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Kisah Para Rasul 19

Disciples of John the Baptist at Ephesus

19:1 While 1  Apollos was in Corinth, 2  Paul went through the inland 3  regions 4  and came to Ephesus. 5  He 6  found some disciples there 7  19:2 and said to them, “Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?” 8  They replied, 9  “No, we have not even 10  heard that there is a Holy Spirit.” 19:3 So Paul 11  said, “Into what then were you baptized?” “Into John’s baptism,” they replied. 12  19:4 Paul said, “John baptized with a baptism of repentance, telling the people to believe in the one who was to come after him, 13  that is, in Jesus.” 19:5 When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus, 19:6 and when Paul placed 14  his hands on them, the Holy Spirit came 15  upon them, and they began to speak 16  in tongues and to prophesy. 17  19:7 (Now there were about twelve men in all.) 18 

Paul Continues to Minister at Ephesus

19:8 So Paul 19  entered 20  the synagogue 21  and spoke out fearlessly 22  for three months, addressing 23  and convincing 24  them about the kingdom of God. 25  19:9 But when 26  some were stubborn 27  and refused to believe, reviling 28  the Way 29  before the congregation, he left 30  them and took the disciples with him, 31  addressing 32  them every day 33  in the lecture hall 34  of Tyrannus. 19:10 This went on for two years, so that all who lived in the province of Asia, 35  both Jews and Greeks, heard the word of the Lord. 36 

The Seven Sons of Sceva

19:11 God was performing extraordinary 37  miracles by Paul’s hands, 19:12 so that when even handkerchiefs or aprons that had touched his body 38  were brought 39  to the sick, their diseases left them and the evil spirits went out of them. 40  19:13 But some itinerant 41  Jewish exorcists tried to invoke the name 42  of the Lord Jesus over those who were possessed by 43  evil spirits, saying, “I sternly warn 44  you by Jesus whom Paul preaches.” 19:14 (Now seven sons of a man named 45  Sceva, a Jewish high priest, were doing this.) 46  19:15 But the evil spirit replied to them, 47  “I know about Jesus 48  and I am acquainted with 49  Paul, but who are you?” 50  19:16 Then the man who was possessed by 51  the evil spirit jumped on 52  them and beat them all into submission. 53  He prevailed 54  against them so that they fled from that house naked and wounded. 19:17 This became known to all who lived in Ephesus, 55  both Jews and Greeks; fear came over 56  them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was praised. 57  19:18 Many of those who had believed came forward, 58  confessing and making their deeds known. 59  19:19 Large numbers 60  of those who had practiced magic 61  collected their books 62  and burned them up in the presence of everyone. 63  When 64  the value of the books was added up, it was found to total fifty thousand silver coins. 65  19:20 In this way the word of the Lord 66  continued to grow in power 67  and to prevail. 68 

A Riot in Ephesus

19:21 Now after all these things had taken place, 69  Paul resolved 70  to go to Jerusalem, 71  passing through Macedonia 72  and Achaia. 73  He said, 74  “After I have been there, I must also see Rome.” 75  19:22 So after sending 76  two of his assistants, 77  Timothy and Erastus, to Macedonia, 78  he himself stayed on for a while in the province of Asia. 79 

19:23 At 80  that time 81  a great disturbance 82  took place concerning the Way. 83  19:24 For a man named Demetrius, a silversmith who made silver shrines 84  of Artemis, 85  brought a great deal 86  of business 87  to the craftsmen. 19:25 He gathered 88  these 89  together, along with the workmen in similar trades, 90  and said, “Men, you know that our prosperity 91  comes from this business. 19:26 And you see and hear that this Paul has persuaded 92  and turned away 93  a large crowd, 94  not only in Ephesus 95  but in practically all of the province of Asia, 96  by saying 97  that gods made by hands are not gods at all. 98  19:27 There is danger not only that this business of ours will come into disrepute, 99  but also that the temple of the great goddess Artemis 100  will be regarded as nothing, 101  and she whom all the province of Asia 102  and the world worship will suffer the loss of her greatness.” 103 

19:28 When 104  they heard 105  this they became enraged 106  and began to shout, 107  “Great is Artemis 108  of the Ephesians!” 19:29 The 109  city was filled with the uproar, 110  and the crowd 111  rushed to the theater 112  together, 113  dragging with them Gaius and Aristarchus, the Macedonians who were Paul’s traveling companions. 19:30 But when Paul wanted to enter the public assembly, 114  the disciples would not let him. 19:31 Even some of the provincial authorities 115  who were his friends sent 116  a message 117  to him, urging him not to venture 118  into the theater. 19:32 So then some were shouting one thing, some another, for the assembly was in confusion, and most of them did not know why they had met together. 119  19:33 Some of the crowd concluded 120  it was about 121  Alexander because the Jews had pushed him to the front. 122  Alexander, gesturing 123  with his hand, was wanting to make a defense 124  before the public assembly. 125  19:34 But when they recognized 126  that he was a Jew, they all shouted in unison, 127  “Great is Artemis 128  of the Ephesians!” for about two hours. 129  19:35 After the city secretary 130  quieted the crowd, he said, “Men of Ephesus, what person 131  is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is the keeper 132  of the temple of the great Artemis 133  and of her image that fell from heaven? 134  19:36 So because these facts 135  are indisputable, 136  you must keep quiet 137  and not do anything reckless. 138  19:37 For you have brought these men here who are neither temple robbers 139  nor blasphemers of our goddess. 140  19:38 If then Demetrius and the craftsmen who are with him have a complaint 141  against someone, the courts are open 142  and there are proconsuls; let them bring charges against one another there. 143  19:39 But if you want anything in addition, 144  it will have to be settled 145  in a legal assembly. 146  19:40 For 147  we are in danger of being charged with rioting 148  today, since there is no cause we can give to explain 149  this disorderly gathering.” 150  19:41 After 151  he had said 152  this, 153  he dismissed the assembly. 154 

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[19:1]  1 tn Grk “It happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

[19:1]  2 map For location see JP1 C2; JP2 C2; JP3 C2; JP4 C2.

[19:1]  3 tn Or “interior.”

[19:1]  4 tn BDAG 92 s.v. ἀνωτερικός has “upper τὰ ἀ. μέρη the upper (i.e. inland) country, the interior Ac 19:1.”

[19:1]  5 map For location see JP1 D2; JP2 D2; JP3 D2; JP4 D2.

[19:1]  6 tn Grk “and found.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the sequencing with the following verse the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.

[19:1]  7 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

[19:2]  8 tn The participle πιστεύσαντες (pisteusante") is taken temporally.

[19:2]  9 tn Grk “they [said] to him” (the word “said” is implied in the Greek text).

[19:2]  10 tn This use of ἀλλά (alla) is ascensive and involves an ellipsis (BDAG 45 s.v. ἀλλά 3): “No, [not only did we not receive the Spirit,] but also we have not heard that there is a Holy Spirit.” However, this is lengthy and somewhat awkward in English, and the ascensive meaning can be much more easily represented by including the word “even” after the negation. Apparently these disciples were unaware of the provision of the Spirit that is represented in baptism. The language sounds like they did not know about a Holy Spirit, but this seems to be only linguistic shorthand for not knowing about the Spirit’s presence (Luke 3:15-18). The situation is parallel to that of Apollos. Apollos and these disciples represent those who “complete” their transition to messianic faith as Jews.

[19:3]  11 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[19:3]  12 tn Grk “they said.”

[19:4]  13 sn These disciples may have had their contact with John early on in the Baptist’s ministry before Jesus had emerged. This is the fifth time Luke links John the Baptist and Jesus (Acts 1:5; 11:16; 13:25; 18:25).

[19:6]  14 tn Or “laid.”

[19:6]  15 sn The coming of the Holy Spirit here is another case where the Spirit comes and prophesy results in Acts (see Acts 2). Paul’s action parallels that of Peter (Acts 8) and not just with Gentiles.

[19:6]  16 tn The imperfect verb ἐλάλουν (elaloun) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

[19:6]  17 tn The imperfect verb ἐπροφήτευον (eprofhteuon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

[19:7]  18 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

[19:8]  19 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[19:8]  20 tn Grk “So entering the synagogue, he spoke out fearlessly.” The participle εἰσελθών (eiselqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[19:8]  21 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

[19:8]  22 tn Or “boldly.”

[19:8]  23 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 19:8. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.

[19:8]  24 tn Or “addressing them persuasively.” The two participles διαλεγόμενος and πείθων (dialegomeno" and peiqwn) can be understood as a hendiadys (so NIV, NRSV), thus, “addressing them persuasively.”

[19:8]  25 sn To talk about Jesus as the Christ who has come is to talk about the kingdom of God. This is yet another summary of the message like that in 18:28.

[19:9]  26 tn BDAG 1105-6 s.v. ὡς 8.b lists this use as a temporal conjunction.

[19:9]  27 tn Or “some became hardened.” See BDAG 930 s.v. σκληρύνω b and Acts 7:51-53.

[19:9]  28 tn Or “speaking evil of.” BDAG 500 s.v. κακολογέω has “speak evil of, revile, insultτὶ someth. τὴν ὁδόν the Way (i.e. Christian way of life) Ac 19:9.”

[19:9]  29 sn The Way refers to the Christian movement (Christianity). Luke frequently refers to it as “the Way” (Acts 9:2; 18:25-26; 19:23; 22:4; 24:14, 22).

[19:9]  30 tn Grk “leaving them, he took.” The participle ἀποστάς (apostas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[19:9]  31 tn The words “with him” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

[19:9]  32 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 19:9. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.

[19:9]  33 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase in this verse.

[19:9]  34 tn The “lecture hall” was a place where teachers and pupils met. The term is a NT hapax legomenon (BDAG 982 s.v. σχολή). L&N 7.14 notes, “it is better to use a translation such as ‘lecture hall’ rather than ‘school,’ since one does not wish to give the impression of the typical classroom situation characteristic of present-day schools.”

[19:10]  35 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.

[19:10]  sn The expression all who lived in the province of Asia is good Semitic hyperbole (see Col 1:7, “all the world”). The message was now available to the region.

[19:10]  36 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.

[19:11]  37 tn BDAG 1019 s.v. τυγχάνω 2.d states, “δυνάμεις οὐ τὰς τυχούσας extraordinary miracles Ac 19:11.”

[19:12]  38 tn Or “skin” (the outer surface of the body).

[19:12]  39 tn Or “were taken.” It might be that as word went out into the region that since the sick could not come to Paul, healing was brought to them this way. The “handkerchiefs” are probably face cloths for wiping perspiration (see BDAG 934 s.v. σουδάριον) while the “aprons” might be material worn by workmen (BDAG 923-24 s.v. σιμικίνθιον).

[19:12]  40 tn The words “of them” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

[19:13]  41 tn Grk “some Jewish exorcists who traveled about.” The adjectival participle περιερχομένων (periercomenwn) has been translated as “itinerant.”

[19:13]  42 tn Grk “to name the name.”

[19:13]  43 tn Grk “who had.” Here ἔχω (ecw) is used of demon possession, a common usage according to BDAG 421 s.v. ἔχω 7.a.α.

[19:13]  44 sn The expression I sternly warn you means “I charge you as under oath.”

[19:14]  45 tn Grk “a certain Sceva.”

[19:14]  46 sn Within the sequence of the narrative, this amounts to a parenthetical note by the author.

[19:15]  47 tn Grk “answered and said to them.” The expression, redundant in English, has been simplified to “replied.”

[19:15]  48 tn Grk “Jesus I know about.” Here ᾿Ιησοῦν (Ihsoun) is in emphatic position in Greek, but placing the object first is not normal in contemporary English style.

[19:15]  49 tn BDAG 380 s.v. ἐπίσταμαι 2 has “know, be acquainted with τινάτὸν Παῦλον Ac 19:15.” Here the translation “be acquainted with” was used to differentiate from the previous phrase which has γινώσκω (ginwskw).

[19:15]  50 sn But who are you? This account shows how the power of Paul was so distinct that parallel claims to access that power were denied. In fact, such manipulation, by those who did not know Jesus, was judged (v. 16). The indirect way in which the exorcists made the appeal shows their distance from Jesus.

[19:16]  51 tn Grk “in whom the evil spirit was.”

[19:16]  52 tn Grk “the man in whom the evil spirit was, jumping on them.” The participle ἐφαλόμενος (efalomeno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. L&N 15.239 has “ἐφαλόμενος ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐπ᾿ αὐτούς ‘the man jumped on them’ Ac 19:16.”

[19:16]  53 tn Grk “and beating them all into submission.” The participle κατακυριεύσας (katakurieusa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. According to W. Foerster, TDNT 3:1098, the word means “the exercise of dominion against someone, i.e., to one’s own advantage.” These exorcists were shown to be powerless in comparison to Jesus who was working through Paul.

[19:16]  54 tn BDAG 484 s.v. ἰσχύω 3 has “win out, prevailκατά τινος over, against someone Ac 19:16.”

[19:17]  55 map For location see JP1 D2; JP2 D2; JP3 D2; JP4 D2.

[19:17]  56 tn Grk “fell on.” BDAG 377 s.v. ἐπιπίπτω 2 has “φόβος ἐ. ἐπί τινα fear came upon someoneAc 19:17.”

[19:17]  57 tn Or “exalted.”

[19:18]  58 tn Grk “came”; the word “forward” is supplied in the translation to clarify the meaning and to conform to the contemporary English idiom.

[19:18]  59 tn Or “confessing and disclosing their deeds.” BDAG 59 s.v. ἀναγγέλλω 2 has “W. ἐξομολογεῖσθαι: . τὰς πράξεις αὐτο'ν make their deeds known Ac 19:18.”

[19:18]  sn Making their deeds known. Ephesus was a major pagan religious center with much syncretistic “magical” practice. Coming to Jesus changed the lives and attitudes of these believers, creating a social impact.

[19:19]  60 tn BDAG 472 s.v. ἱκανός 4.a has “many, quite a few” for ἱκανοί (Jikanoi) in this verse.

[19:19]  61 tn On this term see BDAG 800 s.v. περίεργος 2.

[19:19]  62 tn Or “scrolls.”

[19:19]  63 tn Or “burned them up publicly.” L&N 14.66 has “‘they brought their books together and burned them up in the presence of everyone’ Ac 19:19.”

[19:19]  64 tn Grk “and when.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.

[19:19]  65 tn Or “fifty thousand silver drachmas” (about $10,000 US dollars). BDAG 128 s.v. ἀργύριον 2.c states, “ἀργυρίου μυριάδας πέντε 50,000 (Attic silver) drachmas Ac 19:19.” Another way to express the value would be in sheep: One drachma could buy one sheep. So this many drachmas could purchase a huge flock of sheep. A drachma also equals a denarius, or a day’s wage for the average worker. So this amount would be equal to 50,000 work days or in excess of 8,300 weeks of labor (the weeks are calculated at six working days because of the Jewish cultural context). The impact of Christianity on the Ephesian economy was considerable (note in regard to this the concerns expressed in 19:26-27).

[19:20]  66 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.

[19:20]  67 tn The imperfect verb ηὔξανεν (huxanen) has been translated as a progressive imperfect, as has the following verb ἴσχυεν (iscuen).

[19:20]  68 sn The word of the Lord…to prevail. Luke portrays the impact of Christianity in terms of the Lord’s transforming power in the lives of individuals.

[19:21]  69 tn Grk “all these things had been fulfilled.”

[19:21]  70 tn Grk “Paul purposed in [his] spirit” (an idiom). According to BDAG 1003 s.v. τίθημι 1.b.ε the entire idiom means “to resolve” (or “decide”): “ἔθετο ὁ Παῦλος ἐν τῷ πνεύματι w. inf. foll. Paul resolved 19:21.”

[19:21]  71 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

[19:21]  72 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.

[19:21]  73 sn Achaia was the Roman province of Achaia located across the Aegean Sea from Ephesus. Its principal city was Corinth.

[19:21]  74 tn Grk “Achaia, saying.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the awkwardness in English of having two participial clauses following one another (“passing through…saying”), the participle εἰπών (eipwn) has been translated as a finite verb and a new sentence begun here in the translation.

[19:21]  75 sn This is the first time Paul mentions Rome. He realized the message of Christianity could impact that society even at its heights.

[19:21]  map For location see JP4-A1.

[19:22]  76 tn The aorist participle ἀποστείλας (aposteila") has been taken temporally reflecting action antecedent to that of the main verb (ἐπέσχεν, epescen).

[19:22]  77 tn Grk “two of those who ministered to him.”

[19:22]  78 sn Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.

[19:22]  79 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.

[19:23]  80 tn Grk “There happened at that time.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Instead the verb “took place” has been supplied in the translation.

[19:23]  81 tn BDAG 512 s.v. κατά B.2.a, “in definite indications of time…Of the past: κ. ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρόν at that time, thenAc 12:1; 19:23.”

[19:23]  82 tn Grk “no little disturbance” (an idiom; see BDAG 991 s.v. τάραχος 2).

[19:23]  83 sn The Way refers to the Christian movement (Christianity).

[19:24]  84 tn BDAG 665 s.v. ναός 1.a states, “Specif. of temples: of replicas of the temple of Artemis at Ephesus 19:24…but here, near ἱερόν vs. 27…ναός can be understood in the more restricted sense shrine, where the image of the goddess stood.”

[19:24]  85 sn Artemis was the name of a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.

[19:24]  86 tn Grk “brought not a little business” (an idiom).

[19:24]  87 sn A great deal of business. The charge that Christianity brought economic and/or social upheaval was made a number of times in Acts: 16:20-21; 17:6-7; 18:13.

[19:25]  88 tn Grk “gathering.” The participle συναθροίσας (sunaqroisa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[19:25]  89 tn Grk “whom”; because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) has been replaced with a pronoun (“these”) and a new sentence begun in the translation.

[19:25]  90 sn Workmen in similar trades. In effect, Demetrius gathered the Ephesian chamber of commerce together to hear about the threat to their prosperity.

[19:25]  91 tn Another possible meaning is “that this business is an easy way for us to earn a living.”

[19:26]  92 tn Grk “persuading.” The participle πείσας (peisa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[19:26]  93 tn Or “misled.”

[19:26]  94 tn BDAG 472 s.v. ἱκανός 3.a has “of pers. ὄχλος a large crowdAc 11:24, 26; 19:26.”

[19:26]  95 map For location see JP1 D2; JP2 D2; JP3 D2; JP4 D2.

[19:26]  96 tn Grk “Asia”; see the note on this word in v. 22.

[19:26]  97 tn The participle λέγων (legwn) has been regarded as indicating instrumentality.

[19:26]  98 tn The words “at all” are not in the Greek text but are implied.

[19:26]  sn Gods made by hands are not gods at all. Paul preached against paganism’s idolatry. Here is a one-line summary of a speech like that in Acts 17:22-31.

[19:27]  99 tn Or “come under public criticism.” BDAG 101 s.v. ἀπελεγμός has “come into disrepute Ac 19:27.”

[19:27]  100 sn Artemis was the name of a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.

[19:27]  101 tn BDAG 597 s.v. λογίζομαι 1.b has “εἰς οὐθὲν λογισθῆναι be looked upon as nothingAc 19:27.”

[19:27]  102 tn Grk “Asia”; see the note on this word in v. 22.

[19:27]  103 tn Or “her magnificence.” BDAG 488 s.v. καθαιρέω 2.b has “καθαιρεῖσθαι τῆς μεγαλειότητος αὐτῆς suffer the loss of her magnificence Ac 19:27”; L&N 13.38 has “‘and to have her greatness done away with’ Ac 19:27.”

[19:27]  sn Suffer the loss of her greatness. It is important to appreciate that money alone was not the issue, even for the pagan Ephesians. The issue was ultimately the dishonor of their goddess to whom they were devoted in worship. The battle was a “cosmic” one between deities.

[19:28]  104 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[19:28]  105 tn Grk “And hearing.” The participle ἀκούσαντες (akousante") has been taken temporally.

[19:28]  106 tn Grk “they became filled with rage” (an idiom). The reaction of the Ephesians here is like that of the Jews earlier, though Luke referred to “zeal” or “jealousy” in the former case (Acts 7:54).

[19:28]  107 tn Grk “and began shouting, saying.” The imperfect verb ἔκραζον (ekrazon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect. The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

[19:28]  108 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.

[19:29]  109 tn Grk “And the.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[19:29]  110 tn L&N 39.43 has “‘the uproar spread throughout the whole city’ (literally ‘the city was filled with uproar’) Ac 19:29.” BDAG 954 s.v. σύγχυσις has “confusion, tumult.”

[19:29]  111 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

[19:29]  112 sn To the theater. This location made the event a public spectacle. The Grand Theater in Ephesus (still standing today) stood facing down the main thoroughfare of the city toward the docks. It had a seating capacity of 25,000.

[19:29]  113 tn Grk “to the theater with one accord.”

[19:30]  114 tn Or “enter the crowd.” According to BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος 2, “in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assemblyεἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸν δ. go into the assembly 19:30.”

[19:31]  115 tn Grk “Asiarchs” (high-ranking officials of the province of Asia).

[19:31]  116 tn Grk “sending”; the participle πέμψαντες (pemyante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[19:31]  117 tn The words “a message” are not in the Greek text but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

[19:31]  118 tn BDAG 242-43 s.v. δίδωμι 11 has “to cause (oneself) to go, go, venture somewhere (cp. our older ‘betake oneself’)…Ac 19:31.” The desire of these sympathetic authorities was surely to protect Paul’s life. The detail indicates how dangerous things had become.

[19:32]  119 tn Or “had assembled.”

[19:33]  120 tn Or “Some of the crowd gave instructions to.”

[19:33]  121 tn The words “it was about” are not in the Greek text but are implied; ᾿Αλέξανδρον (Alexandron) is taken to be an accusative of general reference.

[19:33]  122 tn BDAG 865 s.v. προβάλλω 1 has “to cause to come forward, put forwardτινά someone…push someone forward to speak in the theater…Ac 19:33.”

[19:33]  123 tn Or “motioning.”

[19:33]  124 sn The nature of Alexander’s defense is not clear. It appears he was going to explain, as a Jew, that the problem was not caused by Jews, but by those of “the Way.” However, he never got a chance to speak.

[19:33]  125 tn Or “before the crowd.” According to BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος 2, “in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assemblyἀπολογεῖσθαι τῷ δ. make a defense before the assembly vs. 33.”

[19:34]  126 tn Grk “But recognizing.” The participle ἐπιγνόντες (epignonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[19:34]  127 tn Grk “[they shouted] with one voice from all of them” (an idiom).

[19:34]  128 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus, 1.25 mi (2 km) northeast of the Grand Theater. Dimensions were 418 ft by 239 ft (125 m by 72 m) for the platform; the temple proper was 377 ft by 180 ft (113 m by 54 m). The roof was supported by 117 columns, each 60 ft (18 m) high by 6 ft (1.8 m) in diameter. The Emperor Justinian of Byzantium later took these columns for use in construction of the Hagia Sophia, where they still exist (in modern day Istanbul).

[19:34]  129 sn They all shouted…for about two hours. The extent of the tumult shows the racial and social tensions of a cosmopolitan city like Ephesus, indicating what the Christians in such locations had to face.

[19:35]  130 tn Or “clerk.” The “scribe” (γραμματεύς, grammateu") was the keeper of the city’s records.

[19:35]  131 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo").

[19:35]  132 tn See BDAG 670 s.v. νεωκόρος. The city is described as the “warden” or “guardian” of the goddess and her temple.

[19:35]  133 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.

[19:35]  134 tn Or “from the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

[19:35]  sn The expression fell from heaven adds a note of apologetic about the heavenly origin of the goddess. The city’s identity and well-being was wrapped up with this connection, in their view. Many interpreters view her image that fell from heaven as a stone meteorite regarded as a sacred object.

[19:36]  135 tn Grk “these things.”

[19:36]  136 tn The genitive absolute construction with the participle ὄντων (ontwn) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle. On the term translated “indisputable” see BDAG 68-69 s.v. ἀναντίρρητος which has “not to be contradicted, undeniable.”

[19:36]  137 tn Grk “it is necessary that you be quiet.”

[19:36]  138 tn L&N 88.98 has “pertaining to impetuous and reckless behavior – ‘reckless, impetuous.’…‘so then, you must calm down and not do anything reckless’ Ac 19:36.” The city secretary was asking that order be restored.

[19:37]  139 tn Or perhaps, “desecrators of temples.”

[19:37]  140 sn Nor blasphemers of our goddess. There was no formal crime with which Paul could be charged. He had the right to his religion as long as he did not act physically against the temple. Since no overt act had taken place, the official wanted the community to maintain the status quo on these religious matters. The remarks suggest Paul was innocent of any civil crime.

[19:38]  141 tn BDAG 600 s.v. λόγος 1.a.ε has “ἔχειν πρός τινα λόγον have a complaint against someone19:38.”

[19:38]  142 tn L&N 56.1 has ‘if Demetrius and his workers have an accusation against someone, the courts are open’ Ac 19:38.”

[19:38]  143 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text but is implied. The official’s request is that the legal system be respected.

[19:39]  144 tn Or “anything more than this.”

[19:39]  145 tn Or “resolved.”

[19:39]  146 tn Or “in a legal meeting of the citizens.” L&N 30.81 has “ἐν τῇ ἐννόμῳ ἐκκλησίᾳ ἐπιλυθήσεται ‘it will have to be settled in a legal meeting of the citizens’ Ac 19:39.” This meeting took place three times a year.

[19:40]  147 tn Grk “For indeed.” The ascensive force of καί (kai) would be awkward to translate here.

[19:40]  148 tn The term translated “rioting” refers to a revolt or uprising (BDAG 940 s.v. στάσις 2, 3). This would threaten Roman rule and invite Roman intervention.

[19:40]  149 tn Or “to account for.” Grk “since there is no cause concerning which we can give account concerning this disorderly gathering.” The complexity of the Greek relative clause (“which”) and the multiple prepositions (“concerning”) have been simplified in the translation consistent with contemporary English style.

[19:40]  150 tn Or “commotion.” BDAG 979 s.v. συστροφή 1 gives the meaning “a tumultuous gathering of people, disorderly/seditious gathering or commotionAc 19:40.”

[19:41]  151 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

[19:41]  152 tn Grk “And saying.” The participle εἰπών (eipwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

[19:41]  153 tn Grk “these things.”

[19:41]  154 sn Verse 41 in the English text is included as part of verse 40 in the standard critical editions of the Greek NT.



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