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Teks -- 1 Samuel 15:1-35 (NET)

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Konteks
Saul Is Rejected as King
15:1 Then Samuel said to Saul, “I was the one the Lord sent to anoint you as king over his people Israel. Now listen to what the Lord says. 15:2 Here is what the Lord of hosts says: ‘I carefully observed how the Amalekites opposed Israel along the way when Israel came up from Egypt. 15:3 So go now and strike down the Amalekites. Destroy everything that they have. Don’t spare them. Put them to death– man, woman, child, infant, ox, sheep, camel, and donkey alike.’” 15:4 So Saul assembled the army and mustered them at Telaim. There were 200,000 foot soldiers and 10,000 men of Judah. 15:5 Saul proceeded to the city of Amalek, where he set an ambush in the wadi. 15:6 Saul said to the Kenites, “Go on and leave! Go down from among the Amalekites! Otherwise I will sweep you away with them! After all, you were kind to all the Israelites when they came up from Egypt.” So the Kenites withdrew from among the Amalekites. 15:7 Then Saul struck down the Amalekites all the way from Havilah to Shur, which is next to Egypt. 15:8 He captured King Agag of the Amalekites alive, but he executed all Agag’s people with the sword. 15:9 However, Saul and the army spared Agag, along with the best of the flock, the cattle, the fatlings, and the lambs, as well as everything else that was of value. They were not willing to slaughter them. But they did slaughter everything that was despised and worthless. 15:10 Then the word of the Lord came to Samuel: 15:11 “I regret that I have made Saul king, for he has turned away from me and has not done what I told him to do.” Samuel became angry and he cried out to the Lord all that night. 15:12 Then Samuel got up early to meet Saul the next morning. But Samuel was informed, “Saul has gone to Carmel where he is setting up a monument for himself. Then Samuel left and went down to Gilgal.” 15:13 When Samuel came to him, Saul said to him, “May the Lord bless you! I have done what the Lord said.” 15:14 Samuel replied, “If that is the case, then what is this sound of sheep in my ears and the sound of cattle that I hear?” 15:15 Saul said, “They were brought from the Amalekites; the army spared the best of the flocks and cattle to sacrifice to the Lord our God. But everything else we slaughtered.” 15:16 Then Samuel said to Saul, “Wait a minute! Let me tell you what the Lord said to me last night.” Saul said to him, “Tell me.” 15:17 Samuel said, “Is it not true that when you were insignificant in your own eyes, you became head of the tribes of Israel? The Lord chose you as king over Israel. 15:18 The Lord sent you on a campaign saying, ‘Go and exterminate those sinful Amalekites! Fight against them until you have destroyed them.’ 15:19 Why haven’t you obeyed the Lord? Instead you have greedily rushed upon the plunder! You have done what is wrong in the Lord’s estimation.” 15:20 Then Saul said to Samuel, “But I have obeyed the Lord! I went on the campaign the Lord sent me on. I brought back King Agag of the Amalekites after exterminating the Amalekites. 15:21 But the army took from the plunder some of the sheep and cattle– the best of what was to be slaughtered– to sacrifice to the Lord your God in Gilgal.” 15:22 Then Samuel said, “Does the Lord take pleasure in burnt offerings and sacrifices as much as he does in obedience? Certainly, obedience is better than sacrifice; paying attention is better than the fat of rams. 15:23 For rebellion is like the sin of divination, and presumption is like the evil of idolatry. Because you have rejected the word of the Lord, he has rejected you as king.” 15:24 Then Saul said to Samuel, “I have sinned, for I have disobeyed what the Lord commanded and what you said as well. For I was afraid of the army, and I followed their wishes. 15:25 Now please forgive my sin! Go back with me so I can worship the Lord.” 15:26 Samuel said to Saul, “I will not go back with you, for you have rejected the word of the Lord, and the Lord has rejected you from being king over Israel!” 15:27 When Samuel turned to leave, Saul grabbed the edge of his robe and it tore. 15:28 Samuel said to him, “The Lord has torn the kingdom of Israel from you this day and has given it to one of your colleagues who is better than you! 15:29 The Preeminent One of Israel does not go back on his word or change his mind, for he is not a human being who changes his mind.” 15:30 Saul again replied, “I have sinned. But please honor me before the elders of my people and before Israel. Go back with me so I may worship the Lord your God.” 15:31 So Samuel followed Saul back, and Saul worshiped the Lord.
Samuel Puts Agag to Death
15:32 Then Samuel said, “Bring me King Agag of the Amalekites.” So Agag came to him trembling, thinking to himself, “Surely death is bitter!” 15:33 Samuel said, “Just as your sword left women childless, so your mother will be the most bereaved among women!” Then Samuel hacked Agag to pieces there in Gilgal before the Lord. 15:34 Then Samuel went to Ramah, while Saul went up to his home in Gibeah of Saul. 15:35 Until the day he died Samuel did not see Saul again. Samuel did, however, mourn for Saul, but the Lord regretted that he had made Saul king over Israel.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Agag king of the Amalekites in Samuel's time
 · Amalek members of the nation of Amalek
 · Amalekites members of the nation of Amalek
 · Carmel a woman resident of the town of Carmel
 · Egypt descendants of Mizraim
 · Gibeah a town of Judah 8 km north of Jerusalem, 5 km east of Gibeon (SMM)
 · Gilgal a place where Israel encamped between Jericho and the Jordan,a town between Dor and Tirza in the territory of Ephraim (YC),a town just north of Joppa, originally a military base (YC),a place 12 miles south of Shechem now called Jiljiliah (YC)
 · Havilah son of Cush son of Ham son of Noah,son of Joktan of Shem,a region encircled by the Pishon River,a place whose exact position is unknown
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Judah the son of Jacob and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,a tribe, the land/country,a son of Joseph; the father of Simeon; an ancestor of Jesus,son of Jacob/Israel and Leah; founder of the tribe of Judah,the tribe of Judah,citizens of the southern kingdom of Judah,citizens of the Persian Province of Judah; the Jews who had returned from Babylonian exile,"house of Judah", a phrase which highlights the political leadership of the tribe of Judah,"king of Judah", a phrase which relates to the southern kingdom of Judah,"kings of Judah", a phrase relating to the southern kingdom of Judah,"princes of Judah", a phrase relating to the kingdom of Judah,the territory allocated to the tribe of Judah, and also the extended territory of the southern kingdom of Judah,the Province of Judah under Persian rule,"hill country of Judah", the relatively cool and green central highlands of the territory of Judah,"the cities of Judah",the language of the Jews; Hebrew,head of a family of Levites who returned from Exile,a Levite who put away his heathen wife,a man who was second in command of Jerusalem; son of Hassenuah of Benjamin,a Levite in charge of the songs of thanksgiving in Nehemiah's time,a leader who helped dedicate Nehemiah's wall,a Levite musician who helped Zechariah of Asaph dedicate Nehemiah's wall
 · Kenite resident(s) of the southeastern hill country of Judah
 · Ramah a town 8 km north of Jerusalem,a town of Simeon,a town of Benjamin 9 km north of Jerusalem and 8 km south of Bethel (OS),a town on the border of Asher (OS),a town of Ephraim 10 km SE of Aphek, and 25 km east of Joppa,a town in Gilead 50-60 km east of Beth-Shan
 · Samuel son of Ammihud; Moses' land distribution deputy for Simeon,son of Tola son of Issachar
 · Saul the sixth king of Edom,son of Simeon and a Canaanite woman,son of Uzziah of Kohath son of Levi
 · Shur the wilderness region in the NW part of the Sinai isthmus
 · Telaim a place in the Negeb of Judah (OS)


Topik/Tema Kamus: Saul | Samuel | Agag | GOD, 2 | SAMUEL, BOOKS OF | Israel | ARABIA | Disobedience to God | Amalekites | Repentance | Rulers | Church and State | Lies and Deceits | Minister | Reproof | Gilgal | Self-righteousness | Duties of Men | Presumption | AMALEK; AMALEKITE | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
Maclaren , MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: 1Sa 15:1 - Hearken Thou hast committed error already, now regain God's favour by thy exact obedience to what he commands.

Thou hast committed error already, now regain God's favour by thy exact obedience to what he commands.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:2 - I remember Now I will revenge those old injuries of the Amalekites on their children: who continue in their parents practices.

Now I will revenge those old injuries of the Amalekites on their children: who continue in their parents practices.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:2 - Came from Egypt When he was newly come out of cruel and long bondage, and was now weak, and weary, and faint, and hungry, Deu 25:18, and therefore it was barbarous in...

When he was newly come out of cruel and long bondage, and was now weak, and weary, and faint, and hungry, Deu 25:18, and therefore it was barbarous instead of that pity which even Nature prompted them to afford, to add affliction to the afflicted; it was also horrid impiety to fight against God himself and to lift up their hand in a manner against the Lord's throne, whilst they struck at that people which God had brought forth in so stupendous a way.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:3 - Destroy Both persons and goods, kill all that live, and consume all things without life, for I will have no name nor remnant of that people left, whom long si...

Both persons and goods, kill all that live, and consume all things without life, for I will have no name nor remnant of that people left, whom long since I have devoted to utter destruction.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:3 - Spare not Shew no compassion or favour to any of them. The same thing repeated to prevent mistake, and oblige Saul to the exact performance hereof.

Shew no compassion or favour to any of them. The same thing repeated to prevent mistake, and oblige Saul to the exact performance hereof.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:3 - Slay, &c. Which was not unjust, because God is the supreme Lord of life, and can require his own when he pleaseth; infants likewise are born in sin, and therefo...

Which was not unjust, because God is the supreme Lord of life, and can require his own when he pleaseth; infants likewise are born in sin, and therefore liable to God's wrath. Their death also was rather a mercy than a curse, as being the occasion of preventing their sin and punishment.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:3 - Ox, &c. Which being all made for man's benefit, it is not strange if they suffer with him, for the instruction of mankind.

Which being all made for man's benefit, it is not strange if they suffer with him, for the instruction of mankind.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:6 - Kenites A people descending from, or nearly related to Jethro, who anciently dwelt in rocks near the Amalekites, Num 24:21, and afterwards some of them dwelt ...

A people descending from, or nearly related to Jethro, who anciently dwelt in rocks near the Amalekites, Num 24:21, and afterwards some of them dwelt in Judah, Jdg 1:16, whence it is probable they removed, (which, dwelling in tents, they could easily do) and retired to their old habitation, because of the wars and troubles wherewith Judah was annoyed.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:6 - Shewed kindness Some of your progenitors did so, and for their sakes all of you shall fare the better. You were not guilty of that sin for which Amalek is now to be d...

Some of your progenitors did so, and for their sakes all of you shall fare the better. You were not guilty of that sin for which Amalek is now to be destroyed. When destroying judgments are abroad God takes care to separate the precious from the vile. It is then especially dangerous to be found in the company of God's enemies. The Jews have a saying, Wo to a wicked man, and to his neighbour.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:7 - To Shur That is, from one end of their country to the other; he smote all that he met with: but a great number of them fled away upon the noise of his coming,...

That is, from one end of their country to the other; he smote all that he met with: but a great number of them fled away upon the noise of his coming, and secured themselves in other places, 'till the storm was over.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:8 - All Whom he found. Now they paid dear for the sin of their ancestors. They were themselves guilty of idolatry and numberless sins, for which they deserved...

Whom he found. Now they paid dear for the sin of their ancestors. They were themselves guilty of idolatry and numberless sins, for which they deserved to be cut off. Yet when God would reckon with them, he fixes upon this as the ground of his quarrel.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:9 - Vile Thus they obeyed God only so far as they could without inconvenience to themselves.

Thus they obeyed God only so far as they could without inconvenience to themselves.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:11 - Repenteth Repentance implies grief of heart, and change of counsels, and therefore cannot be in God: but it is ascribed to God when God alters his method of dea...

Repentance implies grief of heart, and change of counsels, and therefore cannot be in God: but it is ascribed to God when God alters his method of dealing, and treats a person as if be did indeed repent of the kindness he had shewed him.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:11 - All night To implore his pardoning mercy for Saul, and for the people.

To implore his pardoning mercy for Saul, and for the people.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:11 - Is turned back Therefore he did once follow God. Otherwise it would have been impossible, he should turn back from following him.

Therefore he did once follow God. Otherwise it would have been impossible, he should turn back from following him.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:12 - A place That is, a monument or trophy of his victory.

That is, a monument or trophy of his victory.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:13 - They That is, the people. Thus, he lays the blame upon the people; whereas they could not do it without his consent; and he should have used his power to o...

That is, the people. Thus, he lays the blame upon the people; whereas they could not do it without his consent; and he should have used his power to over - rule them.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:18 - A journey So easy was the service, and so certain the success, that it was rather to be called a journey than a war.

So easy was the service, and so certain the success, that it was rather to be called a journey than a war.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:20 - The king To be dealt with as God pleaseth.

To be dealt with as God pleaseth.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:21 - But the people, &c. _Here the conscience of Saul begins to awake, tho' but a little: for he still lays the blame on the people.

_Here the conscience of Saul begins to awake, tho' but a little: for he still lays the blame on the people.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:22 - Sacrifice Because obedience to God is a moral duty, constantly and indispensably necessary; but sacrifice is but a ceremonial institution, sometimes unnecessary...

Because obedience to God is a moral duty, constantly and indispensably necessary; but sacrifice is but a ceremonial institution, sometimes unnecessary, as it was in the wilderness: and sometimes sinful, when it is offered by a polluted hand, or in an irregular manner. Therefore thy gross disobedience to God's express command, is not to be compensated with sacrifice.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:22 - Hearken That is, to obey.

That is, to obey.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:22 - Fat Then the choicest part of all the sacrifice.

Then the choicest part of all the sacrifice.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:23 - Rebellion Disobedience to God's command.

Disobedience to God's command.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:23 - Stubbornness Contumacy in sin, justifying it, and pleading for it.

Contumacy in sin, justifying it, and pleading for it.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:23 - Iniquity Or, the iniquity of idolatry.

Or, the iniquity of idolatry.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:23 - Rejected Hath pronounced the sentence of rejection: for that he was not actually deposed by God before, plainly appears, because not only the people, but even ...

Hath pronounced the sentence of rejection: for that he was not actually deposed by God before, plainly appears, because not only the people, but even David, after this, owned him as king. Those are unworthy to rule over men, who are not willing that God should rule over them.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:24 - I have sinned It does by no means appear, that Saul acts the hypocrite herein, in assigning a false cause of his disobedience. Rather, he nakedly declares the thing...

It does by no means appear, that Saul acts the hypocrite herein, in assigning a false cause of his disobedience. Rather, he nakedly declares the thing as it was.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:25 - Pardon my sin Neither can it be proved that there was any hypocrisy in this. Rather charity requires us to believe, that he sincerely desired pardon, both from God ...

Neither can it be proved that there was any hypocrisy in this. Rather charity requires us to believe, that he sincerely desired pardon, both from God and man, as he now knew, he had sinned against both.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:26 - I will not This was no lie, though he afterwards returned, because he spoke what he meant; his words and his intentions agreed together, though afterwards he saw...

This was no lie, though he afterwards returned, because he spoke what he meant; his words and his intentions agreed together, though afterwards he saw reason to change his intentions. Compare Gen 19:2-3. This may relieve many perplexed consciences, who think themselves obliged to do what they have said they would do, though they see just cause to change their minds.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:26 - Hath rejected thee, &c. But he does not say, he "hath rejected thee from salvation." And who besides hath authority to say so?

But he does not say, he "hath rejected thee from salvation." And who besides hath authority to say so?

Wesley: 1Sa 15:29 - Strength of Israel So he calls God here, to shew the reason why God neither will nor can lie; because lying proceeds from the sense of a man's weakness, who cannot many ...

So he calls God here, to shew the reason why God neither will nor can lie; because lying proceeds from the sense of a man's weakness, who cannot many times accomplish his design without lying and dissimulation; therefore many princes have used it for this very reason. But God needs no such artifices; he can do whatsoever he pleaseth by his absolute power.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:29 - Repent That is, nor change his counsel; which also is an effect of weakness and imperfection, either of wisdom or power. So that this word is not here used i...

That is, nor change his counsel; which also is an effect of weakness and imperfection, either of wisdom or power. So that this word is not here used in the sense it commonly is when applied to God, as in Jer. 11:1-23, and lsewhere.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:31 - Turned First, that the people might not upon pretence of this sentence of rejection, withdraw their obedience to their sovereign; whereby they would both hav...

First, that the people might not upon pretence of this sentence of rejection, withdraw their obedience to their sovereign; whereby they would both have sinned against God, and have been as sheep without a shepherd. Secondly, that he might rectify Saul's error, and execute God's judgment upon Agag.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:33 - As, &c. _Whereby it appears, that he was a tyrant, and guilty of many bloody actions. And this seems to be added for the fuller vindication of God's justice, ...

_Whereby it appears, that he was a tyrant, and guilty of many bloody actions. And this seems to be added for the fuller vindication of God's justice, and to shew, that although God did at this time revenge a crime committed by this man's ancestors 400 years ago, yet he did not punish an innocent son for his father's crimes, but one that persisted in the same evil courses.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:33 - Hewed This he did by divine instinct, and in pursuance of God's express command, which being sinfully neglected by Saul, is now executed by Samuel. But thes...

This he did by divine instinct, and in pursuance of God's express command, which being sinfully neglected by Saul, is now executed by Samuel. But these are no precedents for private persons to take the sword of justice into their hands. For we must live by the laws of God, and not by extraordinary examples.

Wesley: 1Sa 15:35 - To see Saul That is, to visit him, in token of respect or friendship: or, to seek counsel from God for him. Otherwise he did see him 1Sa 19:24. Though indeed it w...

That is, to visit him, in token of respect or friendship: or, to seek counsel from God for him. Otherwise he did see him 1Sa 19:24. Though indeed it was not Samuel that came thither with design to see Saul, but Saul went thither to see Samuel, and that accidentally.

JFB: 1Sa 15:1 - Samuel also said unto Saul, The Lord sent me to anoint thee . . .: now therefore hearken thou unto . . . the Lord Several years had been passed in successful military operations against troublesome neighbors. During these Saul had been left to act in a great measu...

Several years had been passed in successful military operations against troublesome neighbors. During these Saul had been left to act in a great measure at his own discretion as an independent prince. Now a second test is proposed of his possessing the character of a theocratic monarch in Israel; and in announcing the duty required of him, Samuel brought before him his official station as the Lord's vicegerent, and the peculiar obligation under which he was laid to act in that capacity. He had formerly done wrong, for which a severe rebuke and threatening were administered to him (1Sa 13:13-14). Now an opportunity was afforded him of retrieving that error by an exact obedience to the divine command.

JFB: 1Sa 15:2-3 - Amalek The powerful tribe which inhabited the country immediately to the eastward of the northern Cushites. Their territory extended over the whole of the ea...

The powerful tribe which inhabited the country immediately to the eastward of the northern Cushites. Their territory extended over the whole of the eastern portion of the desert of Sinai to Rephidim--the earliest opponent (Deu 25:18; Exo 17:8-16) --the hereditary and restless enemy of Israel (Num 14:45; Jdg 3:13; Jdg 6:3), and who had not repented (1Sa 14:48) of their bitter and sleepless hatred during the five hundred years that had elapsed since their doom was pronounced. Being a people of nomadic habits, they were as plundering and dangerous as the Bedouin Arabs, particularly to the southern tribes. The national interest required, and God, as KING OF ISRAEL, decreed that this public enemy should be removed. Their destruction was to be without reservation or exception.

JFB: 1Sa 15:2-3 - I remember I am reminded of what Amalek did--perhaps by the still remaining trophy or memorial erected by Moses (Exo 17:15-16).

I am reminded of what Amalek did--perhaps by the still remaining trophy or memorial erected by Moses (Exo 17:15-16).

JFB: 1Sa 15:4 - Saul gathered the people together The alacrity with which he entered on the necessary preparations for the expedition gave a fair, but delusive promise of faithfulness in its execution...

The alacrity with which he entered on the necessary preparations for the expedition gave a fair, but delusive promise of faithfulness in its execution.

JFB: 1Sa 15:4 - Telaim Or Telem, among the uttermost cities of the tribe of Judah towards the coast of Edom (Jos 15:21, Jos 15:24).

Or Telem, among the uttermost cities of the tribe of Judah towards the coast of Edom (Jos 15:21, Jos 15:24).

JFB: 1Sa 15:5 - Saul came to a city of Amalek Probably their capital.

Probably their capital.

JFB: 1Sa 15:5 - laid wait in the valley Following the strategic policy of Joshua at Ai (Jos 8:4).

Following the strategic policy of Joshua at Ai (Jos 8:4).

JFB: 1Sa 15:6 - Kenites (See on Jdg 1:16). In consequence, probably, of the unsettled state of Judah, they seem to have returned to their old desert tracts. Though now interm...

(See on Jdg 1:16). In consequence, probably, of the unsettled state of Judah, they seem to have returned to their old desert tracts. Though now intermingled with the Amalekites, they were not implicated in the offenses of that wicked race; but for the sake of their ancestors, between whom and those of Israel there had been a league of amity, a timely warning was afforded them to remove from the scene of danger.

JFB: 1Sa 15:7-9 - Saul smote the Amalekites His own view of the proper and expedient course to follow was his rule, not the command of God.

His own view of the proper and expedient course to follow was his rule, not the command of God.

JFB: 1Sa 15:8-9 - he took Agag . . . alive This was the common title of the Amalekite kings. He had no scruple about the apparent cruelty of it, for he made fierce and indiscriminate havoc of t...

This was the common title of the Amalekite kings. He had no scruple about the apparent cruelty of it, for he made fierce and indiscriminate havoc of the people. But he spared Agag, probably to enjoy the glory of displaying so distinguished a captive, and, in like manner, the most valuable portions of the booty, as the cattle. By this wilful and partial obedience to a positive command [1Sa 15:3], complying with it in some parts and violating it in others, as suited his own taste and humor, Saul showed his selfish, arbitrary temper, and his love of despotic power, and his utter unfitness to perform the duties of a delegated king in Israel.

JFB: 1Sa 15:10-11 - Then came the word of the Lord unto Samuel, saying, It repenteth me that I have set up Saul Repentance is attributed in Scripture to Him when bad men give Him cause to alter His course and method of procedure, and to treat them as if He did "...

Repentance is attributed in Scripture to Him when bad men give Him cause to alter His course and method of procedure, and to treat them as if He did "repent" of kindness shown. To the heart of a man like Samuel, who was above all envious considerations, and really attached to the king, so painful an announcement moved all his pity and led him to pass a sleepless night of earnest intercession.

JFB: 1Sa 15:12 - Saul came to Carmel In the south of Judah (Jos 15:55; 1Sa 25:2).

In the south of Judah (Jos 15:55; 1Sa 25:2).

JFB: 1Sa 15:12 - he set him up a place That is, a pillar (2Sa 18:18); literally, a hand, indicating that whatever was the form of the monument, it was surmounted, according to the ancient f...

That is, a pillar (2Sa 18:18); literally, a hand, indicating that whatever was the form of the monument, it was surmounted, according to the ancient fashion, by the figure of a hand, the symbol of power and energy. The erection of this vainglorious trophy was an additional act of disobedience. His pride had overborne his sense of duty in first raising this monument to his own honor, and then going to Gilgal to offer sacrifice to God.|| 07574||1||11||0||@Saul said unto him, Blessed be thou of the Lord: I have performed the commandment of the Lord==--Saul was either blinded by a partial and delusive self-love, or he was, in his declaration to Samuel, acting the part of a bold and artful hypocrite. He professed to have fulfilled the divine command, and that the blame of any defects in the execution lay with the people. Samuel saw the real state of the case, and in discharge of the commission he had received before setting out, proceeded to denounce his conduct as characterized by pride, rebellion, and obstinate disobedience. When Saul persisted in declaring that he had obeyed, alleging that the animals, whose bleating was heard, had been reserved for a liberal sacrifice of thanksgiving to God, his shuffling, prevaricating answer called forth a stern rebuke from the prophet. It well deserved it--for the destination of the spoil to the altar was a flimsy pretext--a gross deception, an attempt to conceal the selfishness of the original motive under the cloak of religious zeal and gratitude.

JFB: 1Sa 15:24-26 - I have sinned . . . turn again with me, that I may worship the Lord The erring, but proud and obstinate monarch was now humbled. He was conscience-smitten for the moment, but his confession proceeded not from sincere r...

The erring, but proud and obstinate monarch was now humbled. He was conscience-smitten for the moment, but his confession proceeded not from sincere repentance, but from a sense of danger and desire of averting the sentence denounced against him. For the sake of public appearance, he besought Samuel not to allow their serious differences to transpire, but to join with him in a public act of worship. Under the influence of his painfully agitated feelings, he designed to offer sacrifice, partly to express his gratitude for the recent victory, and partly to implore mercy and a reversal of his doom. It was, from another angle, a politic scheme, that Samuel might be betrayed into a countenancing of his design in reserving the cattle for sacrificing. Samuel declined to accompany him.

JFB: 1Sa 15:24-26 - I feared the people, and obeyed their voice This was a different reason from the former he had assigned. It was the language of a man driven to extremities, and even had it been true, the princi...

This was a different reason from the former he had assigned. It was the language of a man driven to extremities, and even had it been true, the principles expounded by Samuel showed that it could have been no extenuation of the offense. The prophet then pronounced the irreversible sentence of the rejection of Saul and his family. He was judicially cut off for his disobedience.

JFB: 1Sa 15:27-28 - he laid hold upon the skirt of his mantle The moil, upper tunic, official robe. In an agony of mental excitement, he took hold of the prophet's dress to detain him; the rending of the mantle [...

The moil, upper tunic, official robe. In an agony of mental excitement, he took hold of the prophet's dress to detain him; the rending of the mantle [1Sa 15:27] was adroitly pointed to as a significant and mystical representation of his severance from the throne.

JFB: 1Sa 15:29 - the Strength of Israel will not lie Hebrew, "He that gives a victory to Israel," a further rebuke of his pride in rearing the Carmel trophy, and an intimation that no loss would be susta...

Hebrew, "He that gives a victory to Israel," a further rebuke of his pride in rearing the Carmel trophy, and an intimation that no loss would be sustained in Israel by his rejection.

JFB: 1Sa 15:31 - Samuel turned again after Saul Not to worship along with him; but first, that the people might have no ground, on pretense of Saul's rejection, to withdraw their allegiance from him...

Not to worship along with him; but first, that the people might have no ground, on pretense of Saul's rejection, to withdraw their allegiance from him; and secondly, to compensate for Saul's error, by executing God's judgment upon Agag.

JFB: 1Sa 15:32 - Agag came unto him delicately Or cheerfully, since he had gained the favor and protection of the king.

Or cheerfully, since he had gained the favor and protection of the king.

JFB: 1Sa 15:33 - Samuel hewed Agag This cruel tyrant met the retribution of a righteous Providence. Never has it been unusual for great or official personages in the East to perform exe...

This cruel tyrant met the retribution of a righteous Providence. Never has it been unusual for great or official personages in the East to perform executions with their own hands. Samuel did it "before the Lord" in Gilgal, appointing that same mode of punishment (hitherto unknown in Israel) to be used towards him, which he had formerly used towards others.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:1 - The Lord sent me to anoint thee The Lord sent me to anoint thee - This gave him a right to say what immediately follows.

The Lord sent me to anoint thee - This gave him a right to say what immediately follows.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:2 - I remember that which Amalek did I remember that which Amalek did - The Amalekites were a people of Arabia Petraea, who had occupied a tract of country on the frontiers of Egypt and...

I remember that which Amalek did - The Amalekites were a people of Arabia Petraea, who had occupied a tract of country on the frontiers of Egypt and Palestine. They had acted with great cruelty towards the Israelites on their coming out of Egypt. (See Exo 17:8 (note), and the notes there). They came upon them when they were faint and weary, and smote the hindermost of the people - those who were too weak to keep up with the rest. (See Deu 25:18). And God then purposed that Amalek, as a nation, should be blotted out from under heaven; which purpose was now fulfilled by Saul upwards of four hundred years afterwards!

Clarke: 1Sa 15:3 - Slay both man and woman Slay both man and woman - Nothing could justify such an exterminating decree but the absolute authority of God. This was given: all the reasons of i...

Slay both man and woman - Nothing could justify such an exterminating decree but the absolute authority of God. This was given: all the reasons of it we do not know; but this we know well, The Judge of all the earth doth right. This war was not for plunder, for God commanded that all the property as well as all the people should be destroyed.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:4 - Two hundred thousand - and ten thousand Two hundred thousand - and ten thousand - The Septuagint, in the London Polyglot, have Four Hundred thousand companies of Israel, and Thirty thousan...

Two hundred thousand - and ten thousand - The Septuagint, in the London Polyglot, have Four Hundred thousand companies of Israel, and Thirty thousand companies of Judah. The Codex Alexandrinus has Ten thousand of each. The Complutensian Polyglot has Two Hundred thousand companies of Israel, and Ten thousand of Judah. And Josephus has Four Hundred thousand of Israel, and Thirty thousand of Judah. All the other versions are the same with the Hebrew text; and there is no difference in the MSS.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:5 - Saul came to a city of Amalek Saul came to a city of Amalek - I believe the original should be translated, and Saul came to the city Amalek; their capital being called by the nam...

Saul came to a city of Amalek - I believe the original should be translated, and Saul came to the city Amalek; their capital being called by the name of their tribe.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:6 - Said unto the Kenites Said unto the Kenites - The Kenites were an ancient people. Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, was a Kenite. Hobab his son (if the same person be n...

Said unto the Kenites - The Kenites were an ancient people. Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, was a Kenite. Hobab his son (if the same person be not meant) was guide to the Hebrews through the wilderness. They had a portion of the promised land, near to the city Arad. See Jdg 1:16; and for more particulars concerning them and the Amalekites, see the notes on Num 26:20-21 (note).

Clarke: 1Sa 15:7 - From Havilah - to Shur From Havilah - to Shur - From Pelusium in Egypt, unto the Red Sea. - Josephus. But Havilah lay eastward from the Red Sea; the Amalekites lay between...

From Havilah - to Shur - From Pelusium in Egypt, unto the Red Sea. - Josephus. But Havilah lay eastward from the Red Sea; the Amalekites lay between this and the way to Egypt towards Shur.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:11 - It repenteth me that I have set up Saul It repenteth me that I have set up Saul - That is, I placed him on the throne; I intended, if he had been obedient, to have established his kingdom....

It repenteth me that I have set up Saul - That is, I placed him on the throne; I intended, if he had been obedient, to have established his kingdom. He has been disobedient; I change my purpose, and the kingdom shall not be established in his family. This is what is meant by God’ s repenting - changing a purpose according to conditions already laid down or mentally determined.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:12 - He set him up a place He set him up a place - Literally, a hand, יד yad . Some say it was a monument; others, a triumphal arch: probably it was no more than a hand, p...

He set him up a place - Literally, a hand, יד yad . Some say it was a monument; others, a triumphal arch: probably it was no more than a hand, pointing out the place where Saul had gained the victory. Absalom’ s pillar is called the hand of Absalom, 2Sa 18:18.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:15 - The people spared the best of the sheep The people spared the best of the sheep - It is very likely that the people did spare the best of the prey; and it is as likely that Saul might have...

The people spared the best of the sheep - It is very likely that the people did spare the best of the prey; and it is as likely that Saul might have restrained them if he would. That they might not love war, God had interdicted spoil and plunder, so the war was undertaken merely from a sense of duty, without any hope of enriching themselves by it.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:17 - Little in thine own sight Little in thine own sight - Who can bear prosperity? Is it not of the Lord’ s great goodness that the majority of the inhabitants of the earth ...

Little in thine own sight - Who can bear prosperity? Is it not of the Lord’ s great goodness that the majority of the inhabitants of the earth are in comparative poverty?

Clarke: 1Sa 15:21 - To sacrifice unto the Lord To sacrifice unto the Lord - Thus he endeavors to excuse the people. They did not take the spoil in order to enrich themselves by it, but to sacrifi...

To sacrifice unto the Lord - Thus he endeavors to excuse the people. They did not take the spoil in order to enrich themselves by it, but to sacrifice unto the Lord; and did not this motive justify their conduct?

Clarke: 1Sa 15:22 - Hath the Lord as great delight, etc. Hath the Lord as great delight, etc. - This was a very proper answer to, and refutation of Saul’ s excuse. Is not obedience to the will of God ...

Hath the Lord as great delight, etc. - This was a very proper answer to, and refutation of Saul’ s excuse. Is not obedience to the will of God the end of all religion, of its rites, ceremonies, and sacrifices?

Clarke: 1Sa 15:23 - For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry - This is no translation of those difficult words, כי ח...

For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry - This is no translation of those difficult words, כי חטאת קסם מרי ואון ותרפים הפצר ki chattath kesem meri veaven utheraphim haphtsar . It appears to me that the three nouns which occur first in the text refer each to the three last in order. Thus, חטאת chattath , Transgression, refers to און aven , Iniquity, which is the principle whence transgression springs. קסם kesem , Divination, refers to תרפים teraphim , consecrated images or telesms, vulgarly talismans, used in incantations. And מרי meri , Rebellion, refers evidently to הפצר haphstar , Stubbornness, whence rebellion springs. The meaning therefore of this difficult place may be the following: As transgression comes from iniquity, divination from teraphim, and rebellion from stubbornness, so, because thou hast rejected the word of the Lord, he hath also rejected thee from being king. All the versions are different.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:24 - I have sinned - because I feared the people I have sinned - because I feared the people - This was the best excuse he could make for himself; but had he feared God more, he need have feared th...

I have sinned - because I feared the people - This was the best excuse he could make for himself; but had he feared God more, he need have feared the People less.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:25 - Pardon my sin Pardon my sin - Literally, bear my sin; take it away; forgive what I have done against thee, and be my intercessor with God, that he may forgive my ...

Pardon my sin - Literally, bear my sin; take it away; forgive what I have done against thee, and be my intercessor with God, that he may forgive my offense against him; turn again with me, that I may worship the Lord.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:26 - I will not return with thee I will not return with thee - I cannot acknowledge thee as king, seeing the Lord hath rejected thee.

I will not return with thee - I cannot acknowledge thee as king, seeing the Lord hath rejected thee.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:29 - The Strength of Israel will not lie The Strength of Israel will not lie - What God has purposed he will bring to pass, for he has all power in the heavens and in the earth; and he will...

The Strength of Israel will not lie - What God has purposed he will bring to pass, for he has all power in the heavens and in the earth; and he will not repent - change his purpose - concerning thee

We may say it was some extenuation of Saul’ s fault that the people insisted on preserving the best of the prey; for who could resist the demands of a victorious mob? But his crime was in consenting; had he not, the crime would have been theirs alone.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:32 - Agag came unto him delicately Agag came unto him delicately - The Septuagint have τρεμων, trembling; the original, מעדנת maadannoth , delicacies; probably איש is...

Agag came unto him delicately - The Septuagint have τρεμων, trembling; the original, מעדנת maadannoth , delicacies; probably איש ish , man, understood; a man of delights, a pleasure-taker: the Vulgate, pinguissimus et tremens , "very fat and trembling.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:32 - Surely the bitterness of death is past Surely the bitterness of death is past - Almost all the versions render this differently from ours. Surely death is bitter, is their general sense; ...

Surely the bitterness of death is past - Almost all the versions render this differently from ours. Surely death is bitter, is their general sense; and this seems to be the true meaning.

Clarke: 1Sa 15:33 - As thy sword hath made women childless As thy sword hath made women childless - It appears that Agag had forfeited his life by his own personal transgressions, and that his death now was ...

As thy sword hath made women childless - It appears that Agag had forfeited his life by his own personal transgressions, and that his death now was the retribution of his cruelties

And Samuel hewed Agag in pieces -

1.    What Samuel did here he did in his magisterial capacity; and

2.    It is not likely he did it by his own sword, but by that of an executioner. What kings, magistrates, and generals do, in an official way, by their subjects, servants, or soldiers, they are said to do themselves; qui facit per alterum, facit per se .

Clarke: 1Sa 15:35 - And Samuel came no more to see Saul And Samuel came no more to see Saul - But we read, 1Sa 19:22-24, that Saul went to see Samuel at Naioth, but this does not affect what is said here....

And Samuel came no more to see Saul - But we read, 1Sa 19:22-24, that Saul went to see Samuel at Naioth, but this does not affect what is said here. From this time Samuel had no connection with Saul; he never more acknowledged him as king; he mourned and prayed for him, and continued to perform his prophetic functions at Ramah, and at Naioth, superintending the school of the prophets in that place.

Defender: 1Sa 15:3 - smite Amalek It is generally assumed that the Amalekites were descendants of Esau's grandson (Gen 36:12). There is a reference, however, to "the country of the Ama...

It is generally assumed that the Amalekites were descendants of Esau's grandson (Gen 36:12). There is a reference, however, to "the country of the Amalekites" in the earlier times of Abraham (Gen 14:7). It may be that there was an earlier Amalek, a descendant of Canaan, after whom Esau's grandson was named. In any case, the Amalekites were cruel and inveterate enemies of Israel. They had tried to destroy Israel as soon as God's people escaped from Egypt, and God therefore had ordained their future destruction (Exo 17:8-16; Deu 25:17-19)."

Defender: 1Sa 15:8 - destroyed all the people This statement evidently applies only to the people of the particular Amalekite cities attacked by Saul. David later destroyed many of the Amalekites ...

This statement evidently applies only to the people of the particular Amalekite cities attacked by Saul. David later destroyed many of the Amalekites (1Sa 27:8, 1Sa 27:9; 1Sa 30:1, 1Sa 30:17), and Saul himself was eventually slain by an Amalekite (2Sa 1:5-13)."

Defender: 1Sa 15:29 - will not lie nor repent Skeptics have alleged that this statement contradicts 1Sa 15:11 : "It repenteth me that I have set up Saul to be king" (1Sa 15:35). How can God both r...

Skeptics have alleged that this statement contradicts 1Sa 15:11 : "It repenteth me that I have set up Saul to be king" (1Sa 15:35). How can God both repent and not repent? The answer is that His "repentance" (meaning "change of mind") refers to His actions, His non-repentance to His character. That is, He seems to outside observers to change His mind and His resulting action precisely because - as the all-righteous God - He does not change His mind regarding the character of sin and its consequences."

Defender: 1Sa 15:33 - Agag in pieces This action of Samuel's has been attacked by critics as unworthy of a prophet of God. Agag's murderous cruelty, however, which had undoubtedly contrib...

This action of Samuel's has been attacked by critics as unworthy of a prophet of God. Agag's murderous cruelty, however, which had undoubtedly contributed to God's command to destroy the Amalekites at this particular time, putting into effect the promise uttered over 300 years earlier (Exo 17:14-16), was itself adequate justification for such a graphically visual object lesson to the people concerning the eventual consequences of wickedness."

TSK: 1Sa 15:1 - The Lord // hearken am 2925, bc 1079, An, Ex, Is, 412 The Lord : 1Sa 15:17, 1Sa 15:18, 1Sa 9:16, 1Sa 10:1 hearken : 1Sa 15:16, 1Sa 12:14, 1Sa 13:13; 2Sa 23:2, 2Sa 23:3; 1...

am 2925, bc 1079, An, Ex, Is, 412

The Lord : 1Sa 15:17, 1Sa 15:18, 1Sa 9:16, 1Sa 10:1

hearken : 1Sa 15:16, 1Sa 12:14, 1Sa 13:13; 2Sa 23:2, 2Sa 23:3; 1Ch 22:12, 1Ch 22:13; Psa 2:10, Psa 2:11

TSK: 1Sa 15:2 - I remember // Amalek I remember : Jer 31:34; Hos 7:2; Amo 8:7 Amalek : Exo 17:8-16; Num 24:20; Deu 25:17-19

TSK: 1Sa 15:3 - Now go // utterly destroy // slay // ox and sheep Now go : The Amalekites, a people of Arabia Petrea, who inhabited a tract of country on the frontiers of Egypt and Canaan, had acted with great cruelt...

Now go : The Amalekites, a people of Arabia Petrea, who inhabited a tract of country on the frontiers of Egypt and Canaan, had acted with great cruelty towards the Israelites on their coming out of Egypt, and God then purposed that Amalek, as a nation, should be blotted out from under heaven; but it had been spared till it had filled up the measure of its iniquities, and now this purpose is carried into effect by Saul, upwards of 400 years afterwards! Nothing could justify such an exterminating decree but the absolute authority of God; and this was givencaps1 . acaps0 ll the reasons of it we do not know; but this we know well, the Judge of all the earth doeth right.

utterly destroy : Lev 27:28, Lev 27:29; Num 24:20; Deu 13:15, Deu 13:16, Deu 20:16-18; Jos 6:17-21

slay : Exo 20:5; Num 31:17; Isa 14:21, Isa 14:22

ox and sheep : Gen 3:17, Gen 3:18; Rom 8:20-22

TSK: 1Sa 15:4 - Telaim // two Telaim : Jos 15:24, Telem two : 1Sa 11:8, 1Sa 13:15

Telaim : Jos 15:24, Telem

two : 1Sa 11:8, 1Sa 13:15

TSK: 1Sa 15:5 - laid wait laid wait : or, fought, 1Sa 15:5

laid wait : or, fought, 1Sa 15:5

TSK: 1Sa 15:6 - the Kenites // depart // ye showed the Kenites : 1Sa 27:10; Num 24:21, Num 24:22; Jdg 1:16, Jdg 4:11, Jdg 5:24; 1Ch 2:55 depart : Gen 18:25, Gen 19:12-16; Num 16:26, Num 16:27, Num 16:3...

TSK: 1Sa 15:7 - smote // Havilah // Shur smote : 1Sa 14:48; Job 21:30; Ecc 8:13 Havilah : This Havilah was probably situated in Arabia, and the district of Chaulon may mark the spot. It seem...

smote : 1Sa 14:48; Job 21:30; Ecc 8:13

Havilah : This Havilah was probably situated in Arabia, and the district of Chaulon may mark the spot. It seems different from that encompassed by the river Pison, one of the rivers of Eden. Gen 2:11, Gen 25:18

Shur : 1Sa 27:8; Gen 16:7

TSK: 1Sa 15:8 - Agag // utterly Agag : 1Sa 15:3; Num 24:7; 1Ki 20:30, 1Ki 20:34-42; Est 3:1 utterly : 1Sa 27:8, 1Sa 30:1; Jos 10:39, Jos 11:12

TSK: 1Sa 15:9 - the best // the fatlings the best : 1Sa 15:3, 1Sa 15:15, 1Sa 15:19; Jos 7:21 the fatlings : or, the second sort, 2Sa 6:13

the best : 1Sa 15:3, 1Sa 15:15, 1Sa 15:19; Jos 7:21

the fatlings : or, the second sort, 2Sa 6:13

TSK: 1Sa 15:11 - repenteth me // turned // hath not performed // it grieved // he cried repenteth me : 1Sa 15:35; Gen 6:6; 2Sa 24:16; Psa 110:4; Jer 18:7-10; Amo 7:3; Jon 3:10, Jon 4:2 turned : Jos 22:16; 1Ki 9:6; Psa 36:3, Psa 78:41, Psa...

TSK: 1Sa 15:12 - Carmel // he set him // a place Carmel : 1Sa 25:2; Jos 15:55; 1Ki 18:42 he set him : 1Sa 7:12; Jos 4:8, Jos 4:9; 2Sa 18:18 a place : Yad , Literally as the LXX render χειρα ...

Carmel : 1Sa 25:2; Jos 15:55; 1Ki 18:42

he set him : 1Sa 7:12; Jos 4:8, Jos 4:9; 2Sa 18:18

a place : Yad , Literally as the LXX render χειρα , a hand; probably because the trophy or monument of victory was in the shape of a large hand, the emblem of power, erected on a pillar. These memorial pillars were anciently much in use; and the figure of a hand, by its emblematical meaning, was well adapted to preserve the remembrance of a victory. Niebuhr, speaking of the Mesjed Ali, or Mosque of Ali, says that, ""at the top of the dome, where one generally sees on the Turkish mosques a crescent, or only a pole, there is here a hand stretched out, to represent that of Ali.""Another writer informs us, that at the Alhamra, or red palace of the Moorish kings in Grenada, ""on the key-stone of the outward arch [of the present principal entrance] is sculptured the figure of an arm, the symbol of strength and dominion.""

TSK: 1Sa 15:13 - Blessed // I have performed Blessed : 1Sa 13:10; Gen 14:19; Jdg 17:2; Rth 3:10 I have performed : 1Sa 15:9, 1Sa 15:11; Gen 3:12; Pro 27:2, Pro 28:13, Pro 30:13, Pro 31:31; Luk 17...

TSK: 1Sa 15:14 - What meaneth What meaneth : Psa 36:2, Psa 50:16-21; Jer 2:18, Jer 2:19, Jer 2:22, Jer 2:23, Jer 2:34-37; Mal 3:13-15; Luk 19:22; Rom 3:19; 1Co 4:5

TSK: 1Sa 15:15 - for // to for : 1Sa 15:9, 1Sa 15:21; Gen 3:12, Gen 3:13; Exo 32:22, Exo 32:23; Job 31:33; Pro 28:13 to : Mat 2:8; Luk 10:29

TSK: 1Sa 15:16 - Stay Stay : 1Sa 9:27, 1Sa 12:7; 1Ki 22:16

TSK: 1Sa 15:17 - When thou // the Lord When thou : 1Sa 9:21, 1Sa 10:22; Jdg 6:15; Hos 13:1; Mat 18:4 the Lord : 1Sa 15:1-3, 1Sa 10:1

TSK: 1Sa 15:18 - the sinners // they be consumed the sinners : Gen 13:13, Gen 15:16; Num 16:38; Job 31:3; Pro 10:29, Pro 13:21 they be consumed : Heb. they consume them

the sinners : Gen 13:13, Gen 15:16; Num 16:38; Job 31:3; Pro 10:29, Pro 13:21

they be consumed : Heb. they consume them

TSK: 1Sa 15:19 - fly upon // didst evil fly upon : Pro 15:27; Jer 7:11; Hab 2:9-12; 2Ti 4:10 didst evil : 2Ch 33:2, 2Ch 33:6, 2Ch 36:12

TSK: 1Sa 15:20 - Yea // have brought Yea : 1Sa 15:13; Job 33:9, Job 34:5, Job 35:2, Job 40:8; Mat 19:20; Luk 10:29, Luk 18:11; Rom 10:3 have brought : 1Sa 15:3, 1Sa 15:8

TSK: 1Sa 15:21 - the people the people : 1Sa 15:15; Gen 3:13; Exo 32:22, Exo 32:23

TSK: 1Sa 15:22 - Hath the Lord // obey Hath the Lord : Psa 50:8, Psa 50:9, Psa 51:16, Psa 51:17; Pro 21:3; Isa 1:11-17; Jer 7:22, Jer 7:23; Hos 6:6; Amo 5:21-24; Mic 6:6-8; Mat 9:13, Mat 12...

TSK: 1Sa 15:23 - rebellion // witchcraft // stubbornness // thou hast rejected rebellion : 1Sa 12:14, 1Sa 12:15; Num 14:9; Deu 9:7, Deu 9:24; Jos 22:16-19; Job 34:37; Psa 107:11; Jer 28:16, Jer 29:32; Eze 2:5-8 witchcraft : Heb. ...

TSK: 1Sa 15:24 - I have sinned // I feared // obeyed I have sinned : 1Sa 15:30; Exo 9:27, Exo 10:16; Num 22:34; 2Sa 12:13; Mat 27:4 I feared : 1Sa 15:9, 1Sa 15:15; Exo 23:2; Job 31:34; Pro 29:25; Isa 51:...

TSK: 1Sa 15:25 - pardon pardon : Exo 10:17

pardon : Exo 10:17

TSK: 1Sa 15:26 - I will not // for thou I will not : 1Sa 15:31; Gen 42:38, Gen 43:11-14; Luk 24:28, Luk 24:29; 2Jo 1:11 for thou : 1Sa 15:23, 1Sa 2:30, 1Sa 13:14, 1Sa 16:1; Jer 6:19; Hos 4:6

TSK: 1Sa 15:28 - The Lord // hath given // a neighbour The Lord : 1Sa 28:17, 1Sa 28:18; 1Ki 11:30, 1Ki 11:31 hath given : 1Sa 2:7, 1Sa 2:8; Jer 27:5, Jer 27:6; Dan 4:17, Dan 4:32; Joh 19:11; Rom 13:1 a nei...

TSK: 1Sa 15:29 - Strength // will not lie Strength : or, Eternity, or, Victory, Deu 33:27; Psa 29:11, Psa 68:35; Isa 45:24; Joe 3:16; 2Co 12:9; Phi 4:13 will not lie : Num 14:28, Num 14:29, Nu...

TSK: 1Sa 15:30 - honour me now // that I may worship honour me now : Hab 2:4; Joh 5:44, Joh 12:43 that I may worship : Isa 29:13; Luk 18:9-14; 2Ti 3:5

honour me now : Hab 2:4; Joh 5:44, Joh 12:43

that I may worship : Isa 29:13; Luk 18:9-14; 2Ti 3:5

TSK: 1Sa 15:32 - Agag said Agag said : Jer 48:44; 1Th 5:3; Rev 18:7

Agag said : Jer 48:44; 1Th 5:3; Rev 18:7

TSK: 1Sa 15:33 - As thy sword // Samuel // hewed As thy sword : Gen 9:6; Exo 17:11; Num 14:45; Jdg 1:7; Mat 7:2; Jam 2:13; Rev 16:6, Rev 18:6 Samuel : It has been a matter of wonder to many, how Samu...

As thy sword : Gen 9:6; Exo 17:11; Num 14:45; Jdg 1:7; Mat 7:2; Jam 2:13; Rev 16:6, Rev 18:6

Samuel : It has been a matter of wonder to many, how Samuel could thus slay a captive prince, even in the presence of Saul, who from motives of clemency had spared him; but it should be remarked, that what Samuel did here, he did in his magisterial capacity; and that Agag had been a cruel tyrant, and therefore was cut off for his merciless cruelties. Farther, it is not likely that he did it by his own sword, but by that of the executioner. What kings, magistrates, and generals do, in an official way, by their subjects, servants, or soldiers, they are said to do themselves - qui facit per alterum , facit per se .

hewed : Num 25:7, Num 25:8; 1Ki 18:40; Isa 34:6; Jer 48:10

TSK: 1Sa 15:34 - Gibeah Gibeah : 1Sa 11:4

Gibeah : 1Sa 11:4

TSK: 1Sa 15:35 - Samuel // Samuel mourned // repented Samuel : 1Sa 19:24 Samuel mourned : 1Sa 15:11, 1Sa 16:1; Psa 119:136, Psa 119:158; Jer 9:1, Jer 9:2; Rom 9:2, Rom 9:3; Phi 3:18 repented : 1Sa 15:11; ...

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Poole: 1Sa 15:2 - -- I seem to have forgotten, but now I will show that I remember, and now will revenge, those old injuries done four hundred years ago, which now I wil...

I seem to have forgotten, but now I will show that I remember, and now will revenge, those old injuries done four hundred years ago, which now I will punish in their children; which was the more just, because they continued in their parents’ cruel practices, below, 1Sa 15:33 . In the way when he came up from Egypt ; when he was newly come out of cruel and long bondage, and was now weak, and weary, and faint, and hungry, Deu 25:18 ; and therefore it was barbarous and inhuman, instead of that pity which even nature prompted them to afford, to add affliction to the afflicted; it was also horrid impiety to fight against God himself, and to lift up their hand in a manner against the Lord’ s throne , as some translate these words, Exo 17:16 , whilst they struck at that people which God had brought forth in so stupendous and miraculous a way.

Poole: 1Sa 15:3 - All that they have // Spare them not // Infant and suckling // Ox and sheep, camel and ass All that they have both persons and goods; kill all that live, and consume all things without life; for I will have no name nor remnant of that peopl...

All that they have both persons and goods; kill all that live, and consume all things without life; for I will have no name nor remnant of that people, whom long since I have cursed and devoted to utter destruction.

Spare them not show no compassion or favour to any of them. The same thing repeated to prevent mistake, and oblige Saul to the exact performance hereof; or, to leave him without excuse, in case of neglect.

Infant and suckling for their parents’ crime and punishment; which was not unjust, because God is the supreme Lord and giver of life, and can require his own when he pleaseth; infants also are born in sin, Psa 51:5 , and therefore liable to God’ s wrath, Eph 2:3 , and to death, Rom 5:12,14 . Their death also was rather a mercy than a curse to them, as being the occasion of preventing the vast increase of their sin and punishment.

Ox and sheep, camel and ass which being all made for man’ s benefit, it is not strange nor unjust if they suffer with him, and for him and for the instruction of mankind.

Poole: 1Sa 15:4 - -- Who are particularly noted here, as also Zec 11:8 , either as select persons of extraordinary strength and courage; or to commend that tribe, which,...

Who are particularly noted here, as also Zec 11:8 , either as select persons of extraordinary strength and courage; or to commend that tribe, which, though the kingdom had been promised to their own tribe, yet were forward in serving and obeying a king of another, and that a far meaner tribe.

Poole: 1Sa 15:5 - A city of Amalek // Laid wait A city of Amalek their chief city, where their king was, as is probable from 1Sa 15:8 . Laid wait intending to draw them forth of their city by som...

A city of Amalek their chief city, where their king was, as is probable from 1Sa 15:8 .

Laid wait intending to draw them forth of their city by some pretence, like that of Joshua, Jos 7 , and then to intercept them, and so surprise their city: which haply they did, though it be not here recorded, it being not worth while to mention all the minute circumstances of such matters.

Poole: 1Sa 15:6 - The Kenites // Ye showed kindness The Kenites a people descending from or nearly related unto Jethro, who anciently dwelt in rocks near the Amalekites, Num 24:21 , and afterwards some...

The Kenites a people descending from or nearly related unto Jethro, who anciently dwelt in rocks near the Amalekites, Num 24:21 , and afterwards some of them dwelt in Judah, Jud 1:16 , whence it is probable they removed, (which, dwelling in tents, they could easily do,) and retired to their old habitation, because of the wars and troubles wherewith Judah was annoyed.

Ye showed kindness some of your progenitors did so, Exo 18:12 Num 10:31 , and for their sakes all of you shall fare the better. You were not guilty of that sin for which Amalek is now to be destroyed.

Poole: 1Sa 15:7 - -- i.e. From one end of their country to the other; he smote all that he met with; but a great number of them fled away upon the noise of his coming, a...

i.e. From one end of their country to the other; he smote all that he met with; but a great number of them fled away upon the noise of his coming, as is usual in such cases, and secured themselves in other places, until the storm was over, when they returned again; of whom we read before, 1Sa 13:6 14:22 .

Poole: 1Sa 15:8 - Agag // All the people Saul spared Agag either out of foolish pity for the goodliness of his person, which Josephus notes; or for his respect to his royal majesty, in th...

Saul spared

Agag either out of foolish pity for the goodliness of his person, which Josephus notes; or for his respect to his royal majesty, in the preservation of which he thought himself concerned; or for the glory of his triumph: compare 1Sa 15:12 .

All the people to wit, the body of the people, but not every individual person, as hath been showed. Universal particles are commonly thus understood, as is confessed.

Poole: 1Sa 15:9 - Saul and the people // All that was good Saul and the people the one proposed to do so, and the other consented to it, and so both were guilty. All that was good which it is more than prob...

Saul and the people the one proposed to do so, and the other consented to it, and so both were guilty.

All that was good which it is more than probable they reserved for their own use, rather than for sacrifice, because they knew God would not accept a sacrifice contrary to his own command. Thus they obey God only so far as they could without inconvenience to themselves; they destroyed only what was not worth keeping, nor fit for their use.

Poole: 1Sa 15:11 - It repenteth me // He cried unto the Lord all night It repenteth me: repentance properly notes grief of heart, and change of counsels, and therefore cannot be in God, who is unchangeable, most wise, an...

It repenteth me: repentance properly notes grief of heart, and change of counsels, and therefore cannot be in God, who is unchangeable, most wise, and most blessed; but it is ascribed to God in such cases, when men give God cause to repent, and when God alters his course and method of dealing, and treats a person as if he did indeed repent of all the kindness he had showed to him.

He cried unto the Lord all night to implore his pardoning mercy for Saul, and for the people; so far was he from rejoicing in their calamities, as an envious and self-seeking person would have done.

Poole: 1Sa 15:12 - Carmel Carmel not Mount Carmel, of which Jos 12:22 , but another mountain or town in the tribe of Judah, of which see Jos 15:55 . A place, i.e. a monument o...

Carmel not Mount Carmel, of which Jos 12:22 , but another mountain or town in the tribe of Judah, of which see Jos 15:55 . A place, i.e. a monument or trophy of his victory, as the same Hebrew word is used, 2Sa 18:18 . And this may be here noted by way of censure, that he set it not to God’ s honour, but to himself, i.e. to his own praise; which he minded in the first place, and afterwards went to Gilgal, as it here follows, to offer sacrifice to God.

Poole: 1Sa 15:13 - Blessed be thou of the Lord // I have performed the commandment of the Lord Blessed be thou of the Lord I thank thee, and I beg that God would bless thee, for sending me upon this employment, and giving me this opportunity of...

Blessed be thou of the Lord I thank thee, and I beg that God would bless thee, for sending me upon this employment, and giving me this opportunity of manifesting my obedience to God.

I have performed the commandment of the Lord to wit, for the main and substance of it, to wit, the extirpation of that wicked people; for he thought the sparing of Agag and the cattle very inconsiderable in the case, though indeed it was expressly contrary to God’ s command; but self-interest made him exceeding partial in his own cause: or else, like a bold hypocrite, he pretends that for his part he had obeyed God; resolving, it seems, to cast the blame upon the people, as he did.

Poole: 1Sa 15:14 - -- How can this evidence of guilt consist with the profession of thy innocency?

How can this evidence of guilt consist with the profession of thy innocency?

Poole: 1Sa 15:15 - They // To sacrifice unto the Lord // Thy God They i.e. the people. Thus, after the manner of all hypocrites, he excuseth himself, and lays the blame upon the people; whereas they could not do it...

They i.e. the people. Thus, after the manner of all hypocrites, he excuseth himself, and lays the blame upon the people; whereas they could not do it without his privity and consent; and he should have used his power and authority to overrule them for God’ s sake, as he had done formerly for his own sake. But the truth is, he was zealous for his own honour and interest, but lukewarm where God only was concerned.

To sacrifice unto the Lord: it is not likely that this was his and the people’ s design; but this he now pretends, and ascribes that to his piety, which was indeed the effect of his impiety and avarice.

Thy God whom thou lovest and servest, and therefore must needs be pleased with our pious respect to him and his service.

Poole: 1Sa 15:17 - Little in thine own sight Little in thine own sight i.e. modest, humble, and submissive, as 1Sa 9:21 10:22 ; whereby he implies that now he was grown proud, and stubborn, and ...

Little in thine own sight i.e. modest, humble, and submissive, as 1Sa 9:21 10:22 ; whereby he implies that now he was grown proud, and stubborn, and impudent, both to commit sin and justify it.

Poole: 1Sa 15:18 - The sinners The sinners so called by way of eminency, as that word is used, Gen 13:13 Mat 9:10 Joh 9:24,31 .

The sinners so called by way of eminency, as that word is used, Gen 13:13 Mat 9:10 Joh 9:24,31 .

Poole: 1Sa 15:19 - -- Who cannot be deceived by thy fair professions of religion, but knows very well that thou didst not seek sacrifices for God, but prey for thyself.

Who cannot be deceived by thy fair professions of religion, but knows very well that thou didst not seek sacrifices for God, but prey for thyself.

Poole: 1Sa 15:20 - Have brought Agag He addeth obstinacy and impenitency to his crime, and justifies his fact, though he hath nothing of any moment to say but what he said before. So he...

He addeth obstinacy and impenitency to his crime, and justifies his fact, though he hath nothing of any moment to say but what he said before. So he gives Samuel the lie, and reflects upon him as one that had falsely accused him.

Have brought Agag to be dealt with as God pleaseth, and as thou thinkest fit.

Poole: 1Sa 15:21 - -- Heb. the chief of the devoted things ; which being devoted to destruction, I thought it most proper to destroy them by way of sacrifice to God. But...

Heb. the chief of the devoted things ; which being devoted to destruction, I thought it most proper to destroy them by way of sacrifice to God. But God had commanded Saul himself to smite and slay all upon the place, above, 1Sa 15:3 .

Poole: 1Sa 15:22 - To obey is better than sacrifice // To hearken To obey is better than sacrifice because obedience to God is a moral duty, constantly and indispensably necessary; but sacrifice is but a ceremonial ...

To obey is better than sacrifice because obedience to God is a moral duty, constantly and indispensably necessary; but sacrifice is but a ceremonial institution, sometimes unnecessary, as it was in the wilderness; and sometimes sinful, when it is offered by a polluted hand, or in an irregular manner; therefore thy gross disobedience to God’ s express command is not to be compensated with sacrifice.

To hearken i.e. to obey, as hearing is oft used in Scripture. Than the fat of rams; than the choicest part of all the sacrifice, to wit, the fat, which was appropriated to God, Lev 3:16 ; whereas the offerer might partake of other parts of it.

Poole: 1Sa 15:23 - Rebellion // Is as the sin of witchcraft // Stubbornness // Is as iniquity and idolatry // Hath also rejected thee from being king Rebellion i.e. disobedience to God’ s express precept, which was Saul’ s case. Is as the sin of witchcraft is, though not so great, yet a...

Rebellion i.e. disobedience to God’ s express precept, which was Saul’ s case.

Is as the sin of witchcraft is, though not so great, yet as inexcusable and impudent a sin as witchcraft; as plainly condemned, and as certainly destructive and damnable.

Stubbornness either wilful and presumptuous sin, whereby a man violently breaks loose from God’ s command, and resists his authority; or rather, perseverance or contumacy in sin, justifying it, and pleading for it, which was Saul’ s present crime.

Is as iniquity and idolatry or, the iniquity of idolatry ; this being an hendiadis ; as judgment and justice , Deu 16:18 , is put for the judgment of justice , or just judgment . Or, idolatry , (for so the Hebrew word aven signifies, as Jer 10:15 Hos 4:15 10:5 , compared with 1Ki 12:29 ) even the teraphim , which is here mentioned as one of the worst kinds of idolatry.

Hath also rejected thee from being king i.e. hath pronounced the sentence of rejection; for that he was not actually rejected or deposed by God plainly appears, because not only the people, but even David, after this, owned him as king; and Samuel, at Saul’ s desire, did honour him, i.e. own him as king, before the people, 1Sa 15:30 .

Poole: 1Sa 15:24 - I have sinned // The commandment of the Lord, and thy words I have sinned which confession proceeded not from true repentance, but from the sense of his great danger, and from a desire of recalling that dreadf...

I have sinned which confession proceeded not from true repentance, but from the sense of his great danger, and from a desire of recalling that dreadful sentence denounced against him.

The commandment of the Lord, and thy words i.e. the commandment of the Lord delivered to me by thy words; another hendiadis . I feared the people; who, as thou knowest, are set upon mischief, and would probably have broken forth into a mutiny or rebellion, had I done otherwise. But how little he feared the people, may be seen by 1Sa 11:7 14:24 . But this was a false cause; nor doth he acknowledge the true cause, which was his covetousness, and because he did not fear God.

Poole: 1Sa 15:25 - Pardon my sin // And turn again with me // That I may worship the Lord Pardon my sin use thy great interest with God to obtain the pardon of my sin. Or, do thou pardon my sin against thee; for he had sinned not only agai...

Pardon my sin use thy great interest with God to obtain the pardon of my sin. Or, do thou pardon my sin against thee; for he had sinned not only against God, but against Samuel also, as God’ s prophet; and therefore needed a pardon both from God and man.

And turn again with me to Gilgal, whence Saul was gone forth to meet Samuel; and Samuel is here said to turn again to Gilgal, not properly, for he had not now been there; but by way of concomitancy, because he accompanied Saul, who was come thence, and returned thither: see the like expression Rth 1:10,22 2:6 .

That I may worship the Lord that I may offer further sacrifices to God; partly to praise him for the past victory; and partly to implore his mercy, and the taking off of my sin and punishment. This was a politic device of Saul’ s, that Samuel might at least seem to countenance his design, in reserving the cattle for sacrifice; which Samuel seeing, refused to do it. Heb. and I will worship the Lord , i.e. I will seek his pardon and favour.

Poole: 1Sa 15:26 - I will not return with thee I will not return with thee: this was no lie, though he afterwards returned, because he spoke what he meant; his words and intentions agreed together...

I will not return with thee: this was no lie, though he afterwards returned, because he spoke what he meant; his words and intentions agreed together, though afterwards he saw reason to change his intentions: compare Gen 19:2,3 : which may relieve many perplexed consciences, who think themselves obliged to do what they have said they would do, though they see just cause to change their minds.

Poole: 1Sa 15:28 - A neighbour of thine Samuel makes use of the emergent occasion, as a sign, to signify and confirm his former prediction. A neighbour of thine either another man, or an...

Samuel makes use of the emergent occasion, as a sign, to signify and confirm his former prediction.

A neighbour of thine either another man, or another Israelite; for the word neighbour is used both ways; or rather, one of the neighbouring tribe, even Judah, whose inheritance did not only join to that of Benjamin, but was partly mixed with it.

Poole: 1Sa 15:29 - the Strength of Israel // Nor repent He calls God the Strength of Israel partly, to show the reason why God neither will nor can lie; because lying is a weakness, and proceeds from th...

He calls God

the Strength of Israel partly, to show the reason why God neither will nor can lie; because lying is a weakness, and proceeds from the sense of a man’ s weakness, because he cannot many times accomplish his design without lying and dissimulation; which therefore many princes have used for this very reason. But, saith he, God needs no such artifices; he can do whatsoever he pleaseth by his absolute power, and hath no need to use lies to accomplish his will. Partly, to show that Israel should be no loser by Saul’ s loss, as he might vainly imagine, because he had saved them from their enemies on every side, 1Sa 14:47 . For not Saul, but God, was the Strength and Protector of Israel, and he would continue to save them when Saul was lost and gone. And partly, to assure Saul that God would execute this threatening, because he wanted not strength to do it, and none could hinder him in it.

Nor repent i.e. nor change his counsel; which also is an effect of weakness and imperfection, either of wisdom or power.

Poole: 1Sa 15:30 - -- Here he plainly discovers his hypocrisy, and the true motive of this and his former confession; he was not solicitous for the favour of God, but for...

Here he plainly discovers his hypocrisy, and the true motive of this and his former confession; he was not solicitous for the favour of God, but for his honour and power with Israel.

Poole: 1Sa 15:31 - Samuel turned again after Saul Samuel turned again after Saul not to worship the Lord with him, for that he did not; and therefore it is here mentioned that Saul only worshipped t...

Samuel turned again after Saul not to worship the Lord with him, for that he did not; and therefore it is here mentioned that Saul only worshipped the Lord ; but for two other reasons: first, that people might not upon pretence of this sentence of rejection immediately withdraw all respect and obedience to their sovereign; whereby they would both have sinned against God, and have been as sheep without a shepherd. Secondly, That he might rectify Saul’ s error, and execute God’ s judgment upon Agag.

Poole: 1Sa 15:32 - Delicately // And Agag said // The bitterness of death is past Delicately or in delights , or in his ornaments , i.e. he came not like an offender, expecting the sentence of death, but in that garb and gesture ...

Delicately or in delights , or in his ornaments , i.e. he came not like an offender, expecting the sentence of death, but in that garb and gesture which became his quality.

And Agag said or, for Agag said; this being the reason why he came so.

The bitterness of death is past: I who have escaped death from the hands of a warlike prince in the fury of battle, shall certainly never suffer death from an old prophet in time of peace.

Poole: 1Sa 15:33 - Thy sword hath made women childless // Samuel hewed Agag in pieces // Before the Lord Thy sword hath made women childless whereby it appears that he was a cruel tyrant, and guilty of really bloody actions, and that towards God’ s ...

Thy sword hath made women childless whereby it appears that he was a cruel tyrant, and guilty of really bloody actions, and that towards God’ s people, though it be not related elsewhere. And this seems to be added for the fuller vindication of God’ s justice, and to show, that although God did at this time remember and revenge a crime committed by this man’ s ancestors four hundred years ago, yet he did not punish an innocent son for his father’ s crimes, but one that allowed and persisted in the same evil courses.

Samuel hewed Agag in pieces by Divine instinct, and in pursuance of God’ s express and particular command, above, 1Sa 15:3 , which being sinfully neglected by Saul, is now executed by Samuel. See the like example 1Ki 18:40 . But these are no precedents for private persons to take the sword of justice into their hands; for we must live by thee laws of God, and not by extraordinary examples.

Before the Lord either before the ark, which, it seems, Saul carried with him in this, as he did in his former expedition, 1Sa 14:18 ; or before God’ s altar; or in the public assembly.

Poole: 1Sa 15:35 - To see Saul // Samuel mourned for Saul To see Saul i.e. to visit him, either in token of respect or friendship; or to seek counsel from God for him, or to give counsel to him. Seeing is ...

To see Saul i.e. to visit him, either in token of respect or friendship; or to seek counsel from God for him, or to give counsel to him. Seeing is put for visiting here , and 2Ki 8:29 . Otherwise he did see him afterwards, 1Sa 19:24 . Though indeed it was not Samuel that came thither with design to see Saul, which is implied in the phrase here; but Saul went thither to see Samuel, and that accidentally.

Samuel mourned for Saul partly for Saul’ s sake, whose sad condition he lamented; and partly for Israel’ s sake, whose estate he feared might by this means be doubtful and dangerous.

Haydock: 1Sa 15:1 - Lord Lord, in gratitude for so great an honour. (Haydock)

Lord, in gratitude for so great an honour. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:2 - Reckoned up Reckoned up. God speaks in a human manner, as if he had been reading the history of ancient times, Exodus xvii. 14. (Menochius) --- The Amalecite...

Reckoned up. God speaks in a human manner, as if he had been reading the history of ancient times, Exodus xvii. 14. (Menochius) ---

The Amalecites had treated Israel with inhumanity, above 400 years before. God's vengeance is often slow, but only so much the more terrible. (Calmet) ---

Hebrew pakadti, I have visited, or will punish and remember.

Haydock: 1Sa 15:3 - Destroy // Child // Nor covet....his Destroy, as a thing accursed. (Haydock) --- Child. The great master of life and death (who cuts off one half of mankind whilst they are children)...

Destroy, as a thing accursed. (Haydock) ---

Child. The great master of life and death (who cuts off one half of mankind whilst they are children) has been pleased sometimes to ordain that children should be put to the sword, in detestation of the crimes of their parents, and that they might not live to follow the same wicked ways. But without such ordinance of God, it is not allowable in any wars, how just soever, to kill children. (Challoner) ---

The Israelites were now to execute God's orders with blind obedience, as he cannot be guilty of injustice. ---

Nor covet....his, is omitted in Hebrew, &c. (Calmet) ---

Amalec is stricken when the flesh is chastised---He is destroyed when we repress evil thoughts. (St. Gregory) (Worthington)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:4 - As lambs // Footmen As lambs. This comparison is very common, Isaias xl. 11., and Ezechiel xxxiv. 2. But many translate the Hebrew "in Telaim." St. Jerome reads Hebre...

As lambs. This comparison is very common, Isaias xl. 11., and Ezechiel xxxiv. 2. But many translate the Hebrew "in Telaim." St. Jerome reads Hebrew c, as, instead of b, in, with greater propriety. Septuagint and Josephus, "in Galgal," which in effect would have been the most proper place for rendezvous. (Calmet) ---

Footmen. Vatican Septuagint, "400,000 ranks or standards, (Josephus, men) and Juda 30,000."

Haydock: 1Sa 15:5 - Amelac // Torrent Amelac. The people dwelt in tents, and removed from one place to another. So in Ethiopia there are properly no cities, the place where the prince e...

Amelac. The people dwelt in tents, and removed from one place to another. So in Ethiopia there are properly no cities, the place where the prince encamps is deemed the capital. (Calmet) ---

Torrent. Hebrew, or "valley."

Haydock: 1Sa 15:6 - Egypt Egypt. See Judges i. 16., Exodus xviii. 12., and Numbers x. 31., and xxiv. 21. Saul gave private instructions to the Cinite, who had been settled a...

Egypt. See Judges i. 16., Exodus xviii. 12., and Numbers x. 31., and xxiv. 21. Saul gave private instructions to the Cinite, who had been settled at Arad, and had mixed with Amalec, to depart. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:7 - Sur Sur. See Genesis ii. 11., and xvi. 7., and xxv. 18., and Exodus xv. 22. (Menochius) --- These people had occupied a great part of the country, fro...

Sur. See Genesis ii. 11., and xvi. 7., and xxv. 18., and Exodus xv. 22. (Menochius) ---

These people had occupied a great part of the country, from the Persian Gulf to Egypt. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:9 - Garments Garments. Hebrew is commonly rendered, "fatlings." Septuagint, "eatables." (Calmet) --- Avarice seems to have actuated Saul, (Lyranus) or a false...

Garments. Hebrew is commonly rendered, "fatlings." Septuagint, "eatables." (Calmet) ---

Avarice seems to have actuated Saul, (Lyranus) or a false pity, (Josephus) or a desire to grace his triumph, ver. 12. (Glossa.) (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:11 - Repenteth // Grieved Repenteth. God cannot change: but he often acts exteriorly as one who repents. He alters his conduct when men prove rebellious. (St. Justin Martyr...

Repenteth. God cannot change: but he often acts exteriorly as one who repents. He alters his conduct when men prove rebellious. (St. Justin Martyr, p. 22.) ---

Grieved. Hebrew, "indignant." (Calmet) ---

He was sorry to think that Saul would now lose his temporal, and perhaps his eternal crown. (Salien) ---

"The choice of Judas and of Saul, do not prove that God is ignorant of future events, but rather that he is a Judge of the present." (St. Jerome in Ezechiel ii.)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:12 - Arch Arch. Here we behold what a change prosperity makes in the manners of those who before shewed the greatest humility. Saul erects a monument to his ...

Arch. Here we behold what a change prosperity makes in the manners of those who before shewed the greatest humility. Saul erects a monument to his own vanity. Hebrew, "he has set him up a hand," (as Absalom did, 2 Kings xviii. 18.) or "a place" to divide the booty, (Jonathan) or "a garrison," to keep the country in subjection. (Calmet) ---

Perhaps he erected the figure of "a hand," as an emblem of strength, and in honour of Benjamin, "the son of the right hand," of whose tribe he was. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:14 - Hear Hear, and which manifestly prove, that God's order has not been put in execution. (Menochius)

Hear, and which manifestly prove, that God's order has not been put in execution. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:15 - Thy God Thy God. This was probably a falsehood, like the rest. (Salien)

Thy God. This was probably a falsehood, like the rest. (Salien)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:17 - Eyes Eyes. God rejects the proud, and gives his grace to the humble. See Luke i. 52. (Haydock)

Eyes. God rejects the proud, and gives his grace to the humble. See Luke i. 52. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:20 - Lord Lord. Septuagint, "of the people."

Lord. Septuagint, "of the people."

Haydock: 1Sa 15:21 - First-fruits // Slain First-fruits, or the best. --- Slain. Hebrew, "of the anathema."

First-fruits, or the best. ---

Slain. Hebrew, "of the anathema."

Haydock: 1Sa 15:22 - Rams Rams. Can God be pleased with victims which he has cursed? (Haydock)

Rams. Can God be pleased with victims which he has cursed? (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:23 - Obey Obey. Hebrew, "Rebellion is the sin of divination or witchcraft, and resistance is iniquity, and the Theraphim." Symmachus, "the injustice of ido...

Obey. Hebrew, "Rebellion is the sin of divination or witchcraft, and resistance is iniquity, and the Theraphim." Symmachus, "the injustice of idols." Theraphim here designate idolatrous representations, Genesis xxxi. 19. They were probably of Chaldean origin, in honour of the sun and fire, (Calmet) and were venerated like the Penates, and supposed to be the sources of prosperity, from the Arabic Taraph, "to give abundance." Hence Laban was so solicitous to recover what Rachel had taken away. (Louis de Dieu) ---

By sacrifices we give our goods, or another's flesh is immolated; (Mor. xxxiii. 10.; Du Hamel) by obedience, we give ourselves to God. (St. Gregory) (Worthington)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:24 - Voice Voice: miserable excuse for a king, who ought to prevent the sins of his people! (Calmet) --- Saul's transgression seems less than David's; but the...

Voice: miserable excuse for a king, who ought to prevent the sins of his people! (Calmet) ---

Saul's transgression seems less than David's; but the one repents, and the other proudly defends what he had done. (Du Hamel)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:25 - Bear // The Lord Bear, or take away. Pardon my fault. Do not expose me in public. --- The Lord, by offering sacrifices, ver. 31. (Calmet)

Bear, or take away. Pardon my fault. Do not expose me in public. ---

The Lord, by offering sacrifices, ver. 31. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:27 - Rent Rent: a dreadful prognostic that Saul was cast away. (Haydock)

Rent: a dreadful prognostic that Saul was cast away. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:29 - Triumpher Triumpher. Some suppose that he speaks ironically of Saul. A prince, like you, will not repent. (Calmet) --- But it more probably refers to God, ...

Triumpher. Some suppose that he speaks ironically of Saul. A prince, like you, will not repent. (Calmet) ---

But it more probably refers to God, who would not fail to execute his threats against the king. (Haydock) ---

Hebrew, "the victor in Israel will not lie, he will not repent." Septuagint, "and Israel shall be split in two, and the holy one of Israel shall not turn nor repent." Saul's rejection became now inevitable. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:30 - Israel Israel. He is wholly solicitous to shun disgrace in this world. (Haydock) --- His confession was not actuated by such contrition as that he might ...

Israel. He is wholly solicitous to shun disgrace in this world. (Haydock) ---

His confession was not actuated by such contrition as that he might deserve to hear, the Lord has removed thy sin. He begins by falsehood; continues making idle excuses, and throwing the blame on others, and concludes, by shewing that he is more concerned for what his subjects may think and do against him, than for the displeasure of God. He boldly ventures to offer victims. But Samuel joins not with him in prayer, looking upon him as a person excommunicated; and he only attends that he may see the word of the Lord fulfilled, and Agag treated as he deserved. (Salien, the year of the world 2965.)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:32 - Trembling // Manner // O death! how bitter is the remembrance of thee to a man that hath peace in his possessions Trembling. Hebrew, "and Agag came to him delicately." Septuagint, "trembling," (Haydock) or walking with a soft step, or "with bands or chains;" ...

Trembling. Hebrew, "and Agag came to him delicately." Septuagint, "trembling," (Haydock) or walking with a soft step, or "with bands or chains;" mahadannoth. See Pagnin. (Menochius) ---

Some think that he presented himself boldly, like a king, fearing nothing. (Vatable) ---

Manner. Hebrew, "Surely the bitterness of death is past." I have obtained pardon from Saul. But the sense of the Vulgate seems preferable, as he must have perceived, from the looks of the prophet, that death was hanging over him. Hence others translate, "is pouring upon me," instead of, is past. Septuagint, "Is death thus bitter?" Chaldean, "I pray my Lord: the bitterness of death." (Haydock) ---

O death! how bitter is the remembrance of thee to a man that hath peace in his possessions, &c., Ecclesiasticus xli. 1. So Aristotle (Nicom. iii. 6.) says, "Death is most terrible, ( Greek: peras gar ) for it is a passage," or separation, from all the things which could attach a man to this world. (Calmet) ---

This catastrophe of Agag and Saul, had been long before predicted, Numbers xxiv. 7. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:33 - Pieces // Lord Pieces. Josephus adds, by the hand of others. (Menochius) --- But zeal put the sword into his own hand; and he imitated the Levites and Phinees, (...

Pieces. Josephus adds, by the hand of others. (Menochius) ---

But zeal put the sword into his own hand; and he imitated the Levites and Phinees, (Exodus xxxii. 27.) to shew Saul how preposterous had been his pity, when the Lord had spoken plainly. (Calmet) ---

Lord, as a sort of victim, Isaias xxxiv. 6. (Menochius)

Haydock: 1Sa 15:35 - Saw Saul no more till the day of his death // Repented Saw Saul no more till the day of his death. That is, he went no more to see him: he visited him no more. (Challoner) --- He looked upon him as on...

Saw Saul no more till the day of his death. That is, he went no more to see him: he visited him no more. (Challoner) ---

He looked upon him as one who had lost the right to the kingdom, though he was suffered for a time to hold the reins of government, as a lieutenant to David. He might afterwards see Saul passing, but never to visit him, (Salien) or to consult with him about the affairs of state; (Menochius) nor perhaps did he even see him, when Saul came to Najoth, chap. xix. 19, 24. His spirit came to announce destruction to Saul, the night preceding the death of that unfortunate king, chap. xxxviii. (Haydock) ---

Repented. God is said, improperly, to repent when he alters what he had appointed. (St. Ambrose de Noe, chap. iv.) (Worthington)

Gill: 1Sa 15:1 - Samuel also said unto Saul // the Lord sent me to anoint thee to be king over his people, over Israel // now therefore hearken thou unto the voice of the words of the Lord Samuel also said unto Saul,.... When and where he said to him what follows, it is not easy to determine, perhaps at Gilgal, where they after met again...

Samuel also said unto Saul,.... When and where he said to him what follows, it is not easy to determine, perhaps at Gilgal, where they after met again:

the Lord sent me to anoint thee to be king over his people, over Israel; that is, he gave him orders to anoint him king of Israel, otherwise Saul was in providence sent to Samuel to be anointed, and not Samuel to Saul:

now therefore hearken thou unto the voice of the words of the Lord; for so great a favour, and such high honour he had conferred on him, laid him under great obligation to obey the commands of the Lord; and whereas he had been deficient in one instance before, for which he had been reproved, he suggests, that now he should take care to observe and do, particularly and punctually, what should be enjoined him.

Gill: 1Sa 15:2 - Thus saith the Lord of hosts // I remember that which Amalek did to Israel // how he laid wait for him in the way when he came up from Egypt Thus saith the Lord of hosts,.... Of the celestial host of angels, and of the army of Israel, yea, of all the armies of the earth: this is premised to...

Thus saith the Lord of hosts,.... Of the celestial host of angels, and of the army of Israel, yea, of all the armies of the earth: this is premised to engage the attention of Saul:

I remember that which Amalek did to Israel; four hundred years ago:

how he laid wait for him in the way when he came up from Egypt; in the valley of Rephidim, just before they came to Mount Sinai, and fell upon the rear of them, and smote the feeble, and faint, and weary, see Exo 17:8

Gill: 1Sa 15:3 - Now go and smite Amalek // and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not // but slay both men and women, infant and suckling // ox and sheep, camel and ass Now go and smite Amalek,.... This was one of the three things the Israelites were obliged to do when they came into the land of Canaan, as Kimchi obse...

Now go and smite Amalek,.... This was one of the three things the Israelites were obliged to do when they came into the land of Canaan, as Kimchi observes; one was, to appoint a king over them, another, to build the house of the sanctuary, and the third, to blot out the name and memory of Amalek, see Deu 25:19 and this work was reserved for Saul, their first king:

and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; all were to be devoted to destruction, and nothing remain to be made use of in any way, to any profit and advantage; living creatures were to be put to death, and everything else burnt and destroyed:

but slay both men and women, infant and suckling; neither sex nor age were to be regarded, no mercy and pity shown to any; they had shown none to Israel when weak and feeble, and by the law of retaliation none was to be exercised on them:

ox and sheep, camel and ass; though useful creatures, yet not to be spared; as not men, women, and children, through commiseration, so neither these through covetousness, and neither of them on any pretence whatsoever. Children suffered for their parents, and cattle because of their owners, and both were a punishment to their proprietors; an ox, or any other creature, might not be spared, lest it should be said, as Kimchi observes, this was the spoil of Amalek, and so the name and memory of Amalek would not be blotted out.

Gill: 1Sa 15:4 - And Saul gathered the people together // and numbered them in Telaim // two hundred thousand footmen and ten thousand men of Judah And Saul gathered the people together,.... Or "made them to hear" r, by the sound of a trumpet; or by sending heralds into all parts of the land to pr...

And Saul gathered the people together,.... Or "made them to hear" r, by the sound of a trumpet; or by sending heralds into all parts of the land to proclaim the above order of the Lord, and summon them to come to him, perhaps at Gilgal; so the Septuagint version, and Josephus s:

and numbered them in Telaim; thought to be the same with Telem, a place in the tribe of Judah, Jos 15:24, the word signifies "lambs"; hence the Vulgate Latin version is,"he numbered them as lambs;''and the Jews t say, because it was forbid to number the children of Israel, which was the sin of David; therefore every man had a lamb given him, and so the lambs were numbered, by which it was known what was the number of the people; and the Targum says, this was done with the passover lambs, it being now the time of the passover; but the numbering here made was not of the people of the land in general, and so there was no occasion of such a precaution, only a numbering and mustering of the army when got together and rendezvoused in one place: the sum of which is here given:

two hundred thousand footmen and ten thousand men of Judah; which last were reckoned separately, as distinct from the other tribes of Israel, to show their obedience to Saul, who was of another tribe, though the kingdom was promised to theirs; but R. Isaiah observes, that the reason why so few of the men of Judah came, in comparison of the other tribes, was, because they envied the government being in one of the tribe of Benjamin, when they thought it should have been in one of theirs; the number is greatly increased in the Septuagint version, which makes the whole to be 400,000, and 30,000 men of Judah; and so Josephus u.

Gill: 1Sa 15:5 - And Saul came to a city of Amalek And Saul came to a city of Amalek,.... With his army, perhaps the nearest city of it to the land of Israel; though some think that Amalek was the name...

And Saul came to a city of Amalek,.... With his army, perhaps the nearest city of it to the land of Israel; though some think that Amalek was the name of the city, and was the metropolis of the nation, and had its name from thence: and laid wait in the valley; which was near the city, to intercept the inhabitants when they should come out against him: or "he contended" w as some render it, he fought with them there; the Targum,"he ordered his army,''set them in battle array, or pitched his camp there.

Gill: 1Sa 15:6 - And Saul said unto the Kenites // go, depart, get ye down from among the Amalekites // lest I destroy you with them // for ye showed kindness to all the children of Israel when they came up out of Egypt // so the Kenites departed from among the Amalekites And Saul said unto the Kenites,.... Who were of the posterity of Jethro the father-in-law of Moses, or related to him; why Josephus x calls them the n...

And Saul said unto the Kenites,.... Who were of the posterity of Jethro the father-in-law of Moses, or related to him; why Josephus x calls them the nation of the Sicimites, who dwelt in the midst of the land of Midian, I know not:

go, depart, get ye down from among the Amalekites; for though some of these people came with Israel into the land of Canaan, and were first at Jericho, and then came into the wilderness of Judah, Jdg 1:16 and were in other tribes also; yet as they removed from place to place, and from country to country, for the convenience of their flocks and herds, they dwelling in tents, might come into the country of Amalek and pitch there, and as they chose to dwell in rocks, and the caverns of them, to be near their flocks and herds in the valleys, they are called upon to get down from thence, see Num 24:21.

lest I destroy you with them; they dwelling among the Amalekites, might perish with them; and especially as the Amalekites, upon their being routed, would naturally flee to the rocks, hills, and mountains, where these people had their tents, they would be in the greater danger of being destroyed with them, unless they removed:

for ye showed kindness to all the children of Israel when they came up out of Egypt; as Jethro, by the advice he gave to Moses to appoint proper officers in Israel, and Hobab, by being eyes to the people, in conducting them through the wilderness, and accompanying them to the land of Canaan:

so the Kenites departed from among the Amalekites; took the advice of Saul, and removed and pitched their tents, elsewhere.

Gill: 1Sa 15:7 - And Saul smote the Amalekites // from Havilah until thou comest to Shur, that is over against Egypt And Saul smote the Amalekites,.... Engaging in battle with them, he overcame them, and beat them, and slew great numbers of them: from Havilah unti...

And Saul smote the Amalekites,.... Engaging in battle with them, he overcame them, and beat them, and slew great numbers of them:

from Havilah until thou comest to Shur, that is over against Egypt; having routed them in the valley, or in whatsoever place the battle was fought, he pursued them from one end of their country to the other; from Havilah, which lay to the northeast, to Shur, which lay to the southwest, and destroyed all that came in his way between those two points, see Gen 25:18.

Gill: 1Sa 15:8 - And he took Agag the king of the Amalekites alive // and utterly destroyed all the people with the edge of the sword And he took Agag the king of the Amalekites alive,.... This name seems to be a common name of the kings of these people, as Pharaoh was of the Egyptia...

And he took Agag the king of the Amalekites alive,.... This name seems to be a common name of the kings of these people, as Pharaoh was of the Egyptians, see Num 24:2. When this king fell into the hands of Saul, he did not put him to death, as he should have done, but preserved him; for what reasons, see in the following verse:

and utterly destroyed all the people with the edge of the sword; that is, all that came in his way, or fell into his hands; all between Havilah and Shur; all excepting those that made their escape, for we after read of Amalekites, and that in large bodies, 1Sa 27:8.

Gill: 1Sa 15:9 - And Saul and all the people spared Agag // and the best of the sheep, and of the oxen, and of the fatlings // and the lambs, and all that was good, and would not utterly destroy them // but everything that was vile and refuse, that they destroyed utterly And Saul and all the people spared Agag,.... Perhaps Saul made the motion to spare him, and the people agreed to it; it may be, out of respect to him ...

And Saul and all the people spared Agag,.... Perhaps Saul made the motion to spare him, and the people agreed to it; it may be, out of respect to him as a king; or because of the comeliness of his person, the height of his stature, and the largeness of his body, as Josephus y notes; or to carry him in triumph in a public show, see 1Sa 15:12.

and the best of the sheep, and of the oxen, and of the fatlings; or "of the second sort", as in the margin, the second best; or rather which shed their two long teeth, as sheep at two years old did when reckoned at their full strength, and fittest for sacrifice z:

and the lambs, and all that was good, and would not utterly destroy them; as they were commanded, but kept them for their own private use and advantage, and this not only the best and fattest of the flocks and herds, but of their household goods:

but everything that was vile and refuse, that they destroyed utterly: such of the cattle that were poor and lean, lame or blind, or had any defect in them, and household goods that were mere rubbish and lumber; such they entirely destroyed, killed the creatures, and burnt the goods; in doing which they thought they fulfilled the will of God.

Gill: 1Sa 15:10 - Then came the word of the Lord unto Samuel // saying Then came the word of the Lord unto Samuel,.... The word of prophecy, as the Targum; this came to him in a dream or vision, or by an articulate voice:...

Then came the word of the Lord unto Samuel,.... The word of prophecy, as the Targum; this came to him in a dream or vision, or by an articulate voice:

saying; as follows.

Gill: 1Sa 15:11 - It repenteth me that I have set up Saul to be king // for he is turned back from following me // and hath not performed my commandments // and it grieved Samuel // and he cried unto the Lord all night It repenteth me that I have set up Saul to be king,.... Which is not to be understood of any change of mind, counsel, purpose, or decree in God, which...

It repenteth me that I have set up Saul to be king,.... Which is not to be understood of any change of mind, counsel, purpose, or decree in God, which is not consistent with his unchangeable nature; but of a change of dispensation, and outward dealings, and is spoken after the manner of men, who, when they repent of anything, change the course of their conduct and behaviour; and so the Lord does without any change of his mind and will, which alters not; and though he changes the outward dispensations of his providence, yet he never changes and alters in the matters and methods of his grace; though he repented he made Saul king, he never repents of his making his saints kings and priests for himself; his outward gifts he sometimes takes away, as an earthly crown and kingdom; but his gifts and calling, which are of special grace, are without repentance; see Gill on Gen 6:6.

for he is turned back from following me; from after my worship, as the Targum, from doing his will and work:

and hath not performed my commandments: particularly in this affair relating to Amalek:

and it grieved Samuel; that Saul should so soon be rejected from being king, and that he should do anything to deserve it; and whom Samuel had anointed king, and for whom he had a cordial respect, and to whom he wished well, both for his own personal good, and for the good of the people of Israel; so far was he from rejoicing at his fall, who came in his stead, and to whom he gave way in the affair of government:

and he cried unto the Lord all night; or prayed, as the Targum; either that the Lord would inform him of the particulars wherein Saul had done amiss, or that he would forgive his sin, and not reject him from the kingdom.

Gill: 1Sa 15:12 - And when Samuel rose early to meet Saul in the morning // it was told Samuel, saying, Saul came to Carmel // and, behold, he set him up a place // and is gone about, and passed on, and gone down to Gilgal And when Samuel rose early to meet Saul in the morning,.... Having had no sleep since the revelation of the will of God was made unto him, and therefo...

And when Samuel rose early to meet Saul in the morning,.... Having had no sleep since the revelation of the will of God was made unto him, and therefore rose early, being in haste to converse with Saul about it:

it was told Samuel, saying, Saul came to Carmel; not to Carmel where Elijah offered sacrifice, for that was very remote from hence; but to Carmel, a city in the tribe of Judah, which lay in the way of Saul's return from Amalek, Jos 15:55.

and, behold, he set him up a place; to divide his spoil in, as the Targum; or to encamp in, as Kimchi; or to build an altar on, as Jarchi, who takes it to be the same that Elisha after repaired; but, as before observed, this place was at a great distance from Mount Carmel where Elijah sacrificed. The word for a "place" signifies a hand; and, according to the Vulgate Latin version, it was a triumphal arch, and was perhaps an obelisk or pillar, a trophy or monument erected in memory of the victory he had obtained over the Amalekites. So Jerom says a, when a victory was obtained, they used to make an arch of myrtle, palm, and olive branches, a sign of it; these trophies were sometimes of brass, sometimes of marble; some were only heaps of stones, others a remarkable tree with the branches cut off b so the pillar Absalom erected is called his hand, 2Sa 18:18.

and is gone about, and passed on, and gone down to Gilgal; he took a circuit, and moved in great pomp and parade, carrying the king of the Amalekites in triumph with him, and the spoil he had taken and reserves. To Gilgal be went, expecting to meet Samuel there, and offer up peace offerings to the Lord for the victory he had got.

Gill: 1Sa 15:13 - And Samuel came to Saul // and Saul said unto him, blessed be thou of the Lord // I have performed the commandment of the Lord And Samuel came to Saul,.... At Gilgal: and Saul said unto him, blessed be thou of the Lord; signifying that he had abundant reason to bless the Lo...

And Samuel came to Saul,.... At Gilgal:

and Saul said unto him, blessed be thou of the Lord; signifying that he had abundant reason to bless the Lord on his account, not only that he had anointed him king, but had sent him on such an errand, in which he had succeeded so well, and it was a pleasure to him that he might report it to him:

I have performed the commandment of the Lord; either he was really ignorant that he had done amiss; and thought that his sparing Agag, when he had destroyed all the rest, and reserving some of the best of the cattle for sacrifice, could not be interpreted a breach of the orders given him; or if he was conscious he had broken the commandment of the Lord, this he said to prevent Samuel's reproof of him, and to sooth him with flattering words.

Gill: 1Sa 15:14 - And Samuel said, what meaneth then this bleating of the sheep in mine ears // and the lowing of the oxen which I hear And Samuel said, what meaneth then this bleating of the sheep in mine ears,.... For the orders were to destroy all living creatures belonging to the A...

And Samuel said, what meaneth then this bleating of the sheep in mine ears,.... For the orders were to destroy all living creatures belonging to the Amalekites, 1Sa 15:3 if therefore Saul had performed the commandment of the Lord, as he said he had, from whence were these sheep Samuel heard bleating?

and the lowing of the oxen which I hear? where do they come from? these questions he put to convict him of the falsehood he had delivered; the bleating and lowing of these creatures proved him a liar, and were witnesses of his breach of the divine command; and one would think every bleating and lowing of these must alarm his conscience, unless dreadfully stupefied.

Gill: 1Sa 15:15 - And Saul said, they have brought them from the Amalekites // for the people spared the best of the sheep, and of the oxen, to sacrifice unto the Lord thy God // and the rest we have utterly destroyed And Saul said, they have brought them from the Amalekites,.... That is, the people, laying the blame upon them, as Adam did on his wife, as if he had ...

And Saul said, they have brought them from the Amalekites,.... That is, the people, laying the blame upon them, as Adam did on his wife, as if he had no concern at all in it, when it is clear from 1Sa 15:9 he was the principal one; nor is it probable the people should do this of themselves, without his consent and authority, which was so directly contrary to the express order of God; and then to excuse the people as well as he could, on whom he laid the blame, he observes this was not done for their own private profit and advantage, but for the service and worship of God:

for the people spared the best of the sheep, and of the oxen, to sacrifice unto the Lord thy God; by way of gratitude and thankfulness for the victory they had obtained; and therefore, since they had so good an end and design in sparing what they had, and those the best and fittest for sacrifice, he hoped they would easily be excused; and that the prophet would use his best interest with the Lord, who was his God, to whom they designed to do honour, that he would overlook what was amiss in them:

and the rest we have utterly destroyed; as they were commanded; but then it was only the vile and the refuse, the best they had reserved for their own use; though he now coloured it with this specious pretence of sacrificing to God, when he found it was taken notice of, and was resented.

Gill: 1Sa 15:16 - Then Samuel said unto Saul, stay // and I will tell thee what the Lord hath said to me this night // and he said unto him, say on Then Samuel said unto Saul, stay,.... Stop a little, do not be in haste to be gone, as he might seem to be, fearing a reproof, and that something woul...

Then Samuel said unto Saul, stay,.... Stop a little, do not be in haste to be gone, as he might seem to be, fearing a reproof, and that something would be said to him not very agreeable; or "suffer" c me, that is, to speak, give me leave to say a few words; for Saul being a king, Samuel treats him as such, and asks audience of him, or leave of him to deliver what he had to say to him:

and I will tell thee what the Lord hath said to me this night; and since it was not anything from himself, but from the Lord, he had to say, he might expect the rather to be heard, and especially since it was what had lately, even that very night, been told him:

and he said unto him, say on; he gave him leave, perhaps hoping he should hear something said in his praise, commending him for what he had done in destroying the nation of Amalek, see Luk 7:40. There is a double reading of this clause, the Cetib or textural reading is, "and they said unto him"; meaning Saul, and the elders with him; the Keri, or marginal reading is, which we follow, "and he said unto him"; meaning Saul, as Kimchi notes.

Gill: 1Sa 15:17 - And Samuel said, when thou wast little in thine own sight // wast thou not made the head of the tribes of Israel // and the Lord anointed thee king over Israel And Samuel said, when thou wast little in thine own sight,.... Humble and lowly, and had a mean opinion of himself, his family and tribe, and judged ...

And Samuel said, when thou wast little in thine own sight,.... Humble and lowly, and had a mean opinion of himself, his family and tribe, and judged himself unworthy of the kingdom; see 1Sa 9:21 suggesting, that now he was proud and haughty, and would have his own will and way:

wast thou not made the head of the tribes of Israel; not of his own tribe only, which was the least, but of all the tribes, and so they were all subject to him, and at his command:

and the Lord anointed thee king over Israel; all which is observed, partly to point out unto him the high honour he was raised unto, from a low estate, which laid him under obligation to serve the Lord, and obey him; and partly as an answer to him, excusing himself, and laying the blame upon the people; whereas seeing he was made king over them, his business was to rule and govern them, guide and direct them in the right way, and restrain them from that which was evil; and since he was anointed by the Lord, and not by the people, he ought to have obeyed him, and not regarded the pleasure of them.

Gill: 1Sa 15:18 - And the Lord sent thee on a journey // and said, go, and utterly destroy the sinners, the Amalekites // and fight against them until they be consumed And the Lord sent thee on a journey,.... And therefore he ought to have attended to the errand sent upon, and executed the orders given; in vain, ther...

And the Lord sent thee on a journey,.... And therefore he ought to have attended to the errand sent upon, and executed the orders given; in vain, therefore, was it to lay the blame on the people:

and said, go, and utterly destroy the sinners, the Amalekites; those notorious sinners, who deserve no mercy at the hands of God or men; who had so highly offended the Lord, and had been so injurious to his people at their first coming out of Egypt. The orders were plain, not to be mistaken, and full and strong for the utter destruction of them without any exception, and therefore nothing could be pleaded in excuse for the violation of them:

and fight against them until they be consumed; entirely; they were not to be left until an end was made of them; or "until they had consumed them" d, the people of Israel, or the soldiers with Saul.

Gill: 1Sa 15:19 - Wherefore then didst thou not obey the voice of the Lord // but didst fly upon the spoil // and didst evil in the sight of the Lord Wherefore then didst thou not obey the voice of the Lord,.... Who had made him king, and sent him on this errand, and gave him such plain directions, ...

Wherefore then didst thou not obey the voice of the Lord,.... Who had made him king, and sent him on this errand, and gave him such plain directions, and such strong orders to make an entire consumption of Amalek:

but didst fly upon the spoil; like a bird of prey, such as an eagle or vulture, not to devote it to the Lord, by an entire destruction of it, but to seize it for his own use, as being greedily desirous and covetous of it:

and didst evil in the sight of the Lord? by disobeying his commands, from whose sight nothing can be hid.

Gill: 1Sa 15:20 - And Saul said to Samuel, yea, I have obeyed the voice of the Lord // and have gone the way which the Lord sent me // and have brought Agag the king of Amalek // and have utterly destroyed the Amalekites And Saul said to Samuel, yea, I have obeyed the voice of the Lord,.... Here Saul breaks in upon Samuel before he had declared all that the Lord had sa...

And Saul said to Samuel, yea, I have obeyed the voice of the Lord,.... Here Saul breaks in upon Samuel before he had declared all that the Lord had said unto him; for having expostulated with him for not obeying the voice of the Lord, he could not forbear interrupting him, but with the utmost assurance affirms he had obeyed the voice of the Lord; but then it was very imperfectly, and poor proof does he give of it:

and have gone the way which the Lord sent me; it is very true he went into the country of Amalek, but he did not do there all the Lord commanded him:

and have brought Agag the king of Amalek; took him alive, and brought him captive; whereas he ought to have destroyed him at once, and not have reserved him for triumph; a sad proof this of his obeying the voice of the Lord:

and have utterly destroyed the Amalekites; all that came in his way, in which he did right; but then he had not destroyed the principal of them, their king.

Gill: 1Sa 15:21 - But the people took the spoil, the sheep and oxen // the chief of the things, which should have been utterly destroyed // to sacrifice unto the Lord thy God in Gilgal But the people took the spoil, the sheep and oxen,.... Still he continues to lay the blame on the people, when he, as king, ought to have restrained t...

But the people took the spoil, the sheep and oxen,.... Still he continues to lay the blame on the people, when he, as king, ought to have restrained them:

the chief of the things, which should have been utterly destroyed; this betrays him, and is an evidence against him; he could not plead ignorance, he knew and he owns, that according to the command of God they were all devoted to destruction; and therefore he ought not to have suffered the people to have spared any on whatsoever pretence, but to have seen all destroyed; but he was as deeply in it as they, and therefore palliates the thing, and endeavours to excuse them by observing, that their end was good, the service and glory of God, which perhaps were never thought of till now: namely:

to sacrifice unto the Lord thy God in Gilgal; as peace offerings, by way of thanksgiving for the victory obtained, 1Sa 15:15.

Gill: 1Sa 15:22 - And Samuel said // hath the Lord as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the Lord // behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams And Samuel said,.... In reply to Saul: hath the Lord as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the Lord? no, c...

And Samuel said,.... In reply to Saul:

hath the Lord as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the Lord? no, certainly, the one being merely ceremonial, the other moral; the one supposes sin committed, for which sacrifice is offered; the other moral, and is a compliance with the will of God, and is neither sinful, nor supposes anything sinful, and therefore must be the more acceptable:

behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams; which always was claimed by the Lord as his right and due; or the fattest rams or best sacrifices, of whatever sort, whether burnt offerings, or sin offerings, or peace offerings; for had man obeyed the will of God, and not sinned, there would have been no need of sacrifice; and that was only acceptable to God when offered with a heart truly sensible of sin, and penitent for it, and in the faith of the great sacrifice of Christ, of which all sacrifices under the law were typical, and led unto.

Gill: 1Sa 15:23 - For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft // and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry // because thou hast rejected the word of the Lord // he hath rejected thee from being king For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft,.... Or divination e, in whatsoever way it was exercised; for there were various sorts of it among the Heath...

For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft,.... Or divination e, in whatsoever way it was exercised; for there were various sorts of it among the Heathens, and all condemned by the law of God, Deu 18:10. Now rebellion against God, or disobeying his commands, though in things otherwise, were they not forbidden by him, lawful to be done, is as heinous a sin as to be guilty of witchcraft, or any kind of divination forbidden by the law of God, and deserves as sore a punishment:

and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry: for a man, when he has committed a sin, to persist in it obstinately, or to vindicate himself in it, and insist on his innocence, which was Saul's case, is as hateful to God as any iniquity whatever; yea, as bad as idolatry, or making use of the teraphim, as is the word here; of which see Hos 3:4 than which nothing is more abominable to the Lord:

because thou hast rejected the word of the Lord; disregarded his command, treated it with contempt and abhorrence:

he hath rejected thee from being king; not actually, for he continued to exercise kingly power and authority to his death, and was treated as a king by his subjects, and even by David, though anointed by the Lord; but the sentence of rejection was pronounced upon him, and the bestowal of the government on his posterity was cut off.

Gill: 1Sa 15:24 - And Saul said unto Samuel, I have sinned // for I have transgressed the commandment of the Lord, and thy words // because I feared the people // and obeyed their voice And Saul said unto Samuel, I have sinned,.... This confession of his sin does not appear to be ingenuous, cordial, and sincere, and was made chiefly f...

And Saul said unto Samuel, I have sinned,.... This confession of his sin does not appear to be ingenuous, cordial, and sincere, and was made chiefly for the sake of getting the sentence of rejecting him from being king reversed:

for I have transgressed the commandment of the Lord, and thy words; which last seems to be added to collogue with Samuel, and to ingratiate himself with him; and Abarbinel thinks that Saul suspected that Samuel had aggravated the matter of himself, and that he did not really transgress the words of the Lord, but as the words of Samuel; and therefore according to the words of Samuel he had sinned, but not according to the words of the Lord only:

because I feared the people; Doeg the Edomite, who was reckoned as all of them, Jarchi says: this was a mere excuse of Saul's, he stood in no fear of the people, he kept them in awe, and did as he would with them, as a sovereign prince:

and obeyed their voice; in sparing the best of the cattle; so be pretended, when it was his own will, and the effect of his covetousness.

Gill: 1Sa 15:25 - Now therefore, I pray thee, pardon my sin // and turn again with me // that I may worship the Lord Now therefore, I pray thee, pardon my sin,.... It can hardly be thought that Saul was so ignorant as to imagine that Samuel could pardon his sin, as c...

Now therefore, I pray thee, pardon my sin,.... It can hardly be thought that Saul was so ignorant as to imagine that Samuel could pardon his sin, as committed against God, which none but God can do, but that he would forgive it, so far as he had offended him; or rather his meaning is, that as he was a prophet of the Lord, and had great interest in him, that he would make use of it on his behalf, and pray to God that his sin might be forgiven him, and the sentence reversed concerning his rejection from the kingdom; which perhaps is the chief thing he means by the pardon of his sin, which sometimes means no more than averting a threatened judgment, or freedom from punishment:

and turn again with me; to Gilgal, for he was come out from thence to meet Samuel, having heard that he was coming:

that I may worship the Lord: by offering sacrifice, either in thankfulness for the victory obtained, or to atone for his sin, and seek pardon for it, or both; this he thought would be a motive and inducement to Samuel to go along with him.

Gill: 1Sa 15:26 - And Samuel said unto Saul, I will not return with thee // for thou hast rejected the word of the Lord, and the Lord hath rejected thee from being king over Israel And Samuel said unto Saul, I will not return with thee,.... Not being satisfied with his repentance and confession, he still extenuating his sin, and ...

And Samuel said unto Saul, I will not return with thee,.... Not being satisfied with his repentance and confession, he still extenuating his sin, and laying the blame of it on the people. This he said by way of resentment, and as expressing his indignation at him, though he afterwards did return with him on a change of his mind; which a good man may be allowed to make, without any imputation of falsehood or a lie unto him:

for thou hast rejected the word of the Lord, and the Lord hath rejected thee from being king over Israel; which is repeated from 1Sa 15:23 for the confirmation of it, and to let Saul know that his pretended confession and repentance had made no alteration in the decree and sentence of God respecting the kingdom.

Gill: 1Sa 15:27 - And as Samuel turned about to go away // he laid hold upon the skirt of his mantle // and it rent And as Samuel turned about to go away,.... From Saul, a different way from Gilgal, perhaps towards his own city Ramah, with an intention to have nothi...

And as Samuel turned about to go away,.... From Saul, a different way from Gilgal, perhaps towards his own city Ramah, with an intention to have nothing more to say to Saul, or to do with him, or to see his face no more; so displeased was he with him:

he laid hold upon the skirt of his mantle; in order to detain him, and prevent his departure from him, and his going a different way:

and it rent; Samuel twitching away from him with great vehemence and warmth. The Jewish f Rabbins are divided about this, whose skirt was rent; some say it was Samuel that rent the skirt of Saul, and by this signified to him, that he that cut off the skirt of his garment should reign in his stead; whereby Saul knew that David would be king when he cut off the skirt of his robe, 1Sa 24:4, others, that Samuel rent the skirt of his own mantle himself, which is the way of good men when things are not right; but the plain sense is, that Saul rent the skirt of Samuel's mantle, which, when Samuel saw, he understood what that rent was a sign of, as expressed in the following verse.

Gill: 1Sa 15:28 - And Samuel said unto him, the Lord hath rent the kingdom of Israel from thee this day // and hath given it to a neighbour of thine, that is better than thou And Samuel said unto him, the Lord hath rent the kingdom of Israel from thee this day,.... Seeing his mantle rent by Saul, he took occasion from thenc...

And Samuel said unto him, the Lord hath rent the kingdom of Israel from thee this day,.... Seeing his mantle rent by Saul, he took occasion from thence to predict, and no doubt it was impressed on his mind by the Spirit of God, that his kingdom should be in a like manner rent from him, on account of his own evil conduct and behaviour; and from this day forward he might expect it; the sentence was gone forth from God, and it would not be reversed; and by a like sign was signified the rending of the ten tribes from the kingdom of Solomon in his son Rehoboam, 1Ki 11:30,

and hath given it to a neighbour of thine, that is better than thou; who was David, a man after God's own heart, that would fulfil his will, who was more holy, just, and wise than Saul; whose works were better and righter than his, as the Targum; who was an Israelite, of the same nation and religion as he, and so his neighbour; and though he was not of the same tribe, yet of a neighbouring tribe; Benjamin, and Judah, of which tribe David was, joining closely to one another. It is highly probable that at this time Samuel knew not personally who he was that was designed to be made king in his room, though under the direction of the Spirit of God he thus describes him; for after this he is bid to go to Jesse's family, from thence to anoint a king, and several passed before him ere the Lord pointed out the proper person to him.

Gill: 1Sa 15:29 - And also the Strength of Israel will not lie nor repent // for he is not a man, that he should repent And also the Strength of Israel will not lie nor repent,.... Neither of the evil which he had threatened to Saul in taking away the kingdom from him; ...

And also the Strength of Israel will not lie nor repent,.... Neither of the evil which he had threatened to Saul in taking away the kingdom from him; nor of the good which he had promised to David in giving it to him; nor of his purpose and promise to Israel to protect and defend them, save and deliver them from the Philistines, and continue them a nation and kingdom: and for the confirmation of all this, this title or character of the Lord is given, "the Strength of Israel"; hence he cannot lie, which is the effect of weakness; nor repent or change his mind, as men do, when something unforeseen arises, which hinders the execution of their first design, and which through weakness they cannot surmount: and hence God would support Israel as a nation, and strengthen them against their enemies, and work deliverance and salvation for them: or "the victory of Israel" q; the author of Israel's victories, and to whom they are to be ascribed, and who is able to give them more, and would; and as he did especially by David, to whom the kingdom is promised: or "the eternity of Israel" r; that gives firmness, permanency, and duration to them; all which is true of Israel in a spiritual sense; he gives them spiritual strength, victory over their enemies, sin, Satan, and the world, permanent duration, everlasting salvation, immortality, and eternal life:

for he is not a man, that he should repent; men are weak and feeble, and cannot perform what they purpose or promise, and therefore repent; but God, the Strength of Israel, is able to perform whatever he has purposed or promised, and therefore repents not; men are changeable in their minds, and repent of their first thoughts and designs; but God is unchangeable, and never alters his counsels, breaks his covenant, reverses his blessings, repents of his gifts, nor changes his affections to his Israel. Abarbinel says this may be understood of Saul, and so be given as a reason why God would not repent of the evil he had threatened him with, because he was a man that repented not of his sin; but the first sense is best, and agrees with and is confirmed by Num 23:19.

Gill: 1Sa 15:30 - Then he said, I have sinned // yet honour me now, I pray thee, before the elders of my people, and before Israel // and turn again with me, and worship the Lord thy God Then he said, I have sinned,.... So he had said before, 1Sa 15:24 but his confession there was attended with an extenuation of his sin, pleading in ex...

Then he said, I have sinned,.... So he had said before, 1Sa 15:24 but his confession there was attended with an extenuation of his sin, pleading in excuse of it that it was through fear of the people, but here it is without any; and yet by what follows it appears to be not ingenuous and sincere, but hypocritical:

yet honour me now, I pray thee, before the elders of my people, and before Israel; with his company; since should he be slighted openly by the Lord, and by his prophet, he would fall into contempt both with the principal men, and with the common people; wherefore he seemed more concerned for the loss of honour and reputation with the people, than for his sin against God, which is always the case of hypocrites:

and turn again with me, and worship the Lord thy God; See Gill on 1Sa 15:25.

Gill: 1Sa 15:31 - So Samuel turned again after Saul So Samuel turned again after Saul,.... Though he before said he would not, 1Sa 15:26 yet he did, changing his mind, as he might without being chargeab...

So Samuel turned again after Saul,.... Though he before said he would not, 1Sa 15:26 yet he did, changing his mind, as he might without being chargeable with a lie; and he also might have an impulse from the Lord so to do, and which he did not in order to worship with Saul, which it does not appear he did, but rather the contrary; but that Saul might not be despised by the people, and his authority lessened, while he continued king; and that he might do what Saul had neglected to do, destroy Agag: and Saul worshipped the Lord; alone, by offering sacrifice to him.

Gill: 1Sa 15:32 - Then said Samuel, bring you hither to me Agag the king of the Amalekites // and Agag came unto him delicately // and Agag said, surely the bitterness of death is past Then said Samuel, bring you hither to me Agag the king of the Amalekites,.... This he said very probably to some of Saul's officers, and in his presen...

Then said Samuel, bring you hither to me Agag the king of the Amalekites,.... This he said very probably to some of Saul's officers, and in his presence, and before all the people met together for sacrifice:

and Agag came unto him delicately; fat and plump, as the Vulgate Latin version, and yet trembling, as that and the Septuagint; well dressed, in the garb and habit of a king, and with the air and majesty of one; or with pleasure and joy, as Kimchi, choosing rather to die than to be a captive, and live in such reproach as he did; though R. Isaiah and Ben Gersom give the sense of it, that he came bound in chains, and fetters of iron, according to the use of the word in Job 38:31.

and Agag said, surely the bitterness of death is past; this he said, either as not expecting to die, that since he had been spared by Saul, the king of the nation, a fierce and warlike prince, he had nothing to fear from an ancient man and a prophet, and who now bore not the sword of justice; and especially when he came into his presence, and saw his form, which showed him to be a man of clemency and mercy, as Ben Gersom observes: or as expecting it, and so Kimchi interprets it to this sense, "the bitterness of death is come"; and is near at hand, and will be soon over; or suggesting that that which was bitter, to others grievous and terrible, was to him sweet and desirable; but the former sense seems best by what follows.

Gill: 1Sa 15:33 - And Samuel said, as thy sword hath made women childless // so shall thy mother be childless among women // and Samuel hewed Agag in pieces before the Lord in Gilgal And Samuel said, as thy sword hath made women childless,.... Or, "bereaved s" them, not of their children only, but of their husbands also, and so mad...

And Samuel said, as thy sword hath made women childless,.... Or, "bereaved s" them, not of their children only, but of their husbands also, and so made them both childless and widows; by which it appears that he was a cruel prince, and justly died for his own barbarity and wickedness, as well as for the sins of his ancestors four hundred years ago:

so shall thy mother be childless among women; which was according to the law of retaliation, and what the Jews call measure for measure:

and Samuel hewed Agag in pieces before the Lord in Gilgal; either before the ark of the Lord, the symbol of the divine Presence; or before the altar, where Saul and the people had been sacrificing; this he did either himself, though an old man, or by others to whom he gave the orders; and which he did not as being the chief magistrate, and by virtue of his office, but acting as on a special occasion, at the command of God, and to show his zeal for him, and indignation at such a breach of his command. In what manner this was done, is not easy to say; he was not torn to pieces by the hand, without an instrument, as Baebius by the Romans t; or sawn asunder, as some by Caligula u; and as Isaiah the prophet is said to be by Manasseh, king of Judah, to which it is thought the apostle alludes, Heb 11:37. According to Ben Gersom, the word signifies he cleaved him, as wood is cleaved; or divided him into four parts, as Jarchi; perhaps he slew him with the sword, and then quartered him; that is, ordered it to be done.

Gill: 1Sa 15:34 - Then Samuel went to Ramah // and Saul went up to his house to Gibeah of Saul Then Samuel went to Ramah,.... His native place, and where was his usual residence: and Saul went up to his house to Gibeah of Saul; which was also...

Then Samuel went to Ramah,.... His native place, and where was his usual residence:

and Saul went up to his house to Gibeah of Saul; which was also his birth place, and where was his father's house, and where he had his palace, and kept his court; and took its name from him, to distinguish it from another Gibeah; and so Josephus w says it was called Gabathsaoule, and was about thirty furlongs or four miles from Jerusalem.

Gill: 1Sa 15:35 - And Samuel came no more to see Saul until the day of his death // until the day of his death // nevertheless Samuel mourned for Saul // and the Lord repented that he made Saul king over Israel And Samuel came no more to see Saul until the day of his death,.... Or "added not to see him" x; not that he saw him no more, he saw him afterwards, 1...

And Samuel came no more to see Saul until the day of his death,.... Or "added not to see him" x; not that he saw him no more, he saw him afterwards, 1Sa 19:24, but it was accidentally, he did not go to see him, but Saul came to him; and Abarbinel supposes he might not see him then, but hid his face from him; and he observes that it is said:

until the day of his death; which intimates, he thinks, that he saw him after his death, when raised up by the witch of Endor; but that Samuel was then really raised, and was seen, wants proof. The meaning of the expression here is no more than this, that Samuel afterwards did not visit Saul as he used to do; he did not go to him, to give him his advice and counsel, as he wonted:

nevertheless Samuel mourned for Saul; because of his sin, his impenitence, and hypocrisy; and because of the loss of the kingdom to him, and to his posterity; and he might be concerned also about his eternal welfare; for he appears to have a natural affection for him, and was far from envying him as his rival, and rejoicing at his fall:

and the Lord repented that he made Saul king over Israel; nor was his mind altered, neither by the hypocritical confession of Saul, nor by the cordial prayers and heart of Samuel; see 1Sa 15:11.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:1 Heb “to the voice of the words of the Lord” (so KJV).

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:2 Heb “he”; the referent (Israel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:3 Or perhaps “don’t take pity on” (cf. CEV).

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:4 Heb “people.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:5 That is, “the dry stream bed.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:6 The translation follows the Syriac Peshitta and Vulgate which assume a reading אֶסִפְךָ (’esf...

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:7 Heb “[as] you enter.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:8 Heb “all the people.” For clarity “Agag’s” has been supplied in the translation.

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:9 The MT has here the very odd form נְמִבְזָה (nÿmivzah), but this is apparently due to a scr...

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:12 At the end of v. 12 the LXX and one Old Latin ms include the following words not found in the MT: “to Saul. And behold, he was offering as a bur...

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:13 Heb “to Saul.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:14 The words “if that is the case” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:15 Heb “they brought them.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:16 Heb “he”; the referent (Saul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:17 Heb “anointed.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:18 The translation follows the LXX, the Syriac Peshitta, and the Targum in reading the second person singular suffix (“you”) rather than the ...

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:19 Heb “you have done what is evil in the eyes of the Lord.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:20 Heb “journey.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:22 The expression “is better” is understood here by ellipsis (see the immediately preceding statement).

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:23 Or “from [being].”

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:24 Heb “and I listened to their voice.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:25 Following the imperative, the cohortative with the prefixed conjunction indicates purpose/result.

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:27 Heb “he,” but Saul is clearly the referent. A Qumran ms and the LXX include the name “Saul” here.

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:29 This observation marks the preceding statement (v. 28) as an unconditional, unalterable decree. When God makes such a decree he will not alter it or c...

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:30 Heb “he”; the referent (Saul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:32 The text is difficult here. With the LXX, two Old Latin mss, and the Syriac Peshitta it is probably preferable to delete סָר (sar, &...

NET Notes: 1Sa 15:35 That is, Samuel.

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 15:1 Samuel also said unto Saul, The LORD sent me to anoint thee [to be] king over his people, over Israel: now therefore ( a ) hearken thou unto the voice...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 15:3 Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but ( b ) slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sh...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 15:6 And Saul said unto the ( c ) Kenites, Go, depart, get you down from among the Amalekites, lest I destroy you with them: for ye shewed ( d ) kindness t...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 15:11 It ( e ) repenteth me that I have set up Saul [to be] king: for he is turned back from following me, and hath not performed my commandments. And it gr...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 15:13 And Samuel came to Saul: and Saul said unto him, Blessed [be] thou of the LORD: I have performed the ( f ) commandment of the LORD. ( f ) This is the...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 15:17 And Samuel said, When thou [wast] ( g ) little in thine own sight, [wast] thou not [made] the head of the tribes of Israel, and the LORD anointed thee...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 15:20 And Saul said unto Samuel, Yea, ( h ) I have obeyed the voice of the LORD, and have gone the way which the LORD sent me, and have brought Agag the kin...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 15:23 For ( i ) rebellion [is as] the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness [is as] iniquity and idolatry. Because thou hast rejected the word of the LORD, he...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 15:25 Now therefore, I pray thee, pardon my ( k ) sin, and turn again with me, that I may worship the LORD. ( k ) This was not true repentance, but deceit ...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 15:28 And Samuel said unto him, The LORD hath rent the kingdom of Israel from thee this day, and hath given it to a ( l ) neighbour of thine, [that is] bett...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 15:29 And also the ( m ) Strength of Israel will not lie nor repent: for he [is] not a man, that he should repent. ( m ) Meaning God, who maintains and pre...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 15:32 Then said Samuel, Bring ye hither to me Agag the king of the Amalekites. And Agag came unto him delicately. And Agag said, Surely the ( n ) bitterness...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 15:34 Then Samuel went to ( o ) Ramah; and Saul went up to his house to Gibeah of Saul. ( o ) Where his house was.

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 15:35 And Samuel came no more to ( p ) see Saul until the day of his death: nevertheless Samuel mourned for Saul: and the LORD ( q ) repented that he had ma...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

Maclaren: 1Sa 15:10-23 - Saul Rejected 1 Samuel 15:10-23 Again the narrative takes us to Gilgal,--a fateful place for Saul. There they made Saul king before the Lord'; there he had taken th...

MHCC: 1Sa 15:1-9 - --The sentence of condemnation against the Amalekites had gone forth long before, Exo 17:14; Deu 25:19, but they had been spared till they filled up the...

MHCC: 1Sa 15:10-23 - --Repentance in God is not a change of mind, as it is in us, but a change of method. The change was in Saul; " He is turned back from following me." He...

MHCC: 1Sa 15:24-31 - --There were several signs of hypocrisy in Saul's repentance. 1. He besought Samuel only, and seemed most anxious to stand right in his opinion, and to ...

MHCC: 1Sa 15:32-35 - --Many think the bitterness of death is past when it is not gone by; they put that evil day far from them, which is very near. Samuel calls Agag to acco...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 15:1-9 - -- Here, I. Samuel, in God's name, solemnly requires Saul to be obedient to the command of God, and plainly intimates that he was now about to put him ...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 15:10-23 - -- Saul is here called to account by Samuel concerning the execution of his commission against the Amalekites; and remarkable instances we are here fur...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 15:24-31 - -- Saul is at length brought to put himself into the dress of the penitent; but it is too evident that he only acts the part of a penitent, and is not ...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 15:32-35 - -- Samuel, as a prophet, is here set over kings, Jer 1:10. I. He destroys king Agag, doubtless by such special direction from heaven as none now can pr...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:1-3 - -- The account of the war against the Amalekites is a verycondensed one, and is restricted to a description of the conduct of Saul onthat occasion. Wit...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:4-9 - -- Saul summoned the people to war, and mustered them (those who weresummoned) at Telaim (this was probably the same place as the Telem mentioned in ...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:10-11 - -- The word of the Lord came to Samuel: " It repenteth me that I have madeSaul king, for he hath turned away from me, and not set up (carried out) my w...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:12 - -- The next morning, after receiving the revelation from God (1Sa 15:11), Samuelrose up early, to go and meet Saul as he was returning from the war. On...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:13 - -- When Samuel met him there, Saul attempted to hide his consciousness ofguilt by a feigned friendly welcome. " Blessed be thou of the Lord "(vid.,Rth ...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:14-15 - -- But the prophet stripped his hypocrisy at once with the question, " Whatthen is this bleating of sheep in my ears, and a lowing of oxen that I hear?...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:16-19 - -- Samuel therefore bade him be silent. הרף , "leave off," excusingthyself any further. "I will tell thee what Jehovah hath said to me thisnight." ...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:20 - -- " Yea, I have hearkened to the voice of Jehovah ( אשׁר serving, like כּי ekil , to introduce the reply: here it is used in the sense ofassever...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:21 - -- Even the sparing of the cattle he endeavoured to defend as the fulfilment ofa religious duty. The people had taken sheep and oxen from the booty, "a...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:22-23 - -- Without entering, therefore, into any discussion of the meaning of the ban,as Saul only wanted to cover over his own wrong-doings by giving thisturn...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:24-25 - -- This sentence made so powerful an impression upon Saul, that heconfessed, "I have sinned: for I have transgressed the command of the Lordand thy wor...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:26-29 - -- This request Samuel refused, repeating at the same time the sentence ofrejection, and turned to depart. " Then Saul laid hold of the lappet of hisma...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:30-31 - -- After this declaration as to the irrevocable character of the determinationof God to reject Saul, Samuel yielded to the renewed entreaty of Saul, th...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:32 - -- After Saul had prayed, Samuel directed him to bring Agag the king of theAmalekites. Agag came מעדנּת , i.e., in a contented and joyousstate of...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:33 - -- But Samuel pronounced the sentence of death upon him: " As thy swordhath made women childless, so be thy mother childless before women! " מנּשׁי...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 15:34-35 - -- After the prophet had thus maintained the rights of Jehovah in thepresence of Saul, and carried out the ban upon Agag, he returned to hisown home at...

Constable: 1Sa 13:1--15:35 - --C. Kingship Removed from Saul chs. 13-15 This section documents Saul's disobedience to the revealed will...

Constable: 1Sa 15:1-35 - --5. Yahweh's final rejection of Saul ch. 15 "In the short pericope 13:7b-15a obedience was the st...

Guzik: 1Sa 15:1-35 - God Rejects Saul as King 1 Samuel 15 - God Rejects Saul as King A. Battle against the Amalekites. 1. (1-3) A clear, radical command: destroy Amalek. Samuel also said to Sa...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF SAMUEL. The two were, by the ancient Jews, conjoined so as to make one book, and in that form could be called the Book o...

JFB: 1 Samuel (Garis Besar) OF ELKANAH AND HIS TWO WIVES. (1Sa 1:1-8) HANNAH'S PRAYER. (1Sa 1:9-18) SAMUEL BORN. (1Sa 1:20) HANNAH'S SONG IN THANKFULNESS TO GOD. (1Sa 2:1-11) TH...

TSK: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) The First Book of SAMUEL, otherwise called " The First Book of the KINGS."

TSK: 1 Samuel 15 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview 1Sa 15:1, Samuel sends Saul to destroy Amalek; 1Sa 15:6, Saul favours the Kenites; 1Sa 15:7, He spares Agag and the best of the spoil; 1S...

Poole: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) FIRST BOOK OF SAMUEL OTHERWISE CALLED THE FIRST BOOK OF THE KINGS. THE ARGUMENT. IT is not certainly known who was the penman of this Book, or whe...

Poole: 1 Samuel 15 (Pendahuluan Pasal) SAMUEL CHAPTER 15 Samuel sendeth Saul to destroy the Amalekites: his army, 1Sa 15:1-5 . He favoureth the Kenites; spareth Agag, and the best of the...

MHCC: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) In this book we have an account of Eli, and the wickedness of his sons; also of Samuel, his character and actions. Then of the advancement of Saul to ...

MHCC: 1 Samuel 15 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (1Sa 15:1-9) Saul sent to destroy Amalek. (1Sa 15:10-23) Saul excuses and commends himself. (1Sa 15:24-31) Saul's imperfect humiliation. (1Sa 15:32...

Matthew Henry: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The First Book of Samuel This book, and that which follows it, bear the name of Samuel in the title, ...

Matthew Henry: 1 Samuel 15 (Pendahuluan Pasal) In this chapter we have the final rejection of Saul from being king, for his disobedience to God's command in not utterly destroying the Amalekites...

Constable: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title First and Second Samuel were originally one book called the Book of...

Constable: 1 Samuel (Garis Besar) Outline I. Eli and Samuel chs. 1-3 A. The change from barrenness to fertility 1:1-2:10 ...

Constable: 1 Samuel 1 Samuel Bibliography Ackroyd, Peter R. The First Book of Samuel. Cambridge Bible Commentary on the New English...

Haydock: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FIRST BOOK OF SAMUEL; otherwise called, THE FIRST BOOK OF KINGS. INTRODUCTION. This and the following Book are called by the Hebrews, the...

Gill: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO 1 SAMUEL This book, in the Hebrew copies, is commonly called Samuel, or the Book of Samuel; in the Syriac version, the Book of Samu...

Gill: 1 Samuel 15 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO FIRST SAMUEL 15 In this chapter are recorded the order Saul had from the Lord to destroy Amalek utterly, 1Sa 15:1 the preparation h...

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