1:1 I wrote 1 the former 2 account, 3 Theophilus, 4 about all that Jesus began to do and teach 1:2 until the day he was taken up to heaven, 5 after he had given orders 6 by 7 the Holy Spirit to the apostles he had chosen. 1:3 To the same apostles 8 also, after his suffering, 9 he presented himself alive with many convincing proofs. He was seen by them over a forty-day period 10 and spoke about matters concerning the kingdom of God. 1:4 While he was with them, 11 he declared, 12 “Do not leave Jerusalem, 13 but wait there 14 for what my 15 Father promised, 16 which you heard about from me. 17 1:5 For 18 John baptized with water, but you 19 will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.”
1:6 So when they had gathered together, they began to ask him, 20 “Lord, is this the time when you are restoring the kingdom to Israel?” 1:7 He told them, “You are not permitted to know 21 the times or periods that the Father has set by his own authority. 1:8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the farthest parts 22 of the earth.” 1:9 After 23 he had said this, while they were watching, he was lifted up and a cloud hid him from their sight. 1:10 As 24 they were still staring into the sky while he was going, suddenly 25 two men in white clothing stood near them 1:11 and said, “Men of Galilee, why do you stand here 26 looking up into the sky? This same Jesus who has been taken up from you into heaven 27 will come back in the same way you saw him go into heaven.”
1:12 Then they returned to Jerusalem 28 from the mountain 29 called the Mount of Olives 30 (which is near Jerusalem, a Sabbath day’s journey 31 away). 1:13 When 32 they had entered Jerusalem, 33 they went to the upstairs room where they were staying. Peter 34 and John, and James, and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James son of Alphaeus and Simon the Zealot, and Judas son of James were there. 35 1:14 All these continued together in prayer with one mind, together with the women, along with Mary the mother of Jesus, and his brothers. 36 1:15 In those days 37 Peter stood up among the believers 38 (a gathering of about one hundred and twenty people) and said, 1:16 “Brothers, 39 the scripture had to be fulfilled that the Holy Spirit foretold through 40 David concerning Judas – who became the guide for those who arrested Jesus – 1:17 for he was counted as one of us and received a share in this ministry.” 41 1:18 (Now this man Judas 42 acquired a field with the reward of his unjust deed, 43 and falling headfirst 44 he burst open in the middle and all his intestines 45 gushed out. 1:19 This 46 became known to all who lived in Jerusalem, so that in their own language 47 they called that field 48 Hakeldama, that is, “Field of Blood.”) 1:20 “For it is written in the book of Psalms, ‘Let his house become deserted, 49 and let there be no one to live in it,’ 50 and ‘Let another take his position of responsibility.’ 51 1:21 Thus one of the men 52 who have accompanied us during all the time the Lord Jesus associated with 53 us, 1:22 beginning from his baptism by John until the day he 54 was taken up from us – one of these must become a witness of his resurrection together with us.” 1:23 So they 55 proposed two candidates: 56 Joseph called Barsabbas (also called Justus) and Matthias. 1:24 Then they prayed, 57 “Lord, you know the hearts of all. Show us which one of these two you have chosen 1:25 to assume the task 58 of this service 59 and apostleship from which Judas turned aside 60 to go to his own place.” 61 1:26 Then 62 they cast lots for them, and the one chosen was Matthias; 63 so he was counted with the eleven apostles. 64
[1:1] 2 tn Or “first.” The translation “former” is preferred because “first” could imply to the modern English reader that the author means that his previous account was the first one to be written down. The Greek term πρῶτος (prwtos) does not necessarily mean “first” in an absolute sense, but can refer to the first in a set or series. That is what is intended here – the first account (known as the Gospel of Luke) as compared to the second one (known as Acts).
[1:1] 3 tn The Greek word λόγος (logos) is sometimes translated “book” (NRSV, NIV) or “treatise” (KJV). A formal, systematic treatment of a subject is implied, but the word “book” may be too specific and slightly misleading to the modern reader, so “account” has been used.
[1:1] sn The former account refers to the Gospel of Luke, which was “volume one” of the two-volume work Luke-Acts.
[1:2] 5 tn The words “to heaven” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied from v. 11. Several modern translations (NIV, NRSV) supply the words “to heaven” after “taken up” to specify the destination explicitly mentioned later in 1:11.
[1:2] 6 tn Or “commands.” Although some modern translations render ἐντειλάμενος (enteilameno") as “instructions” (NIV, NRSV), the word implies authority or official sanction (G. Schrenk, TDNT 2:545), so that a word like “orders” conveys the idea more effectively. The action of the temporal participle is antecedent (prior) to the action of the verb it modifies (“taken up”).
[1:3] 10 tn Grk “during forty days.” The phrase “over a forty-day period” is used rather than “during forty days” because (as the other NT accounts of Jesus’ appearances make clear) Jesus was not continually visible to the apostles during the forty days, but appeared to them on various occasions.
[1:4] 11 tn Or “While he was assembling with them,” or “while he was sharing a meal with them.” There are three basic options for translating the verb συναλίζω (sunalizw): (1) “Eat (salt) with, share a meal with”; (2) “bring together, assemble”; (3) “spend the night with, stay with” (see BDAG 964 s.v.). The difficulty with the first option is that it does not fit the context, and this meaning is not found elsewhere. The second option is difficult because of the singular number and the present tense. The third option is based on a spelling variation of συναυλιζόμενος (sunaulizomeno"), which some minuscules actually read here. The difference in meaning between (2) and (3) is not great, but (3) seems to fit the context somewhat better here.
[1:4] 17 tn Grk “While he was with them, he ordered them not to leave Jerusalem, but to wait there for ‘what my Father promised, which you heard about from me.’” This verse moves from indirect to direct discourse. This abrupt change is very awkward, so the entire quotation has been rendered as direct discourse in the translation.
[1:5] 18 tn In the Greek text v. 5 is a continuation of the previous sentence, which is long and complicated. In keeping with the tendency of contemporary English to use shorter sentences, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
[1:6] 20 tn Grk “they began to ask him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. The imperfect tense of the Greek verb ἠρώτων (hrwtwn) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.
[1:9] 23 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[1:10] 24 tn Grk “And as.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[1:11] 27 tc Codex Bezae (D) and several other witnesses lack the words εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν (ei" ton ouranon, “into heaven”) here, most likely by way of accidental deletion. In any event, it is hardly correct to suppose that the Western text has intentionally suppressed references to the ascension of Christ here, for the phrase is solidly attested in the final clause of the verse.
[1:12] 30 sn The Mount of Olives is the traditional name for this mountain, also called Olivet. The Mount of Olives is really a ridge running north to south about 1.8 mi (3 km) long, east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley. Its central elevation is about 100 ft (30 m) higher than Jerusalem. It was named for the large number of olive trees which grew on it.
[1:12] 31 sn The phrase a Sabbath day’s journey refers to the distance the rabbis permitted a person to travel on the Sabbath without breaking the Sabbath, specified in tractate Sotah 5:3 of the Mishnah as 2,000 cubits (a cubit was about 18 inches). In this case the distance was about half a mile (1 km).
[1:13] 32 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[1:13] 34 sn In the various lists of the twelve, Peter (also called Simon) is always mentioned first (see also Matt 10:1-4; Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:13-16) and the first four are always the same, though not in the same order after Peter.
[1:15] 37 tn Grk “And in those days.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[1:16] 39 tn Grk “Men brothers.” In light of the compound phrase ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί (andre" adelfoi, “Men brothers”) Peter’s words are best understood as directly addressed to the males present, possibly referring specifically to the twelve (really ten at this point – eleven minus the speaker, Peter) mentioned by name in v. 13.
[1:17] 41 tn Or “and was chosen to have a share in this ministry.” The term λαγχάνω (lancanw) here and in 2 Pet 1:1 can be understood as referring to the process of divine choice and thus be translated, “was chosen to have.”
[1:19] 46 tn Grk “And this.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
[1:21] 52 tn The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context, where a successor to Judas is being chosen, only men were under consideration in the original historical context.
[1:21] 53 tn Grk “the Lord Jesus went in and out among us.” According to BDAG 294 s.v. εἰσέρχομαι 1.b.β, “ἐν παντὶ χρόνῳ ᾧ εἰσῆλθεν καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐφ᾿ ἡμᾶς went in and out among us = associated with us Ac 1:21.”
[1:23] 55 tc Codex Bezae (D) and other Western witnesses have “he proposed,” referring to Peter, thus emphasizing his role above the other apostles. The Western text displays a conscious pattern of elevating Peter in Acts, and thus the singular verb here is a palpably motivated reading.
[1:24] 57 tn Grk “And praying, they said.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.