38:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 38:2 “Son of man, turn toward 1 Gog, 2 of the land of Magog, 3 the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal. 4 Prophesy against him 38:3 and say: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, 5 I am against you, Gog, chief prince of Meshech and Tubal. 38:4 I will turn you around, put hooks into your jaws, and bring you out with all your army, horses and horsemen, all of them fully armed, a great company with shields of different types, 6 all of them armed with swords. 38:5 Persia, 7 Ethiopia, and Put 8 are with them, all of them with shields and helmets. 38:6 They are joined by 9 Gomer with all its troops, and by Beth Togarmah from the remote parts of the north with all its troops – many peoples are with you. 10
38:7 “‘Be ready and stay ready, you and all your companies assembled around you, and be a guard for them. 11 38:8 After many days you will be summoned; in the latter years you will come to a land restored from the ravages of war, 12 with many peoples gathered on the mountains of Israel that had long been in ruins. Its people 13 were brought out from the peoples, and all of them will be living securely. 38:9 You will advance; 14 you will come like a storm. You will be like a cloud covering the earth, you, all your troops, and the many other peoples with you.
38:10 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: On that day thoughts will come into your mind, 15 and you will devise an evil plan. 38:11 You will say, “I will invade 16 a land of unwalled towns; I will advance against 17 those living quietly in security – all of them living without walls and barred gates – 38:12 to loot and plunder, to attack 18 the inhabited ruins and the people gathered from the nations, who are acquiring cattle and goods, who live at the center 19 of the earth.” 38:13 Sheba and Dedan and the traders of Tarshish with all its young warriors 20 will say to you, “Have you come to loot? Have you assembled your armies to plunder, to carry away silver and gold, to take away cattle and goods, to haul away a great amount of spoils?”’
38:14 “Therefore, prophesy, son of man, and say to Gog: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: On that day when my people Israel are living securely, you will take notice 21 38:15 and come from your place, from the remote parts of the north, you and many peoples with you, all of them riding on horses, a great company and a vast army. 38:16 You will advance 22 against my people Israel like a cloud covering the earth. In the latter days I will bring you against my land so that the nations may acknowledge me, when before their eyes I magnify myself 23 through you, O Gog.
38:17 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Are you the one of whom I spoke in former days by my servants 24 the prophets of Israel, who prophesied in those days 25 that I would bring you against them? 38:18 On that day, when Gog invades 26 the land of Israel, declares the sovereign Lord, my rage will mount up in my anger. 38:19 In my zeal, in the fire of my fury, 27 I declare that on that day there will be a great earthquake 28 in the land of Israel. 38:20 The fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, the wild beasts, all the things that creep on the ground, and all people who live on the face of the earth will shake 29 at my presence. The mountains will topple, the cliffs 30 will fall, and every wall will fall to the ground. 38:21 I will call for a sword to attack 31 Gog 32 on all my mountains, declares the sovereign Lord; every man’s sword will be against his brother. 38:22 I will judge him with plague and bloodshed. I will rain down on him, his troops and the many peoples who are with him a torrential downpour, hailstones, fire, and brimstone. 38:23 I will exalt and magnify myself; I will reveal myself before many nations. Then they will know that I am the Lord.’
[38:2] 2 sn This may refer to a Lydian king in western Asia Minor in the seventh century
[38:2] 4 tn Heb “the prince, the chief of Meshech and Tubal.” Some translate “the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal,” but it is more likely that the Hebrew noun in question is a common noun in apposition to “prince,” rather than a proper name. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:434-35. As Block demonstrates, attempts by some popular writers to identify these proper names with later geographical sites in Russia are anachronistic. See as well E. Yamauchi, Foes From the Northern Frontier, 19-27.
[38:3] 5 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.
[38:5] 7 tn D. I. Block prefers to see the Hebrew word as referring here to a western ally of Egypt or as an alternative spelling for Pathros, that is, Upper Egypt. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:439-40.
[38:6] 10 sn The seven-nation coalition represents the north (Meshech, Tubal, Gomer, Beth-Togarmah), the south/west (Ethiopia, Put) and the east (Persia). The use of the sevenfold list suggests completeness. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:441.