4:1 Then 1 Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan River 2 and was led by the Spirit 3 in 4 the wilderness, 5 4:2 where for forty days he endured temptations 6 from the devil. He 7 ate nothing 8 during those days, and when they were completed, 9 he was famished. 4:3 The devil said to him, “If 10 you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread.” 11 4:4 Jesus answered him, “It is written, ‘Man 12 does not live by bread alone.’” 13
4:5 Then 14 the devil 15 led him up 16 to a high place 17 and showed him in a flash all the kingdoms of the world. 4:6 And he 18 said to him, “To you 19 I will grant this whole realm 20 – and the glory that goes along with it, 21 for it has been relinquished 22 to me, and I can give it to anyone I wish. 4:7 So then, if 23 you will worship 24 me, all this will be 25 yours.” 4:8 Jesus 26 answered him, 27 “It is written, ‘You are to worship 28 the Lord 29 your God and serve only him.’” 30
4:9 Then 31 the devil 32 brought him to Jerusalem, 33 had him stand 34 on the highest point of the temple, 35 and said to him, “If 36 you are the Son of God, throw yourself down from here, 4:10 for it is written, ‘He will command his angels concerning you, to protect you,’ 37 4:11 and ‘with their hands they will lift you up, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone.’” 38 4:12 Jesus 39 answered him, 40 “It is said, ‘You are not to put the Lord your God to the test.’” 41 4:13 So 42 when the devil 43 had completed every temptation, he departed from him until a more opportune time. 44
4:14 Then 45 Jesus, in the power of the Spirit, 46 returned to Galilee, and news about him spread 47 throughout the surrounding countryside. 48 4:15 He 49 began to teach 50 in their synagogues 51 and was praised 52 by all.
4:16 Now 53 Jesus 54 came to Nazareth, 55 where he had been brought up, and went into the synagogue 56 on the Sabbath day, as was his custom. 57 He 58 stood up to read, 59 4:17 and the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was given to him. He 60 unrolled 61 the scroll and found the place where it was written,
4:18 “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,
and the regaining of sight 67 to the blind,
4:20 Then 72 he rolled up 73 the scroll, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of everyone in the synagogue were fixed on 74 him. 4:21 Then 75 he began to tell them, “Today 76 this scripture has been fulfilled even as you heard it being read.” 77 4:22 All 78 were speaking well of him, and were amazed at the gracious words coming out of his mouth. They 79 said, “Isn’t this 80 Joseph’s son?” 4:23 Jesus 81 said to them, “No doubt you will quote to me the proverb, ‘Physician, heal yourself!’ 82 and say, ‘What we have heard that you did in Capernaum, 83 do here in your hometown too.’” 4:24 And he added, 84 “I tell you the truth, 85 no prophet is acceptable 86 in his hometown. 4:25 But in truth I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in Elijah’s days, 87 when the sky 88 was shut up three and a half years, and 89 there was a great famine over all the land. 4:26 Yet 90 Elijah was sent to none of them, but only to a woman who was a widow at Zarephath in Sidon. 91 4:27 And there were many lepers in Israel in the time of the prophet Elisha, 92 yet 93 none of them was cleansed except Naaman the Syrian.” 94 4:28 When they heard this, all the people 95 in the synagogue were filled with rage. 4:29 They got up, forced 96 him out of the town, 97 and brought him to the brow of the hill on which their town was built, so that 98 they could throw him down the cliff. 99 4:30 But he passed through the crowd 100 and went on his way. 101
4:31 So 102 he went down to Capernaum, 103 a town 104 in Galilee, and on the Sabbath he began to teach the people. 105 4:32 They 106 were amazed 107 at his teaching, because he spoke 108 with authority. 109
4:33 Now 110 in the synagogue 111 there was a man who had the spirit of an unclean 112 demon, and he cried out with a loud voice, 4:34 “Ha! Leave us alone, 113 Jesus the Nazarene! Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are – the Holy One 114 of God.” 4:35 But 115 Jesus rebuked him: 116 “Silence! Come out of him!” 117 Then, after the demon threw the man 118 down in their midst, he came out of him without hurting him. 119 4:36 They 120 were all amazed and began to say 121 to one another, “What’s happening here? 122 For with authority and power 123 he commands the unclean spirits, and they come out!” 4:37 So 124 the news 125 about him spread into all areas of the region. 126
4:38 After Jesus left 127 the synagogue, he entered Simon’s house. Now Simon’s mother-in-law was suffering from a high fever, and they asked Jesus 128 to help her. 129 4:39 So 130 he stood over her, commanded 131 the fever, and it left her. Immediately 132 she got up and began to serve 133 them.
4:40 As the sun was setting, all those who had any relatives 134 sick with various diseases brought them to Jesus. 135 He placed 136 his hands on every one of them and healed them. 4:41 Demons also came out 137 of many, crying out, 138 “You are the Son of God!” 139 But he rebuked 140 them, and would not allow them to speak, 141 because they knew that he was the Christ. 142
4:42 The next morning 143 Jesus 144 departed and went to a deserted place. Yet 145 the crowds were seeking him, and they came to him and tried to keep him from leaving them. 4:43 But Jesus 146 said to them, “I must 147 proclaim the good news of the kingdom 148 of God to the other towns 149 too, for that is what I was sent 150 to do.” 151 4:44 So 152 he continued to preach in the synagogues of Judea. 153
[4:1] 4 tc Most
[4:2] 6 tn Grk “in the desert, for forty days being tempted.” The participle πειραζόμενος (peirazomeno") has been translated as an adverbial clause in English to avoid a run-on sentence with a second “and.” Here the present participle suggests a period of forty days of testing. Three samples of the end of the testing are given in the following verses.
[4:2] 8 sn The reference to Jesus eating nothing could well be an idiom meaning that he ate only what the desert provided; see Exod 34:28. A desert fast simply meant eating only what one could obtain in the desert. The parallel in Matt 4:2 speaks only of Jesus fasting.
[4:2] sn This verb and its cognate noun, sunteleia, usually implies not just the end of an event, but its completion or fulfillment. The noun is always used in the NT in eschatological contexts; the verb is often so used (cf. Matt 13:39, 40; 24:3; 28:20; Mark 13:4; Rom 9:28; Heb 8:8; 9:26). The idea here may be that the forty-day period of temptation was designed for a particular purpose in the life of Christ (the same verb is used in v. 13). The cognate verb teleiow is a key NT term for the completion of God’s plan: See Luke 12:50; 22:37; John 19:30; and (where it has the additional component of meaning “to perfect”) Heb 2:10; 5:8-9; 7:28.
[4:4] 12 tn Or “a person.” The Greek word ὁ ἄνθρωπος (Jo anqrwpo") is used generically for humanity. The translation “man” is used because the emphasis in Jesus’ response seems to be on his dependence on God as a man.
[4:4] 13 tc Most
[4:5] sn The order of Luke’s temptations differs from Matthew’s at this point as numbers two and three are reversed. It is slightly more likely that Luke has made the change to put the Jerusalem temptation last, as Jerusalem is so important to Luke’s later account. The temporal markers in Matthew’s account are also slightly more specific.
[4:5] 16 tc Most
[4:6] 20 tn Or “authority.” BDAG 353 s.v. ἐξουσία 6 suggests, concerning this passage, that the term means “the sphere in which the power is exercised, domain.” Cf. also Luke 22:53; 23:7; Acts 26:18; Eph 2:2.
[4:6] 21 tn The addendum referring to the glory of the kingdoms of the world forms something of an afterthought, as the following pronoun (“it”) makes clear, for the singular refers to the realm itself.
[4:6] 22 tn For the translation of παραδέδοται (paradedotai) see L&N 57.77. The devil is erroneously implying that God has given him such authority with the additional capability of sharing the honor.
[4:8] 27 tc Most
[4:8] 29 tc Most later
[4:8] sn In the form of the quotation in the Greek text found in the best
[4:9] 35 sn The reference to the highest point of the temple probably refers to the one point on the temple’s southeast corner where the site looms directly over a cliff some 450 feet (135 m) high. However, some have suggested the reference could be to the temple’s high gate.
[4:13] sn Until a more opportune time. Though some have argued that the devil disappears until Luke 22:3, this is unlikely since the cosmic battle with Satan and all the evil angels is consistently mentioned throughout Luke (8:26-39; 11:14-23).
[4:15] 51 sn The next incident in Luke 4:16-30 is probably to be seen as an example of this ministry of teaching in their synagogues in Galilee. Synagogues were places for Jewish prayer and worship, with recognized leadership (cf. Luke 8:41). Though the origin of the synagogue is not entirely clear, it seems to have arisen in the postexilic community during the intertestamental period. A town could establish a synagogue if there were at least ten men. In normative Judaism of the NT period, the OT scripture was read and discussed in the synagogue by the men who were present (see the Mishnah, m. Megillah 3-4; m. Berakhot 2).
[4:15] 52 tn Grk “being glorified.” The participle δοξαζόμενος (doxazomeno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. This is the only place Luke uses the verb δοξάζω (doxazw) of Jesus.
[4:16] 59 sn In normative Judaism of the period, the OT scripture was read and discussed in the synagogue by the men who were present. See the Mishnah, m. Megillah 3-4; m. Berakhot 2. First came the law, then the prophets, then someone was asked to speak on the texts. Normally one stood up to read out of respect for the scriptures, and then sat down (v. 20) to expound them.
[4:17] 60 tn Grk “And unrolling the scroll he found.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Instead a new sentence has been started in the translation.
[4:17] 61 tn Grk “opening,” but a scroll of this period would have to be unrolled. The participle ἀναπτύξας (anaptuxa") has been translated as a finite verb due to the requirements of contemporary English style.
[4:18] 64 sn The poor is a key term in Luke. It refers to the pious poor and indicates Jesus’ desire to reach out to those the world tends to forget or mistreat. It is like 1:52 in force and also will be echoed in 6:20 (also 1 Pet 2:11-25). Jesus is commissioned to do this.
[4:18] 65 tc The majority of
[4:18] 67 sn Again, as with the previous phrase, regaining of sight may well mean more than simply miraculously restoring physical sight, which itself pictures a deeper reality (Luke 1:77-79; 18:35-43).
[4:18] 68 sn The essence of Jesus’ messianic work is expressed in the phrase to set free. This line from Isa 58 says that Jesus will do what the nation had failed to do. It makes the proclamation messianic, not merely prophetic, because Jesus doesn’t just proclaim the message – he brings the deliverance. The word translated set free is the same Greek word (ἄφεσις, afesi") translated release earlier in the verse.
[4:19] 70 sn The year of the Lord’s favor (Grk “the acceptable year of the Lord”) is a description of the year of Jubilee (Lev 25:10). The year of the total forgiveness of debt is now turned into a metaphor for salvation. Jesus had come to proclaim that God was ready to forgive sin totally.
[4:20] 73 tn Grk “closing,” but a scroll of this period would have to be rolled up. The participle πτύξας (ptuxas) has been translated as a finite verb due to the requirements of contemporary English style.
[4:22] 80 sn The form of the question assumes a positive reply. It really amounts to an objection, as Jesus’ response in the next verses shows. Jesus spoke smoothly and impressively. He made a wonderful declaration, but could a local carpenter’s son make such an offer? That was their real question.
[4:23] 83 sn The remark “What we have heard that you did at Capernaum” makes many suspect that Luke has moved this event forward in sequence to typify what Jesus’ ministry was like, since the ministry in Capernaum follows in vv. 31-44. The location of this event in the parallel of Mark 6:1-6 also suggests this transposition.
[4:24] 86 sn Jesus argues that he will get no respect in his own hometown. There is a wordplay here on the word acceptable (δεκτός, dektos), which also occurs in v. 19: Jesus has declared the “acceptable” year of the Lord (here translated year of the Lord’s favor), but he is not “accepted” by the people of his own hometown.
[4:25] 87 sn Elijah’s days. Jesus, by discussing Elijah and Elisha, pictures one of the lowest periods in Israel’s history. These examples, along with v. 24, also show that Jesus is making prophetic claims as well as messianic ones. See 1 Kgs 17-18.
[4:25] 88 tn Or “the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. Since the context here refers to a drought (which produced the famine), “sky” is preferable.
[4:26] 91 sn Zarephath in Sidon was Gentile territory (see 1 Kgs 17:9-24). Jesus’ point was that he would be forced to minister elsewhere, and the implication is that this ministry would ultimately extend (through the work of his followers) to those outside the nation.
[4:27] 94 sn The reference to Naaman the Syrian (see 2 Kgs 5:1-24) is another example where an outsider and Gentile was blessed. The stress in the example is the missed opportunity of the people to experience God’s work, but it will still go on without them.
[4:29] 99 sn The attempt to throw him down the cliff looks like “lynch law,” but it may really be an indication that Jesus was regarded as a false prophet who was worthy of death (Deut 13:5). Such a sentence meant being thrown into a pit and then stoned.
[4:30] 101 tn The verb πορεύομαι (poreuomai) in Luke often suggests divine direction, “to go in a led direction” (4:42; 7:6, 11; 9:51, 52, 56, 57; 13:33; 17:11; 22:22, 29; 24:28). It could suggest that Jesus is on a journey, a theme that definitely is present later in Luke 9-19.
[4:31] 103 sn Capernaum was a town on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee, 680 ft (204 m) below sea level. It was a major trade and economic center in the North Galilean region, and it became the hub of operations for Jesus’ Galilean ministry.
[4:32] 109 sn Jesus’ teaching impressed the hearers with the directness of its claim (with authority). A study of Jewish rabbinic interpretation shows that it was typical to cite a list of authorities to make one’s point. Apparently Jesus addressed the issues in terms of his own understanding.
[4:34] 113 tn Grk “What to us and to you?” This is an idiom meaning, “We have nothing to do with one another,” or “Why bother us!” The phrase τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί (ti Jhmin kai soi) is Semitic in origin, though it made its way into colloquial Greek (BDAG 275 s.v. ἐγώ). The equivalent Hebrew expression in the Old Testament had two basic meanings: (1) When one person was unjustly bothering another, the injured party could say “What to me and to you?” meaning, “What have I done to you that you should do this to me?” (Judg 11:12; 2 Chr 35:21; 1 Kgs 17:18). (2) When someone was asked to get involved in a matter he felt was no business of his, he could say to the one asking him, “What to me and to you?” meaning, “That is your business, how am I involved?” (2 Kgs 3:13; Hos 14:8). Option (1) implies hostility, while option (2) merely implies disengagement. BDAG suggests the following as glosses for this expression: What have I to do with you? What have we in common? Leave me alone! Never mind! Hostility between Jesus and the demons is certainly to be understood in this context, hence the translation: “Leave me alone….” For a very similar expression, see Luke 8:28 and (in a different context) John 2:4.
[4:34] 114 sn The confession of Jesus as the Holy One here is significant, coming from an unclean spirit. Jesus, as the Holy One of God, who bears God’s Spirit and is the expression of holiness, comes to deal with uncleanness and unholiness.
[4:36] 123 sn The phrase with authority and power is in an emphatic position in the Greek text. Once again the authority of Jesus is the point, but now it is not just his teaching that is emphasized, but his ministry. Jesus combined word and deed into a powerful testimony in Capernaum.
[4:38] 127 tn Grk “Arising from the synagogue, he entered.” The participle ἀναστάς (anastas) has been taken temporally here, and the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
[4:39] sn The language here (commanded) almost treats the illness as a personal force (see vv. 35, 41), but this is not the case. This healing shows Jesus’ power over sickness and should not be construed as an exorcism.
[4:39] 132 tn Grk “and immediately.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, δέ (de) has not been translated here. Instead a new sentence is started in the translation.
[4:39] sn The note that this happened immediately shows the speed and totality of the recovery.
[4:40] 134 tn Grk “everyone, as many as had those being sick.” The use of εἶχον (eicon, “had”) suggests that the subject of the accusative participle ἀσθενοῦντας (asqenountas, “those being sick”) is not simply acquaintances, but rather relatives, perhaps immediate family, and certainly close friends.
[4:41] 139 tc Most
[4:41] 141 sn Jesus would not allow the demons to speak because the time for such disclosure was not yet at hand, and such a revelation would have certainly been misunderstood by the people. In all likelihood, if the people had understood him early on to be the Son of God, or Messiah, they would have reduced his mission to one of political deliverance from Roman oppression (cf. John 6:15). Jesus wanted to avoid, as much as possible, any premature misunderstanding about who he was and what he was doing. However, at the end of his ministry, he did not deny such a title when the high priest asked him (22:66-71).
[4:44] 153 tc Most