13:1 Now 1 there were some present on that occasion who told him about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices. 2 13:2 He 3 answered them, “Do you think these Galileans were worse sinners 4 than all the other Galileans, because they suffered these things? 13:3 No, I tell you! But unless you repent, 5 you will all perish as well! 6 13:4 Or those eighteen who were killed 7 when the tower in Siloam fell on them, 8 do you think they were worse offenders than all the others who live in Jerusalem? 9 13:5 No, I tell you! But unless you repent 10 you will all perish as well!” 11
13:6 Then 12 Jesus 13 told this parable: “A man had a fig tree 14 planted in his vineyard, and he came looking for fruit on it and found none. 13:7 So 15 he said to the worker who tended the vineyard, ‘For 16 three years 17 now, I have come looking for fruit on this fig tree, and each time I inspect it 18 I find none. Cut 19 it down! Why 20 should it continue to deplete 21 the soil?’ 13:8 But the worker 22 answered him, ‘Sir, leave it alone this year too, until I dig around it and put fertilizer 23 on it. 13:9 Then if 24 it bears fruit next year, 25 very well, 26 but if 27 not, you can cut it down.’”
13:10 Now he was teaching in one of the synagogues 28 on the Sabbath, 13:11 and a woman was there 29 who had been disabled by a spirit 30 for eighteen years. She 31 was bent over and could not straighten herself up completely. 32 13:12 When 33 Jesus saw her, he called her to him 34 and said, “Woman, 35 you are freed 36 from your infirmity.” 37 13:13 Then 38 he placed his hands on her, and immediately 39 she straightened up and praised God. 13:14 But the president of the synagogue, indignant because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the crowd, “There are six days on which work 40 should be done! 41 So come 42 and be healed on those days, and not on the Sabbath day.” 13:15 Then the Lord answered him, 43 “You hypocrites! Does not each of you on the Sabbath untie his ox or his donkey from its stall, 44 and lead it to water? 45 13:16 Then 46 shouldn’t 47 this woman, a daughter of Abraham whom Satan 48 bound for eighteen long 49 years, be released from this imprisonment 50 on the Sabbath day?” 13:17 When 51 he said this all his adversaries were humiliated, 52 but 53 the entire crowd was rejoicing at all the wonderful things 54 he was doing. 55
13:18 Thus Jesus 56 asked, 57 “What is the kingdom of God 58 like? 59 To 60 what should I compare it? 13:19 It is like a mustard seed 61 that a man took and sowed 62 in his garden. It 63 grew and became a tree, 64 and the wild birds 65 nested in its branches.” 66
13:22 Then 72 Jesus 73 traveled throughout 74 towns 75 and villages, teaching and making his way toward 76 Jerusalem. 77 13:23 Someone 78 asked 79 him, “Lord, will only a few 80 be saved?” So 81 he said to them, 13:24 “Exert every effort 82 to enter through the narrow door, because many, I tell you, will try to enter and will not be able to. 13:25 Once 83 the head of the house 84 gets up 85 and shuts the door, then you will stand outside and start to knock on the door and beg him, ‘Lord, 86 let us in!’ 87 But he will answer you, 88 ‘I don’t know where you come from.’ 89 13:26 Then you will begin to say, ‘We ate and drank in your presence, and you taught in our streets.’ 90 13:27 But 91 he will reply, 92 ‘I don’t know where you come from! 93 Go away from me, all you evildoers!’ 94 13:28 There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth 95 when you see Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, 96 and all the prophets in the kingdom of God 97 but you yourselves thrown out. 98 13:29 Then 99 people 100 will come from east and west, and from north and south, and take their places at the banquet table 101 in the kingdom of God. 102 13:30 But 103 indeed, 104 some are last 105 who will be first, and some are first who will be last.”
13:31 At that time, 106 some Pharisees 107 came up and said to Jesus, 108 “Get away from here, 109 because Herod 110 wants to kill you.” 13:32 But 111 he said to them, “Go 112 and tell that fox, 113 ‘Look, I am casting out demons and performing healings today and tomorrow, and on the third day 114 I will complete my work. 115 13:33 Nevertheless I must 116 go on my way today and tomorrow and the next day, because it is impossible 117 that a prophet should be killed 118 outside Jerusalem.’ 119 13:34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 120 you who kill the prophets and stone those who are sent to you! 121 How often I have longed 122 to gather your children together as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but 123 you would have none of it! 124 13:35 Look, your house is forsaken! 125 And I tell you, you will not see me until you say, ‘Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord!’” 126
[13:1] 2 sn This is an event that otherwise is unattested, though several events similar to it are noted in Josephus (J. W. 2.9.2-4 [2.169-177]; Ant. 13.13.5 [13.372-73], 18.3.1-2 [18.55-62]; 18.4.1 [18.85-87]). It would have caused a major furor.
[13:3] 6 tn Or “you will all likewise perish,” but this could be misunderstood to mean that they would perish by the same means as the Galileans. Jesus’ point is that apart from repentance all will perish.
[13:4] 7 tn Grk “on whom the tower in Siloam fell and killed them.” This relative clause embedded in a prepositional phrase is complex in English and has been simplified to an adjectival and a temporal clause in the translation.
[13:7] 17 sn The elapsed time could be six years total since planting, since often a fig was given three years before one even started to look for fruit. The point in any case is that enough time had been given to expect fruit.
[13:7] 19 tc ‡ Several witnesses (Ì75 A L Θ Ψ 070 Ë13 33 579 892 al lat co) have “therefore” (οὖν, oun) here. This conjunction has the effect of strengthening the logical connection with the preceding statement but also of reducing the rhetorical power and urgency of the imperative. In light of the slightly greater internal probability of adding a conjunction to an otherwise asyndetic sentence, as well as significant external support for the omission (א B D W Ë1 Ï), the shorter reading appears to be more likely as the original wording here. NA27 puts the conjunction in brackets, indicating some doubts as to its authenticity.
[13:9] 24 tn This is a third class condition in the Greek text. The conjunction καί (kai, a component of κάν [kan]) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
[13:11] 29 tn Grk “and behold, a woman.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
[13:11] 31 tn Grk “years, and.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
[13:11] 32 tn Or “and could not straighten herself up at all.” If εἰς τὸ παντελές (ei" to pantele") is understood to modify δυναμένη (dunamenh), the meaning is “she was not able at all to straighten herself up”; but the phrase may be taken with ἀνακύψαι (anakuyai) and understood to mean the same as the adverb παντελῶς (pantelws), with the meaning “she was not able to straighten herself up completely.” See BDAG 754 s.v. παντελής 1 for further discussion. The second option is preferred in the translation because of proximity: The phrase in question follows ἀνακύψαι in the Greek text.
[13:19] 63 tn Grk “garden, and it.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
[13:19] 64 sn Calling the mustard plant a tree is rhetorical hyperbole, since technically it is not one. This plant could be one of two types of mustard popular in Palestine and would be either 10 or 25 ft (3 or 7.5 m) tall.
[13:19] 65 tn Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).
[13:19] 66 sn The point of the parable seems to be that while the kingdom of God may appear to have insignificant and unnoticeable beginnings (i.e., in the ministry of Jesus), it will someday (i.e., at the second advent) be great and quite expansive. The kingdom, however, is not to be equated with the church, but rather the church is an expression of the kingdom. Also, there is important OT background in the image of the mustard seed that grew and became a tree: Ezek 17:22-24 pictures the reemergence of the Davidic house where people can find calm and shelter. Like the mustard seed, it would start out small but grow to significant size.
[13:21] 70 sn This measure was a saton, the Greek name for the Hebrew term “seah.” Three of these was a very large quantity of flour, since a saton is a little over 16 lbs (7 kg) of dry measure (or 13.13 liters). So this was over 47 lbs (21 kg) of flour total, enough to feed over a hundred people.
[13:21] sn The parable of the yeast and the dough teaches that the kingdom of God will start small but eventually grow to permeate everything. Jesus’ point was not to be deceived by its seemingly small start, the same point made in the parable of the mustard seed, which preceded this one.
[13:24] 82 tn Or “Make every effort” (L&N 68.74; cf. NIV); “Do your best” (TEV); “Work hard” (NLT); Grk “Struggle.” The idea is to exert one’s maximum effort (cf. BDAG 17 s.v. ἀγωνίζομαι 2.b, “strain every nerve to enter”) because of the supreme importance of attaining entry into the kingdom of God.
[13:25] 83 tn The syntactical relationship between vv. 24-25 is disputed. The question turns on whether v. 25 is connected to v. 24 or not. A lack of a clear connective makes an independent idea more likely. However, one must then determine what the beginning of the sentence connects to. Though it makes for slightly awkward English, the translation has opted to connect it to “he will answer” so that this functions, in effect, as an apodosis. One could end the sentence after “us” and begin a new sentence with “He will answer” to make simpler sentences, although the connection between the two sentences is thereby less clear. The point of the passage, however, is clear. Once the door is shut, because one failed to come in through the narrow way, it is closed permanently. The moral: Do not be too late in deciding to respond.
[13:27] 92 tc Most
[13:27] tn Grk “he will say, saying to you.” The participle λέγων (legwn) and its indirect object ὑμῖν (Jumin) are redundant in contemporary English and have not been translated.
[13:27] 93 sn The issue is not familiarity (with Jesus’ teaching) or even shared activity (eating and drinking with him), but knowing Jesus. Those who do not know him, he will not know where they come from (i.e., will not acknowledge) at the judgment.
[13:28] 98 tn Or “being thrown out.” The present accusative participle, ἐκβαλλομένους (ekballomenous), related to the object ὑμᾶς (Jumas), seems to suggest that these evildoers will witness their own expulsion from the kingdom.
[13:29] 101 tn Grk “and recline at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away. The word “banquet” has been supplied to clarify for the modern reader the festive nature of the imagery The banquet imagery is a way to describe the fellowship and celebration of accompanying those who are included as the people of God at the end.
[13:30] 105 sn Some are last who will be first, and some are first who will be last. Jesus’ answer is that some who are expected to be there (many from Israel) will not be there, while others not expected to be present (from other nations) will be present. The question is not, “Will the saved be few?” (see v. 23), but “Will it be you?”
[13:32] 113 sn That fox. This is not fundamentally a figure for cleverness as in modern western culture, but could indicate (1) an insignificant person (Neh 4:3; 2 Esd 13:35 LXX); (2) a deceiver (Song Rabbah 2.15.1 on 2:15); or someone destructive, a destroyer (Ezek 13:4; Lam 5:18; 1 En. 89:10, 42-49, 55). Luke’s emphasis seems to be on destructiveness, since Herod killed John the Baptist, whom Luke calls “the greatest born of women” (Luke 7:28) and later stands opposed to Jesus (Acts 4:26-28). In addition, “a person who is designated a fox is an insignificant or base person. He lacks real power and dignity, using cunning deceit to achieve his aims” (H. W. Hoehner, Herod Antipas [SNTSMS], 347).
[13:32] 114 sn The third day is a figurative reference to being further on in time, not a reference to three days from now. Jesus is not even in Jerusalem yet, and the events of the last days in Jerusalem take a good week.
[13:32] 115 tn Or “I reach my goal.” The verb τελειόω (teleiow) is a key NT term for the completion of God’s plan: See Luke 12:50; 22:37; John 19:30; and (where it has the additional component of meaning “to perfect”) Heb 2:10; 5:8-9; 7:28.
[13:33] 119 sn Death in Jerusalem is another key theme in Luke’s material: 7:16, 34; 24:19; Acts 3:22-23. Notice that Jesus sees himself in the role of a prophet here. Jesus’ statement, it is impossible that a prophet should be killed outside Jerusalem, is filled with irony; Jesus, traveling about in Galilee (most likely), has nothing to fear from Herod; it is his own people living in the very center of Jewish religion and worship who present the greatest danger to his life. The underlying idea is that Jerusalem, though she stands at the very heart of the worship of God, often kills the prophets God sends to her (v. 34). In the end, Herod will be much less a threat than Jerusalem.
[13:34] 121 tn Although the opening address (“Jerusalem, Jerusalem”) is direct (second person), the remainder of this sentence in the Greek text is third person (“who kills the prophets and stones those sent to her”). The following sentences then revert to second person (“your… you”), so to keep all this consistent in English, the third person pronouns in the present verse were translated as second person (“you who kill… sent to you”).