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Teks -- 2 Kings 17:1-41 (NET)

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Konteks
Hoshea’s Reign over Israel
17:1 In the twelfth year of King Ahaz’s reign over Judah, Hoshea son of Elah became king over Israel. He reigned in Samaria for nine years. 17:2 He did evil in the sight of the Lord, but not to the same degree as the Israelite kings who preceded him. 17:3 King Shalmaneser of Assyria threatened him; Hoshea became his subject and paid him tribute. 17:4 The king of Assyria discovered that Hoshea was planning a revolt. Hoshea had sent messengers to King So of Egypt and had not sent his annual tribute to the king of Assyria. So the king of Assyria arrested him and imprisoned him. 17:5 The king of Assyria marched through the whole land. He attacked Samaria and besieged it for three years. 17:6 In the ninth year of Hoshea’s reign, the king of Assyria captured Samaria and deported the people of Israel to Assyria. He settled them in Halah, along the Habor (the river of Gozan), and in the cities of the Medes.
A Summary of Israel’s Sinful History
17:7 This happened because the Israelites sinned against the Lord their God, who brought them up from the land of Egypt and freed them from the power of Pharaoh king of Egypt. They worshiped other gods; 17:8 they observed the practices of the nations whom the Lord had driven out from before Israel, and followed the example of the kings of Israel. 17:9 The Israelites said things about the Lord their God that were not right. They built high places in all their cities, from the watchtower to the fortress. 17:10 They set up sacred pillars and Asherah poles on every high hill and under every green tree. 17:11 They burned incense on all the high places just like the nations whom the Lord had driven away from before them. Their evil practices made the Lord angry. 17:12 They worshiped the disgusting idols in blatant disregard of the Lord’s command. 17:13 The Lord solemnly warned Israel and Judah through all his prophets and all the seers, “Turn back from your evil ways; obey my commandments and rules that are recorded in the law. I ordered your ancestors to keep this law and sent my servants the prophets to remind you of its demands.” 17:14 But they did not pay attention and were as stubborn as their ancestors, who had not trusted the Lord their God. 17:15 They rejected his rules, the covenant he had made with their ancestors, and the laws he had commanded them to obey. They paid allegiance to worthless idols, and so became worthless to the Lord. They copied the practices of the surrounding nations in blatant disregard of the Lord’s command. 17:16 They abandoned all the commandments of the Lord their God; they made two metal calves and an Asherah pole, bowed down to all the stars in the sky, and worshiped Baal. 17:17 They passed their sons and daughters through the fire, and practiced divination and omen reading. They committed themselves to doing evil in the sight of the Lord and made him angry. 17:18 So the Lord was furious with Israel and rejected them; only the tribe of Judah was left. 17:19 Judah also failed to keep the commandments of the Lord their God; they followed Israel’s example. 17:20 So the Lord rejected all of Israel’s descendants; he humiliated them and handed them over to robbers, until he had thrown them from his presence. 17:21 He tore Israel away from David’s dynasty, and Jeroboam son of Nebat became their king. Jeroboam drove Israel away from the Lord and encouraged them to commit a serious sin. 17:22 The Israelites followed in the sinful ways of Jeroboam son of Nebat and did not repudiate them. 17:23 Finally the Lord rejected Israel just as he had warned he would do through all his servants the prophets. Israel was deported from its land to Assyria and remains there to this very day.
The King of Assyria Populates Israel with Foreigners
17:24 The king of Assyria brought foreigners from Babylon, Cuthah, Avva, Hamath, and Sepharvaim and settled them in the cities of Samaria in place of the Israelites. They took possession of Samaria and lived in its cities. 17:25 When they first moved in, they did not worship the Lord. So the Lord sent lions among them and the lions were killing them. 17:26 The king of Assyria was told, “The nations whom you deported and settled in the cities of Samaria do not know the requirements of the God of the land, so he has sent lions among them. They are killing the people because they do not know the requirements of the God of the land.” 17:27 So the king of Assyria ordered, “Take back one of the priests whom you deported from there. He must settle there and teach them the requirements of the God of the land.” 17:28 So one of the priests whom they had deported from Samaria went back and settled in Bethel. He taught them how to worship the Lord. 17:29 But each of these nations made its own gods and put them in the shrines on the high places that the people of Samaria had made. Each nation did this in the cities where they lived. 17:30 The people from Babylon made Succoth Benoth, the people from Cuth made Nergal, the people from Hamath made Ashima, 17:31 the Avvites made Nibhaz and Tartak, and the Sepharvites burned their sons in the fire as an offering to Adrammelech and Anammelech, the gods of Sepharvaim. 17:32 At the same time they worshiped the Lord. They appointed some of their own people to serve as priests in the shrines on the high places. 17:33 They were worshiping the Lord and at the same time serving their own gods in accordance with the practices of the nations from which which they had been deported. 17:34 To this very day they observe their earlier practices. They do not worship the Lord; they do not obey the rules, regulations, law, and commandments that the Lord gave the descendants of Jacob, whom he renamed Israel. 17:35 The Lord made an agreement with them and instructed them, “You must not worship other gods. Do not bow down to them, serve them, or offer sacrifices to them. 17:36 Instead you must worship the Lord, who brought you up from the land of Egypt by his great power and military ability; bow down to him and offer sacrifices to him. 17:37 You must carefully obey at all times the rules, regulations, law, and commandments he wrote down for you. You must not worship other gods. 17:38 You must never forget the agreement I made with you, and you must not worship other gods. 17:39 Instead you must worship the Lord your God; then he will rescue you from the power of all your enemies.” 17:40 But they pay no attention; instead they observe their earlier practices. 17:41 These nations are worshiping the Lord and at the same time serving their idols; their sons and grandsons do just as their fathers have done, to this very day.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Adrammelech a god of the Assyrians for whom they burned their children,son of Sennacherib the King of Assyria in the time of Hezekiah
 · Ahaz a son of Jotham; listed as an ancestor of Jesus,son and successor of King Jotham of Judah,son of Micah of Benjamin
 · Anammelech a pagan god of the Sepharvaim people
 · Ashima a pagan goddess imported from Assyria into Sameria (OS)
 · Assyria a member of the nation of Assyria
 · Avva a town in Syria
 · Avvites residents of the town of Avva/Ivva
 · Baal a pagan god,a title of a pagan god,a town in the Negeb on the border of Simeon and Judah,son of Reaiah son of Micah; a descendant of Reuben,the forth son of Jeiel, the Benjamite
 · Babylon a country of Babylon in lower Mesopotamia
 · Bethel a town of Benjamin bordering Ephraim 18 km north of Jerusalem
 · Cuth a town NE of Babylon
 · Cuthah a town NE of Babylon
 · David a son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel,son of Jesse of Judah; king of Israel
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Elah a chief of Edom,the valley where David killed Goliath,son and successor of Baasha, king of Israel (about 900 BC),father of Hoshea, the last king of Israel about 700 BC,son of Caleb the son of Jephunneh of Judah,son of Uzzi (Michri Benjamin) who led his clan back from exile
 · Gozan a town on the Habor River 100 km ESE of Haran
 · Habor a river that flows south past Gozan to the Euphrates River
 · Halah a town in upper Mesopotamia
 · hamath a town of Syria on the Orontes between Aleppo and Damascus (OS)
 · Hamath a town of unknown location
 · Hoshea son of Nun of Ephraim; successor of Moses,son of Azaziah; David's chief officer over the tribe of Ephraim,son of Elah; assassin and successor of King Pekah,an Israelite chief who signed the covenant to keep God's law
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Israelite a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jacob the second so of a pair of twins born to Isaac and Rebeccaa; ancestor of the 12 tribes of Israel,the nation of Israel,a person, male,son of Isaac; Israel the man and nation
 · Jeroboam son of Nebat; first king of Israel after it split away from Judah; Jeroboam I,son and successor of Joash/Jehoash, King of Israel; Jeroboam II
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Medes the inhabitants of Media, a region south and southwest of the Caspian Sea in the Zagros mountains,a people and a nation
 · Nebat a man of Ephraim; father of king Jeroboam
 · Nergal a pagan god
 · Nibhaz a pagan god
 · Pharaoh the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Abraham's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Joseph's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who refused to let Israel leave Egypt,the title of the king of Egypt whose daughter Solomon married,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in the time of Isaiah,the title Egypt's ruler just before Moses' time


Topik/Tema Kamus: Captivity | Apharsites | Apharsathchites | PALESTINE EXPLORATION, 2B | KINGS, BOOKS OF | SYRIAC VERSIONS | Apharsachites | FEAR | Israel | Judgments | Assyria | Babylon | SAMARIA, COUNTRY OF | Samaria | Hoshea | HAGGAI | Rulers | JESUS CHRIST, 2 | Shalmaneser | Israel, Kingdom of | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: 2Ki 17:1 - To reign He usurped the kingdom in Ahaz's fourth year; but either was not owned as king, by the generality of the people; or was not accepted and established i...

He usurped the kingdom in Ahaz's fourth year; but either was not owned as king, by the generality of the people; or was not accepted and established in his kingdom, 'till Ahaz's twelfth year.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:1 - Nine After his confirmation and peaceable possession of his kingdom: for in all, he reigned seventeen, or eighteen years; twelve with Ahaz, who reigned six...

After his confirmation and peaceable possession of his kingdom: for in all, he reigned seventeen, or eighteen years; twelve with Ahaz, who reigned sixteen years, and six with Hezekiah.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:2 - But not, &c. _For he neither worshipped Baal, as many of his predecessors did; nor compelled the people to worship the calves; (one of them, that of Dan, being des...

_For he neither worshipped Baal, as many of his predecessors did; nor compelled the people to worship the calves; (one of them, that of Dan, being destroyed, or carried away before, as the Hebrew writers affirm;) nor, as some add, hindered those by force, who were minded to go to Jerusalem to worship. And yet, the measure of the Israelites sins, being now full, vengeance comes upon them without remedy.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:3 - Shalmaneser The son, or successor of Tiglath - pileser. The ancient Hebrew writers made him the same with Sennacherib, who eight years after this time, invaded th...

The son, or successor of Tiglath - pileser. The ancient Hebrew writers made him the same with Sennacherib, who eight years after this time, invaded the kingdom of Judah; it being very frequent in the Eastern parts, for one man to be called by several names. Josephus affirms, that he met with his name in the annals of the Tyrians, which were extant in his days. He came against him, either because he denied the tribute which he had promised to pay; or that he might make him tributary.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:6 - Carried Israel away, &c. _There, we have reason to think, after some time, they were so mingled with the nations, that they were lost, and the name of Israel was no more in re...

_There, we have reason to think, after some time, they were so mingled with the nations, that they were lost, and the name of Israel was no more in remembrance. They that forgot God, were themselves forgotten, and they that studied to be like the nations, were buried among them. Thus ended Israel as a nation. When we read their entry into Canaan, under Hoshea the son of Nun, who would have thought, that such would be their exit, under Hoshea, the son of Elah? Yet we find St. James writing to the twelve tribes scattered abroad. So that tho' we never read of the return of those that were carried captive, nor have any ground to believe, that they still remain a distinct body in some remote corner of the world, yet a remnant of them did escape, and will remain 'till all Israel shall be saved.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:9 - Did secretly This belongs, either, To their gross idolatries, and other abominable practices, which they were ashamed to own before others; or, to the worship of c...

This belongs, either, To their gross idolatries, and other abominable practices, which they were ashamed to own before others; or, to the worship of calves: and so the words are otherwise rendered; they covered things that were not right towards the Lord: they covered their idolatrous worship of the calves, with fair pretences of necessity, the two kingdoms being now divided, and at enmity; and of their honest intention of serving the true God, and retaining the substance of the Jewish religion.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:9 - City In all parts and places, both in cities, and in the country; yea, in the most uninhabited parts, where few or none dwell, beside the watchmen, who are...

In all parts and places, both in cities, and in the country; yea, in the most uninhabited parts, where few or none dwell, beside the watchmen, who are left there in towers, to preserve the cattle and fruits of the earth, or to give notice of the approach of enemies.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:13 - Seers To whom he declared his mind, by revelations and visions, and by whom he published it, bearing witness, from heaven to their doctrine by eminent and g...

To whom he declared his mind, by revelations and visions, and by whom he published it, bearing witness, from heaven to their doctrine by eminent and glorious miracles.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:14 - Hardened, &c. _Refused to submit their neck to the yoke of God's precepts. A metaphor from stubborn oxen, that will not bow to the yoke.

_Refused to submit their neck to the yoke of God's precepts. A metaphor from stubborn oxen, that will not bow to the yoke.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:15 - Vanity Idols; so called because of their nothingness, impotency, and unprofitableness; and by the long worship of idols, they were made like them, vain, sott...

Idols; so called because of their nothingness, impotency, and unprofitableness; and by the long worship of idols, they were made like them, vain, sottish, and senseless creatures.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:16 - Left all They grew worse and worse; from a partial disobedience to some of God's laws, they fell by degrees to a total apostacy from all.

They grew worse and worse; from a partial disobedience to some of God's laws, they fell by degrees to a total apostacy from all.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:16 - The host The stars, as Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus.

The stars, as Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:18 - Judah only And the greatest part of the tribe of Benjamin, with those of the tribes of Simeon and Levi who were incorporated with them.

And the greatest part of the tribe of Benjamin, with those of the tribes of Simeon and Levi who were incorporated with them.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:19 - Judah kept not Judah's idolatry and wickedness are here remembered, as an aggravation of the sin of the Israelites, which was not only evil in itself, but mischievou...

Judah's idolatry and wickedness are here remembered, as an aggravation of the sin of the Israelites, which was not only evil in itself, but mischievous to their neighbour, who by their examples were instructed in their wicked arts, and provoked to an imitation of them.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:20 - All Israel All the tribes of Israel: first, one part of them, and now the rest. But this extends not to every individual person of these tribes; for many of them...

All the tribes of Israel: first, one part of them, and now the rest. But this extends not to every individual person of these tribes; for many of them removed into the kingdom of Judah, and were associated with them.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:21 - They made Which action is here ascribed to the people, because they would not tarry 'till God by his providence, had invested Jeroboam with the kingdom which he...

Which action is here ascribed to the people, because they would not tarry 'till God by his providence, had invested Jeroboam with the kingdom which he had promised him; but rashly, and rebelliously, rose up against the house of David, to which they had so great obligations; and set him upon the throne without God's leave or advice.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:21 - Drave He not only dissuaded, but kept then, by force from God's worship at Jerusalem, the only place appointed for it.

He not only dissuaded, but kept then, by force from God's worship at Jerusalem, the only place appointed for it.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:21 - A great sin So the worship of the calves is called, to meet with that idle conceit of the Israelites, who esteemed it a small sin, especially when they were force...

So the worship of the calves is called, to meet with that idle conceit of the Israelites, who esteemed it a small sin, especially when they were forced to it by severe penalties; which yet he shews did not excuse it from being a sin, and a great sin too.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:25 - Therefore For their gross neglect, and contempt of God, which was contrary to the principles and practices of the Heathens, who used to worship the gods of the ...

For their gross neglect, and contempt of God, which was contrary to the principles and practices of the Heathens, who used to worship the gods of the nations where they lived, and gave that honour to their false Gods, which here they denied to the true. Hereby also God asserted his own sovereignty over that land, and made them to understand, that neither the Israelites were cast out, nor they brought in by their valour, or strength, but by God's providence, who as he had cast the Israelites out for their neglect of God's service; so both could, and would in his due time, turn them out also, if they were guilty of the same sins.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:28 - Taught them The manner of God's worship, as it was practised in Israel; as may be gathered both from the quality of this person, who was an Israelitish priest; an...

The manner of God's worship, as it was practised in Israel; as may be gathered both from the quality of this person, who was an Israelitish priest; and from the place of his residence, Beth - el, a place infamous for the worship of the calves, and from the manner of their making priests by this man's direction.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:32 - Sacrificed Unto the true God: for as to the worship of their own gods, they needed no instruction, and would not permit a person of another religion to minister ...

Unto the true God: for as to the worship of their own gods, they needed no instruction, and would not permit a person of another religion to minister therein.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:33 - They feared They worshipped God externally in that way which the Israelites used. But every nation made gods of their own besides.

They worshipped God externally in that way which the Israelites used. But every nation made gods of their own besides.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:34 - Unto this day That is, till the time when this book was written, above three hundred years in all, till the time of Alexander the Great, when they were prevailed up...

That is, till the time when this book was written, above three hundred years in all, till the time of Alexander the Great, when they were prevailed upon to call away their idols.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:34 - Former manners As the Israelites before their captivity, gave these nations an ill example, in serving the Lord, and Baal together; so, or after their former manner,...

As the Israelites before their captivity, gave these nations an ill example, in serving the Lord, and Baal together; so, or after their former manner, they do unto this day, in the land of their captivity.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:34 - They fear not Though they pretended to fear, and serve both the Lord and idols, yet in truth they did not, and do not fear or worship the Lord, but their own calves...

Though they pretended to fear, and serve both the Lord and idols, yet in truth they did not, and do not fear or worship the Lord, but their own calves, or other vain inventions: and God will not accept that mongrel and false worship, which they pretend to give to the true God.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:34 - Statutes God's law delivered to their fathers, and to them, as their inheritance, Psa 119:111. This is alleged as an evidence, that they did not fear the Lord,...

God's law delivered to their fathers, and to them, as their inheritance, Psa 119:111. This is alleged as an evidence, that they did not fear the Lord, whatsoever they pretended, because they lived in the constant breach of his statutes.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:34 - Israel A name, signifying his special interest in God, and power with him, which was given to him, not only for himself, but for his posterity also, whom God...

A name, signifying his special interest in God, and power with him, which was given to him, not only for himself, but for his posterity also, whom God frequently honours with that name. And by this great favour he aggravates their sin.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:41 - So In like manner, and after their example.

In like manner, and after their example.

Wesley: 2Ki 17:41 - These Who came in their stead.

Who came in their stead.

JFB: 2Ki 17:1 - In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah, began Hoshea . . . to reign The statement in 2Ki 15:30 may be reconciled with the present passage in the following manner: Hoshea conspired against Pekah in the twentieth year of...

The statement in 2Ki 15:30 may be reconciled with the present passage in the following manner: Hoshea conspired against Pekah in the twentieth year of the latter, which was the eighteenth of Jotham's reign. It was two years before Hoshea was acknowledged king of Israel, that is, in the fourth of Ahaz, and twentieth of Jotham. In the twelfth year of Ahaz his reign began to be tranquil and prosperous [CALMET].

JFB: 2Ki 17:2 - he did evil . . . but not as the kings of Israel Unlike his predecessors from the time of Jeroboam, he neither established the rites of Baal, nor compelled the people to adhere to the symbolic worshi...

Unlike his predecessors from the time of Jeroboam, he neither established the rites of Baal, nor compelled the people to adhere to the symbolic worship of the calves. [See on 2Ch 30:1.] In these respects, Hoshea acted as became a constitutional king of Israel. Yet, through the influence of the nineteen princes who had swayed the scepter before him (all of whom had been zealous patrons of idolatry, and many of whom had been also infamous for personal crimes), the whole nation had become so completely demoralized that the righteous judgment of an angry Providence impended over it.

JFB: 2Ki 17:3 - Against him came up Shalmaneser Or Shalman (Hos 10:14), the same as the Sargon of Isaiah [Isa 20:1]. Very recently the name of this Assyrian king has been traced on the Ninevite monu...

Or Shalman (Hos 10:14), the same as the Sargon of Isaiah [Isa 20:1]. Very recently the name of this Assyrian king has been traced on the Ninevite monuments, as concerned in an expedition against a king of Samaria, whose name, though mutilated, COLONEL RAWLINSON reads as Hoshea.

JFB: 2Ki 17:4 - found conspiracy in Hoshea After having paid tribute for several years, Hoshea, determined on throwing off the Assyrian yoke, withheld the stipulated tribute. Shalmaneser, incen...

After having paid tribute for several years, Hoshea, determined on throwing off the Assyrian yoke, withheld the stipulated tribute. Shalmaneser, incensed at this rebellion, proclaimed war against Israel. This was in the sixth year of Hoshea's reign.

JFB: 2Ki 17:4 - he had sent messengers to So, king of Egypt The Sabaco of the classic historians, a famous Ethiopian who, for fifty years, occupied the Egyptian throne, and through whose aid Hoshea hoped to res...

The Sabaco of the classic historians, a famous Ethiopian who, for fifty years, occupied the Egyptian throne, and through whose aid Hoshea hoped to resist the threatened attack of the Assyrian conqueror. But Shalmaneser, marching against [Hoshea], scoured the whole country of Israel, besieged the capital Samaria, and carried the principal inhabitants into captivity in his own land, having taken the king himself, and imprisoned him for life. This ancient policy of transplanting a conquered people into a foreign land, was founded on the idea that, among a mixed multitude, differing in language and religion, they would be kept in better subjection, and have less opportunity of combining together to recover their independence.

JFB: 2Ki 17:6 - carried Israel away That is, the remaining tribes (see on 2Ki 15:29).

That is, the remaining tribes (see on 2Ki 15:29).

JFB: 2Ki 17:6 - and placed them, &c. This passage GESENIUS renders thus, omitting the particle by, which is printed in italics to show it is not in the original: "and placed them in Halah...

This passage GESENIUS renders thus, omitting the particle by, which is printed in italics to show it is not in the original: "and placed them in Halah, and on the Chabor, a river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes."

JFB: 2Ki 17:6 - Halah The same as Calah (Gen 10:11-12), in the region of the Laycus or Zab river, about a day's journey from the ruins of Nineveh.

The same as Calah (Gen 10:11-12), in the region of the Laycus or Zab river, about a day's journey from the ruins of Nineveh.

JFB: 2Ki 17:6 - Chabor Is a river, and it is remarkable that there is a river rising in the central highlands of Assyria which retains this name Khabour unchanged to the pre...

Is a river, and it is remarkable that there is a river rising in the central highlands of Assyria which retains this name Khabour unchanged to the present day.

JFB: 2Ki 17:6 - Gozan ("pasture") or Zozan, are the highlands of Assyria, which afford pasturage. The region in which the Chabor and the Zab rise, and through which they fl...

("pasture") or Zozan, are the highlands of Assyria, which afford pasturage. The region in which the Chabor and the Zab rise, and through which they flow, is peculiarly of this character. The Nestorians repair to it with their numerous flocks, spending the summer on the banks or in the highlands of the Chabor or the Zab. Considering the high authority we possess for regarding Gozan and Zozan as one name, there can be no doubt that this is the Gozan referred to in this passage.

JFB: 2Ki 17:6 - cities of the Medes "villages," according to the Syriac and Vulgate versions, or "mountains," according to the Septuagint. The Medish inhabitants of Gozan, having revolte...

"villages," according to the Syriac and Vulgate versions, or "mountains," according to the Septuagint. The Medish inhabitants of Gozan, having revolted, had been destroyed by the kings of Assyria, and nothing was more natural than that they should wish to place in it an industrious people, like the captive Israelites, while it was well suited to their pastoral life [GRANT, Nestorians].

JFB: 2Ki 17:7 - For so it was, that the children of Israel had sinned There is here given a very full and impressive vindication of the divine procedure in punishing His highly privileged, but rebellious and apostate, pe...

There is here given a very full and impressive vindication of the divine procedure in punishing His highly privileged, but rebellious and apostate, people. No wonder that amid so gross a perversion of the worship of the true God, and the national propensity to do reverence to idols, the divine patience was exhausted; and that the God whom they had forsaken permitted them to go into captivity, that they might learn the difference between His service and that of their despotic conquerors.

JFB: 2Ki 17:24-28 - the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon, etc. This was not Shalmaneser, but Esar-haddon (Eze 4:2). The places vacated by the captive Israelites he ordered to be occupied by several colonies of his...

This was not Shalmaneser, but Esar-haddon (Eze 4:2). The places vacated by the captive Israelites he ordered to be occupied by several colonies of his own subjects from Babylon and other provinces.

JFB: 2Ki 17:24-28 - from Cuthah The Chaldee form of Cush or Susiana, now Khusistan.

The Chaldee form of Cush or Susiana, now Khusistan.

JFB: 2Ki 17:24-28 - Ava Supposed to be Ahivaz, situated on the river Karuns, which empties into the head of the Persian Gulf.

Supposed to be Ahivaz, situated on the river Karuns, which empties into the head of the Persian Gulf.

JFB: 2Ki 17:24-28 - Hamath On the Orontes.

On the Orontes.

JFB: 2Ki 17:24-28 - Sepharvaim Siphara, a city on the Euphrates above Babylon.

Siphara, a city on the Euphrates above Babylon.

JFB: 2Ki 17:24-28 - placed them in the cities of Samaria, &c. It must not be supposed that the Israelites were universally removed to a man. A remnant was left, chiefly however of the poor and lower classes, with...

It must not be supposed that the Israelites were universally removed to a man. A remnant was left, chiefly however of the poor and lower classes, with whom these foreign colonists mingled; so that the prevailing character of society about Samaria was heathen, not Israelite. For the Assyrian colonists became masters of the land; and, forming partial intermarriages with the remnant Jews, the inhabitants became a mongrel race, no longer a people of Ephraim (Isa 7:6). These people, imperfectly instructed in the creed of the Jews, acquired also a mongrel doctrine. Being too few to replenish the land, lions, by which the land had been infested (Jdg 14:5; 1Sa 17:34; 1Ki 13:24; 1Ki 20:36; Son 4:8), multiplied and committed frequent ravages upon them. Recognizing in these attacks a judgment from the God of the land, whom they had not worshipped, they petitioned the Assyrian court to send them some Jewish priests who might instruct them in the right way of serving Him. The king, in compliance with their request, sent them one of the exiled priests of Israel [2Ki 17:27], who established his headquarters at Beth-el, and taught them how they should fear the Lord. It is not said that he took a copy of the Pentateuch with him, out of which he might teach them. Oral teaching was much better fitted for the superstitious people than instruction out of a written book. He could teach them more effectually by word of mouth. Believing that he would adopt the best and simplest method for them, it is unlikely that he took the written law with him, and so gave origin to the Samaritan copy of the Pentateuch [DAVIDSON, Criticism]. Besides, it is evident from his being one of the exiled priests, and from his settlement at Beth-el, that he was not a Levite, but one of the calf-worshipping priests. Consequently his instructions would be neither sound nor efficient.

JFB: 2Ki 17:29 - Howbeit every nation made gods of their own These Assyrian colonists, however, though instructed in the worship, and acknowledging the being of the God of Israel, did not suppose Him to be the o...

These Assyrian colonists, however, though instructed in the worship, and acknowledging the being of the God of Israel, did not suppose Him to be the only God. Like other heathens, they combined His worship with that of their own gods; and as they formed a promiscuous society from different nations or provinces, a variety of idols was acknowledged among them.

JFB: 2Ki 17:30 - Succoth-benoth That is, the "tents" or "booths of the daughters," similar to those in which the Babylonian damsels celebrated impure rites (Amo 2:8).

That is, the "tents" or "booths of the daughters," similar to those in which the Babylonian damsels celebrated impure rites (Amo 2:8).

JFB: 2Ki 17:30 - Nergal The Jewish writers say this idol was in the form of a cock, and it is certain that a cock is often associated with a priest on the Assyrian monuments ...

The Jewish writers say this idol was in the form of a cock, and it is certain that a cock is often associated with a priest on the Assyrian monuments [LAYARD]. But modern critics, looking to the astrological character of Assyrian idolatry, generally consider Nergal as the planet Mars, the god of war. The name of this idol formed part of the appellation of two of the king of Babylon's princes (Jer 39:3).

JFB: 2Ki 17:30 - Ashima An idol under the form of an entirely bald he-goat.

An idol under the form of an entirely bald he-goat.

JFB: 2Ki 17:31 - Nibhaz Under that of a dog--that Egyptian form of animal-worship having prevailed in ancient Syria, as is evident from the image of a large dog at the mouth ...

Under that of a dog--that Egyptian form of animal-worship having prevailed in ancient Syria, as is evident from the image of a large dog at the mouth of the Nahr-el-Kelb, or Dog river.

JFB: 2Ki 17:31 - Tartak According to the rabbis, it was in the form of an ass, but others understand it as a planet of ill-omen, probably Saturn.

According to the rabbis, it was in the form of an ass, but others understand it as a planet of ill-omen, probably Saturn.

JFB: 2Ki 17:31 - Adrammelech Supposed by some to be the same as Molech, and in Assyrian mythology to stand for the sun. It was worshipped in the form of a mule--others maintain in...

Supposed by some to be the same as Molech, and in Assyrian mythology to stand for the sun. It was worshipped in the form of a mule--others maintain in that of a peacock.

JFB: 2Ki 17:31 - Anammelech Worshipped in the form of a hare; others say in that of a goat.

Worshipped in the form of a hare; others say in that of a goat.

JFB: 2Ki 17:34 - Unto this day The time of the Babylonian exile, when this book was composed. Their religion was a strange medley or compound of the service of God and the service o...

The time of the Babylonian exile, when this book was composed. Their religion was a strange medley or compound of the service of God and the service of idols. Such was the first settlement of the people, afterwards called Samaritans, who were sent from Assyria to colonize the land, when the kingdom of Israel, after having continued three hundred fifty-six years, was overthrown.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:3 - Shalmaneser Shalmaneser - This was the son and successor of Tiglath-pileser. He is called Shalman by Hosea, Hos 10:14, and Enemessar, in the book of Tobit, 1:2

Shalmaneser - This was the son and successor of Tiglath-pileser. He is called Shalman by Hosea, Hos 10:14, and Enemessar, in the book of Tobit, 1:2

Clarke: 2Ki 17:3 - Gave him presents Gave him presents - Became tributary to him.

Gave him presents - Became tributary to him.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:4 - Found conspiracy to Hoshea Found conspiracy to Hoshea - He had endeavored to shake off the Assyrian yoke, by entering into a treaty with So, King of Egypt; and having done so,...

Found conspiracy to Hoshea - He had endeavored to shake off the Assyrian yoke, by entering into a treaty with So, King of Egypt; and having done so, he ceased to send the annual tribute to Assyria.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:5 - Besieged it three years Besieged it three years - It must have been well fortified, well provisioned, and well defended, to have held out so long.

Besieged it three years - It must have been well fortified, well provisioned, and well defended, to have held out so long.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:6 - Took Samaria Took Samaria - According to the prophets Hosea, Hos 13:16, and Micah, Mic 1:6. He exercised great cruelties on this miserable city, ripping up the w...

Took Samaria - According to the prophets Hosea, Hos 13:16, and Micah, Mic 1:6. He exercised great cruelties on this miserable city, ripping up the women with child, dashing young children against the stones, etc. etc

Clarke: 2Ki 17:6 - Carried Israel away into Assyria Carried Israel away into Assyria - What were the places to which the unfortunate Israelites were carried, or where their successors are now situated...

Carried Israel away into Assyria - What were the places to which the unfortunate Israelites were carried, or where their successors are now situated, have given rise to innumerable conjectures, dissertations, discourses, etc. Some maintain that they are found on the coast of Guinea; others, in America; the Indian tribes being the descendants of those carried away by the Assyrians. In vol. i. of the Supplement to Sir Wm. Jones’ s works, we find a translation of the History of the Afghans, by Mr. H. Vansittart; from which it appears that they derive their own descent from the Jews. On this history Sir Wm. Jones writes the following note: -

"This account of the Afghans may lead to a very interesting discovery. We learn from Esdras, that the ten tribes, after a wandering journey, came to a country called Arsaret, where we may suppose they settled. Now the Afghans are said by the best Persian historians to be descended from the Jews; they have traditions among themselves of such a descent, and it is even asserted that their families are distinguished by the names of Jewish tribes; although, since their conversion to the Islam, they studiously conceal their origin. The Pushtoo, of which I have seen a dictionary, has a manifest resemblance to the Chaldaic; and a considerable district under their dominion is called Hazarek or Hazaret, which might easily have been changed into the word used by Esdras. I strongly recommend an inquiry into the literature and history of the Afghans.

Every thing considered, I think it by far the most probable that the Afghans are the descendants of the Jews, who were led away captives by the Assyrian kings

Thus ended the kingdom of Israel, after it had lasted two hundred and fifty-four years, from the death of Solomon and the schism of Jeroboam, till the taking of Samaria by Shalmaneser, in the ninth year of Hoshea; after which the remains of the ten tribes were carried away beyond the river Euphrates

The rest of this chapter is spent in vindicating the Divine providence and justice; showing the reason why God permitted such a desolation to fall on a people who had been so long his peculiar children.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:9 - Did secretly those things Did secretly those things - There was much hidden iniquity and private idolatry among them, as well as public and notorious crimes

Did secretly those things - There was much hidden iniquity and private idolatry among them, as well as public and notorious crimes

Clarke: 2Ki 17:9 - From the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city From the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city - That is, the idolatry was universal; every place was made a place for some idolatrous rite or ac...

From the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city - That is, the idolatry was universal; every place was made a place for some idolatrous rite or act of worship; from the largest city to the smallest village, and from the public watchtower to the shepherd’ s cot.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:10 - Images and groves Images and groves - Images of different idols, and places for the abominable rites of Ashtaroth or Venus.

Images and groves - Images of different idols, and places for the abominable rites of Ashtaroth or Venus.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:13 - Yet the Lord testified against Israel Yet the Lord testified against Israel - What rendered their conduct the more inexcusable was, that the Lord had preserved among them a succession of...

Yet the Lord testified against Israel - What rendered their conduct the more inexcusable was, that the Lord had preserved among them a succession of prophets, who testified against their conduct, and preached repentance to them, and the readiness of God to forgive, provided they would return unto him, and give up their idolatries.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:17 - Sold themselves to do evil Sold themselves to do evil - Abandoned themselves to the will of the devil, to work all iniquity with greediness.

Sold themselves to do evil - Abandoned themselves to the will of the devil, to work all iniquity with greediness.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:18 - Removed them out of his sight Removed them out of his sight - Banished them from the promised land, from the temple, and from every ordinance of righteousness, as wholly unworthy...

Removed them out of his sight - Banished them from the promised land, from the temple, and from every ordinance of righteousness, as wholly unworthy of any kind of good

Clarke: 2Ki 17:18 - None left but the tribe of Judah only None left but the tribe of Judah only - Under this name all those of Benjamin and Levi, and the Israelites, who abandoned their idolatries and joine...

None left but the tribe of Judah only - Under this name all those of Benjamin and Levi, and the Israelites, who abandoned their idolatries and joined with Judah, are comprised. It was the ten tribes that were carried away by the Assyrians.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:24 - The king of Assyria brought men from Babylon The king of Assyria brought men from Babylon - He removed one people entirely, and substituted others in their place; and this he did to cut off all...

The king of Assyria brought men from Babylon - He removed one people entirely, and substituted others in their place; and this he did to cut off all occasion for mutiny or insurrection; for the people being removed from their own land, had no object worthy of attention to contend for, and no patrimony in the land of their captivity to induce them to hazard any opposition to their oppressors

By men from Babylon, we may understand some cities of Babylonia then under the Assyrian empire; for at this time Babylon had a king of its own; but some parts of what was called Babylonia might have been still under the Assyrian government

Clarke: 2Ki 17:24 - From Cuthah From Cuthah - This is supposed to be the same as Cush, the Chaldeans and Syrians changing ש shin into ת tau ; thus they make כוש Cush i...

From Cuthah - This is supposed to be the same as Cush, the Chaldeans and Syrians changing ש shin into ת tau ; thus they make כוש Cush into כות Cuth ; and אשור Ashshur , Assyria, into אתור Attur . From these came the Scythae; and from these the Samaritans were called Cuthaeans, and their language Cuthite. The original language of this people, or at least the language they spoke after their settlement in Israel, is contained in the Samaritan version of the Pentateuch, printed under the Hebraeo-Samaritan in vol. i. of the London Polyglot. This Cuthah was probably the country in the land of Shinar, first inhabited by Cush

Clarke: 2Ki 17:24 - From Ava From Ava - The Avim were an ancient people, expelled by the Caphtorim from Hazerim, Deu 2:23

From Ava - The Avim were an ancient people, expelled by the Caphtorim from Hazerim, Deu 2:23

Clarke: 2Ki 17:24 - From Hamath From Hamath - This was Hemath or Emath of Syria, frequently mentioned in the sacred writings

From Hamath - This was Hemath or Emath of Syria, frequently mentioned in the sacred writings

Clarke: 2Ki 17:24 - From Sepharvaim From Sepharvaim - There was a city called Syphera, near the Euphrates; others think the Saspires, a people situated between the Colchians and the Me...

From Sepharvaim - There was a city called Syphera, near the Euphrates; others think the Saspires, a people situated between the Colchians and the Medes, are meant. There is much uncertainty relative to these places: all that we know is, that the Assyrians carried away the Israelites into Assyria, and placed them in cities and districts called Halah and Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes, 2Ki 17:6; and it is very likely that they brought some of the inhabitants of those places into the cities of Israel.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:25 - The Lord sent lions among them The Lord sent lions among them - The land being deprived of its inhabitants, wild beasts would necessarily increase, even without any supernatural i...

The Lord sent lions among them - The land being deprived of its inhabitants, wild beasts would necessarily increase, even without any supernatural intervention; and this the superstitious new comers supposed to be a plague sent upon them, because they did not know how to worship him who was the God of the land; for they thought, like other heathens that every district had its own tutelary deity. Yet it is likely that God did send lions as a scourge on this bad people.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:26 - The manner of the God of the land The manner of the God of the land - משפט mishpat , the judgment; the way in which the God of the land is to be worshipped.

The manner of the God of the land - משפט mishpat , the judgment; the way in which the God of the land is to be worshipped.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:27 - Carry thither one of the priests Carry thither one of the priests - Imperfect as this teaching was, it, in the end, overthrew the idolatry of these people, so that soon after the Ba...

Carry thither one of the priests - Imperfect as this teaching was, it, in the end, overthrew the idolatry of these people, so that soon after the Babylonish captivity they were found to be as free from idolatry as the Jews themselves, and continue so to the present day. But they are now nearly annihilated: the small remains of them is found at Naplouse and Jaffa; they are about thirty families; and men, women, and children, amount to about two hundred persons! They have a synagogue, which they regularly attend every Sabbath; and they go thither clothed in white robes. The reader may find much curious information relative to this people, in a Memoire sur L’ Etat actuel des Samaritains, by Baron Sylvestre de Sacy, 8vo., Paris, 1812.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:29 - Every nation made gods of their own Every nation made gods of their own - That is, they made gods after the fashion of those which they had worshipped in their own country.

Every nation made gods of their own - That is, they made gods after the fashion of those which they had worshipped in their own country.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:30 - The men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth The men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth - This, literally, signifies the tabernacles of the daughters or young women, and most evidently refers to th...

The men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth - This, literally, signifies the tabernacles of the daughters or young women, and most evidently refers to those public prostitutions of young virgins at the temple of Melitta or Venus among the Babylonians. See at the end of the chapter, 2Ki 17:41 (note). From benoth it is probable that the word Venus came, the B being changed into V, as is frequently the case, and the th into s, benoth , Venos . The rabbins say that her emblem was a hen with her chickens; see Jarchi on the place

Clarke: 2Ki 17:30 - The men of Cuth made Nergal The men of Cuth made Nergal - This is supposed to have been the solar orb or light. According to the rabbins, his emblem was a cock. See at the end ...

The men of Cuth made Nergal - This is supposed to have been the solar orb or light. According to the rabbins, his emblem was a cock. See at the end of the chapter, 2Ki 17:41 (note)

Clarke: 2Ki 17:30 - The men of Hamath made Ashima The men of Hamath made Ashima - Perhaps the fire; from אשם asham , to make atonement or to purify. Jarchi says this was in the form of a goat. S...

The men of Hamath made Ashima - Perhaps the fire; from אשם asham , to make atonement or to purify. Jarchi says this was in the form of a goat. See below on 2Ki 17:41 (note).

Clarke: 2Ki 17:31 - The Avites made Nibhaz The Avites made Nibhaz - This was supposed to be the same as the Anubis of the Egyptians; and was in form partly of a dog, and partly of a man. A ve...

The Avites made Nibhaz - This was supposed to be the same as the Anubis of the Egyptians; and was in form partly of a dog, and partly of a man. A very ancient image of this kind now lies before me: it is cut out of stone, about seven inches high; has the body, legs, and arms, of a man; the head and feet of a dog; the thighs and legs covered with scales; the head crowned with a tiara; the arms crossed upon the breasts, with the fingers clenched. The figure stands upright, and the belly is very protuberant. See below

Clarke: 2Ki 17:31 - And Tartak And Tartak - This is supposed by some to be another name of the same idol; Jarchi says it was in the shape of an ass. Some think these were the repr...

And Tartak - This is supposed by some to be another name of the same idol; Jarchi says it was in the shape of an ass. Some think these were the representations of the sun in his chariot; Nibhaz representing the solar orb, and Tartak the chariot. See below

Clarke: 2Ki 17:31 - Adrammelech Adrammelech - From אדר adar , glorious, and מלך melech , king. Probably the sun

Adrammelech - From אדר adar , glorious, and מלך melech , king. Probably the sun

Clarke: 2Ki 17:31 - Anammelech Anammelech - From anah , to return, and מלך melech , king. Probably, the Moloch of the Ammonites. Jarchi says, the first was in the form of a mu...

Anammelech - From anah , to return, and מלך melech , king. Probably, the Moloch of the Ammonites. Jarchi says, the first was in the form of a mule, the second in the form of a horse; this was probably the moon.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:32 - Of the lowest of them priests Of the lowest of them priests - One priest was not enough for this motley population; and, as the priesthood was probably neither respectable nor lu...

Of the lowest of them priests - One priest was not enough for this motley population; and, as the priesthood was probably neither respectable nor lucrative, it was only the lowest of the people who would enter into the employment.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:33 - They feared the Lord, and served their own gods They feared the Lord, and served their own gods - They did not relinquish their own idolatry but incorporated the worship of the true God with that ...

They feared the Lord, and served their own gods - They did not relinquish their own idolatry but incorporated the worship of the true God with that of their idols. They were afraid of Jehovah, who had sent lions among them; and therefore they offered him a sort of worship that he might not thus afflict them: but they served other gods, devoted themselves affectionately to them, because their worship was such as gratified their grossest passions, and most sinful propensities.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:36 - But the Lord But the Lord - Jehovah, the supreme, self-existent, and eternal Being; author of all being and life. This was to be the sole object of their adorati...

But the Lord - Jehovah, the supreme, self-existent, and eternal Being; author of all being and life. This was to be the sole object of their adoration

Clarke: 2Ki 17:36 - Who brought you up Who brought you up - This was a strong reason why they should adore Him only: he had saved them from the hands of their enemies, and he did it in su...

Who brought you up - This was a strong reason why they should adore Him only: he had saved them from the hands of their enemies, and he did it in such a way as to show his power to be irresistible; in such a Being they might safely confide

Clarke: 2Ki 17:36 - Him shall ye fear Him shall ye fear - Here is the manner in which he is to be worshipped. Him ye shall reverence as your Lawgiver and Judge; ye shall respect and keep...

Him shall ye fear - Here is the manner in which he is to be worshipped. Him ye shall reverence as your Lawgiver and Judge; ye shall respect and keep all his commandments; doing what he has enjoined, and avoiding what he has forbidden

Clarke: 2Ki 17:36 - Him shall ye worship Him shall ye worship - Before Him ye shall bow the knee; living in the spirit of obedience, and performing every religious act in the deepest humili...

Him shall ye worship - Before Him ye shall bow the knee; living in the spirit of obedience, and performing every religious act in the deepest humility

Clarke: 2Ki 17:36 - And to him shall ye do sacrifice And to him shall ye do sacrifice - Ye shall consider that, as ye have sinned, so ye deserve death; ye shall therefore bring your living victims to t...

And to him shall ye do sacrifice - Ye shall consider that, as ye have sinned, so ye deserve death; ye shall therefore bring your living victims to the altar of the Lord, and let their life’ s blood be poured out there, as an atonement for your souls. We see in this verse three important points

1.    The object of their worship

2.    The reasons of that worship; and

3.    The spirit and manner in which it was to be performed: viz.

1. In fear

2. Humility; and

3. By sacrifice.

Clarke: 2Ki 17:41 - So do they unto this day So do they unto this day - This must have been written before the Babylonish captivity; because, after that time, none of the Israelites ever lapsed...

So do they unto this day - This must have been written before the Babylonish captivity; because, after that time, none of the Israelites ever lapsed into idolatry. But this may chiefly refer to the heathenish people who were sent to dwell among the remains of the ten tribes

On these nations and the objects of their worship, I present my readers with the following extracts from Dodd and Parkhurst

Clarke: 2Ki 17:41 - 2Ki 17:30. The men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth. We have here an account of the idols which were consecrated by the different nations, transplanted by the king of Assyria to Samaria. It is difficult, however, and has afforded a large field for conjecture, to give any satisfactory account concerning them. The reader will find in Selden, Vossius, and Jurieu, much upon the subject. Succoth-benoth may be literally translated, The Tabernacles of the Daughters, or Young Women; or if Benoth be taken as the name of a female idol, from בנה to build up, procreate children, then the words will express the tabernacles sacred to the productive powers feminine. And, agreeably to this latter exposition, the rabbins say that the emblem was a hen and chickens. But however this may be, there is no room to doubt that these succoth were tabernacles wherein young women exposed themselves to prostitution in honor of the Babylonish goddess Melitta. Herodotus, (lib. i., c. 199), gives us a particular account of this detestable service. "Every young woman,"says he, "of the country of Babylon must once in her life sit at the temple of Venus, [whom he afterwards tells us the Assyrians called Melitta], and prostitute herself to some stranger. Those who are rich, and so disdain to mingle with the crowd, present themselves before the temple in covered chariots, attended by a great retinue. But the generality of the women sit near the temple, having crowns upon their heads, and holding a cord, some continually coming, others going. [See Baruch 6:43]. The cords are held by them in such a manner as to afford a free passage among the women, that the strangers may choose whom they like. A woman who has once seated herself in this place must not return home till some stranger has cast money into her lap, and led her from the temple, and defiled her. The stranger who throws the money must say, ‘ I invoke the goddess Melitta for thee.’ The money, however small a sum it may be, must not be refused, because it is appointed to sacred uses. [See Deu 23:18]. The woman must follow the first man that offers, and not reject him; and after prostitution, having now duly honored the goddess, she is dismissed to her own house. In Cyprus,"adds the historian, "they have the same custom."This abomination, implied by Succoth-benoth, the men of Babylon brought with them into the country of Samaria; and both the name of the idol Melitta, and the execrable service performed to her honor, show that by Melitta was originally intended the procreative or productive power of nature, the Venus of the Greeks and Romans. See the beginning of Lucretius’ s first book De Rerum Natura. Mr. Selden imagines that some traces of the Succoth-benoth may be found in Sicca Veneria, the name of a city of Numidia, not far from the borders of Africa Propria. The name itself bears a near allusion to the obscene custom above taken notice of, and seems to have been transported from Phoenicia: nor can this well be disputed, when we consider that here was a temple where women were obliged to purchase their marriage-money by the prostitution of their bodies. See Univ. Hist., vol. xvii., p. 295, and Parkhurst’ s Lexicon on the word סך

The men of Cuth made Nergal. 2Ki 17:30. The men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth. We have here an account of the idols which were consecrated by the different nations, transplante...

2Ki 17:30. The men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth. We have here an account of the idols which were consecrated by the different nations, transplanted by the king of Assyria to Samaria. It is difficult, however, and has afforded a large field for conjecture, to give any satisfactory account concerning them. The reader will find in Selden, Vossius, and Jurieu, much upon the subject. Succoth-benoth may be literally translated, The Tabernacles of the Daughters, or Young Women; or if Benoth be taken as the name of a female idol, from בנה to build up, procreate children, then the words will express the tabernacles sacred to the productive powers feminine. And, agreeably to this latter exposition, the rabbins say that the emblem was a hen and chickens. But however this may be, there is no room to doubt that these succoth were tabernacles wherein young women exposed themselves to prostitution in honor of the Babylonish goddess Melitta. Herodotus, (lib. i., c. 199), gives us a particular account of this detestable service. "Every young woman,"says he, "of the country of Babylon must once in her life sit at the temple of Venus, [whom he afterwards tells us the Assyrians called Melitta], and prostitute herself to some stranger. Those who are rich, and so disdain to mingle with the crowd, present themselves before the temple in covered chariots, attended by a great retinue. But the generality of the women sit near the temple, having crowns upon their heads, and holding a cord, some continually coming, others going. [See Baruch 6:43]. The cords are held by them in such a manner as to afford a free passage among the women, that the strangers may choose whom they like. A woman who has once seated herself in this place must not return home till some stranger has cast money into her lap, and led her from the temple, and defiled her. The stranger who throws the money must say, ‘ I invoke the goddess Melitta for thee.’ The money, however small a sum it may be, must not be refused, because it is appointed to sacred uses. [See Deu 23:18]. The woman must follow the first man that offers, and not reject him; and after prostitution, having now duly honored the goddess, she is dismissed to her own house. In Cyprus,"adds the historian, "they have the same custom."This abomination, implied by Succoth-benoth, the men of Babylon brought with them into the country of Samaria; and both the name of the idol Melitta, and the execrable service performed to her honor, show that by Melitta was originally intended the procreative or productive power of nature, the Venus of the Greeks and Romans. See the beginning of Lucretius’ s first book De Rerum Natura. Mr. Selden imagines that some traces of the Succoth-benoth may be found in Sicca Veneria, the name of a city of Numidia, not far from the borders of Africa Propria. The name itself bears a near allusion to the obscene custom above taken notice of, and seems to have been transported from Phoenicia: nor can this well be disputed, when we consider that here was a temple where women were obliged to purchase their marriage-money by the prostitution of their bodies. See Univ. Hist., vol. xvii., p. 295, and Parkhurst’ s Lexicon on the word סך

The men of Cuth made Nergal. - Cuth was a province of Assyria, which, according to some, lies upon the Araxis: but others rather think it to be the same with Cush, which is said by Moses to be encompassed with the river Gihon; and must, therefore, be the same with the country which the Greeks call Susiana, and which to this day is called by the inhabitants Chusesta. Their idol, Nergal, seems to have been the sun, as the causer of the diurnal and annual revolutions of the planets; for it is naturally derived from נר ner , light, and by גל gal , to revolve. The rabbins say that the idol was represented in the shape of a cock; and probably they tell us the truth, for this seems a very proper emblem. Among the latter heathens we find the cock was sacred to Apollo or the sun, (see Pierii Hieroglyph., p. 223), "because,"says Heliodorus, speaking of the time when cocks crow, "by a natural sensation of the sun’ s revolution to us, they are incited to salute the god."Aethiop. lib. i. And perhaps under this name, Nergal, they meant to worship the sun, not only for the diurnal return of its light upon the earth, but also for its annual return or revolution. We may observe that the emblem, a cock, is affected by the latter as well as by the former, and is frequently crowing both day and night, when the days begin to lengthen. See Calmet’ s Dictionary under the word, and Parkhurst’ s Lexicon

Clarke: 2Ki 17:41 - The men of Hamath made Ashima. The men of Hamath made Ashima. - There are several cities and countries which go under the name of Hamath; but what we take to be here meant is that...

The men of Hamath made Ashima. - There are several cities and countries which go under the name of Hamath; but what we take to be here meant is that province of Syria which lies upon the Orontes, wherein there was a city of the same name; which when Shalmaneser had taken, he removed the inhabitants from thence into Samaria. Their idol Ashima signifies the atoner or expiator, from אשם asham . The word is in a Chaldee form, and seems to be the same as אשמת שמרון ashmath Shomeron , the sin of Samaria, mentioned Amo 8:14, where ashmath is rendered by the Lxx. propitiation. It is known to every one who has the least acquaintance with the mythology of the heathen, how strongly and universally they retained the tradition of an atonement or expiation for sin, although they expected it from a false object and wrong means. We find it expressed in very clear terms among the Romans even so late as the time of Horace, lib. i., ode 2: -

Cui dabit partes scelus expiandi Jupiter

And whom, to expiate the horrid guilt, Will Jove appoint

The answer is, "Apollo,"the god of light. Some think that, as Asuman or Suman, asman , in the Persian language, signifies heaven, the Syrians might from hence derive the name of this god; who, they suppose, was represented by a large stone pillar terminating in a conic or pyramidical figure, whereby they denoted fire. See Parkhurst on the word אשם asham , Calmet’ s Dictionary, and Tennison on Idolatry

Clarke: 2Ki 17:41 - 2Ki 17:31. The Avites made Nibhaz and Tartak. 2Ki 17:31. The Avites made Nibhaz and Tartak. - It is uncertain who these Avites were. The most probable opinion seems to be that which Grotius has ...

2Ki 17:31. The Avites made Nibhaz and Tartak. - It is uncertain who these Avites were. The most probable opinion seems to be that which Grotius has suggested by observing that there are a people in Bactriana, mentioned by Ptolemy, under the name of Avidia, who possibly might be those transported at this time into Palestine by Shalmaneser. Nibhaz, according to the rabbins, had the shape of a dog, much like the Anubis of the Egyptians. In Pierius’ s Hieroglyphics, p. 53, is the figure of a cunocephalus , a kind of ape, with a head like a dog, standing upon his hinder feet, and looking earnestly at the moon. Pierius there teaches us that the cunocephalus was an animal eminently sacred amongst the Egyptians, hieroglyphical of the moon, and kept in their temples to inform them of the moon’ s conjunction with the sun, at which time this animal is strangely affected, being deprived of sight, refusing food, and lying sick on the ground; but on the moon’ s appearance seeming to return thanks, and congratulate the return of light both to himself and her. See Johnston’ s Nat. Hist. de Quadruped., p. 100. This being observed, the נבחז nibchaz , (which may well be derived from נבח nabach , to bark, and חזה chazah , to see), gives us reason to conclude that this idol was in the shape of a cunocephalus , or a dog looking, barking, or howling at the moon. It is obvious to common observation that dogs in general have this property; and an idol of the form just mentioned seems to have been originally designed to represent the power or influence of the moon on all sublunary bodies, with which the cunocephaluses and dogs are so eminently affected. So, as we have observed upon Nergal, the influence of the returning solar light was represented by a cock; and the generative power of the heavens by Dagon, a fishy idol. See Parkhurst on נבחז who is of opinion that Tartak תרתק is compounded of תר tar , to turn, go round, and רתק rathak , to chain, tether; and plainly denotes the heavens, considered as confining the planets in their respective orbits, as if they were tethered. The Jews have a tradition that the emblem of this idol was an ass; which, considering the propriety of that animal when tethered to represent this idol, is not improbable; and from this idolatrous worship of the Samaritans, joined perhaps with some confused account of the cherubim, seems to have sprung that stupid story by the heathens, that the Jews had an ass’ s head in their holy of holies, to which they paid religious worship. See Bochart, vol. ii., p. 221. Jurieu is of opinion that as the word Nibhaz, both in the Hebrew and Chaldee, with a small variation, denotes quick, swift, rapid; and tartak , in the same languages, signifies a chariot, these two idols may both together denominate the sun mounted on his car, as the fictions of the poets and the notions of the mythologists were wont to represent that luminary

Clarke: 2Ki 17:41 - The Sepharvites burned their children - to Adrammelech and Anammelech. The Sepharvites burned their children - to Adrammelech and Anammelech. - As these Sepharvites probably came from the cities of the Medes, whither th...

The Sepharvites burned their children - to Adrammelech and Anammelech. - As these Sepharvites probably came from the cities of the Medes, whither the Israelites were carried captive, and as Herodotus tells us that between Colchis and Media are found a people called Saspires, in all likelihood they were the same with those here named Sepharvites. Moloch, Milcom, and Melech, in the language of different nations, all signify a king, and imply the sun, which was called the king of heaven; and consequently the addition of אדר adar , which signifies powerful, illustrious, to the one, and of ענה anah , which implies to return, to answer, to the other, means no more than the mighty or the oracular Moloch. And as the children were offered to him, it appears that he was the same with the Moloch of the Ammonites. See Univ. Hist. and Calmet. Mr. Locke is also of opinion that these two names were expressive of one and the same deity. What they were, or in what form, and how worshipped, we have not light from antiquity to determine.

Defender: 2Ki 17:3 - Hoshea Hoshea was the last king of Israel before the Assyrian captivity. Shalmezer V besieged the well-fortified capital city of Samaria but died in the sieg...

Hoshea was the last king of Israel before the Assyrian captivity. Shalmezer V besieged the well-fortified capital city of Samaria but died in the siege. His successor, Sargon II, sacked the city and carried the Israelites away to various Assyrian cities (this information is obtained from an inscription in Sargon's palace. See note on Isa 20:5). It is noteworthy that the names of at least ten Hebrew kings (Omri, Ahab, Jehu, Menahem, Pekah, and Hoshea of Israel; Uzziah, Ahaz, Hezekiah, and Manasseh of Judah) have been found on excavated Assyrian tablets. The same is true of the various Assyrian kings mentioned in the Bible. All such records are fully consistent with the Biblical records."

Defender: 2Ki 17:7 - Israel had sinned At this point, the unknown compiler and writer of the book of Kings concludes the sad history of the northern kingdom with a seventeen verse recital o...

At this point, the unknown compiler and writer of the book of Kings concludes the sad history of the northern kingdom with a seventeen verse recital of the reasons why God finally had to uproot His chosen people from the promised land and send them into captivity under the cruel Assyrians. This was in fulfillment of many unheeded prophetic warnings (1Ki 14:15, 1Ki 14:16)."

Defender: 2Ki 17:33 - their own gods The new inhabitants of Samaria, after the Israelites had been carried away into Assyria, soon became a mixed nation - partly composed of Israeli blood...

The new inhabitants of Samaria, after the Israelites had been carried away into Assyria, soon became a mixed nation - partly composed of Israeli blood and partly of many other tribes, all of which were pagan (2Ki 17:24). Consequently, their religion became a strange mixture of worship of Jehovah and of various pagan gods. These people became the Samaritans of New Testament times, despised by their Jewish half-brothers. Except for scattered individuals, the exiled Israelites never returned to their homeland."

TSK: 2Ki 17:1 - In the twelfth // Hoshea am 3274, bc 730 In the twelfth : In 2Ki 15:30, this is said to be ""the twentieth year of Jotham,""which Calmet thus reconciles: ""Hosea conspired ag...

am 3274, bc 730

In the twelfth : In 2Ki 15:30, this is said to be ""the twentieth year of Jotham,""which Calmet thus reconciles: ""Hosea conspired against Pekah, the 20th year of the reign of this prince, which was the 18th of Jotham, king of Judah. Two years after this, that is, the 4th of Ahaz and the 20th of Jotham, Hosea made himself master of a part of the kingdom, according to 2Ki 15:30. Finally, the 12th year of Ahaz, Hosea had peaceable possession of the whole kingdom, agreeably to 2Ki 17:1."

Hoshea : ""After an interregnum, 2Ki 15:30; 2Ki 18:9.""2Ki 17:1

TSK: 2Ki 17:2 - but not as the kings but not as the kings : 2Ki 3:2, 2Ki 10:31, 2Ki 13:2, 2Ki 13:11, 2Ki 15:9, 2Ki 15:18, 2Ki 15:24; 2Ch 30:5-11

TSK: 2Ki 17:3 - Shalmaneser // king of Assyria // and Hoshea // gave // presents Shalmaneser : This was the son and successor of Tiglath-pilesercaps1 . hcaps0 e reigned 14 years, from am 3276 to 3290. 2Ki 18:9; Hos 10:14, Shalman ...

Shalmaneser : This was the son and successor of Tiglath-pilesercaps1 . hcaps0 e reigned 14 years, from am 3276 to 3290. 2Ki 18:9; Hos 10:14, Shalman

king of Assyria : 2Ki 15:19, 2Ki 15:29, 2Ki 16:7, 2Ki 18:13, 2Ki 19:36, 2Ki 19:37; Isa 7:7, Isa 7:8, Isa 10:5, Isa 10:6, Isa 10:11, Isa 10:12

and Hoshea : 2Ki 16:8, 2Ki 18:14-16, 2Ki 18:31

gave : Heb. rendered

presents : or, tribute, 2Sa 8:2, 2Sa 8:6

TSK: 2Ki 17:4 - found conspiracy // king of Egypt // brought // bound him am 3279, bc 725 found conspiracy : 2Ki 24:1, 2Ki 24:20; Eze 17:13-19 king of Egypt : 2Ki 18:21; Isa 30:1-4, Isa 31:1-3; Eze 17:15 brought : 2Ki 18:14,...

am 3279, bc 725

found conspiracy : 2Ki 24:1, 2Ki 24:20; Eze 17:13-19

king of Egypt : 2Ki 18:21; Isa 30:1-4, Isa 31:1-3; Eze 17:15

brought : 2Ki 18:14, 2Ki 18:15

bound him : 2Ki 25:7; 2Ch 32:11; Psa 149:7, Psa 149:8

TSK: 2Ki 17:5 - the king // three years am 3281-3283, bc 723-721 the king : 2Ki 18:9 three years : 2Ki 25:1-3; Jer 52:4, Jer 52:5

am 3281-3283, bc 723-721

the king : 2Ki 18:9

three years : 2Ki 25:1-3; Jer 52:4, Jer 52:5

TSK: 2Ki 17:6 - the king of Assyria // carried // Halah // the Medes am 3283, bc 721 the king of Assyria : 2Ki 18:10, 2Ki 18:11; Hos 1:6, Hos 1:9, Hos 13:16, foretold carried : Lev 26:32, Lev 26:33, Lev 26:38; Deu 4:25-...

TSK: 2Ki 17:7 - sinned // the Lord // which had // and had feared sinned : Deu 31:16, Deu 31:17, Deu 31:29, 32:15-52; Jos 23:16; Jdg 2:14-17; 2Ch 36:14-16; Neh 9:26; Psa 106:35-41; Eze 23:2-16; Hos 4:1-3, Hos 8:5-14 ...

TSK: 2Ki 17:8 - walked // of the kings of Israel walked : 2Ki 16:3, 2Ki 16:10, 2Ki 21:2; Lev 18:3, Lev 18:27-30; Deu 12:30, Deu 12:31, Deu 18:9; 1Ki 12:28; 1Ki 16:31-33, 1Ki 21:26; Psa 106:35; Jer 10...

TSK: 2Ki 17:9 - secretly // from the tower secretly : Deu 13:6, Deu 27:15; Job 31:27; Eze 8:12 from the tower : 2Ki 18:8; Hos 12:11

secretly : Deu 13:6, Deu 27:15; Job 31:27; Eze 8:12

from the tower : 2Ki 18:8; Hos 12:11

TSK: 2Ki 17:10 - they set // images // groves // in every they set : 2Ki 16:4; Exo 34:13; Lev 26:1; 1Ki 14:23; Isa 57:5 images : Heb. statues groves : Deu 16:21; Mic 5:14 in every : 2Ki 16:4; 1Ki 14:23; Deu 1...

they set : 2Ki 16:4; Exo 34:13; Lev 26:1; 1Ki 14:23; Isa 57:5

images : Heb. statues

groves : Deu 16:21; Mic 5:14

in every : 2Ki 16:4; 1Ki 14:23; Deu 12:2, Deu 12:3

TSK: 2Ki 17:11 - burnt // to provoke burnt : 1Ki 13:1; 2Ch 28:25; Jer 44:17 to provoke : 2Ki 21:6; Psa 78:56-58

TSK: 2Ki 17:12 - whereof // Ye shall not whereof : Exo 20:3-5, Exo 34:14; Lev 26:1; Deu 4:19, Deu 5:7-9 Ye shall not : Deu 4:15-19, Deu 4:23-25, Deu 12:4

TSK: 2Ki 17:13 - testified // and against // all // seers // Turn ye // keep testified : Deu 8:19, Deu 31:21; Neh 9:29, Neh 9:30; Psa 50:7, Psa 81:8, Psa 81:9; Jer 42:19; Act 20:21 and against : 2Ch 36:15, 2Ch 36:16; Jer 3:8-11...

TSK: 2Ki 17:14 - but hardened // did not believe but hardened : Deu 31:27; 2Ch 36:13; Pro 29:1; Isa 48:4; Jer 7:26; Rom 2:4, Rom 2:5; Heb 3:7, Heb 3:8 did not believe : Deu 1:32; Psa 78:22, Psa 78:32...

TSK: 2Ki 17:15 - they rejected // his covenant // testimonies // vanity // became vain // concerning whom they rejected : Jer 8:9 his covenant : Exo 24:6-8; Deu 29:10-15, Deu 29:25, Deu 29:26; Jer 31:32 testimonies : Deu 6:17, Deu 6:18; 2Ch 36:15, 2Ch 36:1...

TSK: 2Ki 17:16 - molten images // a grove // worshipped // Baal molten images : Exo 32:4, Exo 32:8; 1Ki 12:28; Psa 106:18-20; Isa 44:9, Isa 44:10 a grove : 2Ki 17:10; 1Ki 14:15, 1Ki 14:23, 1Ki 15:13, 1Ki 16:33 wors...

TSK: 2Ki 17:17 - they caused // used // sold // in the sight they caused : 2Ki 16:3, 2Ki 21:6; Lev 18:21; 2Ch 28:3; Psa 106:37, Psa 106:38; Eze 20:26, Eze 20:31; Eze 23:37, Eze 23:39 used : 2Ki 21:6; Deu 18:10-1...

TSK: 2Ki 17:18 - removed // the tribe removed : 2Ki 13:23, 2Ki 23:27; Deu 29:20-28, Deu 32:21-26; Jos 23:13, Jos 23:15; Jer 15:1; Hos 9:3 the tribe : 1Ki 11:13, 1Ki 11:32, 1Ki 11:36, 1Ki 1...

TSK: 2Ki 17:19 - Also Judah // walked Also Judah : 1Ki 14:22, 1Ki 14:23; 2Ch 21:11, 2Ch 21:13; Jer 2:28, Jer 3:8-11; Eze 16:51, Eze 16:52; Eze 22:2-16, Eze 23:4-13 walked : 2Ki 8:18, 2Ki 8...

TSK: 2Ki 17:20 - rejected // all the seed // delivered // until he had cast rejected : 2Ki 17:15; 1Sa 15:23, 1Sa 15:26, 1Sa 16:1; Jer 6:30; Rom 11:1, Rom 11:2 all the seed : 1Ch 16:13; Neh 9:2; Isa 45:25; Jer 31:36, Jer 31:37,...

TSK: 2Ki 17:21 - For he rent // they made // Jeroboam drave // a great sin For he rent : 1Ki 11:11, 1Ki 11:31, 1Ki 14:8; Isa 7:17 they made : 1Ki 12:19, 1Ki 12:20; 2Ch 10:15-19 Jeroboam drave : 1Ki 12:20, 1Ki 12:28-30, 1Ki 14...

TSK: 2Ki 17:22 - walked in all the sins walked in all the sins : 2Ki 3:3, 2Ki 10:29, 2Ki 10:31, 2Ki 13:2, 2Ki 13:6, 2Ki 13:11, 2Ki 15:9

walked in all the sins : 2Ki 3:3, 2Ki 10:29, 2Ki 10:31, 2Ki 13:2, 2Ki 13:6, 2Ki 13:11, 2Ki 15:9

TSK: 2Ki 17:23 - the Lord // as he had said // So was Israel the Lord : 2Ki 17:18, 2Ki 17:20 as he had said : 2Ki 17:13; 1Ki 13:2, 1Ki 14:16; Hos 1:4-9; Amo 5:27; Mic 1:6 So was Israel : 2Ki 17:6, 2Ki 18:11, 2Ki...

the Lord : 2Ki 17:18, 2Ki 17:20

as he had said : 2Ki 17:13; 1Ki 13:2, 1Ki 14:16; Hos 1:4-9; Amo 5:27; Mic 1:6

So was Israel : 2Ki 17:6, 2Ki 18:11, 2Ki 18:12

TSK: 2Ki 17:24 - the king // Babylon // Ava // Hamath // in the cities thereof am 3326, bc 678 the king : Ezr 4:2-10 Babylon : 2Ki 17:30; 2Ch 33:11 Ava : 2Ki 17:31, 2Ki 18:31; Isa 37:13, Ivah Hamath : 2Ki 19:13; Isa 10:9, Isa 36:...

am 3326, bc 678

the king : Ezr 4:2-10

Babylon : 2Ki 17:30; 2Ch 33:11

Ava : 2Ki 17:31, 2Ki 18:31; Isa 37:13, Ivah

Hamath : 2Ki 19:13; Isa 10:9, Isa 36:19

in the cities thereof : 2Ki 17:6; Mat 10:5

TSK: 2Ki 17:25 - they feared // the Lord sent they feared : 2Ki 17:28, 2Ki 17:32, 2Ki 17:34, 2Ki 17:41; Jos 22:25; Jer 10:7; Dan 6:26; Jon 1:9 the Lord sent : 2Ki 2:24; 1Ki 13:24, 1Ki 20:36; Jer 5...

TSK: 2Ki 17:26 - and placed // know not and placed : 2Ki 17:24 know not : 2Ki 17:27; 1Sa 8:9, 1Sa 10:25; Amo 8:14

and placed : 2Ki 17:24

know not : 2Ki 17:27; 1Sa 8:9, 1Sa 10:25; Amo 8:14

TSK: 2Ki 17:27 - one of the priests one of the priests : Jdg 17:13; 1Ki 12:31, 1Ki 13:2; 2Ch 11:15

one of the priests : Jdg 17:13; 1Ki 12:31, 1Ki 13:2; 2Ch 11:15

TSK: 2Ki 17:28 - in Bethel // taught them in Bethel : 1Ki 12:29-32 taught them : Isa 29:13; Mat 15:14

in Bethel : 1Ki 12:29-32

taught them : Isa 29:13; Mat 15:14

TSK: 2Ki 17:29 - made gods made gods : Psa 115:4-8, Psa 135:15-18; Isa 44:9-20; Jer 10:3-5; Hos 8:5, Hos 8:6; Mic 4:5; Rom 1:23

TSK: 2Ki 17:30 - Babylon // Succoth benoth // Cuth // Nergal // Ashima Babylon : 2Ki 17:24 Succoth benoth : Succoth benoth , literally ""the tents of the daughters." Cuth : Cuth is probably the Cush watered by the Giho...

Babylon : 2Ki 17:24

Succoth benoth : Succoth benoth , literally ""the tents of the daughters."

Cuth : Cuth is probably the Cush watered by the Gihon, or Araxes, now Aras (Gen 2:13), the ancient country of the Scythians, where we meet with the Quitians, Coethians, or Coete, and Cytheans, and the cities of Cotatis, Cetemane, Cythanum, Cyta, Cethena, etc.

Nergal : Supposed to denote the solar orb; the emblem of which, according to the Rabbins, was a cock.

Ashima : Jarchi says this idol was of the form of a goat.

TSK: 2Ki 17:31 - the Avites // Nibhaz // burnt their children the Avites : 2Ki 17:24; Ezr 4:9 Nibhaz : Supposed to be the same as the Anubis of the Egyptians; and was in form partly a dog and partly a man. burnt ...

the Avites : 2Ki 17:24; Ezr 4:9

Nibhaz : Supposed to be the same as the Anubis of the Egyptians; and was in form partly a dog and partly a man.

burnt their children : 2Ki 17:17; Lev 18:21; Deu 12:28, Deu 12:31

TSK: 2Ki 17:32 - made unto themselves // the houses made unto themselves : 1Ki 12:31, 1Ki 13:33 the houses : 2Ki 17:29, 2Ki 23:19; 1Ki 13:31

made unto themselves : 1Ki 12:31, 1Ki 13:33

the houses : 2Ki 17:29, 2Ki 23:19; 1Ki 13:31

TSK: 2Ki 17:33 - They feared // whom they carried They feared : 2Ki 17:41; 1Ki 18:21; Hos 10:2; Zep 1:5; Mat 6:24; Luk 16:13 whom they carried : etc. or, who carried them away from thence, The new inh...

They feared : 2Ki 17:41; 1Ki 18:21; Hos 10:2; Zep 1:5; Mat 6:24; Luk 16:13

whom they carried : etc. or, who carried them away from thence, The new inhabitants of the land imitated the idolatrous Israelites, by associating their idols with Jehovah, as the objects of worship. The remainder, however, of the verses seem to relate to the Israelites after they were carried captive. They still persevered in idolatry and disobedience; and not being purified, were left to be consumed in the furnace. It is said that the Israelites ""did not fear the Lord,""yet the heathens, who followed their example, are said ""to have feared the Lord.""The Israelites did not so much as fear the wrath of Almighty God; but, on the other hand, the poor pagans feared the power of his wrath, and to avert it paid some ignorant worship, according to the wretched instructions given them. As this was an external acknowledgment of his power and Godhead, and a homage paid to him, he was pleased in consequence to withdraw his judgments from them. - Scott

TSK: 2Ki 17:34 - fear not // whom he named Israel fear not : 2Ki 17:25, 2Ki 17:27, 2Ki 17:28, 2Ki 17:33 whom he named Israel : Gen 32:28, Gen 33:20, Gen 35:10; 1Ki 11:31, 1Ki 18:11; Isa 48:1

TSK: 2Ki 17:35 - With whom // charged them // fear other gods With whom : 2Ki 17:15; Exo 19:5, Exo 19:6, Exo 24:6-8; Deu 29:10-15; Jer 31:31-34; Heb 8:6-13 charged them : Exo 20:4, Exo 20:5, Exo 34:12-17; Deu 4:2...

TSK: 2Ki 17:36 - a stretched // him shall ye fear a stretched : Exo 6:6, Exo 9:15; Deu 5:15; Jer 32:21; Act 4:30 him shall ye fear : Lev 19:32; Deu 6:13, Deu 10:20, Deu 12:5, Deu 12:6, Deu 12:11, Deu ...

TSK: 2Ki 17:37 - the statutes // wrote for you // and ye shall not the statutes : Lev 19:37; Deu 4:44, Deu 4:45, Deu 5:31-33, Deu 6:1, Deu 6:2, Deu 12:32; 1Ch 29:19; Psa 19:8-11; Psa 105:44, Psa 105:45 wrote for you :...

TSK: 2Ki 17:38 - ye shall not forget ye shall not forget : Deu 4:23, Deu 6:12, Deu 8:14-18

ye shall not forget : Deu 4:23, Deu 6:12, Deu 8:14-18

TSK: 2Ki 17:39 - the Lord // he shall deliver the Lord : 2Ki 17:36; 1Sa 12:24; Isa 8:12-14; Jer 10:7; Mat 10:28; Luk 1:50 he shall deliver : Neh 9:27; Luk 1:71, Luk 1:74, Luk 1:75

TSK: 2Ki 17:40 - they did not // but they did they did not : Jer 13:23 but they did : 2Ki 17:8, 2Ki 17:12, 2Ki 17:34; Deu 4:28

they did not : Jer 13:23

but they did : 2Ki 17:8, 2Ki 17:12, 2Ki 17:34; Deu 4:28

TSK: 2Ki 17:41 - these nations // unto this day these nations : 2Ki 17:32, 2Ki 17:33; Jos 24:14-20; 1Ki 18:21; Zep 1:5; Mat 6:24; Rev 3:15, Rev 3:16 unto this day : Ezr 4:1-3

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: 2Ki 17:1 - Quest Quest. How can this be true, seeing it is said that he reigned , or began to reign , in Israel in the twentieth year of Jotham, 2Ki 15:30 , which...

Quest. How can this be true, seeing it is said that he reigned , or began to reign , in Israel in the twentieth year of Jotham, 2Ki 15:30 , which was the fourth year of Ahaz, as was there noted? Answ He usurped the kingdom in Ahaz’ s fourth year; but either was not owned as king by the generality of the people, or was not accepted and established in his kingdom by the Assyrian, till Ahaz’ s twelfth year; or in his eight first years he was only a tributary prince, and the king of Assyria’ s viceroy; and after that time he set up for himself, which drew the Assyrian upon him. Nine years to wit, after his confirmation and peaceable possession of his kingdom; for in all he reigned seventeen or eighteen years, to wit, twelve with Ahaz, who reigned sixteen years, and six with Hezekiah, 2Ki 18:10 .

Poole: 2Ki 17:2 - -- For he neither worshipped Baal, as many of his predecessors did; nor compelled the people to worship the calves; one of them, that of Dan, being des...

For he neither worshipped Baal, as many of his predecessors did; nor compelled the people to worship the calves; one of them, that of Dan, being destroyed, or carried away before, as the Hebrew writers affirm; nor, as some add, hindered those by force who were minded to go to Jerusalem to worship; and yet, the measure of the Israelites’ sins being now full, vengeance comes upon them without remedy: compare 2Ki 23:26 .

Poole: 2Ki 17:3 - Gave him presents Shalmaneser; the son or successor of Tiglath-pileser. The ancient Hebrew writers make him the same with Sennacherib, who eight years after this time...

Shalmaneser; the son or successor of Tiglath-pileser. The ancient Hebrew writers make him the same with Sennacherib, who eight years after this time invaded the kingdom of Judah; see 2Ki 18:10,13 ; it being very frequent in the eastern parts for one man to be called by several names, especially by the people of several countries. Josephus affirms that he met with his name in the Annals of the Tyrians, which were extant in his days. He came against him, either because he denied the tribute which he had promised to pay, or that he might make him tributary.

Gave him presents swore fealty to him, and engaged to pay him a tribute.

Poole: 2Ki 17:4 - So king of Egypt So king of Egypt by heathen writers called Sua or Sabachus ; that by his assistance he might shake off the yoke of the king of Assyria; who now wa...

So king of Egypt by heathen writers called Sua or Sabachus ; that by his assistance he might shake off the yoke of the king of Assyria; who now was, and for many years had been, the king of Egypt’ s rival: see 2Ki 18:21 Jer 36:5 . Shut him up, and bound him in prison, to wit, after he had come up against him, and taken him, with Samaria; the particular relation whereof here follows.

Poole: 2Ki 17:6 - -- This is added to distinguish this place from the former, which was either in Assyria, or in the mountainous and less inhabited parts of Media. Hithe...

This is added to distinguish this place from the former, which was either in Assyria, or in the mountainous and less inhabited parts of Media. Hither he carried them, partly to replenish his own country; and partly because these places were at so great a distance from Canaan, that this would cut off all hopes and thoughts of returning to their own country.

Poole: 2Ki 17:8 - In the statutes of the heathen In the statutes of the heathen i.e. according to the laws and customs of the heathen, in the worship of their Baals, and other of their sins. Which t...

In the statutes of the heathen i.e. according to the laws and customs of the heathen, in the worship of their Baals, and other of their sins. Which they had made, i.e. which the kings of Israel had ordained concerning the worship of the calves, and against their going up to Jerusalem to worship.

Poole: 2Ki 17:9 - Things that were not right against the Lord // From the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city Things that were not right against the Lord: this belongs, either, 1. To their gross idolatries, and other abominable practices, which they were ash...

Things that were not right against the Lord: this belongs, either,

1. To their gross idolatries, and other abominable practices, which they were ashamed to own before others: compare Eze 8:12 . Or,

2. To the worship of calves; and so the words are otherwise rendered, and that agreeably to the Hebrew text, they cloaked, or disguised , or covered things that were not right against, or before, or towards the Lord , i.e. they covered their idolatrous worship of the calves with fair pretences of necessity, the two kingdoms being now divided, and at enmity; and of their honest intention of serving the true God, and retaining the substance of the Jewish religion, from which they alleged that they differed only in circumstances of worship.

From the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city in all parts and places, both in cities and in the country; yea, in the most uninhabited and neglected parts, where few or none dwell beside the watchmen, who are left there in towers, to preserve the cattle and fruits of the earth, or to give notice of the approach of enemies.

Poole: 2Ki 17:11 - As did the heathen // Whom the Lord carried away before them // To provoke the Lord to anger As did the heathen not only to the Lord, which was practised and tolerated sometimes in the kingdom of Judah; but also to the idols or Baals of the h...

As did the heathen not only to the Lord, which was practised and tolerated sometimes in the kingdom of Judah; but also to the idols or Baals of the heathen.

Whom the Lord carried away before them for the same sins; by whose example they should have taken warning.

To provoke the Lord to anger i.e. in despite and contempt of God, and his authority and command, as the next verse shows.

Poole: 2Ki 17:13 - Testified against Israel // By all the prophets, and by all the seers // According to all the law which I commanded your fathers Testified against Israel disowned, and gave testimony against their false worship, which they would fasten upon him, and against all their impieties....

Testified against Israel disowned, and gave testimony against their false worship, which they would fasten upon him, and against all their impieties.

By all the prophets, and by all the seers to whom he declared his mind by extraordinary revelations and visions, and by whom he published it to you, bearing witness from heaven to their doctrine by eminent and glorious miracles.

According to all the law which I commanded your fathers whereby he accuseth them of partiality, that they observed only those laws of God which they might safely keep, and lived in the constant breach of others, which their kings forbade them to observe.

Poole: 2Ki 17:14 - Hardened their necks Hardened their necks i.e. refused to submit their neck to the yoke of God’ s precepts; a metaphor from stubborn oxen, that make their necks hard...

Hardened their necks i.e. refused to submit their neck to the yoke of God’ s precepts; a metaphor from stubborn oxen, that make their necks hard, or stiff, and will not bow to the yoke: See Poole "Deu 31:27" .

Poole: 2Ki 17:15 - They followed vanity // Became vain They followed vanity i.e. idols; oft so called, because of their nothingness, impotency, and unprofitableness; and to show the folly and madness of i...

They followed vanity i.e. idols; oft so called, because of their nothingness, impotency, and unprofitableness; and to show the folly and madness of idolaters.

Became vain by the long worship of idols, they were made like them, vain, sottish, and senseless creatures.

Poole: 2Ki 17:16 - They left all the commandments of the Lord // The host of heaven They left all the commandments of the Lord they grew worse and worse; from a partial disobedience to some of God’ s laws, they fell by degrees t...

They left all the commandments of the Lord they grew worse and worse; from a partial disobedience to some of God’ s laws, they fell by degrees to a total apostacy from all of them.

The host of heaven the stars, as Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, &c. See Deu 4:19 .

Poole: 2Ki 17:17 - Sold themselves to do evil Sold themselves to do evil of which phrase See Poole "1Ki 21:20" .

Sold themselves to do evil of which phrase See Poole "1Ki 21:20" .

Poole: 2Ki 17:18 - Out of his sight // The tribe of Judah only Out of his sight i.e. out of Canaan, the only place of God’ s solemn worship and gracious presence; or, out of his church. The tribe of Judah o...

Out of his sight i.e. out of Canaan, the only place of God’ s solemn worship and gracious presence; or, out of his church.

The tribe of Judah only and the greatest part of the tribe of Benjamin, and those of the tribes of Simeon and Levi, who adhered to them, and were incorporated with them; and therefore very fitly denominated from them: See Poole "1Ki 11:13" .

Poole: 2Ki 17:19 - -- Judah’ s idolatry and wickedness is here remembered, as an aggravation of the sin of the Israelites, which was not only evil in itself but scan...

Judah’ s idolatry and wickedness is here remembered, as an aggravation of the sin of the Israelites, which was not only evil in itself but scandalous and mischievous to their neighbour, who by heir examples were instructed in their wicked arts, and provoked to an imitation of them: see Hos 4:15 , and compare Mat 18:7 .

Poole: 2Ki 17:20 - All the seed of Israel All the seed of Israel i.e. all the kingdom or tribes of Israel; first one part of them, 2Ki 15:29 , and now the rest. But this extends not to every ...

All the seed of Israel i.e. all the kingdom or tribes of Israel; first one part of them, 2Ki 15:29 , and now the rest. But this extends not to every individual person of these tribes; for many of them removed into the kingdom of Judah, and were associated with them, as appears from 2Ch 11:16 , and many other places.

Poole: 2Ki 17:21 - They made Jeroboam king // Jeroboam drave Israel from following the Lord // A great sin They made Jeroboam king which action is here ascribed to the people, because they would not tarry till God, by his providence, had invested Jeroboam ...

They made Jeroboam king which action is here ascribed to the people, because they would not tarry till God, by his providence, had invested Jeroboam with the kingdom which he had promised him; but rashly, and unthankfully, and rebelliously rose up against the house of David, to which they had such great obligations, and set him upon the throne without God’ s leave or advice.

Jeroboam drave Israel from following the Lord he not only dissuaded, but kept them by force from God’ s worship at Jerusalem, the only place appointed for it.

A great sin so the worship of the calves is called, to meet with that idle conceit of the Israelites, who esteemed it a small sin, especially when they were forced to it by severe penalties; which yet he shows did not excuse it from being a sin, and a great sin too.

Poole: 2Ki 17:22 - -- But willingly and resolutely followed the wicked example and commands of their kings, though contrary to God’ s express commands.

But willingly and resolutely followed the wicked example and commands of their kings, though contrary to God’ s express commands.

Poole: 2Ki 17:23 - The Lord removed Israel out of his sight The Lord removed Israel out of his sight: they continued to the last obstinate and incorrigible under all the instructions and corrections which God ...

The Lord removed Israel out of his sight: they continued to the last obstinate and incorrigible under all the instructions and corrections which God sent to them; and therefore were most justly given up by God into this dreadful captivity; which all this foregoing discourse was designed to prove.

Poole: 2Ki 17:24 - The king of Assyria // Cuthah, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim The king of Assyria either Shalmaneser, or rather his son and successor, Esar-haddon, Ezr 4:2 , because this was a work of some time; and as his fath...

The king of Assyria either Shalmaneser, or rather his son and successor, Esar-haddon, Ezr 4:2 , because this was a work of some time; and as his father had projected, and possibly begun this, so he executed or finished it; whence it is ascribed to him, rather than to his father. Babylon then was subject to the Assyrian monarch; but a few years after revolted from him, and set up another king; as appears both from sacred and profane histories.

Cuthah, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim ; several places then in his dominion.

Poole: 2Ki 17:25 - They feared not the Lord // Therefore They feared not the Lord they did not acknowledge nor worship God in any sort. Therefore for this gross neglect and contempt of God, which was cont...

They feared not the Lord they did not acknowledge nor worship God in any sort.

Therefore for this gross neglect and contempt of God, which was contrary to the principles and practices of the heathens, who used to worship the gods of the nations where they lived, and gave that honour to their false gods which here they denied to the true. Hereby also God asserted his own right and sovereignty over that land, and made them to understand that neither the Israelites were cast out nor they brought into that land by their valour or strength, but by God’ s providence, who as he had cast the Israelites out for their neglect of God’ s service, so both could and would in his due time turn them out also, if they were guilty of the same sins.

Poole: 2Ki 17:26 - They spake // Know not the manner of the God of the land They spake i.e. they wrote, or sent messengers to him for relief. Know not the manner of the God of the land they supposed the true God to be like ...

They spake i.e. they wrote, or sent messengers to him for relief.

Know not the manner of the God of the land they supposed the true God to be like one of their topical deities, who had their particular countries and provinces allotted to them.

Poole: 2Ki 17:27 - One of the priests // let them go // let him teach One of the priests i.e. one of the chief of the priests, with others, to be under his inspection and direction, as may be gathered from the following...

One of the priests i.e. one of the chief of the priests, with others, to be under his inspection and direction, as may be gathered from the following words; where it is said of the same person, or persons,

let them go & c., and then,

let him teach & c. Nor is it probable that one priest could suffice for the instruction of the inhabitants of so many and distant parts.

Poole: 2Ki 17:28 - -- i.e. The manner of God’ s worship, as it was practised in Israel; as may be gathered both from the quality of this person, who was all Israelit...

i.e. The manner of God’ s worship, as it was practised in Israel; as may be gathered both from the quality of this person, who was all Israelitish priest; and from the place of his residence, Beth-el, a place infamous for the worship of the calves, and from the manner of their making priests by this man’ s direction, 2Ki 17:32 .

Poole: 2Ki 17:29 - Made gods of their own // The Samaritans Made gods of their own or, worshipped , (as that verb is sometimes used; of which see Exo 32:35 ) i.e. those whom they worshipped in the places from...

Made gods of their own or, worshipped , (as that verb is sometimes used; of which see Exo 32:35 ) i.e. those whom they worshipped in the places from whence they came, whose names here follow.

The Samaritans i.e. the former people, or inhabitants, not of the city, but of the kingdom of Samaria.

Poole: 2Ki 17:32 - Of the lowest of them priests of the high places // Which sacrificed for them Of the lowest of them priests of the high places: See Poole "1Ki 12:31". Which sacrificed for them to wit, unto the true God; for as to the worship ...

Of the lowest of them priests of the high places: See Poole "1Ki 12:31".

Which sacrificed for them to wit, unto the true God; for as to the worship of their own gods, they needed no instruction, and would not permit a person of another religion to minister therein.

Poole: 2Ki 17:33 - They feared the Lord // Served their own gods, after the manner of the nations whom they carried away from thence They feared the Lord they worshipped God externally in that way which the Israelites used. Served their own gods, after the manner of the nations wh...

They feared the Lord they worshipped God externally in that way which the Israelites used.

Served their own gods, after the manner of the nations whom they carried away from thence: these words belong, either,

1. To both the foregoing branches, and to the Israelites; and then the sense is, they trod in the steps of their predecessors, the Israelites, (who, in regard of their several tribes, are both here and elsewhere called nations,) who did, many of them, worship both God in their calves, and Baal too. Or,

2. To the last branch only; but then the words must be otherwise rendered, they served their own gods, after the manner of the nations from which they brought, or carried them, or from whence they (these new inhabitants) were brought, i.e. each of them served the god of the country or place whence he was brought, as is related above, 2Ki 17:30,31 . But these nations could not so properly be said to be carried away , or to be carried away captive , (as this Hebrew word signifies,) as the Israelites; and therefore the former interpretation seems more proper.

Poole: 2Ki 17:34 - Unto this day they do Unto this day they do either, 1. The Samaritans, whose religion he hath hitherto been describing, and to the description whereof he returns, 2Ki 17:...

Unto this day they do either,

1. The Samaritans, whose religion he hath hitherto been describing, and to the description whereof he returns, 2Ki 17:41 . So the following verses are a digression, wherein he designs only to take an occasion to compare them with the Israelites, and to aggravate the sins of the Israelites above theirs, which he doth, 2Ki 17:35 , &c., and then returns to the former description, 2Ki 17:41 . Or rather,

2. The Israelites, who are the principal subjects of this whole discourse; and of whom he unquestionably speaks, 2Ki 17:35 , and thence to 2Ki 17:41 , of whom also the last words of 2Ki 17:33 are to be understood; and from thence he takes an occasion to return to his main business, to relate and aggravate the sins of Israel, and thereby to justify his severe proceedings against them to all the world. So the sense of the place is this, As the Israelites before their captivity gave these nations an ill example, in serving the Lord and Baal together; so, or after their former manner, they do unto this day , in the land of their captivity. They fear not the Lord ; though they pretended to fear and serve both the Lord and idols, yet in truth they did not, and do not fear or worship the Lord, but their own calves, or other vain inventions; and God will not accept that mongrel and false worship, which they pretend to give to the true God. Or this may intimate that the Israelites were worse than their successors, because these feared the Lord and idols too; but they did quite cast off the fear and worship of God in their captivity, and wholly degenerate into heathenish idolatry. Their statutes , i.e. God’ s law delivered to their fathers, and to them, as their inheritance, Psa 119:111 . This is alleged as an evidence that they did not fear the Lord, whatsoever they pretended because they lived in the constant breach of his statutes. The children of Jacob , i.e. themselves; the noun put for the pronoun; which is usual among the Hebrews. Israel ; a name signifying his special interest in God, and power with him, which was given to him, not only for himself, but for his posterity also, whom God frequently honours with that name. And by this great favour he aggravates their sin.

Poole: 2Ki 17:35 - A covenant A covenant containing many precious promises, upon the condition here following: see Gen 17:7 Exo 19:5 24:7 .

A covenant containing many precious promises, upon the condition here following: see Gen 17:7 Exo 19:5 24:7 .

Poole: 2Ki 17:39 - The Lord your God // He shall deliver you out of the hand of all your enemies The Lord your God i.e. God alone, as the whole context shows. He shall deliver you out of the hand of all your enemies and therefore you have no pr...

The Lord your God i.e. God alone, as the whole context shows.

He shall deliver you out of the hand of all your enemies and therefore you have no pretence of need to go to other gods for relief.

Poole: 2Ki 17:41 - So So i.e. in like manner, and after their example. These nations, who came in their stead.

So i.e. in like manner, and after their example. These nations, who came in their stead.

Haydock: 2Ki 17:1 - Twelfth Twelfth. Houbigant would substitute 14th, to make the dates agree, p. 113. See chap. xv. 30. (Haydock) --- Till this time, Osee had been tributar...

Twelfth. Houbigant would substitute 14th, to make the dates agree, p. 113. See chap. xv. 30. (Haydock) ---

Till this time, Osee had been tributary to the Assyrian monarch. (Grotius) ---

Hebrew may be, "in the 12th year....Osee....had reigned....nine years; which his true. (Calmet) ---

He reigned so long afterwards, ver. 6. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:2 - Him Him. The Jews say, that he did not hinder his subjects from going to Jerusalem to adore. One of the golden calves had been sent away by Manahem, Os...

Him. The Jews say, that he did not hinder his subjects from going to Jerusalem to adore. One of the golden calves had been sent away by Manahem, Osee x. 5. (Calmet) ---

Yet under the less wicked king the nation is destroyed, as their crimes were come to the height; and Osee had not sufficient virtue to suspend the stroke of divine justice any longer. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:3 - Salmanasar Salmanasar, who is called Salman, or Salomo; (Osee x. 14.) and Enemassar, in the Greek of Toby[Tobias]. The Tyrians relate that he took many of thei...

Salmanasar, who is called Salman, or Salomo; (Osee x. 14.) and Enemassar, in the Greek of Toby[Tobias]. The Tyrians relate that he took many of their towns, but that Tyre sustained a siege of five years. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] ix. 14.)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:4 - Sua // Prison Sua; probably Sabachon, king of Ethiopia, who made himself master of Egypt, and burnt king Bocchoris alive. Herodotus (ii. 137.) calls him Abacus. ...

Sua; probably Sabachon, king of Ethiopia, who made himself master of Egypt, and burnt king Bocchoris alive. Herodotus (ii. 137.) calls him Abacus. Jocquelot thinks that Sethon is meant, and that he was invaded by Sennacherib on account of this league with Osee. (Calmet) ---

Prison, after he had taken the city, (Haydock) which held out three years. This great city was then reduced to a heap of ruins, and so continued till after the captivity of the Jews, (1 Esdras iv. 17.) when it began to be peopled again. The inhabitants revolted against Alexander the Great, who placed Macedonians in their city, and gave the territory to the Jews. It was afterwards seized by the kings of Egypt and of Syria. But Hyrcan retook it, and levelled it with the ground. Gabinius built another town here, which bore his name till Herod greatly enlarged it, and called it Sebaste. (Calmet) ---

The prophets describe the distress of Samaria, Osee x. 4., and xiv. 1., Micheas i. 6., and Jeremias xxxi. 5.)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:6 - Medes Medes. See chap. xvi. 9. The great maxim and policy of these nations, was to transport the conquered nations to a distant country, in order to prev...

Medes. See chap. xvi. 9. The great maxim and policy of these nations, was to transport the conquered nations to a distant country, in order to prevent any revolts. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:9 - Offended // Watchmen Offended. Hebrew, "They concealed (or spoke secretly; Haydock) words, which were not right before the Lord:" (Calmet) being guilty of hypocrisy or o...

Offended. Hebrew, "They concealed (or spoke secretly; Haydock) words, which were not right before the Lord:" (Calmet) being guilty of hypocrisy or of blasphemy. (Haydock) ---

Watchmen: the meanest huts. (Tirinus) ---

All was contaminated. (Calmet) ---

Towers were erected to guard the flocks from thieves, 2 Paralipomenon xxvi. 10. (Menochius)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:10 - Groves Groves. Hebrew Asherim, Astarte or Venus, to whom "the groves" were consecrated, chap. xxi. 7., and xxiii. 4. (Calmet)

Groves. Hebrew Asherim, Astarte or Venus, to whom "the groves" were consecrated, chap. xxi. 7., and xxiii. 4. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:11 - Removed Removed by the sword, (Menochius) or by flight. (Haydock)

Removed by the sword, (Menochius) or by flight. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:12 - Abominations // Thing Abominations. Hebrew gillulim, "idols of dung." --- Thing. Literally, "word."

Abominations. Hebrew gillulim, "idols of dung." ---

Thing. Literally, "word."

Haydock: 2Ki 17:13 - Seers Seers. See 1 Kings ix. 9. (Menochius) --- God never ceased to admonish the rebels. (Haydock) --- Jeremias xxv. 5. (Menochius)

Seers. See 1 Kings ix. 9. (Menochius) ---

God never ceased to admonish the rebels. (Haydock) ---

Jeremias xxv. 5. (Menochius)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:15 - Testimonies Testimonies. The ceremonial law was in memory of some great transactions, as the sabbath was of the creation; and the whole law was given with great...

Testimonies. The ceremonial law was in memory of some great transactions, as the sabbath was of the creation; and the whole law was given with great solemnity, in the presence of witnesses. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:16 - Heaven Heaven: sun and mood; and the stars, which were like the soldiers of the two former. This expression is very common in Scripture.

Heaven: sun and mood; and the stars, which were like the soldiers of the two former. This expression is very common in Scripture.

Haydock: 2Ki 17:17 - Fire // Delivered // To provoke Fire. See chap. xvi. 3. --- Delivered. Hebrew, "sold," 3 Kings xxi. 20., and 1 Machabees i. 16. (Calmet) --- To provoke. This was the consequ...

Fire. See chap. xvi. 3. ---

Delivered. Hebrew, "sold," 3 Kings xxi. 20., and 1 Machabees i. 16. (Calmet) ---

To provoke. This was the consequence of their wickedness. (Worthington)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:18 - Sight // Tribe Sight, as objects of horror, cast away from the temple, and from the promised land. --- Tribe, or kingdom. See 3 Kings xii. 20. Israel began to b...

Sight, as objects of horror, cast away from the temple, and from the promised land. ---

Tribe, or kingdom. See 3 Kings xii. 20. Israel began to be rejected by God, when the schism took place. (Haydock) ---

It was entirely lost, when Salmanasar took the people into captivity. Some few were left; and these formed a part of the kingdom of Josias, on their returning to the service of the true God, (2 Paralipomenon xxiv. 6.) while others fled into Egypt, Osee viii. 13., and ix. 3. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:23 - Day Day. If Esdras was the author of this book, as it is very probable, this observation would tend to show how much more favourably the Jews were treat...

Day. If Esdras was the author of this book, as it is very probable, this observation would tend to show how much more favourably the Jews were treated than the kingdom of Israel, which was still, for the most part, in captivity. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:24 - King // Babylon // Cutha // Emath // Sepharvaim King, Assaraddon, who led away the remnants of Israel, and fulfilled the prediction, Isaias vii. 8. (Du Hamel) --- Babylon, or the territory. The...

King, Assaraddon, who led away the remnants of Israel, and fulfilled the prediction, Isaias vii. 8. (Du Hamel) ---

Babylon, or the territory. These people had been lately conquered from the Babylonian empire, from Syria, &c. ---

Cutha: the greatest part were from this city; so that the Samaritans were afterwards called Cutheans. ---

Emath, on the Orontes. ---

Sepharvaim; or the Saspires, near Media. (Calmet) ---

We find several other places mentioned, 1 Esdras iv. 9. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:25 - Lions Lions. The Samaritan Chronicle says the fruits, though beautiful to the eye, were of a poisonous quality; and Josephus, as usual, ([Antiquities?] ix...

Lions. The Samaritan Chronicle says the fruits, though beautiful to the eye, were of a poisonous quality; and Josephus, as usual, ([Antiquities?] ix. 14.) alters the text, saying that the people were afflicted with pestilence, and the oracle being consulted, told them to worship the High God; on which account, they desired the king to send them a priest. (Calmet) ---

These nations had not been accustomed to fear the Lord in their own country; but God was more offended when they exercised their idolatrous worship in that land, which he had chosen in a particular manner for himself. (Menochius) ---

He suffers wickedness and infidelity to prevail to a certain point; but when his patience is exhausted, (Calmet) all nature fights for him against the wicked. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:26 - King // Land King; Assar-adon, 1 Esdras iv. 2. They did not send as soon as they came into the country. --- Land. They reason according to their false notions...

King; Assar-adon, 1 Esdras iv. 2. They did not send as soon as they came into the country. ---

Land. They reason according to their false notions, as if a plurality of gods were not incompatible: and all would go on well, if each were served according to his will. On the same principle, they united the worship of the true God with that of idols, (Calmet) as had been done before by the Israelites. (Menochius) ---

Yet God having shewn that he could have forced them to comply, (Tostat) was pleased to remove the scourge; as if he preferred that imperfect worship rather than to suffer pure idolatry to reign. (Genebrard)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:27 - Let him Let him. Hebrew, Chaldean, Septuagint, "them go." Probably more went; but one was of superior dignity. He might have been priest of the golden c...

Let him. Hebrew, Chaldean, Septuagint, "them go." Probably more went; but one was of superior dignity. He might have been priest of the golden calves, as none of the priests of Jerusalem had yet been taken. Hence he taught the Cutheans to join the worship of God with that of idols. Some think that no part of the Scripture was used among them, till the building of the temple by Sanballat, on Mount Garizim: (Le Quien, Antiquite. v. 13.) but this is extremely improbable. How should he pretend to teach the law without the books of Moses? (Haydock) ---

The Samaritans have retained the Pentateuch in the Phœnician character, while the Jews have insensibly adopted the Chaldee, during their captivity. On some occasions, these people have boasted of their descent from the patriarchs, John iv. 12., and 20. But in times of danger, they have confessed their true origin. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] ix. fin., and xii. 5.

Haydock: 2Ki 17:28 - Bethel // Lord Bethel. Garizim was not then honoured with the temple, as the Samaritans would pretend. (Chronicles) They wished to join in building that at Jerus...

Bethel. Garizim was not then honoured with the temple, as the Samaritans would pretend. (Chronicles) They wished to join in building that at Jerusalem, under Esdras. (Calmet) ---

Lord. Collins would make us believe, that the Samaritans continued "for a long time" without the Pentateuch, and all "heathens for many ages." But the first supposition "is to me incredible," says Kennicott; and Hottinger himself allows, that the priests did bring back a copy of the law "exactly corresponding with the autograph of Moses." (Exert. p. 8.) And as for the Samaritans being heathens, Prideaux, whom this infidel writer quotes, (Haydock) says, "consistently with his Bible, that they continued in that gross idolatry of worshipping other gods in conjunction with the True; which last words are very unfairly omitted." (Kennicott, Diss. ii. p. 115.) ---

This was the true origin and state of this mixture of nations, who were sent to cultivate the lands of Samaria. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:29 - Dwelt Dwelt. This impure service did not deserve a mitigation of the late chastisement. But God often punishes in this world (Haydock) to manifest his gl...

Dwelt. This impure service did not deserve a mitigation of the late chastisement. But God often punishes in this world (Haydock) to manifest his glory, (John ix. 3.) and spares to display his power (Calmet) and goodness. (Haydock) ---

He had sufficiently convinced these nations of his dominion over all.

Haydock: 2Ki 17:30 - Socoth-benoth // Nergel // Asima Socoth-benoth, "the tents of young women," who prostituted themselves once in their lives at Babylon, in honour of Mylitta. (Herodotus ii. 199.) ---...

Socoth-benoth, "the tents of young women," who prostituted themselves once in their lives at Babylon, in honour of Mylitta. (Herodotus ii. 199.) ---

Nergel, "light." (Calmet) ---

The Pyreia (Haydock) of the Persians are famous in history. (Strabo xv.) (Selden, Synt. ii. 8.) ---

Asima, like an ape, goat, &c. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:31 - Hevites // Nebahaz // Tharthac // Adramelech Hevites, who came from Ava. --- Nebahaz. "Nebo the seeing, or living and possessing." Nebo was a famous idol of Babylon. --- Tharthac; perhap...

Hevites, who came from Ava. ---

Nebahaz. "Nebo the seeing, or living and possessing." Nebo was a famous idol of Babylon. ---

Tharthac; perhaps Sar, (prince) Sak, or Sesac, (Jeremias xxv. 26., and li. 41.) the sun, &c. ---

Adramelech, "the magnificent king," and Anamelech, "the king of clemency," may denote the sun and moon; as these were the divinities commonly adored in the East, under various names. The same victims were offered to these as to Moloc and Saturn; whence we may infer, that they were the same idols. St. Jerome translates the work of Eusebius on the Hebrews, (Calmet) and places without any disapprobation of his opinion, that Socoth-benoth, &c., were the names of towns, which the people built in Samaria. (Haydock)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:32 - Worshipped // Lowest Worshipped, or appeared to worship: for true religion admits of no false god. (Worthington) --- Lowest. This expression sometimes means the most ...

Worshipped, or appeared to worship: for true religion admits of no false god. (Worthington) ---

Lowest. This expression sometimes means the most noble. (Haydock) ---

But the priests were chosen from the midst of the people, without examination. They employed the priest, whom the king had sent for the worship of the true God, whilst others were appointed to serve the idols. (Calmet)

Haydock: 2Ki 17:34 - His ceremonies His ceremonies. Hebrew, "they fear not the Lord, neither do they after their statutes." (Protestants) (Haydock) --- This involves a sort of contr...

His ceremonies. Hebrew, "they fear not the Lord, neither do they after their statutes." (Protestants) (Haydock) ---

This involves a sort of contradiction, unless we explain it of the Israelites; thought hey had not been mentioned before. There is a confusion in the original text; and ver. 41 seems to require that we should understand it in this manner, as the Cutheans could hardly be blamed for neglecting a thing of which they had before no knowledge. The Israelites are justly blamed for obstinately continuing in their prevarication, even in the midst of their captivity. The Syriac and Arabic translate, "The Israelites have been forced to leave their country, because they have abandoned the Lord; and they have not obeyed his laws, his precepts, and his ordinances, which he gave to," &c. Many adopt this explanation. (Junius; Vatable, &c.) (Calmet) ---

Septuagint make these people unite the true and the false worship, as ver. 41. "They did according to their judgment. These fear, and do according to their justifications ( Greek: dikaiomata ) and decision; and according to the law," &c. (Haydock)

Gill: 2Ki 17:1 - In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah began Hoshea the son of Elah to reign in Samaria over Israel nine years. In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah began Hoshea the son of Elah to reign in Samaria over Israel nine years. In this account there is some diffi...

In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah began Hoshea the son of Elah to reign in Samaria over Israel nine years. In this account there is some difficulty, since it was in the twentieth of Jotham, that is, the fourth of Ahaz, that Hosea conspired against Pekah king of Israel, and slew him, when it might be reasonably thought he began his reign: now either there was an interregnum until the twelfth of Ahaz, or Hoshea however was not generally received and acknowledged as king till then, as others think; he being a tributary to the king of Assyria, and a kind of viceroy, is not said to reign until he rebelled against him; after which he reigned nine years, four in the times of Ahaz, and five in the reign of Hezekiah, 2Ki 18:9, in this way the author of the Jewish chronology goes r, in which he is followed by other Jewish writers; and this bids as fair as any to remove the difficulty, unless these nine years refer to the time of his reign before the twelfth of Ahaz; and the sense be, that in the twelfth of Ahaz he had reigned nine year's; but it is said he "began" to reign then.

Gill: 2Ki 17:2 - And he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, but not as the kings of Israel that were before him. And he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, but not as the kings of Israel that were before him. He did not worship Baal, as some of them...

And he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, but not as the kings of Israel that were before him. He did not worship Baal, as some of them had done; and he could not worship the calves, as all of them had, for they were carried away by the Assyrians in the former captivities, as the Jews s say; and who also observe t, that he removed the garrisons set on the borders of the land to watch the Israelites, that they might not go up to Jerusalem; and this being done on the fifteenth of Ab, that day was afterwards observed as a festival on that account; and they further remark u, that the captivity of the ten tribes was in the reign of this king, who was better than the rest, to show that it was not barely the sins of the kings on whom the Israelites would cast the blame, that they were carried captives, but their own, according to Hos 5:3.

Gill: 2Ki 17:3 - Against him came up Shalmaneser king of Assyria // and Hoshea became his servant, and gave him presents Against him came up Shalmaneser king of Assyria,.... Which some take to be the same with Tiglathpileser, see 1Ch 5:26 but he rather seems to be his so...

Against him came up Shalmaneser king of Assyria,.... Which some take to be the same with Tiglathpileser, see 1Ch 5:26 but he rather seems to be his son; his name was to be found, as Josephus w relates, in the archives of the Tyrians, against whom he had an expedition; his name is Salmanassar in Metasthenes x, who says he reigned seventeen years:

and Hoshea became his servant, and gave him presents, to depart from him; he became tributary to him, and agreed to pay him a yearly tax.

Gill: 2Ki 17:4 - And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea // for he had sent messengers to So king of Egypt // and brought no presents to the king of Assyria, as he had done year by year // therefore the king of Assyria shut him up, and bound him in prison And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea,.... That he was forming a scheme to rebel against him, and cast off his yoke; of this he had intel...

And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea,.... That he was forming a scheme to rebel against him, and cast off his yoke; of this he had intelligence by spies he sent, and placed to observe him very probably:

for he had sent messengers to So king of Egypt; to treat with him, and enter into alliance with him, to help him against, and free him from, the king of Assyria. This king of Egypt is supposed to be Sabacon the Ethiopian, who reigned in Egypt ninety years; of whom Herodotus y and Diodorus Siculus z make mention; by Theodoret he is called Adramelech the Ethiopian, who dwelt in Egypt:

and brought no presents to the king of Assyria, as he had done year by year; did not pay him his yearly tribute:

therefore the king of Assyria shut him up, and bound him in prison; that is, after he took Samaria, the siege of which is next related; unless it can be thought that he met with him somewhere out of the capital, and seized him, and made him his prisoner, and after that besieged his city; which is not so likely.

Gill: 2Ki 17:5 - Then the king of Assyria came up throughout all the land // and went up to Samaria, and besieged it three years Then the king of Assyria came up throughout all the land,.... Of Israel, there being none to oppose his march; Hoshea not daring to come out, and meet...

Then the king of Assyria came up throughout all the land,.... Of Israel, there being none to oppose his march; Hoshea not daring to come out, and meet him and fight him:

and went up to Samaria, and besieged it three years; so long the city held out against him, see 2Ki 18:9.

Gill: 2Ki 17:6 - In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria // and carried Israel away into Assyria // and placed them in Halah, and in Habor, by the river of Gozan // and in the cities of the Medes In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria,..... Which was the last year of his reign, and to be reckoned either from the time of hi...

In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria,..... Which was the last year of his reign, and to be reckoned either from the time of his reigning in full power and authority, or from his first casting off the Assyrian yoke; See Gill on 2Ki 17:1.

and carried Israel away into Assyria; not only the inhabitants of Samaria, but all the ten tribes inhabiting the several parts of the kingdom, for which Josephus is express a.

and placed them in Halah, and in Habor, by the river of Gozan; some of them he placed here, which were in Assyria. Halah is the Calachena of Ptolemy, at the north of Assyria, and Habor is the mount Chobaras of the same; from which mountain, as you go to the Caspian sea, about midway, is the city Gauzania, the same with Gozan, which might give name to this river b. The Jews say c, this is the river Sambation, which runs so swiftly, that there is no passing except on the sabbath day; and which then the Jews cannot pass because of the profanation of the sabbath; and is the reason they give why the ten tribes are there detained; and Manasseh ben Israel d fancies Habor to be Tabor, a province in Tartary, where some Jews are:

and in the cities of the Medes; others of them he placed there, under his jurisdiction, the same with Hara, 1Ch 5:26, which with the Greeks is called Aria; and Herodotus says e, these Medes formerly were called by all Arii. It appears from hence that the kingdom of Media was now subject to the king of Assyria: some f take Halach to be Colchi, and Habor to be Iberia, and Hara to be Armenia, and Gauzani to be Media, which all bounded the north of Assyria.

Gill: 2Ki 17:7 - For so it was, that the children of Israel had sinned against the Lord their God // which had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt // and had feared other gods For so it was, that the children of Israel had sinned against the Lord their God,.... By committing idolatry, which is the sin enlarged upon in the fo...

For so it was, that the children of Israel had sinned against the Lord their God,.... By committing idolatry, which is the sin enlarged upon in the following discourse, as the cause of their being carried captive:

which had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt; which is observed to show their ingratitude, and to aggravate their sin of idolatry:

and had feared other gods; which could do them neither good nor hurt, wherefore it must be great stupidity to fear them.

Gill: 2Ki 17:8 - And walked in the statutes of the heathen, whom the Lord cast out from before the children of Israel // and of the kings of Israel, which they had made And walked in the statutes of the heathen, whom the Lord cast out from before the children of Israel,.... Meaning the Canaanites, in whose idolatrous ...

And walked in the statutes of the heathen, whom the Lord cast out from before the children of Israel,.... Meaning the Canaanites, in whose idolatrous ways they walked, and whom they imitated; though their ejection out of the land should have been a warning to them, and they were the more inexcusable, as they were particularly cautioned against walking in them, Lev 18:3.

and of the kings of Israel, which they had made; their laws and statutes, to worship the golden calves, and not go up to Jerusalem to worship.

Gill: 2Ki 17:9 - And the children of Israel did secretly those things that were not right against the Lord their God // and they built them high places in all their cities, from the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city And the children of Israel did secretly those things that were not right against the Lord their God,.... As being partly conscious to themselves that ...

And the children of Israel did secretly those things that were not right against the Lord their God,.... As being partly conscious to themselves that they were not right, and ashamed to commit them openly; and partly as foolishly imagining, that, being done privately, they were not seen and observed of God, having imbibed some atheistical notions of him, that he was not omniscient, or saw not, and had forsaken the earth; or they "covered" g these actions of theirs under reigned and plausible pretences, that what they did they were obliged to by their kings, and with political views, and that they worshipped the true God in the calves; but these were coverings too thin not to be seen through:

and they built them high places in all their cities, from the tower of the watchmen to the fenced city; not content with those built in former times, they built new ones; and these not in their metropolis only, but in all the cities of the kingdom; and not in large cities only, but in every town and village between one fortified city and another; even wherever there was a watch tower erected, either for shepherds to watch their flocks, or for keepers of gardens, orchards, and vineyards, to watch the fruits of them, that they were not taken away.

Gill: 2Ki 17:10 - And they set them up images and groves in every high hill, and under every green tree. And they set them up images and groves in every high hill, and under every green tree. That is, statues and idols; for groves of trees could not be se...

And they set them up images and groves in every high hill, and under every green tree. That is, statues and idols; for groves of trees could not be set under green trees; but they placed idols of stone, and of wood, as the latter were, in such places as Heathens were wont to do; see Jer 3:6; see Gill on 1Ki 14:23, so the Indians to this day have idols dispersed here and there in the fields, placed in little groves, or at the foot of some hill that casts a shadow h.

Gill: 2Ki 17:11 - And there they burnt incense in all the high places // as did the Heathen whom the Lord carried away before them // and wrought wicked things to provoke the Lord to anger And there they burnt incense in all the high places,.... As even the tribe of Judah did, which is observed in all the preceding reigns: as did the ...

And there they burnt incense in all the high places,.... As even the tribe of Judah did, which is observed in all the preceding reigns:

as did the Heathen whom the Lord carried away before them: the Canaanites, and therefore they might justly expect to be carried captive also:

and wrought wicked things to provoke the Lord to anger: by their several immoralities, but especially their idolatries.

Gill: 2Ki 17:12 - For they served idols // whereof the Lord said unto them, ye shall not do this thing For they served idols,.... Baalim, as the Targum; dunghill gods, as the word signifies, as they are often called in Scripture; and Sterculius was one ...

For they served idols,.... Baalim, as the Targum; dunghill gods, as the word signifies, as they are often called in Scripture; and Sterculius was one of the names of Saturn, an Heathen deity, which he had, as is supposed, by his finding out the method of making land fruitful with dung i:

whereof the Lord said unto them, ye shall not do this thing; see Exo 20:3.

Gill: 2Ki 17:13 - Yet the Lord testified against Israel, and against Judah, by all the prophets, and by all the seers // saying, turn ye from your ways // and keep my commandments, and my statutes, according to all the law which I commanded your fathers // and which I sent to you by my servants the prophets Yet the Lord testified against Israel, and against Judah, by all the prophets, and by all the seers,.... Against their sins, reproving them for them,...

Yet the Lord testified against Israel, and against Judah, by all the prophets, and by all the seers,.... Against their sins, reproving them for them, dehorting them from them, exhorting them to repent and leave them; as in all preceding reigns, by Ahijah the Shilonite, by Elijah and Elisha, by Hosea, Amos, and Micah, and others:

saying, turn ye from your ways; repent of them, and reform from them, worship of the calves particularly:

and keep my commandments, and my statutes, according to all the law which I commanded your fathers; which was given them and enjoined them at Mount Sinai:

and which I sent to you by my servants the prophets; by whom he put them in mind of them, explained them, and urged obedience to them.

Gill: 2Ki 17:14 - Notwithstanding, they would not hear // but hardened their necks, like to the neck of their fathers, that did not believe in the Lord their God Notwithstanding, they would not hear,.... Their instructions, advice, and admonitions, and obey them: but hardened their necks, like to the neck of...

Notwithstanding, they would not hear,.... Their instructions, advice, and admonitions, and obey them:

but hardened their necks, like to the neck of their fathers, that did not believe in the Lord their God: as Terah and Nahor, who were idolaters; or rather, their fathers in the wilderness, that made and served the calf, and those that rebelled against Moses and Aaron; it is a metaphor taken from oxen, that will not submit their necks to the yoke, but draw back from it, or cast it off, see Act 7:51.

Gill: 2Ki 17:15 - And they rejected his statutes, and his covenant that he made with their fathers // and his testimonies which he testified against them // and they followed vanity // and became vain // and went after the heathen that were round about them // whom the Lord had charged them, that they should not do like them And they rejected his statutes, and his covenant that he made with their fathers,.... At Sinai and Horeb, see Exo 24:8, and his testimonies which h...

And they rejected his statutes, and his covenant that he made with their fathers,.... At Sinai and Horeb, see Exo 24:8,

and his testimonies which he testified against them; calling heaven and earth to witness what he would do to them if they broke his laws, Deu 4:26, and which were so many testifications of his mind and will what they should do, or otherwise what should be done to them; Ben Gersom also interprets this of the feasts of the passover and tabernacles, which were witnesses of Israel's coming out of Egypt, and of the sanctification and redemption of the firstborn, a testimony of the slaying the firstborn in Egypt:

and they followed vanity; idols, which are vain things for help, can neither hear, see, speak, &c.

and became vain; as sottish and stupid as the idols they worshipped; which is the usual fruit and effect of idolatry, see Rom 1:21.

and went after the heathen that were round about them: imitated them in their idolatrous practices, as the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, &c. concerning

whom the Lord had charged them, that they should not do like them; of this charge see Deu 6:13.

Gill: 2Ki 17:16 - And they left all the commandments of the Lord their God // and made them molten images, even two calves // and made a grove // and worshipped all the host of heaven // and served Baal And they left all the commandments of the Lord their God,.... Which their idolatry led them to; and indeed he that offends in one point is guilty of t...

And they left all the commandments of the Lord their God,.... Which their idolatry led them to; and indeed he that offends in one point is guilty of them all, Jam 2:10.

and made them molten images, even two calves; which they set up at Dan and Bethel, in the times of their first king Jeroboam, 1Ki 13:28.

and made a grove; as Ahab, another of their kings, did, 1Ki 16:33.

and worshipped all the host of heaven: not the angels, sometimes so called, but, besides the sun and moon, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Venus:

and served Baal; which was service to the sun, as Abarbinel interprets it; this was the god of the Zidonians Ahab worshipped, having married a princess of that people, 1Ki 16:31.

Gill: 2Ki 17:17 - And they caused their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire // and used divination and enchantments // and sold themselves to do evil in the sight of the Lord, to provoke him to anger And they caused their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire,.... To Baal or Moloch, which were the same, and represented the sun, which, a...

And they caused their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire,.... To Baal or Moloch, which were the same, and represented the sun, which, as the above writer observes, presides in the element of fire; this was done either by way of lustration, or so as to be burnt, see 2Ki 16:3.

and used divination and enchantments: to get knowledge of what was to be done at present, or of things to come, neglecting the word of God and his prophets, and acting against the express law of God, Deu 18:10.

and sold themselves to do evil in the sight of the Lord, to provoke him to anger; as Ahab their king did, see 1Ki 21:20, they were as much the servants of sin as if they had sold themselves to be slaves to it.

Gill: 2Ki 17:18 - Therefore the Lord was very angry with Israel // and removed them out of his sight // there was none left but the tribe of Judah only Therefore the Lord was very angry with Israel,.... Nothing being more provoking to him than idolatry: and removed them out of his sight; not out of...

Therefore the Lord was very angry with Israel,.... Nothing being more provoking to him than idolatry:

and removed them out of his sight; not out of the reach of his all seeing eye, but from all tokens of his favour, from the good land he had given them, and all the benefits and privileges of it:

there was none left but the tribe of Judah only; and part of Benjamin, which was annexed to it, and incorporated in it, and made one kingdom, and maintained the same worship; and there was the lot of Simeon, which was within the tribe of Judah; and the priests and the Levites, and various individuals of the several tribes, that came and settled among them for the sake of worship; but no perfect, distinct, tribe besides.

Gill: 2Ki 17:19 - Also Judah kept not the commandments of the Lord their God // but walked in the statutes of Israel which they made Also Judah kept not the commandments of the Lord their God,.... But were infected with the idolatry of the ten tribes, and drawn into it by their exam...

Also Judah kept not the commandments of the Lord their God,.... But were infected with the idolatry of the ten tribes, and drawn into it by their example, and persisted therein, notwithstanding what befell the ten tribes; which are aggravations of the sins of them both, see Jer 3:7,

but walked in the statutes of Israel which they made; worshipping the calves as they did, particularly in the times of Ahaz, he setting the example, see 2Ki 16:3.

Gill: 2Ki 17:20 - And the Lord rejected all the seed of Israel // and afflicted them // and delivered them into the hands of spoilers // until he had cast them out of his sight And the Lord rejected all the seed of Israel,.... The ten tribes, with loathing and contempt, and wrote a "loammi" on them, rejected them from being h...

And the Lord rejected all the seed of Israel,.... The ten tribes, with loathing and contempt, and wrote a "loammi" on them, rejected them from being his people, gave them a bill of divorce, and declared them no more under his care and patronage:

and afflicted them; as he did before he utterly cast them off, as by famine, drought, and pestilence, Amo 4:6.

and delivered them into the hands of spoilers; as, first, into the hands of Hazael and Benhadad, kings of Syria, and then of Tiglathpileser king of Assyria, 2Ki 13:3,

until he had cast them out of his sight; by suffering them, as now, to be carried captive by Shalmaneser, 2Ki 17:6.

Gill: 2Ki 17:21 - For he rent Israel from the house of David // and they made Jeroboam the son of Nebat king // and Jeroboam drave Israel from following the Lord // and made them sin a great sin For he rent Israel from the house of David,.... In the times of Rehoboam the son of Solomon, when ten tribes revolted from him, signified by the rendi...

For he rent Israel from the house of David,.... In the times of Rehoboam the son of Solomon, when ten tribes revolted from him, signified by the rending of a garment in twelve pieces, ten of which were given to Jeroboam; and it is here ascribed to the Lord, being according to his purpose and decree, and which was brought about by his providence, agreeably to a prophecy of his, see 1Ki 11:30.

and they made Jeroboam the son of Nebat king; of themselves, without consulting the Lord and his prophets; and which was resented by him, though it was his will, and he had foretold it, that Jeroboam should be king, see Hos 8:4.

and Jeroboam drave Israel from following the Lord; forbidding them to go up to Jerusalem to worship; the Targum is,

"made them to err:"

and made them sin a great sin; obliging them to worship the calves he set up.

Gill: 2Ki 17:22 - For the children of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which he did // they departed not from them For the children of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which he did,.... They observed his injunction, not to go to Jerusalem to worship, and t...

For the children of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which he did,.... They observed his injunction, not to go to Jerusalem to worship, and they worshipped the calves he did:

they departed not from them: in all succeeding reigns, until the time of their captivity.

Gill: 2Ki 17:23 - Until the Lord removed Israel out of his sight // as he had said by all his servants the prophets // so was Israel carried away out of their own land to Assyria, unto this day Until the Lord removed Israel out of his sight,.... Suffered them to be carried captive into the land of Assyria: as he had said by all his servant...

Until the Lord removed Israel out of his sight,.... Suffered them to be carried captive into the land of Assyria:

as he had said by all his servants the prophets; by Hosea, Amos, Micah, and others; see their prophecies, and also 1Ki 13:32,

so was Israel carried away out of their own land to Assyria, unto this day; the time of the writing this book; nor have they returned unto our days, nearly 2,800 years later.

Gill: 2Ki 17:24 - And the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon // and from Cuthah // and from Ava // and from Hamath // and from Sepharvaim // and placed them in the cities of Samaria, instead of the children of Israel // and they possessed Samaria // and dwelt in the cities thereof And the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon,.... Which was at this time under the dominion of the king of Assyria; though in a little time after ...

And the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon,.... Which was at this time under the dominion of the king of Assyria; though in a little time after this it revolted, and had a king of its own, 2Ki 20:12, this king of Assyria was either Shalmaneser, who carried Israel captive, or it may be rather his son Esarhaddon, see Ezr 4:2,

and from Cuthah; which, according to Josephus k, was a city in Persia, where was a river of the same name; but it was rather a place in Erech, in the country of Babylon; see Gill on Gen 10:10,

and from Ava; the same with Ivah, Isa 37:13, where perhaps a colony of the Avim had settled, Deu 2:23.

and from Hamath; a city of Syria, which lay on the northern borders of the land of Canaan, Num 34:8

and from Sepharvaim; thought by some to be the Sippara of Ptolemy, or the Sippareni of Abydenus, in Mesopotamia; though Vitringa takes it to be a city in Syro-Phoenicia; see Gill on Isa 36:19,

and placed them in the cities of Samaria, instead of the children of Israel; not in Samaria, which was now destroyed, according to the prophecy in Mic 1:6 as Abarbinel and other Jewish writers note:

and they possessed Samaria; as an inheritance; sowed it with corn, and planted vineyards there:

and dwelt in the cities thereof; in the several parts of the kingdom.

Gill: 2Ki 17:25 - And so it was at the beginning of their dwelling there, that they feared not the Lord // therefore the Lord sent lions among them // which slew some of them And so it was at the beginning of their dwelling there, that they feared not the Lord,.... Did not serve him in any manner, but their idols only, whic...

And so it was at the beginning of their dwelling there, that they feared not the Lord,.... Did not serve him in any manner, but their idols only, which they brought with them; whereas it was usual with Heathens to serve the gods of the country, as they reputed them, where they came, along with their own; but even this those men did not do:

therefore the Lord sent lions among them; even into their cities, into which lions sometimes came l, especially when old, out of the thickets of Jordan and other places where they haunted, see Jer 49:19.

which slew some of them; this the Lord did to assert his sovereignty, authority, and mighty power, and to let them know that he could as easily clear the land of them, as they, by his permission, had cleared the land of the Israelites, Josephus m calls this a plague that was sent among them.

Gill: 2Ki 17:26 - Wherefore they spake to the king of Assyria // saying, the nations which thou hast removed // and placed in the cities of Samaria, know not the manner of the God of the land // therefore he hath sent lions among them, and, behold, they slay them // because they know not the manner of the God of the land Wherefore they spake to the king of Assyria,.... In letters, or by messengers they sent unto him: saying, the nations which thou hast removed; from...

Wherefore they spake to the king of Assyria,.... In letters, or by messengers they sent unto him:

saying, the nations which thou hast removed; from different places before mentioned:

and placed in the cities of Samaria, know not the manner of the God of the land; taking Jehovah the God of Israel to be a topical deity, limited peculiarly to the land of Israel, whereas he was the God of the whole earth; a like notion obtained among the Syrians, see 1Ki 20:28 now they say they know not his "manner" or "judgment" n, the laws, statutes, ordinances, and judgments, according to which he was worshipped by the people of Israel:

therefore he hath sent lions among them, and, behold, they slay them; they perceived it was not a common case, nor could they impute it to any second cause, as want of food with the lions, &c. but the hand of a superior Being was in it: and they could think of no other reason, but

because they know not the manner of the God of the land; how he was to be worshipped; and because they did not worship him, and knew not how to do it, it was resented in this manner by him.

Gill: 2Ki 17:27 - Then the king of Assyria commanded, saying // carry thither one of the priests whom ye brought from thence // and let him go and dwell there, and let him teach them the manner of the God of the land Then the king of Assyria commanded, saying,.... Gave the following orders and directions: carry thither one of the priests whom ye brought from the...

Then the king of Assyria commanded, saying,.... Gave the following orders and directions:

carry thither one of the priests whom ye brought from thence; for they carried away all the people of every class, civil and religious:

and let him go and dwell there, and let him teach them the manner of the God of the land; it is in the plural number, "let them go", &c. o; there might be more priests than one ordered, or, however, others, to attend and assist him in his work; the Jews say p, two were sent to circumcise them, and teach them the book of the law; and they give their names, Dosthai, or Dosithaeus, and Zachariah; and Josephus q says, the people desired that priests might be sent to them of the captives.

Gill: 2Ki 17:28 - Then one of the priests whom, they had carried away from Samaria came and dwelt in Bethel // and taught them how they should fear the Lord Then one of the priests whom, they had carried away from Samaria came and dwelt in Bethel,.... According to an Arabic writer r, his name was Uzziah; b...

Then one of the priests whom, they had carried away from Samaria came and dwelt in Bethel,.... According to an Arabic writer r, his name was Uzziah; but Epiphanius s says his name was Esdras; but he wrongly makes him to be sent by Nebuchadnezzar, thirty years after the captivity of the Jews in Babylon: this priest was, doubtless, one of the priests of the calves; for there were none else in the kingdom of Israel carried captive, and as seems also by his choosing to dwell in Bethel, where probably he formerly dwelt, and officiated in the service of the calf there, and by teaching to make priests of the lowest order of the people, as Jeroboam's priests were, 2Ki 17:32.

and taught them how they should fear the Lord; serve and worship him; he might not teach them the worship of the calves, that being a political business, and now no end to be answered by it; and besides, they were now carried out of the land. This priest taught, no doubt, according to the law of Moses, but was not the author of the Pentateuch; which ridiculous conceit of Le Clerc is sufficiently exposed by Witsius t.

Gill: 2Ki 17:29 - Howbeit, every nation made gods of their own Howbeit, every nation made gods of their own,.... Served and worshipped those they brought with them, and which were the work of their own hands, even...

Howbeit, every nation made gods of their own,.... Served and worshipped those they brought with them, and which were the work of their own hands, even the nations, or those out of the nations, mentioned 2Ki 17:24 these, notwithstanding the instructions they had about the worship of the God of Israel, retained and served their own deities: and put them in the houses of the high places which the Samaritans had made, every nation in their cities wherein they dwelt; as the Israelites had built high places everywhere for idolatry, and put images in them, 2Ki 17:9 these Heathens placed their gods there in the room of them, which were as follow.

Gill: 2Ki 17:30 - And the men of Babylon made Succothbenoth // and the men of Cuth made Nergal // and the men of Hamath made Ashima And the men of Babylon made Succothbenoth,.... That is, those that came from Babylon made and served an idol of this name, which, according to the Jew...

And the men of Babylon made Succothbenoth,.... That is, those that came from Babylon made and served an idol of this name, which, according to the Jewish writers u, were the figures of an hen and chickens; but others suppose them to be the Pleiades, or seven stars, the stars being had in great veneration by the Babylonians; though others rather think those Succothbenoth, "tabernacles", or "booths of the daughters", as the words may be rendered, have respect to the apartments in the temple of Venus, or Mylitta with the Babylonians and Assyrians, in which women once in their lives prostituted themselves to whomsoever asked them, in honour of Venus; of which filthy practice of theirs Herodotus w makes mention; and Valerius Maximus speaks x of a temple of Sicca Venus, which is near in sound to this, where the like impurities were committed:

and the men of Cuth made Nergal; which, according to the Jews, was in the likeness of a cock; but others, because the first part of the word signifies a lamp, suppose fire is meant, worshipped by the Persians, from whom it is thought these men came; but rather the word signifies, as Hillerus y observes, the fountain of light, and denotes the sun, worshipped by the Babylonians, Cuth being a province of theirs; from hence one of the princes of Babylon had part of his name, Jer 39:3.

and the men of Hamath made Ashima; which, the Jews say, was in the form of a goat, without any wool on it, or an ape z; but according to Hillerus a, with the Arabs, Ashima is the name of a lion, a symbol of the sun, under which form it might be worshipped; unless Ashima is the same with Shamaim, the heavens, worshipped by the Heathens; we read of the Ashemath of Samaria, by which they swore, Amo 8:14, though that was before these men came thither.

Gill: 2Ki 17:31 - And the Avites made Nibhaz and Tartak // and the Sepharvites burnt their children in fire to Adrammelech and to Anammelech the gods of Sepharvaim And the Avites made Nibhaz and Tartak,.... The former of which is represented by the Jews in the shape of a dog, deriving the word from "nabach", to b...

And the Avites made Nibhaz and Tartak,.... The former of which is represented by the Jews in the shape of a dog, deriving the word from "nabach", to bark, as if it was the same with the Anubis Latrator of Virgil b, an Egyptian deity; though that is said c to have its name from NOeb, which in the Egyptian language signifies "gold", the statutes of it being made of gold; and the latter in the form of an ass, for what reason I cannot say; but the first word, according to Hillerus d, signifies, "the remote one seeth", that is, the sun, which beholds all things; and Tartak is a chain, and may denote the fixed stars chained as it were in their places; or the satellites of the planets, chained to their orbs:

and the Sepharvites burnt their children in fire to Adrammelech and to Anammelech the gods of Sepharvaim; which were the same with Moloch; which may be concluded, partly from the worship paid them, and partly from the signification of their names; both end with "melech", king, which Moloch also signifies; the first may be interpreted the mighty king, and the latter the king that answers in an oracular way; from the first, one of the sons of Sennacherib king of Assyria had his name, Isa 37:36, though the Jews, according to their fancy, represent the one in the likeness of a mule, and the other in the likeness of a horse; and some make the one to be a peacock, and the other a pheasant e; the Septuagint version puts the article before them in the feminine gender, excepting the two last, taking them for she deities, or leaving the word εικονα, "images", to be understood.

Gill: 2Ki 17:32 - So they feared the Lord // and made unto themselves of the lowest of them priests of the high places, which sacrificed for them in the houses of the high places So they feared the Lord,.... Worshipped the God of Israel in the manner they were taught: and made unto themselves of the lowest of them priests of...

So they feared the Lord,.... Worshipped the God of Israel in the manner they were taught:

and made unto themselves of the lowest of them priests of the high places, which sacrificed for them in the houses of the high places; these were made after the manner of Jeroboam's priests, 1Ki 12:31, and were to sacrifice to the God of Israel in the high places, and temples built there; for otherwise they had, no doubt, priests of their own to sacrifice to their gods, and which they brought with them.

Gill: 2Ki 17:33 - They feared the Lord, and served their own gods // after the manner of the nations whom they carried away from thence They feared the Lord, and served their own gods,.... Worshipped both: after the manner of the nations whom they carried away from thence; the Israe...

They feared the Lord, and served their own gods,.... Worshipped both:

after the manner of the nations whom they carried away from thence; the Israelites, whom they had carried captive from Samaria; they worshipped the Lord in their idols, as they did, who pretended to worship God in the calves; so they worshipped the supreme God in and by their idols, and made use of them as mediators with him.

Gill: 2Ki 17:34 - Unto this day they do after the former manners // they fear not the Lord // neither do they after their statutes, or after their ordinances, or after the law and commandment which the Lord commanded the children of Jacob, whom he named Israel Unto this day they do after the former manners,.... Which may be understood either of the new colonies in Samaria doing after the former customs in th...

Unto this day they do after the former manners,.... Which may be understood either of the new colonies in Samaria doing after the former customs in their own land, or after the customs of the idolatrous Israelites; or of the Israelites in captivity continuing in their idolatry, not being in the least reformed by their troubles; or of such of them as were left in the land, who repented not of their idolatries, nor reformed from them:

they fear not the Lord; did not worship him, at least not alone, and much less in a spiritual manner, with reverence and godly fear:

neither do they after their statutes, or after their ordinances, or after the law and commandment which the Lord commanded the children of Jacob, whom he named Israel; that is, they did not observe the statutes and ordinances of the law given on Mount Sinai respecting religious worship, to act according to them.

Gill: 2Ki 17:35 - With whom the Lord had made a covenant // and charged them, saying, ye shall not fear other gods, nor bow yourselves to them, nor serve them, nor sacrifice to them With whom the Lord had made a covenant,.... As he did at Sinai, 2Ki 17:15. and charged them, saying, ye shall not fear other gods, nor bow yourselv...

With whom the Lord had made a covenant,.... As he did at Sinai, 2Ki 17:15.

and charged them, saying, ye shall not fear other gods, nor bow yourselves to them, nor serve them, nor sacrifice to them; all which is contained in the first and second commandments of the law.

Gill: 2Ki 17:36 - But the Lord, which brought you up out of the land of Egypt, with a great power, and a stretched out arm // him shall ye fear, and him shall ye worship, and to him shall ye do sacrifice But the Lord, which brought you up out of the land of Egypt, with a great power, and a stretched out arm,.... Which is observed, to show the obligatio...

But the Lord, which brought you up out of the land of Egypt, with a great power, and a stretched out arm,.... Which is observed, to show the obligations they lay under, in point of gratitude, to serve the Lord:

him shall ye fear, and him shall ye worship, and to him shall ye do sacrifice: and him only, and not other gods; none but he being the object of religious fear and divine worship, and to whom sacrifices should be offered.

Gill: 2Ki 17:37 - And the statutes, and the ordinances, and the law, and the commandment which he wrote for you // ye shall observe to do for evermore // and ye shall not fear other gods And the statutes, and the ordinances, and the law, and the commandment which he wrote for you,.... On the two tables of stone: ye shall observe to ...

And the statutes, and the ordinances, and the law, and the commandment which he wrote for you,.... On the two tables of stone:

ye shall observe to do for evermore; those commands relating to religious worship, especially the object of it, and to moral duties, being of eternal obligation; and all other statutes and ordinances of a ceremonial kind he ordered to be written for them, being such that they were to regard until the Messiah came, and a new world began:

and ye shall not fear other gods; which is repeated, that it might be observed, as it also afterwards is.

Gill: 2Ki 17:38 - And the covenant that I have made with you, ye shall not forget // neither shall ye fear other gods And the covenant that I have made with you, ye shall not forget,.... The law given at Mount Sinai; the first table of which chiefly concerned the wors...

And the covenant that I have made with you, ye shall not forget,.... The law given at Mount Sinai; the first table of which chiefly concerned the worship of the one true and living God, and forbid the worship of any other, as follows:

neither shall ye fear other gods; or make them the object of worship.

Gill: 2Ki 17:39 - But the Lord your God ye shall fear // and he shall deliver you out of the hand of all your enemies But the Lord your God ye shall fear,.... Or worship him, both internally and externally, according to his revealed will; for the fear of God includes ...

But the Lord your God ye shall fear,.... Or worship him, both internally and externally, according to his revealed will; for the fear of God includes both internal and external worship:

and he shall deliver you out of the hand of all your enemies; that is, provided they feared and served him as he required, and it became them to do.

Gill: 2Ki 17:40 - Howbeit, they did not hearken, but did after their former manner. Howbeit, they did not hearken, but did after their former manner. They did not repent of their idolatries, but persisted in them, and even when they w...

Howbeit, they did not hearken, but did after their former manner. They did not repent of their idolatries, but persisted in them, and even when they were in captivity in Assyria, or such of them as were left in the land.

Gill: 2Ki 17:41 - So these nations feared the Lord, and served their graven images // both their children, and their children's children // as did their fathers, so do they unto this day So these nations feared the Lord, and served their graven images,.... Just in like manner as the Israelites had done, who served the Lord and the calv...

So these nations feared the Lord, and served their graven images,.... Just in like manner as the Israelites had done, who served the Lord and the calves, and worshipped God and Baal:

both their children, and their children's children; that is, the children and children's children of the Samaritans:

as did their fathers, so do they unto this day; to the writing of this book, which some ascribe to Jeremiah, to whose times, and even longer, they continued this mixed and mongrel worship, for the space of three hundred years, to the times of Alexander the great, of whom Sanballat, governor of Samaria, got leave to build a temple, on Gerizim, for his son-in-law Manasseh, of which he became priest; and the Samaritans were prevailed upon to relinquish their idolatry, and to worship only the God of Israel; and yet it seems but ignorantly, and not without superstition, to the times of Christ, Joh 4:22.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:1 For location see Map2 B1; Map4 D3; Map5 E2; Map6 A4; Map7 C1.

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:2 Heb “in the eyes of.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:3 Heb “went up against.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:4 Heb “and bound him in the house of confinement.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:5 Heb “went up against.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:6 The Hebrew text has simply “Israel” as the object of the verb.

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:7 Heb “feared.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:8 Heb “and [the practices of] the kings of Israel which they did.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:9 That is, from the city’s perimeter to the central citadel.

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:11 Heb “and they did evil things, angering the Lord.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:12 Heb “about which the Lord had said to them, ‘You must not do this thing.’”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:13 Heb “obey my commandments and rules according to all the law which I commanded your fathers and which I sent to you by the hand of my servants t...

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:14 Heb and they stiffened their neck like the neck of their fathers.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:15 Heb “and [they walked] after the nations which were around them, concerning which the Lord commanded them not to do like them.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:16 Or “served.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:17 Heb “they sold themselves to doing what was evil in the eyes of the Lord, angering him.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:18 Heb “turned them away from his face.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:19 Heb “they walked in the practices of Israel which they did.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:20 Or “afflicted.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:21 Heb “a great sin.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:22 Heb “turn away from.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:23 Heb “just as he said.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:24 In vv. 24-29 Samaria stands for the entire northern kingdom of Israel.

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:25 Heb “fear.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:26 Heb “Look they are killing them.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:27 Heb “and let them go and let them live there, and let him teach them the requirements of the God of the land.” The two plural verbs seem i...

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:28 Heb “fear.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:29 Heb “Samaritans.” This refers to the Israelites who had been deported from the land.

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:30 This deity is unknown in extra-biblical literature. See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 211-12.

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:31 Adrammelech and Anammelech, the gods of the Sepharvaim are unknown in extra-biblical literature. See M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 212.

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:32 Heb “and they appointed for themselves from their whole people priests for the high places and they were serving for them in the house[s] of the...

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:33 Heb “fearing.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:34 Heb “commanded.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:35 That is, the descendants of Jacob/Israel (see v. 35b).

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:36 Heb “and outstretched arm.”

NET Notes: 2Ki 17:40 This refers to the foreigners whom the king of Assyria settled in the land (see v. 35a).

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:2 And he did [that which was] evil in the sight of the LORD, ( a ) but not as the kings of Israel that were before him. ( a ) Though he invented no new...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:4 And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea: for he had sent messengers to So king of Egypt, and brought no present to the king of Assyria, ( b...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:6 In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor [by] the riv...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:7 For [so] it was, that the children of Israel had ( d ) sinned against the LORD their God, which had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, from und...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:9 And the children of Israel did secretly [those] things that [were] not right against the LORD their God, and they built them high places in all their ...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:14 Notwithstanding they would not hear, but hardened their necks, like to the neck of their ( f ) fathers, that did not believe in the LORD their God. (...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:16 And they left all the commandments of the LORD their God, and made them molten images, [even] two calves, and made a grove, and worshipped all the ( g...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:17 And they caused their sons and their daughters to ( h ) pass through the fire, and used divination and enchantments, and ( i ) sold themselves to do e...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:18 Therefore the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them out of his sight: there was none left but the tribe of Judah ( k ) only. ( k ) No who...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:20 And the LORD rejected all the seed of Israel, and afflicted them, and delivered them into the hand of spoilers, until he had cast them out of his ( l ...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:21 ( m ) For he rent Israel from the house of David; and they made Jeroboam the son of Nebat king: and Jeroboam drave Israel from following the LORD, and...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:24 And the king of Assyria brought [men] from Babylon, and from ( n ) Cuthah, and from Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharvaim, and placed [them] in th...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:25 And [so] it was at the beginning of their dwelling there, [that] they ( o ) feared not the LORD: therefore the LORD sent lions among them, which slew ...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:27 Then the king of Assyria commanded, saying, Carry thither one of the priests whom ye brought from thence; and let them go and dwell there, and let him...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:30 And the men of Babylon made ( q ) Succothbenoth, and the men of Cuth made Nergal, and the men of Hamath made Ashima, ( q ) Meaning that every country...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:33 They ( r ) feared the LORD, and served their own gods, after the manner of the nations whom they carried away from thence. ( r ) That is, they had a ...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:34 Unto this day they do after the former manners: they fear not the LORD, neither do they after ( s ) their statutes, or after their ordinances, or afte...

Geneva Bible: 2Ki 17:41 So these ( t ) nations feared the LORD, and served their graven images, both their children, and their children's children: as did their fathers, so d...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: 2Ki 17:1-6 - --When the measure of sin is filled up, the Lord will forbear no longer. The inhabitants of Samaria must have endured great affliction. Some of the poor...

MHCC: 2Ki 17:7-23 - --Though the destruction of the kingdom of the ten tribes was but briefly related, it is in these verses largely commented upon, and the reasons of it g...

MHCC: 2Ki 17:24-41 - --The terror of the Almighty will sometimes produce a forced or feigned submission in unconverted men; like those brought from different countries to in...

Matthew Henry: 2Ki 17:1-6 - -- We have here the reign and ruin of Hoshea, the last of the kings of Israel, concerning whom observe, I. That, though he forced his way to the crown ...

Matthew Henry: 2Ki 17:7-23 - -- Though the destruction of the kingdom of the ten tribes was but briefly related, it is in these verses largely commented upon by our historian, and ...

Matthew Henry: 2Ki 17:24-41 - -- Never was land lost, we say, for want of an heir. When the children of Israel were dispossessed, and turned out of Canaan, the king of Assyria soon ...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 17:1-2 - -- Reign of Hoshea King of Israel. - 2Ki 17:1. In the twelfth year of Ahaz began Hoshea to reign. As Hoshea conspired against Pekah, according to 2Ki 1...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 17:3 - -- "Against him came up Salmanasar king of Assyria, and Hoshea became subject to him and rendered him tribute"( מנחה , as in 1Ki 5:1). שׁלמנ...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 17:4-5 - -- The king of Assyria found a conspiracy in Hoshea; for he had sent messengers to So the king of Egypt, and did not pay the tribute to the king of Ass...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 17:6 - -- The ninth year of Hoshea corresponds to the sixth year of Hezekiah and the year 722 or 721 b.c., in which the kingdom of the ten tribes was destroye...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 17:7-23 - -- The causes which occasioned this catastrophe. - To the account of the destruction of the kingdom of the ten tribes, and of the transportation of its...

Keil-Delitzsch: 2Ki 17:24-41 - -- The Samaritans and Their Worship. - After the transportation of the Israelites, the king of Assyria brought colonists from different provinces of hi...

Constable: 2Ki 9:30--18:1 - --C. The Second Period of Antagonism 9:30-17:41 The kingdoms of Israel and Judah continued without an alli...

Constable: 2Ki 17:1-6 - --16. Hoshea's evil reign in Israel 17:1-6 Hosea was Israel's last king. He reigned in Samaria for...

Constable: 2Ki 17:7-41 - --17. The captivity of the Northern Kingdom 17:7-41 The writer of Kings took special pains to expl...

Constable: 2Ki 17:7-23 - --The reasons for the captivity 17:7-23 In this section the writer catalogued Israel's tra...

Constable: 2Ki 17:24-41 - --The results of the captivity 17:24-41 The immediate result of the captivity (vv. 24-33) ...

Guzik: 2Ki 17:1-41 - The Fall of Israel 2 Kings 17 - The Fall of Israel A. The fall of Samaria. 1. (1-2) The evil reign of Hoshea. In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah, Hoshea the s...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF KINGS, in the ancient copies of the Hebrew Bible, constitute one book. Various titles have been given them; in the Septu...

JFB: 2 Kings (Garis Besar) MOAB REBELS. (2Ki 1:1) AHAZIAH'S JUDGMENT BY ELIJAH. (2Ki 1:2-8) ELIJAH BRINGS FIRE FROM HEAVEN ON AHAZIAH'S MESSENGERS. (2Ki 1:9-16) AHAZIAH DIES, A...

TSK: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) The events detailed in these books (Kings) are highly interesting and important. The account of the wisdom, magnificence, and extended commerce of So...

TSK: 2 Kings 17 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview 2Ki 17:1, Hoshea’s wicked reign; 2Ki 17:3, Being subdued by Shalmaneser, he conspires against him with So, king of Egypt; 2Ki 17:5, Sam...

Poole: 2 Kings 17 (Pendahuluan Pasal) KINGS CHAPTER 17 Hoshea king of Israel, his wicked reign: being subdued by Shalmaneser king of Assyria, he conspireth against him with So king of E...

MHCC: 2 Kings 17 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (2Ki 17:1-6) Reign of Hoshea in Israel, The israelites carried captives by the Assyrians. (v. 7-23) Captivity of the Israelites. (v. 24-41) The nati...

Matthew Henry: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Second Book of Kings This second book of the Kings (which the Septuagint, numbering from Samuel, ca...

Matthew Henry: 2 Kings 17 (Pendahuluan Pasal) This chapter gives us an account of the captivity of the ten tribes, and so finishes the history of that kingdom, after it had continued about 265 ...

Constable: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Second Kings continues the narrative begun in 1 Kings. It opens with the translation of godly Elijah to hea...

Constable: 2 Kings (Garis Besar) Outline (Continued from notes on 1 Kings) 3. Ahaziah's evil reign in Israel -1 Kings 22:51-2...

Constable: 2 Kings 2 Kings Bibliography Ackroyd, Peter R. "An Interpretation of the Babylonian Exile: A Study of 2 Kings 20, Isaia...

Haydock: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FOURTH BOOK OF KINGS. INTRODUCTION. This Book brings us to the conclusion of the kingdom of Israel, (chap. xvii.) and to the captivity of ...

Gill: 2 Kings (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO 2 KINGS This, and the preceding book, are properly but one book divided into two parts, because of the size of it, as the book of S...

Gill: 2 Kings 17 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO 2 KINGS 17 This chapter relates the captivity of the ten tribes of Israel, and how it came about, 2Ki 17:1, the cause of it, their ...

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