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Teks -- 1 Samuel 13:1-23 (NET)

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Konteks
Saul Fails the Lord
13:1 Saul was thirty years old when he began to reign; he ruled over Israel for forty years. 13:2 Saul selected for himself three thousand men from Israel. Two thousand of these were with Saul at Micmash and in the hill country of Bethel; the remaining thousand were with Jonathan at Gibeah in the territory of Benjamin. He sent all the rest of the people back home. 13:3 Jonathan attacked the Philistine outpost that was at Geba and the Philistines heard about it. Then Saul alerted all the land saying, “Let the Hebrews pay attention!” 13:4 All Israel heard this message, “Saul has attacked the Philistine outpost, and now Israel is repulsive to the Philistines!” So the people were summoned to join Saul at Gilgal. 13:5 For the battle with Israel the Philistines had amassed 3,000 chariots, 6,000 horsemen, and an army as numerous as the sand on the seashore. They went up and camped at Micmash, east of Beth Aven. 13:6 The men of Israel realized they had a problem because their army was hard pressed. So the army hid in caves, thickets, cliffs, strongholds, and cisterns. 13:7 Some of the Hebrews crossed over the Jordan River to the land of Gad and Gilead. But Saul stayed at Gilgal; the entire army that was with him was terrified. 13:8 He waited for seven days, the time period indicated by Samuel. But Samuel did not come to Gilgal, and the army began to abandon Saul. 13:9 So Saul said, “Bring me the burnt offering and the peace offerings.” Then he offered a burnt offering. 13:10 Just when he had finished offering the burnt offering, Samuel appeared on the scene. Saul went out to meet him and to greet him. 13:11 But Samuel said, “What have you done?” Saul replied, “When I saw that the army had started to abandon me and that you didn’t come at the appointed time and that the Philistines had assembled at Micmash, 13:12 I thought, ‘Now the Philistines will come down on me at Gilgal and I have not sought the Lord’s favor.’ So I felt obligated to offer the burnt offering.” 13:13 Then Samuel said to Saul, “You have made a foolish choice! You have not obeyed the commandment that the Lord your God gave you. Had you done that, the Lord would have established your kingdom over Israel forever! 13:14 But now your kingdom will not continue! The Lord has sought out for himself a man who is loyal to him and the Lord has appointed him to be leader over his people, for you have not obeyed what the Lord commanded you.” 13:15 Then Samuel set out and went up from Gilgal to Gibeah in the territory of Benjamin. Saul mustered the army that remained with him; there were about six hundred men. 13:16 Saul, his son Jonathan, and the army that remained with them stayed in Gibeah in the territory of Benjamin, while the Philistines camped in Micmash. 13:17 Raiding bands went out from the camp of the Philistines in three groups. One band turned toward the road leading to Ophrah by the land of Shual; 13:18 another band turned toward the road leading to Beth Horon; and yet another band turned toward the road leading to the border that overlooks the valley of Zeboim in the direction of the desert. 13:19 A blacksmith could not be found in all the land of Israel, for the Philistines had said, “This will prevent the Hebrews from making swords and spears.” 13:20 So all Israel had to go down to the Philistines in order to get their plowshares, cutting instruments, axes, and sickles sharpened. 13:21 They charged two-thirds of a shekel to sharpen plowshares and cutting instruments, and a third of a shekel to sharpen picks and axes, and to set ox goads. 13:22 So on the day of the battle no sword or spear was to be found in the hand of anyone in the army that was with Saul and Jonathan. No one but Saul and his son Jonathan had them.
Jonathan Ignites a Battle
13:23 A garrison of the Philistines had gone out to the pass at Micmash.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Benjamin the tribe of Benjamin of Israel
 · Beth-aven a town of Benjamin,a town, probably Upper &/or Lower Beth-Horon in Ephraim,a town of Benjamin bordering Ephraim 18 km north of Jerusalem
 · Beth-Aven a town of Benjamin,a town, probably Upper &/or Lower Beth-Horon in Ephraim,a town of Benjamin bordering Ephraim 18 km north of Jerusalem
 · Beth-horon "twin" towns (Upper & Lower) in the foothills of Ephraim
 · Beth-Horon "twin" towns (Upper & Lower) in the foothills of Ephraim
 · Bethel a town of Benjamin bordering Ephraim 18 km north of Jerusalem
 · Gad the tribe of Israel descended from Gad, the son of Jacob,the man; the son of Jacob and Zilpah,the tribe of Gad in Israel,a prophet and long time advisor to King David
 · Geba a town of Judah 8 km north of Jerusalem, 5 km east of Gibeon (SMM)
 · Gibeah a town of Judah 8 km north of Jerusalem, 5 km east of Gibeon (SMM)
 · Gilead a mountainous region east of the Jordan & north of the Arnon to Hermon,son of Machir son of Manasseh; founder of the clan of Gilead,father of Jephthah the judge,son of Michael of the tribe of Gad
 · Gilgal a place where Israel encamped between Jericho and the Jordan,a town between Dor and Tirza in the territory of Ephraim (YC),a town just north of Joppa, originally a military base (YC),a place 12 miles south of Shechem now called Jiljiliah (YC)
 · Hebrew a person descended from Heber; an ancient Jew; a Hebrew speaking Jew,any Jew, but particularly one who spoke the Hebrew language
 · Israel a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Israelite a citizen of Israel.,a member of the nation of Israel
 · Jonathan a man who was a descendant of Gershom son of Moses,son of Saul of Benjamin,son of the high priest Abiathar in David's time,the son of Shime-i, David's brother,son of Shammah/Shagee; one of David's military elite,son of Jada of Judah,son of Uzziah; overseer of the country treasuries for King David,a man who was uncle and counselor of King David,father of Ebed who accompanied Ezra leading the clan of Adin back from exile,a man who opposed Ezra's reforms; son of Asahel,a chief priest; son of Joiada,priest and head of the house of Malluchi under High Priest Joiakim in the time of Nehemiah,son of Shemaiah of Asaph of Levi; father of Zechariah,a man who was secretary and dungeon keeper for King Zedekiah; son of Kareah
 · Jordan the river that flows from Lake Galilee to the Dead Sea,a river that begins at Mt. Hermon, flows south through Lake Galilee and on to its end at the Dead Sea 175 km away (by air)
 · Michmash a town of Benjamin 12 km north of Jerusalem
 · Ophrah a town of Benjamin on the border of Ephraim, 4 km ENE of Bethel,a town of Manasseh, possibly 7 km NW of Jezreel,son of Meonothai of Judah
 · Philistines a sea people coming from Crete in 1200BC to the coast of Canaan
 · Samuel son of Ammihud; Moses' land distribution deputy for Simeon,son of Tola son of Issachar
 · Saul the sixth king of Edom,son of Simeon and a Canaanite woman,son of Uzziah of Kohath son of Levi
 · Shual a region of Benjamin not far from Ophrah and Michmash,son of Zophah of Asher
 · Zeboim a town and valley inhabited by Benjamites after the exile


Topik/Tema Kamus: Saul | Philistines | Samuel | SAMUEL, BOOKS OF | WAR; WARFARE | Gilgal | Armies | Church and State | Presumption | Confidence | Usurpation | Michmash | Garrison | ARMY | JONATHAN (2) | Mattock | GIBEAH | Geba | Zeboim | SACRIFICE, IN THE OLD TESTAMENT, 2 | selebihnya
Daftar Isi

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Wesley , JFB , Clarke , Defender , TSK

Catatan Kata/Frasa
Poole , Haydock , Gill

Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki
NET Notes , Geneva Bible

Catatan Rentang Ayat
MHCC , Matthew Henry , Keil-Delitzsch , Constable , Guzik

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Wesley: 1Sa 13:3 - Blew That is, he sent messengers to tell them all what Jonathan had done, and how the Philistines were enraged at it, and therefore what necessity there wa...

That is, he sent messengers to tell them all what Jonathan had done, and how the Philistines were enraged at it, and therefore what necessity there was of gathering themselves together for their own defence.

Wesley: 1Sa 13:4 - Saul Perhaps contrary to some treaty.

Perhaps contrary to some treaty.

Wesley: 1Sa 13:5 - Thirty thousand chariots, &c. _Most of them, we may suppose, carriages for their baggage, not chariots of war, tho' all their allies were joined with them.

_Most of them, we may suppose, carriages for their baggage, not chariots of war, tho' all their allies were joined with them.

Wesley: 1Sa 13:6 - Strait Notwithstanding their former presumption that if they had a king, they should be free from all such straits. And hereby God intended to teach them the...

Notwithstanding their former presumption that if they had a king, they should be free from all such straits. And hereby God intended to teach them the vanity of confidence in men; and that they did not one jot less need the help of God now, than they did when they had no king. And probably they were the more discouraged, because they did not find Samuel with Saul. Sooner or later men will be made to see, that God and his prophets are their best friends.

Wesley: 1Sa 13:7 - All the people That is, all that were left.

That is, all that were left.

Wesley: 1Sa 13:8 - Seven days Not seven compleat days; for the last day was not finished.

Not seven compleat days; for the last day was not finished.

Wesley: 1Sa 13:11 - Camest not That is, when the seventh day was come, and a good part of it past, whence I concluded thou wouldst not come that day.

That is, when the seventh day was come, and a good part of it past, whence I concluded thou wouldst not come that day.

Wesley: 1Sa 13:12 - Supplication Thence it appears, that sacrifices were accompanied with solemn prayers.

Thence it appears, that sacrifices were accompanied with solemn prayers.

Wesley: 1Sa 13:12 - Forced myself I did it against my own mind and inclination.

I did it against my own mind and inclination.

Wesley: 1Sa 13:13 - For ever The phrase, for ever, in scripture often signifies only a long time. So this had been abundantly verified, if the kingdom had been enjoyed by Saul, an...

The phrase, for ever, in scripture often signifies only a long time. So this had been abundantly verified, if the kingdom had been enjoyed by Saul, and by his son, and by his son's son; after whom the kingdom might have come to Judah.

Wesley: 1Sa 13:14 - A man That is, such a man as will fulfil all the desires of his heart, and not oppose them, as thou dost.

That is, such a man as will fulfil all the desires of his heart, and not oppose them, as thou dost.

Wesley: 1Sa 13:14 - Commanded That is, hath appointed, as the word command is sometimes used: but though God threatened but Saul with the loss of his kingdom for his sin; yet it is...

That is, hath appointed, as the word command is sometimes used: but though God threatened but Saul with the loss of his kingdom for his sin; yet it is not improbable, there was a tacit condition implied, to wit, if he did not repent of this; and of all his sins; for the full, and final, and peremptory sentence of Saul's rejection, is plainly ascribed to another cause, 1Sa 15:11, 1Sa 15:23, 1Sa 15:26, 1Sa 15:28-29, and 'till that second offence, neither the spirit of the Lord departed from him, nor was David anointed in his stead. "But was it not hard, to punish so little a sin so severely?" It was not little: disobedience to an express command, tho' in a small matter, is a great provocation. And indeed, there is no little sin, because there is no little god to sin against. In general, what to men seems a small offence, to him who knows the heart may appear a heinous crime. We are taught hereby, how necessary it is, that we wait on our God continually. For Saul is sentenced to lose his kingdom for want of two or three hours patience.

Wesley: 1Sa 13:20 - Philistines Not to the land of the Philistines, but to the stations and garrisons which the Philistines retained in several parts of Israel's land, though Samuel'...

Not to the land of the Philistines, but to the stations and garrisons which the Philistines retained in several parts of Israel's land, though Samuel's authority had so far over - awed them, that they durst not give the Israelites much disturbance. In these, therefore, the Philistines kept all the smiths; and here they allowed them the exercise of their art for the uses following.

Wesley: 1Sa 13:22 - Sword It seems restrained to the six hundred that were with Saul and Jonathan; for there were no doubt a considerable number of swords and spears among the ...

It seems restrained to the six hundred that were with Saul and Jonathan; for there were no doubt a considerable number of swords and spears among the Israelites, but they generally hid them, as now they did their persons, from the Philistines. And the Philistines had not yet attained to so great a power over them, as wholly to disarm them, but thought it sufficient to prevent the making of new arms; knowing that the old ones would shortly be decayed, and useless. There were likewise other arms more common in those times and places, than swords and spears; to wit, bows and arrows, and slings and stones.

JFB: 1Sa 13:1 - Saul reigned one year (see Margin). The transactions recorded in the eleventh and twelfth chapters were the principal incidents comprising the first year of Saul's reign; a...

(see Margin). The transactions recorded in the eleventh and twelfth chapters were the principal incidents comprising the first year of Saul's reign; and the events about to be described in this happened in the second year.

JFB: 1Sa 13:2 - Saul chose him three thousand men of Israel This band of picked men was a bodyguard, who were kept constantly on duty, while the rest of the people were dismissed till their services might be ne...

This band of picked men was a bodyguard, who were kept constantly on duty, while the rest of the people were dismissed till their services might be needed. It seems to have been his tactics to attack the Philistine garrisons in the country by different detachments, rather than by risking a general engagement; and his first operations were directed to rid his native territory of Benjamin of these enemies.

JFB: 1Sa 13:3-4 - And Jonathan That is, "God-given."

That is, "God-given."

JFB: 1Sa 13:3-4 - smote the garrison of the Philistines . . . in Geba Geba and Gibeah were towns in Benjamin, very close to each other (Jos 18:24, Jos 18:28). The word rendered "garrison" is different from that of 1Sa 13...

Geba and Gibeah were towns in Benjamin, very close to each other (Jos 18:24, Jos 18:28). The word rendered "garrison" is different from that of 1Sa 13:23; 1Sa 14:1, and signifies, literally, something erected; probably a pillar or flagstaff, indicative of Philistine ascendency. That the secret demolition of this standard, so obnoxious to a young and noble-hearted patriot, was the feat of Jonathan referred to, is evident from the words, "the Philistines heard of it," which is not the way we should expect an attack on a fortress to be noticed.

JFB: 1Sa 13:3-4 - Saul blew the trumpet throughout all the land This, a well-known sound, was the usual Hebrew war-summons; the first blast was answered by the beacon fire in the neighboring places. A second blast ...

This, a well-known sound, was the usual Hebrew war-summons; the first blast was answered by the beacon fire in the neighboring places. A second blast was blown--then answered by a fire in a more distant locality, whence the proclamation was speedily diffused over the whole country. As the Philistines resented what Jonathan had done as an overt attempt to throw off their yoke, a levy, en masse, of the people was immediately ordered, the rendezvous to be the old camping-ground at Gilgal.

JFB: 1Sa 13:5 - The Philistines gathered themselves together to fight with Israel, thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen Either this number must include chariots of every kind--or the word "chariots" must mean the men fighting in them (2Sa 10:18; 1Ki 20:21; 1Ch 19:18); o...

Either this number must include chariots of every kind--or the word "chariots" must mean the men fighting in them (2Sa 10:18; 1Ki 20:21; 1Ch 19:18); or, as some eminent critics maintain, Sheloshim ("thirty"), has crept into the text, instead of Shelosh ("three"). The gathering of the chariots and horsemen must be understood to be on the Philistine plain, before they ascended the western passes and pitched in the heart of the Benjamite hills, in "Michmash," (now Mukmas), a "steep precipitous valley" [ROBINSON], eastward from Beth-aven (Beth-el).

JFB: 1Sa 13:6 - When the men of Israel saw that they were in a strait Though Saul's gallantry was unabated, his subjects displayed no degree of zeal and energy. Instead of venturing an encounter, they fled in all directi...

Though Saul's gallantry was unabated, his subjects displayed no degree of zeal and energy. Instead of venturing an encounter, they fled in all directions. Some, in their panic, left the country (1Sa 13:7), but most took refuge in the hiding-places which the broken ridges of the neighborhood abundantly afford. The rocks are perforated in every direction with "caves," and "holes," and "pits"--crevices and fissures sunk deep in the rocky soil, subterranean granaries or dry wells in the adjoining fields. The name of Michmash ("hidden treasure") seems to be derived from this natural peculiarity [STANLEY].

JFB: 1Sa 13:8 - he That is, Saul.

That is, Saul.

JFB: 1Sa 13:8 - tarried seven days He was still in the eastern borders of his kingdom, in the valley of Jordan. Some bolder spirits had ventured to join the camp at Gilgal; but even the...

He was still in the eastern borders of his kingdom, in the valley of Jordan. Some bolder spirits had ventured to join the camp at Gilgal; but even the courage of those stout-hearted men gave way in prospect of this terrible visitation; and as many of them were stealing away, he thought some immediate and decided step must be taken.

JFB: 1Sa 13:9-14 - Saul said, Bring hither a burnt offering to me, and peace offerings Saul, though patriotic enough in his own way, was more ambitious of gaining the glory of a triumph to himself than ascribing it to God. He did not und...

Saul, though patriotic enough in his own way, was more ambitious of gaining the glory of a triumph to himself than ascribing it to God. He did not understand his proper position as king of Israel; and although aware of the restrictions under which he held the sovereignty, he wished to rule as an autocrat, who possessed absolute power both in civil and sacred things. This occasion was his first trial. Samuel waited till the last day of the seven, in order to put the constitutional character of the king to the test; and, as Saul, in his impatient and passionate haste knowingly transgressed (1Sa 13:12) by invading the priest's office and thus showing his unfitness for his high office (as he showed nothing of the faith of Gideon and other Hebrew generals), he incurred a threat of the rejection which his subsequent waywardness confirmed.

JFB: 1Sa 13:15-16 - Samuel . . . gat him . . . unto Gibeah . . . and Saul, and Jonathan his son, and the people that were present with them, abode in Gibeah Saul removed his camp thither, either in the hope that, it being his native town, he would gain an increase of followers or that he might enjoy the co...

Saul removed his camp thither, either in the hope that, it being his native town, he would gain an increase of followers or that he might enjoy the counsels and influence of the prophet.

JFB: 1Sa 13:17-18 - the spoilers came out of the camp of the Philistines in three companies Ravaging through the three valleys which radiate from the uplands of Michmash to Ophrah on the north, through the pass of Beth-horon on the west, and ...

Ravaging through the three valleys which radiate from the uplands of Michmash to Ophrah on the north, through the pass of Beth-horon on the west, and down the ravines of Zeboim ("the hyænas"), towards the Ghor or Jordan valley on the east.

JFB: 1Sa 13:19-20 - Now there was no smith found throughout . . . Israel The country was in the lowest state of depression and degradation. The Philistines, after the great victory over the sons of Eli, had become the virtu...

The country was in the lowest state of depression and degradation. The Philistines, after the great victory over the sons of Eli, had become the virtual masters of the land. Their policy in disarming the natives has been often followed in the East. For repairing any serious damage to their agricultural implements, they had to apply to the neighboring forts.

JFB: 1Sa 13:21 - Yet they had a file As a kind of privilege, for the purpose of sharpening sundry smaller utensils of husbandry.

As a kind of privilege, for the purpose of sharpening sundry smaller utensils of husbandry.

Clarke: 1Sa 13:1 - Saul reigned one year Saul reigned one year - A great deal of learned labor has been employed and lost on this verse, to reconcile it with propriety and common sense. I s...

Saul reigned one year - A great deal of learned labor has been employed and lost on this verse, to reconcile it with propriety and common sense. I shall not recount the meanings put on it. I think this clause belongs to the preceding chapter, either as a part of the whole, or a chronological note added afterwards; as if the writer had said, These things (related in 1 Samuel 12:1-25) took place in the first year of Saul’ s reign: and then he proceeds in the next place to tell us what took place in the second year, the two most remarkable years of Saul’ s reign. In the first he is appointed, anointed, and twice confirmed, viz., at Mizpeh and at Gilgal; in the second, Israel is brought into the lowest state of degradation by the Philistines, Saul acts unconstitutionally, and is rejected from being king. These things were worthy of an especial chronological note

Clarke: 1Sa 13:1 - And when he had reigned And when he had reigned - This should begin the chapter, and be read thus: "And when Saul had reigned two years over Israel, he chose him three thou...

And when he had reigned - This should begin the chapter, and be read thus: "And when Saul had reigned two years over Israel, he chose him three thousand,"etc. The Septuagint has left the clause out of the text entirely, and begins the chapter thus: "And Saul chose to himself three thousand men out of the men of Israel."

Clarke: 1Sa 13:2 - Two thousand were with Saul Two thousand were with Saul - Saul, no doubt, meditated the redemption of his country from the Philistines; and having chosen three thousand men, he...

Two thousand were with Saul - Saul, no doubt, meditated the redemption of his country from the Philistines; and having chosen three thousand men, he thought best to divide them into companies, and send one against the Philistine garrison at Michmash, another against that at Beth-el, and the third against that at Gibeah: he perhaps hoped, by surprising these garrisons, to get swords and spears for his men, of which we find, (1Sa 13:22), they were entirely destitute.

Clarke: 1Sa 13:3 - Jonathan smote Jonathan smote - He appears to have taken this garrison by surprise, for his men had no arms for a regular battle, or taking the place by storm. Thi...

Jonathan smote - He appears to have taken this garrison by surprise, for his men had no arms for a regular battle, or taking the place by storm. This is the first place in which this brave and excellent man appears; a man who bears one of the most amiable characters in the Bible

Clarke: 1Sa 13:3 - Let the Hebrews hear Let the Hebrews hear - Probably this means the people who dwelt beyond Jordan, who might very naturally be termed here העברים haibrim , from ...

Let the Hebrews hear - Probably this means the people who dwelt beyond Jordan, who might very naturally be termed here העברים haibrim , from עבר abar , he passed over; those who are beyond the river Jordan: as Abraham was called עברי Ibri because he dwelt beyond the river Euphrates.

Clarke: 1Sa 13:4 - The people were called together The people were called together - The smiting of this garrison was the commencement of a war, and in effect the shaking off of the Philistine yoke; ...

The people were called together - The smiting of this garrison was the commencement of a war, and in effect the shaking off of the Philistine yoke; and now the people found that they must stand together, and fight for their lives.

Clarke: 1Sa 13:5 - Thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen Thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen - There is no proportion here between the chariots and the cavalry. The largest armies ever brou...

Thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen - There is no proportion here between the chariots and the cavalry. The largest armies ever brought into the field, even by mighty emperors, never were furnished with thirty thousand chariots

I think שלשים sheloshim , Thirty, is a false reading for שלש shalosh , Three. The Syriac has telotho alpin , and the Arabic thalathato alf , both signifying Three thousand; and this was a fair proportion to the horsemen. This is most likely to be the true reading.

Clarke: 1Sa 13:6 - The people did hide themselves The people did hide themselves - They, being few in number, and totally unarmed as to swords and spears, were terrified at the very numerous and wel...

The people did hide themselves - They, being few in number, and totally unarmed as to swords and spears, were terrified at the very numerous and well-appointed army of the Philistines. Judea was full of rocks, caves, thickets, etc., where people might shelter themselves from their enemies. While some hid themselves, others fled beyond Jordan: and those who did cleave to Saul followed him trembling.

Clarke: 1Sa 13:8 - He tarried seven days according to the set time He tarried seven days according to the set time - Samuel in the beginning had told Saul to wait seven days, and he would come to him, and show him w...

He tarried seven days according to the set time - Samuel in the beginning had told Saul to wait seven days, and he would come to him, and show him what to do, 1Sa 10:8. What is here said cannot be understood of that appointment, but of a different one. Samuel had at this time promised to come to him within seven days, and he kept his word, for we find him there before the day was ended; but as Saul found he did not come at the beginning of the seventh day, he became impatient, took the whole business into his own hand, and acted the parts of prophet, priest, and king; and thus he attempted a most essential change in the Israelitish constitution. In it the king, the prophet, and the priest, are in their nature perfectly distinct. What such a rash person might have done, if he had not been deprived of his authority, who can tell? But his conduct on this occasion sufficiently justifies that deprivation. That he was a rash and headstrong man is also proved by his senseless adjuration of the people about food, 1Sa 14:24, and his unfeeling resolution to put the brave Jonathan, his own son, to death, because he had unwittingly acted contrary to this adjuration, 1Sa 14:44. Saul appears to have been a brave and honest man, but he had few of those qualities which are proper for a king, or the governor of a people.

Clarke: 1Sa 13:9 - And he offered the burnt-offering And he offered the burnt-offering - This was most perfectly unconstitutional; he had no authority to offer, or cause to be offered, any of the Lord&...

And he offered the burnt-offering - This was most perfectly unconstitutional; he had no authority to offer, or cause to be offered, any of the Lord’ s sacrifices.

Clarke: 1Sa 13:10 - Behold, Samuel came Behold, Samuel came - Samuel was punctual to his appointment; one hour longer of delay would have prevented every evil, and by it no good would have...

Behold, Samuel came - Samuel was punctual to his appointment; one hour longer of delay would have prevented every evil, and by it no good would have been lost. How often are the effects of precipitation fatal!

Clarke: 1Sa 13:11 - And Saul said And Saul said - Here he offers three excuses for his conduct 1.    The people were fast leaving his standard 2.    Sam...

And Saul said - Here he offers three excuses for his conduct

1.    The people were fast leaving his standard

2.    Samuel did not come at the time, למועד lemoed ; at the very commencement of the time he did not come, but within that time he did come

3.    The Philistines were coming fast upon him

Saul should have waited out the time; and at all events he should not have gone contrary to the counsel of the Lord.

Clarke: 1Sa 13:12 - I forced myself I forced myself - It was with great reluctance that I did what I did. In all this Saul was sincere, but he was rash, and regardless of the precept o...

I forced myself - It was with great reluctance that I did what I did. In all this Saul was sincere, but he was rash, and regardless of the precept of the Lord, which precept or command he most evidently had received, 1Sa 13:13. And one part of this precept was, that the Lord should tell him what he should do. Without this information, in an affair under the immediate cognizance of God, he should have taken no step.

Clarke: 1Sa 13:14 - The Lord hath sought him a man after his own heart The Lord hath sought him a man after his own heart - That this man was David is sufficiently clear from the sequel. But in what sense was he a man a...

The Lord hath sought him a man after his own heart - That this man was David is sufficiently clear from the sequel. But in what sense was he a man after God’ s own heart? Answer

1.    In his strict attention to the law and worship of God

2.    In his admitting, in the whole of his conduct, that God was King in Israel, and that he himself was but his vicegerent

3.    In never attempting to alter any of those laws, or in the least change the Israelitish constitution

4.    In all his public official conduct he acted according to the Divine mind, and fulfilled the will of his Maker: thus was he a man after God’ s own heart. In reference to his private or personal moral conduct, the word is never used. This is the sense alone in which the word is used here and elsewhere; and it is unfair and wicked to put another meaning on it in order to ridicule the revelation of God, as certain infidels have done.

Clarke: 1Sa 13:15 - And Samuel arose And Samuel arose - Though David, in the Divine purpose, is appointed to be captain over the people, yet Saul is not to be removed from the governmen...

And Samuel arose - Though David, in the Divine purpose, is appointed to be captain over the people, yet Saul is not to be removed from the government during his life; Samuel therefore accompanies him to Gibeah, to give him the requisite help in this conjuncture

Clarke: 1Sa 13:15 - About six hundred men About six hundred men - The whole of the Israelitish army at this time, and not one sword or spear among them!

About six hundred men - The whole of the Israelitish army at this time, and not one sword or spear among them!

Clarke: 1Sa 13:17 - The spoilers came out The spoilers came out - The Philistines, finding that the Israelites durst not hazard a battle, divided their army into three bands, and sent them i...

The spoilers came out - The Philistines, finding that the Israelites durst not hazard a battle, divided their army into three bands, and sent them in three different directions to pillage and destroy the country. Jonathan profited by this circumstance, and attacked the remains of the army at Michmash, as we shall see in the succeeding chapter, 1 Samuel 14 (note).

Clarke: 1Sa 13:19 - Now there was no smith found Now there was no smith found - It is very likely that in the former wars the Philistines carried away all the smiths from Israel, as Porsenna did in...

Now there was no smith found - It is very likely that in the former wars the Philistines carried away all the smiths from Israel, as Porsenna did in the peace which he granted to the Romans, not permitting any iron to be forged except for the purposes of agriculture: " Ne ferro, nisi in agricultura, uterentur ."The Chaldeans did the same to the Jews in the time of Nebuchadnezzar; they carried away all the artificers, 2Ki 24:14; Jer 24:1; Jer 29:2. And in the same manner did Cyrus treat the Lydians, Herod. lib. i., c. 145. See several examples in Calmet.

Clarke: 1Sa 13:20 - But all the Israelites went down to the Philistines But all the Israelites went down to the Philistines - We find from this that they did not grant them as much as Porsenna did to the Romans; he permi...

But all the Israelites went down to the Philistines - We find from this that they did not grant them as much as Porsenna did to the Romans; he permitted the people to manufacture the implements of husbandry.

Clarke: 1Sa 13:21 - Yet they had a file Yet they had a file - The Hebrew פצירה petsirah , from פצר patsar , to rub hard, is translated very differently by the versions and by cri...

Yet they had a file - The Hebrew פצירה petsirah , from פצר patsar , to rub hard, is translated very differently by the versions and by critics. Our translation may be as likely as any: they permitted them the use of files, (I believe the word means grindstone), to restore the blunted edges of their tridents, axes, and goads.

Clarke: 1Sa 13:22 - In the day of battle - these was neither sword nor spear In the day of battle - these was neither sword nor spear - But if the Israelites enjoyed such profound peace and undisturbed dominion under Samuel, ...

In the day of battle - these was neither sword nor spear - But if the Israelites enjoyed such profound peace and undisturbed dominion under Samuel, how is it that they were totally destitute of arms, a state which argues the lowest circumstances of oppression and vassalage? In answer to this we may observe, that the bow and the sling were the principal arms of the Israelites; for these they needed no smith: the most barbarous nations, who have never seen iron, have nevertheless bows and arrows; the arrow heads generally made of flint. Arrows of this kind are found among the inhabitants of the South Sea islands; and even axes, and different implements of war, all made of stone, cut and polished by stone, are frequent among them. The arms of the aboriginal Irish have been of this kind. I have frequently seen heads of axes and arrows of stone, which have been dug up out of the ground, formed with considerable taste and elegance. The former the common people term thunderbolts; the latter, elf-stones. Several of these from Ireland, from Zetland, and from the South Sea islands, are now before me

Now it is possible that the Israelites had still bows and arrows: these they could have without the smith; and it is as likely that they had slings, and for these they needed none. But then these were missiles; if they came into close fight, they would avail them nothing: for attacks of this kind they would require swords and spears; of these none were found but with Saul and Jonathan

We see, in this chapter, Israel brought to as low a state as they were under Eli; when they were totally discomfited, their priests slain, their ark taken, and the judge dead. After that, they rose by the strong hand of God; and in this way they are now to rise, principally by means of David, whose history will soon commence.

Defender: 1Sa 13:1 - reigned two years Contrast Act 13:21, which indicates that Saul reigned forty years. Actually the Hebrew text in this verse is defective, possibly because of some ancie...

Contrast Act 13:21, which indicates that Saul reigned forty years. Actually the Hebrew text in this verse is defective, possibly because of some ancient copyist error. The Septuagint omits it altogether. The Hebrew text as it now stands actually reads: "Saul was - years old when he began to reign, and he reigned - and two years over Israel." Consequently various translators have used various ways of supplying the lost numbers. If it is rendered approximately as follows: "Saul was thirty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned thirty and two years over Israel;" then the subsequent narratives, along with Act 13:21, will be found to fit well together, and it is so interpreted by many modern scholars. The fact is, however, that the actual numbers are unknown, so the best chronological constraint for this period must come from Paul's summary in Act 13:21."

Defender: 1Sa 13:5 - thirty thousand chariots The ancient Syriac translation, as well as some Septuagint and Arabic Bible manuscripts, read "three thousand chariots." This latter figure seems more...

The ancient Syriac translation, as well as some Septuagint and Arabic Bible manuscripts, read "three thousand chariots." This latter figure seems more correct, in view of the terrain, the Philistine population and the general comparative data regarding chariots and horsemen."

Defender: 1Sa 13:14 - hast not kept that Samuel had warned Saul that if he were to be king, he must obey God's commandments. Now Saul had arrogated to himself the function of God's priest as ...

Samuel had warned Saul that if he were to be king, he must obey God's commandments. Now Saul had arrogated to himself the function of God's priest as well as king, and God had to reject him. The Lord would find what He was seeking - "a man after mine own heart" - in David (Act 13:22)."

TSK: 1Sa 13:1 - reigned one year am 2911, bc 1093, An, Ex, Is, 398 reigned one year : Heb. the son of one year in his reigning, This verse is variously interpreted; but probably it on...

am 2911, bc 1093, An, Ex, Is, 398

reigned one year : Heb. the son of one year in his reigning, This verse is variously interpreted; but probably it only means, according to the Hebrew idiom, that, during the first year nothing remarkable occurred; but after two years (or in the second year of his reign), the subsequent events took place. Exo 12:5; Mic 6:6 *marg.

TSK: 1Sa 13:2 - chose // Michmash // in Gibeah chose : 1Sa 8:11, 1Sa 14:52 Michmash : Michmash was situated east of Bethaven, or Bethel; and Eusebius says it was in his time a considerable place, a...

chose : 1Sa 8:11, 1Sa 14:52

Michmash : Michmash was situated east of Bethaven, or Bethel; and Eusebius says it was in his time a considerable place, about nine miles from Jerusalem, towards Rama. 1Sa 13:5, 1Sa 13:23, 1Sa 14:5, 1Sa 14:31; Isa 10:28

in Gibeah : 1Sa 10:26, 1Sa 15:34; Jos 18:28; Jdg 19:12; 2Sa 21:6; Isa 10:29

TSK: 1Sa 13:3 - the garrison // Geba // blew the garrison : 1Sa 10:5, 1Sa 14:1-6; 2Sa 23:14 Geba : or, the hill, Jos 18:24, Gaba, Jos 21:17; Isa 10:29; Zec 14:10 blew : Jdg 3:27, Jdg 6:34; 2Sa 2:...

the garrison : 1Sa 10:5, 1Sa 14:1-6; 2Sa 23:14

Geba : or, the hill, Jos 18:24, Gaba, Jos 21:17; Isa 10:29; Zec 14:10

blew : Jdg 3:27, Jdg 6:34; 2Sa 2:28, 2Sa 20:1

TSK: 1Sa 13:4 - was had in abomination // to Gilgal was had in abomination : Heb. did stink, Gen 34:30, Gen 46:34; Exo 5:21; Zec 11:8 to Gilgal : 1Sa 10:8, 1Sa 11:14, 1Sa 11:15; Jos 5:9

was had in abomination : Heb. did stink, Gen 34:30, Gen 46:34; Exo 5:21; Zec 11:8

to Gilgal : 1Sa 10:8, 1Sa 11:14, 1Sa 11:15; Jos 5:9

TSK: 1Sa 13:5 - thirty thousand chariots // as the sand // Bethaven thirty thousand chariots : The Philistines had no doubt collected troops in this emergency, from all the surrounding nation; but the number of chariot...

thirty thousand chariots : The Philistines had no doubt collected troops in this emergency, from all the surrounding nation; but the number of chariots is immensely large beyond any example, and wholly disproportioned to the number of their cavalry. It is probable, therefore, that for sheloshim aileph , ""thirty thousand,""we should read shelosh aileph , ""three thousand,""with the Syriac and Arabic.

as the sand : Gen 22:17; Jos 11:4; Jdg 7:12; 2Ch 1:9; Isa 48:19; Jer 15:8; Rom 9:27

Bethaven : 1Sa 14:23; Jos 7:2, Jos 18:12; Hos 4:15, Hos 5:8, Hos 10:5

TSK: 1Sa 13:6 - in a strait // in caves in a strait : Exo 14:10-12; Jos 8:20; Jdg 10:9, Jdg 20:41; 2Sa 24:14; Phi 1:23 in caves : 1Sa 14:11, 1Sa 23:19, 1Sa 24:3; Jdg 6:2; Isa 42:22; Heb 11:3...

TSK: 1Sa 13:7 - the Hebrews // Gad // followed him trembling the Hebrews : Lev 26:17, Lev 26:36, Lev 26:37; Deu 28:25 Gad : Num 32:1-5, Num 32:33-42; Deu 3:12; Jos 13:24-31 followed him trembling : Heb. trembled...

the Hebrews : Lev 26:17, Lev 26:36, Lev 26:37; Deu 28:25

Gad : Num 32:1-5, Num 32:33-42; Deu 3:12; Jos 13:24-31

followed him trembling : Heb. trembled after him, Deu 20:8; Jdg 7:3; Hos 11:10, Hos 11:11

TSK: 1Sa 13:8 - tarried tarried : 1Sa 10:8

tarried : 1Sa 10:8

TSK: 1Sa 13:9 - he offered he offered : 1Sa 13:12, 1Sa 13:13, 1Sa 14:18, 1Sa 15:21, 1Sa 15:22; Deu 12:6; 1Ki 3:4; Psa 37:7; Pro 15:8; Pro 20:22, Pro 21:3, Pro 21:27; Isa 66:3

TSK: 1Sa 13:10 - Saul // salute him Saul : 1Sa 15:13 salute him : Heb. bless him, 1Sa 15:13; Rth 2:4; Psa 129:8

Saul : 1Sa 15:13

salute him : Heb. bless him, 1Sa 15:13; Rth 2:4; Psa 129:8

TSK: 1Sa 13:11 - What hast // Michmash What hast : Gen 3:13, Gen 4:10; Jos 7:19; 2Sa 3:24; 2Ki 5:25 Michmash : 1Sa 13:2, 1Sa 13:5, 1Sa 13:16, 1Sa 13:23, 1Sa 14:5; Isa 10:28

TSK: 1Sa 13:12 - said I // made supplication unto // I forced said I : 1Ki 12:26, 1Ki 12:27 made supplication unto : Heb. intreated the face of, etc I forced : 1Sa 21:7; Psa 66:3; Amo 8:5; 2Co 9:7

said I : 1Ki 12:26, 1Ki 12:27

made supplication unto : Heb. intreated the face of, etc

I forced : 1Sa 21:7; Psa 66:3; Amo 8:5; 2Co 9:7

TSK: 1Sa 13:13 - Thou hast done // hast not kept Thou hast done : 2Sa 12:7-9; 1Ki 18:18, 1Ki 21:20; 2Ch 16:9, 2Ch 19:2, 2Ch 25:15, 2Ch 25:16; Job 34:18; Pro 19:3; Mat 14:3, Mat 14:4 hast not kept : 1...

TSK: 1Sa 13:14 - But now // the Lord // captain over But now : 1Sa 2:30, 1Sa 15:28 the Lord : 1Sa 16:1, 1Sa 16:12; 2Sa 7:15, 2Sa 7:16; Psa 78:70, Psa 89:19, 20-37; Act 13:22 captain over : 1Sa 9:16; 2Sa ...

TSK: 1Sa 13:15 - Samuel // present // about six Samuel : The LXX have, ""Samuel arose and went away from Gilgal, and the remainder of the people went up along with the men of war after Samuel from G...

Samuel : The LXX have, ""Samuel arose and went away from Gilgal, and the remainder of the people went up along with the men of war after Samuel from Gilgal to Gibeah of Benjamin.""This is probably the true reading; for it does not appear that Samuel went to Gibeah, which was Saul’ s usual residence; and the Hebrew copyist, as Dr. Wall observes, seems to have missed a line, and added to the sentence concerning Samuel, that which ended the sentence concerning Saul. One manuscript instead of Samuel, in the beginning of the sentence, reads Saul.

present : Heb. found

about six : 1Sa 13:2, 1Sa 13:6, 1Sa 13:7, 1Sa 14:2

TSK: 1Sa 13:16 - Gibeah Gibeah : Heb. Gebah, 1Sa 13:3

Gibeah : Heb. Gebah, 1Sa 13:3

TSK: 1Sa 13:17 - in three companies // Ophrah // Shual in three companies : 1Sa 11:11 Ophrah : Jos 18:23 Shual : Jos 19:3

in three companies : 1Sa 11:11

Ophrah : Jos 18:23

Shual : Jos 19:3

TSK: 1Sa 13:18 - Bethhoron // Zeboim Bethhoron : Jos 10:11, Jos 16:3, Jos 16:5, Jos 18:13, Jos 18:14; 1Ch 6:68; 2Ch 8:5 Zeboim : Gen 14:2; Neh 11:34; Hos 11:8

TSK: 1Sa 13:19 - there was no there was no : It is probable that the Philistines in the former wars had carried away all the smiths from Israel. Jdg 5:8; 2Ki 24:14; Isa 54:16; Jer ...

there was no : It is probable that the Philistines in the former wars had carried away all the smiths from Israel. Jdg 5:8; 2Ki 24:14; Isa 54:16; Jer 24:1

TSK: 1Sa 13:21 - a file // sharpen a file : Heb. a file with mouths sharpen : Heb. set, 1Sa 13:21

a file : Heb. a file with mouths

sharpen : Heb. set, 1Sa 13:21

TSK: 1Sa 13:22 - there was neither there was neither : 1Sa 17:47, 1Sa 17:50; Jdg 5:8; Zec 4:6; 1Co 1:27-29; 2Co 4:7

TSK: 1Sa 13:23 - garrison // passage garrison : or, standing camp, 1Sa 13:3, 1Sa 14:4 passage : 1Sa 13:2, 1Sa 13:5, 1Sa 14:1, 1Sa 14:4, 1Sa 14:5; Isa 10:28

garrison : or, standing camp, 1Sa 13:3, 1Sa 14:4

passage : 1Sa 13:2, 1Sa 13:5, 1Sa 14:1, 1Sa 14:4, 1Sa 14:5; Isa 10:28

kecilkan semua
Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per Ayat)

Poole: 1Sa 13:1 - Reigned one year Reigned one year i.e. had now reigned one year, from his first election at Mizpeh, in which time these things were done, which are recorded 1Sa 11 1...

Reigned one year i.e. had now reigned one year, from his first election at Mizpeh, in which time these things were done, which are recorded 1Sa 11 1Sa 12 , to wit, peaceably, or righteously. Compare 2Sa 2:10 .

Poole: 1Sa 13:2 - Saul chose // Saul chose. Three thousand men of Israel // Michmash Saul chose Heb. and (i.e. then, as that adverb is oft used, as Gen 3:5 18:10 , &c.) Saul chose. Three thousand men of Israel which he thought suf...

Saul chose Heb. and (i.e. then, as that adverb is oft used, as Gen 3:5 18:10 , &c.)

Saul chose. Three thousand men of Israel which he thought sufficient for constant attendance and service, intending to summon the rest when need should be.

Michmash a tract of ground near Ramah and Beth-el, in the border of Benjamin, and near to the Philistines.

Poole: 1Sa 13:3 - Geba // Let the Hebrews hear The first design of Saul and Jonathan was to free then land from the garrisons which the Philistines had in it; and they first begin to clear their ...

The first design of Saul and Jonathan was to free then land from the garrisons which the Philistines had in it; and they first begin to clear their own country of Benjamin.

Geba not the same place called Gibeah, 1Sa 13:2 , (for if the place were the same, why should he vary the name of it in the same story, and in the next verse? nor is it likely that Jonathan would choose that place for his camp where the Philistines had a garrison,) but another place in the same tribe, in which there were two distinct places, Geba and Gibeah, Jos 18:24,28 .

Let the Hebrews hear i.e. he sent messengers to tell them all what Jonathan had done, and how the Philistines were enraged at it, and made great preparations for war; and therefore what necessity there was of gathering themselves together, and coming to him, for his and their own defence.

Poole: 1Sa 13:4 - Saul had smitten // Gilgal Saul had smitten i.e. Jonathan by Saul’ s direction and encouragement. The actions of an army are commonly ascribed to their general. Gilgal t...

Saul had smitten i.e. Jonathan by Saul’ s direction and encouragement. The actions of an army are commonly ascribed to their general.

Gilgal the place before appointed b Samuel, 1Sa 10:8 .

Poole: 1Sa 13:5 - Thirty thousand chariots // Chariots Thirty thousand chariots: this number seems incredible to infidels; to whom it may be sufficient to reply, that it is far more rational to acknowledg...

Thirty thousand chariots: this number seems incredible to infidels; to whom it may be sufficient to reply, that it is far more rational to acknowledge a mistake in him that copied out the sacred text in such numeral or historical passages, wherein the doctrine of faith and good life is not directly concerned, than upon such a pretence to question the truth and divinity of the Holy Scriptures, which are so fully attested, and evidently demonstrated. And the mistake is not great in the Hebrew, schalosh for schellshim ; and so indeed those two ancient translators, the Syriac and Arabic, translate it, and are supposed to have read in their Hebrew copies, three thousand . Nor is it necessary that all these should be military chariots, but many of them might be for carriages of things belonging to so great an army; for such a distinction of chariots we find Exo 14:7 . But there is no need of this reply.

Chariots here may very well be put for the men that rode upon them, and fought out of them, by a figure called a metonymy of the subject for the adjunct, or the thing containing for the thing contained in it, than which none more frequent. In the very same manner, and in the very same figure, the basket is put for the meat in it, Deu 28:5,17 ; the wilderness , for the wild beasts of the wilderness, Psa 29:8 ; the nest , for the birds in it, Deu 32:11 ; the cup , for the drink in it, Jer 49:12 1Co 10:21 . And, to come more closely to the point, a horse is put for a horse-load of wares laid upon it, 1Ki 10:28 ; and an ass of bread is put for an ass-load of bread , both in the Hebrew text of 1Sa 16:20 , and in an ancient Greek poet. And, yet nearer, the word chariots is manifestly put either for the horses belonging to them, or rather for the men that fought out of them; as 2Sa 10:18 , where it is said in the Hebrew that David slew seven hundred chariots ; that is, seven thousand men which fought in chariots , as it is explained, 1Ch 19:18 ; and 1Ki 20:21 , where Ahab is said to smite horses and chariots ; and 1Ch 18:4 Psa 76:6 , where the chariot and horse (i.e. the men that ride and fight in chariots, or upon horses) are said to be cast into a dead sleep ; and Eze 39:20 , where it is said, Ye shall be filled at my table with horses and chariots , (i.e. with men belonging to the chariots; for surely the chariots of iron had been very improper food,) with mighty men , &c. And let any cavilling infidel produce a wise reason why it may not, and ought not, to be so understood here also. Add to all this, that the Philistines were not alone in this expedition, but had the help of the Canaanites and the Tyrians, as is very credible, both from /APC Sir 40:20 , and from the nature of the thing. If it be further inquired, Why the Philistines should raise so great an army at this time? the answer is obvious, That not only their old and formidable enemy Samuel was yet alive, but a new enemy was risen, even king Saul, who was lately confirmed in his kingdom, and had been flushed with his good success against the Ammonites, and was likely to grow more and more potent, if not timely prevented; and they thought that now the Israelitish affairs were come to some consistency, being put into the hands of a king; and therefore they thought fit, once for all, to put forth all their strength to suppress the Israelites, and to prevent that ruin which otherwise threatened them.

Poole: 1Sa 13:6 - They were in a strait // The people were distressed // The people did hide themselves in caves They were in a strait notwithstanding their former presumption, that if they had a king they should be free from all such straits. And hereby God int...

They were in a strait notwithstanding their former presumption, that if they had a king they should be free from all such straits. And hereby God intended to teach them the vanity of all carnal confidence in men; and that they did not one jot less need the help and favour of God now than they did before, when they had no king.

The people were distressed they were not mistaken in their apprehensions of danger, as men oft are, for they were really in great danger, their enemy’ s host far exceeding theirs, both in number, and order, and courage, and arms.

The people did hide themselves in caves whereof there were divers in those parts for this very use, as we read in Josephus, and in the Holy Scripture.

Poole: 1Sa 13:7 - All the people All the people to wit, his whole army, opposed to the common people, 1Sa 13:6 .

All the people to wit, his whole army, opposed to the common people, 1Sa 13:6 .

Poole: 1Sa 13:8 - Seven days Seven days not seven complete days; for that the last day was not finished plainly appears from Samuel’ s reproof, which had then been groundles...

Seven days not seven complete days; for that the last day was not finished plainly appears from Samuel’ s reproof, which had then been groundless and absurd, and he had falsely charged Saul with breaking God’ s command therein, 1Sa 13:13 . And as Samuel came on the seventh day, and that with intent to sacrifice; so doubtless he came in due time for that work, which was to be done before sun-setting, Exo 29:38,39 . So Saul waited only six complete days, and part of the seventh, which is here called seven days; for the word day is oft used for a part of the day, as among lawyers, so also in sacred Scripture; as Mat 12:40 , where Christ is said to be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights , i.e. one whole day, and part of the other two days. Moreover this place may be thus rendered: He tarried until the seventh day , (as this same phrase is used, Gen 7:10 , Heb. until the seventh of the days ,) (as the Hebrew lamed is oft taken,) the set time that Samuel had appointed.

Poole: 1Sa 13:9 - -- Either himself; or rather by the priest, as Solomon is said to offer, 1Ki 3:4 . Compare 1Sa 1:3 .

Either himself; or rather by the priest, as Solomon is said to offer, 1Ki 3:4 . Compare 1Sa 1:3 .

Poole: 1Sa 13:10 - Behold, Samuel came // Salute him Behold, Samuel came i.e. it was told Saul, Behold, Samuel is coming. Salute him i.e. congratulate his coming. This he did, partly out of custom; an...

Behold, Samuel came i.e. it was told Saul, Behold, Samuel is coming.

Salute him i.e. congratulate his coming. This he did, partly out of custom; and partly, that by this testimony of his affection and respect to Samuel, he might prevent that rebuke which his guilty conscience made him expect.

Poole: 1Sa 13:11 - What hast thou done? // within the days appointed What hast thou done? he suspected that Saul had transgressed, either by his dejected countenance, or some words uttered by him, though not here expre...

What hast thou done? he suspected that Saul had transgressed, either by his dejected countenance, or some words uttered by him, though not here expressed; but he asks him, that he might be more fitly and certainly informed, and that Saul might be brought to an ingenuous confession of his sin, and true repentance for it.

within the days appointed i.e. when the seventh day was come, and a good part of it past; whence I concluded thou wouldst not come that day, and that thou hadst forgotten thy appointment, or been hindered by some extraordinary occasion.

Poole: 1Sa 13:12 - I have not made supplication to the Lord // I forced myself I have not made supplication to the Lord hence it appears that sacrifices were accompanied with solemn prayers. I forced myself I did it against my...

I have not made supplication to the Lord hence it appears that sacrifices were accompanied with solemn prayers.

I forced myself I did it against my own mind and inclination. My conscience told me I should forbear it, and punctually obey God’ s command delivered to me by Samuel, but my necessity urged me to make haste.

Poole: 1Sa 13:13 - Thou hast done foolishly // The Lord thy God // Now would the Lord have established thy kingdom on Israel for ever // Quest // Answ Thou hast done foolishly in that very thing wherein thou thinkest thou hast done wisely and politicly, in disobeying my express command upon a preten...

Thou hast done foolishly in that very thing wherein thou thinkest thou hast done wisely and politicly, in disobeying my express command upon a pretended necessity, or reason of state.

The Lord thy God not only upon common grounds, as thou art his creature, and one of his people; but in a special manner, who hath conferred peculiar favours and honours upon thee; which is an aggravation of thy sin.

Now would the Lord have established thy kingdom on Israel for ever

Quest. How could this be true, when the kingdom was promised to Judah, Gen 49:10 , and consequently must necessarily be taken away from Saul, and from his tribe?

Answ First, The phrase for ever , in Scripture use, ofttimes signifies only a long time, as Gen 43:9 Exo 21:6 1Sa 28:2 . So this had been abundantly verified, if the kingdom had been enjoyed by Saul, and by his son, and by his son’ s son; after whom the kingdom might have come to Judah. Secondly, Though the kingdom had been promised to Saul and to his posterity for ever in a larger sense, yet that was upon condition of his obedience. And therefore God might well promise the kingdom to Judah, because at that time, and before, he foresaw that Saul would by his disobedience forfeit that promise, and that he would take the forfeiture, and transfer the kingdom to Judah.

Poole: 1Sa 13:14 - Hath sought // A man after his own heart // Hath commanded // Because thou hast not kept that which the Lord commanded thee // Quest // Answ Hath sought i.e. hath found or discovered, as men do by seeking, an anthropopathy. A man after his own heart i.e. such a man as he desires, one who...

Hath sought i.e. hath found or discovered, as men do by seeking, an anthropopathy.

A man after his own heart i.e. such a man as he desires, one who will fulfil all the desires of his heart, and not oppose them, as thou dost.

Hath commanded i.e. hath appointed or decreed, as the word command is sometimes used; for it was not yet actually done.

Because thou hast not kept that which the Lord commanded thee

Quest. First, What was Saul’ s sin?

Answ Either, first, That Saul invaded the priest’ s office, and offered the sacrifice himself; which is not probable, both because he had priests with him, and among others an eminent one, Ahiah, 1Sa 14:3 , and therefore had no occasion nor pretence for that presumption. Or rather, secondly, That Saul did not wait the full time for Samuel’ s coming; for that is the thing which God commanded, 1Sa 10:8 , and the breach of this command is the only thing for which Saul makes an apology, 1Sa 13:11,12 .

Quest. Secondly, Why did God so severely punish Saul for so small an offence, and that occasioned by great necessity, and done with an honest intention?

Answ First, Men are very incompetent judges of God’ s judgments, because they see but very little, either of the majesty of the offended God, or of the heinous nature and aggravations of the offence. For instance, men see nothing but Saul’ s outward act, which seems small; but God saw with how wicked a mind and heart he did this; with what rebellion against the light of his own conscience, as his own words imply; with what gross infidelity and distrust of God’ s providence; with what contempt of God’ s authority, and justice, and many other wicked principles and motions of his heart, unknown to men. Besides, God clearly saw all that wickedness that yet lay hid in his heart, and foresaw all his other crimes; and therefore had far more grounds for his sentence against him than we can imagine. Secondly, God doth sometimes punish small sins severely, and that for divers weighty reasons, as that all men may see what the least sin deserves, and how much they owe to God’ s free and rich mercy for passing by their great offences; and what need they have not to indulge themselves in any small sin, as men are very prone to do, upon vain presumptions of God’ s mercy, whereby they are easily and commonly drawn on to heinous crimes; and for many other reasons: so that some such instances of God’ s severity are necessary discipline and caution to all mankind in the present and future ages; and therefore there is far more of mercy and kindness in such actions, than of rigour and harshness, since this is but particular to one person, and the other is a universal good. Thirdly, It must be remembered that the kingdom of Saul and of Israel was now in its infancy, and that this was the first command which he received from God. And it hath been ever held a piece of wisdom in all lawgivers, severely to punish the first violations of their laws, to secure their honour and obedience, and to affright and caution offenders for the future. And accordingly God dealt with Cain the first murderer; with Israel, for their first idolatry with the calf; with the first miscarriage of the priests, Lev 10:1 ; with the first profaner of the sabbath, Num 15:35 ; with the first gross hypocrites in the Christian church, Act 5:5,10 . And therefore it is neither strange nor unjust if he deal with Saul after the same manner, and upon the same grounds. Fourthly, Though God threaten Saul with the loss of his kingdom for this sin, yet it is not improbable that there was a tacit condition implied, as is usual in such cases, as Jon 3:4 , to wit, if he did not heartily repent of this and of all his sins; for the full, and final, and peremptory sentence of Saul’ s rejection is plainly ascribed to another cause, 1Sa 15:11,23,26,28,29 ; and till that second offence neither the Spirit of the Lord departed from him, nor was David anointed in his stead, 1Sa 16:13,14 .

Poole: 1Sa 13:15 - Unto Gibeah of Benjamin Unto Gibeah of Benjamin whither Saul also followed him, as appears from the next verse; either because it was better fortified than Gilgal; or becaus...

Unto Gibeah of Benjamin whither Saul also followed him, as appears from the next verse; either because it was better fortified than Gilgal; or because he expected a greater increase of his army there, it being in his own tribe, and nearer the heart of his kingdom; or because he hoped for Samuel’ s assistance there.

Poole: 1Sa 13:17 - In three companies // Ophrah In three companies that they might march several ways, and so waste several parts of the country. Ophrah a city of Benjamin, Jos 18:23 , south-west...

In three companies that they might march several ways, and so waste several parts of the country.

Ophrah a city of Benjamin, Jos 18:23 , south-west from Michmash.

Poole: 1Sa 13:18 - Beth-boron // The wilderness Beth-boron a city of Ephraim, Jos 16:3 . north-west from Michmash. The wilderness i.e. the wilderness of Jordan, eastward.

Beth-boron a city of Ephraim, Jos 16:3 . north-west from Michmash.

The wilderness i.e. the wilderness of Jordan, eastward.

Poole: 1Sa 13:19 - -- This was a politic course of the Philistines, which also other nations have used. So the Chaldeans took away their smiths, 2Ki 24:14 Jer 24:1 30:2 ;...

This was a politic course of the Philistines, which also other nations have used. So the Chaldeans took away their smiths, 2Ki 24:14 Jer 24:1 30:2 ; and Porsenna obliged the Romans by covenant, that they should use no iron but in the tillage of their lands.

Poole: 1Sa 13:20 - To the Philistines To the Philistines not to the land of the Philistines, for it is not said so, and that was too remote; but to the stations and garrisons which the Ph...

To the Philistines not to the land of the Philistines, for it is not said so, and that was too remote; but to the stations and garrisons which the Philistines yet retained in several parts of Israel’ s land, though Samuel’ s authority had so far overawed them, that they durst not give the Israelites much disturbance. In these, therefore, the Philistines kept all the smiths, and here they allowed them the exercise of their art for the uses here following.

Poole: 1Sa 13:21 - to sharpen their goads So the sense is, They allowed them some small helps to make their mattocks, and in some sort to serve their present use. But these words may be othe...

So the sense is, They allowed them some small helps to make their mattocks, and in some sort to serve their present use. But these words may be otherwise translated, and are so by some learned, both ancient and modern, translators: thus, Therefore the mouths or edges of the mattocks a coulters , &. were dull or blunt . Or rather thus, When (Heb. and put for when , as the particle and is sometimes rendered, as Mar 15:25 ) the mouths or edges of the mattocks , &c. were blunt . So this passage very well agrees both with the foregoing and following words; and the whole sense of the place is entirely thus, They went to the Philistines to sharpen their shares, and mattocks, and coulters, and axes, when they were blunt , and (which was more strange, they were forced to go to them even)

to sharpen their goads

Poole: 1Sa 13:22 - Quest // Answ Quest How could the Israelites smite either the garrison of the Philistines, above, 1Sa 13:3 , or the host of the Ammonites, 1Sa 11:11 , without arms...

Quest How could the Israelites smite either the garrison of the Philistines, above, 1Sa 13:3 , or the host of the Ammonites, 1Sa 11:11 , without arms? And when they had conquered them, why did they not take away their arms, and reserve them to their own use?

Answ 1. This want of swords and spears is not affirmed concerning all Israel, but is restrained unto those six hundred who were with Saul and Jonathan, whom God by his providence might suffer to be without those arms, that the glory of the following victory might be wholly ascribed to God; as for the very same reason God would have but three hundred men left with Gideon, and those armed only with trumpets, and pitchers, and lamps Jud 7 . There were no doubt a considerable number of swords and spears among the Israelites, but they generally hid them, as now they did their persons, from the Philistines. And the Philistines had not yet attained to so great a power over them, as wholly to disarm them, but thought it sufficient to prevent the making of new arms, knowing that the old ones would shortly be decayed and useless.

2. There were other arms more common in those times and places than swords and spears, to wit, bows and arrows, and slings and stones; as appears from Jud 20:16 2Sa 1:18,22 2Ki 3:25 1Ch 12:1,2 ; besides clubs, and instruments of agriculture, which might easily be turned into weapons of war.

3. God so governed the affairs of the Israelites, that they had no great number of swords or spears, Jud 5:8 , that so they might be kept in more dependence upon and subjection unto God, wherein their safety and happiness consisted. And therefore that famous victory obtained against the Philistines in Samuel’ s days, was not got by the sword of men, but only by thunder from heaven, 1Sa 7:10 .

Poole: 1Sa 13:23 - -- A place so called, because it was near to Michmash, and led towards Gibeah, which, it seems, they designed to besiege, and in the mean time to waste...

A place so called, because it was near to Michmash, and led towards Gibeah, which, it seems, they designed to besiege, and in the mean time to waste the adjoining country.

Haydock: 1Sa 13:1 - Of one year // Israel Of one year. That is, he was good, and like an innocent child, and for two years continued in that innocency. (Challoner) (St. Gregory) (Worthing...

Of one year. That is, he was good, and like an innocent child, and for two years continued in that innocency. (Challoner) (St. Gregory) (Worthington) ---

Israel. This verse is omitted in some copies of the Septuagint. It is extremely difficult to explain. Some translate Hebrew, "Saul was a son of one year old," &c. (Symmachus) Others, "Saul begot a son the first year of his reign, (Raban) Isboseth, who was 40 years old when his father died, after governing all that while. (Serarius) ---

Syriac and Arabic, "In the first or second year of the reign of Saul....he chose," &c. Hardouin supposes that the people dated their years by his reign only so long. Some think that the Hebrew is imperfect; and an ancient interpreter has, "Saul was 30 years old, when he began," &c. (Calmet) ---

The Rabbins and may commentators assert, that the reign of Saul lasted only two years. (Tirinus) ---

But some of them explain this, as if he reigned alone only that term before he was rejected, when he could only be regarded as an usurper. Others, that he obtained the whole power for two years, after the death of Samuel. Usher concludes that, during the incursions of the Philistines, he could hardly be said to reign, and these commenced after he had been king two years. We might also translate, "Saul was the son of the year of his reign, (when he was confirmed at Galgal) and in the second year....he chose," &c. (Calmet) ---

Perhaps the first translation, though somewhat mystical, may be the most literal, shewing that for one year Saul continued to act with the most engaging affability and moderation. But in the second he threw off the yoke, and was, in his turn, rejected by the Lord, as we shall soon behold. (Haydock) ---

Scaliger seems to prefer allowing that the numeral letters have been omitted by some transcriber, and that we should read, Saul was 30 years old. This, and similar variations, he attributes to the compendious method of using numeral letters; (Kennicott) an inconvenience very frequently attending all manuscripts, both sacred and profane. (Taylor)

Haydock: 1Sa 13:2 - Dwellings Dwellings, from Galgal (Salien) or from some other general assembly. (Calmet) --- These 3000 were to be the king's guards, supported at the expense...

Dwellings, from Galgal (Salien) or from some other general assembly. (Calmet) ---

These 3000 were to be the king's guards, supported at the expense of the nation, that the people might begin to feel one part of the royal prerogative. (Salien, the year before Christ 1089)

Haydock: 1Sa 13:3 - Land // Hebrews Land. As soon as the next cities had heard the alarm, they sounded the trumpet, and so the news was conveyed to the most distant parts, in a short t...

Land. As soon as the next cities had heard the alarm, they sounded the trumpet, and so the news was conveyed to the most distant parts, in a short time, Judges iii. 27. ---

Hebrews. Probably those "on the other side" of the Jordan, who presently came to the assistance of their brethren, ver. 7. (Osiander) ---

It might also be the usual beginning of a proclamation. See Daniel iii. 4. (Menochius) ---

Septuagint and Aquila have a instead of r , in hibrim. "Let the servants (subjects) attend." (Aquila) The slaves have rebelled," (Septuagint) meaning the Philistines, who ought to have been subject to Israel. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 13:4 - Courage // Were Courage. Hebrew, "and Israel was in abomination (stinking) with the Philistines." See Exodus vi. 21. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "despised as nothin...

Courage. Hebrew, "and Israel was in abomination (stinking) with the Philistines." See Exodus vi. 21. (Calmet) ---

Septuagint, "despised as nothing the strangers." ---

Were should be omitted, as the verb is active, clamavit, in the Vulgate and Septuagint, though the Protestants have "were called," &c. They shouted with alacrity, that Saul would lead them on to battle. (Haydock) ---

Osiander thinks that they "exclaimed against him," for engaging them in this new war.

Haydock: 1Sa 13:5 - Chariots // Number // Bethaven Chariots. This number seems almost incredible, as the Philistines were but a contemptible nation, compared with various others which never brought s...

Chariots. This number seems almost incredible, as the Philistines were but a contemptible nation, compared with various others which never brought so many chariots into the field. Zara, king of Ethiopia, in his army of a million men, had only 300, 2 Paralipomenon xiv. 9. Adarezer had 1000, and Sesac 12000 chariots, while Solomon could only boast of 1400. Hence the Syriac and Arabic read "3000;" and it is supposed that the Hebrew has im, at the end of shelosh, redundant. (Bochart, Capel, &c.) The number of horsemen would otherwise bear no proportion with the chariots. We must also observe, that under this name the Scripture denotes those who upon the chariots. They were drawn by two horses, and one man guided the horses, while another stood on the chariot; and in battle, eight other soldiers attended it. These remarks will tend to explain many difficult passages, in which we read of chariots being slain and hamstrung, which may be understood of the men and horses, 2 Kings viii. 4., and x. 18. In one place we read 700, and in another 7000 chariot were slain, (1 Paralipomenon xix. 18,) the latter number comprising the 10 attendants; so here, the Philistines might have 3000 chariots, which being each accompanied with ten men, might be counted as 30,000. (Calmet) ---

Others think that there were 30,000 men fighting on chariots. (Lyranus; Salien) ---

The Tyrians might have come to the assistance of their old friends, as chap. vii. 10. See 3 Kings iv. 26. (Menochius) ---

Number. Josephus specifies "300,000 infantry." (Haydock) ---

Bethaven. Many copies of the Septuagint read, "Bethoron," more probably, as Bethel must have been on the east of Machmas, which lay north of Gabaa, chap xiv. 5. (Calmet) "over-against Bethoron on the south." (Grabe) (Haydock) ---

Hebrew also, "having Bethaven on the east." Bethel was called Bethaven after the schism of Jeroboam, so that this name seems to have been substituted by a later writer, (Calmet) unless it might have had both names long before, Josue xviii. 12. (Haydock) ---

this is not contrary to chap. vii. 13, as the Philistines had been quiet for a long time. Hebrew alom, properly denotes the term of a jubilee or 50 years. (Du Hamel)

Haydock: 1Sa 13:6 - Straitened // Dens // Greek: Bothrois Straitened, the people form the northern provinces, and provisions being cut off, by the immense army of the Philistines. (Calmet) --- Providence wa...

Straitened, the people form the northern provinces, and provisions being cut off, by the immense army of the Philistines. (Calmet) ---

Providence was pleased to convince the people that, though they had been able to muster so large a force against the Ammonites, at so short a warning, they must not depend on the efforts of their new king. (Haydock) ---

He suffered any of the army to retire, as he sent away most of Gedeon's soldiers, that the whole glory of the victory might be attributed to him. (Salien) ---

Dens. So the Chaldean. Some explain the Hebrew, "high places (Haydock) or towers." (Calmet) ---

Septuagint, "ditches or holes." (Menochius) ---

Greek: Bothrois. In that country there are many spacious caverns, chap. xxiv., and Josue x. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 13:7 - Hebrews // Afraid Hebrews. Septuagint, "the people, who came over, (the river) crossed the Jordan." (Haydock) --- The title of Hebrews, "passengers," seems to be ap...

Hebrews. Septuagint, "the people, who came over, (the river) crossed the Jordan." (Haydock) ---

The title of Hebrews, "passengers," seems to be applied to those who lived on the east side of the river, (Calmet) though probably some others would seek for a retreat in that country, or even hide themselves in the regions of the Ammonites, out of which they had lately driven the inhabitants. (Haydock) ---

Hebrew, "the Hebrews passed over the Jordan, the land of," &c. (Calmet) ---

Afraid. Septuagint in a sort of "ecstasy" of fear.

Haydock: 1Sa 13:8 - Of Samuel Of Samuel. Yet the prophet condemns his proceedings, either because he did not wait till the expiration of the seventh day, (Calmet; St. Ignatius, &...

Of Samuel. Yet the prophet condemns his proceedings, either because he did not wait till the expiration of the seventh day, (Calmet; St. Ignatius, &c.; Salien) or because he ventured to offer sacrifice himself. (Lyra after Sulp. Serverus, &c.) (Haydock) (Worthington) ---

He had however the high priest with him; (chap. xiv. 3,) so that he might have performed this sacred function, at the request of Saul: and we do not find that the latter is accused of sacrilege. (Salien) ---

The magnitude of the punishment is no proof of the nature of the transgression, as God often punishes, with great severity, sins which to us might appear venial. (Haydock) ---

This is true, particularly with respect to those who first dare to transgress a positive command; (Numbers xv. 32.; Menochius) as Saul seems to have done the injunction of the prophet, chap. x. 8. The regal dignity was a gratuitous gift. (Salien) ---

With a trembling heart, we must consider how he was rejected for neglecting to wait so short a time," (St. Gregory) when the circumstances seems to plead so strongly in his favour. How impenetrable are the judgments of God! and how punctually does he require his orders to be obeyed! (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 13:12 - Lord // Holocaust Lord, by sacrifices. --- Holocaust. Hebrew, "I forced myself therefore," &c. It is asked whether Saul offered sacrifice, or caused it to be offer...

Lord, by sacrifices. ---

Holocaust. Hebrew, "I forced myself therefore," &c. It is asked whether Saul offered sacrifice, or caused it to be offered by the priests. The text seems to assert that he did it himself. Samuel and David did the like; and we read that Solomon ascended to the brazen altar, at Gabaon, for the same purpose, 2 Paralipomenon i. 5. If it was lawful to erect altars out of the tabernacle, notwithstanding the divine prohibition, why might not individuals also offer sacrifice on certain solemn occasions? The Hebrew kings seem to have exercised some of the sacerdotal functions, particularly before the building of the temple; for afterwards we find one of their kings severely punished for presuming to offer incense, 4 Kings xv. 5. (Calmet) ---

Yet the proofs that they ever lawfully offered sacrifice, are not very satisfactory, as, in the Scripture language, a person is often said to do what he enjoins another to perform on his account; and if some prophets have acted in the character of priests, by divine dispensation, we need not extend the privilege to all who have dared to assume the like prerogative. The law is clear. It is the duty of all who do not regulate their conduct by it, to know that they have God's approbation. Their expressing no scruple on the occasion, proves nothing, no more than the sacred writer's omitting to stigmatize their proceedings. But here, if Saul really offered the holocaust, the words of Samuel, Thou hast done foolishly, convey a sufficient reproach: but if he did not, we must suppose that he blames the neglect of waiting the full term of days. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 13:13 - Ever Ever. He foresaw this want of obedience, and therefore promised the sceptre to Juda, Genesis xlix. (Menochius) --- God's foresight of sin, and pre...

Ever. He foresaw this want of obedience, and therefore promised the sceptre to Juda, Genesis xlix. (Menochius) ---

God's foresight of sin, and preordination to punish it, does not take away free-will nor the possibility of a reward. (St. Augustine) (Worthington)

Haydock: 1Sa 13:14 - Continue Continue long. This seems to have been a threat, which Saul might still have escaped, if he had not proved disobedient again. St. Gregory says, "he...

Continue long. This seems to have been a threat, which Saul might still have escaped, if he had not proved disobedient again. St. Gregory says, "he might have been loosed from the bonds of his former disobedience;" prioris inobedientiæ nexus enodaret. The second rebellion caused him to be entirely rejected, and the prophet was ordered to go and anoint David, chap. xv. (Salien)

Haydock: 1Sa 13:15 - Samuel // And the....Benjamin // In the hill Samuel. Piscator suspects that we ought to read Saul, as no mention is made of the prophet in the sequel of this war, and he is never consulted. ...

Samuel. Piscator suspects that we ought to read Saul, as no mention is made of the prophet in the sequel of this war, and he is never consulted. (Calmet) ---

Josephus says he returned home. (Haydock) ---

But all the versions are conformable to the text: and Samuel went with the king and his 600 soldiers, to Gabaa, (Calmet) that he might not appear to retain any ill-will towards Saul, and that his followers might not be quite dispirited, as they knew that he had the thunderbolts of heaven in his hand; and if he was with them, they had nothing to fear from the myriads of their opponents. His presence was very seasonable, for they had to cut their way through the enemy. (Salien) ---

And the....Benjamin. All this is omitted in Hebrew, Chaldean, and in many Greek and Latin copies. (Calmet) ---

It is found in the Alexandrian and Vatican Septuagint. ---

In the hill, is a translation of Gabaa, which alone occurs in those editions. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 13:17 - Plunder // Land of Sual Plunder, seeing that the Israelites durst not come to an engagement. Jonathan took advantage of their absence, chap. xiv. --- Land of Sual, "foxes...

Plunder, seeing that the Israelites durst not come to an engagement. Jonathan took advantage of their absence, chap. xiv. ---

Land of Sual, "foxes," not far from the birth-place of Gedeon, Judges vi. 11.

Haydock: 1Sa 13:18 - Bethoron // Seboim Bethoron, the lower, to the north-west of Gabaa. --- Seboim was one of the cities which perished along with Sodom. (Calmet)

Bethoron, the lower, to the north-west of Gabaa. ---

Seboim was one of the cities which perished along with Sodom. (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 13:19 - Smith Smith. The Philistines had taken these precautions before Samuel gained the victory over them, and he consented that the people should employ the Ph...

Smith. The Philistines had taken these precautions before Samuel gained the victory over them, and he consented that the people should employ the Philistines as before, when he made peace with them; (Salien) or they had again begun to get the upper hand at the beginning of Saul's reign, as the Israelites had been long in the enjoyment of peace, and negligent. (Tirinus) ---

Josephus extends this species of servitude only to the neighbourhood of Gabaa, and says the major part of Saul's 600 men "was destitute of arms, because that country had neither iron nor people to make arms." The immense army which had so lately discomfited the Ammonites, was surely not without weapons. But most of them had retired, (Haydock) and those who accompanied the king might rely chiefly on their expertness in using the sling, Judges xx. 16. (Menochius) ---

The brave men who came to join David, are praised on this account, as well as for shooting with bow and arrow, 1 Paralipomenon xii. 2. Furious battles have been also fought with sharpened stakes, burnt at the end, (Virgil, Æneid vii.) and with various implements of husbandry, of which the Hebrews were not deprived. In the defeat of Sisara, they had not a buckler nor a lance among 40,000 (Judges v. 8.; Calmet) as the Philistines had already begun to deprive the Israelites of such weapons. (Haydock) -- Other nations have since imitated their policy, 4 Kings xxiv. 14. (Justin. i. 7.)

Haydock: 1Sa 13:20 - All Israel // Share // Spade // Rake All Israel, whom the Philistines had conquered, particularly the neighbouring tribes. (Calmet) --- They were obliged to go to the places where the ...

All Israel, whom the Philistines had conquered, particularly the neighbouring tribes. (Calmet) ---

They were obliged to go to the places where the enemy kept garrisons, (Menochius) as they did at Gabaa, Bethel, &c. ---

Share. Septuagint, Syriac, &c., "scythe," or "sickle for corn;" Greek: theristerion. (Haydock) ---

The original term, macharesha, may signify all sorts of implements. ---

Spade. Hebrew is supposed to mean, "a coulter." Septuagint, "instrument," which the prophets often say will be turned into a sword, in times of war, Joel iii. 15., and Micheas iv. 3. ---

Rake. The same generical term is used in Hebrew as was before translated a plough-share. Septuagint have "scythe;" Greek: drepanon . (Calmet)

Haydock: 1Sa 13:21 - Mended Mended, by the Philistines. (Haydock) --- The Hebrew is variously translated. "Their implements were like saws; or, they had a file to sharpen t...

Mended, by the Philistines. (Haydock) ---

The Hebrew is variously translated. "Their implements were like saws; or, they had a file to sharpen the," &c. (Calmet) ---

Septuagint, "and the fruits were ready to be gathered. But the vessels (instruments for labour) were three sicles for a tooth, and the same price (or station, Greek: upostasis, a word used [in] ver. 23, in the latter sense) for an axe or a scythe;" as if the Philistines required three sicles for doing the smallest thing, when the harvest was at hand. (Haydock)

Haydock: 1Sa 13:23 - Further Further. Hebrew, "went out to the passage (Haydock) or defile of Machmas," leading to Gabaa. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "and there came out of the...

Further. Hebrew, "went out to the passage (Haydock) or defile of Machmas," leading to Gabaa. (Calmet) ---

Septuagint, "and there came out of the station of the strangers, to the other side (or beyond) Machmas," where they have been fixed, chap. vi. 11, 16. (Haydock)

Gill: 1Sa 13:1 - Saul reigned one year // and when he had reigned two years over Israel Saul reigned one year,.... "Or the son of a year in his reigning" s; various are the senses given of these words: some interpret them, Saul had a son ...

Saul reigned one year,.... "Or the son of a year in his reigning" s; various are the senses given of these words: some interpret them, Saul had a son of a year old when he began to reign, Ishbosheth, and who was forty years of age when his father died, 2Sa 2:10, others, who understand the words of Saul himself, think there is an "ellipsis" or defect of the number, and that it may be supplied, that Saul was the son of thirty or forty years, or whatsoever age he may be supposed to be at when he began his reign; others take the words in a figurative sense, that he was like a child of a year old, for purity and innocence; so the Targum,"as the son of a year, in whom there are no faults, so was Saul when he reigned;''or he was but a year old, reckoning from the time he was turned into another man, and had another heart, which was immediately after he was anointed king at Ramah by Samuel; or he was but a year old with respect to his kingdom: the inauguration of a king is "natalis imperil", the birthday of his kingdom, and therefore the words are well enough rendered by us, "Saul reigned one year"; which is to be reckoned either from his unction at Ramah, or rather from his election at Mizpeh, to the renewal of the kingdom at Gilgal:

and when he had reigned two years over Israel; which the Jewish chronologers t make to be the whole of his reign, which is not probable, considering the many things done in his reign, the many battles he fought with all his enemies on every side of him, and his long persecution of David; and there were no less than three high priests in his reign; Josephus says q he reigned eighteen years in the lifetime of Samuel, and twenty two years after his death, in all forty; which agrees with Act 13:21. Some interpret it he reigned two years well, and the rest in a tyrannical way; or that at the end of two years, when David was anointed, the kingdom was not reckoned to him, but to David; and to this purpose Dr. Lightfoot writes, that he had been king one year from his first anointing by Samuel at Ramah, to his second anointing by him at Gibeah (Gilgal I suppose he means); and he reigned after this two years more, before the Lord cast him off, and anointed David; and the time he ruled after that was not a rule, but a tyranny and persecution r; but the sense Ben Gersom gives is best of all, that one year had passed from the time of his being anointed, to the time of the renewal of the kingdom at Gilgal; and when he had reigned two years over Israel, then he did what follows, chose 3000 men, &c. In the first year of his reign was done all that is recorded in the preceding chapter; and when he had reigned two years, not two years more, but two years in all, then he did what is related in this chapter.

Gill: 1Sa 13:2 - Saul chose him three thousand men of Israel // whereof two thousand were with Saul in Michmash, and in Mount Bethel // and one thousand were with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin // and the rest of the people he sent every man to his tent Saul chose him three thousand men of Israel,.... Out of the 300,000 that went with him to fight the Ammonites, and returned with him to Gilgal, where ...

Saul chose him three thousand men of Israel,.... Out of the 300,000 that went with him to fight the Ammonites, and returned with him to Gilgal, where he now was, and had stayed as may be supposed about a year, since now he had reigned two years. These 3000 men some of them doubtless were appointed as a guard about his person, and the rest were a standing army to preserve the peace of the nation, to protect them from their enemies, to watch the motions of the Philistines, and to be ready on any sudden invasion:

whereof two thousand were with Saul in Michmash, and in Mount Bethel; "Michmash", according to Bunting, s was four miles from Gilgal. Jerom t says, in his time it was shown a large village on the borders of Aella, or Jerusalem, retaining its ancient name, nine miles distant from it, near the village Rama. Adrichomius u says it is now called Byra, and Mr. Maundrell w observes that it is supposed by some to be the same with Beer, whither Jotham fled after he had delivered his parable, Jdg 9:21. Michmash is in the Misnah x celebrated for the best wheat being brought from it; and near to it, as appears from hence, was Bethel, and the mount of that name; and so Jerom y speaks of Bethel as over against Michmash; and this mount very probably is the same said to be on the east of Bethel, where Abraham built an altar, Gen 12:8 for Michmash lay to the east of Bethel:

and one thousand were with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin; the native place of Saul, and this Jonathan was the son of Saul, 1Sa 13:16. According to Bunting z, Gibeah, where Jonathan was stationed, was eight miles from Michmash:

and the rest of the people he sent every man to his tent; to their own houses; or, as the Targum, to their cities; these were they that came at his summons, and were numbered at Bezek, and went with him to the relief of Jabeshgilead, and had been with him ever since, and now dismissed.

Gill: 1Sa 13:3 - And Jonathan smote the garrison of the Philistines that was in Geba // and the Philistines heard of it // and Saul blew the trumpet throughout all the land // saying, let the Hebrews hear And Jonathan smote the garrison of the Philistines that was in Geba,.... Not the same with Gibeah of Benjamin, as Jarchi; for it can hardly be thought...

And Jonathan smote the garrison of the Philistines that was in Geba,.... Not the same with Gibeah of Benjamin, as Jarchi; for it can hardly be thought that Jonathan should place himself with his thousand men where the Philistines had a garrison; or that if this was the same with that in the preceding verse, that it should be called by another name in this; but Gibeah and Geba were two places, as Kimchi observes, both indeed in the tribe of Benjamin, and it is very probable not far from one another; see Jos 18:24. This seems to be the same with the hill of God, where was a garrison of the Philistines, 1Sa 10:5, who after their defeat by Samuel contented themselves with some strong holds and garrisons in some parts of the land to keep Israel in awe; the Targum understands this of a single person, a governor of the Philistines in this place, whom Jonathan slew, and so Jarchi; and according to R. Isaiah he was one that was appointed to gather the tax for them:

and the Philistines heard of it, which alarmed them, and made them prepare for war:

and Saul blew the trumpet throughout all the land; not he in person, for he was at Gilgal, as the next verse shows; but he ordered it to be blown, being aware of the preparations the Philistines were making to attack him:

saying, let the Hebrews hear; both what his son had done, and what the Philistines were doing.

Gill: 1Sa 13:4 - And all Israel heard say that Saul had smitten a garrison of the Philistines // and that Israel also was had in abomination with the Philistines // and the people were called together after Saul to Gilgal And all Israel heard say that Saul had smitten a garrison of the Philistines,.... For though it was smitten by Jonathan, yet it was by the order of Sa...

And all Israel heard say that Saul had smitten a garrison of the Philistines,.... For though it was smitten by Jonathan, yet it was by the order of Saul, and so ascribed to him; it seems to be a concerted thing to fall upon the garrisons of the Philistines, and get them out of their hands, and so deliver Israel entirely from them; but it was not wise for Saul, if he had such a scheme in his head, to disband his large army, as he had lately done:

and that Israel also was had in abomination with the Philistines; who were highly incensed against them by this action, and vowed revenge; the name of an Israelite was abhorred by them; and perhaps this action might be attended with much craft and cruelty; and if these garrisons were held by agreement, they might charge them with perfidy, with breach of articles, and so their name was made to stink among them, as the word signifies:

and the people were called together after Saul to Gilgal; by sound of trumpet.

Gill: 1Sa 13:5 - And the Philistines gathered themselves together to fight with Israel // thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen // and the people as the sand which is on the sea shore in multitude // and they came up, and pitched in Michmash, eastward from Bethaven And the Philistines gathered themselves together to fight with Israel,.... To prevent their further encroachments on them, and designs against them; f...

And the Philistines gathered themselves together to fight with Israel,.... To prevent their further encroachments on them, and designs against them; for they perceived they intended to cast off their yoke, and free themselves entirely from them:

thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen; it may seem incredible that so small a people as the Philistines were, who only were possessed of five cities, or lordships, with the villages belonging to them, except what they had taken from Israel; and even if assisted by the Tyrians, the author of Sirach in the Apocrypha says:"And he destroyed the rulers of the Tyrians, and all the princes of the Philistines.'' (Sirach 46:18)though he seems to have respect not to this time, but when Samuel discomfited them, 1Sa 7:10. I say it may seem incredible that they should bring such a number of chariots into the field; wherefore this must either be understood of 30,000 men that fought in chariots, as Lyra interprets it, and in which sense it is plain and certain the word chariots is sometimes used, as in 2Sa 10:18, or else of some sort of carriages, not chariots of war, at least not all of them; but what were brought to carry the baggage of their infantry, which was very large, and to carry away the goods and substance of the Israelites; some have thought that there is a mistake of the copier, who instead of שלש, "three", read שלשים, "thirty": so Capellus; and the rather because in the Arabic and Syriac versions it is only "three thousand"; but even this is too great a number, understood of chariots of war; for never any people in the world was known to have so many chariots of war; Pharaoh in his large host had but six hundred, Exo 14:7 Jabin king of Canaan had indeed nine hundred, Jdg 4:3 and David took from the king of Zobah one thousand chariots; but whether they were all chariots of war is not certain, 2Sa 8:4. Solomon indeed had one thousand and four hundred chariots, but they do not appear to be chariots of war, but some for use, and some for state and grandeur. Wherefore, if a mistake in the copy is admitted of, and this can be confirmed by some MSS, yet we must recur to one or other of the above senses; some of them must be understood of other sort of carriages, or of men that fought in these chariots; and allowing ten men to a chariot, which seems to be the usual number by comparing 2Sa 10:18 with 1Ch 19:18 then 3000 men would fill three hundred chariots, which are as many as it can well be thought the Philistines had Zerah the Ethiopian, who brought into the field an army of million men, had no more than three hundred chariots, 2Ch 14:9, and no more had Antiochus Eupator in his army,"And with him Lysias his protector, and ruler of his affairs, having either of them a Grecian power of footmen, an hundred and ten thousand, and horsemen five thousand and three hundred, and elephants two and twenty, and three hundred chariots armed with hooks.'' (2 Maccabees 13:2)Darius in his vast army had but two hundred a, and in the very large one which Mithridates brought against the Romans there was but one hundred; and now 3000 men in three hundred chariots were but a proportion to 6000 horsemen, which in those times and countries was a large cavalry:

and the people as the sand which is on the sea shore in multitude; the infantry was so large as not to be numbered; however, the phrase denotes a great multitude of them; Josephus says b there were 300,000 footmen:

and they came up, and pitched in Michmash, eastward from Bethaven; where Saul, before he went to Gilgal, had his quarters, 1Sa 13:2. Bethaven was a place near Bethel, on the east of it, Jos 7:2 though Bethel itself was afterwards so called when Jeroboam had set up the worship of the calves there, Hos 4:15 it signifying the house of vanity or iniquity.

Gill: 1Sa 13:6 - When the men of Israel saw they were in a strait, for the people were distressed // for the people drew nigh // then the people did hide themselves in caves // and in thickets // in rocks, and in high places, and in pits When the men of Israel saw they were in a strait, for the people were distressed,.... By reason of the vast army that the Philistines brought into the...

When the men of Israel saw they were in a strait, for the people were distressed,.... By reason of the vast army that the Philistines brought into the field, greatly superior to theirs, and were likely to be encompassed by them on every side; so that nothing but destruction was expected, which gave them the utmost anxiety and uneasiness; though Abarbinel refers this last clause, not to the people of Israel, but to the people of the Philistines, and takes it in this sense:

for the people drew nigh; the army of the Philistines was approaching, and got near to them; and so they were in great danger of being quickly attacked by them, and destroyed, their numbers being so great:

then the people did hide themselves in caves; of which there were many in the land of Judea, capable of receiving a large number, as the cave of Adullam, the cave of Engedi, &c. and such as the Israelites made to hide themselves when oppressed by the Midianites, Jdg 6:2.

and in thickets; woods and forests, or among thorns, as Jarchi; where there was a very great number of brambles and thorn bushes; some, as Kimchi, interpret the word of munitions, garrisons, and fortified places, to which they betook themselves:

in rocks, and in high places, and in pits; in the holes of rocks and mountains, particularly in Mount Ephraim; see 1Sa 14:22 and where there were any pits or ditches, high or deep places, where they might be out of sight, and be sheltered from their enemies.

Gill: 1Sa 13:7 - And some of the Hebrews went over Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead // as for Saul, he was yet in Gilgal // and all the people followed him trembling And some of the Hebrews went over Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead,.... As far off as they could from the Philistines, who lay on the west of the ...

And some of the Hebrews went over Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead,.... As far off as they could from the Philistines, who lay on the west of the land of Israel, and these countries were to the east. Kimchi observes, that the land of Reuben is not mentioned, which was on the other side Jordan also; because that was nearer to it than what was inhabited by Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh; and therefore they chose to go further, thinking themselves there safer:

as for Saul, he was yet in Gilgal; where he stayed till Samuel should come to him, as directed, 1Sa 10:8 to have his advice and counsel:

and all the people followed him trembling; all that were with him, the army as distinct from the common people; they abode by him, and were at his command, and were ready to go where he should direct them; but with trembling hearts when they saw the pain of the people, fleeing into holes and corners, and considered what a huge host the Philistines were coming upon them with, and Samuel their prophet not with them to encourage and counsel them.

Gill: 1Sa 13:8 - And he tarried seven days, according to the set time that Samuel had appointed // but Samuel came not to Gilgal // and the people were scattered from him And he tarried seven days, according to the set time that Samuel had appointed,.... He tarried to the seventh day, but not to the end of it, or toward...

And he tarried seven days, according to the set time that Samuel had appointed,.... He tarried to the seventh day, but not to the end of it, or towards the close of it, as he should have done:

but Samuel came not to Gilgal; so soon as Saul expected:

and the people were scattered from him; many deserted him, the Philistines drawing nigh, and Samuel not coming, as Saul expected, and had given the people reason to expect.

Gill: 1Sa 13:9 - And Saul said // bring hither a burnt offering to me // and peace offerings // and he offered the burnt offering And Saul said,.... Being impatient, and seeing the people deserting him apace, and unwilling to engage in a battle without first sacrificing to God, a...

And Saul said,.... Being impatient, and seeing the people deserting him apace, and unwilling to engage in a battle without first sacrificing to God, and imploring his help and assistance:

bring hither a burnt offering to me; that is, a creature for a burnt offering, a bullock, sheep, goat, or lamb:

and peace offerings; which also were either of the herd, or of the flock:

and he offered the burnt offering; either he himself, or by a priest. In this unsettled time, while the tabernacle, altar, and ark, were at different places, and not yet fixed, it is thought that such who were not priests might offer, and that in high places, and where the tabernacle and altar were not.

Gill: 1Sa 13:10 - And it came to pass, that as soon as he had made an end of offering the burn offering // behold, Samuel came // and Saul went out to meet him // that he might salute him And it came to pass, that as soon as he had made an end of offering the burn offering,.... And before he could offer the peace offerings: behold, S...

And it came to pass, that as soon as he had made an end of offering the burn offering,.... And before he could offer the peace offerings:

behold, Samuel came; and it was told Saul that he was come:

and Saul went out to meet him; left off sacrificing, and would proceed no further, leaving the rest for Samuel and out of respect to him, and to prevent a chiding of him, he went forth to meet him:

that he might salute him, or "bless him" c; congratulate him on his coming, ask of his health and welfare, and wish him all peace and prosperity.

Gill: 1Sa 13:11 - And Samuel said, what hast thou done // and Saul said because I saw the people were scattered from me // and that thou camest not within the days appointed // and that the Philistines gathered themselves together to Michmash And Samuel said, what hast thou done? This question he put to bring him to a confession of what he had done, otherwise he guessed at it by his counten...

And Samuel said, what hast thou done? This question he put to bring him to a confession of what he had done, otherwise he guessed at it by his countenance; or rather, by the prophetic spirit he was endowed with, he knew it certainly that he had offered the sacrifices without waiting for him:

and Saul said because I saw the people were scattered from me; they were deserting, and he feared, if he stayed any longer, they would all leave him; this was one reason of doing what he did:

and that thou camest not within the days appointed; seven days were appointed, and because the seventh day was come, though it was not gone, he concluded Samuel would not come at all; and that was another reason why he did what he did; and by this would have laid the blame on Samuel, as if he did not keep his time; whereas it was Saul's impatience that hurried him to this action:

and that the Philistines gathered themselves together to Michmash; where his station before was, and from thence he might quickly expect them at Gilgal; and this was another reason why he hastened the sacrifice.

Gill: 1Sa 13:12 - Therefore said I // the Philistines will come down now upon me to Gilgal // and I have not made supplication to the Lord // I forced myself therefore, and offered a burnt offering Therefore said I..... That is, within himself: the Philistines will come down now upon me to Gilgal; on a sudden, unprepared for them, especially i...

Therefore said I..... That is, within himself:

the Philistines will come down now upon me to Gilgal; on a sudden, unprepared for them, especially in a religious way:

and I have not made supplication to the Lord; for his direction and assistance, and for success in the war; which it seems went along with sacrifices, or was implied in them:

I forced myself therefore, and offered a burnt offering; it was reluctant to him, it was against his will as well as the command of Samuel, to offer before he came, he suggests; but such were the circumstances he was in, that he was obliged to it; these are the reasons or excuses he made, and some of them have a specious appearance in them.

Gill: 1Sa 13:13 - And Samuel said to Saul, thou hast done foolishly // thou hast not kept the commandment of the Lord thy God, which he commanded thee // for now would the Lord have established thy kingdom upon Israel for ever And Samuel said to Saul, thou hast done foolishly,.... Not by intruding himself into the priest's office, with that he is not charged, but not waiting...

And Samuel said to Saul, thou hast done foolishly,.... Not by intruding himself into the priest's office, with that he is not charged, but not waiting the full time till Samuel came; which showed his impatience, disregard to Samuel, and distrust of God; and though he thought he had acted wisely, and taken the proper precautions in his circumstances, yet he acted foolishly; and though a king, Samuel being a prophet of the Lord, and in his name, spared not to tell him so:

thou hast not kept the commandment of the Lord thy God, which he commanded thee; by his prophet, that he should wait seven days for his coming, who would then offer sacrifices, and tell him what he should do; and not to keep the commandment of God was acting a foolish part:

for now would the Lord have established thy kingdom upon Israel for ever; that is, for a long time, on his son, and son's son; and then, according to promise and prophecy, it would come to one of the tribe of Judah; but now seeing he had acted such a part, it should not continue long in his family, no longer than his own life, and quickly come into other hands.

Gill: 1Sa 13:14 - But now thy kingdom shall not continue // the Lord hath sought him a man after his own heart // and the Lord hath commanded him to be captain over his people // because thou hast not kept that which the Lord hath commanded thee But now thy kingdom shall not continue,.... That is, in his family, nor in his tribe, but be removed to another: the Lord hath sought him a man aft...

But now thy kingdom shall not continue,.... That is, in his family, nor in his tribe, but be removed to another:

the Lord hath sought him a man after his own heart: who was David; though as yet Samuel knew him not, he knew by divine revelation that there was another one chosen, to whom the kingdom would be given; a man every way agreeable to the will of God, and who would fulfil his will, though he knew not particularly who he was:

and the Lord hath commanded him to be captain over his people; that is, had appointed him to be king over Israel. God's decrees have the force of a law in them, and must be fulfilled; and cannot be resisted so as to be frustrated:

because thou hast not kept that which the Lord hath commanded thee; it matters not whether the thing commanded is greater or less, it is disobedience to the command that is the sin, and is resented: this might seem a small thing, since to offer the sacrifice was not criminal; but doing it before the time, a little before it should have been done, not waiting long enough for the prophet; yet it being against the command of God, or in neglect of it, it was sinful, and severely chastised; and the rather, that it might be an example to all succeeding kings how they offended, or broke the least of God's commandments; and this being the first king of Israel, he was made an example of to the rest.

Gill: 1Sa 13:15 - And Samuel arose // and got him up from Gilgal unto Gibeah of Benjamin // and Saul numbered the people that were present with him, about six hundred men And Samuel arose,.... Seemingly in wrath and displeasure, not staying to offer up the peace offerings which remained; and though no mention is made of...

And Samuel arose,.... Seemingly in wrath and displeasure, not staying to offer up the peace offerings which remained; and though no mention is made of Saul's going with him, yet it seems as if he did, or at least quickly followed him, as appears from the next verse:

and got him up from Gilgal unto Gibeah of Benjamin; the native place of Saul, thereby directing Saul where he should go, and which might be a stronger place than Gilgal; or however where he might expect to be joined by more persons of his own tribe, as well as in the first place protect and defend that; and it looks by Samuel's going thither, though he was displeased with Saul, yet that he did not intend to forsake him directly and entirely:

and Saul numbered the people that were present with him, about six hundred men: which was done either before he left Gilgal, or as soon as he came to Gibeah; so great a desertion was there from him, that of the 3000 first chosen by him, and of the people after called and gathered to him at Gilgal, only six hundred remained with him; a small number indeed to encounter so large an army the Philistines had brought into the field, and which therefore Saul could not face.

Gill: 1Sa 13:16 - And Saul, and Jonathan his son // and the people that were present with them // but the Philistines encamped at Michmash And Saul, and Jonathan his son,.... Who were now joined to their men, on Saul's coming to Gibeah: and the people that were present with them; the s...

And Saul, and Jonathan his son,.... Who were now joined to their men, on Saul's coming to Gibeah:

and the people that were present with them; the six hundred men before numbered: abode in Gibeah of Benjamin; being perhaps a strong fortified place, not choosing to go forth to meet the army of the Philistines, so vastly superior to them:

but the Philistines encamped at Michmash; the old quarters of Saul before he went to Gilgal, 1Sa 13:2.

Gill: 1Sa 13:17 - And the spoilers came out of the camp of the Philistines in three companies // one company turned unto the way that leadeth to Ophrah // unto the land of Shual And the spoilers came out of the camp of the Philistines in three companies,.... Saul not daring to come out to fight them, and there being none throu...

And the spoilers came out of the camp of the Philistines in three companies,.... Saul not daring to come out to fight them, and there being none throughout the land to oppose them, they sent out three companies of soldiers to ravage and spoil the country; of so little use and service was a king to Israel, they were so extremely desirous of; and this was suffered, to convince them of their vain confidence in him, and that their trust ought to be in the Lord their God; never was their country more exposed to rapine and violence than now:

one company turned unto the way that leadeth to Ophrah; a city in the land of Benjamin, of which see Jos 18:23 and lay southwest from Michmash, where the army of the Philistines were:

unto the land of Shual: which the Targum paraphrases,"the land of the south;''it seems to have had its name from the multitude of foxes in it, Shual signifying a fox.

Gill: 1Sa 13:18 - And another company turned the way to Bethhoron // and another company turned to the way of the border, that looketh towards the valley of Zeboim, toward the wilderness And another company turned the way to Bethhoron,.... Of which name there were two cities, the upper and nether, and both in the tribe of Ephraim, of w...

And another company turned the way to Bethhoron,.... Of which name there were two cities, the upper and nether, and both in the tribe of Ephraim, of which see Jos 16:3 this lay northwest from the camp of the Philistines at Michmash; eight miles from it, according to Bunting d:

and another company turned to the way of the border, that looketh towards the valley of Zeboim, toward the wilderness; some take this to be the Zeboim which was destroyed with Sodom and Gomorrah; and the wilderness, the wilderness of Jordan; but as that, so the valley in which it stood, was turned into a bituminous lake; this seems to be a city in the land of Benjamin, Neh 11:34 near to which was a valley, and this towards the wilderness of Jericho, and so lay eastward; the Targum calls it the valley of vipers, perhaps from its being infested with many; and so David de Pomis e says it is the name of a place where plenty of serpents were found, and which he says were called so because of the variety of colours in them; with which agrees Kimchi's note on the place; they seem to mean serpents spotted f, as if they were painted and dyed of various colours, as the Hebrew word which is thus paraphrased signifies: according to Bunting g, it was eight miles from Michmash.

Gill: 1Sa 13:19 - Now there was no smith found throughout all the land of Israel // for the Philistines said, lest the Hebrews make swords or spears Now there was no smith found throughout all the land of Israel,.... The Philistines, when they ruled over them, having removed them into their own cou...

Now there was no smith found throughout all the land of Israel,.... The Philistines, when they ruled over them, having removed them into their own country, and forbid any to learn or exercise that trade in Israel:

for the Philistines said, lest the Hebrews make swords or spears: this they did to prevent their having arms, and the use of them, that they might not rebel against them, and fight with them, and overcome them; it was a piece of policy to keep them subject to them; so Nebuchadnezzar, when he conquered the Jews and carried them captive, took care particularly to carry away their smiths, and left none but the poorest sort of people in the land, 2Ki 24:14 and Porsena, king of the Etrusci, when he made a covenant with the Romans, upon the expulsion of their kings, made this a condition of peace with them, that they should use no iron but in husbandry h. When this course was taken by the Philistines with the Israelites, and how long it had continued is not certain; it is probable it might be in the space of forty years they ruled over Israel, in which Samson was born, for we never read of any sword or spear that he made use of; and though there were two battles in the times of Eli, in both which Israel were beaten, they might make use only of bows and arrows, slings, and stones, clubs, &c, as also in the battle of Saul with the Ammonites; and as for the defeat of the Philistines in the time of Samuel, it was by thunder; and though the Philistines were then subdued, yet, as Samuel grew old, they regained their power in a good measure, and the Israelites had not spirit enough to oppose them, nor diligence and industry to learn and revive the trade of smiths among them; not even for what was necessary to husbandry, as the following verse shows.

Gill: 1Sa 13:20 - But all the Israelites went down to the Philistines // to sharpen every man his share, and his coulter // and his axe and his mattock But all the Israelites went down to the Philistines,.... Were obliged to go into Palestine, into some one or other of the cities of the Philistines, o...

But all the Israelites went down to the Philistines,.... Were obliged to go into Palestine, into some one or other of the cities of the Philistines, or to their garrisons, where the trade of a smith was exercised:

to sharpen every man his share, and his coulter; which are the parts of the plough made of iron, with which the earth is cut and thrown up:

and his axe and his mattock; or pick axe; with the one wood is felled and cut, and with the other stones are dug; and each of these for their several uses needed sharpening; and when they did, they were obliged to go to the Philistines to have them done, they having no smiths among them.

Gill: 1Sa 13:21 - Yet they had a file for the mattocks, and for the coulters, and for the forks, and for the axes // to sharpen the goads Yet they had a file for the mattocks, and for the coulters, and for the forks, and for the axes,.... Those that would not go to the Philistines, or we...

Yet they had a file for the mattocks, and for the coulters, and for the forks, and for the axes,.... Those that would not go to the Philistines, or were not able, or thought it too much trouble, these kept files by them to sharpen those several instruments with upon occasion; though the words are by some rendered in connection with the preceding, to this sense, that they went to the Philistines to sharpen them, when the mouths, or edges, of the mattocks, coulters, &c. were dull; or "blunt" i; and so needed sharpening; and even

to sharpen the goads; with which they pricked and pushed on the oxen in ploughing, when sluggish and remiss. (The word for "file" in the verse is פים "pim", and occurs only here in the Hebrew scriptures. It is not used elsewhere in other Hebrew writings. Therefore the translators of the 1611 Authorised Version had only the root derivation to deduce what the word meant. Literally, it means "a file with mouths". However, recently archaeologists have found a stone inscribed with this word. Also they found a stone inscribed with the word "shekel". Hence they deduced that the word was really a weight of measure equal to about one third of a shekel. Newer translations usually translate this as "the charge was a third of a shekel ...", hence removing the obvious contradiction between this verse and the preceding one. Editor.)

Gill: 1Sa 13:22 - So it came to pass in the day of battle // that there were neither sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people that were with Saul and Jonathan // but with Saul and with Jonathan his son was there found So it came to pass in the day of battle,.... When that drew near, and they were called to it, and obliged to fight or flee, or surrender: that ther...

So it came to pass in the day of battle,.... When that drew near, and they were called to it, and obliged to fight or flee, or surrender:

that there were neither sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people that were with Saul and Jonathan: which was not owing to their leaving them behind in the camp, or casting them away from them through fear, as they followed Saul with trembling, but to the cause now mentioned. In what manner some preceding battles were fought with the Philistines and Ammonites, notwithstanding, have been accounted for on 1Sa 13:19, but it is strange that the Israelites did not furnish themselves with the arms of the Philistines at the defeat of them in Ebenezer, 1Sa 7:10 and with the arms of the Ammonites at Jabeshgilead, 1Sa 11:11 and that such a warlike prince as Saul appeared at his first setting out to be should not in the first place take care to provide armour for his men by some means or another; for that those that left him should have arms, and not those that abode with him, does not seem reasonable. It may be the Benjamites, being expert in slinging, were indifferent to and neglected the use of any other weapon, or method of fighting:

but with Saul and with Jonathan his son was there found; swords and spears, and with them only.

Gill: 1Sa 13:23 - And the garrison of the Philistines went out to the passage of Michmash. And the garrison of the Philistines went out to the passage of Michmash. According to Jarchi, these two places, Michmash where the Philistines were, a...

And the garrison of the Philistines went out to the passage of Michmash. According to Jarchi, these two places, Michmash where the Philistines were, and Gibeah where Saul and Jonathan were, lay on two hills over against each other, and there was a valley between them; and the garrison of the Philistines drew nigh to the passage of Michmash, which led to the side of Gibeah, to the valley between them, either with an intention to besiege Gibeah, or to dare Israel to come out and fight them: but rather it seems to be some strong pass between the rocks near Michmash, where the garrison placed themselves to guard and keep against any sudden surprise; see 1Sa 14:4. The Targum is,"the governor of the Philistines went out to the ford or passage of Michmash;''and Kimchi interprets it of the princes or generals of the army; these might go to mark out a camp, and pitch upon a proper place to draw up in a line of battle.

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Ayat / Catatan Kaki

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:1 The MT has “two years” here. If this number is to be accepted as correct, the meaning apparently would be that after a lapse of two years ...

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:2 Heb “each one to his tents.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:3 Heb “blew the ram’s horn in.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:4 Heb “were summoned after.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:5 Many English versions (e.g., KJV, NASB, NRSV, TEV) read “30,000” here.

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:6 Or perhaps “vaults.” This rare term also occurs in Judg 9:46, 49. Cf. KJV “high places”; ASV “coverts”; NAB “...

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:7 The word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:8 Heb “dispersed from upon him”; NAB, NRSV “began to slip away.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:10 Heb “to bless him.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:11 Heb “dispersed from upon me.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:12 Or “I forced myself” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV, CEV); NAB “So in my anxiety I offered”; NIV “I felt compelled.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:13 Heb “commanded.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:14 Heb “commanded.”

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:15 Heb “at Gibeah of Benjamin.” The words “in the territory” are supplied in the translation for clarity (likewise in the followi...

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:16 The juxtaposition of disjunctive clauses in v.16 indicates synchronic action.

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:20 The translation follows the LXX (“their sickle”) here, rather than the MT “plowshares,” which is due to dittography from the w...

NET Notes: 1Sa 13:21 Heb “and for a third, a pick.” The Hebrew text suffers from haplography at this point. The translation follows the textual reconstruction ...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 13:1 Saul reigned ( a ) one year; and when he had reigned ( b ) two years over Israel, ( a ) While these things were done. ( b ) Before he took upon hims...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 13:3 And Jonathan smote the garrison of the Philistines that [was] in ( c ) Geba, and the Philistines heard [of it]. And Saul blew the ( d ) trumpet throug...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 13:5 And the Philistines gathered themselves together to fight with Israel, thirty thousand chariots, and six thousand horsemen, and people as the sand whi...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 13:7 And [some of] the Hebrews went over Jordan to the land of ( f ) Gad and Gilead. As for Saul, he [was] yet in Gilgal, and all the people followed him t...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 13:8 And he tarried seven days, according to the set time that Samuel [had appointed]: but Samuel came not to Gilgal; and the people were ( g ) scattered f...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 13:11 And Samuel said, What hast thou done? And Saul said, Because I saw that the people were ( h ) scattered from me, and [that] thou camest not within the...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 13:13 And Samuel said to Saul, Thou hast done foolishly: thou hast not kept the commandment of the LORD thy ( i ) God, which he commanded thee: for now woul...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 13:14 But now thy kingdom shall not continue: the LORD hath sought him a ( k ) man after his own heart, and the LORD hath commanded him [to be] captain over...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 13:15 And Samuel arose, and gat him up from Gilgal unto ( l ) Gibeah of Benjamin. And Saul numbered the people [that were] present with him, about six hundr...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 13:18 And another company turned the way [to] Bethhoron: and ( m ) another company turned [to] the way of the border that looketh to the valley of Zeboim to...

Geneva Bible: 1Sa 13:22 So it came to pass in the day of battle, that there was neither ( n ) sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people that [were] with Saul and...

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Rentang Ayat

MHCC: 1Sa 13:1-7 - --Saul reigned one year, and nothing particular happened; but in his second year the events recorded in this chapter took place. For above a year he gav...

MHCC: 1Sa 13:8-14 - --Saul broke the order expressly given by Samuel, see 1Sa 10:8, as to what should be done in cases of extremity. Saul offered sacrifice without Samuel, ...

MHCC: 1Sa 13:15-23 - --See how politic the Philistines were when they had power; they not only prevented the people of Israel from making weapons of war, but obliged them to...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 13:1-7 - -- We are not told wherein it was that the people of Israel offended God, so as to forfeit his presence and turn his hand against them, as Samuel had t...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 13:8-14 - -- Here is, I. Saul's offence in offering sacrifice before Samuel came. Samuel, when he anointed him, had ordered him to tarry for him seven days in Gi...

Matthew Henry: 1Sa 13:15-23 - -- Here, 1. Samuel departs in displeasure. Saul has set up for himself, and now he is left to himself: Samuel gat him from Gilgal (1Sa 13:15), and it...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 13:1 - -- The history of the reign of Saul commences with this chapter; (Note: The connection of 1Sa 13:8-11 of this chapter with 1Sa 10:8 isadduced in suppo...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 13:2-7 - -- The war with the Philistines (1 Samuel 13-14) certainly falls, at least so far asthe commencement is concerned, in the very earliest part of Saul's...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 13:8-15 - -- Saul's untimely sacrifice . - 1Sa 13:8, 1Sa 13:9. Saul waited seven days for Samuel'scoming, according to the time appointed by Samuel (see at 1Sa ...

Keil-Delitzsch: 1Sa 13:16-23 - -- Disarming of Israel by the Philistines . - The following account is no doubtconnected with the foregoing, so far as the facts are concerned, inasmu...

Constable: 1Sa 13:1--15:35 - --C. Kingship Removed from Saul chs. 13-15 This section documents Saul's disobedience to the revealed will...

Constable: 1Sa 13:1-15 - --1. Saul's disobedience at Gilgal 13:1-15 The writer introduced the history of Saul's reign by re...

Constable: 1Sa 13:16-23 - --The results of Saul's disobedience 13:16-23 The writer explained the military disaster t...

Guzik: 1Sa 13:1-23 - Saul's Disobedience 1 Samuel 13 - Saul's Disobedience A. The Philistine threat. 1. (1-2) Saul assembles Israel's first standing army. Saul reigned one year; and when ...

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Pendahuluan / Garis Besar

JFB: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF SAMUEL. The two were, by the ancient Jews, conjoined so as to make one book, and in that form could be called the Book o...

JFB: 1 Samuel (Garis Besar) OF ELKANAH AND HIS TWO WIVES. (1Sa 1:1-8) HANNAH'S PRAYER. (1Sa 1:9-18) SAMUEL BORN. (1Sa 1:20) HANNAH'S SONG IN THANKFULNESS TO GOD. (1Sa 2:1-11) TH...

TSK: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) The First Book of SAMUEL, otherwise called " The First Book of the KINGS."

TSK: 1 Samuel 13 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Overview 1Sa 13:1, Saul’s select band; 1Sa 13:3, He calls the Hebrews to Gilgal against the Philistines, whose garrison Jonathan had smitten; 1S...

Poole: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) FIRST BOOK OF SAMUEL OTHERWISE CALLED THE FIRST BOOK OF THE KINGS. THE ARGUMENT. IT is not certainly known who was the penman of this Book, or whe...

Poole: 1 Samuel 13 (Pendahuluan Pasal) SAMUEL CHAPTER 13 Saul and Jonathan’ s select band. Jonathan smiteth the garrison of the Philistines at Gibeah: the people are called together...

MHCC: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) In this book we have an account of Eli, and the wickedness of his sons; also of Samuel, his character and actions. Then of the advancement of Saul to ...

MHCC: 1 Samuel 13 (Pendahuluan Pasal) (1Sa 13:1-7) The invasion of the Philistines. (1Sa 13:8-14) Saul sacrifices, He is reproved by Samuel. (1Sa 13:15-23) The policy of the Philistines.

Matthew Henry: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The First Book of Samuel This book, and that which follows it, bear the name of Samuel in the title, ...

Matthew Henry: 1 Samuel 13 (Pendahuluan Pasal) Those that desired a king like all the nations fancied that, when they had one, they should look very great and considerable; but in this chapter w...

Constable: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) Introduction Title First and Second Samuel were originally one book called the Book of...

Constable: 1 Samuel (Garis Besar) Outline I. Eli and Samuel chs. 1-3 A. The change from barrenness to fertility 1:1-2:10 ...

Constable: 1 Samuel 1 Samuel Bibliography Ackroyd, Peter R. The First Book of Samuel. Cambridge Bible Commentary on the New English...

Haydock: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) THE FIRST BOOK OF SAMUEL; otherwise called, THE FIRST BOOK OF KINGS. INTRODUCTION. This and the following Book are called by the Hebrews, the...

Gill: 1 Samuel (Pendahuluan Kitab) INTRODUCTION TO 1 SAMUEL This book, in the Hebrew copies, is commonly called Samuel, or the Book of Samuel; in the Syriac version, the Book of Samu...

Gill: 1 Samuel 13 (Pendahuluan Pasal) INTRODUCTION TO FIRST SAMUEL 13 This chapter relates how Saul disposed of his army, 1Sa 13:1 that Jonathan his son smote a garrison of Philistines,...

Advanced Commentary (Kamus, Lagu-Lagu Himne, Gambar, Ilustrasi Khotbah, Pertanyaan-Pertanyaan, dll)


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