19:1 While 1 Apollos was in Corinth, 2 Paul went through the inland 3 regions 4 and came to Ephesus. 5 He 6 found some disciples there 7 19:2 and said to them, “Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?” 8 They replied, 9 “No, we have not even 10 heard that there is a Holy Spirit.” 19:3 So Paul 11 said, “Into what then were you baptized?” “Into John’s baptism,” they replied. 12 19:4 Paul said, “John baptized with a baptism of repentance, telling the people to believe in the one who was to come after him, 13 that is, in Jesus.” 19:5 When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus, 19:6 and when Paul placed 14 his hands on them, the Holy Spirit came 15 upon them, and they began to speak 16 in tongues and to prophesy. 17 19:7 (Now there were about twelve men in all.) 18
19:8 So Paul 19 entered 20 the synagogue 21 and spoke out fearlessly 22 for three months, addressing 23 and convincing 24 them about the kingdom of God. 25 19:9 But when 26 some were stubborn 27 and refused to believe, reviling 28 the Way 29 before the congregation, he left 30 them and took the disciples with him, 31 addressing 32 them every day 33 in the lecture hall 34 of Tyrannus. 19:10 This went on for two years, so that all who lived in the province of Asia, 35 both Jews and Greeks, heard the word of the Lord. 36
19:11 God was performing extraordinary 37 miracles by Paul’s hands, 19:12 so that when even handkerchiefs or aprons that had touched his body 38 were brought 39 to the sick, their diseases left them and the evil spirits went out of them. 40 19:13 But some itinerant 41 Jewish exorcists tried to invoke the name 42 of the Lord Jesus over those who were possessed by 43 evil spirits, saying, “I sternly warn 44 you by Jesus whom Paul preaches.” 19:14 (Now seven sons of a man named 45 Sceva, a Jewish high priest, were doing this.) 46 19:15 But the evil spirit replied to them, 47 “I know about Jesus 48 and I am acquainted with 49 Paul, but who are you?” 50 19:16 Then the man who was possessed by 51 the evil spirit jumped on 52 them and beat them all into submission. 53 He prevailed 54 against them so that they fled from that house naked and wounded. 19:17 This became known to all who lived in Ephesus, 55 both Jews and Greeks; fear came over 56 them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was praised. 57 19:18 Many of those who had believed came forward, 58 confessing and making their deeds known. 59 19:19 Large numbers 60 of those who had practiced magic 61 collected their books 62 and burned them up in the presence of everyone. 63 When 64 the value of the books was added up, it was found to total fifty thousand silver coins. 65 19:20 In this way the word of the Lord 66 continued to grow in power 67 and to prevail. 68
19:21 Now after all these things had taken place, 69 Paul resolved 70 to go to Jerusalem, 71 passing through Macedonia 72 and Achaia. 73 He said, 74 “After I have been there, I must also see Rome.” 75 19:22 So after sending 76 two of his assistants, 77 Timothy and Erastus, to Macedonia, 78 he himself stayed on for a while in the province of Asia. 79
19:23 At 80 that time 81 a great disturbance 82 took place concerning the Way. 83 19:24 For a man named Demetrius, a silversmith who made silver shrines 84 of Artemis, 85 brought a great deal 86 of business 87 to the craftsmen. 19:25 He gathered 88 these 89 together, along with the workmen in similar trades, 90 and said, “Men, you know that our prosperity 91 comes from this business. 19:26 And you see and hear that this Paul has persuaded 92 and turned away 93 a large crowd, 94 not only in Ephesus 95 but in practically all of the province of Asia, 96 by saying 97 that gods made by hands are not gods at all. 98 19:27 There is danger not only that this business of ours will come into disrepute, 99 but also that the temple of the great goddess Artemis 100 will be regarded as nothing, 101 and she whom all the province of Asia 102 and the world worship will suffer the loss of her greatness.” 103
19:28 When 104 they heard 105 this they became enraged 106 and began to shout, 107 “Great is Artemis 108 of the Ephesians!” 19:29 The 109 city was filled with the uproar, 110 and the crowd 111 rushed to the theater 112 together, 113 dragging with them Gaius and Aristarchus, the Macedonians who were Paul’s traveling companions. 19:30 But when Paul wanted to enter the public assembly, 114 the disciples would not let him. 19:31 Even some of the provincial authorities 115 who were his friends sent 116 a message 117 to him, urging him not to venture 118 into the theater. 19:32 So then some were shouting one thing, some another, for the assembly was in confusion, and most of them did not know why they had met together. 119 19:33 Some of the crowd concluded 120 it was about 121 Alexander because the Jews had pushed him to the front. 122 Alexander, gesturing 123 with his hand, was wanting to make a defense 124 before the public assembly. 125 19:34 But when they recognized 126 that he was a Jew, they all shouted in unison, 127 “Great is Artemis 128 of the Ephesians!” for about two hours. 129 19:35 After the city secretary 130 quieted the crowd, he said, “Men of Ephesus, what person 131 is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is the keeper 132 of the temple of the great Artemis 133 and of her image that fell from heaven? 134 19:36 So because these facts 135 are indisputable, 136 you must keep quiet 137 and not do anything reckless. 138 19:37 For you have brought these men here who are neither temple robbers 139 nor blasphemers of our goddess. 140 19:38 If then Demetrius and the craftsmen who are with him have a complaint 141 against someone, the courts are open 142 and there are proconsuls; let them bring charges against one another there. 143 19:39 But if you want anything in addition, 144 it will have to be settled 145 in a legal assembly. 146 19:40 For 147 we are in danger of being charged with rioting 148 today, since there is no cause we can give to explain 149 this disorderly gathering.” 150 19:41 After 151 he had said 152 this, 153 he dismissed the assembly. 154
[19:1] 1 tn Grk “It happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
[19:1] 6 tn Grk “and found.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the sequencing with the following verse the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.
[19:2] 10 tn This use of ἀλλά (alla) is ascensive and involves an ellipsis (BDAG 45 s.v. ἀλλά 3): “No, [not only did we not receive the Spirit,] but also we have not heard that there is a Holy Spirit.” However, this is lengthy and somewhat awkward in English, and the ascensive meaning can be much more easily represented by including the word “even” after the negation. Apparently these disciples were unaware of the provision of the Spirit that is represented in baptism. The language sounds like they did not know about a Holy Spirit, but this seems to be only linguistic shorthand for not knowing about the Spirit’s presence (Luke 3:15-18). The situation is parallel to that of Apollos. Apollos and these disciples represent those who “complete” their transition to messianic faith as Jews.
[19:4] 13 sn These disciples may have had their contact with John early on in the Baptist’s ministry before Jesus had emerged. This is the fifth time Luke links John the Baptist and Jesus (Acts 1:5; 11:16; 13:25; 18:25).
[19:6] 15 sn The coming of the Holy Spirit here is another case where the Spirit comes and prophesy results in Acts (see Acts 2). Paul’s action parallels that of Peter (Acts 8) and not just with Gentiles.
[19:8] 23 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 19:8. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.
[19:8] 24 tn Or “addressing them persuasively.” The two participles διαλεγόμενος and πείθων (dialegomeno" and peiqwn) can be understood as a hendiadys (so NIV, NRSV), thus, “addressing them persuasively.”
[19:9] 32 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 19:9. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.
[19:9] 34 tn The “lecture hall” was a place where teachers and pupils met. The term is a NT hapax legomenon (BDAG 982 s.v. σχολή). L&N 7.14 notes, “it is better to use a translation such as ‘lecture hall’ rather than ‘school,’ since one does not wish to give the impression of the typical classroom situation characteristic of present-day schools.”
[19:10] 35 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.
[19:10] 36 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.
[19:12] 39 tn Or “were taken.” It might be that as word went out into the region that since the sick could not come to Paul, healing was brought to them this way. The “handkerchiefs” are probably face cloths for wiping perspiration (see BDAG 934 s.v. σουδάριον) while the “aprons” might be material worn by workmen (BDAG 923-24 s.v. σιμικίνθιον).
[19:15] 49 tn BDAG 380 s.v. ἐπίσταμαι 2 has “know, be acquainted with τινά…τὸν Παῦλον Ac 19:15.” Here the translation “be acquainted with” was used to differentiate from the previous phrase which has γινώσκω (ginwskw).
[19:15] 50 sn But who are you? This account shows how the power of Paul was so distinct that parallel claims to access that power were denied. In fact, such manipulation, by those who did not know Jesus, was judged (v. 16). The indirect way in which the exorcists made the appeal shows their distance from Jesus.
[19:16] 52 tn Grk “the man in whom the evil spirit was, jumping on them.” The participle ἐφαλόμενος (efalomeno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. L&N 15.239 has “ἐφαλόμενος ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐπ᾿ αὐτούς ‘the man jumped on them’ Ac 19:16.”
[19:16] 53 tn Grk “and beating them all into submission.” The participle κατακυριεύσας (katakurieusa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. According to W. Foerster, TDNT 3:1098, the word means “the exercise of dominion against someone, i.e., to one’s own advantage.” These exorcists were shown to be powerless in comparison to Jesus who was working through Paul.
[19:18] sn Making their deeds known. Ephesus was a major pagan religious center with much syncretistic “magical” practice. Coming to Jesus changed the lives and attitudes of these believers, creating a social impact.
[19:19] 65 tn Or “fifty thousand silver drachmas” (about $10,000 US dollars). BDAG 128 s.v. ἀργύριον 2.c states, “ἀργυρίου μυριάδας πέντε 50,000 (Attic silver) drachmas Ac 19:19.” Another way to express the value would be in sheep: One drachma could buy one sheep. So this many drachmas could purchase a huge flock of sheep. A drachma also equals a denarius, or a day’s wage for the average worker. So this amount would be equal to 50,000 work days or in excess of 8,300 weeks of labor (the weeks are calculated at six working days because of the Jewish cultural context). The impact of Christianity on the Ephesian economy was considerable (note in regard to this the concerns expressed in 19:26-27).
[19:20] 66 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.
[19:21] 70 tn Grk “Paul purposed in [his] spirit” (an idiom). According to BDAG 1003 s.v. τίθημι 1.b.ε the entire idiom means “to resolve” (or “decide”): “ἔθετο ὁ Παῦλος ἐν τῷ πνεύματι w. inf. foll. Paul resolved 19:21.”
[19:21] 74 tn Grk “Achaia, saying.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the awkwardness in English of having two participial clauses following one another (“passing through…saying”), the participle εἰπών (eipwn) has been translated as a finite verb and a new sentence begun here in the translation.
[19:22] 79 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.
[19:23] 80 tn Grk “There happened at that time.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Instead the verb “took place” has been supplied in the translation.
[19:24] 84 tn BDAG 665 s.v. ναός 1.a states, “Specif. of temples: of replicas of the temple of Artemis at Ephesus 19:24…but here, near ἱερόν vs. 27…ναός can be understood in the more restricted sense shrine, where the image of the goddess stood.”
[19:25] 89 tn Grk “whom”; because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) has been replaced with a pronoun (“these”) and a new sentence begun in the translation.
[19:27] 103 tn Or “her magnificence.” BDAG 488 s.v. καθαιρέω 2.b has “καθαιρεῖσθαι τῆς μεγαλειότητος αὐτῆς suffer the loss of her magnificence Ac 19:27”; L&N 13.38 has “‘and to have her greatness done away with’ Ac 19:27.”
[19:27] sn Suffer the loss of her greatness. It is important to appreciate that money alone was not the issue, even for the pagan Ephesians. The issue was ultimately the dishonor of their goddess to whom they were devoted in worship. The battle was a “cosmic” one between deities.
[19:28] 104 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[19:28] 106 tn Grk “they became filled with rage” (an idiom). The reaction of the Ephesians here is like that of the Jews earlier, though Luke referred to “zeal” or “jealousy” in the former case (Acts 7:54).
[19:28] 107 tn Grk “and began shouting, saying.” The imperfect verb ἔκραζον (ekrazon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect. The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
[19:29] 109 tn Grk “And the.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[19:29] 112 sn To the theater. This location made the event a public spectacle. The Grand Theater in Ephesus (still standing today) stood facing down the main thoroughfare of the city toward the docks. It had a seating capacity of 25,000.
[19:30] 114 tn Or “enter the crowd.” According to BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος 2, “in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assembly…εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸν δ. go into the assembly 19:30.”
[19:31] 117 tn The words “a message” are not in the Greek text but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
[19:31] 118 tn BDAG 242-43 s.v. δίδωμι 11 has “to cause (oneself) to go, go, venture somewhere (cp. our older ‘betake oneself’)…Ac 19:31.” The desire of these sympathetic authorities was surely to protect Paul’s life. The detail indicates how dangerous things had become.
[19:33] 124 sn The nature of Alexander’s defense is not clear. It appears he was going to explain, as a Jew, that the problem was not caused by Jews, but by those of “the Way.” However, he never got a chance to speak.
[19:33] 125 tn Or “before the crowd.” According to BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος 2, “in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assembly…ἀπολογεῖσθαι τῷ δ. make a defense before the assembly vs. 33.”
[19:34] 128 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus, 1.25 mi (2 km) northeast of the Grand Theater. Dimensions were 418 ft by 239 ft (125 m by 72 m) for the platform; the temple proper was 377 ft by 180 ft (113 m by 54 m). The roof was supported by 117 columns, each 60 ft (18 m) high by 6 ft (1.8 m) in diameter. The Emperor Justinian of Byzantium later took these columns for use in construction of the Hagia Sophia, where they still exist (in modern day Istanbul).
[19:34] 129 sn They all shouted…for about two hours. The extent of the tumult shows the racial and social tensions of a cosmopolitan city like Ephesus, indicating what the Christians in such locations had to face.
[19:35] sn The expression fell from heaven adds a note of apologetic about the heavenly origin of the goddess. The city’s identity and well-being was wrapped up with this connection, in their view. Many interpreters view her image that fell from heaven as a stone meteorite regarded as a sacred object.
[19:36] 136 tn The genitive absolute construction with the participle ὄντων (ontwn) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle. On the term translated “indisputable” see BDAG 68-69 s.v. ἀναντίρρητος which has “not to be contradicted, undeniable.”
[19:36] 138 tn L&N 88.98 has “pertaining to impetuous and reckless behavior – ‘reckless, impetuous.’…‘so then, you must calm down and not do anything reckless’ Ac 19:36.” The city secretary was asking that order be restored.
[19:37] 140 sn Nor blasphemers of our goddess. There was no formal crime with which Paul could be charged. He had the right to his religion as long as he did not act physically against the temple. Since no overt act had taken place, the official wanted the community to maintain the status quo on these religious matters. The remarks suggest Paul was innocent of any civil crime.
[19:39] 146 tn Or “in a legal meeting of the citizens.” L&N 30.81 has “ἐν τῇ ἐννόμῳ ἐκκλησίᾳ ἐπιλυθήσεται ‘it will have to be settled in a legal meeting of the citizens’ Ac 19:39.” This meeting took place three times a year.
[19:40] 149 tn Or “to account for.” Grk “since there is no cause concerning which we can give account concerning this disorderly gathering.” The complexity of the Greek relative clause (“which”) and the multiple prepositions (“concerning”) have been simplified in the translation consistent with contemporary English style.
[19:41] 151 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.