose minster and prophet he was, to whom he prayed, and whose service he was ready to perform:

surely, were it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat the king of Judah; revere him not only as a king, but as a pious prince, and a worshipper of the true God:

I would not look toward thee, nor see thee; give him no countenance at all, pay no regard to his request, not so much as to look at him in a civil way; but turn away his face from him with contempt and disdain, as unworthy to be conversed with by a prophet of the Lord.

Gill: 2Ki 3:15 - But now bring me a minstrel // and it came to pass, when the minstrel played, that the hand of the Lord came upon him But now bring me a minstrel,.... A piper, a man that knows how to play upon the harp, as the Targum; according to Procopius Gazaeus, this was one of t...

But now bring me a minstrel,.... A piper, a man that knows how to play upon the harp, as the Targum; according to Procopius Gazaeus, this was one of the Levites he ordered to be fetched, who was used to the spiritual melody of David, and could play on musical instruments as he directed. This he did to allay his passion, and compose his spirits, ruffled at the sight of Jehoram, and to fit him to receive prophetic inspiration, which sometimes came upon the Lord's prophets when thus employed, see 1Sa 10:5. Some think h the music the prophet called for is that sort the Greeks call "harmony", which is the gravest and saddest, and settles the affections:

and it came to pass, when the minstrel played, that the hand of the Lord came upon him; the spirit of prophecy, as the Targum, which came by the power of God, and as a gift from his hand.

Gill: 2Ki 3:16 - And he said, thus saith the Lord, make this valley full of ditches. And he said, thus saith the Lord, make this valley full of ditches. In which the allied army lay encamped, that they might be ready to receive large q...

And he said, thus saith the Lord, make this valley full of ditches. In which the allied army lay encamped, that they might be ready to receive large quantities of water, sufficient for the whole army and cattle, when it came.

Gill: 2Ki 3:17 - For thus saith the Lord, ye shall not see wind, neither shall ye see the rain // yet that valley shall be filled with water // that ye may drink, both ye and your cattle, and all your beasts For thus saith the Lord, ye shall not see wind, neither shall ye see the rain,.... Neither perceive the south wind blow, which usually brings rain, no...

For thus saith the Lord, ye shall not see wind, neither shall ye see the rain,.... Neither perceive the south wind blow, which usually brings rain, nor clouds gathering in the heavens, as portending it, nor any filling from thence:

yet that valley shall be filled with water; and all the ditches dug in it:

that ye may drink, both ye and your cattle, and all your beasts; there would be such a quantity as would be enough for them all, the soldiers, the horses they rode on, and the beasts that drew their wagons.

Gill: 2Ki 3:18 - And this is but a light thing in the sight of the Lord // but he wilt deliver the Moabites into your hands And this is but a light thing in the sight of the Lord,.... To give them such a plenty of water in such an extraordinary manner: he would do for them ...

And this is but a light thing in the sight of the Lord,.... To give them such a plenty of water in such an extraordinary manner: he would do for them what was greater, not only save them from falling into the hand of Moab, which they feared,

but he wilt deliver the Moabites into your hands; which was more than was asked for, or expected.

Gill: 2Ki 3:19 - And ye shall smite every fenced city and every choice city // and stop all wells of water // and mar every good piece of land with stones And ye shall smite every fenced city and every choice city,.... That is, the inhabitants of them with the sword, and demolish them also, 2Ki 3:25, and...

And ye shall smite every fenced city and every choice city,.... That is, the inhabitants of them with the sword, and demolish them also, 2Ki 3:25, and shall fell every good tree; which seems contrary to the law in Deu 20:19, but that may respect trees belonging to a city when besieged only, or only to Canaanitish cities; or the law was now dispensed with, and that for this time only, to make the punishment of Moab the greater, for their rebellion and other sins:

and stop all wells of water; which must be very distressing to those that survived the calamity of the sword:

and mar every good piece of land with stones; as that it could not be ploughed and sowed, nor anything spring up and grow upon it.

Gill: 2Ki 3:20 - And it came to pass in the morning, when the meat offering was offered // that, behold, there came water by the way of Edom // and the country was filled with water And it came to pass in the morning, when the meat offering was offered,.... At Jerusalem; which always went along with the daily burnt offering of the...

And it came to pass in the morning, when the meat offering was offered,.... At Jerusalem; which always went along with the daily burnt offering of the lamb, which might not indeed be offered before break of day, yet quickly after; for no sacrifice could be offered before that; see Gill on Exo 29:39,

that, behold, there came water by the way of Edom; not from the heavens, but it may be out of some rock, rolling along on the earth from the hills and mountains, down into the valleys, where the armies were:

and the country was filled with water; all round about them. Who has not heard of the "thundering" legion, as it was called by the Emperor M. Aurelius, who, when the army under him was about to engage with the Germans and Sarmatians, and sadly distressed with thirst, fell down on their knees and prayed, upon which a large shower of rain came down to the refreshment of the army, and thunder bolts, which annoyed and put the enemy to flight i? at the battle of the Romans with Jugurtha, a sudden and unexpected shower of rain fell, to the refreshment of the Romans, in intolerable thirst k.

Gill: 2Ki 3:21 - And when all the Moabites heard that the kings were come up to fight against them // they gathered all that were able to put on armour, and upward And when all the Moabites heard that the kings were come up to fight against them,.... The kings of Israel, Judah, and Edom: they gathered all that...

And when all the Moabites heard that the kings were come up to fight against them,.... The kings of Israel, Judah, and Edom:

they gathered all that were able to put on armour, and upward; that were of an age capable of that, and all who were more grown; or "girt on a girdle" l, a military one, with which the sword was girt, who were at age to wear and knew how to wield a sword: and stood in the border; of their land, between Edom and them, to defend themselves and their country against these invaders.

Gill: 2Ki 3:22 - And they rose up early in the morning // and the sun shone upon the water // and the Moabites saw the water on the other side as red as blood And they rose up early in the morning,.... To watch the motions of their enemies, and be upon their guard against them: and the sun shone upon the ...

And they rose up early in the morning,.... To watch the motions of their enemies, and be upon their guard against them:

and the sun shone upon the water; with which the valley was filled:

and the Moabites saw the water on the other side as red as blood; so it appeared through the rays of the sun reflected on it.

Gill: 2Ki 3:23 - And they said, this is blood // the kings are surely slain // and they have smitten one another // now therefore, Moab, to the spoil And they said, this is blood,.... They were very confident of it, having no notion of water, there having been no rain for some time; and perhaps it w...

And they said, this is blood,.... They were very confident of it, having no notion of water, there having been no rain for some time; and perhaps it was not usual to see water at any time in this place:

the kings are surely slain; they and their forces:

and they have smitten one another; having quarrelled either about their religion, or about want of water, and the distress they were come into through it, laying the blame of their coming out to war, or of their coming that way, on one another; and the Moabites might rather think something of this kind had happened, from what had lately been done among themselves, and their allies, 2Ch 20:23.

now therefore, Moab, to the spoil; having no occasion to fight, or prepare for it; all they had to do was to march directly to the enemy's camp, and plunder it.

Gill: 2Ki 3:24 - And when they came to the camp of Israel // the Israelites rose up and smote the Moabites, so that they fled before them // but they went forward smiting the Moabites, even in their country And when they came to the camp of Israel,.... Not in an orderly regular manner, in rank and file, as an army should march, but in a confused manner, e...

And when they came to the camp of Israel,.... Not in an orderly regular manner, in rank and file, as an army should march, but in a confused manner, everyone striving who should get thither first, and have the largest share of the booty:

the Israelites rose up and smote the Moabites, so that they fled before them; being prepared for them, they fell upon them sword in hand, and soon obliged them to flee:

but they went forward smiting the Moabites, even in their country; they pursued them closely, and slew them as they fled, and followed them not only to their borders, but into their own country: though Schultens m, from the use of the word נבה in the Arabic language, renders the passage, "and they blunted their swords in it (in that slaughter), even by smiting the Moabites".

Gill: 2Ki 3:25 - And they beat down the cities // and on every good piece of land cast every man his stone, and filled it // and they stopped all the wells of water // and felled all the good trees // only in Kirharaseth left they the stones thereof // howbeit, the slingers went about it, and smote it And they beat down the cities,.... Demolished the walls of them, and houses in them, wherever they came: and on every good piece of land cast every...

And they beat down the cities,.... Demolished the walls of them, and houses in them, wherever they came:

and on every good piece of land cast every man his stone, and filled it; which they had taken out of the walls and houses they pulled down; or which they picked up in the highway, as they passed along, being a stony country; or which being laid in heaps, gathered out of the fields, they took and scattered them all over them:

and they stopped all the wells of water; with stones and dirt:

and felled all the good trees; fruit bearing ones; See Gill on 2Ki 3:19,

only in Kirharaseth left they the stones thereof; not able to demolish it, it being a strong fortified city, the principal of the kingdom, and into which the king of Moab had thrown himself, and the remains of his forces; of which see Isa 16:7,

howbeit, the slingers went about it, and smote it; smote the soldiers that appeared upon the walls of it; though Kimchi, and other Jewish writers, understand it of engineers, who cast out large stones from a sort of machines then in use, to batter down and break through the walls of cities.

Gill: 2Ki 3:26 - And when the king of Moab saw that the battle was too sore for him // he took with him seven hundred men that drew swords // to break through even unto the king of Edom // but they could not And when the king of Moab saw that the battle was too sore for him,.... The siege was so close, the slingers or engineers did so much execution, that ...

And when the king of Moab saw that the battle was too sore for him,.... The siege was so close, the slingers or engineers did so much execution, that he saw the city would soon be taken, and he be obliged to deliver it up:

he took with him seven hundred men that drew swords; men expert in war, bold and daring:

to break through even unto the king of Edom; through his quarters, and so escape, he lying nearest to the city, and perhaps the weakest body of men with him; or he might think he was not so hearty in the cause of the kings, and would make but a feeble resistance, and let him pass:

but they could not; break through they met with a greater opposition than was expected perhaps the Edomites remembered how they had lately used them, which made them fight more desperately against them, see 2Ch 20:23.

Gill: 2Ki 3:27 - Then he took his eldest son, that should have reigned in his stead // and offered him for a burnt offering upon the wall // and there was great indignation against Israel Then he took his eldest son, that should have reigned in his stead,.... Not the eldest son of the king of Edom, whom the king of Moab had in his hands...

Then he took his eldest son, that should have reigned in his stead,.... Not the eldest son of the king of Edom, whom the king of Moab had in his hands before, which made the king of Edom the more willing to join in this expedition for the recovery of his son, as Joseph Kimchi thinks; or whom he took now in his sally out upon him, as Moses Kimchi and Ben Gersom, proceeding upon a mistaken sense of Amo 2:1 for the king of Edom could have no son that had a right, or was designed to succeed him, since he was but a deputy king himself; and besides, the sacrificing of him was not the way to cause the kings to raise the siege, but rather to provoke them to press it the more closely: it was the king of Moab that took his son and heir to the crown,

and offered him for a burnt offering upon the wall; that it might be seen by the camp of Israel, and move their compassion; or rather this was done as a religious action, to appease the deity by an human sacrifice so dear and precious, to give success, and cause the enemy to break up the siege; and was either offered to the true God, the God of Israel, in imitation of Abraham, as some Jewish writers fancy n, or to his idol Chemosh, the sun; and Jarchi observes, out of an exposition of theirs, that "vau" is wanting in the word for wall, and so may be interpreted of the sun, towards which this burnt offering was offered; and it is observed, from various Heathen authors, that it was usual with the Heathens, when in calamity and distress, to offer up to their gods what was most dear and valuable to them; and particularly the Phoenicians o, and from them the Carthaginians had this custom, who at one time offered up two hundred sons of their nobility, to appease their gods p:

and there was great indignation against Israel; not of the king of Edom against them, for not rescuing his son, or because they were the means of this disaster which befell him; but of the king of Moab, who was quite desperate, and determined to hold out the siege to the utmost extremity: and they departed, and returned to their own land; the three kings, the one to Edom, the other to Israel, and the third to Judah; when they saw the Moabites would sell their lives so dear, and hold out to the last man, they thought fit to break up the siege; and perhaps were greatly affected with the barbarous shocking sight they had seen, and might fear, should they stay, something else of the like kind would be done.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:1 For location see Map2 B1; Map4 D3; Map5 E2; Map6 A4; Map7 C1.

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:2 Heb “in the eyes of.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:3 The Hebrew text has the singular, “it.” Some ancient witnesses read the plural, which seems preferable since the antecedent (“sins&#...

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:4 The vav + perfect here indicates customary action contemporary with the situation described in the preceding main clause. See IBHS 533-34 §32.2.3...

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:7 Heb “I will go up – like me, like you; like my people, like your people; like my horses; like your horses.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:8 Heb “he”; the referent (Jehoram) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:9 Heb “the king of Israel and the king of Judah and the king of Edom.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:10 Or “ah.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:11 Heb “who poured water on the hands of Elijah.” This refers to one of the typical tasks of a servant.

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:12 Heb “the word of the Lord is with him.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:13 Or “What do we have in common?” The text reads literally, “What to me and to you?”

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:14 Heb “I would not look at you or see you.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:15 Heb “the hand of the Lord came on him.” This may refer to what typically happened, “[for] when a musician played, the hand of the Lo...

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:16 Heb “making this valley cisterns, cisterns.” The Hebrew noun גֵּב (gev) means “cistern” in Jer 14:3 (c...

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:17 Heb “see.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:18 Heb “and this is easy in the eyes of the Lord.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:19 Heb “and ruin every good portion with stones.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:20 Heb “and in the morning, when the offering is offered up, look, water was coming from the way of Edom, and the land was filled with water.”...

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:21 Heb “and they mustered all who tied on a belt and upwards, and they stood at the border.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:23 The translation assumes the verb is חָרַב (kharav, “to be desolate”). The infinitive absolute precedes the f...

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:24 The consonantal text (Kethib) suggests, “and they went, striking down,” but the marginal reading (Qere) is “they struck down, striki...

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:25 Heb “until he had allowed its stones to remain in Kir Hareseth.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:26 Heb “he took with him seven hundred men, who drew the sword, to break through against.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 3:27 Heb “they departed from him.”

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:1 Now Jehoram the son of Ahab began to reign over Israel in Samaria the ( a ) eighteenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, and reigned twelve years. (...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:3 Nevertheless he cleaved unto the ( b ) sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, which made Israel to sin; he departed not therefrom. ( b ) He sacrificed to...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:4 And ( c ) Mesha king of Moab was a sheepmaster, and rendered unto the king of Israel an hundred thousand lambs, and an hundred thousand rams, with the...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:7 And he went and sent to Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, saying, The king of Moab hath rebelled against me: wilt thou go with me against Moab to battle?...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:9 So the king of Israel went, and the king of Judah, and the ( e ) king of Edom: and they fetched a compass of seven days' journey: and there was no wat...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:11 But Jehoshaphat said, [Is there] not here a prophet of the LORD, that we may enquire of the LORD by him? And one of the king of Israel's servants answ...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:12 And Jehoshaphat said, ( g ) The word of the LORD is with him. So the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom went down to him. ( g ) He i...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:13 And Elisha said unto the king of Israel, ( h ) What have I to do with thee? get thee to the prophets of thy father, and to the prophets of thy mother....

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:14 And Elisha said, [As] the LORD of hosts liveth, before whom I stand, surely, were it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, ...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:15 But now bring me a minstrel. And it came to pass, when the minstrel ( l ) played, that the hand of the LORD came upon him. ( l ) He sang songs to God...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:18 And this is [but] a ( m ) light thing in the sight of the LORD: he will deliver the Moabites also into your hand. ( m ) He will not only miraculously...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:19 And ye shall smite every fenced city, and every choice city, and shall fell every good tree, and stop all wells of water, and ( n ) mar every good pie...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:23 And they said, ( o ) This [is] blood: the kings are surely slain, and they have smitten one another: now therefore, Moab, to the spoil. ( o ) The sud...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:24 And when they came to the camp of Israel, the Israelites rose up and smote the Moabites, so that they fled before them: but they ( p ) went forward sm...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:25 And they beat down the cities, and on every good piece of land cast every man his stone, and filled it; and they stopped all the wells of water, and f...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 3:27 Then he took his eldest son that should have reigned in his stead, and ( r ) offered him [for] a burnt offering upon the wall. And there was great ind...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: 2Ki 3:1-5 - --Jehoram took warning by God's judgment, and put away the image of Baal, yet he maintained the worship of the calves. Those do not truly repent or refo...

MHCC: 2Ki 3:6-19 - --The king of Israel laments their distress, and the danger they were in. He called these kings together, yet he charges it upon Providence. Thus the fo...

MHCC: 2Ki 3:20-27 - --It is a blessing to be favoured with the company of those who have power with God, and can prevail by their prayers. A kingdom may be upheld and prosp...

Matthew Henry: 2Ki 3:1-5 - -- Jehoram, the son of Ahab, and brother of Ahaziah, is here upon the throne of Israel; and, though he was but a bad man, yet two commendable things ar...

Matthew Henry: 2Ki 3:6-19 - -- Jehoram has no sooner got the sceptre into his hand than he takes the sword into his hand, to reduce Moab. Crowns bring great cares and perils to th...

Matthew Henry: 2Ki 3:20-27 - -- I. We have here the divine gift of both those things which God had promised by Elisha - water and victory, and the former not only a pledge of the l...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 3:1-3 - -- Reign of Joram of Israel. - For the chronological statement in 2Ki 3:1, see at 2Ki 1:17. Joram or Jehoram was not so ungodly as his father Ahab an...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 3:4-27 - -- War of Joram, in Alliance with Jehoshaphat, against the Moabites. - 2Ki 3:4, 2Ki 3:5. The occasion of this war was the rebellion of the Moabites, i....

Constable: 2Ki 2:1--8:16 - --4. Jehoram's evil reign in Israel 2:1-8:15 Jehoram reigned 12 years in Israel (852-841 B.C.). Hi...

Constable: 2Ki 3:1-27 - --God's victory for over the Moabites ch. 3 Even though Jehoram was better spiritually tha...

Guzik: 2Ki 3:1-27 - War Against Moab 2 Kings 3 - War Against Moab The Moabite Stone (also called the Mesha Stele) was discovered in 1868 and contains a Moabite inscription that confirms m...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF KINGS, in the ancient copies of the Hebrew Bible, constitute one book. Various titles have been given them; in the Septu...

JFB: 2 Kings (Garis Besar) MOAB REBELS. (2Ki 1:1) AHAZIAH'S JUDGMENT BY ELIJAH. (2Ki 1:2-8) ELIJAH BRINGS FIRE FROM HEAVEN ON AHAZIAH'S MESSENGERS. (2Ki 1:9-16) AHAZIAH DIES, A...

TSK: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) The events detailed in these books (Kings) are highly interesting and important. The account of the wisdom, magnificence, and extended commerce of So...

TSK: 2 Kings 3 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview 2Ki 3:1, Jehoram’s reign; 2Ki 3:4, Mesha rebels; 2Ki 3:6, Jehoram, with Jehoshaphat, and the king of Edom, being distressed for want of...

Poole: 2 Kings 3 (Pendahuluan Pasal) KINGS CHAPTER 3 Jehoram followeth the sin of Jeroboam; he, with Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom, goeth to battle against Moab, 2Ki 3:1-8 . They, i...

MHCC: 2 Kings 3 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (2Ki 3:1-5) Jehoram, king of Israel. (2Ki 3:6-19) War with Moab, The intercession of Elisha. (2Ki 3:20-27) Water supplied, Moab overcome.

Matthew Henry: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Second Book of Kings This second book of the Kings (which the Septuagint, numbering from Samuel, ca...

Matthew Henry: 2 Kings 3 (Pendahuluan Pasal) We are now called to attend the public affairs of Israel, in which we shall find Elisha concerned. Here is, I. The general character of Jehoram, k...

Constable: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Second Kings continues the narrative begun in 1 Kings. It opens with the translation of godly Elijah to hea...

Constable: 2 Kings (Garis Besar) Outline (Continued from notes on 1 Kings) 3. Ahaziah's evil reign in Israel -1 Kings 22:51-2...

Constable: 2 Kings 2 Kings Bibliography Ackroyd, Peter R. "An Interpretation of the Babylonian Exile: A Study of 2 Kings 20, Isaia...

Haydock: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FOURTH BOOK OF KINGS. INTRODUCTION. This Book brings us to the conclusion of the kingdom of Israel, (chap. xvii.) and to the captivity of ...

Gill: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO 2 KINGS This, and the preceding book, are properly but one book divided into two parts, because of the size of it, as the book of S...

Gill: 2 Kings 3 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO 2 KINGS 3 This chapter gives the character of Jehoram king of Israel, 2Ki 3:1, relates the rebellion of the king of Moab against hi...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


TIP #25: Tekan Tombol pada halaman Studi Kamus untuk melihat bahan lain berbahasa inggris. [SEMUA]
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