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Teks -- 1 Peter 1:1-25 (NET)

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Konteks
Salutation
1:1 From Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to those temporarily residing abroad (in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, the province of Asia, and Bithynia) who are chosen 1:2 according to the foreknowledge of God the Father by being set apart by the Spirit for obedience and for sprinkling with Jesus Christ’s blood. May grace and peace be yours in full measure!
New Birth to Joy and Holiness
1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! By his great mercy he gave us new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, 1:4 that is, into an inheritance imperishable, undefiled, and unfading. It is reserved in heaven for you, 1:5 who by God’s power are protected through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. 1:6 This brings you great joy, although you may have to suffer for a short time in various trials. 1:7 Such trials show the proven character of your faith, which is much more valuable than gold– gold that is tested by fire, even though it is passing away– and will bring praise and glory and honor when Jesus Christ is revealed. 1:8 You have not seen him, but you love him. You do not see him now but you believe in him, and so you rejoice with an indescribable and glorious joy, 1:9 because you are attaining the goal of your faith– the salvation of your souls. 1:10 Concerning this salvation, the prophets who predicted the grace that would come to you searched and investigated carefully. 1:11 They probed into what person or time the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating when he testified beforehand about the sufferings appointed for Christ and his subsequent glory. 1:12 They were shown that they were serving not themselves but you, in regard to the things now announced to you through those who proclaimed the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven– things angels long to catch a glimpse of. 1:13 Therefore, get your minds ready for action by being fully sober, and set your hope completely on the grace that will be brought to you when Jesus Christ is revealed. 1:14 Like obedient children, do not comply with the evil urges you used to follow in your ignorance, 1:15 but, like the Holy One who called you, become holy yourselves in all of your conduct, 1:16 for it is written, “You shall be holy, because I am holy.” 1:17 And if you address as Father the one who impartially judges according to each one’s work, live out the time of your temporary residence here in reverence. 1:18 You know that from your empty way of life inherited from your ancestors you were ransomed– not by perishable things like silver or gold, 1:19 but by precious blood like that of an unblemished and spotless lamb, namely Christ. 1:20 He was foreknown before the foundation of the world but was manifested in these last times for your sake. 1:21 Through him you now trust in God, who raised him from the dead and gave him glory, so that your faith and hope are in God. 1:22 You have purified your souls by obeying the truth in order to show sincere mutual love. So love one another earnestly from a pure heart. 1:23 You have been born anew, not from perishable but from imperishable seed, through the living and enduring word of God. 1:24 For all flesh is like grass and all its glory like the flower of the grass; the grass withers and the flower falls off, 1:25 but the word of the Lord endures forever. And this is the word that was proclaimed to you.
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Nama Orang, Nama Tempat, Topik/Tema Kamus

Nama Orang dan Nama Tempat:
 · Asia A Roman province on the west side of Asia Minor.
 · Bithynia a region in NW Asia Minor that, together with Pontus, forms a Roman province (OS)
 · Cappadocia a Roman province in Asia Minor
 · Galatia a nation, and later a Roman province, in central Asia Minor
 · Peter a man who was a leader among the twelve apostles and wrote the two epistles of Peter
 · Pontus the coastal region of north Asia Minor


Topik/Tema Kamus: PETER, SIMON | PETER, THE FIRST EPISTLE OF | Jesus, The Christ | Atonement | Regeneration | PETER, THE SECOND EPISTLE OF | Word of God | God | EPHESIANS, EPISTLE TO THE | Perseverance | Hope | Holiness | Commandments | Faith | Righteous | Salvation | RANSOM | Pontus | Redemption | Holy Spirit | selebihnya
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Evidence

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Tafsiran/Catatan -- Catatan Kata/Frasa (per frasa)

Robertson: 1Pe 1:1 - Peter Peter ( Petros ). Greek form for the Aramaic (Chaldaic) Cēphās , the nickname given Simon by Jesus when he first saw him (Joh 1:42) and reaffirme...

Peter ( Petros ).

Greek form for the Aramaic (Chaldaic) Cēphās , the nickname given Simon by Jesus when he first saw him (Joh 1:42) and reaffirmed in the Greek form on his great confession (Mat 16:18), with an allusion to petra , another form for a rock, ledge, or cliff. In 2Pe 1:1 we have both Simōn and Petros . Paul in his Epistles always terms himself Paul, not Saul. So Peter uses this name, not Cephas or Simon, because he is writing to Christians scattered over Asia Minor. The nominative absolute occurs here as in Jam 1:1, but without chairein as there, the usual form of greeting in letters (Act 23:26) so common in the papyri.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:1 - An apostle of Jesus Christ An apostle of Jesus Christ ( apostolos Iēsou Christou ). This is his official title, but in 2Pe 1:1 doulos is added, which occurs alone in Jam 1:...

An apostle of Jesus Christ ( apostolos Iēsou Christou ).

This is his official title, but in 2Pe 1:1 doulos is added, which occurs alone in Jam 1:1. In 2 John and 3 John we have only ho presbuteros (the elder), as Peter terms himself sunpresbuteros in 1Pe 5:1. Paul’ s usage varies greatly: only the names in 1 Thessalonians and 2 Thessalonians, the title apostolos added and defended in Galatians and Romans as also in 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians and Colossians and Ephesians and 2 Timothy with "by the will of God"added, and in 1 Timothy with the addition of "according to the command of God."In Philippians Paul has only "doulos (slave) Christou Iēsou ,"like James and Jude. In Romans and Titus Paul has both doulos and apostolos , like 2 Peter, while in Philemon he uses only desmios (prisoner) Iēsou Christou .

Robertson: 1Pe 1:1 - To the elect To the elect ( eklektois ). Without article (with the article in Mat 24:22, Mat 24:24, Mat 24:31) and dative case, "to elect persons"(viewed as a gro...

To the elect ( eklektois ).

Without article (with the article in Mat 24:22, Mat 24:24, Mat 24:31) and dative case, "to elect persons"(viewed as a group). Bigg takes eklektois (old, but rare verbal adjective from eklegō , to pick out, to select) as an adjective describing the next word, "to elect sojourners."That is possible and is like genos eklekton in 1Pe 2:9. See the distinction between klētoi (called) and eklektoi (chosen) in Mat 22:14.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:1 - Who are sojourners Who are sojourners ( parepidēmois ). Late double compound adjective (para , epidēmountes , Act 2:10, to sojourn by the side of natives), strange...

Who are sojourners ( parepidēmois ).

Late double compound adjective (para , epidēmountes , Act 2:10, to sojourn by the side of natives), strangers sojourning for a while in a particular place. So in Polybius, papyri, in lxx only twice (Genesis 23:4 or Psalm 38:13), in N.T. only here, 1Pe 2:11; Heb 11:13. The picture in the metaphor here is that heaven is our native country and we are only temporary sojourners here on earth.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:1 - Of the Dispersion Of the Dispersion ( diasporās ). See Joh 7:35 for literal sense of the word for scattered (from diaspeirō , to scatter abroad, Act 8:1) Jews outs...

Of the Dispersion ( diasporās ).

See Joh 7:35 for literal sense of the word for scattered (from diaspeirō , to scatter abroad, Act 8:1) Jews outside of Palestine, and Jam 1:1 for the sense here to Jewish Christians, including Gentile Christians (only N T. examples). Note absence of the article, though a definite conception (of the Dispersion). The Christian is a pilgrim on his way to the homeland. These five Roman provinces include what we call Asia Minor north and west of the Taurus mountain range (Hort). Hort suggests that the order here suggests that Silvanus (bearer of the Epistle) was to land in Pontus from the Euxine Sea, proceed through Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, to Bithynia, where he would re-embark for Rome. This, he holds, explains the separation of Pontus and Bithynia, though the same province. Only Galatia and Asia are mentioned elsewhere in the N.T. as having Christian converts, but the N.T. by no means gives a full account of the spread of the Gospel, as can be judged from Col 1:6, Col 1:23.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:2 - According to According to ( kata ). Probably to be connected with eklektois rather than with apostolos in spite of a rather loose arrangement of words and the...

According to ( kata ).

Probably to be connected with eklektois rather than with apostolos in spite of a rather loose arrangement of words and the absence of articles in 1Pe 1:1, 1Pe 1:2.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:2 - The foreknowledge The foreknowledge ( prognōsin ). Late substantive (Plutarch, Lucian, papyri) from proginōskō (1Pe 1:20), to know beforehand, only twice in N....

The foreknowledge ( prognōsin ).

Late substantive (Plutarch, Lucian, papyri) from proginōskō (1Pe 1:20), to know beforehand, only twice in N.T. (here and Act 2:23 in Peter’ s sermon). In this Epistle Peter often uses substantives rather than verbs (cf. Rom 8:29).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:2 - Of God the Father Of God the Father ( theou patros ). Anarthous again and genitive case. See patēr applied to God also in 1Pe 1:3, 1Pe 1:17 as often by Paul (Rom 1...

Of God the Father ( theou patros ).

Anarthous again and genitive case. See patēr applied to God also in 1Pe 1:3, 1Pe 1:17 as often by Paul (Rom 1:7, etc.). Peter here presents the Trinity (God the Father, the Spirit, Jesus Christ).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:2 - In sanctification of the Spirit In sanctification of the Spirit ( en hagiasmōi pneumatos ). Clearly the Holy Spirit, though anarthrous like theou patros . Late word from hagiazō...

In sanctification of the Spirit ( en hagiasmōi pneumatos ).

Clearly the Holy Spirit, though anarthrous like theou patros . Late word from hagiazō , to render holy (hagios ), to consecrate, as in 1Th 4:7. The subjective genitive here, sanctification wrought by the Spirit as in 2Th 2:13 (where the Trinity mentioned as here).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:2 - Unto obedience Unto obedience ( eis hupakoēn ). Obedience (from hupakouō , to hear under, to hearken) to the Lord Jesus as in 1Pe 1:22 "to the truth,"result of ...

Unto obedience ( eis hupakoēn ).

Obedience (from hupakouō , to hear under, to hearken) to the Lord Jesus as in 1Pe 1:22 "to the truth,"result of "the sanctification."

Robertson: 1Pe 1:2 - And sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ And sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ ( rantismon haimatos Iēsou Christou ). Late substantive from rantizō , to sprinkle (Heb 9:13), a word...

And sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ ( rantismon haimatos Iēsou Christou ).

Late substantive from rantizō , to sprinkle (Heb 9:13), a word used in the lxx of the sacrifices (Num 19:9, 13, 20, etc.), but not in any non-biblical source so far as known, in N.T. only here and Heb 12:24 (of the sprinkling of blood). Reference to the death of Christ on the Cross and to the ratification of the New Covenant by the blood of Christ as given in Heb 9:19.; Heb 12:24 with allusion to Exo 24:3-8. Paul does not mention this ritual use of the blood of Christ, but Jesus does (Mat 26:28; Mar 14:24). Hence it is not surprising to find the use of it by Peter and the author of Hebrews. Hort suggests that Peter may also have an ulterior reference to the blood of the martyrs as in Rev 7:14.; Rev 12:11, but only as illustration of what Jesus did for us, not as having any value. The whole Epistle is a commentary upon prognōsis theou , hagiasmos pneumatos , haima Christou (Bigg). Peter is not ashamed of the blood of Christ.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:2 - Be multiplied Be multiplied ( plēthuntheiē ). First aorist passive optative (volitive) of plēthunō , old verb (from plēthus , fulness), in a wish. So in ...

Be multiplied ( plēthuntheiē ).

First aorist passive optative (volitive) of plēthunō , old verb (from plēthus , fulness), in a wish. So in 2Pe 1:2; Jud 1:2, but nowhere else in N.T. salutations. Grace and peace (charis kai eirēnē ) occur together in 2Pe 1:2, in 2Jo 1:2 (with eleos ), and in all Paul’ s Epistles (with eleos added in 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:3 - Blessed be Blessed be ( eulogētos ). No copula in the Greek (estō , let be, or estin , is, or eiē , may be). The verbal adjective (from eulogeō ) occur...

Blessed be ( eulogētos ).

No copula in the Greek (estō , let be, or estin , is, or eiē , may be). The verbal adjective (from eulogeō ) occurs in the N.T. only of God, as in the lxx (Luk 1:68). See also 2Co 1:3; Eph 1:3.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:3 - The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ ( ho theos kai patēr tou kuriou hēmōn Iēsou Christou ). This precise language in 2Co 1:3; Eph 1:3...

The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ ( ho theos kai patēr tou kuriou hēmōn Iēsou Christou ).

This precise language in 2Co 1:3; Eph 1:3; and part of it in 2Co 11:31; Rom 15:6. See Joh 20:17 for similar language by Jesus.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:3 - Great Great ( polu ). Much.

Great ( polu ).

Much.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:3 - Begat us again Begat us again ( anagennēsas hēmās ). First aorist active articular (ho , who) participle of anagennaō , late, and rare word to beget again, ...

Begat us again ( anagennēsas hēmās ).

First aorist active articular (ho , who) participle of anagennaō , late, and rare word to beget again, in Aleph for Sirach ( Prol. 20), in Philo, in Hermetic writings, in N.T. only here and 1Pe 1:23. "It was probably borrowed by the New Paganism from Christianity"(Bigg). The Stoics used anagennēsis for palingenesia (Tit 3:5). If anōthen in Joh 3:3 be taken to mean "again,"the same idea of regeneration is there, and if "from above"it is the new birth, anyhow.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:3 - Unto a living hope Unto a living hope ( eis elpida zōsan ). Peter is fond of the word "living"(present active participle of zaō ) as in 1Pe 1:23; 1Pe 2:4, 1Pe 2:5,...

Unto a living hope ( eis elpida zōsan ).

Peter is fond of the word "living"(present active participle of zaō ) as in 1Pe 1:23; 1Pe 2:4, 1Pe 2:5, 1Pe 2:24; 1Pe 4:5, 1Pe 4:6. The Pharisees cherished the hope of the resurrection (Act 23:6), but the resurrection of Jesus gave it proof and permanence (1Co 15:14, 1Co 15:17). It is no longer a dead hope like dead faith (Jam 2:17, Jam 2:26). This revival of hope was wrought "by the resurrection of Jesus Christ"(dia anastaseōs ). Hope rose up with Christ from the dead, though the disciples (Peter included) were slow at first to believe it.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:4 - Unto an inheritance Unto an inheritance ( eis klēronomian ). Old word (from klēronomos , heir) for the property received by the heir (Mat 21:38), here a picture of t...

Unto an inheritance ( eis klēronomian ).

Old word (from klēronomos , heir) for the property received by the heir (Mat 21:38), here a picture of the blessedness in store for us pilgrims (Gal 3:18).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:4 - Incorruptible Incorruptible ( aphtharton ). Old compound adjective (alpha privative and phtheirō , to corrupt), imperishable. So many inheritances vanish away be...

Incorruptible ( aphtharton ).

Old compound adjective (alpha privative and phtheirō , to corrupt), imperishable. So many inheritances vanish away before they are obtained.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:4 - Undefiled Undefiled ( amianton ). Old verbal adjective (note alliteration) from alpha privative and miainō , to defile, without defect or flaw in the title, ...

Undefiled ( amianton ).

Old verbal adjective (note alliteration) from alpha privative and miainō , to defile, without defect or flaw in the title, in N.T. only here, Jam 1:27; Heb 13:4.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:4 - That fadeth not away That fadeth not away ( amaranton ). Alliterative and verbal adjective again from alpha privative and marainō (to dry up, to wither, as in Jam 1:1...

That fadeth not away ( amaranton ).

Alliterative and verbal adjective again from alpha privative and marainō (to dry up, to wither, as in Jam 1:11), late and rare word in several inscriptions on tombs, here only in N.T. These inscriptions will fade away, but not this inheritance in Christ. It will not be like a faded rose.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:4 - Reserved Reserved ( tetērēmenēn ). Perfect passive participle of tēreō , old verb, to take care of, to guard. No burglars or bandits can break throu...

Reserved ( tetērēmenēn ).

Perfect passive participle of tēreō , old verb, to take care of, to guard. No burglars or bandits can break through where this inheritance is kept (Mat 6:19.; Joh 17:11.). Cf. Col 1:5, where laid away"(apokeimenēn ) occurs.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:4 - For you For you ( eis humas ). More graphic than the mere dative.

For you ( eis humas ).

More graphic than the mere dative.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:5 - By the power of God By the power of God ( en dunamei theou ). No other dunamis (power) like this (Col 1:3).

By the power of God ( en dunamei theou ).

No other dunamis (power) like this (Col 1:3).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:5 - Are guarded Are guarded ( phrouroumenous ). Present (continuous process) passive articular (tous ) participle of phroureō , to garrison, old verb (from phrour...

Are guarded ( phrouroumenous ).

Present (continuous process) passive articular (tous ) participle of phroureō , to garrison, old verb (from phrouros sentinel), a military term (Act 9:24; 2Co 11:32), used of God’ s love (Phi 4:7) as here. "The inheritance is kept; the heirs are guarded"(Bengel).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:5 - Through faith Through faith ( dia pisteōs ). Intermediate agency (dia ), the immediate being (en , in, by) God’ s power.

Through faith ( dia pisteōs ).

Intermediate agency (dia ), the immediate being (en , in, by) God’ s power.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:5 - Unto a salvation Unto a salvation ( eis sōtērian ). Deliverance is the goal (eis ) of the process and final salvation here, consummation as in 1Th 5:8, from sō...

Unto a salvation ( eis sōtērian ).

Deliverance is the goal (eis ) of the process and final salvation here, consummation as in 1Th 5:8, from sōtēr (Saviour, from sōzō , to save).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:5 - Ready Ready ( hetoimēn ). Prepared awaiting God’ s will (Gal 3:23; Rom 8:18).

Ready ( hetoimēn ).

Prepared awaiting God’ s will (Gal 3:23; Rom 8:18).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:5 - To be revealed To be revealed ( apokaluphthēnai ). First aorist passive infinitive of apokaluptō , to unveil. Cf. Col 3:4 for phaneroō (to manifest) in this...

To be revealed ( apokaluphthēnai ).

First aorist passive infinitive of apokaluptō , to unveil. Cf. Col 3:4 for phaneroō (to manifest) in this sense.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:5 - In the last time In the last time ( en kairōi eschatōi ). This precise phrase nowhere else, but similar ones in Joh 6:39; Act 2:17; Jam 5:3; 2Ti 3:1; 2Pe 3:3; Heb...

In the last time ( en kairōi eschatōi ).

This precise phrase nowhere else, but similar ones in Joh 6:39; Act 2:17; Jam 5:3; 2Ti 3:1; 2Pe 3:3; Heb 1:2; Jud 1:18; 1Jo 2:18. Hort translates it here "in a season of extremity,"but it is usually taken to refer to the Day of Judgment. That day no one knows, Jesus said.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:6 - Wherein Wherein ( en hōi ). This translation refers the relative hōi to kairōi , but it is possible to see a reference to Christou (1Pe 1:3) or to ...

Wherein ( en hōi ).

This translation refers the relative hōi to kairōi , but it is possible to see a reference to Christou (1Pe 1:3) or to theou (1Pe 1:5) or even to the entire content of 1Pe 1:3-5. Either makes sense, though possibly kairōi is correct.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:6 - Ye greatly rejoice Ye greatly rejoice ( agalliāsthe ). Present middle indicative (rather than imperative) of agalliaomai , late verb from agallomai , to rejoice, only...

Ye greatly rejoice ( agalliāsthe ).

Present middle indicative (rather than imperative) of agalliaomai , late verb from agallomai , to rejoice, only in lxx, N.T., and ecclesiastical literature as in Mat 5:12.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:6 - Now for a little while Now for a little while ( oligon arti ). Accusative case of time (oligon ) probably as in Mar 6:31, though it can be used of space (to a small extent...

Now for a little while ( oligon arti ).

Accusative case of time (oligon ) probably as in Mar 6:31, though it can be used of space (to a small extent) as in Luk 5:3.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:6 - If need be If need be ( ei deon ). Present active neuter singular participle of dei (it is necessary). Some MSS. have estin after deon (periphrastic const...

If need be ( ei deon ).

Present active neuter singular participle of dei (it is necessary). Some MSS. have estin after deon (periphrastic construction). Condition of first class.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:6 - Though ye have been put to grief Though ye have been put to grief ( lupēthentes ). First aorist passive participle (concessive circumstantial use) of lupeō , to make sorrowful (f...

Though ye have been put to grief ( lupēthentes ).

First aorist passive participle (concessive circumstantial use) of lupeō , to make sorrowful (from lupē , sorrow), old and common verb. See 2Co 6:10.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:6 - In manifold temptations In manifold temptations ( en poikilois peirasmois ). Just the phrase in Jam 1:2, which see note on. "Trials"clearly right here as there. Seven N.T. w...

In manifold temptations ( en poikilois peirasmois ).

Just the phrase in Jam 1:2, which see note on. "Trials"clearly right here as there. Seven N.T. writers use poikilos (varied).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:7 - The proof of your faith The proof of your faith ( to dokimion humōn tēs pisteōs ). The identical phrase in Jam 1:3 and probably derived from there by Peter. See note o...

The proof of your faith ( to dokimion humōn tēs pisteōs ).

The identical phrase in Jam 1:3 and probably derived from there by Peter. See note on Jam 1:3 for discussion of to dokimion (the test or touchstone of faith).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:7 - Being more precious Being more precious ( polutimoteron ). No word for "being"(on ) in the Greek. The secondary uncials have polu timiōteron . The text is the compara...

Being more precious ( polutimoteron ).

No word for "being"(on ) in the Greek. The secondary uncials have polu timiōteron . The text is the comparative of polutimos , late adjective (Plutarch) from polu and timē (of great price) as in Mat 13:46.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:7 - Than gold Than gold ( chrusiou ). Ablative case after the comparative adjective.

Than gold ( chrusiou ).

Ablative case after the comparative adjective.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:7 - That perisheth That perisheth ( tou apollumenou ). Present middle articular participle of apollumi to destroy. Even gold perishes (wears away).

That perisheth ( tou apollumenou ).

Present middle articular participle of apollumi to destroy. Even gold perishes (wears away).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:7 - Though it is proved by fire Though it is proved by fire ( dia puros de dokimazomenou ). Present passive articular participle (in the ablative like chrusiou ) of dokimazō (c...

Though it is proved by fire ( dia puros de dokimazomenou ).

Present passive articular participle (in the ablative like chrusiou ) of dokimazō (common verb for testing metals) with de , which gives a concessive sense to the participle. Faith stands the test of fire better than gold, but even gold is refined by fire.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:7 - That might be found That might be found ( hina heurethēi ). Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of heuriskō , common verb, to find. A...

That might be found ( hina heurethēi ).

Purpose clause with hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of heuriskō , common verb, to find. As in 2Pe 3:14, this is the result of the probation by God as the Refiner of hearts.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:7 - Unto praise and glory and honour Unto praise and glory and honour ( eis epainon kai doxan kai timēn ). Here probably both to God and man in the result. Cf. Mat 5:11.; Rom 2:7, Rom ...

Unto praise and glory and honour ( eis epainon kai doxan kai timēn ).

Here probably both to God and man in the result. Cf. Mat 5:11.; Rom 2:7, Rom 2:10; 1Ti 1:17.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:7 - At the revelation of Jesus Christ At the revelation of Jesus Christ ( en apokalupsei Iēsou Christou ). So also in 1Pe 1:13; 1Pe 4:13; 2Th 1:7; 1Co 1:7; Luk 17:30 of the second comin...

At the revelation of Jesus Christ ( en apokalupsei Iēsou Christou ).

So also in 1Pe 1:13; 1Pe 4:13; 2Th 1:7; 1Co 1:7; Luk 17:30 of the second coming of Christ as the Judge and Rewarder (Bigg).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:8 - Whom Whom ( hon ). Relative referring to Christ just before and accusative case, object of both idontes and agapate (ye love).

Whom ( hon ).

Relative referring to Christ just before and accusative case, object of both idontes and agapate (ye love).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:8 - Not having seen Not having seen ( ouk idontes ). Second aorist active participle of horaō , to see, with ouk rather than mē because it negatives an actual ex...

Not having seen ( ouk idontes ).

Second aorist active participle of horaō , to see, with ouk rather than mē because it negatives an actual experience in contrast with mē horōntes (though not seeing, hypothetical case). On whom (eis hon ) with pisteuontes common construction for "believing on"(pisteuō eis ). It is possible that Peter here has in mind the words of Jesus to Thomas as recorded in Joh 20:29 ("Happy are those not seeing and yet believing"). Peter was present and heard the words of Jesus to Thomas, and so he could use them before John wrote his Gospel.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:8 - Ye rejoice greatly Ye rejoice greatly ( agalliāte ). Same form as in 1Pe 1:6, only active here instead of middle.

Ye rejoice greatly ( agalliāte ).

Same form as in 1Pe 1:6, only active here instead of middle.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:8 - With joy With joy ( charāi ). Instrumental case (manner).

With joy ( charāi ).

Instrumental case (manner).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:8 - Unspeakable Unspeakable ( aneklalētōi ). Late and rare double compound verbal (alpha privative and eklaleō ), here only in N.T., in Dioscorides and Heliod...

Unspeakable ( aneklalētōi ).

Late and rare double compound verbal (alpha privative and eklaleō ), here only in N.T., in Dioscorides and Heliodorus, "unutterable,"like Paul’ s "indescribable"(anekdiēgētos ) gift (2Co 9:15, here alone in N.T.).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:8 - Full of glory Full of glory ( dedoxasmenēi ). Perfect passive participle of doxazō , to glorify, "glorified joy,"like the glorified face of Moses (Exo 34:29.; ...

Full of glory ( dedoxasmenēi ).

Perfect passive participle of doxazō , to glorify, "glorified joy,"like the glorified face of Moses (Exo 34:29.; 2Co 3:10.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:9 - Receiving Receiving ( komizomenoi ). Present middle participle of komizō , old verb, to receive back, to get what is promised (1Pe 5:4; Heb 10:36).

Receiving ( komizomenoi ).

Present middle participle of komizō , old verb, to receive back, to get what is promised (1Pe 5:4; Heb 10:36).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:9 - The end of your faith The end of your faith ( to telos tēs pisteōs ). The conclusion, the culmination of faith (2Co 3:13; Rom 2:21.; Rom 10:4). See Heb 12:2 of Jesus a...

The end of your faith ( to telos tēs pisteōs ).

The conclusion, the culmination of faith (2Co 3:13; Rom 2:21.; Rom 10:4). See Heb 12:2 of Jesus as "Pioneer and Perfecter of Faith."

Robertson: 1Pe 1:9 - Even the salvation of your souls Even the salvation of your souls ( sōtērian psuchōn ). No "even"in the text, just the accusative of apposition with telos , viz., final salvati...

Even the salvation of your souls ( sōtērian psuchōn ).

No "even"in the text, just the accusative of apposition with telos , viz., final salvation.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:10 - Concerning which salvation Concerning which salvation ( peri hēs sōtērias ). Another relative clause (taking up sōtēria from 1Pe 1:9 and incorporating it) in this l...

Concerning which salvation ( peri hēs sōtērias ).

Another relative clause (taking up sōtēria from 1Pe 1:9 and incorporating it) in this long sentence (1Pe 1:3-12, inclusive, all connected by relatives). Peter lingers over the word sōtēria (salvation) with something new to say each time (Bigg). Here it is the general sense of the gospel of grace.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:10 - Sought Sought ( exezētēsan ). First aorist active indicative of ekzēteō , to seek out (Act 15:17), late and rare compound, only in lxx and N.T. save...

Sought ( exezētēsan ).

First aorist active indicative of ekzēteō , to seek out (Act 15:17), late and rare compound, only in lxx and N.T. save once in Aristides.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:10 - Searched diligently Searched diligently ( exēraunēsan ). First aorist active indicative of exeraunaō , old and common compound (exereunaō ), to search out dilig...

Searched diligently ( exēraunēsan ).

First aorist active indicative of exeraunaō , old and common compound (exereunaō ), to search out diligently, here only in N.T. Both of these words occur together in 1 Macc. 9:26.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:10 - Of the grace that should come unto you Of the grace that should come unto you ( peri tēs eis humas charitos ). "Concerning the for you grace"(meant for you).

Of the grace that should come unto you ( peri tēs eis humas charitos ).

"Concerning the for you grace"(meant for you).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:11 - Searching Searching ( eraunōntes ). Present active participle of eraunaō , late form for older ereunaō (both in the papyri), uncompounded verb (Joh 7:5...

Searching ( eraunōntes ).

Present active participle of eraunaō , late form for older ereunaō (both in the papyri), uncompounded verb (Joh 7:52), the compound occurring in 1Pe 1:10 above.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:11 - What time or what manner of time What time or what manner of time ( eis tina ē poion kairon ). Proper sense of poios (qualitative interrogative) kept here as in 1Co 15:35, Rom 3:...

What time or what manner of time ( eis tina ē poion kairon ).

Proper sense of poios (qualitative interrogative) kept here as in 1Co 15:35, Rom 3:27, though it is losing its distinctive sense from tis (Act 23:34). The prophets knew what they prophesied, but not at what time the Messianic prophecies would be fulfilled.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:11 - The Spirit of Christ which was in them The Spirit of Christ which was in them ( to en autois pneuma Christou ). Peter definitely asserts here that the Spirit of Jesus Christ (the Messiah) ...

The Spirit of Christ which was in them ( to en autois pneuma Christou ).

Peter definitely asserts here that the Spirit of Jesus Christ (the Messiah) was in the Old Testament prophets, the Holy Spirit called the Spirit of Christ and the Spirit of God (Rom 8:9), who spoke to the prophets as he would speak to the apostles (Joh 16:14).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:11 - Did point unto Did point unto ( edēlou ). Imperfect active of dēloō , to make plain, "did keep on pointing to,"though they did not clearly perceive the time.

Did point unto ( edēlou ).

Imperfect active of dēloō , to make plain, "did keep on pointing to,"though they did not clearly perceive the time.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:11 - When it testified beforehand When it testified beforehand ( promarturomenon ). Present middle participle of promarturomai , a late compound unknown elsewhere save in a writer of ...

When it testified beforehand ( promarturomenon ).

Present middle participle of promarturomai , a late compound unknown elsewhere save in a writer of the fourteenth century (Theodorus Mech.) and now in a papyrus of the eighth. It is neuter here because pneuma is neuter, but this grammatical gender should not be retained as "it"in English, but should be rendered "he"(and so as to Act 8:15). Here we have predictive prophecy concerning the Messiah, though some modern critics fail to find predictions of the Messiah in the Old Testament.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:11 - The sufferings of Christ The sufferings of Christ ( ta eis Christon pathēmata ). "The sufferings for (destined for) Christ"like the use of eis in 1Pe 1:10 (eis humas fo...

The sufferings of Christ ( ta eis Christon pathēmata ).

"The sufferings for (destined for) Christ"like the use of eis in 1Pe 1:10 (eis humas for you).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:11 - The glories that should follow them The glories that should follow them ( tas meta tauta doxas ). "The after these things (sufferings) glories."The plural of doxa is rare, but occurs ...

The glories that should follow them ( tas meta tauta doxas ).

"The after these things (sufferings) glories."The plural of doxa is rare, but occurs in Exo 15:11; Hos 9:11. The glories of Christ followed the sufferings as in 1Pe 4:13; 1Pe 5:1, 1Pe 5:6.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:12 - To whom To whom ( hois ). Dative plural of the relative pronoun. To the prophets who were seeking to understand. Bigg observes that "the connexion between st...

To whom ( hois ).

Dative plural of the relative pronoun. To the prophets who were seeking to understand. Bigg observes that "the connexion between study and inspiration is a great mystery."Surely, but that is no argument for ignorance or obscurantism. We do the best that we can and only skirt the shore of knowledge, as Newton said.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:12 - It was revealed It was revealed ( apekaluphthē ). First aorist passive indicative of apokaluptō , old verb, to reveal, to unveil. Here is revelation about the re...

It was revealed ( apekaluphthē ).

First aorist passive indicative of apokaluptō , old verb, to reveal, to unveil. Here is revelation about the revelation already received, revelation after research.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:12 - Did they minister Did they minister ( diēkonoun ). Imperfect active of diakoneō , old verb, to minister, "were they ministering."

Did they minister ( diēkonoun ).

Imperfect active of diakoneō , old verb, to minister, "were they ministering."

Robertson: 1Pe 1:12 - Have been announced Have been announced ( anēggelē ). Second aorist passive indicative of anaggellō̄ ̄ , to report, to bring back tidings (Joh 4:25).

Have been announced ( anēggelē ).

Second aorist passive indicative of anaggellō̄ ̄ , to report, to bring back tidings (Joh 4:25).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:12 - Through them Through them ( dia tōn ). Intermediate agent (dia ), "the gospelizers"(tōn euaggelisamenōn , articular first aorist middle participle of euagg...

Through them ( dia tōn ).

Intermediate agent (dia ), "the gospelizers"(tōn euaggelisamenōn , articular first aorist middle participle of euaggelizō , to preach the gospel).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:12 - By the Holy Ghost By the Holy Ghost ( pneumati hagiōi ). Instrumental case of the personal agent, "by the Holy Spirit"(without article).

By the Holy Ghost ( pneumati hagiōi ).

Instrumental case of the personal agent, "by the Holy Spirit"(without article).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:12 - Sent forth from heaven Sent forth from heaven ( apostalenti ). Second aorist passive participle of apostellō in instrumental case agreeing with pneumati hagiōi (the...

Sent forth from heaven ( apostalenti ).

Second aorist passive participle of apostellō in instrumental case agreeing with pneumati hagiōi (the Spirit of Christ of 1Pe 1:11).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:12 - Desire Desire ( epithumousin ). Eagerly desire (present active indicative of epithumeō , to long for).

Desire ( epithumousin ).

Eagerly desire (present active indicative of epithumeō , to long for).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:12 - To look into To look into ( parakupsai ). First aorist active infinitive of parakuptō , old compound to peer into as in Luk 24:12; Joh 20:5, Joh 20:11; Jam 1:25...

To look into ( parakupsai ).

First aorist active infinitive of parakuptō , old compound to peer into as in Luk 24:12; Joh 20:5, Joh 20:11; Jam 1:25, which see. For the interest of angels in the Incarnation see Luk 2:13.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:13 - Wherefore Wherefore ( dio ). "Because of which thing,"the glorious free grace opened for Gentiles and Jews in Christ (1Pe 1:3-12).

Wherefore ( dio ).

"Because of which thing,"the glorious free grace opened for Gentiles and Jews in Christ (1Pe 1:3-12).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:13 - Girding up Girding up ( anazōsamenoi ). First aorist middle participle of anazōnnumi , late and rare verb (Jdg 18:16; Pro 31:17), here only in N.T., vivid m...

Girding up ( anazōsamenoi ).

First aorist middle participle of anazōnnumi , late and rare verb (Jdg 18:16; Pro 31:17), here only in N.T., vivid metaphor for habit of the Orientals, who quickly gathered up their loose robes with a girdle when in a hurry or starting on a journey.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:13 - The loins The loins ( tas osphuas ). Old word for the part of the body where the girdle (zōnē ) was worn. Metaphor here as in Luk 12:35; Eph 6:14.

The loins ( tas osphuas ).

Old word for the part of the body where the girdle (zōnē ) was worn. Metaphor here as in Luk 12:35; Eph 6:14.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:13 - Mind Mind ( dianoias ). Old word for the faculty of understanding, of seeing through a thing (dia , noeō ) as in Mat 22:37.

Mind ( dianoias ).

Old word for the faculty of understanding, of seeing through a thing (dia , noeō ) as in Mat 22:37.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:13 - Be sober Be sober ( nēphontes ). "Being sober"(present active participle of nēphō , old verb, but in N.T. always as metaphor (1Th 5:6, 1Th 5:8, etc., an...

Be sober ( nēphontes ).

"Being sober"(present active participle of nēphō , old verb, but in N.T. always as metaphor (1Th 5:6, 1Th 5:8, etc., and so in 1Pe 4:7).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:13 - Perfectly Perfectly ( teleiōs ). Adverb, old word (here alone in N.T.), from adjective teleios (perfect), connected with elpisate (set your hope, first a...

Perfectly ( teleiōs ).

Adverb, old word (here alone in N.T.), from adjective teleios (perfect), connected with elpisate (set your hope, first aorist active imperative of elpizō ) in the Revised Version, but Bigg, Hort, and most modern commentators take it according to Peter’ s usual custom with the preceding verb, nēphontes ("being perfectly sober,"not "hope perfectly").

Robertson: 1Pe 1:13 - That is to be brought That is to be brought ( tēn pheromenēn ). Present passive articular participle of pherō , picturing the process, "that is being brought."For "r...

That is to be brought ( tēn pheromenēn ).

Present passive articular participle of pherō , picturing the process, "that is being brought."For "revelation"(apokalupsei ) see end of 1Pe 1:7.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:14 - As children of obedience As children of obedience ( hōs tekna hupakoēs ). A common Hebraism (descriptive genitive frequent in lxx and N.T., like huioi tēs apeitheias , ...

As children of obedience ( hōs tekna hupakoēs ).

A common Hebraism (descriptive genitive frequent in lxx and N.T., like huioi tēs apeitheias , children of disobedience, in Eph 2:2) suggested by hupakoēn in 1Pe 1:2, "children marked by obedience."

Robertson: 1Pe 1:14 - Not fashioning yourselves Not fashioning yourselves ( mē sunschēmatizomenoi ). Usual negative mē with the participle (present direct middle of sunschēmatizō , a ra...

Not fashioning yourselves ( mē sunschēmatizomenoi ).

Usual negative mē with the participle (present direct middle of sunschēmatizō , a rare (Aristotle, Plutarch) compound (sun , schēmatizō , from schēma from echō ), in N.T. only here and Rom 12:2 (the outward pattern in contrast with the inward change metamorphoō ). See Phi 2:6. for contrast between schēma (pattern) and morphē (form).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:14 - According to your former lusts According to your former lusts ( tais proteron epithumiais ). Associative instrumental case after sunschēmatizomenoi and the bad sense of epithum...

According to your former lusts ( tais proteron epithumiais ).

Associative instrumental case after sunschēmatizomenoi and the bad sense of epithumia as in 1Pe 4:2; 2Pe 1:4; Jam 1:14.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:14 - In the time of your ignorance In the time of your ignorance ( en tēi agnoiāi humōn ). "In your ignorance,"but in attributive position before "lusts."Agnoia (from agnoeō ...

In the time of your ignorance ( en tēi agnoiāi humōn ).

"In your ignorance,"but in attributive position before "lusts."Agnoia (from agnoeō , to be ignorant) is old word, in N.T. only here, Act 3:17; Act 17:30; Eph 4:18.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:15 - But like as he which called you is holy But like as he which called you is holy ( alla kata ton kalesanta humas hagion ). This use of kata is a regular Greek idiom (here in contrast with ...

But like as he which called you is holy ( alla kata ton kalesanta humas hagion ).

This use of kata is a regular Greek idiom (here in contrast with sunschēmatizomenoi ). "But according to the holy one calling you or who called you"(first aorist articular participle of kaleō , to call). God is our standard or pattern (kata ), not our lusts.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:15 - Be ye yourselves also holy Be ye yourselves also holy ( kai autoi hagioi genēthēte ). First aorist (ingressive) passive imperative of ginomai , to become with allusion (kai...

Be ye yourselves also holy ( kai autoi hagioi genēthēte ).

First aorist (ingressive) passive imperative of ginomai , to become with allusion (kai also) to kata (God as our example), "Do ye also become holy."For anastrophē (manner of life) see 1Pe 1:18; 1Pe 2:12; 3:1-16; Jam 3:13; 2Pe 2:7. Peter uses anastrophē eight times. The original meaning (turning up and down, back and forth) suited the Latin word conversatio ( converto ), but not our modern "conversation"(talk, not walk).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:16 - Because it is written Because it is written ( dioti gegraptai ). "Because (dioti stronger than hoti below) it stands written"(regular formula for O.T. quotation, perfe...

Because it is written ( dioti gegraptai ).

"Because (dioti stronger than hoti below) it stands written"(regular formula for O.T. quotation, perfect passive indicative of graphō ). The quotation is from Lev 11:44; Lev 19:2; Lev 20:7. Reenforced by Jesus in Mat 5:48. The future esesthe here is volitive like an imperative.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:17 - If ye call If ye call ( ei epikaleisthe ). Condition of first class and present middle indicative of epikaleō , to call a name on, to name (Act 10:18).

If ye call ( ei epikaleisthe ).

Condition of first class and present middle indicative of epikaleō , to call a name on, to name (Act 10:18).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:17 - As Father As Father ( patera ). Predicate accusative in apposition with ton - krinonta .

As Father ( patera ).

Predicate accusative in apposition with ton - krinonta .

Robertson: 1Pe 1:17 - Without respect of persons Without respect of persons ( aprosōpolēmptōs ). Found nowhere else except in the later Ep. of Clem. of Rome and Ep. of Barn., from alpha privat...

Without respect of persons ( aprosōpolēmptōs ).

Found nowhere else except in the later Ep. of Clem. of Rome and Ep. of Barn., from alpha privative and prosōpolēmptēs (Act 10:34. See Jam 2:9 for prosōpolēmpteō and 1Pe 1:1 for prosōpolēmpsia ) from prosōpon lambanō (in imitation of the Hebrew).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:17 - According to each man’ s work According to each man’ s work ( kata to hekastou ergon ). "According to the deed of each one"God judges (krinonta ) just as Christ judges also ...

According to each man’ s work ( kata to hekastou ergon ).

"According to the deed of each one"God judges (krinonta ) just as Christ judges also (2Co 5:10).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:17 - Pass Pass ( anastraphēte ). Second aorist passive imperative of anastrephō , metaphorical sense as in 2Co 1:12; 2Pe 2:18.

Pass ( anastraphēte ).

Second aorist passive imperative of anastrephō , metaphorical sense as in 2Co 1:12; 2Pe 2:18.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:17 - The time The time ( ton chronon ). Accusative case of extent of time.

The time ( ton chronon ).

Accusative case of extent of time.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:17 - Of your sojourning Of your sojourning ( tēs paroikias humōn ). A late word, found in lxx (Psalm 119:5) and in N.T. only here and Act 13:17 and in ecclesiastical wri...

Of your sojourning ( tēs paroikias humōn ).

A late word, found in lxx (Psalm 119:5) and in N.T. only here and Act 13:17 and in ecclesiastical writers (one late Christian inscription). It comes from paroikeō , old verb, to dwell beside (in one’ s neighbourhood), and so of pilgrims or strangers (paroikos Act 7:6) as of Jews away from Palestine or of Christians here on earth, then of a local region (our "parish"). Peter here recurs to 1Pe 1:1 ("sojourners of the Dispersion").

Robertson: 1Pe 1:17 - In fear In fear ( en phobōi ). Emphatic position at beginning of the clause with anastraphēte at the end.

In fear ( en phobōi ).

Emphatic position at beginning of the clause with anastraphēte at the end.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:18 - Knowing Knowing ( eidotes ). Second perfect active participle of oida , causal participle. The appeal is to an elementary Christian belief (Hort), the holine...

Knowing ( eidotes ).

Second perfect active participle of oida , causal participle. The appeal is to an elementary Christian belief (Hort), the holiness and justice of God with the added thought of the high cost of redemption (Bigg).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:18 - Ye were redeemed Ye were redeemed ( elutrōthēte ). First aorist passive indicative of lutroō , old verb from lutron (ransom for life as of a slave, Mat 20:28)...

Ye were redeemed ( elutrōthēte ).

First aorist passive indicative of lutroō , old verb from lutron (ransom for life as of a slave, Mat 20:28), to set free by payment of ransom, abundant examples in the papyri, in N.T. only here, Luk 24:21; Tit 2:14. The ransom is the blood of Christ. Peter here amplifies the language in Isa 52:3.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:18 - Not with corruptible things Not with corruptible things ( ou phthartois ). Instrumental case neuter plural of the late verbal adjective from phtheirō to destroy or to corrup...

Not with corruptible things ( ou phthartois ).

Instrumental case neuter plural of the late verbal adjective from phtheirō to destroy or to corrupt, and so perishable, in N.T. here, 1Pe 1:23; 1Co 9:25; 1Co 15:53.; Rom 1:23. Arguriōi ē chrusiōi (silver or gold) are in explanatory apposition with phthartois and so in the same case. Slaves were set free by silver and gold.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:18 - From your vain manner of life From your vain manner of life ( ek tēs mataias humōn anastrophēs ). "Out of"(ek ), and so away from, the pre-Christian anastrophē of 1Pe 1...

From your vain manner of life ( ek tēs mataias humōn anastrophēs ).

"Out of"(ek ), and so away from, the pre-Christian anastrophē of 1Pe 1:15, which was "vain"(mataias . Cf. Eph 4:17-24).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:18 - Handed down from your fathers Handed down from your fathers ( patroparadotou ). This adjective, though predicate in position, is really attributive in idea, like cheiropoiētou ...

Handed down from your fathers ( patroparadotou ).

This adjective, though predicate in position, is really attributive in idea, like cheiropoiētou in Eph 2:11 (Robertson, Grammar , p. 777), like the French idiom. This double compound verbal adjective (pater , para , didōmi ), though here alone in N.T., occurs in Diodorus, Dion. Halic, and in several inscriptions (Moulton and Milligan’ s Vocabulary ; Deissmann, Bible Studies , pp. 266f.). The Jews made a wrong use of tradition (Mat 15:2.), but the reference here seems mainly to Gentiles (1Pe 2:12).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:19 - But with precious blood But with precious blood ( alla timiōi haimati ). Instrumental case of haima after elutrōthēte (repeated from 1Pe 1:18). Peter here applies ...

But with precious blood ( alla timiōi haimati ).

Instrumental case of haima after elutrōthēte (repeated from 1Pe 1:18). Peter here applies the old adjective timios (from timē , of Christ in 1Pe 2:7) to Christ as in 1Pe 1:7 polutimoteron to testing of faith. The blood of anyone is "precious"(costly), far above gold or silver, but that of Jesus immeasurably more so.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:19 - As of a lamb As of a lamb ( hōs amnou ). This word occurs in Lev 12:8; Num 15:11; Deu 14:4 of the lamb prescribed for the passover sacrifice (Exo 12:5). John th...

As of a lamb ( hōs amnou ).

This word occurs in Lev 12:8; Num 15:11; Deu 14:4 of the lamb prescribed for the passover sacrifice (Exo 12:5). John the Baptist applies it to Jesus (Joh 1:29, Joh 1:36). It occurs also in Act 8:32 quoted from Isa 53:7. Undoubtedly both the Baptist and Peter have this passage in mind. Elsewhere in the N.T. arnion is used of Christ (Rev 5:6, Rev 5:12). Jesus is the Paschal Lamb. Peter sees clearly that it was by the blood of Christ that we are redeemed from sin.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:19 - Without blemish Without blemish ( amōmou ). Without (alpha privative) spot (mōmos ) as the paschal lamb had to be (Lev 22:21). So Heb 9:14.

Without blemish ( amōmou ).

Without (alpha privative) spot (mōmos ) as the paschal lamb had to be (Lev 22:21). So Heb 9:14.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:19 - Without spot Without spot ( aspilou ). Without (alpha privative) stain (spilos spot) as in Jam 1:27; 2Pe 3:14; 1Ti 6:14

Without spot ( aspilou ).

Without (alpha privative) stain (spilos spot) as in Jam 1:27; 2Pe 3:14; 1Ti 6:14

Robertson: 1Pe 1:19 - Even the blood of Christ Even the blood of Christ ( Christou ). Genitive case with haimati , but in unusual position for emphasis and clearness with the participles following...

Even the blood of Christ ( Christou ).

Genitive case with haimati , but in unusual position for emphasis and clearness with the participles following.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:20 - Who was foreknown indeed Who was foreknown indeed ( proegnōsmenou men ). Perfect passive participle (in genitive singular agreeing with Christou ) of proginōskō , old ...

Who was foreknown indeed ( proegnōsmenou men ).

Perfect passive participle (in genitive singular agreeing with Christou ) of proginōskō , old verb, to know beforehand (Rom 8:29; 2Pe 3:17). See prognōsin theou in 1Pe 1:2.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:20 - Before the foundation of the world Before the foundation of the world ( pro katabolēs kosmou ). This precise curious phrase occurs in Joh 17:24 in the Saviour’ s mouth of his pr...

Before the foundation of the world ( pro katabolēs kosmou ).

This precise curious phrase occurs in Joh 17:24 in the Saviour’ s mouth of his preincarnate state with the Father as here and in Eph 1:4. We have apo katabolēs kosmou in Mat 25:34 (kosmou omitted in Mat 13:35); Luk 11:50; Heb 4:3; Heb 9:26; Rev 13:8; Rev 17:8. Katabolē (from kataballō ) was originally laying the foundation of a house (Heb 6:1). The preincarnate Messiah appears in the counsels of God also in 1Co 2:7; Col 1:26.; Eph 1:9.; Eph 3:9-11; Rom 16:25; 1Ti 1:9.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:20 - But was manifested But was manifested ( phanerōthentos de ). First aorist (ingressive) passive participle of phaneroō , referring to the Incarnation in contrast wit...

But was manifested ( phanerōthentos de ).

First aorist (ingressive) passive participle of phaneroō , referring to the Incarnation in contrast with the preexistence of Christ (cf. Joh 1:31; 1Jo 3:5, 1Jo 3:8).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:20 - At the end of the times At the end of the times ( ep' eschatou tōn chronōn ). Like ep' eschatou tōn hēmerōn (Heb 1:2). The plural chronoi , doubtless referring t...

At the end of the times ( ep' eschatou tōn chronōn ).

Like ep' eschatou tōn hēmerōn (Heb 1:2). The plural chronoi , doubtless referring to successive periods in human history until the fullness of the time came (Gal 4:4).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:20 - For your sake For your sake ( di' humās ). Proof of God’ s love, not of their desert or worth (Act 17:30.; Heb 11:39.).

For your sake ( di' humās ).

Proof of God’ s love, not of their desert or worth (Act 17:30.; Heb 11:39.).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:21 - Who through him are believers in God Who through him are believers in God ( tous di' autou pistous eis theon ). Accusative case in apposition with humās (you), "the through him (that...

Who through him are believers in God ( tous di' autou pistous eis theon ).

Accusative case in apposition with humās (you), "the through him (that is Christ as in 1Pe 1:8; Act 3:16) believers (pistous correct text of A B) in God."

Robertson: 1Pe 1:21 - Which raised Which raised ( ton egeiranta ). Accusative singular articular (agreeing with theon ) first aorist active participle of egeirō (cf. di' anastaseo...

Which raised ( ton egeiranta ).

Accusative singular articular (agreeing with theon ) first aorist active participle of egeirō (cf. di' anastaseōs Iēsou in 1Pe 1:3).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:21 - Gave glory to him Gave glory to him ( doxan autōi donta ). Second aorist active participle of didōmi agreeing also with theon . See Peter’ s speech in Act 3...

Gave glory to him ( doxan autōi donta ).

Second aorist active participle of didōmi agreeing also with theon . See Peter’ s speech in Act 3:13 about God glorifying (edoxasen ) Jesus and also the same idea by Peter in Act 2:33-36; Act 5:31.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:21 - So that your faith and hope might be in God So that your faith and hope might be in God ( hōste tēn pistin humōn kai elpida eis theon ). Hōste with the infinitive (einai ) and the ac...

So that your faith and hope might be in God ( hōste tēn pistin humōn kai elpida eis theon ).

Hōste with the infinitive (einai ) and the accusative of general reference (pistin kai elpida ) is used in the N.T. as in the Koiné for either purpose (Mat 10:1) or usually result (Mar 4:37). Hence here result (so that is) is more probable than design.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:22 - Seeing ye have purified Seeing ye have purified ( hēgnikotes ). Perfect active participle of hagnizō , old verb from hagnos (pure), here with psuchas (souls), with k...

Seeing ye have purified ( hēgnikotes ).

Perfect active participle of hagnizō , old verb from hagnos (pure), here with psuchas (souls), with kardias (hearts) in Jam 4:8 as in 1Jo 3:3 of moral cleansing also. See the ceremonial sense of the word as in lxx in Joh 11:55; Act 21:24, Act 21:26; Act 24:18.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:22 - In your obedience In your obedience ( en tēi hupakoēi ). With repetition of the idea in 1Pe 1:2, 1Pe 1:14 (children of obedience).

In your obedience ( en tēi hupakoēi ).

With repetition of the idea in 1Pe 1:2, 1Pe 1:14 (children of obedience).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:22 - To the truth To the truth ( tēs aletheias ). Objective genitive with which compare Joh 17:17, Joh 17:19 about sanctification in the truth and 2Th 2:12 about bel...

To the truth ( tēs aletheias ).

Objective genitive with which compare Joh 17:17, Joh 17:19 about sanctification in the truth and 2Th 2:12 about believing the truth. There is cleansing power in the truth of God in Christ.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:22 - Unfeigned Unfeigned ( anupokriton ). Late and rare double compound, here alone in Peter, but see Jam 3:17; 2Co 6:6, etc. No other kind of philadelphia (broth...

Unfeigned ( anupokriton ).

Late and rare double compound, here alone in Peter, but see Jam 3:17; 2Co 6:6, etc. No other kind of philadelphia (brotherly love) is worth having (1Th 4:9; Heb 13:1; 2Pe 1:7).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:22 - From the heart fervently From the heart fervently ( ek kardias ektenōs ). Late adverb (in inscriptions, Polybius, lxx). The adjective ektenēs is more common (1Pe 4:8).

From the heart fervently ( ek kardias ektenōs ).

Late adverb (in inscriptions, Polybius, lxx). The adjective ektenēs is more common (1Pe 4:8).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:23 - Having been begotten again Having been begotten again ( anagegennēmenoi ). Perfect passive participle of anagennaō , which see in 1Pe 1:2.

Having been begotten again ( anagegennēmenoi ).

Perfect passive participle of anagennaō , which see in 1Pe 1:2.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:23 - Not of corruptible seed Not of corruptible seed ( ouk ek sporās phthartēs ). Ablative with ek as the source, for phthartos see 1Pe 1:18, and sporās (from speiro...

Not of corruptible seed ( ouk ek sporās phthartēs ).

Ablative with ek as the source, for phthartos see 1Pe 1:18, and sporās (from speirō to sow), old word (sowing, seed) here only in N.T., though sporos in Mar 4:26., etc. For "incorruptible"(aphthartou ) see 1Pe 1:4; 1Pe 3:4.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:23 - Through the word of God Through the word of God ( dia logou theou ). See Jam 1:18 for "by the word of truth,"1Pe 1:25 here, and Peter’ s use of logos in Act 10:36. It...

Through the word of God ( dia logou theou ).

See Jam 1:18 for "by the word of truth,"1Pe 1:25 here, and Peter’ s use of logos in Act 10:36. It is the gospel message.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:23 - Which liveth and abideth Which liveth and abideth ( zōntos kai menontos ). These present active participles (from zaō and menō ) can be taken with theou (God) or w...

Which liveth and abideth ( zōntos kai menontos ).

These present active participles (from zaō and menō ) can be taken with theou (God) or with logou (word). In 1Pe 1:25 menei is used with rēma (word). Still in Dan 6:26 both menōn and zōn are used with theos . Either construction makes sense here.

Robertson: 1Pe 1:24 - Quotation from Isa 40:6-8 (partly like the lxx, partly like the Hebrew). @@For Quotation from Isa 40:6-8 (partly like the lxx, partly like the Hebrew). @@For ( dioti ). As in 1Pe 1:16 (dia and hoti ), "for that."So in 1Pe 2:6...

Quotation from Isa 40:6-8 (partly like the lxx, partly like the Hebrew). @@For ( dioti ).

As in 1Pe 1:16 (dia and hoti ), "for that."So in 1Pe 2:6. See a free use of this imagery about the life of man as grass and a flower in Jam 1:11. The best MSS. here read autēs (thereof) after doxa (glory) rather than anthrōpou (of man).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:24 - Withereth Withereth ( exēranthē ). First aorist (gnomic, timeless) passive indicative of xērainō (see Jam 1:11).

Withereth ( exēranthē ).

First aorist (gnomic, timeless) passive indicative of xērainō (see Jam 1:11).

Robertson: 1Pe 1:24 - Falleth Falleth ( exepesen ). Second aorist (gnomic, timeless) active indicative of ekpiptō (see Jam 1:11). ||

Falleth ( exepesen ).

Second aorist (gnomic, timeless) active indicative of ekpiptō (see Jam 1:11). ||

Robertson: 1Pe 1:25 - -- @@In 1Pe 1:25 note eis humās (unto you) like eis humās in 1Pe 1:4 (= humin dative).

@@In 1Pe 1:25 note eis humās (unto you) like eis humās in 1Pe 1:4 (= humin dative).

Vincent: 1Pe 1:1 - Peter Peter ( Πέτρος ) See on Mat 16:18. As Paul in his letters does not call himself by his original name of Saul, so Peter calls himself, not...

Peter ( Πέτρος )

See on Mat 16:18. As Paul in his letters does not call himself by his original name of Saul, so Peter calls himself, not Simon, but Peter, the name most significant and precious both to himself and to his readers, because bestowed by his Lord. In the opening of the second epistle he uses both names.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:1 - An apostle An apostle Of all the catholic epistles, Peter's alone puts forward his apostleship in the introduction. He is addressing churches with which he ...

An apostle

Of all the catholic epistles, Peter's alone puts forward his apostleship in the introduction. He is addressing churches with which he had no immediate connection, and which were distinctively Pauline. Hence he appeals to his apostleship in explanation of his writing to them, and as his warrant for taking Paul's place.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:1 - To the strangers - elect To the strangers - elect ( 1Pe 1:2, ἐκλεκτοῖς παρεπιδήμοις ) The Rev., properly, joins the two words, elect who are s...

To the strangers - elect ( 1Pe 1:2, ἐκλεκτοῖς παρεπιδήμοις )

The Rev., properly, joins the two words, elect who are sojourners, instead of continuing elect with according to the foreknowledge, etc., as A. V.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:1 - Elect Elect Regarding all whom he addressed as subjects of saving grace. The term corresponds to the Old-Testament title of Jehovah's people: Isa 65:9,...

Elect

Regarding all whom he addressed as subjects of saving grace. The term corresponds to the Old-Testament title of Jehovah's people: Isa 65:9, Isa 65:15, Isa 65:22; Psa 105:43. Compare Mat 20:16; Mat 22:14; Rom 8:33.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:1 - Sojourners Sojourners ( παρεπιδήμοις ) Persons sojourning for a brief season in a foreign country. Though applied primarily to Hebrews scatter...

Sojourners ( παρεπιδήμοις )

Persons sojourning for a brief season in a foreign country. Though applied primarily to Hebrews scattered throughout the world (Gen 23:4; Psa 39:12), it has here a wider, spiritual sense, contemplating Christians as having their citizenship in heaven. Compare Heb 11:13. The preposition παρά , in composition, implies a sense of transitoriness, as of one who passes by to something beyond.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:2 - According to According to ( κατὰ ) In virtue of; in accordance with.

According to ( κατὰ )

In virtue of; in accordance with.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:2 - Foreknowledge Foreknowledge ( πρόγνωσιν ) Only here and Act 2:23, in Peter's sermon at Pentecost. He is distinguishing there between foreknowledge ...

Foreknowledge ( πρόγνωσιν )

Only here and Act 2:23, in Peter's sermon at Pentecost. He is distinguishing there between foreknowledge and determinate counsel.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:2 - The Father The Father Implying that the relation contemplated by the divine foreknowledge is a new relation of sonship.

The Father

Implying that the relation contemplated by the divine foreknowledge is a new relation of sonship.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:2 - In sanctification In sanctification ( ἐν ἁγιασμῷ ) Compare 2Th 2:13. The spiritual state in which the being elected to salvation is realized. Th...

In sanctification ( ἐν ἁγιασμῷ )

Compare 2Th 2:13. The spiritual state in which the being elected to salvation is realized. The word is peculiarly Pauline, occurring eight times in Paul's epistles, and besides only here and Heb 12:14.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:2 - Unto Unto obedience ( εἰς ) Note the three prepositions: according to (κατά ) the foreknowledge; in (ἐν ) sanctification; unto ...

Unto obedience ( εἰς )

Note the three prepositions: according to (κατά ) the foreknowledge; in (ἐν ) sanctification; unto (εἰς ) obedience. The ground, sphere, and end of spiritual sanctification.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:2 - Sprinkling Sprinkling ( ῥαντισμὸν ) Here in a passive sense - the being sprinkled. Properly, the ritualistic act of sprinkling blood or wat...

Sprinkling ( ῥαντισμὸν )

Here in a passive sense - the being sprinkled. Properly, the ritualistic act of sprinkling blood or water. See Num 19:19, Num 19:21. Compare Heb 9:13; Heb 12:24 :; Num 19:9, Num 19:13, where the water in which were the ashes of the red heifer is called ὕδωρ ῥαντισμοῦ , water of sprinkling (Septuagint), which the A. V. and Rev. Old Testament render water of separation. The word and its kindred verb occur only in Hebrews and Peter.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:2 - Jesus Christ Jesus Christ The foreknowledge of the Father, the sanctification of the Spirit, the obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ th...

Jesus Christ

The foreknowledge of the Father, the sanctification of the Spirit, the obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ the Son. The Father foreknowing, the Son atoning, the Spirit applying the Son's work in sanctifying. " The mystery of the Trinity and the economy of our salvation are intimated in this verse" (Bengel).

Vincent: 1Pe 1:2 - Grace and peace Grace and peace ( χάρις - εἰρήνη ) Pauline terms. See Rom 1:7. The salutation is peculiar by the addition of be multiplied, ...

Grace and peace ( χάρις - εἰρήνη )

Pauline terms. See Rom 1:7. The salutation is peculiar by the addition of be multiplied, which occurs 2Pe 1:2; Jud 1:2, and nowhere else in the salutations of the epistles. It is found, however, in the Septuagint, Dan 4:1 (Sept. 3:31), and Dan 6:25. Professor Salmond observes: " If the Babylon from which Peter writes can be taken to be the literal Babylon (see on 1Pe 5:13), it might be interesting to recall the epistles introduced by salutations so similar to Peter's, which were written from the same capital by two kings, Nebuchadnezzar and Darius, of two great dynasties, and addressed to all their provinces."

Vincent: 1Pe 1:3 - Blessed Blessed ( εὐλογητὸς ) εὖ , well, λόγος , a word. Well-spoken-of; praised; honored. Used in the New Testament of God...

Blessed ( εὐλογητὸς )

εὖ , well, λόγος , a word. Well-spoken-of; praised; honored. Used in the New Testament of God only. The kindred verb is applied to human beings, as to Mary (Luk 1:28): " Blessed (εὐλογημένη ) art thou." Compare the different word for blessed in Mat 5:3, etc. (μακάριοι ) , and see notes there. The style of this doxological phrase is Pauline. Compare 2Co 1:3; Eph 1:3.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:3 - Hath begotten us again Hath begotten us again ( ἀναγεννήσας ἡμᾶς ) The verb is used by Peter only, and by him only here and 1Pe 1:23. It is in t...

Hath begotten us again ( ἀναγεννήσας ἡμᾶς )

The verb is used by Peter only, and by him only here and 1Pe 1:23. It is in the aorist tense, and should be rendered, as Rev., begat; because regeneration is regarded as a definite historical act accomplished once for all, or possibly because Peter regards the historical act of Christ's resurrection as virtually effecting the regeneration. The latter sentiment would be Pauline, since Paul is wont to speak of Christians as dying and rising with Christ. Rom 7:4; Rom 6:8-11.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:3 - Lively Lively ( ζῶσαν ) Better, as Rev., literally rendering the participle, living: a favorite word with Peter. See 1Pe 1:23; 1Pe 2:4, 1Pe 2:5...

Lively ( ζῶσαν )

Better, as Rev., literally rendering the participle, living: a favorite word with Peter. See 1Pe 1:23; 1Pe 2:4, 1Pe 2:5, 1Pe 2:24; 1Pe 4:5, 1Pe 4:6; and compare Act 9:41, where Peter is the prominent actor; and Act 10:42, where he is the speaker.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:3 - Hope Hope ( ἐλπίδα ) Peter is fond of this word also (see 1Pe 1:13, 1Pe 1:21; 1Pe 3:5, 1Pe 3:15), which, in classical Greek, has the general...

Hope ( ἐλπίδα )

Peter is fond of this word also (see 1Pe 1:13, 1Pe 1:21; 1Pe 3:5, 1Pe 3:15), which, in classical Greek, has the general signification of expectancy, relating to evil as well as to good. Thus Plato speaks of living in evil hope (" Republic," i., 330); i.e., in the apprehension of evil; and Thucydides, of the hope of evils to come; i.e., the expectation or apprehension. In the New Testament the word always relates to a future good.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:4 - An inheritance An inheritance ( κληρονομίαν ) A Pauline word, from κλῆρος , a lot , and νέμομαι , to distribute among themselves....

An inheritance ( κληρονομίαν )

A Pauline word, from κλῆρος , a lot , and νέμομαι , to distribute among themselves. Hence an inheritance is originally a portion which one receives by lot in a general distribution. In the New Testament the idea of chance attaching to the lot is eliminated. It is the portion or heritage which one receives by virtue of birth or by special gift. So of the vineyard seized by the wicked husbandmen: " Let us seize on his inheritance" (Mat 21:38); of Abraham in Canaan: " God gave him none inheritance " (Act 7:5); " an eternal inheritance " (Heb 9:15).

Vincent: 1Pe 1:4 - Incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth not away Incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth not away Note Peter's characteristic multiplication of epithets. Incorruptible (ἄφθαρτον ...

Incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth not away

Note Peter's characteristic multiplication of epithets. Incorruptible (ἄφθαρτον ) . From ἀ , not, and φθείρω , to destroy or corrupt. Undefiled (ἀμίαντον ) . From ἀ , not, and μιαίνω , to defile, though the verb means especially to defile by staining, as with color; while μολύνω , also translated defile (1Co 8:7), is to besmirch, as with mire. We might render unstained, though the word is not used with any conscious reference to its etymology. That fadeth not away (ἀμάρα̠½τον ) Used by Peter only, and but once. From ἀ , not, and μαραίνομαι , to wither. The loveliness of the heavenly inheritance is described as exempt from the blight which attaches to earthly bloom. As between ἄφθαρτον , incorruptible, and ἀμάραντον , unwithering , the former emphasizes the indestructibility of substance, and the latter of grace, and beauty. The latter adjective appears in the familiar botanical name amaranth. It will be observed that all of these three epithets are compounded with the negative particle ἀ , not. Archbishop Trench aptly remarks that " it is a remarkable testimony to the reign of sin, and therefore of imperfection, of decay, of death throughout this whole fallen world, that as often as we desire to set forth the glory, purity, and perfection of that other, higher world toward which we strive, we are almost inevitably compelled to do this by the aid of negatives; by the denying to that higher order of things the leading features and characteristics of this." Compare Rev 21:1, Rev 21:4, Rev 21:22, Rev 21:23, Rev 21:27; Rev 22:3, Rev 22:5.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:4 - Reserved Reserved ( τετηρημένην ) Lit., which has been reserved , a perfect participle, indicating the inheritance as one reserved through G...

Reserved ( τετηρημένην )

Lit., which has been reserved , a perfect participle, indicating the inheritance as one reserved through God's care for his own from the beginning down to the present. Laid up and kept is the idea. The verb signifies keeping as the result of guarding. Thus in Joh 17:11, Christ says, " keep (τήρησον ) those whom thou hast given me;" in Joh 17:12, " I kept them" (ἐτήρουν ) ; i.e., preserved by guarding them. " Those whom thou gavest me I guarded (ἐφύλαξα )." So Rev., which preserves the distinction. Similarly, Joh 14:15, " keep (τηρήσατε ) my commandments;" preserve them unbroken by careful watching. So Peter was delivered to the soldiers to guard him (φυλάσσειν ), but he was kept (ἐτηρεῖτο ) in prison (Act 12:4, Act 12:5). Compare Col 1:5, where a different word is used: ἀποκειμένην , lit., laid away.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:4 - For you For you ( εἰς ) The use of this preposition, instead of the simpler dative, is graphic: with reference to you; with you as its direct obje...

For you ( εἰς )

The use of this preposition, instead of the simpler dative, is graphic: with reference to you; with you as its direct object.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:5 - Kept Kept ( φρουρουνένους ) A military term. Lit., garrisoned. Rev., guarded. Compare 2Co 11:32, and the beautiful metaphorical use...

Kept ( φρουρουνένους )

A military term. Lit., garrisoned. Rev., guarded. Compare 2Co 11:32, and the beautiful metaphorical use of the word at Phi 4:7, " shall guard your hearts." The present participle indicates something in progress, a continuous process of protection. Hence, lit., who are being guarded. " The inheritance is kept ; the heirs are guarded " (Bengel).

Vincent: 1Pe 1:5 - By through unto By ( ἐν ) the power; through ( διὰ ) faith; unto ( εἰς ) salvation By , indicating the efficient cause; through, the secondary ...

By ( ἐν ) the power; through ( διὰ ) faith; unto ( εἰς ) salvation

By , indicating the efficient cause; through, the secondary agency; unto , the result.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:5 - Salvation Salvation Note the frequent occurrence of this word, 1Pe 1:9, 1Pe 1:10.

Salvation

Note the frequent occurrence of this word, 1Pe 1:9, 1Pe 1:10.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:5 - Ready Ready ( ἑτούμην ) Stronger than about to be, or destined to be , implying a state of waiting or preparedness, and thus harmonizing ...

Ready ( ἑτούμην )

Stronger than about to be, or destined to be , implying a state of waiting or preparedness, and thus harmonizing with reserved.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:6 - Ye greatly rejoice Ye greatly rejoice ( ἀγαλλιᾶσθε ) The word is always employed in the New Testament for great or lively joy. See Mat 5:12; Luk 1...

Ye greatly rejoice ( ἀγαλλιᾶσθε )

The word is always employed in the New Testament for great or lively joy. See Mat 5:12; Luk 1:47; Luk 10:21.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:6 - For a season For a season ( ὀλίγον ) More literally and correctly, as Rev., for a little while. Compare 1Pe 5:10. The word is used nowhere else in...

For a season ( ὀλίγον )

More literally and correctly, as Rev., for a little while. Compare 1Pe 5:10. The word is used nowhere else in the New Testament in this sense.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:6 - In heaviness In heaviness ( λυπηθέντες ) Lit., having been grieved. Rev., ye have been put to grief.

In heaviness ( λυπηθέντες )

Lit., having been grieved. Rev., ye have been put to grief.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:6 - Through Through ( ἐν ) But Rev., better, in; the preposition not being instrumental, but indicating the sphere or environment in which the grie...

Through ( ἐν )

But Rev., better, in; the preposition not being instrumental, but indicating the sphere or environment in which the grief operates.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:6 - Manifold Manifold ( ποικίλοις ) Literally the word means variegated. It is used to describe the skin of a leopard, the different-colored vein...

Manifold ( ποικίλοις )

Literally the word means variegated. It is used to describe the skin of a leopard, the different-colored veinings of marble, or an embroidered robe; and thence passes into the meaning of changeful, diversified, applied to the changing months or the variations of a strain of music. Peter employs it again, 1Pe 4:10, of the grace of God, and James of temptations, as here (Jam 1:2). Compare πολυποίκιλος , manifold, in Eph 3:10, applied to the wisdom of God. The word gives a vivid picture of the diversity of the trials, emphasizing this idea rather than that of their number, which is left to be inferred.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:6 - Temptations Temptations ( πειρασμοῖς ) Better, trials, as in margin of Rev., since the word includes more than direct solicitation to evil. It ...

Temptations ( πειρασμοῖς )

Better, trials, as in margin of Rev., since the word includes more than direct solicitation to evil. It embraces all that goes to furnish a test of character. Compare Jam 1:2.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:7 - Trial Trial ( δοκίμιον ) Only here and Jam 1:3. Rev., proof. The word means a test. As the means of proof, however, is not only the touch...

Trial ( δοκίμιον )

Only here and Jam 1:3. Rev., proof. The word means a test. As the means of proof, however, is not only the touchstone itself, but the trace of the metal left upon it, the sense here is the result of the contact of faith with trial, and hence the verification of faith. The expression is equivalent to your approved faith. Compare Rom 2:7, Rom 2:10.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:7 - Than of gold Than of gold Omit the of , and read than gold. The comparison is between the approved faith and the gold; not between the faith and the proof...

Than of gold

Omit the of , and read than gold. The comparison is between the approved faith and the gold; not between the faith and the proof of the gold.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:7 - Though it be tried Though it be tried ( δοκιμαζομένου ) Kindred with δοκίμιον , proof , and better rendered by Rev., proved. The verb is...

Though it be tried ( δοκιμαζομένου )

Kindred with δοκίμιον , proof , and better rendered by Rev., proved. The verb is used in classical Greek of assaying or testing metals, and means, generally, to approve or sanction upon test. It is radically akin to δέχεσθαι , to receive, and hence implies a proof with a view to determine whether a thing be worthy to be received. Compare 1Co 3:13; Gal 6:4; 1Jo 4:1. It thus differs from πειράζειν , to try or tempt (see on πειρασμοῖς , 1Pe 1:6), in that that verb indicates simply a putting to proof to discover what good or evil is in a person; and from the fact that such scrutiny so often develops the existence and energy of evil, the word acquired a predominant sense of putting to the proof with the design or hope of breaking down the subject under the proof - in other words, of temptation in the ordinary sense. Hence Satan is called ὁ πειράζων , the tempter, Mat 4:3; 1Th 3:5. See on Mat 6:13. Archbishop Trench observes that " δοκιμάζειν could not be used of Satan, since he never proves that he may approve, nor tests that he may accept."

Vincent: 1Pe 1:7 - Might be found Might be found ( εὑρεθῇ ) In accord with the preceding expressions, and indicating discovery as the result of scrutiny.

Might be found ( εὑρεθῇ )

In accord with the preceding expressions, and indicating discovery as the result of scrutiny.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:7 - Praise and glory and honor Praise and glory and honor Such is the order of the best texts, and so Rev. Glory and honor often occur together in the New Testament, as Rom...

Praise and glory and honor

Such is the order of the best texts, and so Rev. Glory and honor often occur together in the New Testament, as Rom 2:7, Rom 2:10; 1Ti 1:17. Only here with praise . Compare spirit of glory, 1Pe 4:14.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:8 - Full of glory Full of glory ( δεδοξασμένῃ ) Lit., glorified, as Rev., in margin.

Full of glory ( δεδοξασμένῃ )

Lit., glorified, as Rev., in margin.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:9 - Receiving Receiving ( κομιζόμενοι ) The verb originally means to take care of or provide for; thence to receive hospitably or entertain...

Receiving ( κομιζόμενοι )

The verb originally means to take care of or provide for; thence to receive hospitably or entertain; to bring home with a view to entertaining or taking care of . Hence, to carry away so as to preserve, to save, rescue, and so to carry away as a prize or booty. Generally, to receive or acquire. Paul uses it of receiving the awards of judgment (2Co 5:10; Eph 6:8; Col 3:25). In Hebrews it is used of receiving the promise (Heb 10:36; Heb 11:39), and of Abraham receiving back Isaac (Heb 11:19). Peter uses it thrice, and in each case of receiving the rewards of righteousness or of iniquity. See 1Pe 5:4; 2Pe 2:13.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:10 - Have inquired and searched diligently Have inquired and searched diligently ( ἐξεζήτησαν - ἐξηρεύνησαν ) Rev., properly, renders the aorists sought and ...

Have inquired and searched diligently ( ἐξεζήτησαν - ἐξηρεύνησαν )

Rev., properly, renders the aorists sought and searched diligently. The ἐξ in composition has the force of out, searched out, and is rendered by diligently.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:10 - Sought Sought Used of Esau's seeking carefully for a place of repentance, in Heb 12:17.

Sought

Used of Esau's seeking carefully for a place of repentance, in Heb 12:17.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:10 - Searched Searched Used nowhere else in the New Testament. Compare Septuagint, 1 Samuel 23:23, of Saul's searching out David.

Searched

Used nowhere else in the New Testament. Compare Septuagint, 1 Samuel 23:23, of Saul's searching out David.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:11 - Did signify Did signify ( ἐδήλου ) Imperfect tense: better, was declaring, all along through the prophetic age, in successive prophets. See the...

Did signify ( ἐδήλου )

Imperfect tense: better, was declaring, all along through the prophetic age, in successive prophets. See the same verb in 1Co 3:13; 2Pe 1:14 :.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:11 - When it testified beforehand When it testified beforehand ( προμαρτυρόμενον ) Only here in New Testament.

When it testified beforehand ( προμαρτυρόμενον )

Only here in New Testament.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:11 - Of Christ Of Christ ( εἰς Χριστὸν ) Lit., unto Christ. So Rev., in margin. The sufferings destined for Christ, as in 1Pe 1:10 he speaks o...

Of Christ ( εἰς Χριστὸν )

Lit., unto Christ. So Rev., in margin. The sufferings destined for Christ, as in 1Pe 1:10 he speaks of the grace, εἰς ὑμᾶς , unto you; i.e., destined to come unto you. Peter was especially concerned to show that the sufferings of Christ were in fulfilment of prophecy, because it was a subject of dispute with the Jews whether the Christ was to suffer (Act 3:18; Act 26:22, Act 26:23).

Vincent: 1Pe 1:11 - The glory The glory ( τὰς δόξας ) Rev., correctly, the glories. The plural is used to indicate the successive steps of his glorification; the...

The glory ( τὰς δόξας )

Rev., correctly, the glories. The plural is used to indicate the successive steps of his glorification; the glory of his resurrection and ascension, of the last judgment, and of the kingdom of heaven.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:12 - Did minister Did minister ( διηκόνουν ) Imperfect tense, were ministering. See on Mar 9:35. The term is applicable to any kind of service, offici...

Did minister ( διηκόνουν )

Imperfect tense, were ministering. See on Mar 9:35. The term is applicable to any kind of service, official or not. Compare 2Co 3:3.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:12 - Desire Desire ( ἐπιθυμοῦσιν ) The word commonly denotes intense desire. It is used by Christ in expressing his wish to eat the passover...

Desire ( ἐπιθυμοῦσιν )

The word commonly denotes intense desire. It is used by Christ in expressing his wish to eat the passover (Luk 22:15); of the prodigal's desire to satisfy his hunger with the husks (Luk 15:16); and of the flesh lusting against the spirit (Gal 5:17).

Vincent: 1Pe 1:12 - To look into To look into ( παρακύψαι ) A very graphic word, meaning to stoop sideways (παρά ) . Used by Aristophanes to picture the attit...

To look into ( παρακύψαι )

A very graphic word, meaning to stoop sideways (παρά ) . Used by Aristophanes to picture the attitude of a bad harp-player. Here it portrays one stooping and stretching the neck to gaze on some wonderful sight. It occurs in Jam 1:25, describing him who looks into the perfect law of liberty as into a mirror; and in Luk 24:12; Joh 20:5, Joh 20:11, of Peter and John and Mary stooping and looking into the empty tomb. Possibly the memory of this incident unconsciously suggested the word to Peter. The phrase illustrates Peter's habitual emphasis upon the testimony of sight (see Introduction). Bengel acutely notes the hint in παρά , beside, that the angels contemplate the work of salvation from without, as spectators and not as participants. Compare Heb 2:16; Eph 3:10.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:13 - Gird up Gird up ( ἀναζωσάμενοι ) Lit., having girded up. Used here only. The metaphor is suggested by the girding up of the loose easte...

Gird up ( ἀναζωσάμενοι )

Lit., having girded up. Used here only. The metaphor is suggested by the girding up of the loose eastern robes preparatory to running or other exertion. Perhaps recalling the words of Christ, Luk 12:35. Christ's call is a call to active service. There is a fitness in the figure as addressed to sojourners and pilgrims (1Pe 1:1; 1Pe 2:11), who must be always ready to move.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:13 - Mind Mind ( διανοίας ) See on Mar 12:30.

Mind ( διανοίας )

See on Mar 12:30.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:13 - Be sober Be sober ( νήφοντες ) Lit., being sober. Primarily, in a physical sense, as opposed to excess in drink, but passing into the general ...

Be sober ( νήφοντες )

Lit., being sober. Primarily, in a physical sense, as opposed to excess in drink, but passing into the general sense of self-control and equanimity.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:13 - Hope to the end Hope to the end ( τελείως ἐλπίσατε ) Better, as Rev., set your hope perfectly: wholly and unchangeably; without doubt or d...

Hope to the end ( τελείως ἐλπίσατε )

Better, as Rev., set your hope perfectly: wholly and unchangeably; without doubt or despondency.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:13 - That is to be brought That is to be brought ( τὴν φερομένην ) Lit., which is being brought, as Rev., in margin. The object of hope is already on the ...

That is to be brought ( τὴν φερομένην )

Lit., which is being brought, as Rev., in margin. The object of hope is already on the way.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:14 - Obedient children Obedient children ( τέκνα ὑπακοῆς ) Literally, and more correctly, as Rev., children of obedience. See on Mar 3:17. The Chris...

Obedient children ( τέκνα ὑπακοῆς )

Literally, and more correctly, as Rev., children of obedience. See on Mar 3:17. The Christian is represented as related to the motive principle of his life as a child to a parent.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:14 - Fashioning yourselves Fashioning yourselves ( συσχηματιζόμενοι ) See on Mat 17:2; and compare Rom 12:2, the only other passage where the word occurs....

Fashioning yourselves ( συσχηματιζόμενοι )

See on Mat 17:2; and compare Rom 12:2, the only other passage where the word occurs. As σχῆμα is the outward, changeable fashion, as contrasted with what is intrinsic, the word really carries a warning against conformity to something changeful, and therefore illusory.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:15 - As he which hath called you is holy As he which hath called you is holy ( κατὰ τὸν καλέσαντα ὑμᾶς ἅγιον ) As of the A. V. is according to, o...

As he which hath called you is holy ( κατὰ τὸν καλέσαντα ὑμᾶς ἅγιον )

As of the A. V. is according to, or after the pattern of; and holy is to be taken as a personal name; the which hath called being added for definition, and in order to strengthen the exhortation. Render, therefore, after the pattern of the Holy One who called you. So, nearly, Rev., in margin. A similar construction occurs 2Pe 2:1 : the Lord that bought them.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:15 - Conversation Conversation ( ἀναστροφῇ ) A favorite word with Peter; used eight times in the two epistles. From ἀνά , up , and στρε...

Conversation ( ἀναστροφῇ )

A favorite word with Peter; used eight times in the two epistles. From ἀνά , up , and στρέφω , to turn. The process of development in the meaning of the word is interesting. 1. A turning upside down. 2. A turning about or wheeling. 3. Turning about in a place, going back and forth there about one's business; and so, 4, one's mode of life or conduct. This is precisely the idea in the word conversation (Lat., conversare, to turn round ) which was used when the A. V. was made, as the common term for general deportment or behavior, and was, therefore, a correct rendering of ἀναστροφή . So Latimer (" Sermons" ): " We are not bound to follow the conversations or doings of the saints." And Shakspeare, 2 Hen. IV., v., 5:

" But all are banished till their conversation

Appear more wise and modest to the world."

Our later limitation of the meaning to the interchange of talk makes it expedient to change the rendering, as Rev., to manner of living.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:17 - If ye call on the Father - judgeth If ye call on the Father - judgeth More correctly, Rev., If ye call on him as Father; the point being that God is to be invoked, not only as Fa...

If ye call on the Father - judgeth

More correctly, Rev., If ye call on him as Father; the point being that God is to be invoked, not only as Father, but as Judge.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:17 - Without respect of persons Without respect of persons ( ἀπροσωπολήμπτως ) Here only. Peter, however, uses προσωπολήμπτης , a respecter of...

Without respect of persons ( ἀπροσωπολήμπτως )

Here only. Peter, however, uses προσωπολήμπτης , a respecter of persons, Act 10:34, which whole passage should be compared with this. Paul and James also use the kindred word προσωπολημψία , respect of persons. See Rom 2:11; Jam 2:1. James has the verb προσωπολημπτέω , to have respect of persons. The constituents of the compound word, πρόσωπον , the countenance, and λαμβάνω , to receive, are found in Gal 2:6; and the word is the Old-Testament formula to accept or to raise the face of another; opposed to making the countenance fall (Job 29:24; Gen 4:5). Hence, to receive kindly, or look favorably upon one (Gen 19:21; Gen 32:20, etc.). In the Old Testament it is, as Bishop Lightfoot observes, " a neutral expression involving no subsidiary notion of partiality, and is much oftener found in a good than in a bad sense. When it becomes an independent Greek phrase, however, the bad sense attaches to it, owing to the secondary meaning of πρόσωπον , a mask; so that πρόσωπον λαμβάνειν signifies to regard the external circumstances of a man, his rank, wealth, etc., as opposed to his real, intrinsic character."

Vincent: 1Pe 1:17 - Sojourning Sojourning ( παροικίας ) Compare sojourners, 1Pe 1:1.

Sojourning ( παροικίας )

Compare sojourners, 1Pe 1:1.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:18 - Ye were redeemed Ye were redeemed ( ἐλυτρώθητε ) The verb occurs only in two other passages, Luk 24:21; Tit 2:14. It carries the idea of a ransom -p...

Ye were redeemed ( ἐλυτρώθητε )

The verb occurs only in two other passages, Luk 24:21; Tit 2:14. It carries the idea of a ransom -price (λύτρον , from λύω , to loose ) .

Vincent: 1Pe 1:18 - With silver or gold With silver or gold ( ἀργυρίῳ ἢ χρυσίῳ ) Lit., with silver or gold money; the words meaning, respectively, a small...

With silver or gold ( ἀργυρίῳ ἢ χρυσίῳ )

Lit., with silver or gold money; the words meaning, respectively, a small coin of silver or of gold.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:18 - Conversation Conversation Rev., manner of life. See on 1Pe 1:15.

Conversation

Rev., manner of life. See on 1Pe 1:15.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:18 - Received by tradition from your fathers Received by tradition from your fathers ( πατροπαραδότου ) A clumsy translation; improved by Rev., handed down from your fathers...

Received by tradition from your fathers ( πατροπαραδότου )

A clumsy translation; improved by Rev., handed down from your fathers. The word is peculiar to Peter.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:19 - But with the precious blood of Christ But with the precious blood of Christ The word Χριστοῦ , of Christ, stands at the end of the sentence, and is emphatic. Render, as Rev...

But with the precious blood of Christ

The word Χριστοῦ , of Christ, stands at the end of the sentence, and is emphatic. Render, as Rev., with precious blood as of a lamb, etc., even the blood of Christ.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:19 - Lamb Lamb Peculiarly appropriate from Peter. See Joh 1:35-42. The reference is to a sacrificial lamb.

Lamb

Peculiarly appropriate from Peter. See Joh 1:35-42. The reference is to a sacrificial lamb.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:19 - Without blemish Without blemish ( ἀμώμου ) Representing the Old-Testament phrase for absence of physical defect (Exo 12:5; Lev 22:20, Compare Heb 9:14)...

Without blemish ( ἀμώμου )

Representing the Old-Testament phrase for absence of physical defect (Exo 12:5; Lev 22:20, Compare Heb 9:14).

Vincent: 1Pe 1:19 - Without spot Without spot ( ἀσπίλου ) Compare 1Ti 6:14; Jam 1:27; 2Pe 3:14. In each case in a moral sense.

Without spot ( ἀσπίλου )

Compare 1Ti 6:14; Jam 1:27; 2Pe 3:14. In each case in a moral sense.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:20 - Foreordained Foreordained ( προεγνωσμένου ) Lit., and better, foreknown, as Rev.

Foreordained ( προεγνωσμένου )

Lit., and better, foreknown, as Rev.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:20 - Manifested Manifested ( φανερωθέντος ) Observe the difference in tense. Foreknown is the perfect participle, has been known from all eterni...

Manifested ( φανερωθέντος )

Observe the difference in tense. Foreknown is the perfect participle, has been known from all eternity down to the present " in reference to the place held and continuing to be held by Christ in the divine mind" (Salmond) . Manifested is the aorist participle, pointing to a definite act at a given time.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:20 - In these last times In these last times ( ἐπ ' ἐσχάτου τῶν χρόνων ) Lit., as Rev., at the end of the times.

In these last times ( ἐπ ' ἐσχάτου τῶν χρόνων )

Lit., as Rev., at the end of the times.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:21 - Which raised Which raised Compare Rom 4:24.

Which raised

Compare Rom 4:24.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:21 - That your faith and hope might be in God That your faith and hope might be in God Some render, that your faith should also be hope toward God.

That your faith and hope might be in God

Some render, that your faith should also be hope toward God.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:22 - Purified Purified ( ἡγνικότες ) The Septuagint translation of the Old-Testament technical term for the purification of the people and priests...

Purified ( ἡγνικότες )

The Septuagint translation of the Old-Testament technical term for the purification of the people and priests (Joshua 3:5; 1 Chronicles 15:12; 1 Samuel 16:5). Also, of the separation from wine and strong drink by the Nazarite (Num 6:2-6). In this ceremonial sense, Joh 11:55; Act 21:24, Act 21:26; Act 24:18. In the moral sense, as here, Jam 4:8; 1Jo 3:3. Compare καθαρίσας , purifying, Act 15:9.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:22 - Obeying Obeying ( ὑπακοῇ ) Rev., obedience. A peculiarly New Testament term unknown in classical Greek. In the Septuagint only 2 Samuel 22:...

Obeying ( ὑπακοῇ )

Rev., obedience. A peculiarly New Testament term unknown in classical Greek. In the Septuagint only 2 Samuel 22:36; rendered in A. V. gentleness. Rev., condescension, in margin.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:22 - Unfeigned Unfeigned ( ἀνυπόκριτον ) Ἀ , not, ὑποκριτής , actor. The latter word is from ὑποκρίνεσθαι , t...

Unfeigned ( ἀνυπόκριτον )

Ἀ , not, ὑποκριτής , actor. The latter word is from ὑποκρίνεσθαι , to answer on the stage, and hence to play a part or to act. A hypocrite is, therefore, an actor .

Vincent: 1Pe 1:22 - With a pure heart With a pure heart ( ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας ) The best texts reject καθαρᾶς , pure. Render, therefore, as Rev., from...

With a pure heart ( ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας )

The best texts reject καθαρᾶς , pure. Render, therefore, as Rev., from the heart.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:22 - Fervently Fervently ( ἐκτενῶς ) Used by Peter only, and only in this passage. He uses the kindred adjective ἐκτενής without ceasing...

Fervently ( ἐκτενῶς )

Used by Peter only, and only in this passage. He uses the kindred adjective ἐκτενής without ceasing, in Act 12:5, where the narrative probably came from him, and also at 1Pe 4:8; " fervent charity." The words are compounded with the verb τείνω , to stretch, and signify intense strain; feeling on the rack.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:23 - Being born again Being born again ( ἀναγεγεννημένοι ) Rev., having been begotten again. Compare Jam 1:18.

Being born again ( ἀναγεγεννημένοι )

Rev., having been begotten again. Compare Jam 1:18.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:23 - Of by Of ( ἐκ ) seed - by ( διά ) the word Note the difference in the prepositions; the former denoting the origin or source of life, the l...

Of ( ἐκ ) seed - by ( διά ) the word

Note the difference in the prepositions; the former denoting the origin or source of life, the latter the medium through which it imparts itself to the nature.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:23 - Word of God Word of God ( λόγου Θεοῦ ) The gospel of Christ. Compare 1Pe 1:25, and Peter's words, Act 10:36. Also, Eph 1:13; Col 1:5; Jam 1:18. ...

Word of God ( λόγου Θεοῦ )

The gospel of Christ. Compare 1Pe 1:25, and Peter's words, Act 10:36. Also, Eph 1:13; Col 1:5; Jam 1:18. Not the personal Word, as the term is employed by John. Nevertheless, the connection and relation of the personal with the revealed word is distinctly recognized. " In the New Testament we trace a gradual ascent from (a) the concrete message as conveyed to man by personal agency through ( b ) the Word, the revelation of God to man which the message embodies, forming, as it were, its life and soul, to (c) The Word, who, being God, not only reveals but imparts himself to us, and is formed in us thereby" (Scott, on Jam 1:18, " Speaker's Commentary" ).

Vincent: 1Pe 1:23 - Seed Seed ( σπορᾶς ) Nowhere else in the New Testament. Primarily, the sowing of seed.

Seed ( σπορᾶς )

Nowhere else in the New Testament. Primarily, the sowing of seed.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:24 - Of man Of man Following the reading ἀνθρώπου , in the Septuagint, Isaiah 50:6, which Peter quotes here. But the best texts read αὐτη...

Of man

Following the reading ἀνθρώπου , in the Septuagint, Isaiah 50:6, which Peter quotes here. But the best texts read αὐτῆς , of it, or, as Rev., thereof.

Vincent: 1Pe 1:24 - Withereth Withereth ( ἐξηράνθη ) Literally, the writer puts it as in a narrative of some quick and startling event, by the use of the aorist te...

Withereth ( ἐξηράνθη )

Literally, the writer puts it as in a narrative of some quick and startling event, by the use of the aorist tense: withered was the grass. Similarly, the flower fell (ἐξέπεσεν ). Lit., fell off , the force of ἐκ .

Vincent: 1Pe 1:25 - Word of the Lord Word of the Lord ( ῥῆμα κυρίου ) Compare 1Pe 1:23, and note that ῥῆμα is used for word, instead of λόγος ; and ...

Word of the Lord ( ῥῆμα κυρίου )

Compare 1Pe 1:23, and note that ῥῆμα is used for word, instead of λόγος ; and Κύριος , Lord, instead of Θεός , God, which is the reading of the Hebrew, and of most copies of the Septuagint. The substitution indicates that Peter identifies Jesus with God. No very satisfactory reason can be given for the change from λόγος to ῥῆμα . It may be due to the Greek translation, which Peter follows.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:1 - To the sojourners Upon earth, the Christians, chiefly those of Jewish extraction.

Upon earth, the Christians, chiefly those of Jewish extraction.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:1 - Scattered Long ago driven out of their own land. Those scattered by the persecution mentioned Act 8:1, were scattered only through Judea and Samaria, though aft...

Long ago driven out of their own land. Those scattered by the persecution mentioned Act 8:1, were scattered only through Judea and Samaria, though afterwards some of them travelled to Phenice, Cyprus, and Antioch. Through Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia - He names these five provinces in the order wherein they occurred to him, writing from the east. All these countries lie in the Lesser Asia. The Asia here distinguished from the other provinces is that which was usually called the Proconsular Asia being a Roman province.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:2 - According to the foreknowledge of God Speaking after the manner of men. Strictly speaking, there is no foreknowledge, no more than afterknowledge, with God: but all things are known to him...

Speaking after the manner of men. Strictly speaking, there is no foreknowledge, no more than afterknowledge, with God: but all things are known to him as present from eternity to eternity. This is therefore no other than an instance of the divine condescension to our low capacities.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:2 - Elect By the free love and almighty power of God taken out of, separated from, the world. Election, in the scripture sense, is God's doing anything that our...

By the free love and almighty power of God taken out of, separated from, the world. Election, in the scripture sense, is God's doing anything that our merit or power have no part in. The true predestination, or fore - appointment of God is, He that believeth shall be saved from the guilt and power of sin. He that endureth to the end shall be saved eternally. They who receive the precious gift of faith, thereby become the sons of God; and, being sons, they shall receive the Spirit of holiness to walk as Christ also walked. Throughout every part of this appointment of God, promise and duty go hand in hand. All is free gift; and yet such is the gift, that the final issue depends on our future obedience to the heavenly call. But other predestination than this, either to life or death eternal, the scripture knows not of. Moreover, it is. Cruel respect of persons; an unjust regard of one, and an unjust disregard of another. It is mere creature partiality, and not infinite justice. It is not plain scripture doctrine, if true; but rather, inconsistent with the express written word, that speaks of God's universal offers of grace; his invitations, promises, threatenings, being all general. We are bid to choose life, and reprehended for not doing it. It is inconsistent with a state of probation in those that must be saved or must be lost. It is of fatal consequence; all men being ready, on very slight grounds, to fancy themselves of the elect number. But the doctrine of predestination is entirely changed from what it formerly was. Now it implies neither faith, peace, nor purity. It is something that will do without them all. Faith is no longer, according to the modern predestinarian scheme, a divine "evidence of things not seen," wrought in the soul by the immediate power of the Holy Ghost; not an evidence at all; but a mere notion. Neither is faith made any longer a means of holiness; but something that will do without it. Christ is no more a Saviour from sin; but a defence, a countenancer of it. He is no more a fountain of spiritual life in the soul of believers, but leaves his elect inwardly dry, and outwardly unfruitful; and is made little more than a refuge from the image of the heavenly; even from righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:2 - Through sanctification of the Spirit Through the renewing and purifying influences of his Spirit on their souls.

Through the renewing and purifying influences of his Spirit on their souls.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:2 -

Unto obedience To engage and enable them to yield themselves up to all holy obedience, the foundation of all which is, the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ - ...

To engage and enable them to yield themselves up to all holy obedience, the foundation of all which is, the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ - The atoning blood of Christ, which was typified by the sprinkling of the blood of sacrifices under the law; in allusion to which it is called "the blood of sprinkling."

Wesley: 1Pe 1:3 - Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ His Father, with respect to his divine nature; his God, with respect to his human.

His Father, with respect to his divine nature; his God, with respect to his human.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:3 - Who hath regenerated us to a living hope An hope which implies true spiritual life, which revives the heart, and makes the soul lively and vigorous.

An hope which implies true spiritual life, which revives the heart, and makes the soul lively and vigorous.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:3 - By the resurrection of Christ Which is not only a pledge of ours, but a part of the purchase - price. It has also a close connexion with our rising from spiritual death, that as he...

Which is not only a pledge of ours, but a part of the purchase - price. It has also a close connexion with our rising from spiritual death, that as he liveth, so shall we live with him. He was acknowledged to be the Christ, but usually called Jesus till his resurrection; then he was also called Christ.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:4 - To an inheritance For if we are sons, then heirs.

For if we are sons, then heirs.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:4 - Incorruptible Not like earthly treasures.

Not like earthly treasures.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:4 - Undefiled Pure and holy, incapable of being itself defiled, or of being enjoyed by any polluted soul.

Pure and holy, incapable of being itself defiled, or of being enjoyed by any polluted soul.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:4 - And that fadeth not away That never decays in its value, sweetness, or beauty, like all the enjoyments of this world, like the garlands of leaves or flowers, with which the an...

That never decays in its value, sweetness, or beauty, like all the enjoyments of this world, like the garlands of leaves or flowers, with which the ancient conquerors were wont to be crowned.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:4 - Reserved in heaven for you Who "by patient continuance in welldoing, seek for glory and honour and immortality."

Who "by patient continuance in welldoing, seek for glory and honour and immortality."

Wesley: 1Pe 1:5 - Who are kept The inheritance is reserved; the heirs are kept for it.

The inheritance is reserved; the heirs are kept for it.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:5 - By the power of God Which worketh all in all, which guards us against all our enemies.

Which worketh all in all, which guards us against all our enemies.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:5 - Through faith Through which alone salvation is both received and retained.

Through which alone salvation is both received and retained.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:5 - Ready to be revealed That revelation is made in the last day. It was more and more ready to be revealed, ever since Christ came.

That revelation is made in the last day. It was more and more ready to be revealed, ever since Christ came.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:6 - Wherein That is, in being so kept. Ye even now greatly rejoice, though now for a little while - Such is our whole life, compared to eternity.

That is, in being so kept. Ye even now greatly rejoice, though now for a little while - Such is our whole life, compared to eternity.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:6 - If need be For it is not always needful. If God sees it to be the best means for your spiritual profit.

For it is not always needful. If God sees it to be the best means for your spiritual profit.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:6 - Ye are in heaviness Or sorrow; but not in darkness; for they still retained both faith, 1Pe 1:5, hope, and love; yea, at this very time were rejoicing with joy unspeakabl...

Or sorrow; but not in darkness; for they still retained both faith, 1Pe 1:5, hope, and love; yea, at this very time were rejoicing with joy unspeakable, 1Pe 1:8.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:7 - That the trial of your faith That is, your faith which is tried.

That is, your faith which is tried.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:7 - Which is much more precious than gold For gold, though it bear the fire, yet will perish with the world.

For gold, though it bear the fire, yet will perish with the world.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:7 - May be found Though it doth not yet appear.

Though it doth not yet appear.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:7 - Unto praise From God himself.

From God himself.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:7 - And honour From men and angels.

From men and angels.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:7 - And glory Assigned by the great Judge.

Assigned by the great Judge.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:8 - Having not seen In the flesh.

In the flesh.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:9 - Receiving Now already.

Now already.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:9 - Salvation From all sin into all holiness, which is the qualification for, the forerunner and pledge of, eternal salvation.

From all sin into all holiness, which is the qualification for, the forerunner and pledge of, eternal salvation.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:10 - Of which salvation So far beyond all that was experienced under the Jewish dispensation.

So far beyond all that was experienced under the Jewish dispensation.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:10 - The very prophets who prophesied long ago of the grace of God toward you Of his abundant, overflowing grace to be bestowed on believers under the Christian dispensation.

Of his abundant, overflowing grace to be bestowed on believers under the Christian dispensation.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:10 - Inquired Were earnestly inquisitive.

Were earnestly inquisitive.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:10 - And searched diligently Like miners searching after precious ore, after the meaning of the prophecies which they delivered.

Like miners searching after precious ore, after the meaning of the prophecies which they delivered.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:11 - Searching what time What particular period.

What particular period.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:11 - And what manner of time By what marks to be distinguished.

By what marks to be distinguished.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:11 - The glories that were to follow His sufferings; namely, the glory of his resurrection, ascension, exaltation, and the effusion of his Spirit; the glory of the last judgment, and of h...

His sufferings; namely, the glory of his resurrection, ascension, exaltation, and the effusion of his Spirit; the glory of the last judgment, and of his eternal kingdom; and also the glories of his grace in the hearts and lives of Christians.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:12 - To whom So searching. It was revealed, that not for themselves, but for us they ministered - They did not so much by those predictions serve themselves, or th...

So searching. It was revealed, that not for themselves, but for us they ministered - They did not so much by those predictions serve themselves, or that generation, as they did us, who now enjoy what they saw afar off.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:12 - With the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven Confirmed by the inward, powerful testimony of the Holy Ghost, as well as the mighty effusion of his miraculous gifts.

Confirmed by the inward, powerful testimony of the Holy Ghost, as well as the mighty effusion of his miraculous gifts.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:12 - Which things angels desire to look into A beautiful gradation; prophets, righteous men, kings, desired to see and hear what Christ did and taught. What the Holy Ghost taught concerning Chris...

A beautiful gradation; prophets, righteous men, kings, desired to see and hear what Christ did and taught. What the Holy Ghost taught concerning Christ the very angels long to know.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:13 - Wherefore Having such encouragement.

Having such encouragement.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:13 - Gird up the loins of your mind As persons in the eastern countries were wont, in travelling or running, to gird up their long garments, so gather ye up all your thoughts and affecti...

As persons in the eastern countries were wont, in travelling or running, to gird up their long garments, so gather ye up all your thoughts and affections, and keep your mind always disencumbered and prepared to run the race which is set before you.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:13 - Be watchful As servants that wait for their Lord.

As servants that wait for their Lord.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:13 - And hope to the end Maintain a full expectation of all the grace - The blessings flowing from the free favour of God.

Maintain a full expectation of all the grace - The blessings flowing from the free favour of God.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:13 - Which shall be brought to you at the final revelation of Jesus Christ And which are now brought to you by the revelation of Christ in you.

And which are now brought to you by the revelation of Christ in you.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:14 - Your desires Which ye had while ye were ignorant of God.

Which ye had while ye were ignorant of God.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:16 - -- Lev 11:44.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:17 - Who judgeth according to every man's work According to the tenor of his life and conversation.

According to the tenor of his life and conversation.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:17 - Pass the time of your sojourning Your short abode on earth. In humble, loving fear - The proper companion and guard of hope.

Your short abode on earth. In humble, loving fear - The proper companion and guard of hope.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:18 - Your vain conversation Your foolish, sinful way of life.

Your foolish, sinful way of life.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:19 - Without blemish In himself.

In himself.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:19 - Without spot From the world.

From the world.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:21 - Who through him believe For all our faith and hope proceed from the power of his resurrection. In God that raised Jesus, and gave him glory - At his ascension. Without Christ...

For all our faith and hope proceed from the power of his resurrection. In God that raised Jesus, and gave him glory - At his ascension. Without Christ we should only dread God; whereas through him we believe, hope, and love.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:22 - -- Having purified your souls by obeying the truth through the Spirit, who bestows upon you freely, both obedience and purity of heart, and unfeigned lov...

Having purified your souls by obeying the truth through the Spirit, who bestows upon you freely, both obedience and purity of heart, and unfeigned love of the brethren, go on to still higher degrees of love.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:22 - Love one another fervently With the most strong and tender affection; and yet with a pure heart - Pure from any spot of unholy desire or inordinate passion.

With the most strong and tender affection; and yet with a pure heart - Pure from any spot of unholy desire or inordinate passion.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:23 - Which liveth Is full of divine virtue. And abideth the same for ever.

Is full of divine virtue. And abideth the same for ever.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:24 - All flesh Every human creature is transient and withering as grass.

Every human creature is transient and withering as grass.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:24 - And all the glory of it His wisdom, strength, wealth, righteousness.

His wisdom, strength, wealth, righteousness.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:24 - As the flower The most short - lived part of it.

The most short - lived part of it.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:24 - The grass That is, man.

That is, man.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:24 - The flower That is, his glory.

That is, his glory.

Wesley: 1Pe 1:24 - Is fallen off As it were, while we are speaking. Isa 40:6, &c.

As it were, while we are speaking. Isa 40:6, &c.

JFB: 1Pe 1:1 - Peter Greek form of Cephas, man of rock.

Greek form of Cephas, man of rock.

JFB: 1Pe 1:1 - an apostle of Jesus Christ "He who preaches otherwise than as a messenger of Christ, is not to be heard; if he preach as such, then it is all one as if thou didst hear Christ sp...

"He who preaches otherwise than as a messenger of Christ, is not to be heard; if he preach as such, then it is all one as if thou didst hear Christ speaking in thy presence" [LUTHER].

JFB: 1Pe 1:1 - to the strangers scattered Literally, "sojourners of the dispersion"; only in Joh 7:35 and Jam 1:1, in New Testament, and the Septuagint, Psa 147:2, "the outcasts of Israel"; th...

Literally, "sojourners of the dispersion"; only in Joh 7:35 and Jam 1:1, in New Testament, and the Septuagint, Psa 147:2, "the outcasts of Israel"; the designation peculiarly given to the Jews in their dispersed state throughout the world ever since the Babylonian captivity. These he, as the apostle of the circumcision, primarily addresses, but not in the limited temporal sense only; he regards their temporal condition as a shadow of their spiritual calling to be strangers and pilgrims on earth, looking for the heavenly Jerusalem as their home. So the Gentile Christians, as the spiritual Israel, are included secondarily, as having the same high calling. He (1Pe 1:14; 1Pe 2:10; 1Pe 4:3) plainly refers to Christian Gentiles (compare 1Pe 1:17; 1Pe 2:11). Christians, if they rightly consider their calling, must never settle themselves here, but feel themselves travellers. As the Jews in their dispersion diffused through the nations the knowledge of the one God, preparatory to Christ's first advent, so Christians, by their dispersion among the unconverted, diffuse the knowledge of Christ, preparatory to His second advent. "The children of God scattered abroad" constitute one whole in Christ, who "gathers them together in one," now partially and in Spirit, hereafter perfectly and visibly. "Elect," in the Greek order, comes before "strangers"; elect, in relation to heaven, strangers, in relation to the earth. The election here is that of individuals to eternal life by the sovereign grace of God, as the sequel shows. "While each is certified of his own election by the Spirit, he receives no assurance concerning others, nor are we to be too inquisitive [Joh 21:21-22]; Peter numbers them among the elect, as they carried the appearance of having been regenerated" [CALVIN]. He calls the whole Church by the designation strictly belonging only to the better portion of them [CALVIN]. The election to hearing, and that to eternal life, are distinct. Realization of our election is a strong motive to holiness. The minister invites all, yet he does not hide the truth that in none but the elect will the preaching effect eternal blessing. As the chief fruit of exhortations, and even of threatenings, redounds to "the elect"; therefore, at the outset, Peter addresses them. STEIGER translates, to "the elect pilgrims who form the dispersion in Pontus.", &c. The order of the provinces is that in which they would be viewed by one writing from the east from Babylon (1Pe 5:13); from northeast southwards to Galatia, southeast to Cappadocia, then Asia, and back to Bithynia, west of Pontus. Contrast the order, Act 2:9. He now was ministering to those same peoples as he preached to on Pentecost: "Parthians, Medes, Elamites, dwellers in Mesopotamia and Judea," that is, the Jews now subject to the Parthians, whose capital was Babylon, where he labored in person; "dwellers in Cappadocia, Pontus, Asia, Phrygia, Bithynia," the Asiatic dispersion derived from Babylon, whom he ministers to by letter.

JFB: 1Pe 1:2 - foreknowledge Foreordaining love (1Pe 1:20), inseparable from God's foreknowledge, the origin from which, and pattern according to which, election takes place. Act ...

Foreordaining love (1Pe 1:20), inseparable from God's foreknowledge, the origin from which, and pattern according to which, election takes place. Act 2:23, and Rom 11:2, prove "foreknowledge" to be foreordination. God's foreknowledge is not the perception of any ground of action out of Himself; still in it liberty is comprehended, and all absolute constraint debarred [ANSELM in STEIGER]. For so the Son of God was "foreknown" (so the Greek for "foreordained," 1Pe 1:20) to be the sacrificial Lamb, not against, or without His will, but His will rested in the will of the Father; this includes self-conscious action; nay, even cheerful acquiescense. The Hebrew and Greek "know" include approval and acknowledging as one's own. The Hebrew marks the oneness of loving and choosing, by having one word for both, bachar (Greek, "hairetizo," Septuagint). Peter descends from the eternal "election" of God through the new birth, to the believer's "sanctification," that from this he might again raise them through the consideration of their new birth to a "living hope" of the heavenly "inheritance" [HEIDEGGER]. The divine three are introduced in their respective functions in redemption.

JFB: 1Pe 1:2 - through Greek, "in"; the element in which we are elected. The "election" of God realized and manifested itself "IN" their sanctification. Believers are "sanct...

Greek, "in"; the element in which we are elected. The "election" of God realized and manifested itself "IN" their sanctification. Believers are "sanctified through the offering of Christ once for all" (Heb 10:10). "Thou must believe and know that thou art holy; not, however, through thine own piety, but through the blood of Christ" [LUTHER]. This is the true sanctification of the Spirit, to obey the Gospel, to trust in Christ [BULLINGER].

JFB: 1Pe 1:2 - sanctification The Spirit's setting apart of the saint as consecrated to God. The execution of God's choice (Gal 1:4). God the Father gives us salvation by gratuitou...

The Spirit's setting apart of the saint as consecrated to God. The execution of God's choice (Gal 1:4). God the Father gives us salvation by gratuitous election; the Son earns it by His blood-shedding; the Holy Spirit applies the merit of the Son to the soul by the Gospel word [CALVIN]. Compare Num 6:24-26, the Old Testament triple blessing.

JFB: 1Pe 1:2 - unto obedience The result or end aimed at by God as respects us, the obedience which consists in faith, and that which flows from faith; "obeying the truth through t...

The result or end aimed at by God as respects us, the obedience which consists in faith, and that which flows from faith; "obeying the truth through the Spirit" (1Pe 1:22). Rom 1:5, "obedience to the faith," and obedience the fruit of faith.

JFB: 1Pe 1:2 - sprinkling, &c. Not in justification through the atonement once for all, which is expressed in the previous clauses, but (as the order proves) the daily being sprinkl...

Not in justification through the atonement once for all, which is expressed in the previous clauses, but (as the order proves) the daily being sprinkled by Christ's blood, and so cleansed from all sin, which is the privilege of one already justified and "walking in the light."

JFB: 1Pe 1:2 - Grace The source of "peace."

The source of "peace."

JFB: 1Pe 1:2 - be multiplied Still further than already. Dan 4:1, "Ye have now peace and grace, but still not in perfection; therefore, ye must go on increasing until the old Adam...

Still further than already. Dan 4:1, "Ye have now peace and grace, but still not in perfection; therefore, ye must go on increasing until the old Adam be dead" [LUTHER].

JFB: 1Pe 1:3 - -- He begins, like Paul, in opening his Epistles with giving thanks to God for the greatness of the salvation; herein he looks forward (1) into the futur...

He begins, like Paul, in opening his Epistles with giving thanks to God for the greatness of the salvation; herein he looks forward (1) into the future (1Pe 1:3-9); (2) backward into the past (1Pe 1:10-12) [ALFORD].

JFB: 1Pe 1:3 - Blessed A distinct Greek word (eulogetos, "Blessed BE") is used of God, from that used of man (eulogemenos, "Blessed IS").

A distinct Greek word (eulogetos, "Blessed BE") is used of God, from that used of man (eulogemenos, "Blessed IS").

JFB: 1Pe 1:3 - Father This whole Epistle accords with the Lord's prayer; "Father," 1Pe 1:3, 1Pe 1:14, 1Pe 1:17, 1Pe 1:23; 1Pe 2:2; "Our," 1Pe 1:4, end; "In heaven," 1Pe 1:4...

This whole Epistle accords with the Lord's prayer; "Father," 1Pe 1:3, 1Pe 1:14, 1Pe 1:17, 1Pe 1:23; 1Pe 2:2; "Our," 1Pe 1:4, end; "In heaven," 1Pe 1:4; "Hallowed be Thy name," 1Pe 1:15-16; 1Pe 3:15; "Thy kingdom come," 1Pe 2:9; "Thy will be done," 1Pe 2:15; 1Pe 3:17; 1Pe 4:2, 1Pe 4:19; "daily bread," 1Pe 5:7; "forgiveness of sins," 1Pe 4:8, 1Pe 4:1; "temptation," 1Pe 4:12; "deliverance," 1Pe 4:18 [BENGEL]; Compare 1Pe 3:7; 1Pe 4:7, for allusions to prayer. "Barak," Hebrew "bless," is literally "kneel." God, as the original source of blessing, must be blessed through all His works.

JFB: 1Pe 1:3 - abundant Greek, "much," "full." That God's "mercy" should reach us, guilty and enemies, proves its fulness. "Mercy" met our misery; "grace," our guilt.

Greek, "much," "full." That God's "mercy" should reach us, guilty and enemies, proves its fulness. "Mercy" met our misery; "grace," our guilt.

JFB: 1Pe 1:3 - begotten us again Of the Spirit by the word (1Pe 1:23); whereas we were children of wrath naturally, and dead in sins.

Of the Spirit by the word (1Pe 1:23); whereas we were children of wrath naturally, and dead in sins.

JFB: 1Pe 1:3 - unto So that we have.

So that we have.

JFB: 1Pe 1:3 - lively Greek, "living." It has life in itself, gives life, and looks for life as its object [DE WETTE]. Living is a favorite expression of Peter (1Pe 1:23; 1...

Greek, "living." It has life in itself, gives life, and looks for life as its object [DE WETTE]. Living is a favorite expression of Peter (1Pe 1:23; 1Pe 2:4-5). He delights in contemplating life overcoming death in the believer. Faith and love follow hope (1Pe 1:8, 1Pe 1:21-22). "(Unto) a lively hope" is further explained by "(To) an inheritance incorruptible . . . fadeth not away," and "(unto) salvation . . . ready to be revealed in the last time." I prefer with BENGEL and STEIGER to join as in Greek, "Unto a hope living (possessing life and vitality) through the resurrection of Jesus Christ." Faith, the subjective means of the spiritual resurrection of the soul, is wrought by the same power whereby Christ was raised from the dead. Baptism is an objective means (1Pe 3:21). Its moral fruit is a new life. The connection of our sonship with the resurrection appears also in Luk 20:36; Act 13:33. Christ's resurrection is the cause of ours, (1) as an efficient cause (1Co 15:22); (2) as an exemplary cause, all the saints being about to rise after the similitude of His resurrection. Our "hope" is, Christ rising from the dead hath ordained the power, and is become the pattern of the believer's resurrection. The soul, born again from its natural state into the life of grace, is after that born again unto the life of glory. Mat 19:28, "regeneration, when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of His glory"; the resurrection of our bodies is a kind of coming out of the womb of the earth and entering upon immortality, a nativity into another life [BISHOP PEARSON]. The four causes of our salvation are; (1) the primary cause, God's mercy; (2) the proximate cause, Christ's death and resurrection; (3) the formal cause, our regeneration; (4) the final cause, our eternal bliss. As John is the disciple of love, so Paul of faith, and Peter of hope. Hence, Peter, most of all the apostles, urges the resurrection of Christ; an undesigned coincidence between the history and the Epistle, and so a proof of genuineness. Christ's resurrection was the occasion of his own restoration by Christ after his fall.

JFB: 1Pe 1:4 - To an inheritance The object of our "hope" (1Pe 1:3), which is therefore not a dead, but a "living" hope. The inheritance is the believer's already by title, being actu...

The object of our "hope" (1Pe 1:3), which is therefore not a dead, but a "living" hope. The inheritance is the believer's already by title, being actually assigned to him; the entrance on its possession is future, and hoped for as a certainty. Being "begotten again" as a "son," he is an "heir," as earthly fathers beget children who shall inherit their goods. The inheritance is "salvation" (1Pe 1:5, 1Pe 1:9); "the grace to be brought at the revelation of Christ" (1Pe 1:13); "a crown of glory that fadeth not away."

JFB: 1Pe 1:4 - incorruptible Not having within the germs of death. Negations of the imperfections which meet us on every side here are the chief means of conveying to our minds a ...

Not having within the germs of death. Negations of the imperfections which meet us on every side here are the chief means of conveying to our minds a conception of the heavenly things which "have not entered into the heart of man," and which we have not faculties now capable of fully knowing. Peter, sanguine, impulsive, and highly susceptible of outward impressions, was the more likely to feel painfully the deep-seated corruption which, lurking under the outward splendor of the loveliest of earthly things, dooms them soon to rottenness and decay.

JFB: 1Pe 1:4 - undefiled Not stained as earthly goods by sin, either in the acquiring, or in the using of them; unsusceptible of any stain. "The rich man is either a dishonest...

Not stained as earthly goods by sin, either in the acquiring, or in the using of them; unsusceptible of any stain. "The rich man is either a dishonest man himself, or the heir of a dishonest man" [JEROME]. Even Israel's inheritance was defiled by the people's sins. Defilement intrudes even on our holy things now, whereas God's service ought to be undefiled.

JFB: 1Pe 1:4 - that fadeth not away Contrast 1Pe 1:24. Even the most delicate part of the heavenly inheritance, its bloom, continues unfading. "In substance incorruptible; in purity unde...

Contrast 1Pe 1:24. Even the most delicate part of the heavenly inheritance, its bloom, continues unfading. "In substance incorruptible; in purity undefiled; in beauty unfading" [ALFORD].

JFB: 1Pe 1:4 - reserved Kept up (Col 1:5, "laid up for you in heaven," 2Ti 4:8); Greek perfect, expressing a fixed and abiding state, "which has been and is reserved." The in...

Kept up (Col 1:5, "laid up for you in heaven," 2Ti 4:8); Greek perfect, expressing a fixed and abiding state, "which has been and is reserved." The inheritance is in security, beyond risk, out of the reach of Satan, though we for whom it is reserved are still in the midst of dangers. Still, if we be believers, we too, as well as the inheritance, are "kept" (the same Greek, Joh 17:12) by Jesus safely (1Pe 1:5).

JFB: 1Pe 1:4 - in heaven Greek, "in the heavens," where it can neither be destroyed nor plundered. It does not follow that, because it is now laid up in heaven, it shall not h...

Greek, "in the heavens," where it can neither be destroyed nor plundered. It does not follow that, because it is now laid up in heaven, it shall not hereafter be on earth also.

JFB: 1Pe 1:4 - for you It is secure not only in itself from all misfortune, but also from all alienation, so that no other can receive it in your stead. He had said us (1Pe ...

It is secure not only in itself from all misfortune, but also from all alienation, so that no other can receive it in your stead. He had said us (1Pe 1:3); he now turns his address to the elect in order to encourage and exhort them.

JFB: 1Pe 1:5 - kept Greek, "who are being guarded." He answers the objection, Of what use is it that salvation is "reserved" for us in heaven, as in a calm secure haven, ...

Greek, "who are being guarded." He answers the objection, Of what use is it that salvation is "reserved" for us in heaven, as in a calm secure haven, when we are tossed in the world as on a troubled sea in the midst of a thousand wrecks? [CALVIN]. As the inheritance is "kept" (1Pe 1:4) safely for the far distant "heirs," so must they be "guarded" in their persons so as to be sure of reaching it. Neither shall it be wanting to them, nor they to it. "We are guarded in the world as our inheritance is kept in heaven." This defines the "you" of 1Pe 1:4. The inheritance, remember, belongs only to those who "endure unto the end," being "guarded" by, or IN "the power of God, through faith." Contrast Luk 8:13. God Himself is our sole guarding power. "It is His power which saves us from our enemies. It is His long-suffering which saves us from ourselves" [BENGEL]. Jud 1:1, "preserved in Christ Jesus"; Phi 1:6; Phi 4:7, "keep"; Greek, "guard," as here. This guarding is effected, on the part of God, by His "power," the efficient cause; on the part of man, "through faith," the effective means.

JFB: 1Pe 1:5 - by Greek, "in." The believer lives spiritually in God, and in virtue of His power, and God lives in him. "In" marks that the cause is inherent in the mea...

Greek, "in." The believer lives spiritually in God, and in virtue of His power, and God lives in him. "In" marks that the cause is inherent in the means, working organically through them with living influence, so that the means, in so far as the cause works organically through them, exist also in the cause. The power of God which guards the believer is no external force working upon him from without with mechanical necessity, but the spiritual power of God in which he lives, and with whose Spirit he is clothed. It comes down on, and then dwells in him, even as he is in it [STEIGER]. Let none flatter himself he is being guarded by the power of God unto salvation, if he be not walking by faith. Neither speculative knowledge and reason, nor works of seeming charity, will avail, severed from faith. It is through faith that salvation is both received and kept.

JFB: 1Pe 1:5 - unto salvation The final end of the new birth. "Salvation," not merely accomplished for us in title by Christ, and made over to us on our believing, but actually man...

The final end of the new birth. "Salvation," not merely accomplished for us in title by Christ, and made over to us on our believing, but actually manifested, and finally completed.

JFB: 1Pe 1:5 - ready to be revealed When Christ shall be revealed, it shall be revealed. The preparations for it are being made now, and began when Christ came: "All things are now ready...

When Christ shall be revealed, it shall be revealed. The preparations for it are being made now, and began when Christ came: "All things are now ready"; the salvation is already accomplished, and only waits the Lord's time to be manifested: He "is ready to judge."

JFB: 1Pe 1:5 - last time The last day, closing the day of grace; the day of judgment, of redemption, of the restitution of all things, and of perdition of the ungodly.

The last day, closing the day of grace; the day of judgment, of redemption, of the restitution of all things, and of perdition of the ungodly.

JFB: 1Pe 1:6 - Wherein In which prospect of final salvation.

In which prospect of final salvation.

JFB: 1Pe 1:6 - greatly rejoice "exult with joy": "are exuberantly glad." Salvation is realized by faith (1Pe 1:9) as a thing so actually present as to cause exulting joy in spite of...

"exult with joy": "are exuberantly glad." Salvation is realized by faith (1Pe 1:9) as a thing so actually present as to cause exulting joy in spite of existing afflictions.

JFB: 1Pe 1:6 - for a season Greek, "for a little time."

Greek, "for a little time."

JFB: 1Pe 1:6 - if need be "if it be God's will that it should be so" [ALFORD], for not all believers are afflicted. One need not invite or lay a cross on himself, but only "tak...

"if it be God's will that it should be so" [ALFORD], for not all believers are afflicted. One need not invite or lay a cross on himself, but only "take up" the cross which God imposes ("his cross"); 2Ti 3:12 is not to be pressed too far. Not every believer, nor every sinner, is tried with afflictions [THEOPHYLACT]. Some falsely think that notwithstanding our forgiveness in Christ, a kind of atonement, or expiation by suffering, is needed.

JFB: 1Pe 1:6 - ye are in heaviness Greek, "ye were grieved." The "grieved" is regarded as past, the "exulting joy" present. Because the realized joy of the coming salvation makes the pr...

Greek, "ye were grieved." The "grieved" is regarded as past, the "exulting joy" present. Because the realized joy of the coming salvation makes the present grief seem as a thing of the past. At the first shock of affliction ye were grieved, but now by anticipation ye rejoice, regarding the present grief as past.

JFB: 1Pe 1:6 - through Greek, "IN": the element in which the grief has place.

Greek, "IN": the element in which the grief has place.

JFB: 1Pe 1:6 - manifold Many and of various kinds (1Pe 4:12-13).

Many and of various kinds (1Pe 4:12-13).

JFB: 1Pe 1:6 - temptations "trials" testing your faith.

"trials" testing your faith.

JFB: 1Pe 1:7 - -- Aim of the "temptations."

Aim of the "temptations."

JFB: 1Pe 1:7 - trial Testing, proving. That your faith so proved "may be found (aorist; once for all, as the result of its being proved on the judgment-day) unto (eventuat...

Testing, proving. That your faith so proved "may be found (aorist; once for all, as the result of its being proved on the judgment-day) unto (eventuating in) praise," &c., namely, the praise to be bestowed by the Judge.

JFB: 1Pe 1:7 - than that of gold Rather, "than gold."

Rather, "than gold."

JFB: 1Pe 1:7 - though "which perisheth, YET is tried with fire." If gold, though perishing (1Pe 1:18), is yet tried with fire in order to remove dross and test its genuinen...

"which perisheth, YET is tried with fire." If gold, though perishing (1Pe 1:18), is yet tried with fire in order to remove dross and test its genuineness, how much more does your faith, which shall never perish, need to pass through a fiery trial to remove whatever is defective, and to test its genuineness and full value?

JFB: 1Pe 1:7 - glory "Honor" is not so strong as "glory." As "praise" is in words, so "honor" is in deeds: honorary reward.

"Honor" is not so strong as "glory." As "praise" is in words, so "honor" is in deeds: honorary reward.

JFB: 1Pe 1:7 - appearing Translate as in 1Pe 1:13, "revelation." At Christ's revelation shall take place also the revelation of the sons of God (Rom 8:19, "manifestation," Gre...

Translate as in 1Pe 1:13, "revelation." At Christ's revelation shall take place also the revelation of the sons of God (Rom 8:19, "manifestation," Greek, "revelation"; 1Jo 3:2, Greek, "manifested . . . manifested," for "appear . . . appear").

JFB: 1Pe 1:8 - not having seen, ye love Though in other cases it is knowledge of the person that produces love to him. They are more "blessed that have not seen and yet have believed," than ...

Though in other cases it is knowledge of the person that produces love to him. They are more "blessed that have not seen and yet have believed," than they who believed because they have seen. On Peter's own love to Jesus, compare Joh 21:15-17. Though the apostles had seen Him, they now ceased to know Him merely after the flesh.

JFB: 1Pe 1:8 - in whom Connected with "believing": the result of which is "ye rejoice" (Greek, "exult").

Connected with "believing": the result of which is "ye rejoice" (Greek, "exult").

JFB: 1Pe 1:8 - now In the present state, as contrasted with the future state when believers "shall see His face."

In the present state, as contrasted with the future state when believers "shall see His face."

JFB: 1Pe 1:8 - unspeakable (1Co 2:9).

(1Co 2:9).

JFB: 1Pe 1:8 - full of glory Greek, "glorified." A joy now already encompassed with glory. The "glory" is partly in present possession, through the presence of Christ, "the Lord o...

Greek, "glorified." A joy now already encompassed with glory. The "glory" is partly in present possession, through the presence of Christ, "the Lord of glory," in the soul; partly in assured anticipation. "The Christian's joy is bound up with love to Jesus: its ground is faith; it is not therefore either self-seeking or self-sufficient" [STEIGER].

JFB: 1Pe 1:9 - Receiving In sure anticipation; "the end of your faith," that is, its crowning consummation, finally completed "salvation" (Peter here confirms Paul's teaching ...

In sure anticipation; "the end of your faith," that is, its crowning consummation, finally completed "salvation" (Peter here confirms Paul's teaching as to justification by faith): also receiving now the title to it and the first-fruits of it. In 1Pe 1:10 the "salvation" is represented as already present, whereas "the prophets" had it not as yet present. It must, therefore, in this verse, refer to the present: Deliverance now from a state of wrath: believers even now "receive salvation," though its full "revelation" is future.

JFB: 1Pe 1:9 - of . . . souls The immortal soul was what was lost, so "salvation" primarily concerns the soul; the body shall share in redemption hereafter; the soul of the believe...

The immortal soul was what was lost, so "salvation" primarily concerns the soul; the body shall share in redemption hereafter; the soul of the believer is saved already: an additional proof that "receiving . . . salvation" is here a thing present.

JFB: 1Pe 1:10 - -- The magnitude of this "salvation" is proved by the earnestness with which "prophets" and even "angels" searched into it. Even from the beginning of th...

The magnitude of this "salvation" is proved by the earnestness with which "prophets" and even "angels" searched into it. Even from the beginning of the world this salvation has been testified to by the Holy Spirit.

JFB: 1Pe 1:10 - prophets Though there is no Greek article, yet English Version is right, "the prophets" generally (including all the Old Testament inspired authors), as "the a...

Though there is no Greek article, yet English Version is right, "the prophets" generally (including all the Old Testament inspired authors), as "the angels" similarly refer to them in general.

JFB: 1Pe 1:10 - inquired Perseveringly: so the Greek. Much more is manifested to us than by diligent inquiry and search the prophets attained. Still it is not said, they searc...

Perseveringly: so the Greek. Much more is manifested to us than by diligent inquiry and search the prophets attained. Still it is not said, they searched after it, but concerning (so the Greek for "of") it. They were already certain of the redemption being about to come. They did not like us fully see, but they desired to see the one and the same Christ whom we fully see in spirit. "As Simeon was anxiously desiring previously, and tranquil in peace only when he had seen Christ, so all the Old Testament saints saw Christ only hidden, and as it were absent--absent not in power and grace, but inasmuch as He was not yet manifested in the flesh" [CALVIN]. The prophets, as private individuals, had to reflect on the hidden and far-reaching sense of their own prophecies; because their words, as prophets, in their public function, were not so much their own as the Spirit's, speaking by and in them: thus Caiaphas. A striking testimony to verbal inspiration; the words which the inspired authors wrote are God's words expressing the mind of the Spirit, which the writers themselves searched into, to fathom the deep and precious meaning, even as the believing readers did. "Searched" implies that they had determinate marks to go by in their search.

JFB: 1Pe 1:10 - the grace that should come unto you Namely, the grace of the New Testament: an earnest of "the grace" of perfected "salvation . . . to be brought at the (second) revelation of Christ." O...

Namely, the grace of the New Testament: an earnest of "the grace" of perfected "salvation . . . to be brought at the (second) revelation of Christ." Old Testament believers also possessed the grace of God; they were children of God, but it was as children in their nonage, so as to be like servants; whereas we enjoy the full privileges of adult sons.

JFB: 1Pe 1:11 - what Greek, "In reference to what, or what manner of time." What expresses the time absolutely: what was to be the era of Messiah's coming; what manner of ...

Greek, "In reference to what, or what manner of time." What expresses the time absolutely: what was to be the era of Messiah's coming; what manner of time; what events and features should characterize the time of His coming. The "or" implies that some of the prophets, if they could not as individuals discover the exact time, searched into its characteristic features and events. The Greek for "time" is the season, the epoch, the fit time in God's purposes.

JFB: 1Pe 1:11 - Spirit of Christ . . . in them (Act 16:7, in oldest manuscripts, "the Spirit of Jesus"; Rev 19:10). So JUSTIN MARTYR says, "Jesus was He who appeared and communed with Moses, Abrah...

(Act 16:7, in oldest manuscripts, "the Spirit of Jesus"; Rev 19:10). So JUSTIN MARTYR says, "Jesus was He who appeared and communed with Moses, Abraham, and the other patriarchs." CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA calls Him "the Prophet of prophets, and Lord of all the prophetical spirit."

JFB: 1Pe 1:11 - did signify "did give intimation."

"did give intimation."

JFB: 1Pe 1:11 - of Greek, "the sufferers (appointed) unto Christ," or foretold in regard to Christ. "Christ," the anointed Mediator, whose sufferings are the price of ou...

Greek, "the sufferers (appointed) unto Christ," or foretold in regard to Christ. "Christ," the anointed Mediator, whose sufferings are the price of our "salvation" (1Pe 1:9-10), and who is the channel of "the grace that should come unto you."

JFB: 1Pe 1:11 - the glory Greek, "glories," namely, of His resurrection, of His ascension, of His judgment and coming kingdom, the necessary consequence of the sufferings.

Greek, "glories," namely, of His resurrection, of His ascension, of His judgment and coming kingdom, the necessary consequence of the sufferings.

JFB: 1Pe 1:11 - that should follow Greek, "after these (sufferings)," 1Pe 3:18-22; 1Pe 5:1. Since "the Spirit of Christ" is the Spirit of God, Christ is God. It is only because the Son ...

Greek, "after these (sufferings)," 1Pe 3:18-22; 1Pe 5:1. Since "the Spirit of Christ" is the Spirit of God, Christ is God. It is only because the Son of God was to become our Christ that He manifested Himself and the Father through Him in the Old Testament, and by the Holy Spirit, eternally proceeding from the Father and Himself, spake in the prophets.

JFB: 1Pe 1:12 - -- Not only was the future revealed to them, but this also, that these revelations of the future were given them not for themselves, but for our good in ...

Not only was the future revealed to them, but this also, that these revelations of the future were given them not for themselves, but for our good in Gospel times. This, so far from disheartening, only quickened them in unselfishly testifying in the Spirit for the partial good of their own generation (only of believers), and for the full benefit of posterity. Contrast in Gospel times, Rev 22:10. Not that their prophecies were unattended with spiritual instruction as to the Redeemer to their own generation, but the full light was not to be given till Messiah should come; it was well that they should have this "revealed" to them, lest they should be disheartened in not clearly discovering with all their inquiry and search the full particulars of the coming "salvation." To Daniel (Dan 9:25-26) the "time" was revealed. Our immense privileges are thus brought forth by contrast with theirs, notwithstanding that they had the great honor of Christ's Spirit speaking in them; and this, as an incentive to still greater earnestness on our part than even they manifested (1Pe 1:13, &c.).

JFB: 1Pe 1:12 - us The oldest manuscripts read "you," as in 1Pe 1:10. This verse implies that we, Christians, may understand the prophecies by the Spirit's aid in their ...

The oldest manuscripts read "you," as in 1Pe 1:10. This verse implies that we, Christians, may understand the prophecies by the Spirit's aid in their most important part, namely, so far as they have been already fulfilled.

JFB: 1Pe 1:12 - with the Holy Ghost sent down On Pentecost. The oldest manuscripts omit Greek preposition en, that is, "in"; then translate, "by." The Evangelists speaking by the Holy Spirit were ...

On Pentecost. The oldest manuscripts omit Greek preposition en, that is, "in"; then translate, "by." The Evangelists speaking by the Holy Spirit were infallible witnesses. "The Spirit of Christ" was in the prophets also (1Pe 1:11), but not manifestly, as in the case of the Christian Church and its first preachers, "SENT down from heaven." How favored are we in being ministered to, as to "salvation," by prophets and apostles alike, the latter now announcing the same things as actually fulfilled which the former foretold.

JFB: 1Pe 1:12 - which things "the things now reported unto you" by the evangelistic preachers "Christ's sufferings and the glory that should follow" (1Pe 1:11-12).

"the things now reported unto you" by the evangelistic preachers "Christ's sufferings and the glory that should follow" (1Pe 1:11-12).

JFB: 1Pe 1:12 - angels Still higher than "the prophets" (1Pe 1:10). Angels do not any more than ourselves possess an INTUITIVE knowledge of redemption. "To look into" in Gre...

Still higher than "the prophets" (1Pe 1:10). Angels do not any more than ourselves possess an INTUITIVE knowledge of redemption. "To look into" in Greek is literally, "to bend over so as to look deeply into and see to the bottom of a thing." See on Jam 1:25, on same word. As the cherubim stood bending over the mercy seat, the emblem of redemption, in the holiest place, so the angels intently gaze upon and desire to fathom the depths of "the great mystery of godliness, God manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels" (1Ti 3:16). Their "ministry to the heirs of salvation" naturally disposes them to wish to penetrate this mystery as reflecting such glory on the love, justice, wisdom, and power of their and our God and Lord. They can know it only through its manifestation in the Church, as they personally have not the direct share in it that we have. "Angels have only the contrast between good and evil, without the power of conversion from sin to righteousness: witnessing such conversion in the Church, they long to penetrate the knowledge of the means whereby it is brought about" [HOFMAN in ALFORD].

JFB: 1Pe 1:13 - Wherefore Seeing that the prophets ministered unto you in these high Gospel privileges which they did not themselves fully share in, though "searching" into the...

Seeing that the prophets ministered unto you in these high Gospel privileges which they did not themselves fully share in, though "searching" into them, and seeing that even angels "desire to look into" them, how earnest you ought to be and watchful in respect to them!

JFB: 1Pe 1:13 - gird up . . . loins Referring to Christ's own words, Luk 12:35; an image taken from the way in which the Israelites ate the passover with the loose outer robe girded up a...

Referring to Christ's own words, Luk 12:35; an image taken from the way in which the Israelites ate the passover with the loose outer robe girded up about the waist with a girdle, as ready for a journey. Workmen, pilgrims, runners, wrestlers, and warriors (all of whom are types of the Christians), so gird themselves up, both to shorten the garment so as not to impede motion, and to gird up the body itself so as to be braced for action. The believer is to have his mind (mental powers) collected and always ready for Christ's coming. "Gather in the strength of your spirit" [HENSLER]. Sobriety, that is, spiritual self-restraint, lest one be overcome by the allurements of the world and of sense, and patient hopeful waiting for Christ's revelation, are the true ways of "girding up the loins of the mind."

JFB: 1Pe 1:13 - to the end Rather, "perfectly," so that there may be nothing deficient in your hope, no casting away of your confidence. Still, there may be an allusion to the "...

Rather, "perfectly," so that there may be nothing deficient in your hope, no casting away of your confidence. Still, there may be an allusion to the "end" mentioned in 1Pe 1:9. Hope so perfectly (Greek, "teleios") as to reach unto the end (telos) of your faith and hope, namely, "the grace that is being brought unto you in (so the Greek) the revelation of Christ." As grace shall then be perfected, so you ought to hope perfectly. "Hope" is repeated from 1Pe 1:3. The two appearances are but different stages of the ONE great revelation of Christ, comprising the New Testament from the beginning to the end.

JFB: 1Pe 1:14 - -- From sobriety of spirit and endurance of hope Peter passes to obedience, holiness, and reverential fear.

From sobriety of spirit and endurance of hope Peter passes to obedience, holiness, and reverential fear.

JFB: 1Pe 1:14 - As Marking their present actual character as "born again" (1Pe 1:3, 1Pe 1:22).

Marking their present actual character as "born again" (1Pe 1:3, 1Pe 1:22).

JFB: 1Pe 1:14 - obedient children Greek, "children of obedience": children to whom obedience is their characteristic and ruling nature, as a child is of the same nature as the mother a...

Greek, "children of obedience": children to whom obedience is their characteristic and ruling nature, as a child is of the same nature as the mother and father. Contrast Eph 5:6, "the children of disobedience." Compare 1Pe 1:17, "obeying the Father" whose "children" ye are. Having the obedience of faith (compare 1Pe 1:22) and so of practice (compare 1Pe 1:16, 1Pe 1:18). "Faith is the highest obedience, because discharged to the highest command" [LUTHER].

JFB: 1Pe 1:14 - fashioning The outward fashion (Greek, "schema") is fleeting, and merely on the surface. The "form," or conformation in the New Testament, is something deeper an...

The outward fashion (Greek, "schema") is fleeting, and merely on the surface. The "form," or conformation in the New Testament, is something deeper and more perfect and essential.

JFB: 1Pe 1:14 - the former lusts in Which were characteristic of your state of ignorance of God: true of both Jews and Gentiles. The sanctification is first described negatively (1Pe 1:1...

Which were characteristic of your state of ignorance of God: true of both Jews and Gentiles. The sanctification is first described negatively (1Pe 1:14, "not fashioning yourselves," &c.; the putting off the old man, even in the outward fashion, as well as in the inward conformation), then positively (1Pe 1:15, putting on the new man, compare Eph 4:22, Eph 4:24). "Lusts" flow from the original birth-sin (inherited from our first parents, who by self-willed desire brought sin into the world), the lust which, ever since man has been alienated from God, seeks to fill up with earthly things the emptiness of his being; the manifold forms which the mother-lust assumes are called in the plural lusts. In the regenerate, as far as the new man is concerned, which constitutes his truest self, "sin" no longer exists; but in the flesh or old man it does. Hence arises the conflict, uninterruptedly maintained through life, wherein the new man in the main prevails, and at last completely. But the natural man knows only the combat of his lusts with one another, or with the law, without power to conquer them.

JFB: 1Pe 1:15 - -- Literally, "But (rather) after the pattern of Him who hath called you (whose characteristic is that He is) holy, be (Greek, 'become') ye yourselves al...

Literally, "But (rather) after the pattern of Him who hath called you (whose characteristic is that He is) holy, be (Greek, 'become') ye yourselves also holy." God is our grand model. God's calling is a frequently urged motive in Peter's Epistles. Every one that begets, begets an offspring resembling himself [EPIPHANIUS]. "Let the acts of the offspring indicate similarity to the Father" [AUGUSTINE].

JFB: 1Pe 1:15 - conversation Deportment, course of life: one's way of going about, as distinguished from one's internal nature, to which it must outwardly correspond. Christians a...

Deportment, course of life: one's way of going about, as distinguished from one's internal nature, to which it must outwardly correspond. Christians are already holy unto God by consecration; they must be so also in their outward walk and behavior in all respects. The outward must correspond to the inward man.

JFB: 1Pe 1:16 - -- Scripture is the true source of all authority in questions of doctrine and practice.

Scripture is the true source of all authority in questions of doctrine and practice.

JFB: 1Pe 1:16 - Be ye . . . for I am It is I with whom ye have to do. Ye are mine. Therefore abstain from Gentile pollutions. We are too prone to have respect unto men [CALVIN]. As I am t...

It is I with whom ye have to do. Ye are mine. Therefore abstain from Gentile pollutions. We are too prone to have respect unto men [CALVIN]. As I am the fountain of holiness, being holy in My essence, be ye therefore zealous to be partakers of holiness, that ye may be as I also am [DIDYMUS]. God is essentially holy: the creature is holy in so far as it is sanctified by God. God, in giving the command, is willing to give also the power to obey it, namely, through the sanctifying of the Spirit (1Pe 1:2).

JFB: 1Pe 1:17 - if ye call on That is, "seeing that ye call on," for all the regenerate pray as children of God, "Our Father who art in heaven" (Mat 6:9; Luk 11:2).

That is, "seeing that ye call on," for all the regenerate pray as children of God, "Our Father who art in heaven" (Mat 6:9; Luk 11:2).

JFB: 1Pe 1:17 - the Father Rather, "Call upon as Father Him who without acceptance of persons (Act 10:34; Rom 2:11; Jam 2:1, not accepting the Jew above the Gentile, 2Ch 19:7; L...

Rather, "Call upon as Father Him who without acceptance of persons (Act 10:34; Rom 2:11; Jam 2:1, not accepting the Jew above the Gentile, 2Ch 19:7; Luk 20:21; properly said of a judge not biassed in judgment by respect of persons) judgeth," &c. The Father judgeth by His Son, His Representative, exercising His delegated authority (Joh 5:22). This marks the harmonious and complete unity of the Trinity.

JFB: 1Pe 1:17 - work Each man's work is one complete whole, whether good or bad. The particular works of each are manifestations of the general character of his lifework, ...

Each man's work is one complete whole, whether good or bad. The particular works of each are manifestations of the general character of his lifework, whether it was of faith and love whereby alone we can please God and escape condemnation.

JFB: 1Pe 1:17 - pass Greek, "conduct yourselves during."

Greek, "conduct yourselves during."

JFB: 1Pe 1:17 - sojourning The outward state of the Jews in their dispersion is an emblem of the sojourner-like state of all believers in this world, away from our true Fatherla...

The outward state of the Jews in their dispersion is an emblem of the sojourner-like state of all believers in this world, away from our true Fatherland.

JFB: 1Pe 1:17 - fear Reverential, not slavish. He who is your Father, is also your Judge--a thought which may well inspire reverential fear. THEOPHYLACT observes, A double...

Reverential, not slavish. He who is your Father, is also your Judge--a thought which may well inspire reverential fear. THEOPHYLACT observes, A double fear is mentioned in Scripture: (1) elementary, causing one to become serious; (2) perfective: the latter is here the motive by which Peter urges them as sons of God to be obedient. Fear is not here opposed to assurance, but to carnal security: fear producing vigilant caution lest we offend God and backslide. "Fear and hope flow from the same fountain: fear prevents us from falling away from hope" [BENGEL]. Though love has no fear IN it, yet in our present state of imperfect love, it needs to have fear going ALONG WITH It as a subordinate principle. This fear drowns all other fears. The believer fears God, and so has none else to fear. Not to fear God is the greatest baseness and folly. The martyrs' more than mere human courage flowed from this.

JFB: 1Pe 1:18 - -- Another motive to reverential, vigilant fear (1Pe 1:17) of displeasing God, the consideration of the costly price of our redemption from sin. Observe,...

Another motive to reverential, vigilant fear (1Pe 1:17) of displeasing God, the consideration of the costly price of our redemption from sin. Observe, it is we who are bought by the blood of Christ, not heaven. The blood of Christ is not in Scripture said to buy heaven for us: heaven is the "inheritance" (1Pe 1:4) given to us as sons, by the promise of God.

JFB: 1Pe 1:18 - corruptible Compare 1Pe 1:7, "gold that perisheth," 1Pe 1:23.

Compare 1Pe 1:7, "gold that perisheth," 1Pe 1:23.

JFB: 1Pe 1:18 - silver and gold Greek, "or." Compare Peter's own words, Act 3:6 : an undesigned coincidence.

Greek, "or." Compare Peter's own words, Act 3:6 : an undesigned coincidence.

JFB: 1Pe 1:18 - redeemed Gold and silver being liable to corruption themselves, can free no one from spiritual and bodily death; they are therefore of too little value. Contra...

Gold and silver being liable to corruption themselves, can free no one from spiritual and bodily death; they are therefore of too little value. Contrast 1Pe 1:19, Christ's "precious blood." The Israelites were ransomed with half a shekel each, which went towards purchasing the lamb for the daily sacrifice (Exo 30:12-16; compare Num 3:44-51). But the Lamb who redeems the spiritual Israelites does so "without money or price." Devoted by sin to the justice of God, the Church of the first-born is redeemed from sin and the curse with Christ's precious blood (Mat 20:28; 1Ti 2:6; Tit 2:14; Rev 5:9). In all these passages there is the idea of substitution, the giving of one for another by way of a ransom or equivalent. Man is "sold under sin" as a slave; shut up under condemnation and the curse. The ransom was, therefore, paid to the righteously incensed Judge, and was accepted as a vicarious satisfaction for our sin by God, inasmuch as it was His own love as well as righteousness which appointed it. An Israelite sold as a bond-servant for debt might be redeemed by one of his brethren. As, therefore, we could not redeem ourselves, Christ assumed our nature in order to become our nearest of kin and brother, and so our God or Redeemer. Holiness is the natural fruit of redemption "from our vain conversation"; for He by whom we are redeemed is also He for whom we are redeemed. "Without the righteous abolition of the curse, either there could be found no deliverance, or, what is impossible, the grace and righteousness of God must have come in collision" [STEIGER]; but now, Christ having borne the curse of our sin, frees from it those who are made God's children by His Spirit.

JFB: 1Pe 1:18 - vain Self-deceiving, unreal, and unprofitable: promising good which it does not perform. Compare as to the Gentiles, Act 14:15; Rom 1:21; Eph 4:17; as to h...

Self-deceiving, unreal, and unprofitable: promising good which it does not perform. Compare as to the Gentiles, Act 14:15; Rom 1:21; Eph 4:17; as to human philosophers, 1Co 3:20; as to the disobedient Jews, Jer 4:14.

JFB: 1Pe 1:18 - conversation Course of life. To know what our sin is we must know what it cost.

Course of life. To know what our sin is we must know what it cost.

JFB: 1Pe 1:18 - received by tradition from your fathers The Jews' traditions. "Human piety is a vain blasphemy, and the greatest sin that a man can commit" [LUTHER]. There is only one Father to be imitated,...

The Jews' traditions. "Human piety is a vain blasphemy, and the greatest sin that a man can commit" [LUTHER]. There is only one Father to be imitated, 1Pe 1:17; compare Mat 23:9, the same antithesis [BENGEL].

JFB: 1Pe 1:19 - precious Of inestimable value. The Greek order is, "With precious blood, as of a lamb without blemish (in itself) and without spot (contracted by contact with ...

Of inestimable value. The Greek order is, "With precious blood, as of a lamb without blemish (in itself) and without spot (contracted by contact with others), (even the blood) of Christ." Though very man, He remained pure in Himself ("without blemish"), and uninfected by any impression of sin from without ("without spot"), which would have unfitted Him for being our atoning Redeemer: so the passover lamb, and every sacrificial victim; so too, the Church, the Bride, by her union with Him. As Israel's redemption from Egypt required the blood of the paschal lamb, so our redemption from sin and the curse required the blood of Christ; "foreordained" (1Pe 1:20) from eternity, as the passover lamb was taken up on the tenth day of the month.

JFB: 1Pe 1:20 - -- God's eternal foreordination of Christ's redeeming sacrifice, and completion of it in these last times for us, are an additional obligation on us to o...

God's eternal foreordination of Christ's redeeming sacrifice, and completion of it in these last times for us, are an additional obligation on us to our maintaining a holy walk, considering how great things have been thus done for us. Peter's language in the history corresponds with this here: an undesigned coincidence and mark of genuineness. Redemption was no afterthought, or remedy of an unforeseen evil, devised at the time of its arising. God's foreordaining of the Redeemer refutes the slander that, on the Christian theory, there is a period of four thousand years of nothing but an incensed God. God chose us in Christ before the foundation of the world (Eph 1:4).

JFB: 1Pe 1:20 - manifest In His incarnation in the fulness of the time. He existed from eternity before He was manifested.

In His incarnation in the fulness of the time. He existed from eternity before He was manifested.

JFB: 1Pe 1:20 - in these last times 1Co 10:11, "the ends of the world." This last dispensation, made up of "times" marked by great changes, but still retaining a general unity, stretche...

1Co 10:11, "the ends of the world." This last dispensation, made up of "times" marked by great changes, but still retaining a general unity, stretches from Christ's ascension to His coming to judgment.

JFB: 1Pe 1:21 - by him Compare "the faith which is by Him," Act 3:16. Through Christ: His Spirit, obtained for us in His resurrection and ascension, enabling us to believe. ...

Compare "the faith which is by Him," Act 3:16. Through Christ: His Spirit, obtained for us in His resurrection and ascension, enabling us to believe. This verse excludes all who do not "by Him believe in God," and includes all of every age and clime that do. Literally, "are believers in God." "To believe IN (Greek, 'eis') God" expresses an internal trust: "by believing to love God, going INTO Him, and cleaving to Him, incorporated into His members. By this faith the ungodly is justified, so that thenceforth faith itself begins to work by love" [P. LOMBARD]. To believe ON (Greek, "epi," or dative case) God expresses the confidence, which grounds itself on God, reposing on Him. "Faith IN (Greek, 'en') His blood" (Rom 3:25) implies that His blood is the element IN which faith has its proper and abiding place. Compare with this verse, Act 20:21, "Repentance toward (Greek, 'eis,' 'into,' turning towards and going into) God and faith toward (Greek, 'eis,' 'into') Christ": where, as there is but one article to both repentance and faith, the two are inseparably joined as together forming one truth; where "repentance" is, there "faith" is; when one knows God the Father spiritually, then he must know the Son by whom alone we can come to the Father. In Christ we have life: if we have not the doctrine of Christ, we have not God. The only living way to God is through Christ and His sacrifice.

JFB: 1Pe 1:21 - that raised him The raising of Jesus by God is the special ground of our "believing": (1) because by it God declared openly His acceptance of Him as our righteous sub...

The raising of Jesus by God is the special ground of our "believing": (1) because by it God declared openly His acceptance of Him as our righteous substitute; (2) because by it and His glorification He received power, namely, the Holy Spirit, to impart to His elect "faith": the same power enabling us to believe as raised Him from the dead. Our faith must not only be IN Christ, but BY and THROUGH Christ. "Since in Christ's resurrection and consequent dominion our safety is grounded, there 'faith' and 'hope' find their stay" [CALVIN].

JFB: 1Pe 1:21 - that your faith and hope might be in God The object and effect of God's raising Christ. He states what was the actual result and fact, not an exhortation, except indirectly. Your faith flows ...

The object and effect of God's raising Christ. He states what was the actual result and fact, not an exhortation, except indirectly. Your faith flows from His resurrection; your hope from God's having "given Him glory" (compare 1Pe 1:11, "glories"). Remember God's having raised and glorified Jesus as the anchor of your faith and hope in God, and so keep alive these graces. Apart from Christ we could have only feared, not believed and hoped in God. Compare 1Pe 1:3, 1Pe 1:7-9, 1Pe 1:13, on hope in connection with faith; love is introduced in 1Pe 1:22.

JFB: 1Pe 1:22 - purified . . . in obeying the truth Greek, "in your (or 'the') obedience of (that is, 'to') the truth (the Gospel way of salvation)," that is, in the fact of your believing. Faith purifi...

Greek, "in your (or 'the') obedience of (that is, 'to') the truth (the Gospel way of salvation)," that is, in the fact of your believing. Faith purifies the heart as giving it the only pure motive, love to God (Act 15:9; Rom 1:5, "obedience to the faith").

JFB: 1Pe 1:22 - through the Spirit Omitted in the oldest manuscripts. The Holy Spirit is the purifier by bestowing the obedience of faith (1Pe 1:2; 1Co 12:3).

Omitted in the oldest manuscripts. The Holy Spirit is the purifier by bestowing the obedience of faith (1Pe 1:2; 1Co 12:3).

JFB: 1Pe 1:22 - unto With a view to: the proper result of the purifying of your hearts by faith. "For what end must we lead a chaste life? That we may thereby be saved? No...

With a view to: the proper result of the purifying of your hearts by faith. "For what end must we lead a chaste life? That we may thereby be saved? No: but for this, that we may serve our neighbor" [LUTHER].

JFB: 1Pe 1:22 - unfeigned 1Pe 2:1-2, "laying aside . . . hypocrisies . . . sincere."

1Pe 2:1-2, "laying aside . . . hypocrisies . . . sincere."

JFB: 1Pe 1:22 - love of the brethren That is, of Christians. Brotherly love is distinct from common love. "The Christian loves primarily those in Christ; secondarily, all who might be in ...

That is, of Christians. Brotherly love is distinct from common love. "The Christian loves primarily those in Christ; secondarily, all who might be in Christ, namely, all men, as Christ as man died for all, and as he hopes that they, too, may become his Christian brethren" [STEIGER]. BENGEL remarks that as here, so in 2Pe 1:5-7, "brotherly love" is preceded by the purifying graces, "faith, knowledge, and godliness," &c. Love to the brethren is the evidence of our regeneration and justification by faith.

JFB: 1Pe 1:22 - love one another When the purifying by faith into love of the brethren has formed the habit, then the act follows, so that the "love" is at once habit and act.

When the purifying by faith into love of the brethren has formed the habit, then the act follows, so that the "love" is at once habit and act.

JFB: 1Pe 1:22 - with a pure heart The oldest manuscripts read, "(love) from the heart."

The oldest manuscripts read, "(love) from the heart."

JFB: 1Pe 1:22 - fervently Greek, "intensely": with all the powers on the stretch (1Pe 4:8). "Instantly" (Act 26:7).

Greek, "intensely": with all the powers on the stretch (1Pe 4:8). "Instantly" (Act 26:7).

JFB: 1Pe 1:23 - -- Christian brotherhood flows from our new birth of an imperishable seed, the abiding word of God. This is the consideration urged here to lead us to ex...

Christian brotherhood flows from our new birth of an imperishable seed, the abiding word of God. This is the consideration urged here to lead us to exercise brotherly love. As natural relationship gives rise to natural affection, so spiritual relationship gives rise to spiritual, and therefore abiding love, even as the seed from which it springs is abiding, not transitory as earthly things.

JFB: 1Pe 1:23 - of . . . of . . . by "The word of God" is not the material of the spiritual new birth, but its mean or medium. By means of the word the man receives the incorruptible seed...

"The word of God" is not the material of the spiritual new birth, but its mean or medium. By means of the word the man receives the incorruptible seed of the Holy Spirit, and so becomes one "born again": Joh 3:3-5, "born of water and the Spirit": as there is but one Greek article to the two nouns, the close connection of the sign and the grace, or new birth signified is implied. The word is the remote and anterior instrument; baptism, the proximate and sacramental instrument. The word is the instrument in relation to the individual; baptism, in relation to the Church as a society (Jam 1:18). We are born again of the Spirit, yet not without the use of means, but by the word of God. The word is not the beggeting principle itself, but only that by which it works: the vehicle of the mysterious germinating power [ALFORD].

JFB: 1Pe 1:23 - which liveth and abideth for ever It is because the Spirit of God accompanies it that the word carries in it the germ of life. They who are so born again live and abide for ever, in co...

It is because the Spirit of God accompanies it that the word carries in it the germ of life. They who are so born again live and abide for ever, in contrast to those who sow to the flesh. "The Gospel bears incorruptible fruits, not dead works, because it is itself incorruptible" [BENGEL]. The word is an eternal divine power. For though the voice or speech vanishes, there still remains the kernel, the truth comprehended in the voice. This sinks into the heart and is living; yea, it is God Himself. So God to Moses, Exo 4:12, "I will be with thy mouth" [LUTHER]. The life is in God, yet it is communicated to us through the word. "The Gospel shall never cease, though its ministry shall" [CALOVIUS]. The abiding resurrection glory is always connected with our regeneration by the Spirit. Regeneration beginning with renewing man's soul at the resurrection, passes on to the body, then to the whole world of nature.

JFB: 1Pe 1:24 - -- Scripture proof that the word of God lives for ever, in contrast to man's natural frailty. If ye were born again of flesh, corruptible seed, ye must a...

Scripture proof that the word of God lives for ever, in contrast to man's natural frailty. If ye were born again of flesh, corruptible seed, ye must also perish again as the grass; but now that from which you have derived life remains eternally, and so also will render you eternal.

JFB: 1Pe 1:24 - flesh Man in his mere earthly nature.

Man in his mere earthly nature.

JFB: 1Pe 1:24 - as Omitted in some of the oldest manuscripts.

Omitted in some of the oldest manuscripts.

JFB: 1Pe 1:24 - of man The oldest manuscripts read, "of it" (that is, of the flesh). "The glory" is the wisdom, strength, riches, learning, honor, beauty, art, virtue, and r...

The oldest manuscripts read, "of it" (that is, of the flesh). "The glory" is the wisdom, strength, riches, learning, honor, beauty, art, virtue, and righteousness of the NATURAL man (expressed by "flesh"), which all are transitory (Joh 3:6), not OF MAN (as English Version reads) absolutely, for the glory of man, in his true ideal realized in the believer, is eternal.

JFB: 1Pe 1:24 - withereth Greek, aorist: literally, "withered," that is, is withered as a thing of the past. So also the Greek for "falleth" is "fell away," that is, is fallen ...

Greek, aorist: literally, "withered," that is, is withered as a thing of the past. So also the Greek for "falleth" is "fell away," that is, is fallen away: it no sooner is than it is gone.

JFB: 1Pe 1:24 - thereof Omitted in the best manuscripts and versions. "The grass" is the flesh: "the flower" its glory.

Omitted in the best manuscripts and versions. "The grass" is the flesh: "the flower" its glory.

JFB: 1Pe 1:25 - -- (Psa 119:89.)

JFB: 1Pe 1:25 - this is the word . . . preached unto you That is eternal which is born of incorruptible seed (1Pe 1:24): but ye have received the incorruptible seed, the word (1Pe 1:25); therefore ye are bor...

That is eternal which is born of incorruptible seed (1Pe 1:24): but ye have received the incorruptible seed, the word (1Pe 1:25); therefore ye are born for eternity, and so are bound now to live for eternity (1Pe 1:22-23). Ye have not far to look for the word; it is among you, even the joyful Gospel message which we preach. Doubt not that the Gospel preached to you by our brother Paul, and which ye have embraced, is the eternal truth. Thus the oneness of Paul's and Peter's creed appears. See my Introduction, showing Peter addresses some of the same churches as Paul labored among and wrote to.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:1 - Peter, an apostle Peter, an apostle - Simon Peter, called also Kephas: he was a fisherman, son of Jonah, brother of Andrew, and born at Bethsaida; and one of the firs...

Peter, an apostle - Simon Peter, called also Kephas: he was a fisherman, son of Jonah, brother of Andrew, and born at Bethsaida; and one of the first disciples of our Lord. See the preface

Clarke: 1Pe 1:1 - The strangers scattered throughout The strangers scattered throughout - Jews first, who had believed the Gospel in the different countries here specified; and converted Gentiles also....

The strangers scattered throughout - Jews first, who had believed the Gospel in the different countries here specified; and converted Gentiles also. Though the word strangers may refer to all truly religious people, see Gen 47:9; Psa 39:12, in the Septuagint, and Heb 11:13, yet the inscription may have a special reference to those who were driven by persecution to seek refuge in those heathen provinces to which the influence of their persecuting brethren did not extend

Clarke: 1Pe 1:1 - Pontus Pontus - An ancient kingdom of Asia Minor, originally a part of Cappadocia; bounded on the east by Colchis, on the west by the river Halys, on the n...

Pontus - An ancient kingdom of Asia Minor, originally a part of Cappadocia; bounded on the east by Colchis, on the west by the river Halys, on the north by the Euxine Sea, and on the south by Armenia Minor. This country probably derived its name from the Pontus Euxinus, on which it was partly situated. In the time of the Roman emperors it was divided into three parts

1.    Pontus Cappadocius

2.    Pontus Galaticus; and

3.    Pontus Polemoniacus

The first extended from the Pontus Polemoniacus to Colchis, having Armenia Minor and the upper stream of the Euphrates for its southern boundary. The second extended from the river Halys to the river Thermodon. The third extended from the river Thermodon to the borders of the Pontus Cappadocius

Six kings of the name of Mithridates reigned in this kingdom, some of whom are famous in history. The last king of this country was David Comnenus, who was taken prisoner, with all his family, by Mohammed II. in the year 1462, and carried to Constantinople; since which time this country (then called the empire of Trebizond, from Trapezas, a city founded by the Grecians, on the uttermost confines of Pontus) has continued under the degrading power of the Turks

Clarke: 1Pe 1:1 - Galatia Galatia - The ancient name of a province of Asia Minor, now called Amasia. It was called also Gallograecia, and Gallia Parva. It was bounded on the ...

Galatia - The ancient name of a province of Asia Minor, now called Amasia. It was called also Gallograecia, and Gallia Parva. It was bounded on the east by Cappadocia, on the south by Pamphylia, on the north by the Euxine Sea, and on the west by Bithynia. See the preface to the Epistle to the Galatians

Clarke: 1Pe 1:1 - Cappadocia Cappadocia - An ancient kingdom of Asia, comprehending all the country lying between Mount Taurus and the Euxine Sea

Cappadocia - An ancient kingdom of Asia, comprehending all the country lying between Mount Taurus and the Euxine Sea

Clarke: 1Pe 1:1 - Asia Asia - This word is taken in different senses: It signifies 1.    One of the three general divisions of our continent, and one of the...

Asia - This word is taken in different senses: It signifies

1.    One of the three general divisions of our continent, and one of the four of the whole earth. It is separated from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea, the Archipelago, the Black Sea, the Palus Maeolis, the rivers Don and Dwina; and from Africa by the Arabic Gulf, or Red Sea: it is everywhere else surrounded by water. It is situated between latitude 2° and 77° N., and between longitude 26° E. and 170° W.; and is about 7, 583 miles in length, and 5, 200 miles in breadth

2.    Asia Minor, that part of Turkey in Asia, now called Natolia, which comprehends a great number of province situated between the Euxine, Mediterranean, and Archipelago

3.    That province of Asia Minor of which Ephesus was the capital. It appears, says Calmet, that it is in this latter sense that it is used here by St. Peter, because Pontus, Galatia, and Bithynia, are comprised in the provinces of Asia Minor. See Calmet

Clarke: 1Pe 1:1 - Bithynia Bithynia - An ancient kingdom of Asia, formerly called Mysia, Mygdonia, Bebrycia, and Bithonia. It was bounded on the west by the Bosphorus, Thraciu...

Bithynia - An ancient kingdom of Asia, formerly called Mysia, Mygdonia, Bebrycia, and Bithonia. It was bounded on the west by the Bosphorus, Thracius, and part of the Propontis, on the south by the river Rhyndacus, and Mount Olympus, on the north by the Euxine Sea, and on the east by the river Parthenius. This place is in some sort rendered infamous by the conduct of Prusias, one of its kings, who delivered up Hannibal, who had fled to him for protection, into the hands of the Romans. Nicomedes IV. bequeathed it to the Romans; and it is now in the hands of the Turks.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:2 - Elect according to the foreknowledge of God Elect according to the foreknowledge of God - If the apostle had directed his letter to persons elected to eternal life, no one, as Drs. Lardner and...

Elect according to the foreknowledge of God - If the apostle had directed his letter to persons elected to eternal life, no one, as Drs. Lardner and Macknight properly argue, could have received such a letter, because no one could have been sure of his election in this way till he had arrived in heaven. But the persons to whom the apostle wrote were all, with propriety, said to be elect according to the foreknowledge of God; because, agreeably to the original purpose of God, discovered in the prophetical writings, Jews and Gentiles, indiscriminately, were called to be the visible Church, and entitled to all the privileges of the people of God, on their believing the Gospel. In this sense the word elected is used in other places of Scripture; see 1Th 1:4, and the note there

The Rev. J. Wesley has an excellent note on this passage, which I shall transcribe for the benefit of those of my readers who may not have his works at hand

"Strictly speaking, there is no foreknowledge, no more than afterknowledge, with God; but all things are known to him as present, from eternity to eternity. Election, in the scriptural sense, is God’ s doing any thing that our merit or power has no part in. The true predestination or foreappointment of God is

1.    He that believeth shall be saved from the guilt and power of sin

2.    He that endureth to the end shall be saved eternally

3.    They who receive the precious gift of faith thereby become the sons of God; and, being sons, they shall receive the Spirit of holiness, to walk as Christ also walked

Throughout every part of this appointment of God, promise and duty go hand in hand. All is free gift; and yet, such is the gift, that it depends in the final issue on our future obedience to the heavenly call. But other predestination than this, either to life or death eternal, the Scripture knows not of: moreover

1.    It is cruel respect of persons; an unjust regard of one, and an unjust disregard of another: it is mere creature partiality, and not infinite justice

2.    It is not plain Scripture doctrine, (if true), but rather inconsistent with the express written word that speaks of God’ s universal offers of grace; his invitations, promises, threatenings, being all general

3.    We are bid to choose life, and reprehended for not doing it

4.    It is inconsistent with a state of probation in those that must be saved, or must be lost

5.    It is of fatal consequence; all men being ready, on very slight grounds, to fancy themselves of the elect number

But the doctrine of predestination is entirely changed from what it formerly was: now it implies neither faith, peace, nor purity; it is something that will do without them all. Faith is no longer, according to the modern predestination scheme, a Divine evidence of things not seen wrought in the soul by the immediate power of the Holy Ghost; not an evidence at all, but a mere notion: neither is faith made any longer a means of holiness, but something that will do without it. Christ is no more a Savior from sin, but a defense and a countenancer of it. He is no more a fountain of spiritual life in the souls of believers, but leaves his elect inwardly dry, and outwardly unfruitful; and is made little more than a refuge from the image of the heavenly, even from righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.

Through sanctification of the Spirit - through the renewing and purifying influences of his Spirit on their souls, unto obedience - to engage and enable them to yield themselves up to all holy obedience, the foundation of all which is the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ - the atoning blood of Jesus Christ which was typified by the sprinkling of the blood of sacrifices under the law, in allusion to which it is called the blood of sprinkling.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:3 - Blessed be the God and Father Blessed be the God and Father - Ευλογητος ὁ Θεος και Πατηρ· Blessed be God even the Father, or blessed be God, the Father...

Blessed be the God and Father - Ευλογητος ὁ Θεος και Πατηρ· Blessed be God even the Father, or blessed be God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. The και, and, is omitted by the Syriac, Erpen’ s Arabic, and the Ethiopic. But if we translate και, even, a meaning which it frequently has in the New Testament, then we have a very good sense: Let that God have praise who is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and who deserves the praise of every human being for his infinite mercy to the world, in its redemption by Christ Jesus

Clarke: 1Pe 1:3 - Begotten us again unto a lively hope Begotten us again unto a lively hope - I think the apostle has a reference here to his own case, and that of his fellow apostles, at the time that C...

Begotten us again unto a lively hope - I think the apostle has a reference here to his own case, and that of his fellow apostles, at the time that Christ was taken by the Jews and put to death. Previously to this time they had strong confidence that he was the Messiah, and that it was he who should redeem Israel; but when they found that he actually expired upon the cross, and was buried, they appear to have lost all hope of the great things which before they had in prospect. This is feelingly expressed by the two disciples whom our Lord, after his resurrection, overtook on the road going to Emmaus, see Luk 24:13-24. And the hope, that with them, died with their Master, and seemed to be buried in his grave, was restored by the certainty of his resurrection. From Christ’ s preaching, miracles, etc., they had a hope of eternal life, and all other blessings promised by him; by his death and burial this hope became nearly, if not altogether, extinct; but by his resurrection the hope was revived. This is very properly expressed here by being begotten again to a living hope, εις ελπιδα ζωσαν·, as some MSS. and versions have it, εις ελπιδα ζωης, to the hope of life; which one copy of the Itala, with Augustine, Gildas, Vigilius of Tapsum, and Cassiodorus, have considered as meaning eternal life, agreeably to the context; and therefore they read vitae aeternae

The expressions, however, may include more particulars than what are above specified; as none can inherit eternal life except those who are children in the heavenly family, and none are children but those who are born again: then St. Peter may be considered as laying here the foundation of the hope of eternal life in the regeneration of the soul; for none can legally inherit but the children, and none are children of God till they are spiritually begotten and born again

It is the Gospel alone that gives the well grounded hope of eternal life; and the ground on which this hope rests is the resurrection of Christ himself. The certainty of our Lord’ s resurrection is the great seal of the Gospel. Without this what is vision, what is prophecy, what is promise, what are even miracles, to that unbelief which is natural to man on such a subject as this? But the resurrection of the human nature of Christ, the incontestable proofs of this resurrection, and the ascension of our nature to heaven in his person, are such evidences of the possibility and certainty of the thing, as for ever to preclude all doubt from the hearts of those who believe in him.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:4 - To an inheritance To an inheritance - Called an inheritance because it belongs to the children of God. Eternal life cannot be a gift to any but these; for, even in he...

To an inheritance - Called an inheritance because it belongs to the children of God. Eternal life cannot be a gift to any but these; for, even in heaven, the lot is dealt out according to law: if children, then heirs; if not children, then not heirs

Clarke: 1Pe 1:4 - Incorruptible Incorruptible - Αφθαρτον· It has no principles of dissolution or decay in it; and, therefore, must be totally different from this earth

Incorruptible - Αφθαρτον· It has no principles of dissolution or decay in it; and, therefore, must be totally different from this earth

Clarke: 1Pe 1:4 - Undefiled Undefiled - Αμιαντον· Nothing impure can enter it; it not only has no principles or seeds of dissolution in itself, but it can never admi...

Undefiled - Αμιαντον· Nothing impure can enter it; it not only has no principles or seeds of dissolution in itself, but it can never admit any; therefore its deterioration is impossible

Clarke: 1Pe 1:4 - Fadeth not away Fadeth not away - Αμαρνατον· It cannot wither, it is always in bloom; a metaphor taken from those flowers that never lose their hue nor ...

Fadeth not away - Αμαρνατον· It cannot wither, it is always in bloom; a metaphor taken from those flowers that never lose their hue nor their fragrance. From the Greek αμαραντος we have our flowers called amaranths, because they preserve their hue and odour for a long time

Clarke: 1Pe 1:4 - Reserved in heaven Reserved in heaven - Such a place as that described above is not to be expected on earth; it is that which was typified by the earthly Canaan, and i...

Reserved in heaven - Such a place as that described above is not to be expected on earth; it is that which was typified by the earthly Canaan, and in reference to which the patriarchs endured all trials and difficulties in this life, as seeing Him who is invisible.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:5 - Who are kept Who are kept - Φρουρουμενους· Who are defended as in a fortress or castle. There is a remarkable correspondence between the two verb...

Who are kept - Φρουρουμενους· Who are defended as in a fortress or castle. There is a remarkable correspondence between the two verbs used in this sentence: the verb τηρεω, signifies to keep, watch, guard; and τηρησις, is a place of custody or prison. And φρουρεω, from φρουρος, a sentinel, signifies to keep as under a military guard. See on Gal 3:22, Gal 3:23. The true disciples of Christ are under the continual watchful care of God, and the inheritance is guarded for them. In some countries military posts are constantly kept on the confines, in order to prevent irruptions from a neighboring people; and, in many cases, heirs, while in their minority, are kept in fortified places under military guards

Clarke: 1Pe 1:5 - By the power of God By the power of God - Εν δυναμει Θεου· By the mighty and miracle-working power of God; for nothing less is necessary to keep and pre...

By the power of God - Εν δυναμει Θεου· By the mighty and miracle-working power of God; for nothing less is necessary to keep and preserve, in this state of continual trial, a soul from the contagion that is in the world. But this power of God is interested in the behalf of the soul by faith; to believe is our work, the exertion of the almighty power is of God. No persevering without the power, and no power without faith

Clarke: 1Pe 1:5 - Ready to be revealed Ready to be revealed - Or rather, Prepared to be revealed. The inheritance is prepared for you; but its glories will not be revealed till the last t...

Ready to be revealed - Or rather, Prepared to be revealed. The inheritance is prepared for you; but its glories will not be revealed till the last time - till ye have done with life, and passed through your probation, having held fast faith and a good conscience. Some by salvation understand the deliverance of the Christians from the sackage of Jerusalem, the end of the Jewish polity being called the last time; others suppose it to refer to the day of judgment, and the glorification of the body and soul in heaven.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:6 - Wherein ye greatly rejoice Wherein ye greatly rejoice - Some refer wherein, εν ᾡ, to the salvation mentioned above; others, to the last time, καιρῳ εσχατ...

Wherein ye greatly rejoice - Some refer wherein, εν ᾡ, to the salvation mentioned above; others, to the last time, καιρῳ εσχατῳ, in 1Pe 1:5; others think that it applies to the being kept by the power of God through faith; and others, that it refers to all the preceding advantages and privileges. It was in the present salvation of God that they rejoiced or gloried, though not without having an eye to the great recompense of reward

Clarke: 1Pe 1:6 - Though now for a season Though now for a season - Ολιγον αρτι· A little while yet - during your pilgrimage here below, which is but a point when compared with ...

Though now for a season - Ολιγον αρτι· A little while yet - during your pilgrimage here below, which is but a point when compared with eternity

Clarke: 1Pe 1:6 - If need be If need be - Ει δεον εστι· If it be necessary - if your situation and circumstances be such that you are exposed to trials and persecut...

If need be - Ει δεον εστι· If it be necessary - if your situation and circumstances be such that you are exposed to trials and persecutions which you cannot avoid, unless God were to work a miracle for your deliverance, which would not be for your ultimate good, as he purposes to turn all your trials and difficulties to your advantage

Sometimes there is a kind of necessity that the followers of God should be afflicted; when they have no trials they are apt to get careless, and when they have secular prosperity they are likely to become worldly-minded. "God,"said a good man, "can neither trust me with health nor money; therefore I am both poor and afflicted."But the disciples of Christ may be very happy in their souls, though grievously afflicted in their bodies and in their estates. Those to whom St. Peter wrote rejoiced greatly, danced for joy, αγαλλιασθε, while they were grieved, λυπηθεντες, with various trials. The verb λυπεω signifies to grieve, to make sorrowful: perhaps heaviness is not the best rendering of the original word, as this can scarcely ever consist with rejoicing; but to be sorrowful on account of something external to ourselves, and yet exulting in God from a sense of his goodness to us, is quite compatible: so that we may say with St. Paul, always sorrowing, yet still rejoicing.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:7 - That the trial of your faith, being much more precious than of gold That the trial of your faith, being much more precious than of gold - As by the action of fire gold is separated from all alloy and heterogeneous mi...

That the trial of your faith, being much more precious than of gold - As by the action of fire gold is separated from all alloy and heterogeneous mixtures, and is proved to be gold by its enduring the action of the fire without losing any thing of its nature, weight, color, or any other property, so genuine faith is proved by adversities, especially such as the primitive Christians were obliged to pass through. For the word was then, "Renounce Jesus and live,""Cleave to him and die;"for every Christian was in continual danger of losing his life. He then who preferred Christianity to his life gave full proof, not only of his own sincerity, but also of the excellency of the principle by which he was influenced; as his religion put him in possession of greater blessings, and more solid comforts, than any thing the earth could afford

Clarke: 1Pe 1:7 - Though it be tried with fire Though it be tried with fire - That is: Though gold will bear the action of the fire for any given time, even millions of years, were they possible,...

Though it be tried with fire - That is: Though gold will bear the action of the fire for any given time, even millions of years, were they possible, without losing the smallest particle of weight or value, yet even gold, in process of time, will wear away by continual use; and the earth, and all its works, will be burnt up by that supernatural fire whose action nothing can resist. But on that day the faith of Christ’ s followers will be found brighter, and more glorious. The earth, and universal nature, shall be dissolved; but he who doeth the will of God shall abide for ever, and his faith shall then be found to the praise of God’ s grace, the honor of Christ, and the glory or glorification of his own soul throughout eternity. God himself will praise such faith, angels and men will hold it in honor, and Christ will crown it with glory. For some remarks on the nature and properties of gold see at the end of the chapter.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:8 - Whom having not seen, ye love Whom having not seen, ye love - Those to whom the apostle wrote had never seen Christ in the flesh; and yet, such is the realizing nature of faith, ...

Whom having not seen, ye love - Those to whom the apostle wrote had never seen Christ in the flesh; and yet, such is the realizing nature of faith, they loved him as strongly as any of his disciples could, to whom he was personally known. For faith in the Lord Jesus brings him into the heart; and by his indwelling all his virtues are proved, and an excellence discovered beyond even that which his disciples beheld, when conversant with him upon earth. In short, there is an equality between believers in the present time, and those who lived in the time of the incarnation; for Christ, to a believing soul, is the same to-day that he was yesterday and will be for ever

Clarke: 1Pe 1:8 - Ye rejoice with joy unspeakable Ye rejoice with joy unspeakable - Ye have unutterable happiness through believing; and ye have the fullest, clearest, strongest evidence of eternal ...

Ye rejoice with joy unspeakable - Ye have unutterable happiness through believing; and ye have the fullest, clearest, strongest evidence of eternal glory. Though they did not see him on earth, and men could not see him in glory, yet by that faith which is the evidence of things not seen, and the subsistence of things hoped for, they had the very highest persuasion of their acceptance with God, their relation to him as their Father, and their sonship with Christ Jesus.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:9 - Receiving the end of your faith Receiving the end of your faith - Ye are put in possession of the salvation of your souls, which was the thing presented to your faith, when ye were...

Receiving the end of your faith - Ye are put in possession of the salvation of your souls, which was the thing presented to your faith, when ye were called by the Gospel of Christ. Your faith has had a proper issue, and has been crowned with a proper recompense. The word τελος, end, is often used so as to imply the issue or reward of any labor or action

Clarke: 1Pe 1:9 - Salvation of your souls Salvation of your souls - The object of the Jewish expectations in their Messiah was the salvation or deliverance of their bodies from a foreign yok...

Salvation of your souls - The object of the Jewish expectations in their Messiah was the salvation or deliverance of their bodies from a foreign yoke; but the true Messiah came to save the soul from the yoke of the devil and sin. This glorious salvation these believers had already received.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:10 - Of which salvation the prophets have inquired Of which salvation the prophets have inquired - The incarnation and suffering of Jesus Christ, and the redemption procured by him for mankind, were ...

Of which salvation the prophets have inquired - The incarnation and suffering of Jesus Christ, and the redemption procured by him for mankind, were made known, in a general way, by the prophets; but they themselves did not know the time when these things were to take place, nor the people among and by whom he was to suffer, etc.; they therefore inquired accurately or earnestly, εξεζητησαν, and searched diligently, εξηρευνησαν, inquiring of others who were then under the same inspiration, and carefully searching the writings of those who had, before their time, spoken of these things. The prophets plainly saw that the grace which was to come under the Messiah’ s kingdom was vastly superior to any thing that had ever been exhibited under the law; and in consequence they made all possible inquiry, and searched as after grains of gold, hidden among sand or compacted with ore, (for such is the meaning of the original word), in order to ascertain the time, and the signs of that time, in which this wondrous display of God’ s love and mercy to man was to take place; but all that God thought fit to instruct them in was what is mentioned 1Pe 1:12.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:11 - The glory that should follow The glory that should follow - Not only the glory of his resurrection, ascension, exaltation, and the effusion of his Spirit; but that grand manifes...

The glory that should follow - Not only the glory of his resurrection, ascension, exaltation, and the effusion of his Spirit; but that grand manifestation of God’ s infinite love to the world in causing the Gospel of his Son to be everywhere preached, and the glorious moral changes which should take place in the world under that preaching, and the final glorification of all them who had here received the report, and continued faithful unto death. And we may add to this the ineffable glorification of the human nature of Jesus Christ, which, throughout eternity, will be the glorious Head of his glorified body, the Church.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:12 - Unto whom it was revealed Unto whom it was revealed - We may presume that, in a great variety of cases, the prophets did not understand the meaning of their own predictions. ...

Unto whom it was revealed - We may presume that, in a great variety of cases, the prophets did not understand the meaning of their own predictions. They had a general view of God’ s designs; but of particular circumstances, connected with those great events, they seem to have known nothing, God reserving the explanation of all particulars to the time of the issue of such prophecies. When they wished to find out the times, the seasons, and the circumstances, God gave them to understand that it was not for themselves, but for us, that they did minister the things which are now reported unto us by the preaching of the Gospel. This was all the satisfaction they received in consequence of their earnest searching; and this was sufficient to repress all needless curiosity, and to induce them to rest satisfied that the Judge of all the earth would do right. If all succeeding interpreters of the prophecies had been contented with the same information relative to the predictions still unaccomplished, we should have had fewer books, and more wisdom

Clarke: 1Pe 1:12 - Angels desire to took into Angels desire to took into - Παρακυψαι· To stoop down to; the posture of those who are earnestly intent on finding out a thing, especial...

Angels desire to took into - Παρακυψαι· To stoop down to; the posture of those who are earnestly intent on finding out a thing, especially a writing difficult to be read; they bring it to the light, place it so that the rays may fall on it as collectively as possible, and then stoop down in order to examine all the parts, that they may be able to make out the whole. There is evidently an allusion here to the attitude of the cherubim who stood at the ends of the ark of the covenant, in the inner tabernacle, with their eyes turned towards the mercy-seat or propitiatory in a bending posture, as if looking attentively, or, as we term it, poring upon it. Even the holy angels are struck with astonishment at the plan of human redemption, and justly wonder at the incarnation of that infinite object of their adoration. If then these things be objects of deep consideration to the angels of God, how much more so should they be to us; in them angels can have no such interest as human beings have

We learn from the above that it was the Spirit of Christ in the Jewish prophets that prophesied of Christ; it was that Spirit which revealed him; and it is the same Spirit which takes of the things of Christ, and shows them unto us. Christ was never known by prophecy, but through his own Spirit; and he never was known, nor can be known, to the salvation of any soul, but by a revelation of the same Spirit. It is he alone that bears witness with our spirits that we are the children of God.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:13 - Gird up the loins of your mind Gird up the loins of your mind - Take courage from this display of God’ s love now made known to you; and though you must expect trials, yet fo...

Gird up the loins of your mind - Take courage from this display of God’ s love now made known to you; and though you must expect trials, yet fortify your minds with the consideration that he who has given you his Son Jesus will withhold from you no manner of thing that is good. The allusion here is to the long robes of the Asiatics, which, when they were about to perform any active service, they tucked in their girdles: this they did also when they waited on their superiors at meals

Clarke: 1Pe 1:13 - Hope to the end for the grace Hope to the end for the grace - Continue to expect all that God has promised, and particularly that utmost salvation, that glorification of body and...

Hope to the end for the grace - Continue to expect all that God has promised, and particularly that utmost salvation, that glorification of body and soul, which ye shall obtain at the revelation of Christ, when he shall come to judge the world

But if the apostle alludes here to the approaching revelation of Christ to inflict judgment on the Jews for their final rebellion and obstinacy, then the grace, χαριν, benefit, may intend their preservation from the evils that were coming upon that people, and their wonderful escape from Jerusalem at the time that the Roman armies came against it.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:14 - Not fashioning yourselves Not fashioning yourselves - As the offices of certain persons are known by the garb or livery they wear, so are transgressors: where we see the worl...

Not fashioning yourselves - As the offices of certain persons are known by the garb or livery they wear, so are transgressors: where we see the world’ s livery we see the world’ s servants; they fashion or habit themselves according to their lusts, and we may guess that they have a worldly mind by their conformity to worldly fashions.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:15 - But as he which hath called you But as he which hath called you - Heathenism scarcely produced a god whose example was not the most abominable; their greatest gods, especially, wer...

But as he which hath called you - Heathenism scarcely produced a god whose example was not the most abominable; their greatest gods, especially, were paragons of impurity; none of their philosophers could propose the objects of their adoration as objects of imitation. Here Christianity has an infinite advantage over heathenism. God is holy, and he calls upon all who believe in him to imitate his holiness; and the reason why they should be holy is, that God who has called them is holy, 1Pe 1:15.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:17 - And if ye call on the Father And if ye call on the Father - Seeing ye invoke the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and your Father through Christ, and profess to be obedient chil...

And if ye call on the Father - Seeing ye invoke the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and your Father through Christ, and profess to be obedient children, and sojourners here below for a short time only, see that ye maintain a godly reverence for this Father, walking in all his testimonies blameless

Clarke: 1Pe 1:17 - Who without respect of persons Who without respect of persons - God is said to be no respecter of persons for this reason among many others, that, being infinitely righteous, he m...

Who without respect of persons - God is said to be no respecter of persons for this reason among many others, that, being infinitely righteous, he must be infinitely impartial. He cannot prefer one to another, because he has nothing to hope or fear from any of his creatures. All partialities among men spring from one or other of these two principles, hope or fear; God can feel neither of them, and therefore God can be no respecter of persons. He approves or disapproves of men according to their moral character. He pities all, and provides salvation for all, but he loves those who resemble him in his holiness; and he loves them in proportion to that resemblance, i.e. the more of his image he sees in any, the more he loves him; and e contra. And every man’ s work will be the evidence of his conformity or nonconformity to God, and according to this evidence will God judge him. Here, then, is no respect of persons; God’ s judgment will be according to a man’ s work, and a man’ s work or conduct will be according to the moral state of his mind. No favouritism can prevail in the day of judgment; nothing will pass there but holiness of heart and life. A righteousness imputed, and not possessed and practiced, will not avail where God judgeth according to every man’ s work. It would be well if those sinners and spurious believers who fancy themselves safe and complete in the righteousness of Christ, while impure and unholy in themselves, would think of this testimony of the apostle.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:18 - Ye were not redeemed with corruptible things Ye were not redeemed with corruptible things - To redeem, λυτροω, signifies to procure life for a captive or liberty for a slave by paying a ...

Ye were not redeemed with corruptible things - To redeem, λυτροω, signifies to procure life for a captive or liberty for a slave by paying a price, and the precious blood of Christ is here stated to be the price at which the souls of both Jews and Gentiles were redeemed; is was a price paid down, and a price which God’ s righteousness required

Corruptible things mean here any thing that man usually gives in exchange for another; but the term necessarily includes all created things, as all these are corruptible and perishing. The meaning of the apostle is, evidently, that created things could not purchase the souls of men, else the sacrifice of Christ had not been offered; could any thing less have done, God would not have given up his only-begotten Son. Even silver and gold, the most valuable medium of commerce among men, bear no proportion in their value to the souls of a lost world, for there should be a congruity between the worth of the thing purchased and the valuable consideration which is given for it; and the laws and customs of nations require this: on this ground, perishable things, or things the value of which must be infinitely less than the worth of the souls of men, cannot purchase those souls. Nothing, therefore, but such a ransom price as God provided could be a sufficient ransom, oblation, and satisfaction, for the sins of the world

Clarke: 1Pe 1:18 - Vain conversation Vain conversation - Empty, foolish, and unprofitable conduct, full of vain hopes, vain fears, and vain wishes

Vain conversation - Empty, foolish, and unprofitable conduct, full of vain hopes, vain fears, and vain wishes

Clarke: 1Pe 1:18 - Received by tradition from your fathers Received by tradition from your fathers - The Jews had innumerable burdens of empty ceremonies and useless ordinances, which they received by tradit...

Received by tradition from your fathers - The Jews had innumerable burdens of empty ceremonies and useless ordinances, which they received by tradition from their fathers, rabbins, or doctors. The Gentiles were not less encumbered with such than the Jews; all were wedded to their vanities, because they received them from their forefathers, as they had done from theirs. And this antiquity and tradition have been the ground work of many a vain ceremony and idle pilgrimage, and of numerous doctrines which have nothing to plead in their behalf but this mere antiquity. But such persons seem not to consider that error and sin are nearly coeval with the world itself.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:19 - The precious blood of Christ The precious blood of Christ - Τιμιῳ αἱματι· The valuable blood; how valuable neither is nor could be stated

The precious blood of Christ - Τιμιῳ αἱματι· The valuable blood; how valuable neither is nor could be stated

Clarke: 1Pe 1:19 - As of a lamb As of a lamb - Such as was required for a sin-offering to God; and The Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world

As of a lamb - Such as was required for a sin-offering to God; and The Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world

Clarke: 1Pe 1:19 - Without blemish Without blemish - In himself, and without spot from the world; being perfectly pure in his soul, and righteous in his life.

Without blemish - In himself, and without spot from the world; being perfectly pure in his soul, and righteous in his life.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:20 - Who verily was foreordained Who verily was foreordained - Προεγνωσμενου· Foreknown; appointed in the Divine purpose to be sent into the world, because infinitel...

Who verily was foreordained - Προεγνωσμενου· Foreknown; appointed in the Divine purpose to be sent into the world, because infinitely approved by the Divine justice

Clarke: 1Pe 1:20 - Before the foundation of the world Before the foundation of the world - Before the law was given, or any sacrifice prescribed by it. Its whole sacrificial system was appointed in refe...

Before the foundation of the world - Before the law was given, or any sacrifice prescribed by it. Its whole sacrificial system was appointed in reference to this foreappointed Lamb, and consequently from him derived all its significance and virtue. The phrase καταβολη κοσμου, foundation of the world, occurs often in the New Testament, and is supposed by some learned men and good critics to signify the commencement of the Jewish state. Perhaps it may have this meaning in Mat 13:35; Luk 11:50; Eph 1:4; Heb 4:3; Heb 9:26. But if we take it here in its common signification, the creation of universal nature, then it shows that God, foreseeing the fall and ruin of man, appointed the remedy that was to cure the disease. It may here have a reference to the opinion of the Jewish doctors, who maintain that seven things existed before the creation of the world, one of which was the Messiah

Clarke: 1Pe 1:20 - Last times Last times - The Gospel dispensation, called the last times, as we have often seen, because never to be succeeded by any other.

Last times - The Gospel dispensation, called the last times, as we have often seen, because never to be succeeded by any other.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:21 - Who by him do believe in God Who by him do believe in God - This is supposed to refer to the Gentiles, who never knew the true God till they heard the preaching of the Gospel: t...

Who by him do believe in God - This is supposed to refer to the Gentiles, who never knew the true God till they heard the preaching of the Gospel: the Jews had known him long before, but the Gentiles had every thing to learn when the first preachers of the Gospel arrived amongst them

Clarke: 1Pe 1:21 - Gave him glory Gave him glory - Raised him to his right hand, where, as a Prince and a Savior, he gives repentance and remission of sins

Gave him glory - Raised him to his right hand, where, as a Prince and a Savior, he gives repentance and remission of sins

Clarke: 1Pe 1:21 - That your faith That your faith - In the fulfillment of all his promises, and your hope of eternal glory, might be in God, who is unchangeable in his counsels, and ...

That your faith - In the fulfillment of all his promises, and your hope of eternal glory, might be in God, who is unchangeable in his counsels, and infinite in his mercies.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:22 - Seeing ye have purified your souls Seeing ye have purified your souls - Having purified your souls, in obeying the truth - by believing in Christ Jesus, through the influence and teac...

Seeing ye have purified your souls - Having purified your souls, in obeying the truth - by believing in Christ Jesus, through the influence and teaching of the Spirit; and giving full proof of it by unfeigned love to the brethren; ye love one another, or ye will love each other, with a pure heart fervently. These persons

First, heard the truth, that is, the Gospel; thus called in a great variety of places in the New Testament, because it contains The truth without mixture of error, and is the truth and substance of all the preceding dispensations by which it was typified

Secondly, they obeyed that truth, by believing on Him who came into the world to save sinners

Thirdly, through this believing on the Son of God, their hearts were purified by the word of truth applied to them by the Holy Spirit

Fourthly, the love of God being shed abroad in their hearts by the Holy Ghost, they loved the brethren with pure hearts fervently, εκτενως, intensely or continually; the full proof that their brotherly love was unfeigned, φιλαδελφιαν ανυποκριτον, a fraternal affection without hypocrisy.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:23 - Being born again Being born again - For being born of Abraham’ s seed will not avail to the entering of the kingdom of heaven

Being born again - For being born of Abraham’ s seed will not avail to the entering of the kingdom of heaven

Clarke: 1Pe 1:23 - Not of corruptible seed Not of corruptible seed - By no human generation, or earthly means; but of incorruptible - a Divine and heavenly principle which is not liable to de...

Not of corruptible seed - By no human generation, or earthly means; but of incorruptible - a Divine and heavenly principle which is not liable to decay, nor to be affected by the changes and chances to which all sublunary things are exposed

Clarke: 1Pe 1:23 - By the word of God By the word of God - Δια λογου ζωντος Θεου· By the doctrine of the living God, which remaineth for ever; which doctrine shall n...

By the word of God - Δια λογου ζωντος Θεου· By the doctrine of the living God, which remaineth for ever; which doctrine shall never change, any more than the source shall whence it proceeds.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:24 - For all flesh is as grass For all flesh is as grass - Earthly seeds, earthly productions, and earthly generations, shall fail and perish like as the grass and flowers of the ...

For all flesh is as grass - Earthly seeds, earthly productions, and earthly generations, shall fail and perish like as the grass and flowers of the field; for the grass withereth, and the flower falleth off, though, in the ensuing spring and summer, they may put forth new verdure and bloom.

Clarke: 1Pe 1:25 - But the word of the Lord But the word of the Lord - The doctrine delivered by God concerning Christ endureth for ever, having, at all times and in all seasons, the same exce...

But the word of the Lord - The doctrine delivered by God concerning Christ endureth for ever, having, at all times and in all seasons, the same excellence and the same efficacy

Clarke: 1Pe 1:25 - And this is the word And this is the word - Το ῥημα, What is spoken, by the Gospel preached unto you. "This is a quotation from Isa 40:6-8, where the preaching ...

And this is the word - Το ῥημα, What is spoken, by the Gospel preached unto you. "This is a quotation from Isa 40:6-8, where the preaching of the Gospel is foretold; and recommended from the consideration that every thing which is merely human, and, among the rest, the noblest races of mankind, with all their glory and grandeur, their honor, riches, beauty, strength, and eloquence, as also the arts which men have invented, and the works they have executed, shall decay as the flowers of the field. But the Gospel, called by the prophet the word of the Lord, shall be preached while the world standeth."- Macknight. All human schemes of salvation, and plans for the melioration of the moral state of man, shall come to naught; and the doctrine of Christ crucified, though a stumbling block to the Jews, and foolishness to the Gentiles, shall be alone the power of God for salvation to every soul that believeth

As the apostle, on 1Pe 1:7, mentions gold, and gold chemically examined and tried; and as this figure frequently occurs in the sacred writings; I think it necessary to say something here of the nature and properties of that metal

Gold is defined by chemists to be the most perfect, the most ductile, the most tenacious, and the most unchangeable of all metals. Its specific gravity is about 19.3. A cubic foot of pure gold, cast and not hammered, weighs 1348lbs. In its native state, without mixture, it is yellow, and has no perceptible smell nor taste. When exposed to the action of the fire it becomes red hot before it melts, but in melting suffers no alteration; but if a strong heat be applied while in fusion, it becomes of a beautiful green color. The continual action of any furnace, howsoever long applied, has no effect on any of its properties. It has been kept in a state of fusion for several months, in the furnace of a glass house, without suffering the smallest change. The electric and galvanic fluids inflame and convert it into a purple oxide, which is volatilized in the form of smoke. In the focus of a very powerful burning glass it becomes volatilized, and partially vitrified; so that we may say with the apostle, that, though gold is tried by the fire - abides the action of all culinary fires, howsoever applied, yet it perisheth by the celestial fire and the solar influence; the rays of the sun collected in the focus of a powerful burning glass, and the application of the electric fluid, destroy its color, and alter and impair all its properties. This is but a late discovery; and previously to it a philosopher would have ridiculed St. Peter for saying, gold that perisheth

Gold is so very tenacious that a piece of it drawn into wire, one-tenth of an inch in diameter, will sustain a weight of 500lbs. without breaking

One grain of gold may be so extended, by its great malleability, as to be easily divided into two millions of parts; and a cubic inch of gold into nine thousand, five hundred and twenty-three millions, eight hundred and nine thousand, five hundred and twenty-three parts; each of which may be distinctly seen by the naked eye

A grain and a half of gold may be beaten into leaves of one inch square, which, if intersected by parallel lines, drawn at right angles to each other, and distant only the 100th part of an inch; will produce twenty-five millions of little squares, each of which may be distinctly seen without the help of glasses

The surface of any given quantity of gold, according to Mr. Magellan, may be extended by the hammer 159,092 times

Eighty books, or two thousand leaves, of what is called leaf gold, each leaf measuring 3.3 inches square, viz. each leaf containing 10.89 square inches, weigh less than 384 grains; each book, therefore, or twenty-five leaves, is equal to 272.25 inches, and weighs about 4.8 grains; so that each grain of gold will produce 56.718, or nearly fifty-seven square inches

The thickness of the metal thus extended appears to be no more than the one 282.020th of an inch! One pound, or sixteen ounces of gold, would be sufficient to gild a silver wire, sufficient in length to encompass the whole terraqueous globe, or to extend 25,000 miles

Notwithstanding this extreme degree of tenuity, or thinness, which some carry much higher, no pore can be discerned in it by the strongest magnifying powers; nor is it pervious to the particles of light, nor can the most subtile fluids pass through it. Its ductility has never yet been carried to the uttermost pitch, and to human art and ingenuity is probably unlimited

Sulphur, in the state of a sulphuret, dissolves it; tin and lead greatly impair its tenacity; and zinc hardens and renders it very brittle. Copper heightens its color, and renders it harder, without greatly impairing its ductility. It readily unites with iron, which it hardens in a remarkable manner

The oxigenated muriatic acid, and the nitro-muriatic acid, dissolve gold. In this state it is capable of being applied with great success to the gilding of steel. The process is very simple, and is instantaneously performed, viz.: -

To a solution of gold in the nitro-muriatic acid add about twice the quantity of sulphuric ether. In order to gild either iron or steel, let the metal be well polished, the higher the better: the ether which has taken up the gold may be applied by a camel hair pencil, or small brush; the ether then evaporates, and the gold becomes strongly attached to the surface of the metal. I have seen lancets, penknives, etc., gilded in a moment, by being dipped in this solution. In this manner all kinds of figures, letters, mottoes, etc., may be delineated on steel, by employing a pen or fine brush

The nitro-muriatic acid, formerly called aqua regia, is formed by adding muriatic acid, vulgarly spirit of salt, to the nitric acid, formerly aqua fortis. Two parts of the muriatic acid to one of the nitric constitute this solvent of gold and platina, which is called the nitro-muriatic acid

Gold was considered the heaviest of all metals till the year 1748, when the knowledge of platina was brought to Europe by Don Antonio Ulloa: this, if it be a real metal, is the hardest and weightiest of all others. The specific gravity of gold is, as we have seen, 19.3; that of platina is from 20.6 to 23: but gold will ever be the most valuable of all metals, not merely from its scarcity, but from its beautiful color and great ductility, by which it is applicable to so many uses, and its power of preserving its hue and polish without suffering the least tarnish or oxidation from the action of the air.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:1 - Peter, an apostle // To the elect, // To the sojourners // Unto obedience 1.Peter, an apostle What in this salutation is the same with those of Paul, requires no new explanation. When Paul prayed for grace and peace, th...

1.Peter, an apostle What in this salutation is the same with those of Paul, requires no new explanation. When Paul prayed for grace and peace, the verb is left out; but Peter adds it, and says, be multiplied; still the meaning is the same; for Paul did not wish to the faithful the beginning of grace and peace, but the increase of them, that is, that God would complete what he had begun.

To the elect, or the elected. It may be asked, how could this be found out, for the election of God is hid, and cannot be known without the special revelation of the Spirit; and as every one is made sure of his own election by the testimony of the Spirit, so he can know nothing certain of others. To this I answer, that we are not curiously to inquire about the election of our brethren, but ought on the contrary to regard their calling, so that all who are admitted by faith into the church, are to be counted as the elect; for God thus separates them from the world, which is a sign of election. It is no objection to say that many fall away, having nothing but the semblance; for it is the judgment of charity and not of faith, when we deem all those elect in whom appears the mark of God’s adoption. And that he does not fetch their election from the hidden counsel of God, but gathers it from the effect, is evident from the context; for afterwards he connects it with the sanctification of the Spirit As far then as they proved that they were regenerated by the Spirit of God, so far did he deem them to be the elect of God, for God does not sanctify any but those whom he has previously elected.

However, he at the same time reminds us whence that election flows, by which we are separated for salvation, that we may not perish with the world; for he says, according to the foreknowledge of God This is the fountain and the first cause: God knew before the world was created whom he had elected for salvation.

But we ought wisely to consider what this precognition or foreknowledge is. For the sophists, in order to obscure the grace of God, imagine that the merits of each are foreseen by God, and that thus the reprobate are distinguished from the elect, as every one proves himself worthy of this or that lot. But Scripture everywhere sets the counsel of God, on which is founded our salvation, in opposition to our merits. Hence, when Peter calls them elect according to the precognition of God, he intimates that the cause of it depends on nothing else but on God alone, for he of his own free will has chosen us. Then the foreknowledge of God excludes every worthiness on the part of man. We have treated this subject more at large in the first chapter of the Epistle to the Ephesians, and in other places.

As however in our election he assigns the first place to the gratuitous favor of God, so again he would have us to know it by the effects, for there is nothing more dangerous or more preposterous than to overlook our calling and to seek for the certainty of our election in the hidden prescience of God, which is the deepest labyrinth. Therefore to obviate this danger, Peter supplies the best correction; for though in the first place he would have us to consider the counsel of God, the cause of which is alone in himself; yet he invites us to notice the effect, by which he sets forth and bears witness to our election. That effect is the sanctification of the Spirit, even effectual calling, when faith is added to the outward preaching of the gospel, which faith is begotten by the inward operation of the Spirit.

To the sojourners 4 They who think that all the godly are thus called, because they are strangers in the world, and are advancing towards the celestial country, are much mistaken, and this mistake is evident from the word dispersion which immediately follows; for this can apply only to the Jews, not only because they were banished from their own country and scattered here and there, but also because they had been driven out of that land which had been promised to them by the Lord as a perpetual inheritance. He indeed afterwards calls all the faithful sojourners, because they are pilgrims on the earth; but the reason here is different. They were sojourners, because they had been dispersed, some in Pontus, some in Galatia, and some in Bithynia. It is nothing strange that he designed this Epistle more especially for the Jews, for he knew that he was appointed in a particular manner their apostle, as Paul teaches us in Gal 2:8. In the countries he enumerates, he includes the whole of Asia Minor, from the Euxine to Cappadocia. 5

Unto obedience He adds two things to sanctification, and seems to understand newness of life by obedience, and by the sprinkling of the blood of Christ the remission of sins. But if these be parts or effects of sanctification, then sanctification is to be taken here somewhat different from what it means when used by Paul, that is, more generally. God then sanctifies us by an effectual calling; and this is done when we are renewed to an obedience to his righteousness, and when we are sprinkled by the blood of Christ, and thus are cleansed from our sins. And there seems to be an implied allusion to the ancient rite of sprinkling used under the law. For as it was not then sufficient for the victim to be slain and the blood to be poured out, except the people were sprinkled; so now the blood of Christ which has been shed will avail us nothing, except our consciences are by it cleansed. There is then to be understood here a contrast, that, as formerly under the law the sprinkling of blood was made by the hand of the priest; so now the Holy Spirit sprinkles our souls with the blood of Christ for the expiation of our sins.

Let us now state the substance of the whole; which is, that our salvation flows from the gratuitous election of God; but that it is to be ascertained by the experience of faith, because he sanctifies us by his Spirit; and then that there are two effects or ends of our calling, even renewal into obedience and ablution by the blood of Christ; and further, that both are the work of the Holy Spirit. 6 We hence conclude, that election is not to be separated from calling, nor the gratuitous righteousness of faith from newness of life.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:3 - Blessed be God // And Father of our Lord Jesus Christ // Who hath begotten us again // According to his abundant mercy 3.Blessed be God We have said that the main object of this epistle is to raise us above the world, in order that we may be prepared and encouraged to...

3.Blessed be God We have said that the main object of this epistle is to raise us above the world, in order that we may be prepared and encouraged to sustain the spiritual contests of our warfare. For this end, the knowledge of God’s benefits avails much; for, when their value appears to us, all other things will be deemed worthless, especially when we consider what Christ and his blessings are; for everything without him is but dross. For this reason he highly extols the wonderful grace of God in Christ, that is, that we may not deem it much to give up the world in order that we may enjoy the invaluable treasure of a future life; and also that we may not be broken down by present troubles, but patiently endure them, being satisfied with eternal happiness.

Further, when he gives thanks to God, he invites the faithful to spiritual joy, which can swallow up all the opposite feelings of the flesh.

And Father of our Lord Jesus Christ Understand the words thus, — “Blessed be God who is the Father of Jesus Christ.” For, as formerly, by calling himself the God of Abraham, he designed to mark the difference between him and all fictitious gods; so after he has manifested himself in his own Son, his will is, not to be known otherwise than in him. Hence they who form their ideas of God in his naked majesty apart from Christ, have an idol instead of the true God, as the case is with the Jews and the Turks. Whosoever, then, seeks really to know the only true God, must regard him as the Father of Christ; for, whenever our mind seeks God, except Christ be thought of, it will wander and be confused, until it be wholly lost. Peter meant at the same time to intimate how God is so bountiful and kind towards us; for, except Christ stood as the middle person, his goodness could never be really known by us.

Who hath begotten us again He shews that supernatural life is a gift, because we are born the children of wrath; for had we been born to the hope of life according to the flesh, there would have been no necessity of being begotten again by God. Therefore Peter teaches us, that we who are by nature destined to eternal death, are restored to life by God’s mercy. And this is, as it were, our second creation, as it is said in the first chapter of the Epistle to the Ephesians. Lively or living hope, means the hope of life. 7 At the same time there seems to be an implied contrast between the hope fixed on the incorruptible kingdom of God, and the fading and transient hopes of man.

According to his abundant mercy He first mentions the efficient cause, and then he points out the mediating cause, as they say. He shews that God was induced by no merits of ours to regenerate us unto a living hope, because he assigns this wholly to his mercy. But that he might more completely reduce the merits of works to nothing, he says, great ( multam ) mercy. All, indeed, confess that God is the only author of our salvation, but they afterwards invent extraneous causes, which take away so much from his mercy. But Peter commends mercy alone; and he immediately connects the way or manner, by the resurrection of Christ; for God does not in any other way discover his mercy; hence Scripture ever directs our attention to this point. And that Christ’s death is not mentioned, but his resurrection, involves no inconsistency, for it is included; because a thing cannot be completed without having a beginning; and he especially brought forward the resurrection, because he was speaking of a new life.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:4 - To an inheritance 4.To an inheritance 8 The three words which follow are intended to amplify God’s grace; for Peter (as I have before said) had this object in view, ...

4.To an inheritance 8 The three words which follow are intended to amplify God’s grace; for Peter (as I have before said) had this object in view, to impress our minds thoroughly as to its excellency. Moreover, these two clauses, “to an inheritance incorruptible,” etc., and “to salvation ready to be revealed,” I deem as being in apposition, the latter being explanatory of the former; for he expresses the same thing in two ways.

Every word which follows is weighty. The inheritance is said to be reserved, or preserved, that we may know that it is beyond the reach of danger. For, were it not in God’s hand, it might be exposed to endless dangers. If it were in this world, how could we regard it as safe amidst so many changes? That he might then free us from every fear, he testifies that our salvation is placed in safety beyond the harms which Satan can do. But as the certainty of salvation can bring us but little comfort, except each one knows that it belongs to himself, Peter adds, for you For consciences will calmly recumb here, that is, when the Lord cries to them from heaven, “Behold, your salvation is in my hand and is kept for you.” But as salvation is not indiscriminately for all, he calls our attention to faith, that all who are endued with faith, might be distinguished from the rest, and that they might not doubt but that they are the true and legitimate heirs of God. For, as faith penetrates into the heavens, so also it appropriates to us the blessings which are in heaven.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:5 - Who are kept by the power of God // Unto salvation 5.Who are kept by the power of God We are to notice the connection when he says, that we are kept while in the world, and at the same time our inheri...

5.Who are kept by the power of God We are to notice the connection when he says, that we are kept while in the world, and at the same time our inheritance is reserved in heaven; otherwise this thought would immediately creep in, “What does it avail us that our salvation is laid up in heaven, when we are tossed here and there in this world as in a turbulent sea? What can it avail us that our salvation is secured in a quiet harbour, when we are driven to and fro amidst thousand shipwrecks?” The apostle, therefore, anticipates objections of this kind, when he shews, that though we are in the world exposed to dangers, we are yet kept by faith; and that though we are thus nigh to death, we are yet safe under the guardianship of faith. But as faith itself, through the infirmity of the flesh, often quails, we might be always anxious about the morrow, were not the Lord to aid us. 9

And, indeed, we see that under the Papacy a diabolical opinion prevails, that we ought to doubt our final perseverance, because we are uncertain whether we shall be tomorrow in the same state of grace. But Peter did not thus leave us in suspense; for he testifies that we stand by the power of God, lest any doubt arising from a consciousness of our own infirmity, should disquiet us. How weak soever we may then be, yet our salvation is not uncertain, because it is sustained by God’s power. As, then, we are begotten by faith, so faith itself receives its stability from God’s power. Hence is its security, not only for the present, but also for the future.

Unto salvation As we are by nature impatient of delay, and soon succumb under weariness, he therefore reminds us that salvation is not deferred because it is not yet prepared, but because the time of its revelation is not yet come. This doctrine is intended to nourish and sustain our hope. Moreover, he calls the day of judgment the last time, because the restitution of all things is not to be previously expected, for the intervening time is still in progress. What is elsewhere called the last time, is the whole from the coming of Christ; it is so called from a comparison with the preceding ages. But Peter had a regard to the end of the world.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:6 - Wherein ye greatly rejoice, // Ye are in heaviness, 6.Wherein ye greatly rejoice, or, In which ye exult. Though the termination of the Greek verb is doubtful, yet the meaning requires that we read, ...

6.Wherein ye greatly rejoice, or, In which ye exult. Though the termination of the Greek verb is doubtful, yet the meaning requires that we read, “ye exult,” rather than “exult ye.” In which refers to the whole that is said of the hope of salvation laid up in heaven. But he rather exhorts than praises them; for his object was to shew what fruit was to come from the hope of salvation, even spiritual joy, by which not only the bitterness of all evil might be mitigated, but also all sorrow overcome. At the same time to exult is more expressive than to rejoice. 10

But it seems somewhat inconsistent, when he says that the faithful, who exulted with joy, were at the same time sorrowful, for these are contrary feelings. But the faithful know by experience, how these things can exist together, much better than can be expressed in words. However, to explain the matter in a few words, we may say that the faithful are not logs of wood, nor have they so divested themselves of human feelings, but that they are affected with sorrow, fear danger, and feel poverty as an evil, and persecutions as hard and difficult to be borne. Hence they experience sorrow from evils; but it is so mitigated by faith, that they cease not at the same time to rejoice. Thus sorrow does not prevent their joy, but, on the contrary, give place to it. Again, though joy overcomes sorrow, yet it does not put an end to it, for it does not divest us of humanity. And hence it appears what true patience is; its beginning, and, as it were, its root, is the knowledge of God’s blessings, especially of that gratuitous adoption with which he has favored us; for all who raise hither their minds, find it an easy thing calmly to bear all evils. For whence is it that our minds are pressed down with grief, except that we have no participation of spiritual things? But all they who regard their troubles as necessary trials for their salvation, not only rise above them, but also turn them to an occasion of joy.

Ye are in heaviness, or, Ye are made sorrowful. Is not sorrow also the common lot of the reprobate? for they are not free from evils. But Peter meant that the faithful endure sorrow willingly, while the ungodly murmur and perversely contend with God. Hence the godly bear sorrow, as the tamed ox the yoke, or as a horse, broken in, the bridle, though held by a child. God by sorrow afflicts the reprobate, as when a bridle is by force put in the mouth of a ferocious and refractory horse; he kicks and offers every resistance, but all in vain. Then Peter commends the faithful, because they willingly undergo sorrow, and not as though forced by necessity.

By saying, though now for a season, or, a little while, he supplied consolation; for the shortness of time, however hard evils may be, does not a little lessen them; and the duration of the present life is but a moment of time. If need be; the condition is to be taken for a cause; for he purposed to shew, that God does not, without reason, thus try his people; for, if God afflicted us without a cause, to bear it would be grievous. Hence Peter took an argument for consolation from the design of God; not that the reason always appears to us, but that we ought to be fully persuaded that it ought to be so, because it is God’s will.

We must notice that he does not mention one temptation, but many; and not temptations of one kind, but manifold temptations It is, however, better to seek the exposition of this passage in the first chapter of James

Calvin: 1Pe 1:7 - Much more precious than of gold // At the appearing of Jesus Christ, 7.Much more precious than of gold The argument is from the less to the greater; for if gold, a corruptible metal, is deemed of so much value that we ...

7.Much more precious than of gold The argument is from the less to the greater; for if gold, a corruptible metal, is deemed of so much value that we prove it by fire, that it may become really valuable, what wonder is it that God should require a similar trial as to faith, since faith is deemed by him so excellent? And though the words seem to have a different meaning, he yet compares faith to gold, and makes it more precious than gold, that hence he might draw the conclusion, that it ought to be fully proved. 11 It is moreover uncertain how far he extends the meaning of the words, “tried” δοκιμάζεσθαι and “trial” δοκίμιον

Gold is, indeed, tried twice by fire; first, when it is separated from its dross; and then, when a judgment is to be formed of its purity. Both modes of trial may very suitably be applied to faith; for when there is much of the dregs of unbelief remaining in us, and when by various afflictions we are refined as it were in God’s furnace, the dross of our faith is removed, so that it becomes pure and clean before God; and, at the same time, a trial of it is made, as to whether it be true or fictitious. I am disposed to take these two views, and what immediately follows seems to favor this explanation; for as silver is without honor or value before it be refined, so he intimates that our faith is not to be honored and crowned by God until it be duly proved.

At the appearing of Jesus Christ, or, when Jesus Christ shall be revealed. This is added, that the faithful might learn to hold on courageously to the last day. For our life is now hidden in Christ, and will remain hidden, and as it were buried, until Christ shall appear from heaven; and the whole course of our life leads to the destruction of the external man, and all the things we suffer are, as it were, the preludes of death. It is hence necessary, that we should cast our own eyes on Christ, if we wish in our afflictions to behold glory and praise. For trials as to us are full of reproach and shame, and they become glorious in Christ; but that glory in Christ is not yet plainly seen, for the day of consolation is not yet come. 12

Calvin: 1Pe 1:8 - Whom having not seen, // Ye rejoice, 8.Whom having not seen, or, Whom though ye have not seen. He lays down two things, that they loved Christ whom they had not seen, and that they beli...

8.Whom having not seen, or, Whom though ye have not seen. He lays down two things, that they loved Christ whom they had not seen, and that they believed on him whom they did not then behold. But the first arises from the second; for the cause of love is faith, not only because the knowledge of those blessings which Christ bestows on us, moves us to love him, but because he offers us perfect felicity, and thus draws us up to himself. He then commends the Jews, because they believed in Christ whom they did not see, that they might know that the nature of faith is to acquiesce in those blessings which are hid from our eyes. They had indeed given some proof of this very thing, though he rather directs what was to be done by praising them.

The first clause in order is, that faith is not to be measured by sight. For when the life of Christians is apparently miserable, they would instantly fail, were not their happiness dependent on hope. Faith, indeed, has also its eyes, but they are such as penetrate into the invisible kingdom of God, and are contented with the mirror of the Word; for it is the demonstration of invisible things, as it is said in Heb 11:1. Hence true is that saying of Paul, that

we are absent from the Lord while we are in the flesh;
for we walk by faith and not by sight.
(2Co 5:6.)

The second clause is, that faith is not a cold notion, but that it kindles in our hearts love to Christ. For faith does not (as the sophists prattle) lay hold on God in a confused and implicit manner, (for this would be to wander through devious paths;) but it has Christ as its object. Moreover, it does not lay hold on the bare name of Christ, or his naked essence, but regards what he is to us, and what blessings he brings; for it cannot be but that the affections of man should be led there, where his happiness is, according to that saying,

“Where your treasure is, there is also your heart.” (Mat 6:21.)

Ye rejoice, or, Ye exult. He again refers to the fruit of faith which he had mentioned, and not without reason; for it is an incomparable benefit, that consciences are not only at peace before God, but confidently exult in the hope of eternal life. And he calls it joy unspeakable, or unutterable, because the peace of God exceeds all comprehension. What is added, full of glory, or glorified, admits of two explanations. It means either what is magnificent and glorious, or what is contrary to that which is empty and fading, of which men will soon be ashamed. Thus “glorified” is the same with what is solid and permanent, beyond the danger of being brought to nothing. 13 Those who are not elevated by this joy above the heavens, so that being content with Christ alone, they despise the world, in vain boast that they have faith.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:9 - Receiving the end of your faith 9.Receiving the end of your faith He reminds the faithful where they ought to direct all their thoughts, even to eternal salvation. For this world ho...

9.Receiving the end of your faith He reminds the faithful where they ought to direct all their thoughts, even to eternal salvation. For this world holds all our affections ensnared by is allurements; this life and all things belonging to the body are great impediments, which prevent us from applying our minds to the contemplation of the future and spiritual life. Hence the Apostle sets before us this future life as a subject of deep meditation, and he indirectly intimates that the loss of all other things is to be deemed as nothing, provided our souls be saved. By saying receiving, he takes away all doubt, in order that they might more cheerfully go on, being certain of obtaining salvation. 14 In the meantime, however, he shews what the end of faith is, lest they should be over-anxious, because it is as yet deferred. For our adoption ought now to satisfy us; nor ought we to ask to be introduced before the time into the possession of our inheritance. We may also take the end for reward; but the meaning would be the same. For we learn from the Apostle’s words, that salvation is not otherwise obtained than by faith; and we know that faith leans on the sole promise of gratuitous adoption; but if it be so, doubtless salvation is not owing to the merits of works, nor can it be hoped for on their account.

But why does he mention souls only, when the glory of a resurrection is promised to our bodies? As the soul is immortal, salvation is properly ascribed to it, as Paul sometimes is wont to speak, —

“That the soul may be saved in the day of the Lord.”
(1Co 5:5.)

But it is the same as though he had said “Eternal salvation.” For there is an implied comparison between it and the mortal and fading life which belongs to the body. At the same time, the body is not excluded from a participation of glory when annexed to the soul.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:10 - Of which salvation He hence commends the value of salvation, because the prophets had their minds intensely fixed on it; for it must have been a great matter, and posse...

He hence commends the value of salvation, because the prophets had their minds intensely fixed on it; for it must have been a great matter, and possessing peculiar excellency, which could have thus kindled in the prophets a spirit of inquiry respecting it. But still more clearly does God’s goodness toward us shine forth in this case, because much more is now made known to us than what all the prophets attained by their long and anxious inquiries. At the same time he confirms the certainty of salvation by this very antiquity; for from the beginning of the world it had received a plain testimony from the Holy Spirit.

These two things ought to be distinctly noticed: he declares that more has been given to us than to the ancient fathers, in order to amplify by this comparison the grace of the gospel; and then, that what is preached to us respecting salvation, cannot be suspected of any novelty, for the Spirit had formerly testified of it by the prophets. When, therefore, he says that the prophets searched and sedulously inquired, this does not belong to their writings or doctrine, but to the private desire with which every one boiled over. What is said afterwards is to be referred to their public office.

But that each particular may be more evident, the passage must be arranged under certain propositions. Let the first then be this, — that the Prophets who foretold of the grace which Christ exhibited at his coming, diligently inquired as to the time when full revelation was to be made. The second is, — that the Spirit of Christ predicted by them of the future condition of Christ’s kingdom, such as it is now, and such as it is expected yet to be, even that it is destined that Christ and his whole body should, through various sufferings, enter into glory. The third is, — that the prophets ministered to us more abundantly than to their own age, and that this was revealed to them from above; for in Christ only is the full exhibition of those things of which God then presented but an obscure image. The fourth is, — that in the Gospel is contained a clear confirmation of prophetic doctrine, but also a much fuller and plainer explanation; for the salvation which he formerly proclaimed as it were at a distance by the prophets, he now reveals openly to us, and as it were before our eyes. The last proposition is, — that it hence appears evident how wonderful is the glory of that salvation promised to us in the Gospel, because even angels, though they enjoy God’s presence in heaven, yet burn with the desire of seeing it. Now all these things tend to shew this one thing, that Christians, elevated to the height of their felicity, ought to surmount all the obstacles of the world; for what is there which this incomparable benefit does not reduce to nothing?

10.Of which salvation Had not the fathers the same salvation as we have? Why then does he say that the fathers inquired, as though they possessed not what is now offered to us? The answer to this is plain, that salvation is to be taken here for that clear manifestation of it which we have through the coming of Christ. The words of Peter mean no other thing than those of Christ, when he said,

“Many kings and prophets have desired to see the things which ye see, and have not seen them.” (Mat 13:17.)

As then the prophets had but a limited knowledge of the grace brought by Christ, as to its revelation they justly desired something more. When Simeon, after seeing Christ, prepared himself calmly and with a satisfied mind for death, he shewed that he was before unsatisfied and anxious. Such was the feeling of all the godly.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:11 - The Spirit of Christ which was in them // The sufferings of Christ 11. And what they inquired is pointed out when he adds, Searching what, or what manner of time There was a difference between the law and the gospe...

11. And what they inquired is pointed out when he adds, Searching what, or what manner of time There was a difference between the law and the gospel, a veil as it were being interposed, that they might not see those things nearer which are now set before our eyes. Nor was it indeed proper, while Christ the Sun of righteousness was yet absent, that the full light should shine as at mid-day. And though it was their duty to confine themselves within their prescribed limits, yet it was no superstition to sigh with a desire of having a nearer sight. For when they wished that redemption should be hastened, and desired daily to see it, there was nothing in such a wish to prevent them patiently to wait as long as it pleased the Lord to defer the time. Moreover, to seek as to prophecies the particular time, seems to me unprofitable; for what is spoken of here is not what the prophets taught, but what they wished. Where the Latin interpreters render, “of future grace,” it is literally, “of the grace which is to you.” But as the meaning remains the same, I was not disposed to make any change.

It is more worthy of observation, that he does not say that the prophets searched according to their own understanding as to the time when Christ’s kingdom would come, but that they applied their minds to the revelation of the Spirit. Thus they have taught us by their example a sobriety in learning, for they did not go beyond what the Spirit taught them. And doubtless there will be no limits to man’s curiosity, except the Spirit of God presides over their minds, so that they may not desire anything else than to speak from him. And further, the spiritual kingdom is a higher subject than what the human mind can succeed in investigating, except the Spirit be the guide. May we also therefore submit to his guidance.

The Spirit of Christ which was in them First, “who was in them,” and secondly, “testifying,” that is, giving a testimony, by which expression he intimates that the prophets were endued with the Spirit of knowledge, and indeed in no common manner, as those who have been teachers and witnesses to us, and that yet they were not partakers of that light which is exhibited to us. At the same time, a high praise is given to their doctrine, for it was the testimony of the Holy Spirit; the preachers and ministers were men, but he was the teacher. Nor does he declare without reason that the Spirit of Christ then ruled; and he makes the Spirit, sent from heaven, to preside over the teachers of the Gospel, for he shews that the Gospel comes from God, and that the ancient prophecies were dictated by Christ.

The sufferings of Christ That they might bear submissively their afflictions, he reminds them that they had been long ago foretold by the Spirit. But he includes much more than this, for he teaches us, that the Church of Christ has been from the beginning so constituted, that the cross has been the way to victory, and death a passage to life, and that this had been clearly testified. There is, therefore, no reason why afflictions should above measure depress us, as though we were miserable under them, since the Spirit of God pronounces us blessed.

The order is to be noticed; he mentions sufferings first, and then adds the glories which are to follow. For he intimates that this order cannot be changed or subverted; afflictions must precede glory. So there is to be understood a twofold truth in these words, — that Christians must suffer many troubles before they enjoy glory, — and that afflictions are not evils, because they have glory annexed to them. Since God has ordained this connection, it does not behove us to separate the one from the other. And it is no common consolation, that our condition, such as we find it to be, has been foretold so many ages ago.

Hence we learn, that it is not in vain that a happy end is promised to us; secondly, we hence know that we are not afflicted by chance, but through the infallible providence of God; and lastly, that prophecies are like mirrors to set forth to us in tribulations the image of celestial glory.

Peter, indeed, says, that the Spirit had testified of the coming afflictions of Christ; but he does not separate Christ from his body. This, then, is not to be confined to the person of Christ, but a beginning is to be made with the head, so that the members may in due order follow, as Paul also teaches us, that we must be conformed to him who is the first-born among his brethren. In short, Peter does not speak of what is peculiar to Christ, but of the universal state of the Church. But it is much fitted to confirm our faith, when he sets forth our afflictions as viewed in Christ, for we thereby see better the connection of death and life between us and him. And, doubtless, this is the privilege and manner of the holy union, that he suffers daily in his members, that after his sufferings shall be completed in us, glory also may have its completion. See more on this subject in the third chapter of the Epistle to the Colossians, and in the fourth of the first Epistle to Timothy.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:12 - Unto whom it was revealed // Which are now reported to you, // Which things the angels desire to look into 12.Unto whom it was revealed This passage has been strangely perverted by fanatics, so as to exclude the fathers who lived under the law from the hop...

12.Unto whom it was revealed This passage has been strangely perverted by fanatics, so as to exclude the fathers who lived under the law from the hope of eternal salvation. For it does not deny that the prophets usefully ministered to their own age, and edified the church, but teaches us that their ministry is more useful to us, because we are fallen on the ends of the world. We see how highly they extolled the kingdom of Christ, how assiduous they were in adorning it, how diligently they stimulated all to seek it; but they were by death deprived of the privilege of seeing it as it now is. What else then was this, but that they spread the table, that others might afterwards feed on the provisions laid on it. They indeed tasted by faith of those things which the Lord has by their hands transmitted to be enjoyed by us; and they also partook of Christ as the real food of their souls. But what is spoken of now is the exhibition of this blessing, and we know that the prophetic office was confined as it were within limits, in order that they might support themselves and others with the hope of Christ, who was to come. They therefore possessed him as one hidden, and as it were absent — absent, I say, not in power or grace, but because he was not yet manifested in the flesh. Therefore his kingdom also was as yet hid as it were under coverings. At length descending on earth, he in a manner opened heaven to us, so that we might have a near view of those spiritual riches, which before were under types exhibited at a distance. This fruition then of Christ as manifested, forms the difference between us and the prophets. Hence we learn how they ministered to us rather than to themselves.

But though the prophets were admonished from above that the grace which they proclaimed would be deferred to another age, yet they were not slothful in proclaiming it, so far were they from being broken down with weariness. But if their patience was so great, surely we shall be twice and thrice ungrateful, if the fruition of the grace denied to them will not sustain us under all the evils which are to be endured.

Which are now reported to you, or announced to you. He again marks the difference between the ancient doctrine and the preaching of the gospel. For as the righteousness of God is revealed in the gospel, having a testimony from the law and the prophets, so also the glory of Christ, of which the Spirit testified formerly, is now openly proclaimed. And at the same time he hence proves the certainty of the gospel, because it contains nothing but what had been long ago testified by the Spirit of God. He further reminds them, that under the banner of the same Spirit, by his dictation and guidance, the gospel was preached, lest they might think of anything human in this case.

Which things the angels desire to look into It is indeed the highest praise to the gospel, that it contains treasures of wisdom, as yet concealed and hidden from angels. But some one may object, and say that it is not reasonable that things should be open and known to us which are hidden from angels, who always see the face of God, and are his ministers in ruling the church, and in the administration of all his blessings. To this I answer, that things are open to us as far as we see them in the mirror of the word; but our knowledge is not said to be higher than that of angels; Peter only means that such things are promised to us as angels desire to see fulfilled. Paul says that by the calling of the Gentiles the wonderful wisdom of God was made known to angels. for it was a spectacle to them, when Christ gathered into one body the lost world, alienated for so many ages from the hope of life. Thus daily they see with admiration the magnificent works of God in the government of his church. How much greater will their admiration be, at witnessing the last display of divine justice, when the kingdom of Christ shall be completed! This is as yet hidden, the revelation of which they still expect and justly wish to see.

The passage indeed admits of a twofold meaning; either that the treasure we have in the gospel fills the angels with a desire to see it, as it is a sight especially delightful to them; or that they anxiously desire to see the kingdom of Christ, the living image of which is set forth in the gospel. But the last seems to me to be the most suitable meaning.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:13 - Wherefore gird up the loins of your mind // Hope to the end, From the greatness and excellency of grace he draws an exhortation, that it surely behoved them the more readily to receive the grace of God, as the ...

From the greatness and excellency of grace he draws an exhortation, that it surely behoved them the more readily to receive the grace of God, as the more bountifully he bestowed it upon them. And we must notice the connection: he had said, that so elevated was the kingdom of Christ, to which the gospel calls us, that even angels in heaven desire to see it; what then ought to be done by us who are in the world? Doubtless, as long as we live on earth, so great is the distance between us and Christ, that in vain he invites us to himself. It is hence necessary for us to put off the image of Adam and to cast aside the whole world and all hinderances, that being thus set at liberty we may rise upwards to Christ. And he exhorted those to whom he wrote, to be prepared and sober, and to hope for the graces offered to them, and also to renounce the world and their former life, and to be conformed to the will of God. 15

Then the first part of the exhortation is, to gird up the loins of their mind and to direct their thoughts to the hope of the grace presented to them. In the second par, he prescribes the manner, that having their minds changed, they were to be formed after the image of God.

13.Wherefore gird up the loins of your mind It is a similitude taken from an ancient custom; for when they had long garments, they could not make a journey, nor conveniently do any work, without being girded up. Hence these expressions, to gird up one’s-self for a work or an undertaking. He then bids them to remove all impediments, that being set at liberty they might go on to God. Those who philosophize more refinedly about the loins, as though he commanded lusts to be restrained and checked, depart from the real meaning of the Apostle, for these words mean the same with those of Christ,

“Let your loins be girded about, and burning lamps in your hands,”
(Luk 12:35,)

except that Peter doubles the metaphor by ascribing loins to the mind. And he intimates that our minds are held entangled by the passing cares of the world and by vain desires, so that they rise not upward to God. Whosoever, then, really wishes to have this hope, let him learn in the first place to disentangle himself from the world, and gird up his mind that it may not turn aside to vain affections. And for the same purpose he enjoins sobriety, which immediately follows; for he commends not temperance only in eating and drinking, but rather spiritual sobriety, when all our thoughts and affections are so kept as not to be inebriated with the allurements of this world. For since even the least taste of them stealthily draws us away from God, when one plunges himself into these, he must necessarily become sleepy and stupid, and he forgets God and the things of God.

Hope to the end, or, Perfectly hope. He intimates that those who let their minds loose on vanity, did not really and sincerely hope for the grace of God; for though they had some hope, yet as they vacillated and were tossed to and fro in the world, there was no solidity in their hope. Then he says, for the grace which will be brought to you, in order that they might be more prompt to receive it. God ought to be sought, though far off; but he comes of his own will to meet us. How great, then, must be our ingratitude if we neglect the grace that is thus set before us! This amplification, then, is especially intended to stimulate our hope.

What he adds, At the revelation of Jesus Christ, may be explained in two ways: that the doctrine of the Gospel reveals Christ to us; and that, as we see him as yet only through a mirror and enigmatically, a full revelation is deferred to the last day. The first meaning is approved by Erasmus, nor do I reject it. The second seems, however, to be more suitable to the passage. For the object of Peter was to call us away beyond the world; for this purpose the fittest thing was the recollection of Christ’s coming. For when we direct our eyes to this event, this world becomes crucified to us, and we to the world. Besides, according to this meaning, Peter used the expression shortly before. Nor is it a new thing for the apostles to employ the preposition ἐν in the sense of εἰς. Thus, then, I explain the passage, — “You have no need to make a long journey that you may attain the grace of God; for God anticipates you; inasmuch as he brings it to you.” But as the fruition of it will not be until Christ appears from heaven, in whom is hid the salvation of the godly, there is need, in the meantime, of hope; for the grace of Christ is now offered to us in vain, except we patiently wait until the coming of Christ.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:14 - As obedient children // In your ignorance 14.As obedient children He first intimates that we are called by the Lord to the privilege and honor of adoption through the Gospel; and, secondly, t...

14.As obedient children He first intimates that we are called by the Lord to the privilege and honor of adoption through the Gospel; and, secondly, that we are adopted for this end, that he might have us as his obedient children. For though obedience does not make us children, as the gift of adoption is gratuitous, yet it distinguishes children from aliens. How far, indeed, this obedience extends, Peter shews, when he forbids God’s children to conform to or to comply with the desires of this world, and when he exhorts them, on the contrary, to conform to the will of God. The sum of the whole law, and of all that God requires of us, is this, that his image should shine forth in us, so that we should not be degenerate children. But this cannot be except we be renewed and put off the image of old Adam.

Hence we learn what Christians ought to propose to themselves as an object throughout life, that is, to resemble God in holiness and purity. But as all the thoughts and feelings of our flesh are in opposition to God, and the whole bent of our mind is enmity to him, hence Peter begins with the renunciation of the world; and certainly, whenever the Scripture speaks of the renewal of God’s image in us, it begins here, that the old man with his lusts is to be destroyed.

In your ignorance The time of ignorance he calls that before they were called into the faith of Christ. We hence learn that unbelief is the fountain of all evils. For he does not use the word ignorance, as we commonly do; for that Platonic dogma is false, that ignorance alone is the cause of sin. But yet, how much soever conscience may reprove the unbelieving, nevertheless they go astray as the blind in darkness, because they know not the right way, and they are without the true light. According to this meaning, Paul says,

“Ye henceforth walk not as the Gentiles, in the vanity of their mind, who have the mind darkened, being alienated from the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them.”
(Eph 4:17.)

Where the knowledge of God is not, there darkness, error, vanity, destitution of light and life, prevail. These things, however, do not render it impossible that the ungodly should be conscious of doing wrong when they sin, and know that their judge is in heaven, and feel an executioner within them. In short, as the kingdom of God is a kingdom of light, all who are alienated from him must necessarily be blind and go astray in a labyrinth.

We are in the meantime reminded, that we are for this end illuminated as to the knowledge of God, that we may no longer be carried away by roving lusts. Hence, as much progress any one has made in newness of life, so much progress has he made in the knowledge of God.

Here a question arises, — Since he addressed the Jews, who were acquainted with the law, and were brought up in the worship of the only true God, why did he charge them with ignorance and blindness, as though they were heathens? To this I answer, that it hence appears how profitless is all knowledge without Christ. When Paul exposed the vain boasting of those who wished to be wise apart from Christ, he justly said in one short sentence, that they did not hold the head. (Col 2:19.) Such were the Jews; being otherwise imbued with numberless corruptions, they had a veil over the eyes, so that they did not see Christ in the Law. The doctrine in which they had been taught was indeed a true light; but they were blind in the midst of light, as long as the Sun of Righteousness was hid to them. But if Peter declares that the literal disciples even of the Law were in darkness like the heathens, as long as they were ignorant of Christ, the only true wisdom of God, with how much greater care it behoves us to strive for the knowledge of him!

Calvin: 1Pe 1:15 - He who hath called you is holy 15.He who hath called you is holy He reasons from the end for which we are called. God sets us apart as a peculiar people for himself; then we ought ...

15.He who hath called you is holy He reasons from the end for which we are called. God sets us apart as a peculiar people for himself; then we ought to be free from all pollutions. And he quotes a sentence which had been often repeated by Moses. For as the people of Israel were on every side surrounded by heathens, from whom they might have easily adopted the worst examples and innumerable corruptions, the Lord frequently recalled them to himself, as though he had said, “Ye have to do with me, ye are mine; then abstain from the pollutions of the Gentiles.” We are too ready to look to men, so as to follow their common way of living. Thus it happens, that some lead others in troops to all kinds of evil, until the Lord by his calling separates them.

In bidding us to be holy like himself, the proportion is not that of equals; but we ought to advance in this direction as far as our condition will bear. And as even the most perfect are always very far from coming up to the mark, we ought daily to strive more and more. And we ought to remember that we are not only told what our duty is, but that God also adds, “I am he who sanctify you.”

It is added, In all manner of conversation, or, in your whole conduct. There is then no part of our life which is not to be redolent with this good odour of holiness. For we see that in the smallest things and almost insignificant, the Lord accustomed his people to the practice of holiness, in order that they might exercise a more diligent care as to themselves.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:17 - And if ye call on the Father 17.And if ye call on the Father They are said here to call on God the Father, who professed themselves to be his children, as Moses says, that the na...

17.And if ye call on the Father They are said here to call on God the Father, who professed themselves to be his children, as Moses says, that the name of Jacob was called on Ephraim and Manasseh, that they might be counted his children. (Gen 48:16.) According to this meaning also, we say in French reclamer But he had a regard to what he had said before, “as obedient children.” And from the character of the Father himself, he shews what sort of obedience ought to be rendered. He judges, he says, without looking on the person, that is, no outward mask is of any account with him, as the case is with men, but he sees the heart, (1Sa 16:7;) and his eyes look on faithfulness. (Jer 5:3.) This also is what Paul means when he says that God’s judgment is according to truth, (Rom 2:2;) for he there inveighs against hypocrites, who think that they deceive God by a vain pretense. The meaning is, that we by no means discharge our duty towards God, when we obey him only in appearance; for he is not a mortal man, whom the outward appearance pleases, but he reads what we are inwardly in our hearts. He not only prescribes laws for our feet and hands, but he also requires what is just and right as to the mind and spirit.

By saying, According to every man’s work, he does not refer to merit or to reward; for Peter does not speak here of the merits of works, nor of the cause of salvation, but he only reminds us, that there will be no looking to the person before the tribunal of God, but that what will be regarded will be the real sincerity of the heart. In this place faith also is included in the work. It hence appears evident how foolish and puerile is the inference that is drawn, — “God is such that he judges every one of us by the integrity of his conscience, not by the outward appearance; then we obtain salvation by works.”

The fear that is mentioned, stands opposed to heedless security, such as is wont to creep in, when there is a hope of deceiving with impunity. For, as God’s eyes are such that they penetrate into the hidden recesses of the heart, we ought to walk with him carefully and not negligently. He calls the present life a sojourning, not in the sense in which he called the Jews to whom he was writing sojourners, at the beginning of the Epistle, but because all the godly are in this world pilgrims. (Heb 11:13.)

Calvin: 1Pe 1:18 - Forasmuch as ye know, // Silver and gold 18.Forasmuch as ye know, or, knowing. Here is another reason, drawn from the price of our redemption, which ought always to be remembered when our s...

18.Forasmuch as ye know, or, knowing. Here is another reason, drawn from the price of our redemption, which ought always to be remembered when our salvation is spoken of. For to him who repudiates or despises the grace of the gospel, not only his own salvation is worthless, but also the blood of Christ, by which God has manifested its value. But we know how dreadfully sacrilegious it is to regard as common the blood of the Son of God. There is hence nothing which ought so much to stimulate us to the practice of holiness, as the memory of this price of our redemption.

Silver and gold For the sake of amplifying he mentions these things in contrast, so that we may know that the whole world, and all things deemed precious by men, are nothing to the excellency and value of this price.

But he says that they had been redeemed from their vain conversation, 16 in order that we might know that the whole life of man, until he is converted to Christ, is a ruinous labyrinth of wanderings. He also intimates, that it is not through our merits that we are restored to the right way, but because it is God’s will that the price, offered for our salvation, should be effectual in our behalf. Then the blood of Christ is not only the pledge of our salvation, but also the cause of our calling.

Moreover, Peter warns us to beware lest our unbelief should render this price void or of no effect. As Paul boasts that he worshipped God with a pure conscience from his forefathers, (2Ti 1:3,) and as he also commends to Timothy for his imitation the piety of his grandmother Lois, and of his mother Eunice, (2Ti 1:5,) and as Christ also said of the Jews that they knew whom they worshipped (Joh 4:22,) it may seem strange that Peter should assert that the Jews of his time learnt nothing from their fathers but mere vanity. To this I answer, that Christ, when he declared that the way or the knowledge of true religion belonged to the Jews, referred to the law and the commandments of God rather than to the people; for the temple had not to no purpose been built at Jerusalem, nor was God worshipped there according to the fancies of men, but according to what was prescribed in the Law; he, therefore, said that the Jews were not going astray while observing the Law. As to Paul’s forefathers, and as to Lois, Eunice, and similar cases, there is no doubt but that God ever had at least a small remnant among that people, in whom sincere piety continued, while the body of the people had become wholly corrupt, and had plunged themselves into all kinds of errors. Innumerable superstitions were followed, hypocrisy prevailed, the hope of salvation was built on the merest trifles; they were not only imbued with false opinions, but also fascinated with the grossest dotages; and they who had been scattered to various parts of the world, were implicated in still greater corruptions. In short, the greater part of that nation had either wholly fallen away from true religion, or had much degenerated. When, therefore, Peter condemned the doctrine of the fathers, he viewed it as unconnected with Christ, who is the soul and the truth of the Law.

But we hence learn, that as soon as men depart from Christ, they go fatally astray. In vain is pretended in this case the authority of the Fathers or an ancient custom. For the Prophet Ezekiel cried to the Jews,

“Walk ye not in the statutes of your fathers.”
(Eze 20:18.)

This ought also to be no less attended to by us in the present day; for, in order that the redemption of Christ may be effectual and useful to us, we must renounce our former life, though derived from the teaching and practice of our fathers. Thrice foolish, then, are the Papists, who think that the name of Fathers is a sufficient defense for all their superstitions, so that they boldly reject whatever is brought forward from the Word of God.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:19 - As of a lamb 19.As of a lamb He means by this similitude, that we have in Christ whatever had been shadowed forth by the ancient sacrifices, though he especially ...

19.As of a lamb He means by this similitude, that we have in Christ whatever had been shadowed forth by the ancient sacrifices, though he especially alludes to the Paschal lamb. But let us hence learn what benefit the reading of the Law brings us in this respect; for, though the rite of sacrificing is abolished, yet it assists our faith not a little, to compare the reality with the type, so that we may seek in the former what the latter contains. Moses ordered a whole or perfect lamb, without blemish, to be chosen for the Passover. The same thing is often repeated as to the sacrifices, as in Lev 23:0; in Num 28:0; and in other places. Peter, by applying this to Christ, teaches us that he was a suitable victim, and approved by God, for he was perfect, without any blemish; had he had any defect in him, he could not have been rightly offered to God, nor could he pacify his wrath.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:20 - Who verily was foreordained // But was manifest, // For you 20.Who verily was foreordained He again by a comparison amplifies the grace of God, with which he had peculiarly favored the men of that age. For it ...

20.Who verily was foreordained He again by a comparison amplifies the grace of God, with which he had peculiarly favored the men of that age. For it was not a common or a small favor that God deferred the manifestation of Christ to that time, when yet he had ordained him in his eternal council for the salvation of the world. At the same time, however, he reminds us, that it was not a new or a sudden thing as to God that Christ appeared as a Savior; and this is what ought especially to be known. For, in addition to this, that novelty is always suspicious, what would be the stability of our faith, if we believed that a remedy for mankind had suddenly occurred at length to God after some thousands of years? In short, we cannot confidently recumb on Christ, except we are convinced that eternal salvation is in him, and always has been in him. Besides, Peter addressed the Jews, who had heard that he had already been long ago promised; and though they understood nothing true or clear or certain respecting his power and office, yet there remained among them a persuasion, that a Redeemer had been promised by God to the fathers.

It may yet be asked, As Adam did not fall before the creation of the world, how was it that Christ had been appointed the Redeemer? for a remedy is posterior to the disease. My reply is, that this is to be referred to God’s foreknowledge; for doubtless God, before he created man, foresaw that he would not stand long in his integrity. Hence he ordained, according to his wonderful wisdom and goodness, that Christ should be the Redeemer, to deliver the lost race of man from ruin. For herein shines forth more fully the unspeakable goodness of God, that he anticipated our disease by the remedy of his grace, and provided a restoration to life before the first man had fallen into death. If the reader wishes for more on this subject, he may find it in my Institutes.

But was manifest, or manifested. Included in these words, as I think, is not only the personal appearance of Christ, but also the proclamation of the Gospel. For, by the coming of Christ, God executed what he had decreed; and what he had obscurely indicated to the fathers is now clearly and plainly made known to us by the Gospel. He says that this was done in these last times, meaning the same as when Paul says,

“In the fullness of time,” (Gal 4:4;)

for it was the mature season and the full time which God in his counsel had appointed.

For you He does not exclude the fathers, to whom the promise had not been useless; but as God has favored us more than them, he intimates that the greater the amplitude of grace towards us, the more reverence and ardor and care are required of us.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:21 - Who believe // That raised him up from the dead 21.Who believe The manifestation of Christ refers not to all indiscriminately, but belongs to those only on whom he by the Gospel shines. But we must...

21.Who believe The manifestation of Christ refers not to all indiscriminately, but belongs to those only on whom he by the Gospel shines. But we must notice the words, Who by him believe in God: here is shortly expressed what faith is. For, since God is incomprehensible, faith could never reach to him, except it had an immediate regard to Christ. Nay, there are two reasons why faith could not be in God, except Christ intervened as a Mediator: first, the greatness of the divine glory must be taken to the account, and at the same time the littleness of our capacity. Our acuteness is doubtless very far from being capable of ascending so high as to comprehend God. Hence all knowledge of God without Christ is a vast abyss which immediately swallows up all our thoughts. A clear proof of this we have, not only in the Turks and the Jews, who in the place of God worship their own dreams, but also in the Papists. Common is that axiom of the schools, that God is the object of faith. Thus of hidden majesty, Christ being overlooked, they largely and refinedly speculate; but with what success? They entangle themselves in astounding dotages, so that there is no end to their wanderings. For faith, as they think, is nothing else but an imaginative speculation. Let us, therefore, remember, that Christ is not in vain called the image of the invisible God, (Col 1:15;) but this name is given to him for this reason, because God cannot be known except in him.

The second reason is, that as faith unites us to God, we shun and dread every access to him, except a Mediator comes who can deliver us from fear. For sin, which reigns in us, renders us hateful to God and him to us. Hence, as soon as mention is made of God, we must necessarily be filled with dread; and if we approach him, his justice is like fire, which will wholly consume us.

It is hence evident that we cannot believe in God except through Christ, in whom God in a manner makes himself little, that he might accommodate himself to our comprehension; and it is Christ alone who can tranquillize consciences, so that we may dare to come in confidence to God.

That raised him up from the dead He adds, that Christ had been raised up from the dead, in order that their faith and hope, by which they were supported, might have a firm foundation. And hereby again is confuted the gloss respecting universal and indiscriminate faith in God; for had there been no resurrection of Christ, still God would remain in heaven. But Peter says that he would not have been believed in, except Christ had risen. It is then evident, that faith is something else than to behold the naked majesty of God. And rightly does Peter speak in this manner; for it belongs to faith to penetrate into heaven, that it may find the Father there: how could it do so, except it had Christ as a leader?

“By him,” says Paul, “we have confidence of access.”
(Eph 3:12.)

It is said also, in Heb 4:16, that relying on our high priest, we can come with confidence to the throne of grace. Hope is the anchor of the soul, which enter into the inner part of the sanctuary; but not without Christ going before. (Heb 6:19.) Faith is our victory against the world, (1Jo 5:4) and what is it that makes it victorious, except that Christ, the Lord of heaven and earth, has us under his guardianship and protection?

As, then, our salvation depends on the resurrection of Christ and his supreme power, faith and hope find here what can support them. For, except he had by rising again triumphed over death, and held now the highest sovereignty, to protect us by his power, what would become of us, exposed to so great a power as that of our enemies, and to such violent attacks? Let us, therefore, learn to what mark we ought to direct our aim, so that we may really believe in God.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:22 - Seeing ye have purified your souls, // Unto love of the brethren, 22.Seeing ye have purified your souls, or, Purifying your souls. Erasmus badly renders the words, “Who have purified,” etc. For Peter does not ...

22.Seeing ye have purified your souls, or, Purifying your souls. Erasmus badly renders the words, “Who have purified,” etc. For Peter does not declare what they had done, but reminds them of what they ought to do. The participle is indeed in the past tense, but it may be rendered as a gerund, “By purifying, etc. ” The meaning is, that their souls would not be capable of receiving grace until they were purified, and by this our uncleanness is proved. 17 But that he might not seem to ascribe to us the power of purifying our souls, he immediately adds, through the Spirit; as though he had said, “Your souls are to be purified, but as ye cannot do this, offer them to God, that he may take away your filth by his Spirit.” He only mentions souls, though they needed to be cleansed also from the defilements of the flesh, as Paul bids the Corinthians, (2Co 7:1;) but as the principal uncleanness is within, and necessarily draws with it that which is outward, Peter was satisfied with mentioning only the former, as though he had said, that not outward actions only ought to be corrected, but the very hearts ought to be thoroughly reformed.

He afterwards points out the manner, for purity of soul consists in obedience to God. Truth is to be taken for the rule which God prescribes to us in the Gospel. Nor does he speak only of works, but rather faith holds here the primacy. Hence Paul specially teaches us in the first and last chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, that faith is that by which we obey God; and Peter in Acts, Act 15:9, bestows on it this eulogy, that God by it purifies the heart.

Unto love of the brethren, or, Unto brotherly love. He briefly reminds us what God especially requires in our life, and the mark to which all our endeavors should be directed. So Paul in Eph 1:4 the Epistle to the Ephesians, when speaking of the perfection of the faithful, makes it to consist in love. And this is what we ought the more carefully to notice, because the world makes its own sanctity to consist of the veriest trifles, and almost overlooks this the chief thing. We see how the Papists weary themselves beyond measure with thousand invented superstitions: in the meantime, the last thing is that love which God especially commends. This, then, is the reason why Peter calls our attention to it, when speaking of a life rightly formed.

He had before spoken of the mortification of the flesh, and of our conformity with the will of God; but he now reminds us of what God would have us to cultivate through life, that is, mutual love towards one another; for by that we testify also that we love God; and by this evidence God proves who they are who really love him.

He calls it unfeigned, (ἀνυπόκριτον), as Paul calls faith in 1Ti 1:5; for nothing is more difficult than to love our neighbors in sincerity. For the love of ourselves rules, which is full of hypocrisy; and besides, every one measures his love, which he shews to others, by his own advantage, and not by the rule of doing good. He adds, fervently; for the more slothful we are by nature, the more ought every one to stimulate himself to fervor and earnestness, and that not only once, but more and more daily.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:23 - Being born again 23.Being born again Here is another reason for an exhortation, — that since they were new men and born again of God, it behoved them to form a life...

23.Being born again Here is another reason for an exhortation, — that since they were new men and born again of God, it behoved them to form a life worthy of God and of their spiritual regeneration. And this seems to be connected with a verse in 1Pe 2:2 respecting the milk of the word, which they were to seek, that their way of living might correspond with their birth. It may, however, be extended wider, so as to be connected also with what has gone before; for Peter collected together those things which may lead us to an upright and a holy life. The object, then, of Peter was to teach us that we cannot be Christians without regeneration; for the Gospel is not preached, that it may be only heard by us, but that it may, as a seed of immortal life, altogether reform our hearts. 18 Moreover, the corruptible seed is set in opposition to God’s word, in order that the faithful might know that they ought to renounce their former nature, and that it might be more evident how much is the difference between the children of Adam who are born only into the world, and the children of God who are renewed into a heavenly life. But as the construction of the Greek text is doubtful, we may read, “the living word of God,” as well as, “the word of the living God.” As, however, the latter reading is less forced, I prefer it; though it must be observed, that the term is applied to God owing to the character of the passage. For, as in Heb 4:12, because God sees all things, and nothing is hid from him, the apostle argues that the word of God penetrates into the inmost marrow, so as to discern thoughts and feelings; so, when Peter in this place calls him the living God, who abides for ever, he refers to the word, in which the perpetuity of God shines forth as in a living mirror.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:24 - For all flesh // The grass withereth, 24.For all flesh He aptly quotes the passage from Isaiah to prove both clauses; that is, to make it evident how fading and miserable is the first bir...

24.For all flesh He aptly quotes the passage from Isaiah to prove both clauses; that is, to make it evident how fading and miserable is the first birth of man, and how great is the grace of the new birth. For as the Prophet there speaks of the restoration of the Church, to prepare the way for it, he reduces men to nothing lest they should flatter themselves. I know that the words are wrongly turned by some to another sense; for some explain them of the Assyrians, as though the Prophet said, that there was no reason for the Jews to fear so much from flesh, which is like a fading flower. Others think that the vain confidence which the Jews reposed in human aids, is reproved. But the Prophet himself disproves both these views, by adding, that the people were as grass; for he expressly condemns the Jews for vanity, to whom he promised restoration in the name of the Lord. This, then, is what I have already said, that until their own emptiness has been shewn to men, they are not prepared to receive the grace of God. In short, such is the meaning of the Prophet: as exile was to the Jews like death, he promised them a new consolation, even that God would send prophets with a command of this kind. The Lord, he says, will yet say, “Comfort ye my people;” and that in the desert and the waste, the prophetic voice would yet be heard, in order that a way might be prepared for the Lord. (Isa 40:6.)

And as the obstinate pride which filled them, must have been necessarily purged from their minds, in order that an access might be open for God, the Prophet added what Peter relates here respecting the vanishing glory of the flesh. What is man? he says — grass; what is the glory of man? the flower of the grass. For as it was difficult to believe that man, in whom so much excellency appears, is like grass, the Prophet made a kind of concession, as though he had said, “Be it, indeed, that flesh has some glory; but lest that should dazzle your eyes, know that the flower soon withers.” He afterwards shews how suddenly everything that seems beautiful in men vanishes, even through the blowing of the Spirit of God; and by this he intimates, that man seems to be something until he comes to God, but that his whole brightness is as nothing in his presence; that, in a word, his glory is in this world, and has no place in the heavenly kingdom.

The grass withereth, or, has withered. Many think that this refers only to the outward man; but they are mistaken; for we must consider the comparison between God’s word and man. For if he meant only the body and what belongs to the present life, he ought to have said, in the second place, that the soul was far more excellent. But what he sets in opposition to the grass and its flower, is the word of God. It then follows, that in man nothing but vanity is found. Therefore, when Isaiah spoke of flesh and its glory, he meant the whole man, such as he is in himself; for what he ascribed as peculiar to God’s word, he denied to man. In short, the Prophet speaks of the same thing as Christ does in Joh 3:3, that man is wholly alienated from the kingdom of God, that he is nothing but an earthly, fading, and empty creature, until he is born again.

Calvin: 1Pe 1:25 - But the word of God // This is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you, 25.But the word of God The Prophet does not shew what the word of God is in itself, but what we ought to think of it; for since man is vanity in hims...

25.But the word of God The Prophet does not shew what the word of God is in itself, but what we ought to think of it; for since man is vanity in himself, it remains that he ought to seek life elsewhere. Hence Peter ascribes power and efficacy to God’s word, according to the authority of the Prophet, so that it can confer on us what is real, solid, and eternal. For this was what the Prophet had in view, that there is no permanent life but in God, and that this is communicated to us by the word. However fading, then, is the nature of man, yet he is made eternal by the word; for he is re-moulded and becomes a new creature.

This is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you, or, which has been declared to you. He first reminds us, that when the word of God is mentioned, we are very foolish if we imagine it to be remote from us in the air or in heaven; for we ought to know that it has been revealed to us by the Lord. What, then, is this word of the Lord, which gives us life? Even the Law, the Prophets, the Gospel. Those who wander beyond these limits of revelation, find nothing but the impostures of Satan and his dotages, and not the word of the Lord. We ought the more carefully to notice this, because impious and Luciferian men, craftily allowing to God’s word its own honor, at the same time attempt to draw us away from the Scriptures, as that unprincipled man, Agrippa, who highly extols the eternity of God’s word, and yet treats with scurrility the Prophets, and thus indirectly laughs to scorn the Word of God.

In short, as I have already reminded you, no mention is here made of the word which lies hid in the bosom of God, but of that which has proceeded from his mouth, and has come to us. So again it ought to be borne in mind, that God designed by the Apostles and Prophets to speak to us, and their mouths is the mouth of the only true God.

Then, when Peter says, Which has been announced, or declared, to you, he intimates that the word is not to be sought elsewhere than in the Gospel preached to us; and truly we know not the way of eternal life otherwise than by faith. But there can be no faith, except we know that the word is destined for us.

To the same purpose is what Moses said to the people,

“Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven, etc.; nigh is the word, in thy mouth and in thy heart.”
(Deu 30:12.)

That these words agree with what Peter says, Paul shews Rom 10:6, where he teaches us that it was the word of faith which he preached.

There is here, besides, no common eulogy on preaching; for Peter declares that what is preached is the life-giving word. God alone is indeed he who regenerates us; but for that purpose he employs the ministry of men; and on this account Paul glories that the Corinthians had been spiritually begotten by him. (1Co 4:15.) It is indeed certain that those who plant and those who water, are nothing; but whenever God is pleased to bless their labor, he makes their doctrine efficacious by the power of his Spirit; and the voice which is in itself mortal, is made an instrument to communicate eternal life.

Defender: 1Pe 1:1 - Peter Even though it had lost most of its former glory, Peter apparently wrote this first epistle from Babylon (1Pe 5:13) which was still a thriving city. P...

Even though it had lost most of its former glory, Peter apparently wrote this first epistle from Babylon (1Pe 5:13) which was still a thriving city. Peter had evidently gone to evangelize the large Jewish community and plant a church.

Defender: 1Pe 1:1 - strangers These persecuted Jewish Christians may have been viewed as "strangers" to those among whom they lived, but in God's sight, they were "elect" (1Pe 1:2)...

These persecuted Jewish Christians may have been viewed as "strangers" to those among whom they lived, but in God's sight, they were "elect" (1Pe 1:2). The phrase "strangers scattered" means, in effect, "foreigners, dispersed" from their homeland. The five Roman provinces were all in what is now Turkey. Presumably, Peter had also worked in the churches of these provinces. Cappadocia, in particular, was not far from Babylon. Thus Peter's epistles, like that of James, were written primarily to Jewish Christians of the dispersion, although it is evident that there were also Gentiles in the churches."

Defender: 1Pe 1:2 - foreknowledge The "foreknowledge" of God involves more than just knowing ahead of time the choice that a given person will make, for "known unto God are all His wor...

The "foreknowledge" of God involves more than just knowing ahead of time the choice that a given person will make, for "known unto God are all His works from the [foundation] of the world" (Act 15:18), and He "worketh all things after the counsel of his own will" (Eph 1:11). Those whom He foreknew He then created as "the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory" (Rom 9:23). This in no way inhibits anyone who wants to be saved from coming to Christ, for He has invited all to "come unto me" (Mat 11:28), with the assurance that "whosoever will" may come (Rev 22:17). The natural man, however, in his own mind, "receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God" (1Co 2:14) and chooses not to come. The Father, in inscrutable ways, draws to Christ those whom He foreknew and made His elect. "No man can come to me," said Jesus, "except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day" (Joh 6:44). We cannot, in our finite minds, comprehend the infinite mind and ways of God (Rom 11:33-36), but we can, and must, believe His Word (see note on 1Pe 1:20).

Defender: 1Pe 1:2 - obedience The proof that we have been foreknown by God and are among His elect is that we are obedient to His Word, for we have been "created in Christ Jesus un...

The proof that we have been foreknown by God and are among His elect is that we are obedient to His Word, for we have been "created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them" (Eph 2:10).

Defender: 1Pe 1:2 - multiplied Paul normally began His epistles with "grace and peace" (Rom 1:7), but Peter begins with grace times peace. Marvelous is the implication of infinite g...

Paul normally began His epistles with "grace and peace" (Rom 1:7), but Peter begins with grace times peace. Marvelous is the implication of infinite grace (2Co 8:9) multiplied by infinite peace (Phi 4:7). The product can only be eternal fulness of joy (Joh 15:11)."

Defender: 1Pe 1:3 - begotten us again "Begotten again" is the same as "born again" in 1Pe 1:23.

"Begotten again" is the same as "born again" in 1Pe 1:23.

Defender: 1Pe 1:3 - lively hope "Lively" - that is, our hope in Christ is made vibrantly alive by His resurrection, which guarantees forever the ultimate defeat of Satan, sin and dea...

"Lively" - that is, our hope in Christ is made vibrantly alive by His resurrection, which guarantees forever the ultimate defeat of Satan, sin and death, and the fulfillment of His promise of everlasting life. On this hope, see also 1Pe 1:13, 1Pe 1:21."

Defender: 1Pe 1:4 - incorruptible Corruptible seed generates only glory that fades away, whereas the "incorruptible" seed generates an incorruptible inheritance that will never fade aw...

Corruptible seed generates only glory that fades away, whereas the "incorruptible" seed generates an incorruptible inheritance that will never fade away. 1Pe 1:4 says the inheritance is reserved for us, whereas 1Pe 1:5 assures us that we are reserved for the inheritance (contrast 1Pe 1:23, 1Pe 1:24)."

Defender: 1Pe 1:5 - kept "Kept" means "being guarded." Our keeping is not by our works or even by our faith (though it is received through faith), but by the power of God. We ...

"Kept" means "being guarded." Our keeping is not by our works or even by our faith (though it is received through faith), but by the power of God. We are in His hand (Joh 10:29)."

Defender: 1Pe 1:7 - praise and honour and glory These may represent three classes of rewards for believers at the judgment seat of Christ (1Co 3:11-15). On "praise," see 1Co 4:5; on "honor," see Joh...

These may represent three classes of rewards for believers at the judgment seat of Christ (1Co 3:11-15). On "praise," see 1Co 4:5; on "honor," see Joh 12:26; and on "glory," see Phi 3:21. Perhaps these are rewards given to those Christians who bear fruit for Christ, "some an hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty" (Mat 13:23)."

Defender: 1Pe 1:8 - having not seen "Blessed are they," Jesus said, "that have not seen, and yet have believed" (compare Joh 20:29)."

"Blessed are they," Jesus said, "that have not seen, and yet have believed" (compare Joh 20:29)."

Defender: 1Pe 1:11 - Searching This is a striking affirmation of the nature of Biblical inspiration - in particular, of those portions of Scripture which contain Messianic prophecie...

This is a striking affirmation of the nature of Biblical inspiration - in particular, of those portions of Scripture which contain Messianic prophecies. The prophets were so carried along by the Holy Spirit (2Pe 1:21) that they, themselves, did not understand what they were prophesying. Note, for example, Dan 12:8, Dan 12:9, where Daniel was told that his words were "sealed till the time of the end."

Defender: 1Pe 1:11 - glory that should follow Typical prophecies that referred both to the sufferings and later glory of Christ included Psalm 22, Daniel 9 and Isa 53:1-12."

Typical prophecies that referred both to the sufferings and later glory of Christ included Psalm 22, Daniel 9 and Isa 53:1-12."

Defender: 1Pe 1:12 - angels It is amazing to realize that even God's holy angels (probably also Satan and the fallen angels) are observing, with great interest, the unfolding of ...

It is amazing to realize that even God's holy angels (probably also Satan and the fallen angels) are observing, with great interest, the unfolding of God's great plan of salvation, both in individual human beings and for the whole creation. For further glimpses into this fascinating subject, study such Scriptures as Heb 1:14; Psa 34:7; Mat 18:10; 1Co 11:10; Eph 3:10."

Defender: 1Pe 1:13 - gird up This expression, meaning to be serious and thoughtful rather than shallow and flippant in attitude, comes from the custom of gathering up one's flowin...

This expression, meaning to be serious and thoughtful rather than shallow and flippant in attitude, comes from the custom of gathering up one's flowing robe (the customary dress of the day, even for men) and tying it up around the loins in order to free the feet and legs for running or working at certain manual tasks (Luk 12:35; Luk 17:8; Act 12:8)."

Defender: 1Pe 1:14 - obedient children This could be read "children of obedience" (compare Eph 5:8; contrast Eph 2:2).

This could be read "children of obedience" (compare Eph 5:8; contrast Eph 2:2).

Defender: