6:1 Jesus 1 was going through the grain fields on 2 a Sabbath, 3 and his disciples picked some heads of wheat, 4 rubbed them in their hands, and ate them. 5 6:2 But some of the Pharisees 6 said, “Why are you 7 doing what is against the law 8 on the Sabbath?” 6:3 Jesus 9 answered them, 10 “Haven’t you read what David did when he and his companions were hungry – 6:4 how he entered the house of God, took 11 and ate the sacred bread, 12 which is not lawful 13 for any to eat but the priests alone, and 14 gave it to his companions?” 15 6:5 Then 16 he said to them, “The Son of Man is lord 17 of the Sabbath.”
6:6 On 18 another Sabbath, Jesus 19 entered the synagogue 20 and was teaching. Now 21 a man was there whose right hand was withered. 22 6:7 The experts in the law 23 and the Pharisees 24 watched 25 Jesus 26 closely to see if 27 he would heal on the Sabbath, 28 so that they could find a reason to accuse him. 6:8 But 29 he knew 30 their thoughts, 31 and said to the man who had the withered hand, “Get up and stand here.” 32 So 33 he rose and stood there. 6:9 Then 34 Jesus said to them, “I ask you, 35 is it lawful to do good on the Sabbath or to do evil, to save a life or to destroy it?” 6:10 After 36 looking around 37 at them all, he said to the man, 38 “Stretch out your hand.” The man 39 did so, and his hand was restored. 40 6:11 But they were filled with mindless rage 41 and began debating with one another what they would do 42 to Jesus.
6:12 Now 43 it was during this time that Jesus 44 went out to the mountain 45 to pray, and he spent all night 46 in prayer to God. 47 6:13 When 48 morning came, he called his disciples and chose twelve of them, whom he also named apostles: 49 6:14 Simon 50 (whom he named Peter), and his brother Andrew; and James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, 51 6:15 Matthew, Thomas, 52 James the son of Alphaeus, Simon who was called the Zealot, 53 6:16 Judas the son of James, and Judas Iscariot, 54 who became a traitor.
6:17 Then 55 he came down with them and stood on a level place. 56 And a large number 57 of his disciples had gathered 58 along with 59 a vast multitude from all over Judea, from 60 Jerusalem, 61 and from the seacoast of Tyre 62 and Sidon. 63 They came to hear him and to be healed 64 of their diseases, 6:18 and those who suffered from 65 unclean 66 spirits were cured. 6:19 The 67 whole crowd was trying to touch him, because power 68 was coming out from him and healing them all.
“Blessed are you who weep now, for you will laugh. 76
6:22 “Blessed are you when people 77 hate you, and when they exclude you and insult you and reject you as evil 78 on account of the Son of Man! 6:23 Rejoice in that day, and jump for joy, because 79 your reward is great in heaven. For their ancestors 80 did the same things to the prophets. 81
6:27 “But I say to you who are listening: Love your enemies, 91 do good to those who hate you, 6:28 bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat 92 you. 6:29 To the person who strikes you on the cheek, 93 offer the other as well, 94 and from the person who takes away your coat, 95 do not withhold your tunic 96 either. 97 6:30 Give to everyone who asks you, 98 and do not ask for your possessions 99 back 100 from the person who takes them away. 6:31 Treat others 101 in the same way that you would want them to treat you. 102
6:32 “If 103 you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners 104 love those who love them. 105 6:33 And 106 if you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? Even 107 sinners 108 do the same. 6:34 And if you lend to those from whom you hope to be repaid, 109 what credit is that to you? Even sinners 110 lend to sinners, so that they may be repaid in full. 111 6:35 But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back. 112 Then 113 your reward will be great, and you will be sons 114 of the Most High, 115 because he is kind to ungrateful and evil people. 116 6:36 Be merciful, 117 just as your Father is merciful.
6:37 “Do 118 not judge, 119 and you will not be judged; 120 do not condemn, and you will not be condemned; forgive, 121 and you will be forgiven. 6:38 Give, and it will be given to you: A good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over, 122 will be poured 123 into your lap. For the measure you use will be the measure you receive.” 124
6:39 He also told them a parable: “Someone who is blind cannot lead another who is blind, can he? 125 Won’t they both fall 126 into a pit? 6:40 A disciple 127 is not greater than 128 his teacher, but everyone when fully trained will be like his teacher. 6:41 Why 129 do you see the speck 130 in your brother’s eye, but fail to see 131 the beam of wood 132 in your own? 6:42 How can you say to your brother, ‘Brother, let me remove the speck from your eye,’ while you yourself don’t see the beam in your own? You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck from your brother’s eye.
6:43 “For 133 no good tree bears bad 134 fruit, nor again 135 does a bad tree bear good fruit, 6:44 for each tree is known 136 by its own fruit. For figs are not gathered 137 from thorns, nor are grapes picked 138 from brambles. 139 6:45 The good person out of the good treasury of his 140 heart 141 produces good, and the evil person out of his evil treasury 142 produces evil, for his mouth speaks 143 from what fills 144 his heart.
6:47 “Everyone who comes to me and listens to my words and puts them into practice 148 – I will show you what he is like: 6:48 He is like a man 149 building a house, who dug down deep, 150 and laid the foundation on bedrock. When 151 a flood came, the river 152 burst against that house but 153 could not shake it, because it had been well built. 154 6:49 But the person who hears and does not put my words into practice 155 is like a man who built a house on the ground without a foundation. When 156 the river burst against that house, 157 it collapsed immediately, and was utterly destroyed!” 158
[6:1] 2 tn Grk “Now it happened that on.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
[6:1] 3 tc Most later
[6:1] 4 tn Or “heads of grain.” While the generic term στάχυς (stacus) can refer to the cluster of seeds at the top of grain such as barley or wheat, in the NT the term is restricted to wheat (L&N 3.40; BDAG 941 s.v. 1).
[6:1] 5 tn Grk “picked and ate some heads of grain, rubbing them in their hands.” The participle ψώχοντες (ywconte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style, and the order of the clauses has been transposed to reflect the logical order, which sounds more natural in English.
[6:2] 8 sn The alleged violation expressed by the phrase what is against the law is performing work on the Sabbath. That the disciples ate from such a field is no problem given Deut 23:25, but Sabbath activity is another matter in the leaders’ view (Exod 20:8-11 and Mishnah, m. Shabbat 7.2). The supposed violation involved reaping, threshing, winnowing, and preparing food. This probably explains why the clause describing the disciples “rubbing” the heads of grain in their hands is mentioned last, in emphatic position. This was preparation of food.
[6:4] sn The sacred bread refers to the “bread of presentation,” “showbread,” or “bread of the Presence,” twelve loaves prepared weekly for the tabernacle and later, the temple. See Exod 25:30; 35:13; 39:36; Lev 24:5-9. Each loaf was made from 3 quarts (3.5 liters; Heb “two tenths of an ephah”) of fine flour. The loaves were placed on a table in the holy place of the tabernacle, on the north side opposite the lampstand (Exod 26:35). It was the duty of the priest each Sabbath to place fresh bread on the table; the loaves from the previous week were then given to Aaron and his descendants, who ate them in the holy place, because they were considered sacred (Lev 24:9). These were the loaves that David requested from Ahimelech for himself and his men (1 Sam 21:1-6; cf. also Matt 12:1-8; Mark 2:23-28).
[6:4] 13 sn Jesus’ response to the charge that what his disciples were doing was not lawful is one of analogy: ‘If David did it for his troops in a time of need, then so can I with my disciples.’ Jesus is clear that on the surface there was a violation here. What is not as clear is whether he is arguing a “greater need” makes this permissible or that this was within the intention of the law all along.
[6:4] 14 tc Most
[6:4] 15 tc The Western ms D adds here a full saying that reads, “On the same day, as he saw someone working on the Sabbath he said, ‘Man, if you know what you are doing, you are blessed, but if you do not know, you are cursed and a violator of the law.’” Though this is not well enough attested to be considered authentic, many commentators have debated whether this saying might go back to Jesus. Most reject it, though it does have wording that looks like Rom 2:25, 27 and Jas 2:11.
[6:5] 17 tn The term “lord” is in emphatic position in the Greek text. To make this point even clearer a few
[6:5] sn A second point in Jesus’ defense of his disciples’ actions was that his authority as Son of Man also allowed it, since as Son of Man he was lord of the Sabbath.
[6:6] 18 tn Grk “Now it happened that on.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
[6:6] 21 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. In addition, because the Greek sentence is rather long and complex, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
[6:6] sn Withered means the man’s hand was shrunken and paralyzed.
[6:9] 35 sn With the use of the plural pronoun (“you”), Jesus addressed not just the leaders but the crowd with his question to challenge what the leadership was doing. There is irony as well. As Jesus sought to restore on the Sabbath (but improperly according to the leaders’ complaints) the leaders were seeking to destroy, which surely is wrong. The implied critique recalls the OT: Isa 1:1-17; 58:6-14.
[6:10] 37 tn The aorist participle περιβλεψάμενος (peribleyameno") has been translated as antecedent (prior) to the action of the main verb. It could also be translated as contemporaneous (“Looking around… he said”).
[6:10] 40 sn The passive was restored points to healing by God. Now the question became: Would God exercise his power through Jesus, if what Jesus was doing were wrong? Note also Jesus’ “labor.” He simply spoke and it was so.
[6:11] 41 tn The term ἄνοια (anoia) denotes a kind of insane or mindless fury; the opponents were beside themselves with rage. They could not rejoice in the healing, but could only react against Jesus.
[6:12] 43 tn Grk “Now it happened that in.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
[6:12] sn The expression to the mountain here may be idiomatic or generic, much like the English “he went to the hospital” (cf. 15:29), or even intentionally reminiscent of Exod 24:12 (LXX), since the genre of the Sermon on the Mount seems to be that of a new Moses giving a new law.
[6:14] 50 sn In the various lists of the twelve, Simon (that is, Peter) is always mentioned first (Matt 10:1-4; Mark 3:16-19; Acts 1:13) and the first four are always the same, though not in the same order after Peter.
[6:15] 53 sn The designation Zealot means that Simon was a political nationalist before coming to follow Jesus. He may not have been technically a member of the particular Jewish nationalistic party known as “Zealots” (since according to some scholars this party had not been organized at that time), but simply someone who was zealous for Jewish independence from Rome, in which case the descriptive term applied to Simon means something like “Simon the patriot” (see L&N 25.77 and especially 11.88).
[6:16] 54 sn There is some debate about what the name Iscariot means. It probably alludes to a region in Judea and thus might make Judas the only non-Galilean in the group. Several explanations for the name Iscariot have been proposed, but it is probably transliterated Hebrew with the meaning “man of Kerioth” (there are at least two villages that had that name). For further discussion see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 1:546; also D. A. Carson, John, 304.
[6:17] 56 tn Or “on a plateau.” This could refer to a message given in a flat locale or in a flat locale in the midst of a more mountainous region (Jer 21:13; Isa 13:2). It is quite possible that this sermon is a summary version of the better known Sermon on the Mount from Matt 5-7.
[6:19] 68 sn There was a recognition that there was great power at work through Jesus, the subject of a great debate in 11:14-23. Luke highlights Jesus’ healing ministry (5:17; 6:18; 7:7; 8:47; 9:11, 42; 14:4; 17:15; 18:42-43; 22:51; Acts 10:38).
[6:20] 73 sn The present tense (belongs) here is significant. Jesus makes the kingdom and its blessings currently available. This phrase is unlike the others in the list with the possessive pronoun being emphasized. Jesus was saying, in effect, “the kingdom belongs even now to people like you.”
[6:21] 74 sn You who hunger are people like the poor Jesus has already mentioned. The term has OT roots both in conjunction with the poor (Isa 32:6-7; 58:6-7, 9-10; Ezek 18:7, 16) or by itself (Ps 37:16-19; 107:9).
[6:21] 75 sn The promise you will be satisfied is the first of several “reversals” noted in these promises. The beatitudes and the reversals that accompany them serve in the sermon as an invitation to enter into God’s care, because one can know God cares for those who turn to him.
[6:22] sn The phrase when they exclude you and insult you and reject you as evil alludes to a person being ostracized and socially isolated because of association with the Son of Man, Jesus.
[6:23] 79 tn Grk “because behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this clause has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
[6:24] 82 sn Jesus promises condemnation (woe) to those who are callous of others, looking only to their own comforts. On Luke and the rich see 1:53; 12:16; 14:12; 16:1, 21-22; 18:23; 19:2; 21:1. These woes are unique to Luke.
[6:24] 83 sn Ironically the language of reward shows that what the rich have received is all they will get. This result looks at a current situation, just as the start of the beatitudes did. The rest of the conclusions to the woes look to the future at the time of judgment.
[6:25] 86 tc The wording “to you” (ὑμῖν, Jumin) is lacking in several witnesses (א B K L T W Θ Ξ 0147 Ë1,13 579 700 892 1241 2542 al), though found in most (Ì75 A D Q Ψ 33 Ï lat co). The longer reading looks to be a clarifying addition; nevertheless, “to you” is included in the translation because of English requirements.
[6:26] 88 tc The wording “to you” (ὑμῖν, Jumin) is lacking throughout the ms tradition except for a few witnesses (D W* Δ 1424 pc co). The Western witnesses tend to add freely to the text. Supported by the vast majority of witnesses and the likelihood that “to you” is a clarifying addition, the shorter reading should be considered original; nevertheless, “to you” is included in the translation because of English requirements.
[6:27] 91 sn Love your enemies is the first of four short exhortations that call for an unusual response to those who are persecuting disciples. Disciples are to relate to hostility in a completely unprecedented manner.
[6:29] 94 sn This command to offer the other cheek as well is often misunderstood. It means that there is risk involved in reaching out to people with God’s hope. But if one is struck down in rejection, the disciple is to continue reaching out.
[6:29] 97 sn The command do not withhold your tunic either is again an image of continually being totally at risk as one tries to keep contact with those who are hostile to what Jesus and his disciples offer.
[6:30] 98 sn Jesus advocates a generosity and a desire to meet those in dire need with the command give to everyone who asks you. This may allude to begging; giving alms was viewed highly in the ancient world (Matt 6:1-4; Deut 15:7-11).
[6:31] 102 sn Jesus’ teaching as reflected in the phrase treat others in the same way you would want them to treat you, known generally as the Golden Rule, is not completely unique in the ancient world, but it is stated here in its most emphatic, selfless form.
[6:32] 103 tn Grk “And if.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. This is a first class condition, but the next two conditional clauses are third class conditions, so that stylistic variation is probably at work.
[6:33] 106 tc ‡ Three key
[6:33] 107 tc Most
[6:35] 113 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the outcome or result. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation at this point.
[6:35] 114 sn The character of these actions reflects the grace and kindness of God, bearing witness to a “line of descent” or relationship of the individual to God (sons of the Most High). There is to be a unique kind of ethic at work with disciples. Jesus refers specifically to sons here because in the ancient world sons had special privileges which were rarely accorded to daughters. However, Jesus is most likely addressing both men and women in this context, so women too would receive these same privileges.
[6:36] 117 sn Merciful is a characteristic of God often noted in the OT: Exod 34:6; Deut 4:31; Joel 2:31; Jonah 4:2; 2 Sam 24:14. This remark also echoes the more common OT statements like Lev 19:2 or Deut 18:13: “you must be holy as I am holy.”
[6:37] 119 sn As the Gospel makes clear, with the statement do not judge Jesus had in mind making a judgment that caused one to cut oneself off from someone so that they ceased to be reached out to (5:27-32; 15:1-32). Jesus himself did make judgments about where people stand (11:37-54), but not in such a way that he ceased to continue to offer them God’s grace.
[6:38] 122 sn The background to the image pressed down, shaken together, running over is pouring out grain for measure in the marketplace. One often poured the grain into a container, shook it to level out the grain and then poured in some more. Those who are generous have generosity running over for them.
[6:39] 126 sn The picture of a blind man leading a blind man is a warning to watch who one follows: Won’t they both fall into a pit? The sermon has been about religious choices and reacting graciously to those who oppose the followers of Jesus. Here Jesus’ point was to be careful who you follow and where they are taking you.
[6:43] 133 tn The explanatory connective γάρ (gar) is often dropped from translations, but the point of the passage is that one should be self-corrective and be careful who one follows (vv. 41-42), because such choices also reflect what the nature of the tree is and its product.
[6:43] 135 tc Most
[6:44] sn The statement nor are grapes picked from brambles illustrates the principle: That which cannot produce fruit, does not produce fruit.
[6:46] 147 sn Why do you call me ‘Lord, Lord,’ and don’t do what I tell you? Respect is not a matter of mere words, but is reflected in obedient action. This short saying, which is much simpler than its more developed conceptual parallel in Matt 7:21-23, serves in this form to simply warn and issue a call to hear and obey, as the last parable also does in vv. 47-49.
[6:48] 150 tn There are actually two different Greek verbs used here: “who dug (ἔσκαψεν, eskayen) and dug deep (ἐβάθυνεν, ebaqunen).” Jesus is placing emphasis on the effort to which the man went to prepare his foundation.
[6:48] 154 tc Most
[6:49] 156 tn Grk “against which”; because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative clause was converted to a temporal clause in the translation and a new sentence started here.
[6:49] sn The extra phrase at the end of this description (and was utterly destroyed) portrays the great disappointment that the destruction of the house caused as it crashed and was swept away.