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Teks -- 1 Samuel 2:1-36 (NET)

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Konteks
Hannah Exalts the Lord in Prayer
2:1 Hannah prayed, “My heart rejoices in the Lord; my horn is exalted high because of the Lord. I loudly denounce my enemies, for I am happy that you delivered me. 2:2 No one is holy like the Lord! There is no one other than you! There is no rock like our God! 2:3 Don’t keep speaking so arrogantly, letting proud talk come out of your mouth! For the Lord is a God who knows; he evaluates what people do. 2:4 The bows of warriors are shattered, but those who stumble find their strength reinforced. 2:5 Those who are well-fed hire themselves out to earn food, but the hungry no longer lack. Even the barren woman gives birth to seven, but the one with many children withers away. 2:6 The Lord both kills and gives life; he brings down to the grave and raises up. 2:7 The Lord impoverishes and makes wealthy; he humbles and he exalts. 2:8 He lifts the weak from the dust; he raises the poor from the ash heap to seat them with princes and to bestow on them an honored position. The foundations of the earth belong to the Lord, and he has placed the world on them. 2:9 He watches over his holy ones, but the wicked are made speechless in the darkness, for it is not by one’s own strength that one prevails. 2:10 The Lord shatters his adversaries; he thunders against them from the heavens. The Lord executes judgment to the ends of the earth. He will strengthen his king and exalt the power of his anointed one.” 2:11 Then Elkanah went back home to Ramah. But the boy was serving the Lord under the supervision of Eli the priest.
Eli’s Sons Misuse Their Sacred Office
2:12 The sons of Eli were wicked men. They did not recognize the Lord’s authority. 2:13 Now the priests would always treat the people in the following way: Whenever anyone was making a sacrifice, while the meat was boiling, the priest’s attendant would come with a three-pronged fork in his hand. 2:14 He would jab it into the basin, kettle, caldron, or pot, and everything that the fork brought up the priest would take for himself. This is what they used to do to all the Israelites when they came there to Shiloh. 2:15 Even before they burned the fat, the priest’s attendant would come and say to the person who was making the sacrifice, “Hand over some meat for the priest to roast! He won’t take boiled meat from you, but only raw.” 2:16 If the individual said to him, “First let the fat be burned away, and then take for yourself whatever you wish,” he would say, “No! Hand it over right now! If you don’t, I will take it forcibly!” 2:17 The sin of these young men was very great in the Lord’s sight, for they treated the Lord’s offering with contempt. 2:18 Now Samuel was ministering before the Lord. The boy was dressed in a linen ephod. 2:19 His mother used to make him a small robe and bring it up to him at regular intervals when she would go up with her husband to make the annual sacrifice. 2:20 Eli would bless Elkanah and his wife saying, “May the Lord raise up for you descendants from this woman to replace the one that she dedicated to the Lord.” Then they would go to their home. 2:21 So the Lord graciously attended to Hannah, and she was able to conceive and gave birth to three sons and two daughters. The boy Samuel grew up at the Lord’s sanctuary. 2:22 Now Eli was very old when he heard about everything that his sons used to do to all the people of Israel and how they used to have sex with the women who were stationed at the entrance to the tent of meeting. 2:23 He said to them, “Why do you behave in this way? For I hear about these evil things from all these people. 2:24 This ought not to be, my sons! For the report that I hear circulating among the Lord’s people is not good. 2:25 If a man sins against a man, one may appeal to God on his behalf. But if a man sins against the Lord, who then will intercede for him?” But Eli’s sons would not listen to their father, for the Lord had decided to kill them. 2:26 Now the boy Samuel was growing up and finding favor both with the Lord and with people.
The Lord Judges the House of Eli
2:27 A man of God came to Eli and said to him, “This is what the Lord says: ‘Did I not plainly reveal myself to your ancestor’s house when they were in Egypt in the house of Pharaoh? 2:28 I chose your ancestor from all the tribes of Israel to be my priest, to offer sacrifice on my altar, to burn incense, and to bear the ephod before me. I gave to your ancestor’s house all the fire offerings made by the Israelites. 2:29 Why are you scorning my sacrifice and my offering that I commanded for my dwelling place? You have honored your sons more than you have me by having made yourselves fat from the best parts of all the offerings of my people Israel.’ 2:30 Therefore the Lord, the God of Israel, says, ‘I really did say that your house and your ancestor’s house would serve me forever.’ But now the Lord says, ‘May it never be! For I will honor those who honor me, but those who despise me will be cursed! 2:31 In fact, days are coming when I will remove your strength and the strength of your father’s house. There will not be an old man in your house! 2:32 You will see trouble in my dwelling place! Israel will experience blessings, but there will not be an old man in your house for all time. 2:33 Any one of you that I do not cut off from my altar, I will cause your eyes to fail and will cause you grief. All of those born to your family will die in the prime of life. 2:34 This will be a confirming sign for you that will be fulfilled through your two sons, Hophni and Phinehas: in a single day they both will die! 2:35 Then I will raise up for myself a faithful priest. He will do what is in my heart and soul. I will build for him a secure dynasty and he will serve my chosen one for all time. 2:36 Everyone who remains in your house will come to bow before him for a little money and for a scrap of bread. Each will say, ‘Assign me to a priestly task so I can eat a scrap of bread.’”
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Eli
 · Elkanah son of Assir of Kohath son of Levi,a man of Ephraim; father-in-law of Ruth the Moabitess; son of Jeroham,son of Shaul (Joel) of Kohath son of Levi,son of Ahimoth (Mahath) of Kohath son of Levi,son of Jeroham of Kohath son of Levi,a Levite whose descendants returned from exile; the father of Asa,a man of Benjamin who defected to David at Ziklag,a Levite porter for the ark in David's time,lieutenant commander of the palace of King Ahaz
 · Hannah wife of Elkanah; Samuel's mother
 · Hophni son of Eli the priest
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Israelite a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Pharaoh the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Abraham's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in Joseph's time,the title of the king who ruled Egypt when Moses was born,the title of the king who refused to let Israel leave Egypt,the title of the king of Egypt whose daughter Solomon married,the title of the king who ruled Egypt in the time of Isaiah,the title Egypt's ruler just before Moses' time
 · Phinehas son of Eleazar; a chief priest, Phinehas I,a priest; son of Eli; Phinehas II,father of Eleazar, a priest on duty in the days of Ezra
 · Ramah a town 8 km north of Jerusalem,a town of Simeon,a town of Benjamin 9 km north of Jerusalem and 8 km south of Bethel (OS),a town on the border of Asher (OS),a town of Ephraim 10 km SE of Aphek, and 25 km east of Joppa,a town in Gilead 50-60 km east of Beth-Shan
 · Samuel son of Ammihud; Moses' land distribution deputy for Simeon,son of Tola son of Issachar
 · Sheol the place of the dead
 · Shiloh a town having the Tent of Meeting in the time of Judges (IBD)


Topik/Tema Kamus: Hophni | HANNAH | Eli | Poetry | Songs | Israel | SAMUEL, BOOKS OF | Samuel | Haah | WOMAN | Abiathar | Phinehas | Women | Intercession | Elkanah | Minister | PRIESTS AND LEVITES | Quotations and Allusions | JESUS CHRIST, 4A | Barreess | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , PBC , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: 1Sa 2:1 - Prayed That is, praised God; which is a part of prayer.

That is, praised God; which is a part of prayer.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:1 - Rejoiceth Or, leapeth for joy: for the words note not only inward joy, but also the outward demonstrations of it.

Or, leapeth for joy: for the words note not only inward joy, but also the outward demonstrations of it.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:1 - In the Lord As the author of my joy, that he hath heard my prayer, and accepted my son for his service.

As the author of my joy, that he hath heard my prayer, and accepted my son for his service.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:1 - Horn My strength and glory (which are often signified by an horn,) are advanced and manifested to my vindication, and the confusion of mine enemies.

My strength and glory (which are often signified by an horn,) are advanced and manifested to my vindication, and the confusion of mine enemies.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:1 - Mouth enlarged That is, opened wide to pour forth abundant praises to God, and to give a full answer to all the reproaches of mine adversaries.

That is, opened wide to pour forth abundant praises to God, and to give a full answer to all the reproaches of mine adversaries.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:1 - Enemies So she manifests her prudence and modesty, in not naming Peninnah, but only her enemies in the general.

So she manifests her prudence and modesty, in not naming Peninnah, but only her enemies in the general.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:1 - Salvation Because the matter of my joy is no trivial thing, but that strange and glorious salvation or deliverance which thou hast given me from my oppressing c...

Because the matter of my joy is no trivial thing, but that strange and glorious salvation or deliverance which thou hast given me from my oppressing care and grief, and from the insolencies and reproaches of mine enemies.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:2 - None holy None so perfectly, unchangeably and constantly holy.

None so perfectly, unchangeably and constantly holy.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:2 - None beside Not only none is so holy as thou art, but in truth there is none holy besides thee; namely, entirely, or independently, but only by participation from...

Not only none is so holy as thou art, but in truth there is none holy besides thee; namely, entirely, or independently, but only by participation from thee.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:2 - Any rock Thou only art a sure defence and refuge to all that flee to thee.

Thou only art a sure defence and refuge to all that flee to thee.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:3 - Talk no more Thou Peninnah, boast no more of thy numerous off - spring, and speak no more insolently and scornfully of me. She speaks of her in the plural number, ...

Thou Peninnah, boast no more of thy numerous off - spring, and speak no more insolently and scornfully of me. She speaks of her in the plural number, because she would not expose her name to censure.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:3 - Of knowledge He knoweth thy heart, and all that pride, and envy, and contempt of me, which thy own conscience knows; and all thy perverse carriage towards me.

He knoweth thy heart, and all that pride, and envy, and contempt of me, which thy own conscience knows; and all thy perverse carriage towards me.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:3 - Actions That is, he trieth all mens thoughts and actions, (for the Hebrew word signifies both) as a just judge, to give to every one according to their works.

That is, he trieth all mens thoughts and actions, (for the Hebrew word signifies both) as a just judge, to give to every one according to their works.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:4 - Bows The strength of which they boasted.

The strength of which they boasted.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:4 - Stumbled Or, were weak, or feeble, in body and spirit.

Or, were weak, or feeble, in body and spirit.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:5 - Hired themselves out for bread It is the same thing which is expressed both in divers metaphors in the foregoing, and following verses.

It is the same thing which is expressed both in divers metaphors in the foregoing, and following verses.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:5 - Ceased That is, ceased to be hungry.

That is, ceased to be hungry.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:5 - Seven That is, many, as seven is often used. She speaks in the prophetick style, the past time, for the future; for though she had actually born but one, ye...

That is, many, as seven is often used. She speaks in the prophetick style, the past time, for the future; for though she had actually born but one, yet she had a confident persuasion that she should have more, which was grounded either upon some particular assurance from God; or rather upon the prayer or prediction of Eli.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:5 - She That is, Peninnah.

That is, Peninnah.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:5 - Feeble Either because she was now past child - bearing: or, because divers of her children, which were her strength and her glory, were dead, as the Hebrew d...

Either because she was now past child - bearing: or, because divers of her children, which were her strength and her glory, were dead, as the Hebrew doctors relate.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:6 - Killeth The same person whom he first killeth, or bringeth nigh unto death, he afterwards raiseth to life. Me, who was almost consumed with grief, he hath rev...

The same person whom he first killeth, or bringeth nigh unto death, he afterwards raiseth to life. Me, who was almost consumed with grief, he hath revived. The name of death both in sacred scripture, and profane writers, is often given to great Calamities.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:8 - From the dunghill From the most sordid place, and mean estate.

From the most sordid place, and mean estate.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:8 - Inherit Not only possess it themselves, but transmit it to their posterity.

Not only possess it themselves, but transmit it to their posterity.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:8 - Throne That is, a glorious throne or kingdom.

That is, a glorious throne or kingdom.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:8 - Pillars The foundations of the earth, which God created, and upholds, and wherewith he sustains the earth, and all its inhabitants, as a house is supported wi...

The foundations of the earth, which God created, and upholds, and wherewith he sustains the earth, and all its inhabitants, as a house is supported with pillars; and therefore it is not strange if he disposeth of persons and things therein as he pleaseth.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:9 - Feet That is, the steps or paths, their counsels and actions; he will keep; that is, both uphold, that they may not fall into ruin; and direct and preserve...

That is, the steps or paths, their counsels and actions; he will keep; that is, both uphold, that they may not fall into ruin; and direct and preserve from wandering, and from those fatal errors that wicked men daily run into.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:9 - Silent Shall be put to silence: they who used to open their mouths wide against heaven, and against the saints, shall be so confounded with the unexpected di...

Shall be put to silence: they who used to open their mouths wide against heaven, and against the saints, shall be so confounded with the unexpected disappointment of all their hopes, and with God's glorious appearance and operations for his people, that they shall have their mouths quite stopped.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:9 - Darkness Both inward, in their own minds, not knowing what to say or do; and outward, in a stat e of deep distress.

Both inward, in their own minds, not knowing what to say or do; and outward, in a stat e of deep distress.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:9 - Prevail Namely, against God, or against his saints, as the wicked were confident they should do, because of their great power, and wealth, and numbers.

Namely, against God, or against his saints, as the wicked were confident they should do, because of their great power, and wealth, and numbers.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:10 - Exalt Increase, or advance the strength.

Increase, or advance the strength.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:10 - Of his anointed Of his king. This may respect Christ, the singular anointed one of God, and the special king of his people. In this sense also, the Lord shall judge t...

Of his king. This may respect Christ, the singular anointed one of God, and the special king of his people. In this sense also, the Lord shall judge the ends of the earth: David's victories and dominions reached far. But God will give to the Son of David, the uttermost parts of the earth for his possession. And he will give strength unto his king, for the accomplishing his great undertaking, and exalt the horn, of the power and honour of his anointed, till he hath put all his enemies under his feet.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:11 - Minster In some way agreeable to his tender years, as in singing, or playing upon instruments of musick, or lighting the lamps.

In some way agreeable to his tender years, as in singing, or playing upon instruments of musick, or lighting the lamps.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:11 - Before Eli the priest That is, under the inspection, and by the direction of Eli.

That is, under the inspection, and by the direction of Eli.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:12 - Knew not They did not honour, love, or serve God.

They did not honour, love, or serve God.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:13 - Boiling As the Lord's part of the peace-offerings was burnt upon the altar, so the priest's and offerer's parts were to be boiled.

As the Lord's part of the peace-offerings was burnt upon the altar, so the priest's and offerer's parts were to be boiled.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:14 - Took Not contented with the breast and shoulder which were allotted them by God, they took also part of the offerer's share; besides which they snatched th...

Not contented with the breast and shoulder which were allotted them by God, they took also part of the offerer's share; besides which they snatched their part before it was heaved and waved; contrary to Lev 7:34.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:15 - The fat And the other parts to be burnt with it. So this was all additional injury; for they took such parts as they best liked whilst it was raw.

And the other parts to be burnt with it. So this was all additional injury; for they took such parts as they best liked whilst it was raw.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:17 - Abhorred But we know the validity and efficacy of the sacraments does not depend on the goodness of those that administer them. It was therefore folly and sin ...

But we know the validity and efficacy of the sacraments does not depend on the goodness of those that administer them. It was therefore folly and sin in the people, to think the worse of God's institutions. But it was the much greater sin of the priests, that gave them occasion so to do.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:18 - Ministered That is, performed his ministration carefully and faithfully.

That is, performed his ministration carefully and faithfully.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:18 - Before the Lord In God's tabernacle.

In God's tabernacle.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:18 - Ephod A garment used in God's service, and allowed not only to the inferior priests and Levites but also to eminent persons of the people, and therefore to ...

A garment used in God's service, and allowed not only to the inferior priests and Levites but also to eminent persons of the people, and therefore to Samuel, who, though no Levite, was a Nazarite, from his birth.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:21 - Grew Not only in age and stature; but especially in wisdom and goodness.

Not only in age and stature; but especially in wisdom and goodness.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:21 - Before the Lord Not only before men, who might he deceived, but in the presence and judgment of the all - seeing God.

Not only before men, who might he deceived, but in the presence and judgment of the all - seeing God.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:22 - Very old And therefore unfit either to manage his office himself, or to make a diligent inspection into the carriage of his sons, which gave them opportunity f...

And therefore unfit either to manage his office himself, or to make a diligent inspection into the carriage of his sons, which gave them opportunity for their wickedness.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:22 - To Israel Whom they injured in their offerings, and alienated from the service of God.

Whom they injured in their offerings, and alienated from the service of God.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:22 - The door The place where all the people both men and women waited when they came up to the service of God, because the altar on which their sacrifices was offe...

The place where all the people both men and women waited when they came up to the service of God, because the altar on which their sacrifices was offered, was by the door.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:23 - He said, &c. _Eli's sin was not only that he reproved them too gently, but that he contented himself with a verbal rebuke, and did not restrain them, and inflict t...

_Eli's sin was not only that he reproved them too gently, but that he contented himself with a verbal rebuke, and did not restrain them, and inflict those punishments upon them which such high crimes deserved by God's law, and which he as judge and high-priest ought to have done, without respect of persons.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:25 - The judge If only man be wronged, man can right it, and reconcile the persons.

If only man be wronged, man can right it, and reconcile the persons.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:25 - Against the Lord As you have done wilfully and presumptuously.

As you have done wilfully and presumptuously.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:25 - Who shall, &c. The offence is of so high a nature, that few or none will dare to intercede for him, but will leave him to the just judgment of God. The words may be ...

The offence is of so high a nature, that few or none will dare to intercede for him, but will leave him to the just judgment of God. The words may be rendered, Who shall judge for him? Who shall interpose as umpire, between God and him? Who shall compound that difference? None can or dare do it, and therefore he must be left to the dreadful, but righteous judgment of God. They had now sinned away their day of grace. They had long hardened their hearts. And God at length gave them up to a reprobate mind, and determined to destroy them, 2Ch 25:16.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:27 - Man of God That is, a prophet sent from God.

That is, a prophet sent from God.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:29 - Kick ye Using them irreverently, and profanely; both by abusing them to your own luxury, and by causing the people to abhor them. He chargeth Eli with his son...

Using them irreverently, and profanely; both by abusing them to your own luxury, and by causing the people to abhor them. He chargeth Eli with his sons faults.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:29 - Honourest thy sons Permitting them to dishonour and injure me, by taking my part to themselves; chusing rather to offend me by thy connivance at their sin, than to displ...

Permitting them to dishonour and injure me, by taking my part to themselves; chusing rather to offend me by thy connivance at their sin, than to displease them by severe rebukes, and just punishments.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:29 - Fat To pamper yourselves. This you did not out of necessity, but out of mere luxury.

To pamper yourselves. This you did not out of necessity, but out of mere luxury.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:29 - Chiefest Not contented with those parts which I had allotted you, you invaded those choice parts which I reserved for myself.

Not contented with those parts which I had allotted you, you invaded those choice parts which I reserved for myself.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:30 - I said Where, or when did God say this? To Eli himself, or to his father, when the priesthood was translated from Eleazar's to Ithamar's family.

Where, or when did God say this? To Eli himself, or to his father, when the priesthood was translated from Eleazar's to Ithamar's family.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:30 - Walk That is, minister unto me as high-priest. Walking is often put for discharging ones office; before me; may signify that he was the high-priest, whose ...

That is, minister unto me as high-priest. Walking is often put for discharging ones office; before me; may signify that he was the high-priest, whose sole prerogative it was to minister before God, or before the ark, in the most holy place.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:30 - For ever As long as the Mosaical law and worship lasts.

As long as the Mosaical law and worship lasts.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:30 - Far from me To fulfil my promise, which I hereby retract.

To fulfil my promise, which I hereby retract.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:31 - Arm That is, I will take away thy strength, or all that in which thou placest thy confidence, either, the ark, which is called God's strength, Psa 78:61, ...

That is, I will take away thy strength, or all that in which thou placest thy confidence, either, the ark, which is called God's strength, Psa 78:61, and was Eli's strength, who therefore was not able to bear the very tidings of the loss of it. Or, his priestly dignity or employment, whence he had all his honour and substance. Or rather, his children, to whom the words following here, and in the succeeding verses, seem to confine it.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:31 - Father's house That is, thy children's children, and all thy family which was in great measure accomplished, 1Sa 22:16, &c.

That is, thy children's children, and all thy family which was in great measure accomplished, 1Sa 22:16, &c.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:32 - Shalt see, &c The words may be rendered; thou shalt see, in thy own person, the affliction, or calamity of my habitation; that is, either of the land of Israel, whe...

The words may be rendered; thou shalt see, in thy own person, the affliction, or calamity of my habitation; that is, either of the land of Israel, wherein I dwell; or of the sanctuary, called the habitation by way of eminency, whose greatest glory the ark was, 1Sa 4:21-22, and consequently, whose greatest calamity the loss of the ark was; for, or instead of all that good wherewith God would have blessed Israel, having raised up a young prophet Samuel, and thereby given good grounds of hope that he intended to bless Israel, if thou and thy sons had not hindered it by your sins. So this clause of the threatning concerns Eli's person, as the following concerns his posterity. And this best agrees with the most proper signification of that phrase, Thou shalt see.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:33 - Of thine That is, of thy posterity.

That is, of thy posterity.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:33 - Shalt grieve Shall be so forlorn and miserable, that if thou wast alive to see it, it would grieve thee at the heart, and thou wouldst consume thine eyes with weep...

Shall be so forlorn and miserable, that if thou wast alive to see it, it would grieve thee at the heart, and thou wouldst consume thine eyes with weeping for their calamities.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:33 - Increase That is, thy children.

That is, thy children.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:33 - Flower About the thirtieth year of their age, when they were to be admitted to the full administration of their office.

About the thirtieth year of their age, when they were to be admitted to the full administration of their office.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:35 - Raise a priest Of another line, as it necessarily implied by the total removal of that office from Eli's line. The person designed is Zadok, one eminent for his fait...

Of another line, as it necessarily implied by the total removal of that office from Eli's line. The person designed is Zadok, one eminent for his faithfulness to God, and to the king, who, when Abiather, the last of Eli's line, was deposed by Solomon, was made high-priest in his stead. Build, &c - That is, give him a numerous posterity, and confirm that sure covenant of an everlasting priesthood made to Phinehas, of Eleazar's line, Num 25:13, and interrupted for a little while by Eli, of the line of Ithamar, unto him and his children for ever.

Wesley: 1Sa 2:35 - Anointed Before Jesus Christ, who is the main scope and design, not only of the New, but of the Old Testament, which in all its types and ceremonies represente...

Before Jesus Christ, who is the main scope and design, not only of the New, but of the Old Testament, which in all its types and ceremonies represented him; and particularly, the high-priest was an eminent type of Christ, and represented his person, and acted in his name and stead, and did mediately, what John Baptist did immediately, go before the face of the Lord Christ; and when Christ came, that office and officer was to cease. The high-priest is seldom or never said to walk or minister before the kings of Israel or Judah, but constantly before the Lord, and consequently, before Christ, who, as he was God blessed for ever, Rom 9:5, was present with, and the builder and governor of the ancient church of Israel, and therefore the high-priest is most properly said to walk before him.

JFB: 1Sa 2:1 - Hannah prayed, and said Praise and prayer are inseparably conjoined in Scripture (Col 4:2; 1Ti 2:1). This beautiful song was her tribute of thanks for the divine goodness in ...

Praise and prayer are inseparably conjoined in Scripture (Col 4:2; 1Ti 2:1). This beautiful song was her tribute of thanks for the divine goodness in answering her petition.

JFB: 1Sa 2:1 - mine horn is exalted in the Lord Allusion is here made to a peculiarity in the dress of Eastern women about Lebanon, which seems to have obtained anciently among the Israelite women, ...

Allusion is here made to a peculiarity in the dress of Eastern women about Lebanon, which seems to have obtained anciently among the Israelite women, that of wearing a tin or silver horn on the forehead, on which their veil is suspended. Wives, who have no children, wear it projecting in an oblique direction, while those who become mothers forthwith raise it a few inches higher, inclining towards the perpendicular, and by this slight but observable change in their headdress, make known, wherever they go, the maternal character which they now bear.

JFB: 1Sa 2:5 - they that were hungry ceased That is, to hunger.

That is, to hunger.

JFB: 1Sa 2:5 - the barren hath born seven That is, many children.

That is, many children.

JFB: 1Sa 2:6 - he bringeth down to the grave, and bringeth up That is, He reduces to the lowest state of degradation and misery, and restores to prosperity and happiness.

That is, He reduces to the lowest state of degradation and misery, and restores to prosperity and happiness.

JFB: 1Sa 2:8 - He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, and lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill The dunghill, a pile of horse, cow, or camel offal, heaped up to dry in the sun, and used as fuel, was, and is, one of the common haunts of the poores...

The dunghill, a pile of horse, cow, or camel offal, heaped up to dry in the sun, and used as fuel, was, and is, one of the common haunts of the poorest mendicants; and the change that had been made in the social position of Hannah, appeared to her grateful heart as auspicious and as great as the elevation of a poor despised beggar to the highest and most dignified rank.

JFB: 1Sa 2:8 - inherit the throne of glory That is, possesses seats of honor.

That is, possesses seats of honor.

JFB: 1Sa 2:10 - the Lord shall judge the ends of the earth . . . exalt the horn of his anointed This is the first place in Scripture where the word "anointed," or Messiah, occurs; and as there was no king in Israel at the time, it seems the best ...

This is the first place in Scripture where the word "anointed," or Messiah, occurs; and as there was no king in Israel at the time, it seems the best interpretation to refer it to Christ. There is, indeed, a remarkable resemblance between the song of Hannah and that of Mary (Luk 1:46).

JFB: 1Sa 2:11 - the child did minister unto the Lord before Eli the priest He must have been engaged in some occupation suited to his tender age, as in playing upon the cymbals, or other instruments of music; in lighting the ...

He must have been engaged in some occupation suited to his tender age, as in playing upon the cymbals, or other instruments of music; in lighting the lamps, or similar easy and interesting services.

JFB: 1Sa 2:12 - Now the sons of Eli were sons of Belial Not only careless and irreligious, but men loose in their actions, and vicious and scandalous in their habits. Though professionally engaged in sacred...

Not only careless and irreligious, but men loose in their actions, and vicious and scandalous in their habits. Though professionally engaged in sacred duties, they were not only strangers to the power of religion in the heart, but they had thrown off its restraints, and even ran, as is sometimes done in similar cases by the sons of eminent ministers, to the opposite extreme of reckless and open profligacy.

JFB: 1Sa 2:13-17 - the priests' custom with the people When persons wished to present a sacrifice of peace offering on the altar, the offering was brought in the first instance to the priest, and as the Lo...

When persons wished to present a sacrifice of peace offering on the altar, the offering was brought in the first instance to the priest, and as the Lord's part was burnt, the parts appropriated respectively to the priests and offerers were to be sodden. But Eli's sons, unsatisfied with the breast and shoulder, which were the perquisites appointed to them by the divine law (Exo 29:27; Lev 7:31-32), not only claimed part of the offerer's share, but rapaciously seized them previous to the sacred ceremony of heaving or waving (see on Lev 7:29); and moreover they committed the additional injustice of taking up with their fork those portions which they preferred, while still raw. Pious people revolted at such rapacious and profane encroachments on the dues of the altar, as well as what should have gone to constitute the family and social feast of the offerer. The truth is, the priests having become haughty and unwilling in many instances to accept invitations to those feasts, presents of meat were sent to them; and this, though done in courtesy at first, being, in course of time, established into a right, gave rise to all the rapacious keenness of Eli's sons.

JFB: 1Sa 2:18 - But Samuel ministered before the Lord, being a child This notice of his early services in the outer courts of the tabernacle was made to pave the way for the remarkable prophecy regarding the high priest...

This notice of his early services in the outer courts of the tabernacle was made to pave the way for the remarkable prophecy regarding the high priest's family.

JFB: 1Sa 2:18 - girded with a linen ephod A small shoulder-garment or apron, used in the sacred service by the inferior priests and Levites; sometimes also by judges or eminent persons, and he...

A small shoulder-garment or apron, used in the sacred service by the inferior priests and Levites; sometimes also by judges or eminent persons, and hence allowed to Samuel, who, though not a Levite, was devoted to God from his birth.

JFB: 1Sa 2:19 - his mother made him a little coat, and brought it to him from year to year Aware that he could not yet render any useful service to the tabernacle, she undertook the expense of supplying him with wearing apparel. All weaving ...

Aware that he could not yet render any useful service to the tabernacle, she undertook the expense of supplying him with wearing apparel. All weaving stuffs, manufacture of cloth, and making of suits were anciently the employment of women.

JFB: 1Sa 2:20 - Eli blessed Elkanah and his wife This blessing, like that which he had formerly pronounced, had a prophetic virtue; which, before long, appeared in the increase of Hannah's family (1S...

This blessing, like that which he had formerly pronounced, had a prophetic virtue; which, before long, appeared in the increase of Hannah's family (1Sa 2:21), and the growing qualifications of Samuel for the service of the sanctuary.

JFB: 1Sa 2:22-24 - the women that assembled at the door of the tabernacle This was an institution of holy women of a strictly ascetic order, who had relinquished worldly cares and devoted themselves to the Lord; an instituti...

This was an institution of holy women of a strictly ascetic order, who had relinquished worldly cares and devoted themselves to the Lord; an institution which continued down to the time of Christ (Luk 2:37). Eli was, on the whole, a good man, but lacking in the moral and religious training of his family. He erred on the side of parental indulgence; and though he reprimanded them (see on Deu 21:18), yet, from fear or indolence, he shrank from laying on them the restraints, or subjecting them to the discipline, their gross delinquencies called for. In his judicial capacity, he winked at their flagrant acts of maladministration and suffered them to make reckless encroachments on the constitution, by which the most serious injuries were inflicted both on the rights of the people and the laws of God.

JFB: 1Sa 2:25 - they hearkened not unto the voice of their father, because It should be therefore.

It should be therefore.

JFB: 1Sa 2:25 - the Lord would slay them It was not God's preordination, but their own wilful and impenitent disobedience which was the cause of their destruction.

It was not God's preordination, but their own wilful and impenitent disobedience which was the cause of their destruction.

JFB: 1Sa 2:27 - there came a man of God unto Eli, and said . . . that there shall not be an old man in thine house So much importance has always, in the East, been attached to old age, that it would be felt to be a great calamity, and sensibly to lower the respecta...

So much importance has always, in the East, been attached to old age, that it would be felt to be a great calamity, and sensibly to lower the respectability of any family which could boast of few or no old men. The prediction of this prophet was fully confirmed by the afflictions, degradation, poverty, and many untimely deaths with which the house of Eli was visited after its announcement (see 1Sa 4:11; 1Sa 14:3; 1Sa 22:18-23; 1Ki 2:27).

JFB: 1Sa 2:31 - I will cut off thine arm, and the arm of thy father's house By the withdrawal of the high priesthood from Eleazar, the elder of Aaron's two sons (after Nadab and Abihu were destroyed, [Num 3:4]), that dignity h...

By the withdrawal of the high priesthood from Eleazar, the elder of Aaron's two sons (after Nadab and Abihu were destroyed, [Num 3:4]), that dignity had been conferred on the family of Ithamar, to which Eli belonged, and now that his descendants had forfeited the honor, it was to be taken from them and restored to the elder branch.

JFB: 1Sa 2:32 - thou shalt see an enemy in my habitation A successful rival for the office of high priest shall rise out of another family (2Sa 15:35; 1Ch 24:3; 1Ch 29:22). But the marginal reading, "thou sh...

A successful rival for the office of high priest shall rise out of another family (2Sa 15:35; 1Ch 24:3; 1Ch 29:22). But the marginal reading, "thou shalt see the affliction of the tabernacle," seems to be a preferable translation.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:1 - And Hannah prayed, and said And Hannah prayed, and said - The Chaldee very properly says, And Hannah prayed in the spirit of prophecy; for indeed the whole of this prayer, or a...

And Hannah prayed, and said - The Chaldee very properly says, And Hannah prayed in the spirit of prophecy; for indeed the whole of this prayer, or as it may be properly called oracular declaration, is a piece of regular prophecy, every part of it having respect to the future, and perhaps not a little - of it declaratory oil the Messiah’ s kingdom

Dr. Hales has some very good observations on this prophetic song

"This admirable hymn excels in simplicity of composition, closeness of connection, and uniformity of sentiment; breathing the pious effusions of a devout mind, deeply impressed with a conviction of God’ s mercies to herself in particular, and of his providential government of the world in general; exalting the poor in spirit or the humble-minded, and abasing the rich and the arrogant; rewarding the righteous, and punishing the wicked. Hannah was also a prophetess of the first class, besides predicting her own fruitfulness, 1Sa 2:5, (for she bore six children in all, 1Sa 2:21), she foretold not only the more immediate judgments of God upon the Philistines during her son’ s administration, 1Sa 2:10, but his remoter judgments ‘ upon the ends of the earth,’ 1Sa 2:10, in the true spirit of the prophecies of Jacob, Balaam, and Moses. Like them, she describes the promised Savior of the world as a King, before there was any king in Israel; and she first applied to him the remarkable epithet Messiah in Hebrew, Christ in Greek, and Anointed in English, which was adopted by David, Nathan, Ethan, Isaiah, Daniel, and the succeeding prophets of the Old Testament; and by the apostles and inspired writers of the New. And the allusion thereto by Zacharias, the father of the Baptist, in his hymn, Luk 1:69, where he calls Christ a ‘ horn of salvation,’ and the beautiful imitation of it by the blessed Virgin throughout in her hymn, Luk 1:46-55, furnishing the finest commentary thereon, clearly prove that Hannah in her rejoicing had respect to something higher than Peninnah her rival, or to the triumphs of Samuel, or even of David himself; the expressions are too magnificent and sublime to be confined to such objects. Indeed the learned rabbi, David Kimchi, was so struck with them that he ingenuously confessed that ‘ the King of whom Hannah speaks is the Messiah,’ of whom she spake either by prophecy or tradition; for, continues he, ‘ there was a tradition among the Israelites, that a great zing should arise in Israel; and she seals up her song with celebrating this King who was to deliver them from all their enemies.’ The tradition, as we have seen, was founded principally on Balaam’ s second and third prophecies, Num 24:7-17; and we cannot but admire that gracious dispensation of spiritual gifts to Hannah (whose name signifies grace) in ranking her among the prophets who should first unfold a leading title of the blessed Seed of the woman.

In the best MSS. the whole of this hymn is written in hemistich or poetic lines. I shall here produce it in this order, following the plan as exhibited in Kennicott’ s Bible, with some trifling alterations of our present version: -

Clarke: 1Sa 2:1 - 1Sa 2:1. My heart exulteth in Jehovah; My horn is exalted in Jehovah. My mouth is incited over mine enemies, For I have rejoiced in thy salvation

1Sa 2:2. There is none holy like Jehovah, For there is none besides thee; There is no rock like our God

1Sa 2:3. Do not magnify yourselves, speak not proudly, proudly. Let not prevarication come out of your mouth; For the God of knowledge is Jehovah, And by him actions are directed

1Sa 2:4. The bows of the heroes are broken, And the tottering are girded with strength

1Sa 2:5. The full have hired out themselves for bread, And the famished cease for ever. The barren hath borne seven, And she who had many children is greatly enfeebled

1Sa 2:6. Jehovah killeth, and maketh alive; He bringeth down to the grave, and bringeth up

1Sa 2:7. Jehovah maketh poor, and maketh rich; He bringeth down, and he even exalteth

1Sa 2:8. He lifteth up the poor from the dust; From the dunghill he exalteth the beggar, To make him sit with the nobles, And inherit the throne of glory. For to Jehovah belong the pillars of the earth, And upon them he hath placed the globe

1Sa 2:9. The foot of his saints he shall keep, And the wicked shall be silent in darkness; For by strength shall no man prevail

1Sa 2:10. Jehovah shall bruise them who contend with him; Upon them shall be thunder in the heavens. Jehovah shall judge the ends of the earth; And he shall give strength to his King. And shall exalt the horn of his Messiah

It is not particularly stated here when Hannah composed or delivered this hymn; it appears from the connection to have been at the very time in which she dedicated her son to God at the tabernacle, though some think that she composed it immediately on the birth of Samuel. The former sentiment is probably the most correct

Mine horn is exalted in the Lord 1Sa 2:1. My heart exulteth in Jehovah; My horn is exalted in Jehovah. My mouth is incited over mine enemies, For I have rejoiced in thy salvation 1...

1Sa 2:1. My heart exulteth in Jehovah; My horn is exalted in Jehovah. My mouth is incited over mine enemies, For I have rejoiced in thy salvation

1Sa 2:2. There is none holy like Jehovah, For there is none besides thee; There is no rock like our God

1Sa 2:3. Do not magnify yourselves, speak not proudly, proudly. Let not prevarication come out of your mouth; For the God of knowledge is Jehovah, And by him actions are directed

1Sa 2:4. The bows of the heroes are broken, And the tottering are girded with strength

1Sa 2:5. The full have hired out themselves for bread, And the famished cease for ever. The barren hath borne seven, And she who had many children is greatly enfeebled

1Sa 2:6. Jehovah killeth, and maketh alive; He bringeth down to the grave, and bringeth up

1Sa 2:7. Jehovah maketh poor, and maketh rich; He bringeth down, and he even exalteth

1Sa 2:8. He lifteth up the poor from the dust; From the dunghill he exalteth the beggar, To make him sit with the nobles, And inherit the throne of glory. For to Jehovah belong the pillars of the earth, And upon them he hath placed the globe

1Sa 2:9. The foot of his saints he shall keep, And the wicked shall be silent in darkness; For by strength shall no man prevail

1Sa 2:10. Jehovah shall bruise them who contend with him; Upon them shall be thunder in the heavens. Jehovah shall judge the ends of the earth; And he shall give strength to his King. And shall exalt the horn of his Messiah

It is not particularly stated here when Hannah composed or delivered this hymn; it appears from the connection to have been at the very time in which she dedicated her son to God at the tabernacle, though some think that she composed it immediately on the birth of Samuel. The former sentiment is probably the most correct

Mine horn is exalted in the Lord - We have often seen that horn signifies power, might, and dominion. It is thus constantly used in the Bible, and was so used among the heathens. The following words of Horace to his jar are well known, and speak a sentiment very similar to that above: -

Tu spem reducis mentibus anxiis

Viresque et addis Cornua pauperi

Hor. Odar. lib. iii., Od. 21, v. 18

Thou bringest back hope to desponding minds; And thou addest strength and horns to the poor man

Paraphrastically expressed by Mr. Francis: -

"Hope, by thee, fair fugitive

Bids the wretched strive to live

To the beggar you dispens

Heart and brow of confidence.

In which scarcely any thing of the meaning is preserved

Clarke: 1Sa 2:1 - My mouth is enlarged My mouth is enlarged - My faculty of speech is incited, stirred up, to express God’ s disapprobation against my adversaries.

My mouth is enlarged - My faculty of speech is incited, stirred up, to express God’ s disapprobation against my adversaries.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:2 - None holy None holy - Holiness is peculiar to the God of Israel; no false god ever pretended to holiness; it was no attribute of heathenism, nor of any religi...

None holy - Holiness is peculiar to the God of Israel; no false god ever pretended to holiness; it was no attribute of heathenism, nor of any religion ever professed in the world before or since the true revelation of the true God

Clarke: 1Sa 2:2 - There is none beside thee There is none beside thee - There can be but one unoriginated, infinite, and eternal Being; that Being is Jehovah

There is none beside thee - There can be but one unoriginated, infinite, and eternal Being; that Being is Jehovah

Clarke: 1Sa 2:2 - Any rock like our God Any rock like our God - Rabbi Maimon has observed that the word צור tsur , which we translate rock, signifies, when applied to Jehovah, fountain...

Any rock like our God - Rabbi Maimon has observed that the word צור tsur , which we translate rock, signifies, when applied to Jehovah, fountain, source, spring. There is no source whence continual help and salvation can arise but our God.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:3 - A God of knowledge A God of knowledge - He is the most wise, teaching all good, and knowing all things

A God of knowledge - He is the most wise, teaching all good, and knowing all things

Clarke: 1Sa 2:3 - Actions are weighed Actions are weighed - נתכנו nithkenu , they are directed; it is by his counsel alone that we can successfully begin, continue, or end, any wor...

Actions are weighed - נתכנו nithkenu , they are directed; it is by his counsel alone that we can successfully begin, continue, or end, any work.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:4 - The bows of the mighty The bows of the mighty - The Targum considers the first verse as including a prophecy against the Philistines; the second verse, against Sennacherib...

The bows of the mighty - The Targum considers the first verse as including a prophecy against the Philistines; the second verse, against Sennacherib and his army; the third, against Nebuchadnezzar and the Chaldeans; the fourth, against the Greeks; the fifth, against Haman and his posterity; and the tenth, against Magog, and the enemies of the Messiah.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:5 - They that were full They that were full - All the things mentioned in these verses frequently happen in the course of the Divine providence; and indeed it is the partic...

They that were full - All the things mentioned in these verses frequently happen in the course of the Divine providence; and indeed it is the particular providence of God that Hannah seems more especially to celebrate through the whole of this simple yet sublime ode.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:6 - The Lord killeth The Lord killeth - God is the arbiter of life and death; he only can give life, and he only has a right to take it away

The Lord killeth - God is the arbiter of life and death; he only can give life, and he only has a right to take it away

Clarke: 1Sa 2:6 - He bringeth down to the grave He bringeth down to the grave - The Hebrew word שאול sheol , which we translate grave, seems to have the same meaning in the Old Testament with...

He bringeth down to the grave - The Hebrew word שאול sheol , which we translate grave, seems to have the same meaning in the Old Testament with ἁδης, hades in the New, which is the word generally used by the Septuagint for the other. It means the grave, the state of the dead, and the invisible place, or place of separate spirits. Sometimes we translate it hell, which now means the state of perdition, or place of eternal torments; but as this comes from the Saxon, to cover or conceal, it means only the covered place. In some parts of England the word helling is used for the covers of a book, the slating of a house, etc. The Targum seems to understand it of death and the resurrection. "He kills and commands to give life; he causes to descend into Sheol, that in the time to come he may bring them into the lives of eternity,"i.e., the life of shame and everlasting contempt, and the life of glory.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:7 - The Lord maketh poor The Lord maketh poor - For many cannot bear affluence, and if God should continue to trust them with riches, they would be their ruin

The Lord maketh poor - For many cannot bear affluence, and if God should continue to trust them with riches, they would be their ruin

Clarke: 1Sa 2:7 - Maketh rich Maketh rich - Some he can trust, and therefore makes them stewards of his secular bounty.

Maketh rich - Some he can trust, and therefore makes them stewards of his secular bounty.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:8 - To set them among princes To set them among princes - There have been many cases where, in the course of God’ s providence, a person has been raised from the lowest and ...

To set them among princes - There have been many cases where, in the course of God’ s providence, a person has been raised from the lowest and most abject estate to the highest; from the plough to the imperial dignity: from the dungeon to the throne; from the dunghill to nobility. The story of Cincinnatus is well known; so is that of the patriarch Joseph; but there is one not less in point, that of Roushen Akhter, who was brought out of a dungeon, and exalted to the throne of Hindustan. On this circumstance the following elegant couplet was made: -

"He was a bright star, but now is become a moon

Joseph is taken from prison, and is become a king.

There is a play here on Roushen Akhter, which signifies a bright star; and there is an allusion to the history of the patriarch Joseph, because of the similarity of fortune between him and the Mohammedan prince

Clarke: 1Sa 2:8 - For the pillars of the earth are the Lord’ s For the pillars of the earth are the Lord’ s - He is almighty, and upholds all things by the word of his power.

For the pillars of the earth are the Lord’ s - He is almighty, and upholds all things by the word of his power.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:9 - He will keep the feet of his saints He will keep the feet of his saints - He will order and direct all their goings, and keep them from every evil way

He will keep the feet of his saints - He will order and direct all their goings, and keep them from every evil way

Clarke: 1Sa 2:9 - The wicked shall be silent in darkness The wicked shall be silent in darkness - The Targum understands this of their being sent to the darkness of hell; they shall be slain

The wicked shall be silent in darkness - The Targum understands this of their being sent to the darkness of hell; they shall be slain

Clarke: 1Sa 2:9 - By strength shall no man prevail By strength shall no man prevail - Because God is omnipotent, and no power can be successfully exerted against him.

By strength shall no man prevail - Because God is omnipotent, and no power can be successfully exerted against him.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:10 - The adversaries of the Lord shall be broken The adversaries of the Lord shall be broken - Those who contend with him, מריביו meribaiu , by sinning against his laws, opposing the progres...

The adversaries of the Lord shall be broken - Those who contend with him, מריביו meribaiu , by sinning against his laws, opposing the progress of his word, or persecuting his people

Clarke: 1Sa 2:10 - Shall judge the ends on the earth Shall judge the ends on the earth - His empire shall be extended over all mankind by the preaching of the everlasting Gospel, for to this the afterp...

Shall judge the ends on the earth - His empire shall be extended over all mankind by the preaching of the everlasting Gospel, for to this the afterpart of the verse seems to apply: He shall give strength unto his king, and shall exalt the horn of his Christ, or, as the Targum says, וירבי מלכות משיחיה viribbey malcuth Meshicheyh , "he shall multiply the kingdom of the Messiah."Here the horn means spiritual as well as secular dominion

After the clause, The adversaries of the Lord shall be broken to pieces, the Septuagint add the following words: Μη καυχασθω ὁ φρονιμος εν τῃ φρονησει αυτου, κ. τ. λ. Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom and let not the rich man glory in his riches; but let him who glorieth rather glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth the Lord; and that he executeth judgment and righteousness in the midst of the earth. This is a very long addition, and appears to be taken from Jer 9:23, but on collating the two places the reader will find the words to be materially different. This clause is wanting in the Complutensian Polyglot, but it is in the edition of Aldus, in that of Cardinal Caroffa, and in the Codex Alexandrinus.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:11 - And Elkanah went to Ramah And Elkanah went to Ramah - Immediately after the 10th verse, the Septuagint add, Και κατελιπεν αυτον εκει ενωπιον Κυ...

And Elkanah went to Ramah - Immediately after the 10th verse, the Septuagint add, Και κατελιπεν αυτον εκει ενωπιον Κυριου· και απηλθεν εις Αραματαια, And she left him there before the Lord, and went unto Arimathea. Thus the Septuagint suppose that the song of Hannah was composed when she brought Samuel to present him to the Lord; and as soon as she had completed this fine ode, she delivered him into the hands of Eli the high priest, and the child entered immediately on his ministration, under the direction and instructions of Eli.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:12 - The sons of Eli were sons of Belial The sons of Eli were sons of Belial - They were perverse, wicked, profligate men; devil’ s children. They knew not the Lord "They know! nor wou...

The sons of Eli were sons of Belial - They were perverse, wicked, profligate men; devil’ s children. They knew not the Lord

"They know! nor would an angel show Him; They would not know, nor choose to know Him.

These men were the principal cause of all the ungodliness of Israel. Their most execrable conduct, described 1Sa 2:13-17, caused the people to abhor the Lord’ s offering. An impious priesthood is the grand cause of the transgressions and ruin of any nation; witness France, Germany, Spain, Ac., from 1792 to 1814.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:13 - When any man offered sacrifice When any man offered sacrifice - That is, when a peace-offering was brought, the right shoulder and the breast belonged to the priest, the fat was b...

When any man offered sacrifice - That is, when a peace-offering was brought, the right shoulder and the breast belonged to the priest, the fat was burnt upon the altar, and the blood was poured at the bottom of the altar; the rest of the flesh belonged to the offerer. Under pretense of taking only their own part, they took the best of all they chose, and as much as they chose.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:14 - Kettle - caldron, or pot Kettle - caldron, or pot - We know not what these were, nor of what capacity; nor is it of any consequence.

Kettle - caldron, or pot - We know not what these were, nor of what capacity; nor is it of any consequence.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:15 - Before they burnt the fat Before they burnt the fat - They would serve themselves before God was served! This was iniquity and arrogance of the first magnitude

Before they burnt the fat - They would serve themselves before God was served! This was iniquity and arrogance of the first magnitude

Clarke: 1Sa 2:15 - He will not have sodden flesh He will not have sodden flesh - He chooses roast meat, not boiled; and if they had it in the pot before the servant came, he took it out that it mig...

He will not have sodden flesh - He chooses roast meat, not boiled; and if they had it in the pot before the servant came, he took it out that it might be roasted.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:17 - Wherefore the sin of the young men was very great Wherefore the sin of the young men was very great - That is, Hophni and Phinehas, the sons of Eli

Wherefore the sin of the young men was very great - That is, Hophni and Phinehas, the sons of Eli

Clarke: 1Sa 2:17 - Men abhorred the offering Men abhorred the offering - As the people saw that the priests had no piety, and that they acted as if there was no God; they despised God’ s s...

Men abhorred the offering - As the people saw that the priests had no piety, and that they acted as if there was no God; they despised God’ s service, and became infidels

A national priesthood, when the foundation is right, may be a great blessing; but if the priesthood becomes corrupt, though the foundation itself stand sure, the corruption of the national manners will be the unavoidable consequence.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:18 - Girded with a linen ephod Girded with a linen ephod - This the Targum translates אסיר כרדוט דבוץ asir cardut debuts , "Girded with a cardit of byssus, or fine l...

Girded with a linen ephod - This the Targum translates אסיר כרדוט דבוץ asir cardut debuts , "Girded with a cardit of byssus, or fine linen."The word cardut they seem to have borrowed from the Greek χειριδωτος, a tunic, having χειριδας, i.e., sleeves that came down to, or covered, the hands. This was esteemed an effeminate garment among the Romans. See Buxtorf’ s Talmudic Lexicon.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:19 - Made him a little coat Made him a little coat - מעיל קטן meil katon , a little cloak, or surtout, an upper garment: probably intended to keep him from the cold, an...

Made him a little coat - מעיל קטן meil katon , a little cloak, or surtout, an upper garment: probably intended to keep him from the cold, and to save his other clothes from being abused in his meaner services. It is probable that she furnished him with a new one each year, when she came up to one of the annual sacrifices.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:20 - Eli blessed Elkanah Eli blessed Elkanah - The natural place of this verse seems to be before the 11th; after which the 21st should come in; after the 21st, perhaps the ...

Eli blessed Elkanah - The natural place of this verse seems to be before the 11th; after which the 21st should come in; after the 21st, perhaps the 26th should come in. The subjects in this chapter seem very much entangled and confused by the wrong position of the verses.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:22 - They lay with the women that assembled They lay with the women that assembled - It is probable that these were persons who had some employment about the tabernacle. See the note on Exo 38...

They lay with the women that assembled - It is probable that these were persons who had some employment about the tabernacle. See the note on Exo 38:8, where the Hebrew text is similar to that in this place.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:23 - Why do ye such things! Why do ye such things! - Eli appears to have been a fondly affectionate, easy father, who wished his sons to do well, but did not bring them under p...

Why do ye such things! - Eli appears to have been a fondly affectionate, easy father, who wished his sons to do well, but did not bring them under proper discipline, and did not use his authority to restrain them. As judge, he had power to cast them immediately out of the vineyard, as wicked and unprofitable servants; this he did not, and his and their ruin was the consequence.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:25 - If one man sin against another If one man sin against another - All differences between man and man may be settled by the proper judge; but if a man sin against the Supreme Judge,...

If one man sin against another - All differences between man and man may be settled by the proper judge; but if a man sin against the Supreme Judge, God himself, who shall reconcile him to his Maker? Your sin is immediately against God himself, and is the highest insult that can be offered, because it is in the matter of his own worship, therefore ye may expect his heaviest judgments

Clarke: 1Sa 2:25 - But if a man sin against the Lord, who shall entreat for him? But if a man sin against the Lord, who shall entreat for him? - This was a question of the most solemn importance under the old covenant, especially...

But if a man sin against the Lord, who shall entreat for him? - This was a question of the most solemn importance under the old covenant, especially after the death of Moses, the mediator. The law had determined what sins should be punished with death; and it was supposed that there was not any appeal from the decision there pronounced. 1Jo 2:1 is an answer to this question; but it is an answer which the Gospel alone can give: My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not; but if any man sin, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous

Clarke: 1Sa 2:25 - Because the Lord would slay them Because the Lord would slay them - The particle כי ki , which we translate because, and thus make their continuance in sin the effect of God̵...

Because the Lord would slay them - The particle כי ki , which we translate because, and thus make their continuance in sin the effect of God’ s determination to destroy them, should be translated therefore, as it means in many parts of the sacred writings. See Noldius’ s Particles, where the very text in question is introduced: Sed non auscultarunt , etc., Ideo voluit Jehova eos interficere ; "But they would not hearken, etc.; Therefore God purposed to destroy them."It was their not hearkening that induced the Lord to will their destruction.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:27 - There came a man of God There came a man of God - Who this was we know not, but the Chaldee terms him נביא דיי nebiya daya , a prophet of Jehovah

There came a man of God - Who this was we know not, but the Chaldee terms him נביא דיי nebiya daya , a prophet of Jehovah

Clarke: 1Sa 2:27 - Unto the house of thy father Unto the house of thy father - That is, to Aaron; he was the first high priest; the priesthood descended from him to his eldest son Eleazar, then to...

Unto the house of thy father - That is, to Aaron; he was the first high priest; the priesthood descended from him to his eldest son Eleazar, then to Phinehas. It became afterwards established in the younger branch of the family of Aaron; for Eli was a descendant of Ithamar, Aaron’ s youngest son. From Eli it was transferred back again to the family of Eleazar, because of the profligacy of Eli’ s sons.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:28 - And did I choose him And did I choose him - The high priesthood was a place of the greatest honor that could be conferred on man, and a place of considerable emolument; ...

And did I choose him - The high priesthood was a place of the greatest honor that could be conferred on man, and a place of considerable emolument; for from their part of the sacrifices they derived a most comfortable livelihood.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:29 - Wherefore kick ye at my sacrifice Wherefore kick ye at my sacrifice - They disdained to take the part allowed by law; and would take for themselves what part they pleased, and as muc...

Wherefore kick ye at my sacrifice - They disdained to take the part allowed by law; and would take for themselves what part they pleased, and as much as they pleased, 1Sa 2:13-16 : thus they kicked at the sacrifices

Clarke: 1Sa 2:29 - Honourest thy sons above me Honourest thy sons above me - Permitting them to deal, as above, with the offerings and sacrifices, and take their part before the fat, etc., was bu...

Honourest thy sons above me - Permitting them to deal, as above, with the offerings and sacrifices, and take their part before the fat, etc., was burnt unto the Lord: thus they were first served. At this Eli connived, and thus honored his sons above God.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:30 - Should walk before me for ever Should walk before me for ever - See Exo 29:9; Exo 40:15; Num 25:10-13, where it is positively promised that the priesthood should be continued in t...

Should walk before me for ever - See Exo 29:9; Exo 40:15; Num 25:10-13, where it is positively promised that the priesthood should be continued in the family of Aaron For Ever. But although this promise appears to be absolute, yet we plainly see that, like all other apparently absolute promises of God, it is conditional, i.e., a condition is implied though not expressed

Clarke: 1Sa 2:30 - But now - be it far from me But now - be it far from me - You have walked unworthily; I shall annul my promise, and reverse my ordinance. See Jer 18:9, Jer 18:10

But now - be it far from me - You have walked unworthily; I shall annul my promise, and reverse my ordinance. See Jer 18:9, Jer 18:10

Clarke: 1Sa 2:30 - For them that honor me For them that honor me - This is a plan from which God will never depart; this can have no alteration; every promise is made in reference to it; "th...

For them that honor me - This is a plan from which God will never depart; this can have no alteration; every promise is made in reference to it; "they who honor God shall be honored; they who despise him shall be lightly esteemed."

Clarke: 1Sa 2:31 - I will cut off thine arm I will cut off thine arm - I will destroy the strength, power, and influence of thy family.

I will cut off thine arm - I will destroy the strength, power, and influence of thy family.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:32 - Thou shalt see an enemy in my habitation Thou shalt see an enemy in my habitation - Every version and almost every commentator understands this clause differently. The word צר tsar , whi...

Thou shalt see an enemy in my habitation - Every version and almost every commentator understands this clause differently. The word צר tsar , which we translate an enemy, and the Vulgate aemulum , a rival, signifies calamity; and this is the best sense to understand it in here. The calamity which he saw was the defeat of the Israelites, the capture of the ark, the death of his wicked sons, and the triumph of the Philistines. All this he saw, that is, knew to have taken place, before he met with his own tragical death

Clarke: 1Sa 2:32 - In all the wealth which God shall give Israel In all the wealth which God shall give Israel - This also is dark. The meaning may be this: God has spoken good concerning Israel; he will, in the e...

In all the wealth which God shall give Israel - This also is dark. The meaning may be this: God has spoken good concerning Israel; he will, in the end, make the triumph of the Philistines their own confusion; and the capture of the ark shall be the desolation of their gods; but the Israelites shall first be sorely pressed with calamity. Or, the affliction of the tabernacle, for all the wealth which God would have given Israel.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:32 - There shall not be an old man There shall not be an old man - This is repeated from the preceding verse, all the family shall die in the flower of their years, as is said in the ...

There shall not be an old man - This is repeated from the preceding verse, all the family shall die in the flower of their years, as is said in the following verse.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:33 - And the man of thine And the man of thine - Of this passage Calmet observes: "The posterity of Eli possessed the high priesthood to the time of Solomon; and even when th...

And the man of thine - Of this passage Calmet observes: "The posterity of Eli possessed the high priesthood to the time of Solomon; and even when that dynasty was transferred to another family, God preserved that of Eli, not to render it more happy, but to punish it by seeing the prosperity of its enemies, to the end that it might see itself destitute and despised. This shows the depth of the judgments of God and the grandeur of his justice, which extends even to distant generations, and manifests itself to sinners both in life and death; both in their own disgrace, and in the prosperity of their enemies."

Clarke: 1Sa 2:34 - They shall die both of them They shall die both of them - Hophni and Phinehas were both killed very shortly after in the great battle with the Philistines in which the Israelit...

They shall die both of them - Hophni and Phinehas were both killed very shortly after in the great battle with the Philistines in which the Israelites were completely routed, and the ark taken. See 1Sa 4:1-11.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:35 - A faithful priest A faithful priest - This seems to have been spoken of Zadok, who was anointed high priest in the room of Abiathar, the last descendant of the house ...

A faithful priest - This seems to have been spoken of Zadok, who was anointed high priest in the room of Abiathar, the last descendant of the house of Eli; see 1Ki 2:26, 1Ki 2:27. Abiathar was removed because he had joined with Adonijah, who had got himself proclaimed king; see 1Ki 1:7

Clarke: 1Sa 2:35 - I will build him a sure house I will build him a sure house - I will continue the priesthood in his family

I will build him a sure house - I will continue the priesthood in his family

Clarke: 1Sa 2:35 - He shall walk before mine Anointed He shall walk before mine Anointed - He shall minister before Solomon, and the kings which shall reign in the land. The Targum says, "He shall walk ...

He shall walk before mine Anointed - He shall minister before Solomon, and the kings which shall reign in the land. The Targum says, "He shall walk קדם משיחי kodam Meshichi , before my Messiah,"and the Septuagint expresses it, ενωπιον Χριστου μον, "before my Christ;"for, in their proper and more extended sense, these things are supposed to belong to our great High Priest and the Christian system: but the word may refer to the Israelitish people. See the note on Heb 9:26.

Clarke: 1Sa 2:36 - Shall come and crouch to him Shall come and crouch to him - Shall prostrate himself before him in the most abject manner, begging to be employed even in the meanest offices abou...

Shall come and crouch to him - Shall prostrate himself before him in the most abject manner, begging to be employed even in the meanest offices about the tabernacle, in order to get even the most scanty means of support

Clarke: 1Sa 2:36 - A piece of silver A piece of silver - אגורת כסף agorath keseph , translated by the Septuagint, οβολου αργυριου, an obolus of silver. The Targu...

A piece of silver - אגורת כסף agorath keseph , translated by the Septuagint, οβολου αργυριου, an obolus of silver. The Targum translates it מעא mea , which is the same as the Hebrew gerah , and weighed about sixteen grains of barley

Clarke: 1Sa 2:36 - A morsel of bread A morsel of bread - A mouthful; what might be sufficient to keep body and soul together. See the sin and its punishment. They formerly pampered them...

A morsel of bread - A mouthful; what might be sufficient to keep body and soul together. See the sin and its punishment. They formerly pampered themselves, and fed to the full on the Lord’ s sacrifices; and now they are reduced to a morsel of bread. They fed themselves without fear; and now they have cleanness of teeth in all their dwellings. They wasted the Lord’ s heritage, and now they beg their bread

In religious establishments, vile persons, who have no higher motive, may and do get into the priest’ s office, that they may clothe themselves with the wool, and feed themselves with the fat, while they starve the flock. But where there is no law to back the claims of the worthless and the wicked, men of piety and solid merit only can find support; for they must live on the free-will offerings of the people. Where religion is established by law, the strictest ecclesiastical discipline should be kept up, and all hireling priests and ecclesiastical drones should be expelled from the Lord’ s vineyard. An established religion, where the foundation is good, as is ours, I consider a great blessing; but it is liable to this continual abuse, which nothing but careful and rigid ecclesiastical discipline can either cure or prevent. If our high priests, our archbishops and bishops, do not their duty, the whole body of the clergy may become corrupt or inefficient. If they be faithful, the establishment will be an honor to the kingdom, and a praise in the earth

The words pillars of the earth, מצקי ארץ metsukey erets , Mr. Parkhurst translates and defends thus: "The compressors of the earth; i.e., the columns of the celestial fluid which compress or keep its parts together."This is all imaginary; we do not know this compressing celestial fluid; but there is one that answers the same end, which we do know, i.e., the Air, the columns of which press upon the earth in all directions; above, below, around, with a weight of fifteen pounds to every square inch; so that a column of air of the height of the atmosphere, which on the surface of the globe measures one square inch, is known by the most accurate and indubitable experiments to weigh fifteen pounds. Now as a square foot contains one hundred and forty-four square inches, each foot must be compressed with a weight of incumbent atmospheric air equal to two thousand one hundred and sixty pounds. And as the earth is known to contain a surface of five thousand five hundred and seventy-five billions of square feet; hence, allowing two thousand one hundred and sixty pounds to each square foot, the whole surface of the globe must sustain a pressure of atmospheric air equal to twelve trillions and forty-one thousand billions of pounds; or six thousand and twenty-one billions of tons. This pressure, independently of what is called gravity, is sufficient to keep all the parts of the earth together, and perhaps to counteract all the influence of centrifugal force. But adding to this all the influence of gravity or attraction, by which every particle of matter tends to the center, these compressors of the earth are sufficient to poise, balance, and preserve the whole terraqueous globe. These pillars or compressors are an astonishing provision made by the wisdom of God for the necessities of the globe. Without this, water could not rise in fountains, nor the sap in vegetables. Without this, there could be no respiration for man or beast, and no circulation of the blood in any animal. In short, both vegetable and animal life depend, under God, on these pillars or compressors of the earth; and were it not for this compressing power, the air contained in the vessels of all plants and animals would by its elasticity expand and instantly rupture all those vessels, and cause the destruction of all animal and vegetable life: but God in his wisdom has so balanced these two forces, that, while they appear to counteract and balance each other, they serve, by mutual dilations and compressions, to promote the circulation of the sap in vegetables, and the blood in animals.

Defender: 1Sa 2:6 - maketh alive This is a striking statement of faith in the resurrection on the part of Hannah. At this time, no records show a dead person being revived, nor had th...

This is a striking statement of faith in the resurrection on the part of Hannah. At this time, no records show a dead person being revived, nor had there been any explicit revelation given as yet concerning a future bodily resurrection. Yet Hannah, like Abraham and Job, believed that God could and would do this (Gen 22:5; Heb 11:17-19; Job 19:25-27)."

Defender: 1Sa 2:8 - pillars of the earth The "pillars of the earth" is a unique term, used nowhere else in Scripture. The concept seems to be one of firm summits, subsurface geologic structur...

The "pillars of the earth" is a unique term, used nowhere else in Scripture. The concept seems to be one of firm summits, subsurface geologic structures strong enough to maintain the general stability of the earth's surface.

Defender: 1Sa 2:8 - world This is the first occurrence in the Bible of the word for "world" (Hebrew tebel), referring to the earth's habitable lands, as created and controlled ...

This is the first occurrence in the Bible of the word for "world" (Hebrew tebel), referring to the earth's habitable lands, as created and controlled by God."

Defender: 1Sa 2:10 - ends of the earth This prayer of Hannah's is a remarkable prophecy, looking forward to the final triumph of the Creator over all His adversaries. It is the first such p...

This prayer of Hannah's is a remarkable prophecy, looking forward to the final triumph of the Creator over all His adversaries. It is the first such prophecy in the Bible, revealing the future explosive return of the Lord from heaven to judge all nations and to enthrone His anointed king over the whole world. Hannah was surely praying under divine inspiration, and her prayer is similar in spirit to that of the virgin Mary over a thousand years later (Luk 1:46-55). The miraculous birth of Samuel thus becomes a type of the virgin birth of Christ.

Defender: 1Sa 2:10 - his king Hannah's prayer refers to "His king" long before the people of Israel began requesting a king. The reference must be a prophetic forecast of the divin...

Hannah's prayer refers to "His king" long before the people of Israel began requesting a king. The reference must be a prophetic forecast of the divine king that would some day rule all nations under God (Psa 2:6-9).

Defender: 1Sa 2:10 - his anointed "His anointed" means "His Messiah." This is the first explicit reference in Scripture to the coming Messiah (Hebrew equivalent of the Greek "Christ," ...

"His anointed" means "His Messiah." This is the first explicit reference in Scripture to the coming Messiah (Hebrew equivalent of the Greek "Christ," both meaning literally "the anointed one"). Hannah's inspired prophecy anticipates the later Messianic prophecies in much detail (Psa 2:1-12, Psalm 72, Psa 110:1-7, Isaiah 11). Hannah's son, the prophet Samuel, as the last of the judges (1Sa 7:15), was also the one chosen by God to anoint King David, the most complete type of the ultimate anointed one."

Defender: 1Sa 2:26 - with men Note the parallel here with the testimony concerning the child Jesus: "And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man" (Luk...

Note the parallel here with the testimony concerning the child Jesus: "And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man" (Luk 2:52)."

Defender: 1Sa 2:30 - God of Israel saith See Exo 29:9; Num 25:13.

Defender: 1Sa 2:30 - lightly esteemed This judgment (1Sa 2:30-33) indicates that the priestly line descended from Eli would eventually be terminated. This prophecy was finally carried out ...

This judgment (1Sa 2:30-33) indicates that the priestly line descended from Eli would eventually be terminated. This prophecy was finally carried out when Solomon banished Abiathar and replaced him with Zadok (1Ki 2:27; 1Sa 3:12)."

Defender: 1Sa 2:35 - faithful priest Although the priesthood had been promised to Aaron's descendants in perpetuity (Exo 29:9), this promise was conditioned on faithfulness, and Eli and h...

Although the priesthood had been promised to Aaron's descendants in perpetuity (Exo 29:9), this promise was conditioned on faithfulness, and Eli and his sons had forfeited this claim (1Sa 2:30-31; 1Sa 3:11-14). The promise of a faithful priest, with a sure house, is fulfilled only in Christ, "a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God" (Heb 2:17)."

TSK: 1Sa 2:1 - prayed // My heart // mine horn // my mouth // I rejoice prayed : Neh 11:17; Hab 3:1; Phi 4:6 My heart : Luk 1:46, Luk 1:47-56; Rom 5:11; Phi 3:3, Phi 4:4; 1Pe 1:8 mine horn : Psa 18:2, Psa 89:17, Psa 92:10,...

TSK: 1Sa 2:2 - none holy // none beside // rock none holy : Exo 15:11; Deu 32:4; Psa 99:5, Psa 99:9, Psa 111:9; Isa 6:3, Isa 57:15; 1Pe 1:16; Rom 4:8, Rom 15:4 none beside : Deu 4:35; 2Sa 22:32; Psa...

TSK: 1Sa 2:3 - let not arrogancy // a God // by him let not arrogancy : Heb. hard, Psa 94:4; Pro 8:13; Isa 37:23; Dan 4:30, Dan 4:31, Dan 4:37; Mal 3:13; Jud 1:15, Jud 1:16 a God : 1Ki 8:39; Psa 44:21, ...

TSK: 1Sa 2:4 - The bows // stumbled The bows : Psa 37:15, Psa 37:17, Psa 46:9, Psa 76:3 stumbled : Isa 10:4; Jer 37:10; 2Co 4:9, 2Co 4:10, 2Co 12:9; Eph 6:14; Phi 4:13; Heb 11:34

TSK: 1Sa 2:5 - full // the barren // waxed feeble full : Psa 34:10; Luk 1:53, Luk 16:25 the barren : 1Sa 1:20; Psa 113:9 waxed feeble : 1Sa 1:6; Isa 54:1; Jer 15:9; Gal 4:27

full : Psa 34:10; Luk 1:53, Luk 16:25

the barren : 1Sa 1:20; Psa 113:9

waxed feeble : 1Sa 1:6; Isa 54:1; Jer 15:9; Gal 4:27

TSK: 1Sa 2:6 - killeth // he bringeth killeth : Deu 32:39; 2Ki 5:7; Job 5:18; Psa 68:20; Hos 6:1, Hos 6:2; Joh 5:25-29, Joh 11:25; Rev 1:18 he bringeth : 1Sa 20:3; Psa 116:3; Isa 26:19; Jo...

TSK: 1Sa 2:7 - maketh // bringeth maketh : Deu 8:17, Deu 8:18; Job 1:21, Job 5:11; Psa 102:10 bringeth : Psa 75:7; Isa 2:12; Jam 1:9, Jam 1:10, Jam 4:10

TSK: 1Sa 2:8 - the poor // set them // the pillars the poor : Job 2:8, Job 42:10-12; Psa 113:7, Psa 113:8; Dan 4:17; Luk 1:51, Luk 1:52 set them : 1Sa 15:17; Gen 41:14, Gen 41:40; 2Sa 7:8; Job 36:6, Jo...

TSK: 1Sa 2:9 - will keep // his saints // be silent // by strength will keep : Job 5:24; Psa 37:23, Psa 37:24, Psa 91:11, Psa 91:12, Psa 94:18, Psa 121:3, Psa 121:5, Psa 121:8; Pro 16:9; 1Pe 1:5 his saints : Deu 33:3;...

TSK: 1Sa 2:10 - adversaries // out of heaven // he thunder // judge // he shall // exalt // anointed adversaries : Exo 15:6; Jdg 5:31; Psa 2:9, Psa 21:8, Psa 21:9, Psa 68:1, Psa 68:2, Psa 92:9; Luk 19:27 out of heaven : The LXX insert, ""Let not the w...

adversaries : Exo 15:6; Jdg 5:31; Psa 2:9, Psa 21:8, Psa 21:9, Psa 68:1, Psa 68:2, Psa 92:9; Luk 19:27

out of heaven : The LXX insert, ""Let not the wise glory in his wisdom, nor the strong glory in his strength, nor the rich glory in his riches; but let him who glorieth glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth the Lord, and executeth judgment and righteousness in the midst of the earth."

he thunder : 1Sa 7:10, 1Sa 12:18; Job 40:9; Psa 18:13, Psa 18:14

judge : Psa 50:1-6, Psa 96:13, Psa 98:9; Ecc 11:9, Ecc 12:14; Mat 25:31, Mat 25:32; Joh 5:21, Joh 5:22; Rom 14:10-12; 2Co 5:10; Rev 20:11-15

he shall : 1Sa 12:13, 1Sa 15:28, 1Sa 16:1; 2Sa 7:8, 2Sa 7:13; Psa 2:6, Psa 21:1, Psa 21:7; Isa 32:1, Isa 45:24; Mat 25:34, Mat 28:18

exalt : Psa 89:17, Psa 89:24, Psa 92:10, Psa 148:14; Luk 1:69

anointed : 1Sa 12:3; Psa 2:2, Psa 20:6, Psa 28:8, Psa 45:7; Act 4:27, Act 10:38

TSK: 1Sa 2:11 - minister minister : 1Sa 2:18, 1Sa 1:28, 1Sa 3:1, 1Sa 3:15

TSK: 1Sa 2:12 - the sons // sons of Belial // knew the sons : Hos 4:6-9; Mal 2:1-9 sons of Belial : 1Sa 10:27, 1Sa 25:17; Deu 13:13; Jdg 19:22; 1Ki 21:10, 1Ki 21:13; 2Co 6:15 knew : 1Sa 3:7; Jdg 2:10; ...

TSK: 1Sa 2:14 - all that the fleshhook all that the fleshhook : 1Sa 2:29; Exo 29:27, Exo 29:28; Lev 7:34; Isa 56:11; Mal 1:10; 2Pe 2:13-15

TSK: 1Sa 2:15 - -- Lev 3:3-5, Lev 3:16; Rom 16:18; Phi 3:19; Jud 1:12

TSK: 1Sa 2:16 - presently // I will take presently : Heb. as on the day, Lev 3:16, Lev 7:23-25 I will take : Jdg 18:25; Neh 5:15; Mic 2:1, Mic 2:2, Mic 3:5; 1Pe 5:2, 1Pe 5:3

presently : Heb. as on the day, Lev 3:16, Lev 7:23-25

I will take : Jdg 18:25; Neh 5:15; Mic 2:1, Mic 2:2, Mic 3:5; 1Pe 5:2, 1Pe 5:3

TSK: 1Sa 2:17 - before // abhorred before : Gen 6:11, Gen 10:9, Gen 13:13; 2Ki 21:6; Psa 51:4; Isa 3:8 abhorred : Mal 2:8, Mal 2:13; Mat 18:7

TSK: 1Sa 2:18 - ministered // a linen ephod ministered : 1Sa 2:11, 1Sa 3:1 a linen ephod : 1Sa 22:18; Exo 28:4; Lev 8:7; 2Sa 6:14

ministered : 1Sa 2:11, 1Sa 3:1

a linen ephod : 1Sa 22:18; Exo 28:4; Lev 8:7; 2Sa 6:14

TSK: 1Sa 2:19 - a little coat // from year to year a little coat : Meil katon , ""a little cloak""or surtout ; an upper garment (see note on Exo 28:4). from year to year : 1Sa 1:3, 1Sa 1:21; Exo 2...

a little coat : Meil katon , ""a little cloak""or surtout ; an upper garment (see note on Exo 28:4).

from year to year : 1Sa 1:3, 1Sa 1:21; Exo 23:14

TSK: 1Sa 2:20 - blessed // loan The natural place for this verse seems to be before the 1Sa 2:11, after which the 1Sa 2:21 should probably come in; and after the 21st, perhaps the 1S...

The natural place for this verse seems to be before the 1Sa 2:11, after which the 1Sa 2:21 should probably come in; and after the 21st, perhaps the 1Sa 2:26 should follow.

blessed : Gen 14:19, Gen 27:27-29; Num 6:23-27; Rth 2:12, Rth 4:11

loan : or, petition which she asked, etc. 1Sa 1:27, 1Sa 1:28

TSK: 1Sa 2:21 - visited // grew visited : 1Sa 1:19, 1Sa 1:20; Gen 21:1; Luk 1:68 grew : 1Sa 2:26, 1Sa 3:19; Jdg 13:24; Luk 1:80, Luk 2:40, Luk 2:52

TSK: 1Sa 2:22 - Now // did unto // women // assembled Now : 1Sa 8:1 did unto : 1Sa 2:13-17; Jer 7:9, Jer 7:10; Eze 22:26; Hos 4:9-11 women : It is probable that these were persons who had some employment ...

Now : 1Sa 8:1

did unto : 1Sa 2:13-17; Jer 7:9, Jer 7:10; Eze 22:26; Hos 4:9-11

women : It is probable that these were persons who had some employment about the tabernacle (see note on Exo 38:8).

assembled : assembled by troops, Exo 38:8

TSK: 1Sa 2:23 - Why // I hear // by all Why : 1Ki 1:6; Act 9:4, Act 14:15 I hear : etc. or, I hear evil words of you by all : Isa 3:9; Jer 3:3, Jer 8:12; Phi 3:19

Why : 1Ki 1:6; Act 9:4, Act 14:15

I hear : etc. or, I hear evil words of you

by all : Isa 3:9; Jer 3:3, Jer 8:12; Phi 3:19

TSK: 1Sa 2:24 - no good // ye make // transgress no good : Act 6:3; 2Co 6:8; 1Ti 3:7; 3Jo 1:12 ye make : 1Sa 2:17, 1Sa 2:22; Exo 32:21; 1Ki 13:18-21, 1Ki 15:30; 2Ki 10:31; Mal 2:8; Mat 18:7; 2Pe 2:18...

TSK: 1Sa 2:25 - sin against // if a man // who shall // hearkened // because sin against : Deu 17:8-12, Deu 25:1-3 if a man : 1Sa 3:14; Num 15:30; Psa 51:4, Psa 51:16; Heb 10:26 who shall : 1Ti 2:5; Heb 7:25 hearkened : Deu 2:3...

sin against : Deu 17:8-12, Deu 25:1-3

if a man : 1Sa 3:14; Num 15:30; Psa 51:4, Psa 51:16; Heb 10:26

who shall : 1Ti 2:5; Heb 7:25

hearkened : Deu 2:30; Jos 11:20; 2Ch 25:16; Pro 15:10; Joh 12:39, Joh 12:40

because : Rather, therefore, as the particle kee also signifies (see note on Psa 116:10), so Noldius, Ideo voluit Jehova eos interficere , ""Therefore Jehovah purposed to destroy them.""

TSK: 1Sa 2:26 - grew on // was in grew on : 1Sa 2:21 was in : Pro 3:3; Luk 1:80, Luk 2:40, Luk 2:52; Act 2:47; Rom 14:18

TSK: 1Sa 2:27 - a man // Did I a man : 1Sa 9:4; Deu 33:1; Jdg 6:8, Jdg 13:6; 1Ki 13:1; 1Ti 6:11; 2Pe 1:21 Did I : Exo 4:14, Exo 4:27

TSK: 1Sa 2:28 - And did I // did I give And did I : Exo 28:1, Exo 28:4, 6-30, 29:4-37, Exo 39:1-7; Lev 8:7, Lev 8:8; Num 16:5, Num 17:5-8, Num 18:1-7; 2Sa 12:7 did I give : Lev 2:3, Lev 2:10...

TSK: 1Sa 2:29 - kick ye // and at mine // habitation // and honourest // make kick ye : 1Sa 2:13-17; Deu 32:15; Mal 1:12, Mal 1:13 and at mine : They disdained to take the part allowed by the law; and would take for themselves w...

kick ye : 1Sa 2:13-17; Deu 32:15; Mal 1:12, Mal 1:13

and at mine : They disdained to take the part allowed by the law; and would take for themselves what part they pleased, and as much as they pleased. 1Sa 2:13-16

habitation : Deu 12:5, Deu 12:6; Jos 18:1

and honourest : By permitting his sons to deal thus with the sacrifices, and to be served first, by taking their part before the fat, etc., was burnt to the Lord, Eli thus honoured his sons above God. Lev 19:15; Deu 33:9; Mat 10:37, Mat 22:16; Luk 14:26; 2Co 5:16; Jam 3:17

make : 1Sa 2:13-16; Isa 56:11, Isa 56:12; Eze 13:19, Eze 34:2; Hos 4:8; Mic 3:5; Rom 16:18

TSK: 1Sa 2:30 - I said // Be it far // them // I will honour // that despise I said : Exo 28:43, Exo 29:9; Num 25:11-13 Be it far : Num 35:34 *marg 2Ch 15:2; Jer 18:9, Jer 18:10 them : Jdg 9:10; Psa 50:23; Pro 3:9, Pro 3:10; Is...

TSK: 1Sa 2:31 - I will cut I will cut : That is, I will destroy the strength, power, influence, and authority of thee and thy family; of which the arm of man being the instrumen...

I will cut : That is, I will destroy the strength, power, influence, and authority of thee and thy family; of which the arm of man being the instrument, is used as the emblem. 1Sa 4:2, 1Sa 4:11, 1Sa 4:17-20, 1Sa 14:3, 1Sa 22:17-20; 1Ki 2:26, 1Ki 2:27, 1Ki 2:35; Job 22:9; Psa 37:17; Eze 30:21-24, Eze 44:10

TSK: 1Sa 2:32 - an enemy // an old man an enemy : etc. Or, the affliction of the tabernacle, for all the wealth which God would have given Israel. This appears to be the right translation;...

an enemy : etc. Or, the affliction of the tabernacle, for all the wealth which God would have given Israel. This appears to be the right translation; for, agreeably to this prediction, he did see the tabernacle deprived of the ark, which was its glory, and lived to hear that it was captured by the Philistines. 1Sa 4:4, 1Sa 4:11, 1Sa 4:22; Psa 78:59-64

an old man : Zec 8:4

TSK: 1Sa 2:33 - to consume // in the flower to consume : 1Sa 22:21-23; 1Ki 1:7, 1Ki 1:19, 1Ki 2:26, 1Ki 2:27; Mat 2:16-18 in the flower : etc. Heb. men

to consume : 1Sa 22:21-23; 1Ki 1:7, 1Ki 1:19, 1Ki 2:26, 1Ki 2:27; Mat 2:16-18

in the flower : etc. Heb. men

TSK: 1Sa 2:34 - a sign // in one day a sign : 1Sa 3:12; 1Ki 13:3, 1Ki 14:12 in one day : 1Sa 4:11, 1Sa 4:17

a sign : 1Sa 3:12; 1Ki 13:3, 1Ki 14:12

in one day : 1Sa 4:11, 1Sa 4:17

TSK: 1Sa 2:35 - I will raise // I will build // mine I will raise : 1Ki 1:8, 1Ki 1:45, 1Ki 2:35; 1Ch 29:22; Eze 34:23, Eze 44:15, Eze 44:16; Heb 2:17, Heb 7:26-28 I will build : 1Sa 25:28; Exo 1:21; Num ...

TSK: 1Sa 2:36 - is left // Put // one of the priests’ offices // eat is left : 1Ki 2:27; Eze 44:10-12 Put : Heb. Join one of the priests’ offices : Heb. somewhat about the priesthood eat : 1Sa 2:29, 1Sa 2:30; Mal ...

is left : 1Ki 2:27; Eze 44:10-12

Put : Heb. Join

one of the priests’ offices : Heb. somewhat about the priesthood

eat : 1Sa 2:29, 1Sa 2:30; Mal 1:13

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Poole: 1Sa 2:1 - Hannah prayed // In the Lord // Mine horn is exalted // My mouth is enlarged // Over mine enemies // Because I rejoice in thy salvation Hannah prayed i.e. praised God; which is a part of prayer, Col 4:2 1Ti 2:1 ; so it is a synecdochical expression. My heart rejoiceth, or, leapeth fo...

Hannah prayed i.e. praised God; which is a part of prayer, Col 4:2 1Ti 2:1 ; so it is a synecdochical expression. My heart rejoiceth, or, leapeth for joy; for the words note not only inward joy, but also the outward demonstrations of it.

In the Lord as the author and the master of my joy, that he hath heard my prayer, and accepted my son for his service.

Mine horn is exalted my strength and glory (which are oft signified by a horn, as Psa 89:17,24 92:10 ) are advanced and manifested to my vindication, and the confusion of mine enemies.

My mouth is enlarged i.e. opened wide, to pour forth abundant praises to God, and to give a full answer to all the reproaches of mine adversaries; whereas before it was shut through grief and confusion.

Over mine enemies i.e. more than theirs, or so as to get the victory over them, as she saith afterwards. Here she manifests her great prudence, and piety, and modesty, that she doth not name Peninnah, but only her enemies in the general.

Because I rejoice in thy salvation because the matter of my joy is no trivial or worldly thing, but that strange and glorious salvation or deliverance which thou hast given me from my own oppressing care and grief, and from the insolencies and reproaches of mine enemies, in giving me a son, and such a son as this, who shall be serviceable to God, and to his people, in helping them against their enemies , which she presaged, as may be guessed from 1Sa 2:10 .

Poole: 1Sa 2:2 - There is none holy as the Lord // There is none beside thee // Neither is there any rock like our God There is none holy as the Lord none so perfectly, exchangeably, and constantly holy, as God hath showed himself to be in this act of grace to me, whe...

There is none holy as the Lord none so perfectly, exchangeably, and constantly holy, as God hath showed himself to be in this act of grace to me, whereby he hath both checked the proud and mighty, and pleaded the cause of his afflicted servant that trusted in him, and also fulfilled his promise in giving me a son, whom he hath sanctified by his grace to his service; all which are the proper effects of God’ s holiness.

There is none beside thee not only none is so holy as thou art, but in truth there is none holy (which word is easily understood out of the former clause) besides thee , to wit, entirely or independently, but only by participation from thee. Or, as none have any holiness like thine, so none have ally being besides thee, unless by derivation from thee.

Neither is there any rock like our God thou only art a sure defence and refuge to all that flee to thee, and trust in thee, as I have found by my experience.

Poole: 1Sa 2:3 - Talk no more so exceeding proudly // Arrogancy // The Lord is a God of knowledge // By him actions are weighed Talk no more so exceeding proudly thou Peninnah, boast no more of thy numerous offspring, and speak no more insolently and scornfully of me, as thou ...

Talk no more so exceeding proudly thou Peninnah, boast no more of thy numerous offspring, and speak no more insolently and scornfully of me, as thou hast done. She speaks of her in the plural number, brings many because she would not expose her name to censure, but only instruct and reprove her for her good.

Arrogancy Heb. hard speeches , as those are called, Jud 1:15 , harsh, heavy, and not to be borne. Or, the old sayings; either the old proverbs concerning barren women, which thou appliedst to me; or the old reproaches, to which for a long time thou hast accustomed thyself.

The Lord is a God of knowledge he knoweth thy heart, and all that pride, and envy, and contempt of me which thy own conscience knows, and all thy perverse carriages towards me.

By him actions are weighed i.e. he pondereth or trieth all men’ s thoughts and actions, (for the Hebrew word signifies both,) as a just Judge, to give to every one according to their works; and therefore he hath pitied my oppressed innocency, and rebuked her arrogancy. Or, by him counsels , or actions, or events are disposed or ordered, and not by ourselves; and therefore he things to pass contrary to men’ s expectations, as now he hath done; he maketh one barren, and another fruitful, when and how it pleaseth him. In the Hebrew text it is lo the adverb; and so the words may be rendered thus, His actions are not , or cannot, be directed , or rectified , or corrected by any others; none can mend his work; he doth every thing best, and in the best season, as now he hath done: or weighed, or numbered; his ways are unsearchable. Or thus, Are not his works right and straight ? who can blame his actions? So lo is for halo , as it is 2Sa 13:26 2Ki 5:26 Job 2:10 .

Poole: 1Sa 2:4 - bows // They that stumbled // Are girt with strength This notes either, 1. The strength of which they boasted. See Psa 44:6 46:9 . Or, 2. Their malicious or mischievous designs. See Psa 7:12 11:2 37:...

This notes either,

1. The strength of which they boasted. See Psa 44:6 46:9 . Or,

2. Their malicious or mischievous designs. See Psa 7:12 11:2 37:14 . Or,

3. Their virulent tongues, which are compared to

bows that shoot their arrows, even bitter words ; as it is said Psa 64:3 : compare Jer 9:3 . Or,

4. Their procreating virtue, which may well be compared to a bow , both because it is called a man’ s strength, Gen 49:3 , and because children, which are the effects of it, and are as it were shot from that bow , are compared to arrows , Psa 127:4,5 . And this seems best to agree with the following verse.

They that stumbled or, were weak, or feeble , in body and spirit, that had no strength to conceive, which was once Sarah’ s case, Heb 11:11 ; or to bring forth, which was Israel’ s condition under Hezekiah, 2Ki 19:3 .

Are girt with strength are enabled both to conceive and to bring forth, as the church was, Isa 66:9 .

Poole: 1Sa 2:5 - Have hired themselves out for bread // Ceased // Seven // She that hath many children // Is waxed feeble Have hired themselves out for bread through extreme necessity, into which they are fallen from their greatest plenty. It is the same thing which is e...

Have hired themselves out for bread through extreme necessity, into which they are fallen from their greatest plenty. It is the same thing which is expressed both in divers metaphors in the foregoing and following verses, and properly in the latter branch of this verse.

Ceased i.e. ceased to be such, to wit, hungry; the hungry failed; there was none of them hungry or indigent.

Seven i.e. many, as seven is oft used. She speaks in the prophetic style, the past time for the future; for though she had actually born but one, yet she had a confident persuasion that she should have more, which was grounded either upon some particular assurance from God, or rather upon the prayer or prediction of Eli; which, though it be mentioned after this song, 1Sa 2:20 , yet in all probability was spoken before it, even upon the parents’ presentation of the child to Eli, 1Sa 1:25 , it not being likely that she would sing this song in Eli’ s presence, or before he had given his answer to her speech delivered 1Sa 1:26-28 , there being nothing more frequent than such transpositions in Scripture. And the experience she had of the strange and speedy accomplishment of his former prophecy made her confidently expect the same issue from the latter.

She that hath many children i.e. Peninnah.

Is waxed feeble either because she was now past child-bearing, and impotent for procreation; or because divers of her children, which were her strength and her glory, were dead, as the Hebrew doctors relate.

Poole: 1Sa 2:6 - Killeth, and maketh alive Killeth, and maketh alive either, 1. Diverse persons; he killeth one, and maketh another alive. Or, 2. The same person whom he first killeth, or br...

Killeth, and maketh alive either,

1. Diverse persons; he killeth one, and maketh another alive. Or,

2. The same person whom he first killeth, or bringeth very nigh unto death, he afterwards raiseth to life. Me, who was almost overwhelmed and consumed with grief, he hath revived. The name of death, both in sacred Scripture and profane writers, is oft given to great calamities; as Isa 26:19 Eze 37:11 Rom 8:36 .

Poole: 1Sa 2:8 - Out of the dust // From the dunghill // Dunghill // To make them inherit // The throne of glory // The pillars Out of the dust i.e. out of their low and miserable condition, as this phrase is used, 1Ki 16:2 Psa 113:7 Compare Job 16:15 Psa 22:15 . From the du...

Out of the dust i.e. out of their low and miserable condition, as this phrase is used, 1Ki 16:2 Psa 113:7 Compare Job 16:15 Psa 22:15 .

From the dunghill from the most sordid place and mean estate. Compare 1Ki 16:2 Job 36:11 Psa 7:5 .

Dunghill which the poor are said to embrace, Lam 4:5 .

To make them inherit not only possess themselves, but transfer them to their posterity, as hath oft happened in the world; or, possess .

The throne of glory i.e. a glorious throne or kingdom.

The pillars either,

1. The foundations of the earth, which God created and upholds, and wherewith he sustains the earth find all its inhabitants, as a house is supported with pillars; and therefore it is not strange if he disposeth of persons and things therein as he pleaseth. Or,

2. The princes or governors of the earth, which are called the corners, or corner-stones, of a land or people, Jud 20:2 1Sa 14:38 Zep 3:6 , and are fitly called pillars , because they uphold the world, and keep it from sinking into confusion. See Psa 74:2 Jer 1:18 Rev 3:12 . And these are here said to be the Lord’ s , by creation and constitution, because he advanceth them to their state, and preserves them in it, Pro 8:15,16 , and puts the world, or the kingdoms of the world, upon them, as burdens upon their shoulders: see Isa 9:6 .

Poole: 1Sa 2:9 - The feet // keep // Shall be silent // In darkness // By strength shall no man prevail The feet i.e. the steps or paths, their counsels and actions, he will keep i.e. both uphold, that they may not fall, at least, into mischief or utt...

The feet i.e. the steps or paths, their counsels and actions, he will

keep i.e. both uphold, that they may not fall, at least, into mischief or utter ruin; and direct and preserve from wandering, and from those fatal mistakes and errors that wicked men daily run into.

Shall be silent shall be put to silence: they who used to open their mouths wide against heaven, and against the saints, shall be so confounded with the unexpected disappointment of all their hopes, and with God’ s glorious appearance and operations for his people, that they shall have their months quite stopped, and sit down in silent amazement and consternation: see Isa 15:1 Jer 8:14 47:5,6 .

In darkness both inward, in their own minds, which are wholly in the dark, perplexed by their own choice and counsels, not knowing what to say or do; and outward, in a state of deepest distress and misery.

By strength shall no man prevail to wit, against God, or against his saints, as the wicked were confident they should do, because of their great power, and wealth, and numbers; whereas God’ s people were mean, and impotent, and helpless. And particularly, Peninnah shall not prevail against me by that strength which she hath, or thinks to have, from her numerous offspring. But it is to bc observed, that although Hannah takes the rise of this song from her own condition, yet she extends her thoughts and words further, even to the usual methods of God’ s providence in the government of the world.

Poole: 1Sa 2:10 - The adversaries of the Lord // Shall be broken to pieces // Out of heaven // Shall he thunder upon them // Shall judge // Unto his king // Exalt the horn // Of his anointed The adversaries of the Lord and of his people; especially the Philistines, who at this time were the chief oppressors of Israel. Shall be broken to ...

The adversaries of the Lord and of his people; especially the Philistines, who at this time were the chief oppressors of Israel.

Shall be broken to pieces these and the following words are prophetical of what God was about to do: they who are now our lords, shall be subdued.

Out of heaven i.e. out of the clouds or air, which is oft called heaven.

Shall he thunder upon them as was done, 1Sa 7:10 .

Shall judge i.e. shall condemn and punish, as that verb by a synedoche is oft used. Of the earth , or, of the land , to wit, the Philistines who dwelt in the utmost borders of Canaan, even upon the sea-coast.

Unto his king either,

1. Unto the judge or ruler whom he shall set up for the protection and deliverance of his people; the word king being elsewhere so taken. Or,

2. The King properly so called; and so she prophesieth, that Israel should have a king, and that there should be a great difference between king and king; between the people’ s king, Saul, whom they would obstinately and passionately desire, by whom therefore they should have but little relief; and God’ s king, David, whom God would choose as a man after his own heart, and whom he would strengthen and assist so, as by his hands to break all his enemies to pieces.

Exalt the horn i.e. increase or advance the strength.

Of his anointed i.e. of his king. The same thing repeated in other words, although it may have a mystical sense and respect to Christ, the singular anointed one of God, and the special King of his people, whom all their other kings did typify and represent, and from whom they received authority and power.

Poole: 1Sa 2:11 - Before Eli the priest In some way agreeable to his tender years, as in singing, or playing upon instruments of music, as they used then to do in God’ s service; or l...

In some way agreeable to his tender years, as in singing, or playing upon instruments of music, as they used then to do in God’ s service; or lighting the lamps, or some other way. For I suppose Samuel was not brought to the tabernacle in such tender years as some think; of which See Poole "1Sa 1:22" .

Before Eli the priest i.e. under the inspection and by the direction and instruction of Eli.

Poole: 1Sa 2:12 - -- To wit, practically, i.e. they did not acknowledge honour, regard, love, or serve God; for so words of knowledge are commonly used in Scripture: see...

To wit, practically, i.e. they did not acknowledge honour, regard, love, or serve God; for so words of knowledge are commonly used in Scripture: see Rom 1:28 1Co 15:34 Tit 1:16

Poole: 1Sa 2:13 - Offered // While the flesh was in seething Offered i.e. presented it to the Lord, to be offered by the priest. While the flesh was in seething for as the Lord’ s part of the peace-offer...

Offered i.e. presented it to the Lord, to be offered by the priest.

While the flesh was in seething for as the Lord’ s part of the peace-offerings was burnt upon the altar, so the priest’ s and offerer’ s parts were to be sodden.

Poole: 1Sa 2:14 - All that the flesh-hook brought up the priest took for himself All that the flesh-hook brought up the priest took for himself not contented with the breast and shoulder which were allotted them by God, Exo 29:27,...

All that the flesh-hook brought up the priest took for himself not contented with the breast and shoulder which were allotted them by God, Exo 29:27,28 Le 7:31 , they took also part of the offerer’ s share; and besides, they snatched their part before it was heaved and waved, contrary to Lev 7:34 .

Poole: 1Sa 2:15 - The fat The fat and the other parts to be burnt with it. See Lev 3:3,4,9 7:31 . So this was an additional injury; for lest the fork should mistake and injure...

The fat and the other parts to be burnt with it. See Lev 3:3,4,9 7:31 . So this was an additional injury; for lest the fork should mistake and injure them, they took such parts as they best liked whilst it was raw, when it might be better discerned.

Poole: 1Sa 2:16 - Take as much as thy soul desireth Take as much as thy soul desireth we are content to relinquish our parts to thee, only let not God be wronged of his due.

Take as much as thy soul desireth we are content to relinquish our parts to thee, only let not God be wronged of his due.

Poole: 1Sa 2:17 - The sin of the young men was very great // Before the Lord // Men abhorred the offering of the Lord The sin of the young men was very great because they violently took away both man’ s and God’ s dues, and this before their time, and that ...

The sin of the young men was very great because they violently took away both man’ s and God’ s dues, and this before their time, and that with manifest contempt of God and men; and all this merely for the gratifying of their sensual appetite.

Before the Lord i.e. even in the place of God’ s special presence, where he saw and observed all their miscarriages; which argues the height of impiety and imprudence.

Men abhorred the offering of the Lord they neglected and abhorred the practice of carrying up sacrifices to be offered, which they knew would be so grossly abused; and which, as they might think, would be rejected and abhorred by God himself; and therefore they would not contribute to the priests’ sin, and the corruption of God’ s worship, but judged it better to neglect the thing, than to expose it to the priests’ depravation; wherein yet they erred, as we see, 1Sa 2:21 .

Poole: 1Sa 2:18 - Ministered // Before the Lord // A linen ephod Ministered i.e. performed his ministration carefully and faithfully, not corrupting nor abusing it, as Eli’ s sons did. Before the Lord in God...

Ministered i.e. performed his ministration carefully and faithfully, not corrupting nor abusing it, as Eli’ s sons did.

Before the Lord in God’ s tabernacle; or as in God’ s presence, sincerely and regardarly, with God’ s approbation.

Compare Gen 17:1 2Ch 26:4 .

A linen ephod a garment used in God’ s service, and allowed not only to the inferior priests and Levites, but also to eminent persons of the people, as 2Sa 6:11 , and therefore to Samuel, who, though no Levite, was a Nazarite, and that from his birth.

Poole: 1Sa 2:19 - A little coat A little coat suitable to his age and stature, to be worn ordinarily; for coats were their usual garments. See Gen 3:21 37:3 2Sa 15:32 Son 5:3 Dan ...

A little coat suitable to his age and stature, to be worn ordinarily; for coats were their usual garments. See Gen 3:21 37:3 2Sa 15:32 Son 5:3 Dan 3:21 Luk 3:11 9:3 . Knowing that he could not yet do much service, she would not have him too burdensome to the tabernacle, and therefore she yearly provided him with a coat, which was the chief and upper garment; and under that his other garments possibly are comprehended.

Poole: 1Sa 2:20 - Seed // For the loan which is lent to the Lord As their superior, and God’ s high priest, Eli blessed them in God’ s name, and they received his blessing by faith, which made it effectu...

As their superior, and God’ s high priest, Eli blessed them in God’ s name, and they received his blessing by faith, which made it effectual, 1Sa 2:21 .

Seed i.e. a child, or rather children, as the event showed.

For the loan which is lent to the Lord or, for the petition , i.e. the thing desired, to wit, the child; which she, thy wife, asked of the Lord ; or, for the Lord , as 1Sa 1:28 , to whom accordingly she hath given them. And therefore as she asked him not so much for herself, for she seldom sees him, as for the Lord, to whose service she hath wholly devoted him; so now I pray that God would give you other children, for both your comfort and enjoyment.

Poole: 1Sa 2:21 - Visited // Grew // Before the Lord Visited to wit, in mercy, and with his blessing, as that word is used, Gen 21:1 Exo 13:19 Jer 15:15 ; not in anger, as it is taken Exo 32:34 Lev 26:1...

Visited to wit, in mercy, and with his blessing, as that word is used, Gen 21:1 Exo 13:19 Jer 15:15 ; not in anger, as it is taken Exo 32:34 Lev 26:16 .

Grew not only in age and stature, but especially in wisdom and goodness, as Luk 1:15 . Or, was magnified ; or grew great , famous and acceptable, as 1Sa 2:26 .

Before the Lord not only before men, who might be deceived, but in the presence and judgment of the all-seeing God.

Poole: 1Sa 2:22 - He was very old // All that his sons did unto all Israel // Assembled // At the door He was very old and therefore unfit either to manage his office himself, or to make a diligent inspection into the carriage of his sons in holy admin...

He was very old and therefore unfit either to manage his office himself, or to make a diligent inspection into the carriage of his sons in holy administrations; which gave them opportunity for their wickedness.

All that his sons did unto all Israel whom they injured in their offerings, and alienated from the service of God.

Assembled or warred ; which expression is used of them, either because they came to the service and worship of God in the tabernacle, which is often called a warfare; or because they came in considerable numbers, and due order, like to an army.

At the door the place where all the people, both men and women, waited when they came up to the service of God, 1Sa 1:9,12 Lu 1:10 , because they could not have admittance into the tabernacle, and because the altar on which their sacrifices were offered was by the door. Hence it seems probable that these women were not such as devoted themselves to the service of God and of his tabernacle, either by fasting and prayer, &c., or by sewing, spinning, &c., which, if then there were any such, had their stations not at the door, but in divers places allotted to them round about the tabernacle; but of such as came up to worship God at his tabernacle; as women ofttimes did, with their husbands, as here Hannah did, and the blessed Virgin Mary, Luk 2:41 , or with their parents. And this exposition may receive strength from Exo 38:8 , where the very same phrase is used, and that when the great tabernacle was not yet built: and so there was no occasion for any women to come to the other less tabernacle then used, save only to pray or offer sacrifices.

Poole: 1Sa 2:23 - Such things // By all this people Such things as those above mentioned, 1Sa 2:13,22 . Eli’ s sin in this matter was not only that he reproved them too gently, and generally, and ...

Such things as those above mentioned, 1Sa 2:13,22 . Eli’ s sin in this matter was not only that he reproved them too gently, and generally, and sparingly; but especially that he contented himself with a verbal rebuke and did not

restrain them as is said 1Sa 3:13 , and inflict those punishments upon them, of putting them out of their priest’ s office, and cutting them off from God’ s people; which such high crimes deserved by God’ s law, and which he as judge and high priest ought to have done, without all respect of persons.

By all this people that dwell here, or come hither to worship.

Poole: 1Sa 2:24 - Ye make the Lord’ s people to transgress // Lord’ s people Words too mild for such diabolical actions. Ye make the Lord’ s people to transgress either, 1. The women that by your instigation were draw...

Words too mild for such diabolical actions.

Ye make the Lord’ s people to transgress either,

1. The women that by your instigation were drawn to folly. Or,

2. Others who are easily brought to follow your pernicious example. Or,

3. Other persons of pious and honest minds, whom therefore he calls the

Lord’ s people by way of distinction from the children of Belial , who were so highly offended. with the great dishonour done to God and to his worship, and with the horrible wickedness of the priests, that upon that occasion they were hurried into the other extreme, and lived in the neglect and contempt of their own indispensable duty of offering sacrifices, because they came through the priests’ hands.

Poole: 1Sa 2:25 - If one man sin against another // The judge shall judge him // If a man sin against the Lord // Who shall entreat for him? // Who shall judge for him? If one man sin against another by doing any injury. The judge shall judge him the magistrate shall by his sentence end the difference, and both par...

If one man sin against another by doing any injury.

The judge shall judge him the magistrate shall by his sentence end the difference, and both parties shall acquiesce in his determination, and so the breach shall be made up. The sense is, if only man be wronged, man can right it, and reconcile the persons.

If a man sin against the Lord to wit, in such manner as you have done, directly and immediately, in the matters of his worship and service, wilfully and presumptuously.

Who shall entreat for him? the offence is of so high a nature, that few or none will dare to intercede for him, but will leave him to the just judgment of God. He speaks after the manner of men, who do oft intercede with the prince for such as have injured any private person; but will not presume to do so when the injury is committed against his own person. The words are, and may be thus rendered,

Who shall judge for him? Who shall interpose himself as umpire, or arbitrator, between God and him? Who shall compound that difference? None can or dare do it, and therefore he must be left to the dreadful, but righteous judgment of God; which is your case and misery. Because the Lord would slay them , i.e. because God hath determined to destroy them for their many and great sins; and therefore would not and did not give them grace to hearken to Eli’ s counsel, and to repent of their wickedness, but hardened their hearts to their destruction.

Poole: 1Sa 2:26 - -- He grew better in bad times, which is remembered to his commendation.

He grew better in bad times, which is remembered to his commendation.

Poole: 1Sa 2:27 - A man of God // Did I plainly appear? // unto the house of thy father // When they were in Egypt A man of God i.e. a prophet or preacher sent from God. See 1Ti 6:11 2Ti 3:17 2Pe 1:21 . Who this was is not revealed by God, and therefore it is vain...

A man of God i.e. a prophet or preacher sent from God. See 1Ti 6:11 2Ti 3:17 2Pe 1:21 . Who this was is not revealed by God, and therefore it is vain to inquire, and impossible to determine.

Did I plainly appear? did I indeed show such a favor, and appear so evidently and gloriously to thee, and for thee, and is this thy requital?

unto the house of thy father i.e. unto Aaron the chief of thy father’ s house.

When they were in Egypt: see Exo 4:27 . Pharaoh’ s house , i.e. either,

1. In Pharaoh’ s land; the whole kingdom being, as it were, one great family, whereof Pharaoh was the master. Or,

2. In Pharaoh’ s court, where Aaron might probably be at the time of this revelation, either to answer to some accusation against him or his brethren, or to beg some relaxation of the rigour, or for some other occasion.

Poole: 1Sa 2:28 - Did I choose him // All the offerings made by fire Did I choose him to wit, Aaron thy father? whereby he shows what he meant by his father’ s house . An ephod; that golden ephod which was peculi...

Did I choose him to wit, Aaron thy father? whereby he shows what he meant by his father’ s house . An ephod; that golden ephod which was peculiar to the high priest.

All the offerings made by fire i.e. all the priest’ s part of the offerings. He only had the office, and he had the whole benefit.

Poole: 1Sa 2:29 - Wherefore kick ye at my sacrifice // Honourest thy sons above me // To make yourselves fat // The chiefest of all the offerings Wherefore kick ye at my sacrifice using them irreverently, contemptuously, and profanely; both by abusing them to your own luxury, and by causing the...

Wherefore kick ye at my sacrifice using them irreverently, contemptuously, and profanely; both by abusing them to your own luxury, and by causing the people to abhor and neglect them? He chargeth Eli with his sons’ faults.

Honourest thy sons above me permitting them to dishonour and injure me, by taking my part to themselves; choosing rather to offend me by thy connivance at their sin, than to displease them by severe rebukes, and effectual restraints, and just punishments; and so prefer their will, and pleasure, and honour, before mine.

To make yourselves fat to pamper yourselves. This you did not out of any necessity, but out of mere luxury.

The chiefest of all the offerings not contented with those parts which I had allotted you, you invaded those choice parts which I reserved for myself.

Poole: 1Sa 2:30 - I said indeed // Quest // Answ // Object // Should walk before me // For ever // Be it far from me // Them that honour me // I will honour // They that despise me // Shall be lightly esteemed I said indeed Quest. Where or when did God say this? Answ Either, 1. When he made that promise for the perpetuation of the priesthood in Aaron&...

I said indeed

Quest. Where or when did God say this?

Answ Either,

1. When he made that promise for the perpetuation of the priesthood in Aaron’ s family, Exo 28:43 29:9 .

Object. If Eli and all his family had been cut off, yet that promise had been made good in Eleazar’ s family: how then was that promise recalled by this sentence against Eli?

Answ It was recalled and made void, though not absolutely and universally to all Aaron’ s family, yet respectively to Eli and his family, which were wholly excluded from the benefit of it, wherein otherwise they should have shared; even as God’ s keeping of the Israelites out of Canaan and in the wilderness for forty years, and destroying them there, is called his breach of promise , Num 14:31 , although the promise of Canaan was not simply made void to all the Israelites, but only to that evil generation of them; or as God’ s covenant with David, and with his seed, of which God saith that it should stand fast , Psa 89:28 , and that he would not break nor alter it, 1Sa 2:34 , yet is said to be made void, 1Sa 2:35 , to wit, in regard of some particular branches or members of that family. Or,

2. To Eli himself, or to his father, when the priesthood was translated from Eleazar’ s to Ithamar’ s family, for some cause not mentioned in Scripture, but most probably for some great miscarriage of some of them. If it be said that there is no such promise recorded in Scripture, it may be so replied, That there are many sayings and doings noted in Holy Scripture which were not spoken of in their proper times and places, as Gen 24:51 42:21 Hos 12:4 Luk 11:49 Act 20:25 . So the sense of the place may be this, That promise and privilege of the perpetuation of the priesthood in Phinehas and his family, made to them Num 25:12,13 , namely, upon condition of his and their faithfulness in their office, which is plainly understood, I now take away from that family for their wickedness, and I transfer it to thee and thine, and will fix it there upon the same condition.

Should walk before me i.e. minister unto me as high priest. Walking is oft put for discharging one’ s office; before me may signify that he was the high priest, whose sole prerogative it was to minister before God, or before the ark, in the most holy place.

For ever as long as the Mosaical law and worship lasted, as that phrase is oft used.

Be it far from me to wit, to fulfil my promise, which I repent of, and hereby retract.

Them that honour me that worship and serve me with reverence and godly fear, and according to my will, which I esteem as an honour done to me.

I will honour I will advance them to honour, and maintain them in it.

They that despise me not formally and directly; for so Eli’ s sons did not despise God; but indirectly and by consequence, by presumptuous disobedience of my commands; by defiling and disgracing my worship and ordinances, either by transgressing the rules I have given them therein, or by their ungodly and shameful conversation; and by making my service contemptible and abominable to others through their scandals: all which are manifest arguments of contempt of God, and are so called, as Num 11:20 1Sa 12:9,10 Mal 1:8 , and all which were eminently found in Eli’ s sons.

Shall be lightly esteemed both by God and men.

Poole: 1Sa 2:31 - I will cut off thine arm // The arm of thy father’ s house // There shall not be an old man in thine house I will cut off thine arm i.e. I will take away thy strength, which is oft signified by the arm, as Job 22:8 Psa 37:17 , or all that in which thou pla...

I will cut off thine arm i.e. I will take away thy strength, which is oft signified by the arm, as Job 22:8 Psa 37:17 , or all that in which thou placest thy confidence and security; either,

1. The ark, which is called God’ s strength, Psa 78:61 , and was Eli’ s strength, who therefore was not able to beat the very tidings of the loss of it, 1Sa 4:18 . Or,

2. His priestly dignity or employment, whence he had all his honour and substance. Or rather,

3. His children, to whom the words following here, and in the succeeding verses, seem to confine it, who are the strength of parents: see Gen 49:3 Deu 21:17 Psa 127:4,5 .

The arm of thy father’ s house i.e. thy children’ s children, and all thy family; which was in great measure accomplished, 1Sa 22:16 , &c.

There shall not be an old man in thine house they shall generally be cut off by an untimely death before they be old.

Poole: 1Sa 2:32 - Thou shalt see // an enemy So the sense is, Thou shalt see not in thy person, but in thy posterity, (it being most frequent in Scripture to attribute that to parents which p...

So the sense is,

Thou shalt see not in thy person, but in thy posterity, (it being most frequent in Scripture to attribute that to parents which properly belongs to their posterity only; as Gen 17:8 Gen 27:29,40 )

an enemy i.e. thy competitor, or him who shall possess that place of high trust and honour which now thou enjoyest, (such persons being through man’ s corrupt nature esteemed as a man’ s worst enemy,) in my habitation, i.e. in the sanctuary. And then he adds by way of aggravation, that this sad accident should happen in all the wealth when God shall give Israel, i.e. in a time when God should eminently bless Israel, and make good all his promises to them, which was in Solomon’ s days, when Abiathar of Eli’ s race was put out of the high priesthood, and Zadok was put in his place, 1Ki 2:27,35 , when the priesthood was most glorious, and most profitable, and comfortable, and therefore the loss of it more deplorable. But the words may be otherwise rendered, as is noted in the margin of our English Bibles: Thou shalt see , to wit, in thy own person, the affliction , or oppression , or calamity of my habitation , i.e. either of the land of Israel, wherein I dwell; or of the sanctuary, called the habitation by way of eminency, whose greatest glory the ark was, 1Sa 4:21,22 , and consequently, whose greatest calamity the loss of the ark was; for , or instead of all that good wherewith God would have blessed Israel , or was about to bless Israel; having raised up a young prophet, Samuel, and thereby given good grounds of hope that he intended to bless Israel, if thou and thy sons had not hindered it by your sins, which God was resolved severely to punish. So this clause of the threatening concerns Eli’ s person, as the following concerns his posterity. And this best agrees with the most proper and usual signification of that phrase, Thou shalt see. For ever , i.e. as long as the priesthood continues in thy family, or as long as the Levitical priesthood lasts.

Poole: 1Sa 2:33 - The man of thine // From mine altar // Shall be to consume thine eyes, and to grieve thine heart // The increase of thine house // In the flower of their age The man of thine i.e. those of thy posterity. From mine altar i.e. from attendance upon mine altar; whom I shall not destroy, but suffer to live, a...

The man of thine i.e. those of thy posterity.

From mine altar i.e. from attendance upon mine altar; whom I shall not destroy, but suffer to live, and wait at the altar.

Shall be to consume thine eyes, and to grieve thine heart shall be so forlorn and miserable, that if thou wast alive to see it, it would grieve thee at the very heart, and thou wouldst consume thine eyes with weeping for their calamities. So the phrase is like that of Rachel weeping for her children , Jer 31:15 , which were slain long after her death.

The increase of thine house i.e. thy children.

In the flower of their age about the thirtieth year of their age, when they were to be admitted to the plenary administration of their office, Num 4:3 , then they shall die.

Poole: 1Sa 2:34 - This shall be a sign unto thee This shall be a sign unto thee to wit, of the certain truth of those sad predictions; and it was fulfilled, 1Sa 4:11 .

This shall be a sign unto thee to wit, of the certain truth of those sad predictions; and it was fulfilled, 1Sa 4:11 .

Poole: 1Sa 2:35 - A faithful priest // That shall do according to that which is in mine heart // I will build him a sure house // He shall walk // Before mine anointed A faithful priest to wit, of another line, as is necessarily implied by one total removal of that office from Eli’ s line, before threatened. Th...

A faithful priest to wit, of another line, as is necessarily implied by one total removal of that office from Eli’ s line, before threatened. The person designed is Zadok, one eminent for his faithfulness to God and to the king, who, when Abiathar, the last of Eli’ s line, was deposed by Solomon, was made high priest in his stead, 1Ki 2:27,35 1Ch 29:22 .

That shall do according to that which is in mine heart and shall not dishonour or disobey me to gratify his sons, as thou hast done.

I will build him a sure house i.e. give him a numerous posterity, as that phrase is used, Exo 1:21 2Sa 7:11 1Ki 11:38 , and confirm that sure covenant of an everlasting priesthood made to Phinehas, of Eleazar’ s line, Num 25:13 , and interrupted for a little while by Eli, and his, of the line of Ithamar, unto him and his children for ever. And this was manifestly verified until the Babylonish captivity, Eze 44:15 ; and there is no reason to doubt of its continuance in the same line till Christ came.

He shall walk i.e. minister as high priest.

Before mine anointed either, first, Before king Solomon, who was anointed king, 1Ki 1:39 , and before the succeeding kings, who are commonly called anointed , or the Lord’ s anointed, as 1Sa 12:3,5 24:6,10 Ps 89:38,51 La 4:20 . Or rather, secondly, Before Jesus Christ; first, Because this title of Anointed , or Christ , or Messias , (both which words signify only the Anointed ,) is most frequently and eminently ascribed to Christ, both in the Old and New Testament, and therefore it is most reasonable to understand it of him, when there is nothing in the text or context which determines it to any other. Secondly, Christ is the main scope and design, not only of the New, but of the Old Testament, which in all its types and ceremonies represented Christ; and particularly, the high priest was an eminent type of Christ, and did represent his person, and act in his name and stead, and did mediately what John Baptist did immediately, go before the face of the Lord Christ; and when Christ did come, that office and officer was to cease. Thirdly, The high priest is seldom or never said to walk or minister before the kings of Israel or Judah, but constantly before the Lord , and consequently before Christ, who as he was God blessed for ever, Rom 9:5 , was present with, and the Builder and Governor of, the ancient church of Israel, as is manifest from Act 7:35 1Co 10:4 Heb 3:3-6 , and many other places; and their temple is particularly called his temple, Mal 3:1 , because all the temple worship was performed in his presence, and had a special respect unto him, and therefore the high priest is most properly said to walk before him .

Poole: 1Sa 2:36 - Crouch to him // A morsel of bread // Into one of the priests’ offices // Quest // Answ Crouch to him in way of humble supplication. See 1Ki 2:26 ; A morsel of bread whereas before they were so nice and delicate, that my liberal allowa...

Crouch to him in way of humble supplication. See 1Ki 2:26 ;

A morsel of bread whereas before they were so nice and delicate, that my liberal allowance could not satisfy them, but they must have their meat raw and fat, &c., above, 1Sa 2:13-16 ; so the punishment is suited to the nature of their sin.

Into one of the priests’ offices into the meanest office belonging to it. See Eze 44:10,11 , &c.

Quest. How could they be reduced to so great straits, seeing, though they lost the high priesthood, they still were inferior priests, and had a right to those plentiful provisions which belonged to that order?

Answ First, They might be degraded, not only from the office of the high priest, but also from that of the inferior priests, and consequently might forfeit and lose all the privileges belonging to their office. Secondly, This might be from the tyranny and violence of some of the succeeding priests of Eleazar’ s line towards that other line, which had long stood in competition with them, and had for a season got away the priesthood from them; for this text only relates the matter of fact, but doth not express an approbation of it.

PBC: 1Sa 2:8 - -- See Philpot: THE POOR RAISED UP OUT OF THE DUST, AND THE BEGGAR LIFTED UP FROM THE DUNGHILL

See Philpot: THE POOR RAISED UP OUT OF THE DUST, AND THE BEGGAR LIFTED UP FROM THE DUNGHILL

Haydock: 1Sa 2:1 - Ephod // All the Ephod, and all the pontifical attire. (Haydock) --- The high priest wore a different sort of ephod from that of other people. (Calmet) --- All th...

Ephod, and all the pontifical attire. (Haydock) ---

The high priest wore a different sort of ephod from that of other people. (Calmet) ---

All the, &c. Even of the holocausts, the priests received the skin. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:1 - Rejoiced // Horn // Enlarged Rejoiced. Septuagint and Chaldean, "been strengthened." Anna composed this canticle at the nativity of her son; or rather at his presentation in th...

Rejoiced. Septuagint and Chaldean, "been strengthened." Anna composed this canticle at the nativity of her son; or rather at his presentation in the tabernacle. She foretells the reign and glory of the Messias, and of his church. (St. Augustine, de C.[City of God?] xvii. 4. ---

Horn. The horn in the Scripture signifies strength, power, and glory: so the horn is said to be exalted, when a person receives an increase of strength or glory. (Challoner) ---

So Horace (3 Ode, 21.) says, addis cornua pauperi. ---

Enlarged. Chaldean, "I have opened my mouth, to speak great things against my enemies." She has Phenenna principally in view, and compares her present glory with her former distress. (Calmet) ---

I may boast more on account of Samuel, than my rival can of her numerous offspring. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:2 - Holy // Strong Holy. This is frequently a title of God, the holy one of Israel, Isaias i. 4., and v. 19. He is essentially holy. --- Strong. Hebrew, "no rock l...

Holy. This is frequently a title of God, the holy one of Israel, Isaias i. 4., and v. 19. He is essentially holy. ---

Strong. Hebrew, "no rock like," &c. The rocks of Palestine were the common fortresses of the nation, having caverns to which the people fled for refuge. Hence God is often called a rock, (Calmet) as non can afford such protection. (Haydock) (Psalm xvii. 2., and Deuteronomy xxxii. 15.)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:3 - Old // Knowledge // And to him Old. Hebrew hathak means also, "hard things." (Du Hamel) --- "Let arrogance come out of your mouth," to return no more. Yet most people supply ...

Old. Hebrew hathak means also, "hard things." (Du Hamel) ---

"Let arrogance come out of your mouth," to return no more. Yet most people supply the negation from the former member; "Let not arrogance or hard things." Chaldean, "blasphemy," &c. (Calmet) ---

Cease to praise idols, as you have done. (Worthington) ---

Use not the malevolent language to which you have been accustomed. ---

Knowledge. The secrets of hearts are open to him. ---

And to him. Hebrew, "and by him actions are weighed," as in scales; (Haydock) or, "thoughts (and actions) are not established." (Symmachus) The Syriac and Arabic also read the negation, "there are not pretexts before him;" or, "are not actions founded upon him?" Will he not execute what he has wisely designed, in spite of opposition? (Haydock) ---

Septuagint, "and God prepares his thought;" (Calmet) ( Greek: epitedeumata autou ) or, "what is convenient for him." (Haydock) ---

They have read lu, "of him," instead of la, "not," as they are authorized to do by the Keri, (or various readings in the margin) and by several Hebrew manuscripts. The Protestants think rightly, and suppose that la, "not," has been omitted, "Let not arrogancy;" because we find it in Chaldean, Septuagint, Syriac and Arabic versions. Lu is substituted for la, ver. 16. When some have been pressed with the argument of variations, called Keri, they have said that they were rather explanations of obscure words in the text: but is there any obscurity in lu, "to him," and la, "not;" or can they explain each other? Leusden answers in the affirmative, ver. 16! (Kennicott)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:4 - Overcome Overcome. Hebrew, "broken." Septuagint, "he has weakened the bow," having deprived it of its elasticity.

Overcome. Hebrew, "broken." Septuagint, "he has weakened the bow," having deprived it of its elasticity.

Haydock: 1Sa 2:5 - Many Many. Hebrew, "seven," which is often used in the same sense. Anna had never more than six children; (Calmet) whereas Phenenna had perhaps ten, cha...

Many. Hebrew, "seven," which is often used in the same sense. Anna had never more than six children; (Calmet) whereas Phenenna had perhaps ten, chap. i. 8., and iii. 21. (Haydock) ---

The Rabbins pretend that she lost one every time that Anna brought forth. But the text says nothing of the kind. It only insinuates at most, that she had no more. This admirably represents the state of the Synagogue, compared to the Christian Church. (St. Augustine, sup.) (Calmet; Worthington) ---

The blessed Virgin conveys the same idea in other words, Luke i. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:6 - Hell Hell, ( infernos, ) "the lower regions." God calls us out of this world, or restores the dead to life, as he thinks proper. (Haydock) --- He easi...

Hell, ( infernos, ) "the lower regions." God calls us out of this world, or restores the dead to life, as he thinks proper. (Haydock) ---

He easily makes the greatest prosperity succeed extreme distress, which is often denoted by death, hell, &c. So Seneca says, Mortis habet vices---Lentis cum trahitur vita gemitibus. The prodigal son is said to have come to life again, when his father received him, contrary to his expectations, Luke xv. 24., and Psalm xxix. 4., &c. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:7 - Exalteth Exalteth. The same instances of God's power and providence are related, Psalm cxii. 7., and Luke i. 52. (Menochius) --- Hesiod (op.) says, "Jupite...

Exalteth. The same instances of God's power and providence are related, Psalm cxii. 7., and Luke i. 52. (Menochius) ---

Hesiod (op.) says, "Jupiter easily gives or takes away power," &c.

Haydock: 1Sa 2:8 - World World. The Hebrews represented the earth as resting on a firm basis, or on pillars, or turning on poles, Psalm ciii. 5., and Proverbs viii. 25., &c....

World. The Hebrews represented the earth as resting on a firm basis, or on pillars, or turning on poles, Psalm ciii. 5., and Proverbs viii. 25., &c. The magistrates of the earth may be also thus designated, as the world is entrusted to their care. God compares Jeremias to an iron pillar, Jeremias i. 18., and Apocalypse iii. 12. (Calmet) ---

The last sentence is omitted in the Septuagint.

Haydock: 1Sa 2:9 - Saints // Silent Saints. Hebrew, "kind, merciful, pious ones;" (Calmet) those to whom he shews mercy, and who comply with his will in assisting others. Septuagint, ...

Saints. Hebrew, "kind, merciful, pious ones;" (Calmet) those to whom he shews mercy, and who comply with his will in assisting others. Septuagint, "Granting their petition to those who ask him, and he has blessed the years of the just, because man is not strong by his own strength." (Haydock) ---

Silent: condemned to death. Mox etiam Lemures animas dixere silentes. (Ovid, Fast. v.) Loca nocte silentia late. (Virgil, [Æneid?] vi.) Unable to act as they had done, and ashamed of themselves, (Calmet) they seek for the most obscure retreat, where they may not behold the glory of those whom they have despised. They will pray that the hills would fall upon them, and hide them from the indignation of the Lamb. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:10 - Him // Heavens // Christ Him. Septuagint, "The Lord will render his adversary weak. The holy Lord. Let not the prudent boast of his prudence," &c. (Haydock; which seems to...

Him. Septuagint, "The Lord will render his adversary weak. The holy Lord. Let not the prudent boast of his prudence," &c. (Haydock; which seems to be added from Jeremias ix. 23., Calmet) "The Lord has mounted the heavens, and thundered. He judges the ends of the earth, and gives power to those who rule, as kings, over us," &c. (Haydock) ---

Heavens. This prediction against the Philistines was exactly verified, chap. vii. 10. It denotes the protection which God grants to his servants, Psalm xvii. 8, 14. ---

Christ. Chaldean, and the best interpreters, understand this of the Messias: "He will multiply the kingdom of his Messias." (Jonathan) ---

Anna might also have David in view, who was one of his most express figures. (Calmet) ---

But neither he, nor Solomon, ever ruled over all the earth, as Christ will, Psalm ii. 18. (Worthington) ---

Zachary seems to allude to this text, Luke i. 69. (Calmet) ---

The empire of Christ rose from the smallest beginnings. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:11 - Ramatha Ramatha. Hebrew Rama. Septuagint (Alexandrian), "and they left him there before the Lord, and went away to Armathaim." (Haydock)

Ramatha. Hebrew Rama. Septuagint (Alexandrian), "and they left him there before the Lord, and went away to Armathaim." (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:12 - The Lord The Lord, whom they denied by their works, Titus i. 16.

The Lord, whom they denied by their works, Titus i. 16.

Haydock: 1Sa 2:13 - Nor the office // Servant // Boiling Nor the office. The Vulgate repeats the negation from the preceding sentence. Others translate, "The priests' custom with the people was, " &c., o...

Nor the office. The Vulgate repeats the negation from the preceding sentence. Others translate, "The priests' custom with the people was, " &c., or, "the pretended right of the priests," &c. They neither performed their duty towards God, (Calmet) nor were they content with what the law authorized them to receive from the people. (Haydock) ---

Servant, or son; perhaps Ophni or Phinees. ---

Boiling. In the heroic times, the meat was never boiled, but roasted. (Atheneus i. 10.; and Servius; though Hesiod asserts the contrary, ver. 748. (Calmet) ---

Abulensis (q. 8.) observes that the person who offered the victim, boiled the parts which belonged to himself, as well as the priest's share. But, whereas in the peace-offerings, only the breast and the right shoulder fell to the priest, these rapacious men took whatever they pleased. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:14 - Pan Pan. Hebrew has also four terms, but their precise meaning cannot be determined. The vessels were of different forms, or intended for various uses.

Pan. Hebrew has also four terms, but their precise meaning cannot be determined. The vessels were of different forms, or intended for various uses.

Haydock: 1Sa 2:15 - Raw Raw. Here are two other abuses. The fat ought first to have been burnt, in honour of the Lord; and the meat should have been boiled, in order that ...

Raw. Here are two other abuses. The fat ought first to have been burnt, in honour of the Lord; and the meat should have been boiled, in order that the priest might not be taken off from his sacred functions; as custom, it seems, had determined, though the law be silent on this head.

Haydock: 1Sa 2:16 - Desireth Desireth. The Laic gives an example of moderation and zeal, to which the priest might well have paid some deference. The former is willing to aband...

Desireth. The Laic gives an example of moderation and zeal, to which the priest might well have paid some deference. The former is willing to abandon his goods, provided the honour of God be not neglected. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:17 - Lord Lord. People, seeing that the law was not observed, refrained from presenting victims. (Menochius) --- They are but too apt to follow the bad exam...

Lord. People, seeing that the law was not observed, refrained from presenting victims. (Menochius) ---

They are but too apt to follow the bad example of their teachers. (Haydock) ---

Hence God punishes the smallest faults of his ministers, with great severity, since they withdraw people from his service, by their scandalous behaviour, and are guilty of a more horrid sacrilege than those who laid violent hands on the Lord of majesty. (St. Bernard, ser. i.) Nothing brings a greater discredit on religion. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:18 - Ephod Ephod. It was not, therefore, peculiar to priests, 2 Kings vi. 14.

Ephod. It was not, therefore, peculiar to priests, 2 Kings vi. 14.

Haydock: 1Sa 2:19 - Coat Coat. Hebrew mehil, the outer garment. Hence it appears that the parents of the people consecrated to the Lord, furnished them with clothes, till...

Coat. Hebrew mehil, the outer garment. Hence it appears that the parents of the people consecrated to the Lord, furnished them with clothes, till they were able to serve the tabernacle, otherwise they would have been a burden to it. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:20 - Lent Lent. This was in reply to what Anna had said, chap. i. 28. (Haydock) --- God always gives back with interest. (Menochius)

Lent. This was in reply to what Anna had said, chap. i. 28. (Haydock) ---

God always gives back with interest. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:21 - Lord Lord. He behaved well in the tabernacle, (Calmet) notwithstanding the ill example of Heli's own sons. (Haydock)

Lord. He behaved well in the tabernacle, (Calmet) notwithstanding the ill example of Heli's own sons. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:22 - Waited Waited, like an army of guards, Exodus xxxvii. 8. The Rabbins pretend that these priests only sent away these women who came to be purified, and all...

Waited, like an army of guards, Exodus xxxvii. 8. The Rabbins pretend that these priests only sent away these women who came to be purified, and allowed them to return to their husbands before the appointed time, and thus caused the latter to offend. These authors are generally very fertile in discoveries. (Calmet) ---

The virgins or widows gave themselves up to work for the tabernacle. (Menochius) ---

The sons of Heli found an opportunity in the sacred practices of religion to gratify their passions. Perhaps some false pastors in the Church of Christ may have imitated their perversity. A man of the character of Mr. Crowley, a late deserter of the Catholic faith, judging of others by the corruption of his own heart, would hence insinuate that they all take these liberties, or at least that it is "a miracle," if they can admit females to confession, without yielding to such base temptations. If this be a miracle, we may confidently hope that wonders have not ceased, otherwise among his other malicious remarks, he would surely have adduced some proofs of his assertion, from the records of past ages. But in reality he seems to be little acquainted (though he pretends to have been converted by it, &c., and falsely asserts it is kept from laymen) either with history or with the Bible, having read perhaps little more than what his Catechism set before him; and this he boldly contradicts, as if he supposed that this "Thoughts" would have more weight than the decisions of the Fathers and of the whole Church. If he can find a professor of Maynooth, and another or two Irish priests, disposed to follow his example, (which we need not believe on his assertion) what would this prove? Yet Mr. Slack lays great stress on this man's authority, in his late defence of Wesley. (Letters to R. Campion, Esq. Whitby, 1811.) So ready are the enemies of the Catholic faith to scrape together every idle remark that may tend to defame the mother Church! So eager are infidels to reject the faith, on account of the misconduct of some of its degenerate professors! (Haydock) ---

The best of fathers have often very profligate children, as the latter take pride in the honours of their family, and expect to obtain the same without trouble. (Grotius)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:23 - People People. They could not refrain from complaining of the iniquity of his children, how much soever they might revere him. Though he was not a witness...

People. They could not refrain from complaining of the iniquity of his children, how much soever they might revere him. Though he was not a witness himself of their abominations, such an uproar must have convinced him that they were guilty. (Haydock) ---

The Fathers in general blame the lenity of the high priest, who ought not only to have rebuked, but also to have put a stop to the crying sins of his sons, by the utmost severity. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:25 - Who shall pray for him // Because the Lord would slay them Who shall pray for him. By these words Heli would have his sons understand, that by their wicked abuse of sacred things, and of the very sacrifices ...

Who shall pray for him. By these words Heli would have his sons understand, that by their wicked abuse of sacred things, and of the very sacrifices which were appointed to appease the Lord, they deprived themselves of the ordinary means of reconciliation with God; which was by sacrifices. The more, because as they were the chief priests, whose business it was to intercede for all others, they had no other to offer sacrifice and make atonement for them. (Challoner) ---

We need not, however, consider the words of Heli as an oracle of God. (Sanchez) ---

In human transactions, a person would find more difficulty in obtaining pardon, when the judge himself had received the injury. Septuagint, instead of appeased, have "and they shall pray for him." (Menochius) ---

Some may be found to plead his cause, but if he offend the judge, who will undertake to be his advocate? What medicines shall be used, when those, which God has appointed, are trodden under foot? (Haydock) ---

By persevering in such wickedness, no redress can be expected: and indeed, the infinite distance between God and man, would place an insuperable obstacle to a reconciliation, if Jesus Christ had not undertaken the cause even of the most desperate sinner. (Calmet) ---

Because the Lord would slay them. In consequence of their manifold sacrileges, he would not soften their hearts with his efficacious grace, but was determined to destroy them. (Challoner) ---

They had filled up the measure of their crimes; and, though God wills not the death of a sinner, they had treasured up to themselves wrath, which he will now display. We might also translate ci, "therefore," (Noldius; Osee ix. 15, &c.) or "that." They would not be convinced that the threat of their father would be executed. (Schmid) (Calmet) ---

Sins directly against God, and which hinder his service, are remitted with greater difficulty, though to all true penitents pardon is promised, Ezechiel xxxiii. God did not take away the free will of Ophni and Phinees, but left them to their own obstinacy, and justly punished them. See St. Augustine, contra Jul. v. 3. (Worthington) ---

They had already rendered themselves unworthy of extraordinary graces. (Tirinus) (St. Thomas Aquinas, [Summa Theologiae] 1 p. q. 23, n. 3.)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:26 - And men And men. Thus he is, in some degree, compared with our Saviour, Luke ii. 52. When one minister prevaricates, God presently raises up another, so th...

And men. Thus he is, in some degree, compared with our Saviour, Luke ii. 52. When one minister prevaricates, God presently raises up another, so that he never abandons his Church. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:27 - A man // Father's A man. His name is unknown. Some say it was Elcana, Samuel or an angel, &c. The Rabbins suppose that Phinees performed this office. But he was lo...

A man. His name is unknown. Some say it was Elcana, Samuel or an angel, &c. The Rabbins suppose that Phinees performed this office. But he was long ago dead, (Calmet) or he would still have enjoyed the high priesthood instead of Heli. ---

Father's. Aaron was the chief both of the house of Eleazar and of Ithamar, and was selected by God to be his ambassador and priest. (Haydock) ---

His posterity held the high priesthood till after the reign of Herod. (Tirinus)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:29 - Away // To eat Away, by scandalizing the people, and causing them to neglect offering the appointed victims. (Haydock) --- To eat. Heli seems to have refrained ...

Away, by scandalizing the people, and causing them to neglect offering the appointed victims. (Haydock) ---

To eat. Heli seems to have refrained from divesting his sons of their high office, that the riches of his family might not be impaired. (Calmet) ---

Avarice is the root of many evils, and those who seek to become rich fall into many snares. Poverty soon overtook the descendants of Heli, while the immediate perpetrators of the wickedness were punished with death. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:30 - Ever Ever. God had promised the priesthood to Aaron's seed (Calmet) as long as the Jewish religion should subsist. (Haydock) --- He had also selected t...

Ever. God had promised the priesthood to Aaron's seed (Calmet) as long as the Jewish religion should subsist. (Haydock) ---

He had also selected the branch of Eleazar, to recompense the zeal of Phinees; (Numbers xxv. 13,) and yet we find that the house of Ithamar had possession for a time of the high priesthood. We know not when or by what means by obtained it. The promises of God to them were surely only conditional; and some think that they only meant, that as He had permitted them to acquire this high dignity, so it was an earnest that he would not deprive them of it, unless they proved unworthy. But it is generally supposed that God had expressed his determination of this head. Heli, Achitob, Achias, Achimelech, and Abiathar, (Calmet) were the only pontiffs of the family of Ithamar. The last was obliged to resign to (Haydock) Sadoc, under the reign of Solomon, 3 Kings ii. 27. Some suppose that Heli usurped this dignity, (Capel) when he entered upon the civil administration, as the people thought none more fit for the office, in a time of trouble. (Bertram.) ---

Others think that the descendants of Eleazar forfeited this honour by their crimes or indolence, or because they were not of sufficient age. But this reason would not have excluded them for ever. The Scripture, therefore, insinuates that Heli was appointed by God, and that his descendants would have enjoyed his office, if they had not offended. (Calmet) ---

These promises were of a conditional nature both to Phinees and to Heli, and Sadoc, ver. 35. See Numbers xxv., &c. (Haydock) ---

God never changes. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:31 - Arm // Old man Arm, strength or children. I will slay some; others I will reduce to extreme want. Some explain it of the ark, which was the protection of Israel. ...

Arm, strength or children. I will slay some; others I will reduce to extreme want. Some explain it of the ark, which was the protection of Israel. (Calmet) ---

Old man, to govern. (Du Hamel) ---

It is often a title of dignity. But the four succeeding pontiffs did not live long. In the course of little more than 100 years, the last was deposed. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:32 - Thy rival Thy rival. A priest of another race. This was partly filled when Abiathar, of the race of Heli, was removed from the priesthood, and Sadoc, who w...

Thy rival. A priest of another race. This was partly filled when Abiathar, of the race of Heli, was removed from the priesthood, and Sadoc, who was of another line, was substituted in his place. But it was more fully accomplished in the New Testament, when the priesthood of Aaron gave place to that of Christ. (Challoner) ---

Some suppose that this rival was Samuel, in whom this prediction was partly fulfilled, though more completely in Christ. (Ven. Bede, q.) (Menochius) ---

Heli saw not in person the exaltation of Eleazar's family. Hebrew and other version are very much embarrassed here. (Calmet) ---

Protestants, "and thou shalt see an enemy in my habitation, in all the wealth which God shall give Israel." (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:33 - Spent // Part Spent. Hence we may learn to adore the depth of God's judgments, who knows how to punish both in life and death. --- Part. Septuagint, "the most ...

Spent. Hence we may learn to adore the depth of God's judgments, who knows how to punish both in life and death. ---

Part. Septuagint, "the most exalted of thy house shall fall by the sword of men."

Haydock: 1Sa 2:35 - Faithful // All days // Anointed Faithful often denotes what shall continue a long time, Isaias xxxiii. 16., and lv. 3. (Calmet) --- But in the conduct of Sadoc, we find nothing re...

Faithful often denotes what shall continue a long time, Isaias xxxiii. 16., and lv. 3. (Calmet) ---

But in the conduct of Sadoc, we find nothing reprehensible. (Menochius) ---

This faithful priest pointed out the Christian priesthood, as the sequel shews. (Calmet) ---

All days. He shall perform his office. (Haydock) ---

Anointed, king Solomon. (Menochius) ---

The priests of the new law ought always to have Christ in view. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 2:36 - Bread // Office Bread; like the poorest sort of people. (Menochius) --- Being degraded, they shall ask the other priests to offer sacrifice for them. Hebrew, "sha...

Bread; like the poorest sort of people. (Menochius) ---

Being degraded, they shall ask the other priests to offer sacrifice for them. Hebrew, "shall bend before him for a piece of silver, and for a morsel of bread." He shall humbly intreat to be employed as a priest, in order to get a livelihood. ---

The piece of silver. Hebrew agorath, probably denotes the gerah, the smallest coin, or what was given for a day's wages. Agor means to hire, in Chaldean, Syriac, &c. Hence the Greek, Greek: agorazo, "I purchase." ---

Office. The priests served in their turns; (1 Paralipomenon xxiv.) so that the descendants of Heli must have been entitled to a subsistence. But whether God punished them, by requiring that they should ask the high priest for this, as for a favour, or this was required of all the inferior priests before they could be employed, or whether, in fine, the descendants of Abiathar were reduced to the condition of Levites, or wholly degraded, we know not. See 4 Kings xxiii. 9., and Ezechiel xliv. 10. (Calmet) ---

They may petition for a part of the victims which fell to the share of the priests, (Menochius) and might be eaten by any that was not defiled. (Haydock)

Gill: 1Sa 2:1 - And Hannah prayed and said // my heart rejoiceth in the Lord // mine horn is exalted in the Lord // my mouth is enlarged over mine enemies // because I rejoice in thy salvation And Hannah prayed and said,.... She had prayed before, but that was mental, this vocal; she had prayed and was answered, and had what she prayed for, ...

And Hannah prayed and said,.... She had prayed before, but that was mental, this vocal; she had prayed and was answered, and had what she prayed for, and now she gives thanks for it; and thanksgiving is one kind of prayer, or a part of it; see 1Ti 2:1, wherefore though what follows is a song, it was expressed in prayer; and therefore it is said she prayed, and that by a spirit of prophecy, as the Targum; hence she is by the Jews h reckoned one of the seven prophetesses; and indeed in this song she not only relates the gracious experiences of divine goodness she had been favoured with, and celebrates the divine perfections, and treats of the dealings of God with men, both in a way of providence and grace; but prophesies of things that should be done hereafter in Israel, and particularly of the Messiah and of his kingdom. There is a great likeness in this song to the song of the Virgin Mary; compare 1Sa 2:1 with Luk 1:46 and 1Sa 2:2 with Luk 1:49 and 1Sa 2:4 with Luk 1:51,

my heart rejoiceth in the Lord: not in her son the Lord had given her, but in the goodness and kindness of the Lord in bestowing him on her, as an answer of prayer; which showed great condescension to her, the notice he took of her, the love he had to her, and his well pleasedness in her, and his acceptance of her prayer through Christ; she rejoiced not in her husband, nor in the wealth and riches they were possessed of, nor in any creature enjoyments, but in the Lord, the giver of all; nor in her religious services and sacrifices, but in the Lord Christ, through whom her duties were acceptable to God, and who was the antitype of the sacrifices offered; and it is in the person, offices, and grace of Christ, that we should alone rejoice: see Phi 4:4 this joy of Hannah's was not worldly, but spiritual; not outward, but inward; not hypocritical, but real and hearty:

mine horn is exalted in the Lord: which supposes that she had been in a low estate, was crest fallen, and her horn was defiled in the dust, as Job says was his case, Job 16:15, when God had shut up her womb, and her adversary upbraided her with it, and provoked and fretted her; and when she was so full of grief, that she could not eat her food, and prayed in the bitterness of her soul; but now she could lift up her horn and her head, as horned creatures, to whom the allusion is, do, when they are lively and strong; now she could look pleasant and cheerful, and even triumph, being raised to an high estate, and greatly favoured of the Lord, to whom she ascribes this change of her state and circumstances: it was owing to his power and grace that she was thus strengthened and exalted; as it is owing to the same, that the people of God, who are in a low estate by nature, are raised out of it in conversion, and brought into an open state of grace and favour with God, and put into the possession of rich blessings and mercies, and have hope of eternal glory, on account of which they can exult and triumph:

my mouth is enlarged over mine enemies; meaning Peninnah, and those that provoked her, and upbraided her with her barrenness, to whom she was not able to make any reply; but now her mouth was opened, and she could speak largely, and did; not in a way of reproach and reviling, in retaliation for what she had met with from others; but in prayer to God, to whom she could come with open mouth, and use freedom and boldness, and plead with importunity, fervency, and in faith, and in praise and thanksgiving to him for the great and good things he had done for her, and would now freely and largely speak of them to others; to some, her friends, to their joy and pleasure; and to others, her enemies, to their grief and confusion:

because I rejoice in thy salvation; not only in temporal salvation wrought by the Lord for her, whereby she was delivered from the reproach of barrenness, through a son being given unto her; but in spiritual and eternal salvation, through the Messiah, she had knowledge of, and faith in, as appears from 1Sa 2:10, as all believers in him do, as it is contrived by the wisdom of God, wrought out by Christ, and applied by his Spirit; it being so great, so suitable, so perfect and complete, entirely free, and of an everlasting duration; see Psa 20:5.

Gill: 1Sa 2:2 - There is none holy as the Lord // for there is none besides thee // neither is there any rock like our God There is none holy as the Lord,.... From the consideration of what the Lord had done for her, which had filled her heart and mouth with joy and praise...

There is none holy as the Lord,.... From the consideration of what the Lord had done for her, which had filled her heart and mouth with joy and praise, she is led to celebrate the perfections of God, and begins with his holiness, in which he is glorious, and which appears in all his ways and works; he is essentially, originally, independently, perfectly, and immutably holy, as others are not. Angels are holy, but not of themselves; their holiness is from the Lord; nor is it perfect in comparison of his, and therefore they cover their faces while they celebrate that perfection of his; nor immutable, at least not naturally so, as the loss of it in those that fell demonstrates. Of men, some under the legal dispensation were holy, not truly, but in a typical and ceremonial sense; some are only outwardly and hypocritically holy, and only so in the sight of men, not in the sight of God; and those that are truly holy, being called to holiness, and have the principle of it implanted in them, and live holy lives and conversations; yet though there is a likeness of the holiness of God in them, being made partakers of the divine nature; it is far from an equality to it; for the holiness of the best of men is imperfect; they are not without sin in them, nor without sin committed by them, and perfection is disclaimed by them all; but the Lord is without iniquity, just and true is he; none in his nature, nor in any of his works, not the least shadow thereof:

for there is none besides thee; there is no God besides him; no being but what is of him, and none is holy but by him; the holiness of angels is from him; the holiness of Adam in innocence was of him; and all the holiness of his chosen ones comes from him, to which they are chosen by him, and which is secured in that choice unto them, and are sanctified by God the Father, in Christ, and through the Spirit:

neither is there any rock like our God; the word rock is used for Deity, and sometimes for a false one, Deu 32:31 and so it may here, and the sense be, there is no god like to our God; there is indeed none besides him; there are fictitious gods, and nominal ones, as the idols of the Gentiles, and who are so in an improper and figurative sense, as magistrates; but there is but one true and living God; nor is there any like him for the perfections of his nature, and the blessings of his goodness, whether in providence or grace. Under this metaphor of a rock, our Lord Jesus Christ is often signified; he is the rock of Israel, the rock of refuge, and of salvation; and there is no rock can do what he does, hide and shelter from the justice of God; there is no rock like him for strength and duration; none like him for a foundation to build upon, or for safety and protection from the wrath of God, and the rage of men, see Psa 18:31.

Gill: 1Sa 2:3 - Talk no more so exceeding proudly // let not arrogancy come out of your mouth // for the Lord is a God of knowledge // and by him actions are weighed Talk no more so exceeding proudly,.... At such an high rate, in such an overbearing manner, as if above everyone; this may have respect to Peninnah, a...

Talk no more so exceeding proudly,.... At such an high rate, in such an overbearing manner, as if above everyone; this may have respect to Peninnah, and all that joined with her to provoke Hannah to anger, and make her fret, insulting and triumphing over her, because she had not children, as they had; but now their mouths would be stopped, and their talk over, and not give themselves the haughty airs they had done, at least there would be no occasion for them:

let not arrogancy come out of your mouth; arrogating to themselves, and to their merits, what they enjoyed, as children, riches, &c. when all come from the Lord; or what is "hard" i, intolerable, which bears so hard on those to whom it is said, that it cannot be bore with; or what is "old" k, and trite, old sayings concerning barren women, as if of no use in the world, and disagreeable to God, and as having no share in his favour. The Targum renders the word by reproaches, or blasphemies:

for the Lord is a God of knowledge; or knowledges l: of perfect knowledge; he knows all persons and things; he knows himself, his perfections, purposes, thoughts, words and works; he knows all his creatures, animate and inanimate, rational and irrational, angels and men; the hearts of all men; all that they say, all their hard sayings, all their proud, haughty, overbearing expressions, calumnies, and reproaches, as well as all they think and all they do, good or bad; and God will sooner or later convince them of and punish them for their hard speeches against his people: and he is the author of all knowledge, natural, civil, spiritual, and evangelical:

and by him actions are weighed: his own actions; his works "ad intra"; his purposes and decrees, the counsels of his will, and the thoughts of his heart, the things his mind is set upon; all his appointments and designs, his whole will and pleasure; all are pondered by him, and are formed with the utmost wisdom, and for the best ends and purposes: and all, his actions and works without, whether of creation, providence, and grace, all are weighed and done according to infinite wisdom, unerring justice and truth; all respecting things temporal or spiritual, what relate to the outward estate of men, or to their everlasting happiness: all the actions of men, as they are known unto him, they are weighed and examined by him, whether they proceed from a right principle to a right end or not; upon which, many actions, thought to be good, are not found to be so, and others, though good, yet not found perfect before God; so that there is no justification nor salvation by the best: or the sense is, such actions as are done well, they are "directed to him" m; as they are ordained by him that men should walk in them, they are for his use, and are done with a view to his glory. There is a double reading of these words; the marginal, which we follow, is "to" or "by him" actions are directed or weighed; but the textual reading is a negative, "actions are not weighed" n, or numbered; the works of God cannot be comprehended, or the actions of men are not disposed and ordered without his will and pleasure, or cannot be performed unless he wills or permits; and all are disposed of, overruled, and directed, to answer his own ends and purposes.

Gill: 1Sa 2:4 - The bows of the mighty men are broken // and they that stumbled are girt with strength The bows of the mighty men are broken,.... Hannah, from relating gracious experiences, and celebrating, the divine perfections of holiness, omniscienc...

The bows of the mighty men are broken,.... Hannah, from relating gracious experiences, and celebrating, the divine perfections of holiness, omniscience, and sovereignty, passes on to take notice of the dealings of God with men in providence and grace; bows are here put for all military arms, which men of might and war make use of, and which God can easily break in pieces, and so make war to cease in the earth, and hinder warlike men from doing what they design and attempt; they are enfeebled and weakened by him, and their hands cannot perform their enterprises: so the bows of Satan, and his principalities and powers, are broken, and his fiery darts are quenched, and the people of the Lord enabled to stand against him, and wrestle with him and them, being strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might, as it follows:

and they that stumbled are girt with strength; who, through weakness, are ready to stumble at everything they meet with in the way; yet, being girded with strength by the Lord, are able to do great exploits, as David did, that being his case, Psa 18:29, so such as are weak in grace, in faith, in knowledge, and ready to stumble at every trial and exercise, let it come from what quarter it will; yet being girded by the Lord with strength, are able to exercise grace, perform duty, go through every service they are called to, whether in a way of doing or suffering, to bear the yoke and cross of Christ, to oppose every enemy, to walk on in the ways of God, and to persevere in faith and holiness to the end.

Gill: 1Sa 2:5 - They that are full have hired out themselves for bread // and they that were hungry ceased // so that the barren hath born seven // and she that hath many children is waxed feeble They that are full have hired out themselves for bread,.... Such as have been full of the good things of this life have been stripped of all, and redu...

They that are full have hired out themselves for bread,.... Such as have been full of the good things of this life have been stripped of all, and reduced to such circumstances as to be obliged to hire themselves out to persons to labour under them for their bread. Hannah has either respect to some instances she had known, or prophesies of what would be hereafter, and was fulfilled in the Israelites, when in the hands of the Egyptians and Assyrians, Lam 4:6 and may be exemplified in the case of the prodigal son, Luk 15:13 and is true of such who have larger gifts, but not grace, and which they exercise for lucre sake, and are mere hirelings; and of self-righteous persons who are full of themselves, of their goodness and righteousness, purity, and power; are quite mercenary do all they do for gain, work for life, and labour for perishing meat, and for that which is not bread, and is unsatisfying:

and they that were hungry ceased; that is, from being hungry, being filled with good things, having a large and sufficient supply to satisfy their craving desires, Luk 1:53. Such are the changes sometimes in Providence, that those who have lived in great plenty and fulness are obliged to work for their bread; and, on the other hand, such as have been starving, and in furnishing circumstances, have been brought into very plentiful and affluent ones. The "hungry", in a spiritual sense, are such who hunger an thirst after Christ, and his righteousness, for justification before God; after him and his blood for the remission of their sins, and the cleansing of their souls; after him, and salvation by him, in whom alone it is to be had; after a view of interest in him, and a greater degree of knowledge of him; and after more communion with him in his word and ordinances; and after the enjoyment of them for that purpose: now when they enjoy what they are craving after, they cease to hire out themselves for bread, as others do; they do not cease from working, but from dependence on their works, on which they cannot feed and live, having found and got other and better bread to feed upon; they cease to be hungry, for they are filled and satisfied with the love of God, with the righteousness of Christ, with the blessings of grace, and salvation by him, with the goodness of his house, and with all the fulness of God and Christ; and so having what satisfies them, they desire no other food, shall have no more want, or be in a starving condition any more, especially this will be the case hereafter:

so that the barren hath born seven; meaning herself, who had born many, even five children besides Samuel, 1Sa 2:20 which either was the case before this song was delivered; or rather what she believed would be the case after Eli had blessed her, and prayed for the children by her; seven being a number put for many, Pro 24:16.

and she that hath many children is waxed feeble; and incapable of bearing more; and stripped of what she had; this may be understood of Peninnah, concerning whom the Jews have this tradition o, which Jarchi relates, that when Hannah bore one child, Peninnah buried two; and whereas Hannah had five, Peninnah lost all her ten children. This may be applied to the case of the Gentile and Jewish churches, under the Gospel dispensation, when more were the children of the desolate or barren, the Gentiles, than of the married wife, the Jews, Isa 54:1.

Gill: 1Sa 2:6 - The Lord killeth, and maketh alive // he bringeth down to the grave, and bringeth up The Lord killeth, and maketh alive,.... Which is true of different persons; some he takes away by death, and others he preserves and continues in life...

The Lord killeth, and maketh alive,.... Which is true of different persons; some he takes away by death, and others he preserves and continues in life; and of the same persons, whom God removes by death, and restores them to life again, of which there are instances both in the Old and New Testament; and be they which they will, both are of God, he is the great Disposer of life and death. Death is of him; it is by his appointment; it is sent by his order; and when it has a commission from him, there is no resisting it; and let it be brought about by what means it will, still it is of God: and life is of him; it is first given by him, and it is preserved by him; and though taken away, it shall be restored at the resurrection of the dead; of which some interpret this clause, as Kimchi and Ben Gersom observe: and what is here said is true, in a spiritual sense; the Lord kills by the law, or shows men that they are dead in sin, and in a legal sense; and he makes alive by his Spirit, through the Gospel, quickening such who were dead in trespasses and sins; which is his own work, and the effect of divine power and grace; See Gill on Deu 32:39.

he bringeth down to the grave, and bringeth up; he bringeth some very near to the grave, to the very brink of it; so that in their own apprehensions, and in the opinion of their friends, they are just dropping into it, and no hope of recovery left; when he says to them "Return", and brings them back from the pit, and delivers them from going into it, Job 33:22 and even when they are laid in it, he brings up out of it again, as in the case of Lazarus, and which will be the case in the resurrection, Joh 5:28.

Gill: 1Sa 2:7 - The Lord maketh poor, and maketh rich The Lord maketh poor, and maketh rich,.... Which is true in a natural sense of the same persons, as might be exemplified in the case of Job; and of di...

The Lord maketh poor, and maketh rich,.... Which is true in a natural sense of the same persons, as might be exemplified in the case of Job; and of different persons, as in the parable of the rich man and Lazarus; for both poverty and riches are of God, see Pro 22:2. Poverty is of God; for though it is sometimes owing to a man's own conduct, yet that there is such a difference among men in general, that some should be poor, and others rich, is owing to the wise providence of God, that men may be dependent on one another. Riches are of God, and are the gifts of his bountiful providence; for though they are oftentimes the fruits of industry and diligence, as means, yet not always; and whenever they are, they are to be ascribed to the blessing of God attending the diligent hand. This is also true in a spiritual sense; for though spiritual poverty is owing to the fall of Adam, and to the actual sins and transgressions of men, whereby they become poor and miserable, yet all this is not without the knowledge and will of God: and it is he that makes men sensible of their poverty, and then makes them rich in spiritual things, with his own grace, and the blessings of it, with the riches of grace here, and of glory hereafter; all which flow from the good will of God, who has laid up much for his people, bestowed much on them, and entitles them to more; and which come to them through the poverty of Christ, who, though he was rich, became poor, that they through his poverty might be made rich, 2Co 8:9 he bringeth low, and lifteth up; which has been verified in the same persons, as in Job, Nebuchadnezzar, &c. and in different persons, for he puts down one, and raises up another; so he rejected Saul from being king, and took David from the sheepfold, debased Haman, and raised Mordecai to great dignity: and, in a spiritual sense, the Lord shows men the low estate and condition they are brought into by sin, humbles them under a sense of it, brings down their proud spirits to sit at the feet of Jesus, and to submit to him, and to his righteousness; and he lifts them up by his son out of their fallen, captive, and miserable estate, and by his Spirit and grace brings them out of the horrible pit of nature into the state of grace; sets them upon the rock Christ, and makes their mountain to stand strong by the discoveries of his love, and will at last lift them up to glory, and place them on the same throne with Christ.

Gill: 1Sa 2:8 - He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, and lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill // to set them among princes // for the pillars of the earth are the Lord's, and he hath set the world upon them He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, and lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill,.... This is but a further illustration of what is before expresse...

He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, and lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill,.... This is but a further illustration of what is before expressed. Literally; such poor as are beggars, are those that are extremely poor, that sit in the dust and beg, and have nothing but a dunghill to lie on; yet God is able to raise and lift up persons in such an extremely low condition to a very high one: spiritually; such are the poor, who are poor in spirit, and spiritually poor, and are sensible of it, and they, and they only, are beggars. For all that are poor, as they are not sensible of their poverty, so they beg not; but some are and beg; they knock at the door of grace and mercy; their language is petitionary, they entreat the grace and mercy of God; their posture is standing, and waiting till they have an answer; they are importunate, and will not easily take a denial; and they observe all opportunities to get relief, and are thankful for everything that is given then. Their conditions, in which they are, is represented by the "dust" and "dunghill"; which in general denotes that they are in a mean estate, in a sinful one, and in a very polluted and loathsome one; in this condition the Lord finds them, when he calls them by his grace; and from this he raises and lifts them up by his Spirit and grace, out of which they could never have raised themselves; and in which estate of sin and misery they must have lain, had he not exerted his powerful efficacious grace, in bringing them into a glorious one, next described:

to set them among princes the people of God called by grace, who are the sons of the King of kings by adoption, manifested in their regeneration and faith; have a princely spirit, the spirit of adoption, a free, generous, and bountiful one; live and look like princes, are well fed and clothed, and attended; have the riches of princes, and are heirs of a kingdom: and to be set among them, is to be made one, and ranked as such; to have a place and a name in the church, and among the people of God; to sit down with them at the table of the Lord, and have communion with them: and to make them inherit the throne of glory; eternal glory and happiness, which as it is signified by a kingdom and crown, so by a throne, and is the same with Christ's, Rev 3:21 and therefore must be a glorious one: and this is had by way of inheritance; not obtained by industry, nor purchased with money; but comes by adoption grace, and belongs only to children, is a bequest of our heavenly Father, and comes through the death of Christ the testator; and this phrase denotes not barely the right unto, but the possession of his happiness and glory:

for the pillars of the earth are the Lord's, and he hath set the world upon them; the earth has its foundations on which it is laid, and its pillars by which it is supported; but these are no other than the power and providence of God; otherwise the earth is hung upon nothing, in the open circumambient air: and that God can and does do this may well be thought, and to do all the above things in providence and grace, related in the preceding verses; in the support, and for the proof of which, this is observed. Figuratively, the pillars of the earth may design the princes of the world, the supreme rulers of it, and civil magistrates, who are sometimes called cornerstones, and the shields of the earth, Zec 10:4, and so pillars, because they are the means of cementing, supporting, and protecting the people of the earth, and of preserving their peace and property. Likewise good men may be meant in a figurative sense, who, as they are the salt of the earth, are the pillars of it, for whose sake it was made, and is supported, and continued in being; the church is the pillar and ground of truth; and every good man is a pillar in the house of God, and especially ministers of the Gospel; see Rev 3:12.

Gill: 1Sa 2:9 - He will keep the feet of his saints // and the wicked shall be silent in darkness // for by strength shall no man prevail He will keep the feet of his saints,.... Now follow promises and prophecies of future things respecting the Israel of God, either in a literal or spir...

He will keep the feet of his saints,.... Now follow promises and prophecies of future things respecting the Israel of God, either in a literal or spiritual sense. By "his saints" are meant not angels, though they are his Holy Ones, but men, and a body of them; who though unholy in themselves, nor can they make themselves holy, yet are made so by the grace of God, in consequence of electing grace, by which they are chosen to be holy, from Christ the source and spring of all holiness, by the Holy Spirit of God, as the efficient cause, and which is done in the effectual calling; hence they live holy lives and conversations, though not altogether without sin in the present state. The word also signifies such to whom God has been kind and gracious, and on whom he has bestowed blessings of goodness, and who are bountiful and beneficent to others. These are the Lord's, whom he has set apart for himself, and has sanctified in Christ, and by his Spirit; and of these he is keeper, not angels, nor ministers of the word, nor themselves, but the Lord himself is the keeper of them; and who is an able, faithful, tender and compassionate, constant and everlasting keeper of them; and particularly he keeps their "feet"; he indeed keeps their whole persons, their bodies and souls; the members of their bodies, and the powers of their souls, their head, their heart, their affections, from turning aside from him; he guides, directs, and orders all their actions and goings; he keeps their feet in his own ways, where he has guided them; he keeps them in Christ the way, and in all the paths of faith, truth, righteousness, and holiness, and in the way everlasting: he keeps them from falling; for though they are liable to fall into sin, and by temptation, and from a lively exercise of grace, yet not totally and finally; they are secured from it by his love to them; the promises he has made them; his power exerted on their behalf; their being in the hands of Christ, and the glory of all the three Persons concerned herein:

and the wicked shall be silent in darkness; sin has spread darkness over all human nature; every man is born and brought up in darkness, and walks in it: a state of unregeneracy is a state of darkness, in which wicked men continue; and they are in the dark about God, the perfections of his nature, his mind and will, word and worship; about Christ, and the way of life, peace, and salvation by him; about their own state and condition by nature, and the danger they are in; about the nature and necessity of regeneration; and about the Scriptures, and the doctrines of the Gospel; and living and dying; in such a state, darkness, blackness of darkness, is their portion forever: so the Targum,"the wicked in hell in darkness shall be judged:''and it is said they shall be "silent" in it; they are quiet, easy, and content in the state of natural darkness in which they are; they neither do nor will understand; they do not care to come to the light, but shun the means of light and knowledge; they have nothing to say of God, of Christ, of the Spirit of God, or of divine things; they can talk enough of evil things, and pour them out in great plenty, but not of any good; and when their evils are charged upon them by the law, their mouths are stopped, and they pronounced guilty, and have nothing to say why justice and judgment should not take place; and so they will be silent and speechless at the great day of judgment. Some interpret it, they shall be "cut off in darkness"; so Kimchi and Ben Melech; that is, by death, by the hand of God, by the sword of justice:

for by strength shall no man prevail; which is a reason both why God will keep his saints, and why the wicked shall be silent, or cut off and perish: with respect to good men, they are not saved, kept, and preserved by their own strength; they are not saved without a righteousness, without regeneration, without repentance towards God, and faith in Christ; neither of which they can perform in their own strength: nor can a saint keep himself from, or prevail over his spiritual enemies of himself, not over sin, nor Satan, nor the world; but it is by the power of God that he is kept through faith unto salvation: and with respect to wicked men, these shall not prevail by their strength over good men, or the church, who are built upon a rock, against which the gates of hell cannot prevail; nor can the wicked so prevail by their strength as to hinder their being cut off, and cast into outer darkness; they have no power over the spirit to retain it in the day of death; and whether they will or not, they shall be cast into hell, and go into everlasting punishment.

Gill: 1Sa 2:10 - The adversaries of the Lord shall be broken to pieces // out of heaven shall he thunder upon them // and he shall give strength unto his king // and exalt the horn of his anointed The adversaries of the Lord shall be broken to pieces,.... Or Jehovah, Father, Son, and Spirit, "shall break in pieces those that contend with him"; w...

The adversaries of the Lord shall be broken to pieces,.... Or Jehovah, Father, Son, and Spirit, "shall break in pieces those that contend with him"; with the Lord, or with his people, or with Samuel particularly; for this may be considered as a prophecy of Hannah concerning her son, what God would do for him against his enemies, that should rise up, contend, and fight with him, as the Philistines; of whom Ben Gersom interprets it, whom the Lord discomfited and broke to pieces; see the literal fulfilment of this prophecy in 1Sa 7:1 in a spiritual sense all wicked men are the enemies of God, and of his people, and sooner or later shall be broken to pieces. Some, in a good sense; when they are smitten with the words of his mouth, cut to the heart, and made contrite; are humbled and brought into subjection to him, and their enmity slain and abolished, and they filled with love to him; and are so broken to pieces, that they have nothing to depend upon, or trust in for life or salvation, but apply to Christ alone for it. Others, in an ill sense; and the meaning is, that the wicked shall be utterly destroyed by the Lord, with an everlasting destruction, with an incurable and irreparable one; shall be broken in pieces like a potter's vessel, which can never be put together again, see Psa 2:9.

out of heaven shall he thunder upon them: as the Lord did upon the Philistines in the times of Samuel, when Israel were engaged in war with them, 1Sa 7:10. And the last vial of the wrath of God, poured out upon his adversaries the antichristian states, will be attended with thunders and lightnings, Rev 16:17, it denotes the terrible manner in which God will destroy his adversaries; the Septuagint version is, "the Lord ascended to heaven and thundered"; hence Procopius Gazaeus, following this version, says, Hannah prophesied of the taking up of the Saviour, and of the mission of the Holy Ghost, and of the preaching of the apostles, and of the second coming of Christ, as follows: the Lord shall judge the ends of the earth; not of the land of Israel by Samuel, as some interpret it, see 1Sa 7:15 but of the whole world, and may refer to the government of it in general by the Lord, or to the judgment of it by his Son; for he judges none, but has committed all judgment to him; who at his first coming judged the world, by the ministry of the word in Judea and in the Gentile world, by setting up ordinances, and by qualifying and constituting persons to act in the government of his church under him; and at his spiritual coming he will take to himself his great power and reign, and judge the whore of Babylon; and at his last or second coming he will judge the whole world, quick and dead, righteous and wicked:

and he shall give strength unto his king: either who was made king in the times of Samuel, Saul, who was the first of the kings of Israel, or David, whom Samuel anointed; and it is true of them both, that the Lord gave them strength to fight with and conquer their enemies; or rather the King Messiah, who in the next clause is called the Lord's anointed, or Messiah:

and exalt the horn of his anointed; and so the Targum paraphrases the words,"he shall give strength to his king and enlarge the kingdom of his Messiah.''with which Kimchi agrees, and says, the thing is doubled or repeated, for the King is the Messiah; and to him the words are applied by other Jewish writers p, ancient and modern. Christ is King over all, angels and men, particularly he is King of saints; he is Jehovah's King, set up and anointed by him from everlasting; was in time promised as such, and in the fulness of time came in that character, and at his ascension to heaven was made and declared Lord and Christ; and through the success of his Gospel in the world has appeared yet more so, and will be still more manifest in the latter day, when he shall be King over all the earth, and especially in his personal reign. Now when "strength" is said to be given him, this must be understood either of strength given to him in human nature, to perform the great work of our redemption and salvation, which required great strength; as a divine Person he needed none, as man he did; or of that strength communicated to him as Mediator, to give unto his people, in whom they have both righteousness and strength; or rather of that power and dominion given him as King particularly; all power in heaven and in earth were given him at his resurrection, and will appear more fully hereafter, when his kingdom will be from sea to sea, and his dominion from the river to the ends of the earth, see Dan 7:13. And the same thing is meant by "horn", which is an emblem of strength, power, dominion, and glory; hence he himself is called the horn of David, and the horn of salvation; it is a name and title given to kings, Dan 7:24 in allusion to the horns of beasts, in which their strength lies to defend themselves, and annoy their enemies; and the exaltation of him prophesied of may respect and include his resurrection from the dead, ascension to heaven, session at the right hand of God, the judgment of all committed to him, and the glorious exercise of his kingly office in the spiritual and personal reigns. This is the first time we meet with the word Messiah, or anointed, as ascribed to a divine Person, the Son of God; who has this name or title from his being anointed, not with material oil, but with the oil of gladness, with the Holy Ghost, and his gifts and graces without measure; and who is called the Lord's anointed, because he was anointed by his Father to be prophet, priest, and King, or invested by him with those offices even from eternity, see Psa 2:6 and which was more manifestly declared at his birth, his baptism, and ascension to heaven; see Luk 2:40.

Gill: 1Sa 2:11 - And Elkanah went to Ramah to his house // and the child did minister unto the Lord before Eli the priest And Elkanah went to Ramah to his house,.... Of which see 1Sa 1:19. This was after he had offered the sacrifices at the feast, worshipped the Lord, and...

And Elkanah went to Ramah to his house,.... Of which see 1Sa 1:19. This was after he had offered the sacrifices at the feast, worshipped the Lord, and Hannah had delivered her prayer or song of praise, and both had committed Samuel to the care of Eli, and left him with him:

and the child did minister unto the Lord before Eli the priest; he not only read in the book of the law, but learned to sing the praises of God vocally, and to play upon an instrument of music used in the service of God in those times, and to light the lamps in the tabernacle, and open and shut the doors of it, and the like; which were suitable to his age, and which might not be quite so tender as some have thought; or this may respect some small beginnings in the ministry of the sanctuary, in which he gradually increased under the inspection, guidance, and instruction of Eli, which is meant by ministering before him; the Targum is,"in the life of Eli the priest;''he began his ministration before his death.

Gill: 1Sa 2:12 - Now the sons of Eli were sons of Belial // they knew not the Lord Now the sons of Eli were sons of Belial,.... Not that Eli their father was Belial, a wicked man; but though they had so good a father, they were very ...

Now the sons of Eli were sons of Belial,.... Not that Eli their father was Belial, a wicked man; but though they had so good a father, they were very wicked men, unprofitable abandoned wretches, that cast off the yoke of the law of God, and gave themselves up to all manner of wickedness:

they knew not the Lord; not that they had no knowledge of God in theory, or were real atheists, but they were so practically; they denied him in works, they had no love to him, nor fear of him, and departed from his ways and worship, as much as if they were entirely ignorant of him; so the Targum,"they did not know to fear before the Lord,''or serve him; or, as Kimchi,"they did not know the way of the Lord,''that is, practically.

Gill: 1Sa 2:13 - And the priest's custom with the people was // that when any man offered sacrifice // the priest's servant came while the flesh was in seething // with a flesh hook of three teeth in his hand And the priest's custom with the people was,.... Not what was according to the will and law of God, but which the sons of Eli had introduced; and in w...

And the priest's custom with the people was,.... Not what was according to the will and law of God, but which the sons of Eli had introduced; and in which they were followed by the rest of the priests, and so it became an established custom, and had the force of a law, statute, or judgment, as the word signifies:

that when any man offered sacrifice; not any sort of sacrifice, for if it was a burnt offering, it was wholly consumed by fire, and in that the following custom could not take place; and if it was a sin offering, that was eaten by the priests, and so there was no need of taking such a method as after related; but a peace offering, part of which belonged to the Lord, the fat that was burnt, and the breast and shoulder to the priest, and the rest to the owner, who made a feast of it for his family and friends:

the priest's servant came while the flesh was in seething; that is, while those parts were boiling for the owner and his family; which was done in some part of the tabernacle, as afterwards in the temple:

with a flesh hook of three teeth in his hand; with a three forked instrument, with which he was sent by order of the priest that slew the sacrifice, and offered it, to whom belonged the parts before mentioned, allowed him by the law; but not content with these, he sent his servant, while the rest were boiling, with such an instrument as here described, to draw up more out of the boiling pot.

Gill: 1Sa 2:14 - And he struck it into the pan, or kettle, or cauldron, or pot // all that the fleshhook brought up the priest took for himself // so they did in Shiloh, unto all the Israelites that came thither And he struck it into the pan, or kettle, or cauldron, or pot,.... Whatever vessel was made use of, larger or lesser, according to the quantity of fle...

And he struck it into the pan, or kettle, or cauldron, or pot,.... Whatever vessel was made use of, larger or lesser, according to the quantity of flesh the owner boiled for himself and friends, the trident the priest's servants brought with him, he struck into the boiler to the bottom; of it:

all that the fleshhook brought up the priest took for himself; as his own property; whereas no part of it at all belonged to him, he having had the breast and shoulder delivered to him in the first place; and yet, by this method, all that he could drag up with this three forked instrument he claimed as his own; which might be much, that would hang upon three teeth of it, or in which they were fastened; and, according to Abarbinel, each of them would bring up a pound of flesh, and perhaps more:

so they did in Shiloh, unto all the Israelites that came thither; to offer their sacrifices, which was the proper place for them, the tabernacle and altar being there; and men of all ranks and degrees were treated alike, princes and people, rich and poor; the custom universally obtained, and all sorts of men met with the same usage.

Gill: 1Sa 2:15 - Also before they burnt the fat // the priest's servant came, and said to the man that sacrificed // give flesh to roast for the priest // for he will not have sodden flesh of thee, but raw Also before they burnt the fat,.... Which belonged to the Lord, and was to be offered to him by fire, in the first place, as it ought to be; and the o...

Also before they burnt the fat,.... Which belonged to the Lord, and was to be offered to him by fire, in the first place, as it ought to be; and the order of sacrificing required that he should have his part first before the priest or the owner: but so impious were the priests become, that

the priest's servant came, and said to the man that sacrificed; not to the priest that offered, but to the man that brought his sacrifice to be offered by the priest:

give flesh to roast for the priest; meaning, not what was his by law, as the breast and shoulder, though for these he ought to have stayed until the fat was offered to the Lord; but other parts of the peace offering, which he had no right unto, for roasting or boiling, and yet in an imperious manner demanded it by his servant:

for he will not have sodden flesh of thee, but raw though this was not the only reason of this demand, because they liked roast meat better than boiled; but because the three forked flesh hook did not always bring up the best pieces out of the boiling pot; and therefore he resolved to have flesh raw, that he might have the best, as well as dress it to his own liking.

Gill: 1Sa 2:16 - And if any man said unto him, let them not fail to burn the fat presently // and then take as much as thy soul desireth // then he would answer him, nay, but thou shall give it me now, and if not, I will take it by force And if any man said unto him, let them not fail to burn the fat presently,.... Or stay till they have offered the fat, as the Targum; let that be done...

And if any man said unto him, let them not fail to burn the fat presently,.... Or stay till they have offered the fat, as the Targum; let that be done in the first place, which may be quickly done, in a very little time, and let as much haste be made as can be to do it:

and then take as much as thy soul desireth; by which it appears that the men that brought the sacrifice had more religion at heart, and were more concerned for the honour and glory of God than the priest; being willing to suffer in their property, but could not bear that the Lord should be dishonoured, and so rudely treated: they were willing the priests should take what they pleased of theirs, though they had no right to any; only they desired the Lord might be served first, which was but reasonable:

then he would answer him, nay, but thou shall give it me now, and if not, I will take it by force; signifying, he would not stay till the fat was burnt, and the Lord had his portion, but he would have it directly; and if he would not give it him freely, he would take it whether he would or not; to such a height of insolence and impiety were the priests arrived, as to put it in the power of their servants to make such wicked demands, and treat God, and those that brought their sacrifices to him, in such a contemptuous manner.

Gill: 1Sa 2:17 - Wherefore the sin of the young men was very great before the Lord // for men abhorred the offering of the Lord Wherefore the sin of the young men was very great before the Lord,.... That is, the sons of Eli; for they were the ringleaders who set these bad examp...

Wherefore the sin of the young men was very great before the Lord,.... That is, the sons of Eli; for they were the ringleaders who set these bad examples, which other priests followed, and therefore the sin is ascribed to them; and which was sadly aggravated by taking what was not their own, and by taking it in a forcible manner, and before the Lord had his part in the offering, and all this done in the tabernacle, in the presence of God; which plainly showed that they had not the fear of God before their eyes, nor any sense of his omniscience and omnipresence, any more than of his holiness and justice:

for men abhorred the offering of the Lord; it was irksome and disagreeable to them to bring their sacrifices, when they saw the law of God was not attended to, and the rules of sacrificing were not observed; such contempt of God, such abuse of sacrifices, such injury done to the sacrificers, and such covetousness and sensuality in the priests, that it even set the people against sacrifices, and made them loath them, and neglect to bring them. And this aggravated the sin of the young men, though the sacrificers were not excused hereby, 1Sa 2:24.

Gill: 1Sa 2:18 - But Samuel ministered before the Lord // girded with a linen ephod But Samuel ministered before the Lord,.... The ministration of Samuel, though a child, is observed both before and after the account of the ill behavi...

But Samuel ministered before the Lord,.... The ministration of Samuel, though a child, is observed both before and after the account of the ill behaviour and wickedness of Eli's sons; partly to the shame and disgrace of them, and as serving to aggravate their sin, and make it appear the more black and heinous; and partly to his honour and reputation, that he was not corrupted and turned aside from God by their evil practices. The phrase here used is different from that in 1Sa 2:11 there he is said to minister before Eli, under his direction and guidance, but here before the Lord; being now engaged in higher services, and which he could perform without the assistance of Eli, as in the presence of God more immediately; it seems to have respect to him when more grown in age, stature, knowledge, and experience, though here related: yet still being "a child"; not got out of his childhood, or arrived to manhood:

girded with a linen ephod; such as priests used to wear, but not Levites in common, nor extraordinary persons on extraordinary occasions, see 1Sa 22:18. This seems to be a peculiar favour, and a special honour which Eli granted to Samuel when so very young, on account of the grace of God bestowed on him in a wonderful manner; and because brought up in the tabernacle as a holy person, and a Nazarite; and because his birth was foretold, and he asked of God, as his name signified, as Procopius Gazaeus observes.

Gill: 1Sa 2:19 - Moreover, his mother made him a little coat // and brought it to him from year to year // when she came up with her husband to offer the yearly sacrifice Moreover, his mother made him a little coat,.... Suitable to his stature; this was an outer coat to wear over others, and this also was such an one as...

Moreover, his mother made him a little coat,.... Suitable to his stature; this was an outer coat to wear over others, and this also was such an one as the priests wore; it is the same word that is used for the priest's robe, Exo 28:4, and this, it is very likely, was altogether of her own spinning, and weaving, and making up; which were works women did in those times: and this Hannah did partly out of her great love to her son Samuel, and partly to lessen the expense that Eli, or the congregation, were at in the maintenance of him; and the Talmudists q observe, that a priest might wear a garment, and minister in it, if his mother made it; and they give instances of priests, Ishmael and Eleazar, for whom their mothers made garments:

and brought it to him from year to year; for it seems this was only to be worn at festivals, and not on common days; and therefore she did not leave it with him, but took it home with her, and brought it again at the returning festival:

when she came up with her husband to offer the yearly sacrifice: whether at the passover, or at Pentecost, or at the feast of tabernacles; and it is very probable she came with her husband at them all, yearly; for though she was not by the law obliged thereunto, yet her religious zeal and devotion, and her great desire to see her son as often as she could, induced her to come.

Gill: 1Sa 2:20 - And Eli blessed Elkanah and his wife // and said, the Lord give thee seed of this woman // for the loan which is lent to the Lord // and they went unto their own home And Eli blessed Elkanah and his wife,.... Not only the first time they brought Samuel to him, and left him with him; but every year they came to worsh...

And Eli blessed Elkanah and his wife,.... Not only the first time they brought Samuel to him, and left him with him; but every year they came to worship, as the Jewish commentators mostly interpret it:

and said, the Lord give thee seed of this woman; children by her, year after year:

for the loan which is lent to the Lord; instead of Samuel, who was asked of the Lord and given to him again; and as they were thereby in some measure deprived of him, and could not always enjoy him, and be delighted with him, Eli prayed for them, and gave them his benediction as a priest, that they might be favoured with other children, who might be of delight and service to them when in old age:

and they went unto their own home; at Ramah, as in 1Sa 2:11 or to his place r, Elkanah's; hence Kimchi concludes that Hannah was of another city originally; but the Targum is,"to their place;''and indeed, what was now the place or home of the one, was of the other.

Gill: 1Sa 2:21 - And the Lord visited Hannah // so that she conceived and bare three sons and two daughters // and the child Samuel grew before the Lord And the Lord visited Hannah,.... In a way of mercy, approving and confirming the blessing of Eli; or rather granting the blessing he prayed for, by gi...

And the Lord visited Hannah,.... In a way of mercy, approving and confirming the blessing of Eli; or rather granting the blessing he prayed for, by giving her power to conceive, bear, and bring forth children, as the following words explain it:

so that she conceived and bare three sons and two daughters; whereby the prophecy of Hannah was fulfilled, 1Sa 2:5, and was no doubt matter of great joy to her, though of these children we nowhere else read, nor even of their names. Josephus s says, Elkanah had other sons by Hannah, and three daughters; which agrees not with the text:

and the child Samuel grew before the Lord: in age and stature, in grace and goodness, and improved much in the worship and service of God, both in the theory and practice of it; or became great with him, high in his esteem and favour, and was blessed with much of his presence, and with large gifts of his grace.

Gill: 1Sa 2:22 - Now Eli was very old // and heard all that his sons had done unto Israel // and how they lay with the women that assembled at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation Now Eli was very old,.... It is very probable he was now about ninety years of age, since when he died he was ninety eight, 1Sa 4:15 which is observed...

Now Eli was very old,.... It is very probable he was now about ninety years of age, since when he died he was ninety eight, 1Sa 4:15 which is observed to show his incapacity for the discharge of his office, and inspection into public affairs; which gave his sons opportunity of acting the wicked part they did without reproof, and with impunity, Eli knowing nothing of it; and accounts in some measure for the gentle reproof he gave them, when he did know of it; for being old, he was not so full of spirit and vigour, and more given to tenderness and mercy; besides, his sons were grown up and married, and he had less authority over them; though he ought to have considered himself not as a father only, but as an high priest and judge of Israel, and performed his office as such; however, it must be a great affliction to him in his old age, and added to the weight of it, that his sons should behave so unworthily as they did:

and heard all that his sons had done unto Israel; who, besides what was by the law allowed them, took flesh out of the pot as it was boiling, and demanded raw flesh to roast before the fat was offered to the Lord; and in this manner they used all, without distinction, that came with their sacrifices:

and how they lay with the women that assembled at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation; not that they lay with them at the door in a public beastly manner; but the women that came thither they decoyed into their own apartments, or into some of the courts of the tabernacle, and there debauched them: who these women were, and what their business at the tabernacle, is not easy to say; some think they came about business which belonged to women to do there, as to wash and clean the rooms, to sew and spin, and the like; but one would think that these latter works should be done, not at the door of the tabernacle, but in some apartment in it, or rather at their own houses, for the use of it: the Targum is, that they there assembled to pray, which is more likely, and that they were devout women; who came there in large numbers, for the word used has the signification of armies; to perform religious exercises in fasting, and praying, and bringing sacrifices to be offered for them; though they do not seem to be such, as was Anna the prophetess, Luk 2:37 who made their abode in the tabernacle, and served God night and day with fastings and prayers, since these were only at the door of the tabernacle; nor were there in the tabernacle conveniences for such persons, as afterwards in the temple. The Jews, for the most part, by these understand new mothers, who came with their offerings for purification, attended with many other women, their relations, friends, and neighbours, and which especially, when several met together on such an occasion, made a crowd at the door of the tabernacle; and some are of opinion that these men did not lie with them, or debauch them, according to the literal sense of the word; but that they delayed the offering of their nests of doves they brought, so that they were forced to stay all night, and could not return home; and because by this means they were restrained from their husbands, it is reckoned as if these men had lain with them t; and which they think is confirmed, in that the man of God sent to Eli, after mentioned, takes no notice of this lewdness of theirs, only of their ill behaviour as to sacrifices, but the text is so express for their debauchery, that it cannot be denied.

Gill: 1Sa 2:23 - And he said unto them, why do ye such things // for I hear of your evil doings by all this people And he said unto them, why do ye such things?.... As to impose upon the people that bring their offerings, by taking more than is due, and in a very i...

And he said unto them, why do ye such things?.... As to impose upon the people that bring their offerings, by taking more than is due, and in a very indecent and imperious manner; and especially to defile the women when they came to worship: these were very scandalous sins, and deserved a more severe reprimand, and indeed a greater chastisement than by mere words; Eli should have rebuked them more sharply, and laid open the evil of their doings, and as a judge punished them for them:

for I hear of your evil doings by all this people; the inhabitants of Shiloh, or who came thither to worship, who were continually making their complaints to Eli; which still shows his backwardness to reprove them in the manner he did until he was obliged to it by the continual remonstrances of the people against the practices of his sons; he did not attend to the information he had from a few persons, until it became general.

Gill: 1Sa 2:24 - Nay, my sons // for it is no good report that I hear // ye make the Lord's people to transgress Nay, my sons,.... This seems to be too soft and smooth an appellation, too kind and endearing, considering the offence they were guilty of, and were n...

Nay, my sons,.... This seems to be too soft and smooth an appellation, too kind and endearing, considering the offence they were guilty of, and were now reproving for; rather they deserved to be called sons of Belial, the children of the devil, than sons of Eli, or brutes and shameless wretches, and such like hard names:

for it is no good report that I hear; a very bad one; far from being good, scarce anything worse could have been said of them; to rob persons of the flesh of their offerings, when there was a sufficient allowance made for them by law, and to be so impious as to require what was not their due, and even before the Lord had his; and to debauch the women that came to religious worship, and that in the sacred place of worship, they also being priests of the Lord, and married men; sins very shocking and sadly aggravated, and yet Eli treats them in this gentle manner:

ye make the Lord's people to transgress: by causing them to forbear to bring their sacrifices, being used in such an injurious and overbearing way; and by decoying the women into uncleanness, and by setting examples to others: or, "to cry out"; as in the margin of our Bibles, to exclaim against them for their exorbitant and lewd practices; so the Targum,

"the people of the Lord murmur because so ill used by them:''this clause may be read in connection with the former, "it is no good report that I hear, which ye cause to pass through the Lord's people"; ye occasion the people to speak ill of you everywhere, in the camp of Israel, throughout the whole nation; the report as it is bad, it is general, is in everyone's mouth; so Maimonides u interprets it; with which Jarchi and others agree w.

Gill: 1Sa 2:25 - If one man sin against another, the judge shall judge him // but if a man sin against the Lord, who shall entreat for him // notwithstanding, they hearkened not unto the voice of their father // because the Lord would slay them If one man sin against another, the judge shall judge him, &c. When one man does an injury to another in his person and property, the case is brought ...

If one man sin against another, the judge shall judge him, &c. When one man does an injury to another in his person and property, the case is brought before the judge, he hears it, examines into it, and determines upon it, and does justice, orders that the injured person have satisfaction made him, and so the matter is ended:

but if a man sin against the Lord, who shall entreat for him? all sin is in some sense against God, as it is contrary to his nature, and a breach of his law, and especially bold, daring, presumptuous sins; but there are some sins that are more immediately and particularly against God, as sins against the first table of the law, which relate to the worship of God, and such were the sins of Eli's sons in the affair of sacrifices; all sin against God is aggravated by the perfections of his nature, and made tremendous, as being against a God of strict justice, of unspotted purity and holiness, and who is omniscient, omnipresent, and omnipotent; and by the relation and connection there is between God and men, he is their Creator and Preserver, the God of their lives and mercies, and of all the blessings they enjoy, and yet sin against him! who will entreat the favour of God for such persons, ask pardon for them, and beseech the Lord to be propitious and merciful to them? who on earth will do it? such persons are scarce and rare, few care to stand up in the gap between God and sinners; in some cases they ought not, in others they cannot. Eli suggests by this question, that he could not, even for his own sons; and who in heaven can or will do it? not saints departed, who know nothing of what is done below, nor angels, only the Lord Jesus Christ; he is the only Mediator between God and men, who has engaged his heart to approach unto God, and interpose between him and sinful men, and has made peace and reconciliation by his blood, and is become the propitiation for sin, and ever lives to make intercession for transgressors, and is always prevalent and successful in his mediation and intercession; excepting him, there is none to entreat for those that have sinned against the Lord, see 1Jo 2:1. In answer to this question, who shall entreat for him? the Jews say x repentance and good works; but these are insufficient advocates for a sinner, without the atoning sacrifice of Christ, who is propitiation for sin, and upon which a plea can only be founded:

notwithstanding, they hearkened not unto the voice of their father; to his reproofs and counsels, his reasonings and expostulations; though his rebukes were so gentle, and this last reasoning of his so close and strong, so nervous and striking:

because the Lord would slay them; it was his purpose and decree, his will and pleasure, to cut them off for their wickedness; wherefore he gave them up to a judicial blindness, and hardness of heart, as he did Pharaoh, so that they were proof against all advice, admonitions, and arguments used with them: some choose to read the words, "therefore the Lord would slay them" y, because they were disobedient to the voice of their father; but the former sense is best; for his will to destroy them was not so much for their disregard to the reproofs of their father in which he himself was culpable, as for their breach of his laws.

Gill: 1Sa 2:26 - And the child Samuel grew up // and was in favour both with the Lord, and also with men And the child Samuel grew up,.... Increased in stature and in grace, grew more and more in all respects, and better and better, while Eli's sons grew ...

And the child Samuel grew up,.... Increased in stature and in grace, grew more and more in all respects, and better and better, while Eli's sons grew worse and worse; the contrast between these make the one to shine and appear illustrious, and the other to look the blacker: or "he went on, and grew, and was good" z; as he proceeded on in years, and grew in stature, he appeared more and more to be a good man, a virtuous, holy, and gracious person:

and was in favour both with the Lord, and also with men; the Lord was pleased to give him some tokens of his favour, that he delighted in him, that he was wellpleasing in his sight, and that his person and services were acceptable to him; and the more Eli's sons disgusted the people by their ill lives and conduct, the greater esteem among them did Samuel obtain by his becoming life and conversation; all admired him, spoke well of him, and thanked God that in such bad times he was raising up one among them, of whom they had the most hopeful prospect of usefulness to them.

Gill: 1Sa 2:27 - And there came a man of God unto Eli // and said unto him, thus saith the Lord // did I plainly appear to the house of thy father, when they were in Egypt in Pharaoh's house And there came a man of God unto Eli,.... A prophet, as the Targum; he had gifts and graces bestowed on him by the Lord, qualifying him for that offic...

And there came a man of God unto Eli,.... A prophet, as the Targum; he had gifts and graces bestowed on him by the Lord, qualifying him for that office; he came from God, and spoke in his name, as prophets used to do: who this was is not said, nor can it be known with certainty; many conjectures are made; some think he might he Phinehas, as Ben Gersom and Abarbinel a, which is not at all likely; it is not probable that he was living, for if he had been alive, Eli would not have been high priest; the more ancient Jews say b he was Elkanah, the father of Samuel; and so Jarchi; and he is said in the Targum on 1Sa 1:1, to be one of the disciples of the prophets, and was reckoned by them among the two hundred prophets that prophesied in Israel c; but of his prophecy we nowhere read in Scripture, or that he was one: other's d think he was Samuel himself, who through modesty conceals his name; but he was now a child, as in the preceding verse; indeed, some are of opinion that what follows is recorded in this chapter by way of anticipation, and properly belongs to, and is a part of the message sent from the Lord by Samuel to Eli, in the following chapter:

and said unto him, thus saith the Lord; using the language prophets in later times did, who spake not of themselves, but in the name of the Lord; and from whence it appears that this was not a divine Person, the Son of God in human form, since he never used to speak in this manner when he appeared:

did I plainly appear to the house of thy father, when they were in Egypt in Pharaoh's house? he did; this was evident and certain, and a wonderful instance of condescending goodness: the house of his father is the house of Aaron, who, and all his sons, were born in Egypt, from whose youngest son, Ithamar, Eli descended; and to whom the Lord appeared when in Egypt, and sent him to meet Moses, whose spokesman he appointed him to be; and who prophesied in Egypt, and reproved the Israelites, which is recorded in Eze 20:1 as say the Jews e.

Gill: 1Sa 2:28 - And did I choose him out of all the tribes of Israel to be my priest // to offer upon mine altar // to burn incense // to wear an ephod before me // and did I give unto the house of thy father all the offerings made by fire of the children of Israel And did I choose him out of all the tribes of Israel to be my priest,.... He did; of all the tribes of Israel the Lord chose the tribe of Levi to plac...

And did I choose him out of all the tribes of Israel to be my priest,.... He did; of all the tribes of Israel the Lord chose the tribe of Levi to place the priesthood in, and of all the families of that tribe he chose the house of Aaron, Eli's ancestor, to minister in the priest's office, see Exo 28:1.

to offer upon mine altar; burnt offerings, sin offerings, and peace offerings; this is the altar of burnt offering, which stood in the court of the tabernacle:

to burn incense; on the altar of incense, which was in the holy place, and on which incense was burnt morning and evening:

to wear an ephod before me? in which was the breastplate, with the Urim and Thummim, with which the high priest went into the most holy place, where was the ark, the symbol of the divine Presence, and where he inquired of the Lord by the above things:

and did I give unto the house of thy father all the offerings made by fire of the children of Israel? he did; the priests who were of the house of Aaron had not only the sin offerings, and part of the peace offerings, but even of the offerings made by fire, the burnt offerings; the skin of them was the priest's, and the meat offerings that went along with them, see Lev 6:25 and Lev 8:8 which were given them for their maintenance. Now these instances of God's goodness to the family of Aaron are mentioned to aggravate the sins of Eli and his sons.

Gill: 1Sa 2:29 - Wherefore kick ye at my sacrifice, and at mine offering, which I have commanded in my habitation // and honourest thy sons above me // to make yourselves fat with the chiefest of all the offerings of Israel my people Wherefore kick ye at my sacrifice, and at mine offering, which I have commanded in my habitation,.... To be offered in the tabernacle, where the Lord ...

Wherefore kick ye at my sacrifice, and at mine offering, which I have commanded in my habitation,.... To be offered in the tabernacle, where the Lord had his dwelling; which they might be said to kick and spurn at, despising them, as if there were not enough of them, nor the best of them given to them for their maintenance; a metaphor taken from cattle well fed and fat, which kick and spurn with their feet at even the owners and feeders of them. The Targum is,"why do ye use force with the holy offerings?''that is, take them away by force, when there was such a sufficient quantity allowed them for their support. Some understand this of their driving away such, that before used to bring their sacrifices to be offered, but being so ill treated, refrained from bringing them:

and honourest thy sons above me; by suffering them to take their part of the sacrifices, and even what did not belong to them, before God had his part, or before the fat was burnt; and by continuing them in their office, to the dishonour of God, his name and worship, when they ought to have been turned out by him and punished; but by this he preferred the honour of his sons before the honour of God, and chose rather that he should be dishonoured, than that they should be censured:

to make yourselves fat with the chiefest of all the offerings of Israel my people? they took the best pieces of the peace offerings from them by force, having no right unto them; and this they did to indulge their luxury and sensuality, which Eli connived at; and it is highly probable took part of the roasted meat his sons provided for themselves, out of the choicest pieces of the offerings of the people; since he himself is included in this clause, "to make yourselves fat", as his sons might be, and it is certain he himself was, 1Sa 4:18.

Gill: 1Sa 2:30 - Wherefore the Lord God of Israel saith // I said indeed that thy house, and the house of thy father, should walk before me for ever // but now the Lord saith, be it far from me // for them that honour me I will honour // and they that despise me shall be lightly esteemed Wherefore the Lord God of Israel saith,.... This being the case, so much contempt cast upon his sacrifices, and dishonour on himself: I said indeed...

Wherefore the Lord God of Israel saith,.... This being the case, so much contempt cast upon his sacrifices, and dishonour on himself:

I said indeed that thy house, and the house of thy father, should walk before me for ever; or minister in the priest's office before him: if the house of Aaron in general is meant, it did continue so to do, in one branch or another of it, as long as the Mosaic dispensation lasted, which is meant by the phrase "for ever"; but since it is afterwards denied that it should, rather the house of Ithamar, or of the immediate parent of Eli, is meant, and this said when the priesthood was translated from the family of Eleazar to the family of Ithamar; when, and on what account that was done, we nowhere read. It is a tradition f, that it was in the time of the Levite's concubine; and because Phinehas, and the other priests, did not go from city to city, and reprove the Israelites for the many sins they were fallen into, that the priesthood was taken away out of the family of Eleazar, and translated to that of Ithamar:

but now the Lord saith, be it far from me; to continue the priesthood in the line of Ithamar; which argues no change in the purposes or promises of God, this being not a decree of his, but a declaration of his will; that if the house of Ithamar behaved well in the discharge of the office of the high priest, it should continue with them to the end of the Mosaic dispensation, but if not, it should be taken from them, and restored to the family of Eleazar; as it was in Solomon's time:

for them that honour me I will honour; as Phinehas the son of Eleazar did at Shittim, where he showed his zeal for the Lord of hosts, and had the promise of the everlasting priesthood; and which continued in his family until the Babylonish captivity, excepting the interval in which it was in the family of Ithamar, and for what reason is not known:

and they that despise me shall be lightly esteemed; as the posterity of Eli, whose sons despised the Lord, and his offerings, as appeared by their conduct; and these were killed in battle in one day, and in the times of Solomon, Abiathar, of the posterity of Eli, was thrust out of the priesthood, and Zadok, of the line of Eleazar, was put in his room, 1Ki 2:27.

Gill: 1Sa 2:31 - Behold, the days come // that I will cut off thine arm, and the arm of thy father's house // that there shall not be an old man in thine house Behold, the days come,.... Or, are coming g; and will quickly come, in a very little time the things, after threatened, began to take place, even in t...

Behold, the days come,.... Or, are coming g; and will quickly come, in a very little time the things, after threatened, began to take place, even in the days of Eli's sons, and the whole was accomplished in about eighty years after:

that I will cut off thine arm, and the arm of thy father's house: that is, the strength of him and them, as the Targum, the strength of a man for doing business lying in his arm; meaning by it not long life, as Kimchi, who concludes this sense from what follows; but rather power and authority, or the exercise of the office of high priest, which gave him and his family great esteem and power; or it may be best of all, his children, which are the strength of a man, and the support of his family, see Gen 49:3

that there shall not be an old man in thine house; as there were none when he died, and his two sons, the same day; and the children they left were very young, and Ahitub, who was one of them, could not die an old man, since Ahimelech his son was priest in the time of Saul, who with eighty five priests were slain by his order; and Abiathar his son was deprived of his priesthood in the time of Solomon; though some understand this not of an elder in years, but in office; and that the sense is, that there should be none of his family a senator, or a member of the great sanhedrim, or court of judicature; and so it is interpreted in the Talmud h; with which agree Ben Gersom and Abarbinel.

Gill: 1Sa 2:32 - And thou shalt see an enemy in my habitation // in all the wealth which God shall give Israel // and there shall not be an old man in thine house for ever And thou shalt see an enemy in my habitation,.... Either the Philistines in the land of Israel, where God chose to dwell, who quickly after made war a...

And thou shalt see an enemy in my habitation,.... Either the Philistines in the land of Israel, where God chose to dwell, who quickly after made war against Israel, and pitched in Aphek, 1Sa 4:1 or, as in the margin of our Bibles, and other versions i, "thou shalt see the affliction of the tabernacle"; as he did when the ark of God was taken, at the news of which he died, 1Sa 4:17 and so the Targum understands it of affliction and calamity, yet not of the house of God, but of his own house; paraphrasing the words thus,"and thou shall see the calamity that shall come upon the men of thine house, for the sins which they have committed before me in the house of my sanctuary:''but it seems best to interpret it of a rival, which not he in his own person should see, but whom his posterity should see high priest in the temple; as they did in Solomon's time, when Abiathar, of the family of Eli, was thrust out, and Zadok, of the family of Eleazar, was put in; for, as Kimchi observes, when a man has two wives, they are rivals or adversaries to one another, jealous and emulous of each other, as Elkanah's two wives were, and of one of them the same word is used as here, 1Sa 1:6 so when one high priest was put out, and another taken in, the one was the rival or adversary of the other, as in the case referred to:

in all the wealth which God shall give Israel; which points exactly at the time when this should be, even men God did well to Israel, gave them great prosperity, wealth and riches, quietness and safety, a famous temple built for the worship of God, and everything in a flourishing condition, both with respect to temporals and spirituals, as was in the days of Solomon, see 1Ki 4:20 and then it was amidst all that plenty and prosperity, and when the high priesthood was most honourable and profitable, that Eli's family was turned out of it, and another put into it:

and there shall not be an old man in thine house for ever; See Gill on 1Sa 2:31 this is repeated for confirmation, and with this addition, that this would be the case for ever.

Gill: 1Sa 2:33 - And the man of thine // shall be to consume thine eyes, and to grieve thine heart // and all the increase of thine house shall die in the flower of their age And the man of thine,..... Of his family, which should spring from him: whom I shall not cut off from mine altar: from serving there: who though he sh...

And the man of thine,..... Of his family, which should spring from him: whom I shall not cut off from mine altar: from serving there: who though he shall not be an high priest, but a common priest, as all the descendants of Aaron were:

shall be to consume thine eyes, and to grieve thine heart; that is, the eyes and heart of his posterity; who though they should see of their family ministering in the priest's office, yet should make so poor a figure on account of their outward meanness and poverty, or because of their want of wisdom, and intellectual endowments, or because of their scandalous lives, that it would fill their hearts with grief and sorrow, and their eyes with tears, so that their eyes would fail, and be consumed, and their hearts be broken:

and all the increase of thine house shall die in the flower of their age; or "die men" k; grown men, not children, when it would not be so great an affliction to part with them; but when at man's estate, in the prime of their days, perhaps about thirty years of age, the time when the priests entered upon their office to do all the work of it; the Targum is,"shall be killed young men:''it is more than once said in the Talmud l, that there was a family in Jerusalem, the men of which died at eighteen years of age; they came and informed Juchanan ben Zaccai of it; he said to them, perhaps of the family of Eli are ye, as it is said, 1Sa 2:33.

Gill: 1Sa 2:34 - This shall be a sign unto thee // that shall come upon thy two sons, Hophni and Phinehas // in one day they shall die both of them This shall be a sign unto thee,.... A confirming one, that all which had been now said would be fulfilled: that shall come upon thy two sons, Hophn...

This shall be a sign unto thee,.... A confirming one, that all which had been now said would be fulfilled:

that shall come upon thy two sons, Hophni and Phinehas; which Eli would live to see fulfilled on them; and when it was, he might be assured the rest would be most certainly accomplished, and it was this:

in one day they shall die both of them; as they did in battle with the Philistines, 1Sa 4:11.

Gill: 1Sa 2:35 - And I will raise up a faithful priest // and I will build him a sure house // and he shall walk before mine anointed for ever And I will raise up a faithful priest,.... Not Samuel, as some, for he was not of the seed of Aaron, and of the priestly race; nor had he a sure house...

And I will raise up a faithful priest,.... Not Samuel, as some, for he was not of the seed of Aaron, and of the priestly race; nor had he a sure house, for his sons declined from the ways of truth and justice; but Zadok, as it is commonly interpreted, who was put into the office of the high priest by Solomon when he came to the throne, in the room of Abiathar, of the line of Eli; who was an upright man, and faithfully discharged his office, and answered to his name, which signifies righteous, see Eze 44:15 that shall do according to that which is in my heart, and in my mind: according to the secret will and pleasure of God, as revealed in his word; do everything relating to the office of an high priest, according to the laws of God respecting it; so the Targum,"that shall do according to my word, and according to my will:"

and I will build him a sure house; which some understand of a numerous family and posterity he should have to succeed him, so that there should never be wanting one of his seed to fill up that high office; or rather it may design the establishment of the high priesthood in his family, which was an everlasting one, as promised to Phinehas his ancestor, and which continued unto the times of the Messiah, who put an end to it, by fulfilling it; unless it can be thought that this may refer to the temple built by Solomon, which was a firm house, in comparison of the tabernacle, which was a movable one; it was built for Zadok and his posterity, who was the first that officiated in it as a legal priest. There is one writer, who says m,"this agrees with no man, only with our Lord Jesus, who is called our high priest, that offered up a sacrifice to the Father for us therefore to Christ properly this prophecy belongs; but, according to the history; to Zadok:''and Christ is said indeed to be a faithful, as well as a merciful high priest, faithful to him that appointed him, and faithful to those for whom he officiated; he always did the things which pleased his Father, was obedient to his will and commands in all respects; and a sure house is built by him, his church, against which the gates of hell can never prevail: however, the next clause is by others interpreted of him:

and he shall walk before mine anointed for ever; or "before my Messiah", as the high priests did; they were types of Christ, and represented him, and acted under him, and in his stead, and prefigured and pointed at what he was to do, when he came in the flesh, and now does in the most holy place in heaven. Though it is more commonly understood of Zadok and his posterity, walking or ministering, as the Targum, before Solomon the Lord's anointed, and before the kings of the house of David, as they did until the Babylonish captivity.

Gill: 1Sa 2:36 - And it shall come to pass, that everyone that is left in thine house // shall come and crouch to him for a piece of silver and a morsel of bread // and shall say, put me, I pray thee, into one of the priests' offices, that I may eat a piece of bread And it shall come to pass, that everyone that is left in thine house,.... That is not cut off by death, the few remains of Eli's posterity in succeedi...

And it shall come to pass, that everyone that is left in thine house,.... That is not cut off by death, the few remains of Eli's posterity in succeeding times, after the high priesthood was removed out of his family into another; so that they were reduced at best to common priests, and these, as it should seem, degraded from that office for their maladministration of it, or scandalous lives:

shall come and crouch to him for a piece of silver and a morsel of bread; which Grotius interprets of their coming to God, and bowing themselves before him, and praying to him for the smallest piece of money to cast into the treasury, and for a morsel of bread to be accepted as an offering, instead of a bullock, sheep, lamb, or even a bird, which they were not able to bring; but the meaning is, that such should be the low estate of Eli's family, when another, even Zadok, was made high priest, that they should come and humble themselves before him, as the Targum expresses it, beseeching him to give them a piece of silver, even the smallest piece, that is, as the word signifies, a "gerah" or "meah", about a penny or three halfpence of our money, the twentieth part of a shekel, Eze 45:12 and a piece of bread, not a whole loaf, but a slice of it, to such extremity would they be brought:

and shall say, put me, I pray thee, into one of the priests' offices, that I may eat a piece of bread; or into one of the wards of the priests; their custodies or courses, as the Targum; with which the Jewish commentators generally agree, and of which there were twenty four; see 1Ch 24:4, and there are some traces of them in the New Testament, see Luk 1:5, but these were regular priests, who were in those courses, and had a sufficient maintenance for them, and had not barely a piece of bread to live on, or just enough to keep them from starving, as the phrase denotes; wherefore this must be understood, as before hinted, of priests degraded from their office, on some account or another, and reduced to poverty and want; and therefore, that they might be kept from starving, would solicit the high priest in those days, and beg that he would put them in some inferior post under the priests, to do the meanest offices for them, slay the sacrifices for them, wash their pots, open and shut up doors, and the like, that so they might have a living, though a poor one; and this may reasonably be thought to be the case of Eli's posterity, in process of time, after Abiathar was deposed from the high priest's office, and was ordered to go and live upon his fields and farm at Anathoth, 1Ki 2:26 with which compare Eze 44:10. This, as Ben Gersom observes, was a fit punishment, and a righteous retaliation on Eli's posterity, that they should be brought to crouch to others, and be glad of a morsel of bread, who had behaved so imperiously towards the Lord's people, and had taken away their flesh from them by force; and, not content with their allowance, took the best pieces of the sacrifices, to make themselves fat with them.

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:1 Heb “for I rejoice in your deliverance.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:2 The LXX has “and there is none righteous like our God.” The Hebrew term translated “rock” refers to a rocky cliff where one ca...

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:3 The MT (Qere) reads “and by him actions are weighed.” The translation assumes that reading of the Qere וְלוֹ...

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:5 Or “languishes.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:6 Heb “Sheol”; NAB “the nether world”; CEV “the world of the dead.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:8 Heb “a seat of honor.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:9 The translation follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss in reading the plural (“his holy ones”) rather than the singular (“his...

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:10 The anointed one is the anticipated king of Israel, as the preceding line makes clear.

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:11 Heb “with [or “before”] the face of.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:12 Heb “they did not know the Lord.” The verb here has the semantic nuance “recognize the authority of.” Eli’s sons obvious...

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:13 The Hebrew word occurs only twice in the OT, here and again in v. 14. Its exact meaning is not entirely clear, although from the context it appears to...

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:14 Heb “to all Israel.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:15 Heb “living.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:16 The translation follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss (“no”) rather than the Kethib and MT, which read “to him.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:17 Heb “the men,” which is absent from one medieval Hebrew ms, a Qumran ms, and the LXX.

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:20 Heb “his.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:21 Heb “with the Lord.” Cf. NAB, TEV “in the service of the Lord”; NIV, NRSV, NLT “in the presence of the Lord”; CEV ...

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:22 Heb “lie with.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:23 For “these” the LXX has “of the Lord” (κυρίου, kuriou), perhaps through the influence of the fin...

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:24 Heb “no.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:25 Heb “desired.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:27 Heb “to your father’s” (also in vv. 28, 30).

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:28 Heb “him”; the referent (Eli’s ancestor, i.e., Aaron) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:29 Heb “which I commanded, dwelling place.” The noun is functioning as an adverbial accusative in relation to the verb. Since God’s dwe...

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:30 Heb “may it be far removed from me.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:31 Heb “arm.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:32 Heb “all the days.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:33 The text is difficult. The MT literally says “they will die [as] men.” Apparently the meaning is that they will be cut off in the prime of...

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:34 Heb “and this to you [is] the sign which will come to both of your sons.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:35 Heb “and he will walk about before my anointed one all the days.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 2:36 Heb “a piece of silver” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:1 And Hannah ( a ) prayed, and said, My heart rejoiceth in the LORD, mine ( b ) horn is exalted in the LORD: my mouth is ( c ) enlarged over mine enemie...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:3 Talk ( d ) no more so exceeding proudly; let [not] arrogancy come out of your mouth: for the LORD [is] a God of knowledge, and by him actions are weig...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:5 [They that were] full have hired out themselves for ( e ) bread; and [they that were] hungry ceased: so that the barren hath born seven; and she that ...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:8 He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, [and] lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill, to set [them] among ( f ) princes, and to make them inherit the...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:10 The adversaries of the LORD shall be broken to pieces; out of heaven shall he thunder upon them: the LORD shall judge the ends of the earth; and he sh...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:11 And Elkanah went to Ramah to his house. And the child did minister unto the ( i ) LORD before Eli the priest. ( i ) In all that Eli commanded him.

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:12 Now the sons of Eli [were] sons of Belial; they ( k ) knew not the LORD. ( k ) That is, they neglected his ordinance.

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:14 And he struck [it] into the pan, or kettle, or caldron, or pot; ( l ) all that the fleshhook brought up the priest took for himself. So they did in Sh...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:15 Also before they burnt the ( m ) fat, the priest's servant came, and said to the man that sacrificed, Give flesh to roast for the priest; for he will ...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:16 And [if] any man said unto him, Let them not fail to burn the fat presently, and [then] take [as much] as thy soul ( n ) desireth; then he would answe...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:17 Wherefore the sin of the young men was very great before the LORD: for men ( o ) abhorred the offering of the LORD. ( o ) Seeing the horrible abuse o...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:22 Now Eli was very old, and heard all that his sons did unto all Israel; and how they lay with the women that ( p ) assembled [at] the door of the taber...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:24 Nay, my sons; for [it is] no good report that I hear: ye make the LORD'S people to ( q ) transgress. ( q ) Because they contemn their duty to God, (1...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:25 If one man sin against another, the judge shall judge him: but if a man sin against the LORD, who shall intreat for him? Notwithstanding they hearkene...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:27 And there came a man of God unto Eli, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Did I plainly appear unto the house of thy ( s ) father, when they were ...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:29 Wherefore ( t ) kick ye at my sacrifice and at mine offering, which I have commanded [in my] habitation; and honourest thy sons above me, to make your...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:30 Wherefore the LORD God of Israel saith, I said indeed [that] thy house, and the house of thy father, should walk before me for ever: but now the LORD ...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:31 Behold, the days come, that I will cut off thine ( x ) arm, and the arm of thy father's house, that there shall not be an old man in thine house. ( x...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:32 And thou ( y ) shalt see an enemy [in my] habitation, in all [the wealth] which [God] shall give Israel: and there shall not be an old man in thine ho...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:35 And I will raise me up a ( z ) faithful priest, [that] shall do according to [that] which [is] in mine heart and in my mind: and I will build him a su...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 2:36 And it shall come to pass, [that] every one that is left in thine house shall come [and] ( a ) crouch to him for a piece of silver and a morsel of bre...

buka semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: 1Sa 2:1-10 - --Hannah's heart rejoiced, not in Samuel, but in the Lord. She looks beyond the gift, and praises the Giver. She rejoiced in the salvation of the Lord, ...

MHCC: 1Sa 2:11-26 - --Samuel, being devoted to the Lord in a special manner, was from a child employed about the sanctuary in the services he was capable of. As he did this...

MHCC: 1Sa 2:27-36 - --Those who allow their children in any evil way, and do not use their authority to restrain and punish them, in effect honour them more than God. Let E...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 2:1-10 - -- We have here Hannah's thanksgiving, dictated, not only by the spirit of prayer, but by the spirit of prophecy. Her petition for the mercy she desire...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 2:11-26 - -- In these verses we have the good character and posture of Elkanah's family, and the bad character and posture of Eli's family. The account of these ...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 2:27-36 - -- Eli reproved his sons too gently, and did not threaten them as he should, and therefore God sent a prophet to him to reprove him sharply, and to thr...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 2:1-10 - -- Hannah's song of praise . - The prayer in which Hannah poured out thefeelings of her heart, after the dedication of her son to the Lord, is a songo...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 2:11-17 - -- Samuel the servant of the Lord under Eli. Ungodliness of the sons of Eli . - 1Sa 2:11 forms the transition to what follows. After Hannah's psalm of...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 2:18-21 - -- Samuel's service before the Lord . - 1Sa 2:18. Samuel served as a boy before theLord by the side of the worthless sons of Eli, girt with an ephod o...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 2:22-23 - -- Eli's treatment of the sins of his sons . - 1Sa 2:22. The aged Eli reproved hissons with solemn warnings on account of their sins; but without hisw...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 2:24 - -- בּני אל , "Not, my sons," i.e., do not such things, "for the report which I hear is not good; they make the people of Jehovah to transgress."...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 2:25 - -- "If man sins against man, God judges him; but if a man sins againstJehovah, who can interpose with entreaty for him?" In the use of פּללו and ...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 2:26 - -- The youthful Samuel, on the other hand, continued to grow in stature, andin favour with God and man (see Luk 2:52).

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 2:27-36 - -- Announcement of the judgment upon Eli and his house . - 1Sa 2:27. Before theLord interposed in judgment, He sent a prophet (a "man of God," as inJd...